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There are four principal habitats in which life may exist - the surface of a planetary body, its subsurface, its atmosphere and space. From our own experience we know that life does exist on the surface of a planet, in its subsurface, and transiently at least in the atmosphere. Where it is present, it exists in a surprising diversity and in a variety of microhabitats, from deep caverns (Hose et al. 2000, Melim et al. 2001) to hydrothermal fluids and hot springs of various chemistries (Jannasch 1995, Rzonca and Schulze-Makuch 2002), to the frozen deserts of Antarctica (Friedmann 1982, Sun and Friedmann 1999). In this chapter we will elaborate on the principal habitats, the constraints they impose on life, and the possibilities they provide.
Temperature-induced coral bleaching is a major threat to the biodiversity of coral reef ecosystems. While reductions in species diversity and abundance of fish communities have been documented following coral bleaching, the mechanisms that underlie these changes are poorly understood. The present study examined the impacts of coral bleaching on the early life-history processes of coral reef fishes. Daily monitoring of fish settlement patterns found that ten times as many fish settled to healthy coral than sub-lethally bleached coral. Species diversity of settling fishes was least on bleached coral and greatest on dead coral, with healthy coral having intermediate levels of diversity. Laboratory experiments using light-trap caught juveniles showed that different damselfish species chose among healthy, bleached and dead coral habitats using different combinations of visual and olfactory cues. The live coral specialist, Pomacentrus moluccensis, preferred live coral and avoided bleached and dead coral, using mostly visual cues to inform their habitat choice. The habitat generalist, Pomacentrus amboinensis, also preferred live coral and avoided bleached and dead coral but selected these habitats using both visual and olfactory cues. Trials with another habitat generalist, Dischistodus sp., suggested that vision played a significant role. A 20 days field experiment that manipulated densities of P. moluccensis on healthy and bleached coral heads found an influence of fish density on juvenile weight and growth, but no significant influence of habitat quality. These results suggests that coral bleaching will affect settlement patterns and species distributions by influencing the visual and olfactory cues that reef fish larvae use to make settlement choices. Furthermore, increased fish density within the remaining healthy coral habitats could play an important role in influencing population dynamics.
Sister (congeneric) species may exhibit disparate patterns of biogeographic genetic structures due to different life histories and habitat preferences. The common cockle Cerastoderma edule and the lagoon cockle Cerastoderma glaucum probably diverged from their common ancestor in the present territory of Sahara around 5 million years ago. Although it is difficult to separate both species morphologically, various genetic markers, both mitochondrial and nuclear, clearly distinguish them. Furthermore, their lifestyles are different, as C. edule has a much less fragmented coastal habitat and a longer duration of pelagic larval stage than C. glaucum. A comparative genetic analysis was conducted on 17 populations of C. edule and 13 populations of C. glaucum using a 506 bp fragment of mitochondrial DNA (COI). We tested the hypothesis that differences in habitat types and life history are reflected in the genetic structure patterns of these two cockles. Indeed substantial differences in population genetic structures between them are revealed. Genetic diversity within C. glaucum populations decreases northwards as a consequence of post-glacial (re)colonization from southern refugia, while C. edule displays an opposite pattern indicating survival in glacial refuges in the northern Atlantic. Among populations within geographic groups, genetic differentiation is low in C. edule, probably as a result of larval dispersal with coastal currents, while it is extremely high in C. glaucum, best explained by the fragmented habitats. Interestingly, long distance divergence is less expressed in C. glaucum than in C. edule, which supports the speculation that migrating birds (frequently observed in lagoons) may occasionally transport the former more often or more efficiently than the latter. The approach applied in this study (e.g., rarefaction procedure, selection of samples of both species from the same regions) enabled a new and reliable comparative analysis of the existing raw datasets.
Earth is over 4,500 million years old. Massive bombardment of the planet took place for the first 500-700 million years, and the largest impacts would have been capable of sterilizing the planet. Probably until 4,000 million years ago or later, occasional impacts might have heated the ocean over 100 degrees C. Life on Earth dates from before about 3,800 million years ago, and is likely to have gone through one or more hot-ocean 'bottlenecks'. Only hyperthermophiles (organisms optimally living in water at 80-110 degrees C) would have survived. It is possible that early life diversified near hydrothermal vents, but hypotheses that life first occupied other pre-bottleneck habitats are tenable (including transfer from Mars on ejecta from impacts there). Early hyperthermophile life, probably near hydrothermal systems, may have been non-photosynthetic, and many housekeeping proteins and biochemical processes may have an original hydrothermal heritage. The development of anoxygenic and then oxygenic photosynthesis would have allowed life to escape the hydrothermal setting. By about 3,500 million years ago, most of the principal biochemical pathways that sustain the modern biosphere had evolved, and were global in scope. PMID:11234022
Life Support Systems are critical to sustain human habitation of space over long time periods. As orbiting space habitats become operational in the future, support systems such as atmo-sphere, food, water etc. will play a very pivotal role in sustaining life. To design a long-duration space habitat, it's important to consider the full gamut of human experience of the environment.
Earth is over 4,500 million years old. Massive bombardment of the planet took place for the first 500-700 million years, and the largest impacts would have been capable of sterilizing the planet. Probably until 4,000 million years ago or later, occasional impacts might have heated the ocean over 100 °C. Life on Earth dates from before about 3,800 million years
Earth is over 4,500 million years old. Massive bombardment of the planet took place for the first 500–700 million years, and the largest impacts would have been capable of sterilizing the planet. Probably until 4,000 million years ago or later, occasional impacts might have heated the ocean over 100 °C. Life on Earth dates from before about 3,800 million years
Habitat use is widely known to be influenced by abiotic and biotic factors, such as climate, population density, foraging opportunity and predation risk. The influence of the life-history state of an individual organism on habitat use is less well understood, especially for terrestrial mammals. There is good reason to expect that life-history state would affect habitat use. For example, organisms exhibiting poor condition associated with senescence have an increased vulnerability to predation and that vulnerability is known to alter habitat use strategies. We assessed the influence of life-history stage on habitat use for 732 moose (Alces alces) killed by wolves (Canis lupus) over a 50-year period in Isle Royale National Park, an island ecosystem in Lake Superior, USA. We developed regression models to assess how location of death was associated with a moose's life-history stage (prime-aged or senescent), presence or absence of senescent-associated pathology (osteoarthritis and jaw necrosis), and annual variation in winter severity, moose density and ratio of moose to wolves, which is an index of predation risk. Compared to senescent moose, prime-aged moose tend to make greater use of habitat farther from the shoreline of Isle Royale. That result is ecologically relevant because shoreline habitat on Isle Royale tends to provide better foraging opportunities for moose but is also associated with increased predation risk. During severe winters prime-aged moose tend to make greater use of habitat that is closer to shore in relation to senescent-aged moose. Furthermore, moose of both age classes were more likely to die in riskier, shoreline habitat during years when predation risk was lower in the preceding year. Our results highlight a complicated connection between life history, age-structured population dynamics and habitat-related behaviour. Our analysis also illustrates why intraspecific competition should not be the presumed mechanism underlying density-dependent habitat use, if predation risk is related to density, as it is expected to be in many systems. PMID:23205630
Montgomery, Robert A; Vucetich, John A; Peterson, Rolf O; Roloff, Gary J; Millenbah, Kelly F
This article investigates the biology of Byasa impediens, presenting its life-table data and analyzing its habitat requirements and the key factors threatening the survival of this species. This study also aims to detect specific protection methods to guarantee the long-term survival of Byasa impediens in Baishuijiang Reserve. Byasa impediens is bivoltine in Baishuijiang Reserve. The pupae overwinter on shrubs or
Xiushan Li; Yalin Zhang; Youqing Luo; Josef SETTELE
Temperature-induced coral bleaching is a major threat to the biodiversity of coral reef ecosystems. While reductions in species\\u000a diversity and abundance of fish communities have been documented following coral bleaching, the mechanisms that underlie these\\u000a changes are poorly understood. The present study examined the impacts of coral bleaching on the early life-history processes\\u000a of coral reef fishes. Daily monitoring of
For many animal species, there is a relationship between life history strategies, as predicted by the r–K-selection theory, degree of habitat specialization and response to habitat alteration and loss. Here we compare two sympatric woodlice species with contrasting patterns of habitat use and geographical distribution. We predict that Atlantoscia floridana (Philosciidae), considered a habitat generalist, would exhibit the r-selected traits,
Aline Ferreira Quadros; Yves Caubet; Paula Beatriz Araujo
Addition of man-made structures alters abiotic and biotic characteristics of natural habitats, which can influence abundances of biota directly and/or indirectly, by altering the ecology of competitors or predators. Marine epibiota in modified habitats were used to test hypotheses to distinguish between direct and indirect processes. In Sydney Harbour, kelps on pier-pilings supported greater covers of bryozoans, particularly of the non-indigenous species Membranipora membranacea, than found on natural reefs. Pilings influenced these patterns and processes directly due to the provision of shade and indirectly by altering abundances of sea-urchins which, in turn, affected covers of bryozoans. Indirect effects were more important than direct effects. This indicates that artificial structures affect organisms living on secondary substrata in complex ways, altering the biodiversity and indirectly affecting abundances of epibiota. Understanding how these components of habitats affect ecological processes is necessary to allow sensible prediction of the effects of modifying habitats on the ecology of organisms. PMID:21755011
Marzinelli, Ezequiel M; Underwood, Antony J; Coleman, Ross A
This video segment from IdahoPTV's D4K explains the 4 basic requirements of a perfect habitat and what a niche is within a habitat. You'll see videos of different animals in their habitats, such as; bear, moose, spiders and mountain goats,
A search for evidence of cryptic life in the subsurface region of a fractured Paleozoic volcanosedimentary deposit near the source waters of the Río Tinto River (Iberian pyrite belt, southwest Spain) was carried out by Mars Astrobiology Research and Technology Experiment (MARTE) project investigators in 2003 and 2004. This conventional deep-drilling experiment is referred to as the MARTE ground truth drilling project. Boreholes were drilled at three sites, and samples from extracted cores were analyzed with light microscopy, scanning electron microscopy-energy dispersive spectroscopy (SEM-EDS), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. Core leachates were analyzed with ion chromatography, and borehole fluids were analyzed with ion and gas chromatography. Key variables of the groundwater system (e.g. , pO2, pH, and salinity) exhibit huge ranges probably due to surficial oxygenation of overall reducing waters, physical mixing of waters, and biologically mediated water-rock interactions. Mineral distribution is mainly driven by the pH of subsurface solutions, which range from highly acidic to neutral. Borehole fluids contain dissolved gases such as CO2, CH4, and H2. SEM-EDS analyses of core samples revealed evidence of microbes attacking pyrite. The Río Tinto alteration mechanisms may be similar to subsurface weathering of the martian crust and provide insights into the possible (bio)geochemical cycles that may have accompanied underground habitats in extensive early Mars volcanic regions and associated sulfide ores.
Fernández-Remolar, David C.; Prieto-Ballesteros, Olga; Rodríguez, Nuria; Gómez, Felipe; Amils, Ricardo; Gómez-Elvira, Javier; Stoker, Carol R.
Orientation and dispersal to suitable habitat affects fitness in many animals, but the factors that govern these behaviors are poorly understood. In many turtle species, hatchlings must orient and disperse to suitable aquatic habitat immediately after emergence from subterranean nests. Thus, the location of nest sites relative to aquatic habitats ideally should be associated with the direction of hatchling dispersal. At our study site, painted turtles (Chrysemys picta) nest to the west (on an island) and east (on the mainland) of a wetland, which determines the direction that hatchlings must travel to reach suitable aquatic habitat. To determine if hatchling orientation is intrinsically influenced by the location where their mothers nest, we employed a two-part cross-fostering experiment in the field, whereby half the eggs laid in mainland nests were swapped with half the eggs laid in island nests. Moreover, because C. picta hatchlings overwinter inside their nests, we performed a second cross-fostering experiment to fully decouple the effects of (1) the maternally chosen nest location, (2) the embryonic developmental location, and (3) the overwinter location. We released hatchlings into a circular arena in the field and found that turtles generally dispersed in a westerly direction, regardless of the maternally chosen nest location and independent of the locations of embryonic development and overwintering. Although this westerly direction was towards suitable aquatic habitat, we could not distinguish whether naïve hatchling turtles (i) use environmental cues/stimuli to orient their movement, or (ii) have an intrinsic bias to orient west in the absence of stimuli. Nevertheless, these findings suggest that the orientation behavior of naïve hatchling turtles during terrestrial dispersal is not dependent upon the location of maternally-chosen nest sites. PMID:23196739
The influence of habitat on the distribution and abundance of Pomacentrus sulfureus was investigated on coral reefs in Zanzibar. Fish censuses were conducted using the simultaneous belt-transect method and substrate data were gathered using a point-base method. Densities of juvenile and adult P. sulfureus were examined in relation to habitat composition and structure. The influence of habitat structure on coral
Stream macroinvertebrate communities vary naturally among types of habitats where they are sampled, which affects the results of environmental assessment. We analyzed macroinvertebrates collected from riffle and snag habitats to evaluate influences of habitat-specific sampling on taxon occurrence, assemblage measures, and biotic indices. We found considerably more macroinvertebrate taxa unique to snags (143 taxa) than to riffles (75 taxa), and
Lizhu Wang; Brian W. Weigel; Paul Kanehl; Kirk Lohman
Little is known about aquatic macroinvertebrate colonization of aquatic habitats within riparian zones of headwater streams in the midwestern United States. Many headwater streams and their riparian habitats in this region have been modified for agricultural drainage. Riparian habitat modifications caused by agricultural drainage may influence aquatic macroinvertebrate colonization within the riparian zones of headwater streams. However, the effects of
Krystal R. Seger; Peter C. Smiley Jr; Kevin W. King; Norman R. Fausey
Interest in human-designed closed habitats - where the substances needed for human life support are continuously regenerated from waste products - is growing, as apparent from the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's Closed Ecological Life Support Systems Program, the Soviet Union's Bios experiments, and the Biosphere II Project in Arizona. Nuclear-powered bases on the moon and Mars will have food-growing
Spatial heterogeneity influences ecosystem structure and function across multiple habitat scales. Although primary production\\u000a and respiration are fundamental to energy cycling in aquatic ecosystems, we know relatively little about how habitat scale\\u000a influences metabolism. In this study, we adopted a multi-scale habitat approach to evaluate primary production and respiration\\u000a in a coastal Great Lakes watershed that is experiencing pressure from
Mary E. Ogdahl; Vanessa L. Lougheed; R. Jan Stevenson; Alan D. Steinman
Panspermia, an ancient idea, posits that microbial life is ubiquitous in the Universe. After several decades of almost irrational rejection, panspermia is at last coming to be regarded as a serious contender for the beginnings of life on our planet. Astronomical data is shown to be consistent with the widespread distribution of complex organic molecules and dust particles that may
\\u000a Marine soft-sediment habitats are the most common on earth (Snelgrove et al. 1997) and have important conservation and intrinsic\\u000a values that make them important to study. For instance, these habitats can have extraordinarily high biodiversity (Gray et al. 1997), can play important roles in supplying food for fish and humans, and can influence global carbon and geo-chemical\\u000a cycling (Graf 1992).
This report describes the 2010 research conducted under the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (USACE) project EST-P-09-1, titled Evaluation of Life History Diversity, Habitat Connectivity, and Survival Benefits Associated with Habitat Restoration Actions in the Lower Columbia River and Estuary, and known as the 'Salmon Benefits' study. The primary goal of the study is to establish scientific methods to quantify habitat restoration benefits to listed salmon and trout in the lower Columbia River and estuary (LCRE) in three required areas: habitat connectivity, early life history diversity, and survival (Figure ES.1). The general study approach was to first evaluate the state of the science regarding the ability to quantify benefits to listed salmon and trout from habitat restoration actions in the LCRE in the 2009 project year, and then, if feasible, in subsequent project years to develop quantitative indices of habitat connectivity, early life history diversity, and survival. Based on the 2009 literature review, the following definitions are used in this study. Habitat connectivity is defined as a landscape descriptor concerning the ability of organisms to move among habitat patches, including the spatial arrangement of habitats (structural connectivity) and how the perception and behavior of salmon affect the potential for movement among habitats (functional connectivity). Life history is defined as the combination of traits exhibited by an organism throughout its life cycle, and for the purposes of this investigation, a life history strategy refers to the body size and temporal patterns of estuarine usage exhibited by migrating juvenile salmon. Survival is defined as the probability of fish remaining alive over a defined amount of space and/or time. The objectives of the 4-year study are as follows: (1) develop and test a quantitative index of juvenile salmon habitat connectivity in the LCRE incorporating structural, functional, and hydrologic components; (2) develop and test a quantitative index of the early life history diversity of juvenile salmon in the LCRE; (3) assess and, if feasible, develop and test a quantitative index of the survival benefits of tidal wetland habitat restoration (hydrologic reconnection) in the LCRE; and (4) synthesize the results of investigations into the indices for habitat connectivity, early life history diversity, and survival benefits.
Diefenderfer, Heida L.; Johnson, Gary E.; Sather, Nichole K.; Skalski, J. R.; Dawley, Earl M.; Coleman, Andre M.; Ostrand, Kenneth G.; Hanson, Kyle C.; Woodruff, Dana L.; Donley, Erin E.; Ke, Yinghai; Buenau, Kate E.; Bryson, Amanda J.; Townsend, Richard L.
Northern · Pacific Northwest · Pacific Southwest ... Successional stage, habitat type, cone type and historical events were associated with differences in genetic variation among the conifer species. These results are discussed in terms of expectations from current population genetics theory. Keywords: View and Print this ...
Panspermia, an ancient idea, posits that microbial life is ubiquitous in the Universe. After several decades of almost irrational rejection, panspermia is at last coming to be regarded as a serious contender for the beginnings of life on our planet. Astronomical data is shown to be consistent with the widespread distribution of complex organic molecules and dust particles that may have a biological provenance. A minuscule (10(-21)) survival rate of freeze-dried bacteria in space is all that is needed to ensure the continual re-cycling of cosmic microbial life in the galaxy. Evidence that terrestrial life may have come from elsewhere in the solar system has accumulated over the past decade. Mars is seen by some as a possible source of terrestrial life, but some hundreds of billions of comets that enveloped the entire solar system, are a far more likely primordial reservoir of life. Comets would then have seeded Earth, Mars, and indeed all other habitable planetary bodies in the inner regions of the solar system. The implications of this point of view, which was developed in conjunction with the late Sir Fred Hoyle since the 1970s, are now becoming amenable to direct empirical test by studies of pristine organic material in the stratosphere. The ancient theory of panspermia may be on the verge of vindication, in which case the entire universe would be a grand crucible of cryomicrobiology. PMID:15094088
For many animal species, there is a relationship between life history strategies, as predicted by the r- K-selection theory, degree of habitat specialization and response to habitat alteration and loss. Here we compare two sympatric woodlice species with contrasting patterns of habitat use and geographical distribution. We predict that Atlantoscia floridana (Philosciidae), considered a habitat generalist, would exhibit the r-selected traits, whereas Balloniscus glaber (Balloniscidae), considered a habitat specialist, should have the K-selected traits. We analyzed several life history traits as well as life and fecundity tables using 715 and 842 females of A. floridana and B. glaber, respectively, from populations living in syntopy in southern Brazil. As predicted, most evaluated traits allow A. floridana to be considered an r-strategist and B. glaber a K-strategist: A. floridana showed a shorter lifetime, faster development, earlier reproduction, a smaller parental investment, higher net reproductive rate ( R0), a higher growth rate ( r) and a shorter generation time ( T) in comparison to B. glaber. A. floridana seems to be a successful colonizer with a high reproductive output. These characteristics explain its local abundance, commonness and wide geographical distribution. On the contrary, B. glaber has a restricted geographical distribution that is mainly associated with Atlantic forest fragments, a biome threatened by deforestation and replacement by monocultures. Its narrow distribution combined with the K-selected traits may confer to this species an increased extinction risk.
Quadros, Aline Ferreira; Caubet, Yves; Araujo, Paula Beatriz
The diversity of aquatic habitats in streams is linked to physical processes that act at various spatial and temporal scales. Two components of many that contribute to creating habitat heterogeneity in streams are the interaction between sediment supply and transport capacity and the presence of local in-stream structures, such as large woody debris and boulders. Data from previously published flume
Sarah M. Yarnell; Jeffrey F. Mount; Eric W. Larsen
The diversity of aquatic habitats in a stream reach and associated biological response are linked to physical processes that act at various spatial and time scales within a watershed. A fundamental driver of stream geomorphology integrating multi-scale processes is the relationship between sediment supply and transport capacity. This study explored the interactions between riverine habitat heterogeneity and the geomorphic processes
A search for evidence of cryptic life in the subsurface region of a fractured Paleozoic volcanosedimentary deposit near the source waters of the Río Tinto River (Iberian pyrite belt, southwest Spain) was carried out by Mars Astrobiology Research and Technology Experiment (MARTE) project investigators in 2003 and 2004. This conventional deep-drilling experiment is referred to as the MARTE ground truth
David C. Fernández-Remolar; Olga Prieto-Ballesteros; Nuria Rodríguez; Felipe Gómez; Ricardo Amils; Javier Gómez-Elvira; Carol R. Stoker
The demands of modern working life increasingly lead people to be separated from loved ones for prolonged periods of time. Habitat is a range of connected furniture for background awareness between distant partners in just such a situation. The project particularly focuses on conveying the patterns of daily routines and biorhythms that underlie our well-being, in order to provide a
Detailed studies were made of the life cycles of Heptageniidae known to occur in Wisconsin. 19 species had univoltine cycles while two and possibly a third had bivoltine cycles. Three univoltine species developed in late spring and early summer while the other univoltine species developed in fall, winter and early spring. For three of the univoltine species, eggs hatched both
Conversion of native winter range into producing gas fields can affect the habitat selection and distribution patterns of mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus). Understanding how levels of human activity influence mule deer is necessary to evaluate mitigation measures and reduce indirect habitat loss to mule deer on winter ranges with natural gas development. We examined how 3 types of well pads
We analyzed data from riffle and snag habitats for 39 small cold water streams with different levels of watershed urbanization in Wisconsin and Minnesota to evaluate the influences of urban land use and instream habitat on macroinvertebrate communities. Multivariate analysis indicated that stream temperature and amount of urban land use in the watersheds were the most influential factors determining macroinvertebrate
Geologic variation has important influences on habitat quality for species of concern, but it can be difficult to evaluate due to subtle variations, complex terminology, and inadequate maps. To better understand habitat of the Apache trout (Onchorhynchus apache or O. gilae apache Miller), a threatened endemic species of the White Mountains of east- central Arizona, we reviewed existing geologic research
In many marine and terrestrial systems, individuals of a focal species may be found in habitats that are neither essential nor of particular concern for conservation. For example, finding fish in a location does not make that location essential. This recognition begs the question of how one identifies the most important habitats for a particular species. We introduce new tools for use when prioritizing habitats for conservation and management, with application to Essential Fish Habitat (EFH). If density-dependent effects can be ignored, then elasticities of population growth rate with respect to adult survival, fecundity, and juvenile survival provide a means of identifying how susceptible the growth rate of the population is to perturbations in vital rates of particular life stages. We develop such a theory and apply it to 16 species of commercially harvested Sebastes rockfishes. We also show that the conclusions may differ significantly depending upon the estimate of mortality rate that is used. This suggests that although estimating mortality rates of fish in the field is difficult, it is crucial to do so. When density-dependent effects are important, we use a stochastic life history model to compute the moderate-term persistence of the stock, an important metric of population biology, as a function of the demographic parameters determined by the habitat. Although developed with fish in mind, the ideas here also apply to other taxa and systems. PMID:16711063
To examine the impact of genetic neighborhood size and habitat shape on genetic load and the accumulation of deleterious mutation, individual-based simulations were performed in continuously distributed habitats. The risk of extinction increased as both the area of the habitat and the neighborhood size decreased. When the neighborhood area became smaller than the habitat area, habitat shape also began to influence the risk of extinction by mutation loads, expected time to extinction being shorter in longer and narrower habitats than in a square habitat. Both the number of homozygous deleterious loci per individual and the mutation load in the population increased as the neighborhood size and total population size decreased. Neighborhood size and total population size both independently affected the average number of homozygous deleterious loci per individual. In addition, as the ratio of the long to the short side of the rectangle of a habitat increased, the average number of homozygous deleterious loci increased. When the areas of the habitats were held constant, the average number of homozygous loci and the mutation loads were smallest for a regular square and largest for the longest, narrowest habitat. These results suggest that the spatial genetic structure of an individual is an important factor in the accumulation of deleterious mutations and the risk of extinction by mutation meltdown. PMID:11444951
Synopsis Female Gambusia affinis were collected from low salinity\\/near-neutral pH and tidal freshwater\\/low pH localities to document life history variation\\u000a between these two habitats. Mosquito fish were 2.7 times more abundant in low salinity\\/near-neutral pH (2.37 ± 0.72 ppt; pH\\u000a = 5.73 ± 0.11) than in tidal freshwater\\/low pH (0.27 ± 0.19 ppt; pH = 4.46 ± 0.18) habitats in Old
The diversity of aquatic habitats in a stream reach and associated biological response are linked to physical processes that act at various spatial and time scales within a watershed. A fundamental driver of stream geomorphology integrating multi-scale processes is the relationship between sediment supply and transport capacity. This study explored the interactions between riverine habitat heterogeneity and the geomorphic processes governing channel conditions by testing the hypothesis that maximum habitat heterogeneity occurs in stream reaches with a moderate relative local sediment supply, as measured by the supply-capacity ratio. Habitat heterogeneity was quantified with an ecologically meaningful spatial heterogeneity index from the field of landscape ecology, Shannon's Diversity Index (SHDI), and relative sediment supply was quantified using a dimensionless bedload transport rate, q*. Data from previously published studies and a new field study on tributaries to the South Yuba River in Nevada County, California were evaluated to test the hypothesis. Results showed that in alluvial reaches where flow and sediment interacted freely without obstruction, moderate q* values correlated with high SHDI values; however, in reaches where less mobile structural elements, such as large woody debris and boulders, were present, SHDI increased as the percentage of structural elements increased. The results indicate two potential mechanisms for how relative sediment supply may drive habitat diversity at the reach scale. When structural elements are not a large proportion of the reach landscape, the supply-capacity ratio dictates the range of sediment textures and geomorphic features observed such that channels with a moderate relative sediment supply exhibit high habitat heterogeneity supporting the study hypothesis. In contrast, when structural elements are relatively abundant, increased local scour and deposition creates a greater variety of geomorphic features and sorted sediment textures, thereby increasing the habitat heterogeneity observed. For both mechanisms, it is the combination of variable sediment flux and variable flow magnitude and frequency that creates the variations in sediment mobility required to maximize geomorphic diversity.
Trade-offs between foraging and predator avoidance may affect an animal's survival and reproduction. These trade-offs may be influenced by differences in vegetative cover, especially if foraging profitability and predation risk differ among habitats. We examined above-ground activity of Townsend's ground squirrels (Spermophilus townsendii) in four habitats in the Snake River Birds of Prey National Conservation Area in southwestern Idaho to determine if behavior of ground squirrels varied among habitats, and we assessed factors that might affect perceived predation risk (i. e. predator detectability, predation pressure, population density). The proportion of time spent in vigilance by ground squirrels in winterfat (Krascheninnikovia lanata) and mosaic habitats of winterfat-sagebrush (Artemisia tridentata) was more than twice that of ground squirrels in burned and unburned sagebrush habitats. We found no evidence for the 'many-eyes' hypothesis as an explanation for differences in vigilance among habitats. Instead, environmental heterogeneity, especially vegetation structure, likely influenced activity budgets of ground squirrels. Differences in vigilance may have been caused by differences in predator detectability and refuge availability, because ground squirrels in the winterfat and mosaic habitats also spent more time in upright vigilant postures than ground squirrels in burned-sagebrush or sagebrush habitats. Such postures may enhance predator detection in low-growing winterfat.
The diversity of aquatic habitats in streams is linked to physical processes that act at various spatial and temporal scales. Two components of many that contribute to creating habitat heterogeneity in streams are the interaction between sediment supply and transport capacity and the presence of local in-stream structures, such as large woody debris and boulders. Data from previously published flume and field studies and a new field study on tributaries to the South Yuba River in Nevada County, California, USA, were used to evaluate the relationship between habitat heterogeneity, local in-stream structural features and relative sediment supply. Habitat heterogeneity was quantified using spatial heterogeneity measures from the field of landscape ecology. Relative sediment supply, as expressed by the sediment supply/transport capacity ratio, which controls channel morphology and substrate textures, two key physical habitat characteristics, was quantified using a dimensionless bedload transport ratio, q*. Calculated q* values were plotted against an ecologically meaningful heterogeneity index, Shannon's Diversity Index, measured for each study reach, as well as the percent area of in-stream structural elements. The results indicate two potential mechanisms for how relative sediment supply may drive geomorphic diversity in natural river systems at the reach scale. When less mobile structural elements form a small proportion of the reach landscape, the supply/capacity ratio dictates the range of sediment textures and geomorphic features observed within the reach. In these settings, channels with a moderate relative sediment supply exhibit the highest textural and geomorphic diversity. In contrast, when less mobile structural elements are abundant, forced local scour and deposition creates high habitat heterogeneity, even in the presence of high relative sediment supply.
Yarnell, Sarah M.; Mount, Jeffrey F.; Larsen, Eric W.
1. This study provided a thorough test of the acoustic adaptation hypothesis using a within-species comparison of call structure involving a wide range of habitat types, an objective measure of habitat density and direct measures of habitat-related attenuation. 2. The structure of the bower advertisement call of the satin bowerbird was measured in 16 populations from throughout the species' range and related to the habitat type and density at each site. Transmission of white noise, pure tones and different bowerbird dialects was measured in five of six habitat types inhabited by satin bowerbirds. 3. Bowerbird advertisement call structure converged in similar habitats but diverged among different habitats; this pattern was apparent at both continent-wide and local geographical scales. Bowerbirds' call structures differed with changes in habitat density, consistent with the acoustic adaptation hypothesis. Lower frequencies and less frequency modulation were utilized in denser habitats such as rainforest and higher frequencies and more frequency modulation were used in the more open eucalypt-dominated habitats. 4. The white noise and pure tone transmission measurements indicated that different habitats varied in their sound transmission properties in a manner consistent with the observed variation in satin bowerbird vocalizations. 5. There was no effect of geographical proximity of recording locations, nor was there the predicted inverse relationship between frequency and body size. 6. These findings indicate that the transmission qualities of different habitats have had a major influence on variation in vocal phenotypes in this species. In addition, previously published molecular data for this species suggest that there is no effect of genetic relatedness on call similarity among satin bowerbird populations. PMID:16638007
The search for life on other planets usually makes the assumption that where there is a habitat, it will contain life. On the present-day Earth, uninhabited habitats (or vacant habitats) are rare, but might occur, for example, in subsurface oils or impact craters that have been thermally sterilized in the past. Beyond Earth, vacant habitats might similarly exist on inhabited planets or on uninhabited planets, for example on a habitable planet where life never originated. The hypothesis that vacant habitats are abundant in the Universe is testable by studying other planets. In this review, I discuss how the study of vacant habitats might ultimately inform an understanding of how life has influenced geochemical conditions on Earth.
In nature, fluxes across habitats often bring both nu- ory, which plays a central role in consumer-resource in- trient and energetic resources into areas of low productivity from areas of higher productivity. These inputs can alter consumption teractions and food web dynamics. They further rates of consumer and predator species in the recipient food webs, suggested that multichannel omnivory can
There is a lack of quantitative syntheses of fragmentation effects across species and biogeographic regions, especially with respect to species life-history traits. We used data from 24 independent studies of butterflies and moths from a wide range of habitats and landscapes in Europe and North America to test whether traits associated with dispersal capacity, niche breadth and reproductive rate modify the effect of habitat fragmentation on species richness. Overall, species richness increased with habitat patch area and connectivity. Life-history traits improved the explanatory power of the statistical models considerably and modified the butterfly species-area relationship. Species with low mobility, a narrow feeding niche and low reproduction were most strongly affected by habitat loss. This demonstrates the importance of considering life-history traits in fragmentation studies and implies that both species richness and composition change in a predictable manner with habitat loss and fragmentation. PMID:20482577
Ockinger, Erik; Schweiger, Oliver; Crist, Thomas O; Debinski, Diane M; Krauss, Jochen; Kuussaari, Mikko; Petersen, Jessica D; Pöyry, Juha; Settele, Josef; Summerville, Keith S; Bommarco, Riccardo
We compared life-history traits and extinction risk of chondrichthyans (sharks, rays and chimaeras), a group of high conservation concern, from the three major marine habitats (continental shelves, open ocean and deep sea), controlling for phylogenetic correlation. Deep-water chondrichthyans had a higher age at maturity and longevity, and a lower growth completion rate than shallow-water species. The average fishing mortality needed
Veronica B. Garcõ ´ a; Luis O. Lucifora; Ransom A. Myers
The Atacama Desert, one of the most arid landscapes on Earth, serves as an analog for the dry conditions on Mars and as a test bed in the search for life on other planets. During the Life in the Atacama (LITA) 2004 field experiment, satellite imagery and ground-based rover data were used in concert with a `follow-the-water' exploration strategy to target regions of biological interest in two (1 coastal, 1 inland) desert study sites. Within these regions, environments were located, studied and mapped with spectroscopic and fluorescence imaging (FI) for habitats and microbial life. Habitats included aqueous sedimentary deposits (e.g., evaporites), igneous materials (e.g., basalt, ash deposits), rock outcrops, drainage channels and basins, and alluvial fans. Positive biological signatures (chlorophyll, DNA, protein) were detected at 81% of the 21 locales surveyed with the FI during the long-range, autonomous traverses totaling 30 km. FI sensitivity in detecting microbial life in extreme deserts explains the high percentage of positives despite the low actual abundance of heterotrophic soil bacteria in coastal (<1-104 CFU/g-soil) and interior (<1-102 CFU/g-soil) desert soils. Remote habitat, microbial and climate observations agreed well with ground-truth, indicating a drier and less microbially rich interior compared to the relatively wetter and abundant biology of the coastal site where rover sensors detected the presence of fog and abundant surface lichens. LITA project results underscore the importance of an explicit focus by all engineering and science disciplines on microbially relevant scales (mm to nm), and highlight the success of satellite-based and `follow-the-water' strategies for locating diverse habitats of biological promise and detecting the microbial hotspots within them.
Warren-Rhodes, K.; Weinstein, S.; Dohm, J.; Piatek, J.; Minkley, E.; Hock, A.; Cockell, C.; Pane, D.; Ernst, L. A.; Fisher, G.; Emani, S.; Waggoner, A. S.; Cabrol, N. A.; Wettergreen, D. S.; Apostolopoulos, D.; Coppin, P.; Grin, E.; Diaz, Chong; Moersch, J.; Oril, G. G.; Smith, T.; Stubbs, K.; Thomas, G.; Wagner, M.; Wyatt, M.
The aim of the paper is the state-of-the-art assessment of the alien flora of Greece and its traits. The dataset consists\\u000a of a total of 343 alien taxa, including 49 archaeophytes. The taxonomy, life traits and habitat of the 294 neophytes are analysed\\u000a vs their naturalisation status. Out of the 122 (41%) naturalised neophytes, 50 are identified as exhibiting invasive
Margarita Arianoutsou; Ioannis Bazos; Pinelopi Delipetrou; Yannis Kokkoris
The effects of habitat structure on predator-prey interactions and intra-guild predation have been well studied in a number of ecological and laboratory systems. How intraspecific interactions among members of cannibalistic species are affected by habitat structure has received less attention. We measured the impacts of habitat structure on interspecific aggression, cannibalism, and life-history traits of Procambarus clarki. Crayfish were randomly assigned to structured or simple habitats. Structured habitats consisted of aquaria with four ceramic fire bricks each with three circular holes for shelter; simple habitats lacked shelters. We hypothesized that habitat structure would lead to decreased injury frequency, increased molting frequency, greater survival, and higher reproductive output in crayfish. Reproductive output did not differ between treatments, but juvenile survival was higher in the structured habitat. Molting was more frequent in the structured habitat. In sharp contrast to predictions, survival was lower in the structured habitat. We concluded the increased mortality in the structured habitat was due to the high degree of exposure to cannibalism and aggression among the crayfish immediately following molting.
Mabry, K.E., E.A. Dreelin, and G.W. Barrett. 2003. Influence of landscape elements on population densities and habitat use of three small-mammal species. J. Mammology. 84(1):20-25. Corridor effects on population densities and habitat use of 3 small mammal species were assessed in an experimentally fragmented landscape. Corridor presence did not have a statistically significant effect on population densities of cotton rats or cotton mice; however, a significant effect was observed for old-field mice. The results suggest that landscape fragmentation and habitat structure may have varying effects on population densities of different species.
Mabry, Karen, E.; Dreelin, Erin, A.; Barrett, Gary, W.
The hypothesis that CO2 gas exchange and chlorophyll a fluorescence (ChlaF) of lichens vary according to the light regimes of their original habitat, as observed in vascular plants, was tested by\\u000a analysing the photosynthetic performance of 12 populations of seven dorsoventral, foliose lichens collected from open, south-exposed\\u000a rocks to densely shaded forests. Light response curves were induced at optimum thallus
A two-dimensional hydrodynamic model (River2D) was utilized to evaluate the relationship between geomorphic conditions (as estimated using an existing rapid assessment protocol) and instream habitat quality in small Vermont streams. Six stream reaches ranging in geomorphic condition from good to poor according to the protocols were utilized for this study. We conducted detailed topographic surveys, quantified bed substrate, and measured velocity and discharge values during baseflow conditions. The reach models were calibrated with realistic roughness values based on field observations and pebble counts. After calibration, the weighted usable area (WUA) of habitat was calculated for each stream at three flows (7Q 10, median, and bankfull) using modeled parameters and habitat suitability curves for specific fish species and life stage. Brown trout (Salmo trutta), white sucker (Catostomus commersoni), and common shiner (Notropis cornutus) habitats were predicted using habitat parameters of velocity, depth, and channel substrate type for adult, juvenile, and fry stages. The predictions of reach-averaged WUA show a negative correlation to the geomorphic condition scores, indicating that the often-used rapid protocols, may not directly relate to habitat conditions at the reach spatial scale. However, the areas of high WUA are distributed in a patchy nature throughout the stream. This fluctuation of physical habitat conditions may be more important to classifying habitat than a single reach-averaged WUA score. The spatial distribution of habitat variables is not captured using either the reach-averaged WUA or geomorphic assessment scores to classify streams. Spatial analyses will be used to further evaluate the patchy nature of WUA distributions, and actual data on species distributions in the study streams will be compared to modeled habitat parameters and their spatial patterns.
Clark, J. S.; Rizzo, D. M.; Hession, W. C.; Watzin, M. C.; Laible, J. P.
The ideal free distribution (IFD) predicts that organisms will disperse to sites that maximize their fitness based on availability\\u000a of resources. Habitat heterogeneity underlies resource variation and influences spatial variation in demography and the distribution\\u000a of populations. We relate nest site productivity at multiple scales measured over a decade to habitat quality in a box-nesting\\u000a population of Forpus passerinus (green-rumped
Interactions between animal behaviour and the environment are both shaping observed habitat use. Despite the importance of inter-specific interactions on the habitat use performed by individuals, most previous analyses have focused on case studies of single species. By focusing on two sympatric populations of large herbivores with contrasting body size, we went one step beyond by studying variation in home range size and identifying the factors involved in such variation, to define how habitat features such as resource heterogeneity, resource quality, and openness created by hurricane or forest managers, and constraints may influencehabitat use at the individual level. We found a large variability among individual's home range size in both species, particularly in summer. Season appeared as the most important factor accounting for observed variation in home range size. Regarding habitat features, we found that (i) the proportion of area damaged by the hurricane was the only habitat component that inversely influenced roe deer home range size, (ii) this habitat type also influenced both diurnal and nocturnal red deer home range sizes, (iii) home range size of red deer during the day was inversely influenced by the biomass of their preferred plants, as were both diurnal and nocturnal core areas of the red deer home range, and (iv) we do not find any effect of resource heterogeneity on home range size in any case. Our results suggest that a particular habitat type (i.e. areas damaged by hurricane) can be used by individuals of sympatric species because it brings both protected and dietary resources. Thus, it is necessary to maintain the openness of these areas and to keep animal density quite low as observed in these hunted populations to limit competition between these sympatric populations of herbivores.
Stream metabolism was measured in 33 streams across a gradient of nutrient concentrations in four agricultural areas of the\\u000a USA to determine the relative influence of nutrient concentrations and habitat on primary production (GPP) and respiration\\u000a (CR-24). In conjunction with the stream metabolism estimates, water quality and algal biomass samples were collected, as was\\u000a an assessment of habitat in the
Jill D. Frankforter; Holly S. Weyers; Jerad D. Bales; Patrick W. Moran; Daniel L. Calhoun
Over the 50 years of daily peak power generation, no ramping restrictions, and loss of gravel due to operations of Philpott Dam, on Smith River, has created a wider, rectangular-shaped channel, with steeper banks. The pattern caused by channel degradation, tributary headcutting, bank erosion, and downstream aggradation has limited the length of productive habitat to between 3 and 10 river kilometers from the dam. Here the channel appears to contain key habitats where we found the highest redd densities, abundance, and spawner biomass for brown trout (Salmo trutta). Recruitment of brown trout to the fishable size classes is constrained by the daily hydropower peaking operations. The number of young brown trout produced each year was strongly related to the average magnitude of the peak flow and the duration of generation flows. Magnitude of peak flows also depressed abundance of native fishes. Although, brown trout actively removed fine sediment via redd construction and spawning, thereby increasing gravel permeability, the fine sediments from tributaries and bank erosion rapidly intruded into the spawning gravel in downstream reaches of the river. We recommend mitigating the effects of fluctuating releases from Philpott Dam through a combination of flow management and habitat improvement.
As part of the three-year `Life in the Atacama' (LITA) project, plant and microbial abundance were mapped within three sites in the Atacama Desert, Chile, using an automated robotic rover. On-board fluorescence imaging of six biological signatures (e.g., chlorophyll, DNA, proteins) was used to assess abundance, based on a percent positive sample rating system and standardized robotic ecological transects. The percent positive rating system scored each sample based on the measured signal strength (0 for no signal to 2 for strong signal) for each biological signature relative to the total rating possible. The 2005 field experiment results show that percent positive ratings varied significantly across Site D (coastal site with fog), with patchy zones of high abundance correlated with orbital and microscale habitat types (heaved surface crust and gravel bars); alluvial fan habitats generally had lower abundance. Non-random multi-scale biological patchiness also characterized interior desert Sites E and F, with relatively high abundance associated with (paleo)aqueous habitats such as playas. Localized variables, including topography, played an important, albeit complex, role in microbial spatial distribution. Site D biosignature trends correlated with culturable soil bacteria, with MPN ranging from 10-1000 CFU/g-soil, and chlorophyll ratings accurately mapped lichen/moss abundance (Site D) and higher plant (Site F) distributions. Climate also affected biological patchiness, with significant correlation shown between abundance and (rover) air relative humidity, while lichen patterns were linked to the presence of fog. Rover biological mapping results across sites parallel longitudinal W-E wet/dry/wet Atacama climate trends. Overall, the study highlights the success of targeting of aqueous-associated habitats identifiable from orbital geology and mineralogy. The LITA experience also suggests the terrestrial study of life and its distribution, particularly the fields of landscape ecology and ecohydrology, hold critical lessons for the search for life on other planets. Their applications to robotic sampling strategies on Mars should be further exploited.
Warren-Rhodes, K.; Weinstein, S.; Piatek, J. L.; Dohm, J.; Hock, A.; Minkley, E.; Pane, D.; Ernst, L. A.; Fisher, G.; Emani, S.; Waggoner, A. S.; Cabrol, N. A.; Wettergreen, D. S.; Grin, E.; Coppin, P.; Diaz, Chong; Moersch, J.; Oril, G. G.; Smith, T.; Stubbs, K.; Thomas, G.; Wagner, M.; Wyatt, M.; Boyle, L. Ng
From 2002 through 2006 we investigated historical and contemporary variations in juvenile Chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha life histories, habitat associations, and food webs in the lower Columbia River estuary (mouth to rkm 101). At near-shore bea...
A. Baptista D. L. Bottom G. Anderson J. Burke M. Bural
Kirtland's warblers (Dendroica kirtlandii) persist in a naturally patchy environment of young, regenerating jack pine forests (i.e., 5-23 years old) created after wildfires and human logging activities. We examined how changing landscape structure from 26 years of forest management and wildfire disturbances influenced population size and spatial dispersion of male Kirtland's warblers within their restricted breeding range in northern Lower Michigan, USA. The male Kirtland's warbler population was six times larger in 2004 (1,322) compared to 1979 (205); the change was nonlinear with 1987 and 1994 identified as significant points of change. In 1987, the population trend began increasing after a slowly declining trend prior to 1987, and the rate of increase appeared to slow after 1994. Total amount of suitable habitat and the relative area of wildfire-regenerated habitat were the most important factors explaining population trend. Suitable habitat increased 149% primarily due to increasing plantations from forest management. The relative amount and location of wildfire-regenerated habitat modified the distribution of males among various habitat types, and the spatial variation in their abundance across the primary breeding range. These findings indicate that the Kirtland's warbler male population shifted its use of habitat types temporally and spatially as the population increased and as the relative availability of habitats changed through time. We demonstrate that researchers and managers need to consider not only habitat quality, but the temporal and the spatial context of habitat availability and population levels when making habitat restoration decisions. ?? 2008 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.
The evolution of life cycles forms the subject of numerous studies on extant organisms, but is rarely documented in the fossil record. Here, I analyze patterns of development in time-averaged samples of late Carboniferous and early Permian amphibians, and compare them to paleoecological patterns derived from the same deposits located within a large sedimentary basin (Saar-Nahe, Germany). In 300-297 million years (myr) old Sclerocephalus haeuseri (1-1.7 m), adult size, morphology, and the course of ontogeny varied with respect to the habitats in which the species existed. These differences are best exemplified by ontogenetic trajectories, which reveal a full range of modifications correlating with environmental parameters (lake properties, food resources, competitors). In a 2- to 3-myr-long interval, six different lake habitats were inhabited by this species, which responded to changes by modification of growth rate, adult size, developmental sequence, skeletal features, prey preference, and relative degree of terrestriality. PMID:19619224
Artemisia tridentata Nutt.) habitat within the Idaho Army National Guard Orchard Training Area in southwestern Idaho. The purpose of this study was to determine the short-term (1a??2 years) influence of tank tracks on vegetation and microphytic crusts in shrubsteppe habitat. The two types of tank tracks studied were divots (area where one track has been stopped or slowed to make a sharp turn) and straight-line tracks. Divots generally had a stronger influence on vegetation and microphytic crusts than did straight-line tracks. Tank tracks increased cover of bare ground, litter, and exotic annuals, and reduced cover of vegetation, perennial native grasses, sagebrush, and microphytic crusts. Increased bare ground and reduced cover of vegetation and microphytic crusts caused by tank tracks increase the potential for soil erosion and may reduce ecosystem productivity. Reduced sagebrush cover caused by tank tracks may reduce habitat quality for rodents. Tank tracks may also facilitate the invasion of exotic annuals into sagebrush habitat, increasing the potential for wildfire and subsequent habitat degradation. Thus, creation of divots and movement through sagebrush habitat by tanks should be minimized.
Habitat selection may be the basis of some of the most exciting questions in behavioural ecology today, but parasites are being excluded from this debate. Parasites are not aberrant; they form a large proportion of the diversity of life on earth, and one estimate suggests that parasitism is more common than all other feeding strategies combined. We still do not
The Hadean/Early Archaean Earth was characterised by generally submerged protocontinents on a water-covered planet. The supracrustal rocks deposited on top of the protocontinents from the Early Archaean terrains of Barberton (S. Africa) and the Pilbara (Australia) contain evidence of widespread distributions of fossil bacterial biofilms in almost all the habitats available. These include shallow -water, intertidal (saline), and possibly subaerial environments. There is extensive evidence of hydrothermal activity with associated mats in all habitats. We can thus infer that by 3.4-3.5 b.y. ago, terrestrial organisms probably represented chemolithotrophs, heterotrophs and anaerobic photosynthesisers exhibiting thermophilic, acidophilic (possibly alkalophilic?), or halophyilic attributes. The presence of a unifying body of water on Earth could have been an important aid to microbial dispersal between habitats. The geological evolution of Mars, on the other hand, precludes the formation of oceans and (proto)continents, even though there is evidence for significant liquid water at the surface of the planet during the Noachian and early Hesperion, with intermittent appearances during the later Hesperion and Amazonian. How does this important difference in the geological evolution of the two planets affect the possibility of life on Mars? In fact, since the ingredients for life (water, organics and an energy source) were all present on early Mars, and since microorganisms are purely surface-specific, the major geological differences present no inhibition to the appearance of life. Potential habitats include: hot spring, shallow -water, intertidal (saline/alkaline?), subaerial and subsurface environments; potential types of organisms would be chemolithotrophs, heterotrophs and (anaerobic?) photosynthesisers with thermophilic, mesophilic (later on psychrophilic?), acidophilic (alkalophilic?), or halophilic attributes. However, subsequent evolution during the Noachian would have been restricted to isolated habitats since there was no unifying body of water to aid dispersal. With the loss of surficial volatiles, it is possible that the environmental extremes afflicting potential early Martian microbes could have spurred more rapid and diverse evolution compared to evolution on Earth or it could have produced the opposite effect, even killing it off altogether.
We present an approach to modeling potential climate-driven changes in habitat for tree and bird species in the eastern United\\u000a States. First, we took an empirical-statistical modeling approach, using randomForest, with species abundance data from national\\u000a inventories combined with soil, climate, and landscape variables, to build abundance-based habitat models for 134 tree and\\u000a 147 bird species. We produced lists of
Louis R. Iverson; Anantha M. Prasad; Stephen N. Matthews; Matthew P. Peters
This report describes the 2009 research conducted under the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (USACE or Corps) project EST-09-P-01, titled “Evaluation of Life History Diversity, Habitat Connectivity, and Survival Benefits Associated with Habitat Restoration Actions in the Lower Columbia River and Estuary.” The research was conducted by the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Marine Science Laboratory and Hydrology Group, in partnership with the University of Washington, School of Aquatic and Fishery Sciences, Columbia Basin Research, and Earl Dawley (NOAA Fisheries, retired). This Columbia River Fish Mitigation Program project, referred to as “Salmonid Benefits,” was started in FY 2009 to evaluate the state-of-the science regarding the ability to quantify the benefits to listed salmonids1 of habitat restoration actions in the lower Columbia River and estuary.
Diefenderfer, Heida L.; Johnson, Gary E.; Sather, Nichole K.; Skalski, John R.; Dawley, Earl M.; Coleman, Andre M.
Local species abundance is related to range size, habitat characteristics, distribution type, body size, and life-history variables. In general, habitat generalists and polyphagous species are more abundant in broad geographical areas. Underlying this, local abundance may be explained from the interactions between life-history traits, chorological pattern, and the local habitat characteristics. The relationship within taxa between life-history traits, distribution area, habitat characteristics, and local abundance of the noctuid moth (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) assemblage in an olive orchard, one of the most important agro-ecosystems in the Mediterranean basin, was analyzed. A total of 66 species were detected over three years of year-round weekly samplings using the light-trap method. The life-history traits examined and the distribution type were found to be related to the habitat-species association, but none of the biological strategies defined from the association to the different habitats were linked with abundance. In contrast to general patterns, dispersal ability and number of generations per year explained differences in abundance. The relationships were positive, with opportunistic taxa that have high mobility and several generations being locally more abundant. In addition, when the effect of migrant species was removed, the distribution type explained abundance differences, with Mediterranean taxa (whose baricenter is closer to the studied area) being more abundant. PMID:21529251
Pérez-Guerrero, Sergio; Redondo, Alberto José; Yela, José Luis
The settlement process of coral larvae following simultaneous mass-spawning remains poorly understood, particularly in terms of population and community parameters. Here, the larval settlement patterns of Acropora corals, which are the most diverse genera of scleractinian corals at the species (haplotype) level, were investigated within a single subtropical reef. Across a 4-year period (2007-2010), the mitochondrial and nuclear molecular markers of 1,073 larval settlers were analyzed. Of the 11 dominant haplotypes of recruited populations, nine exhibited non-random patterns of settlement distribution. This result suggests that the actual habitat segregation starts during the early swimming larval stages of their life history, rather than by natural selection after random settlement. In addition, the presence of a depth-related settlement pattern supports that species-specific vertical zonation of coral larvae may play a role in the establishment of habitat segregation. Moreover, in some species that showed a preference toward the shoreward area of the bay, the settlement pattern was consistent with that of the adult distribution. This result indicates that the gametes were not mixed between fore and back reefs in the period from fertilization to settlement during the mass-spawning event, even within a single small reef. Another compatible hypothesis of this pattern is that the larvae are able to recognize various types of environmental information, facilitating the selection of optimal micro-habitats. Overall, Acropora coral larvae that are produced from a simultaneous mass-spawning event may have adapted to complex reef topography by means of multi-step habitat selection at settlement, corresponding to different spatial scales.
The Tagging of Pacific Pelagic (TOPP) a field program of the Census of Marine Life has proven the concept of using electronic tags to develop a Marine Life Observatory (MLO) to monitor the habitat utilization, movement patterns and behaviour of large marine predators. Given the difficulty of observing the behavior of highly pelagic marine species we know relatively little about
Submerged woody habitat provides the major structure around which ecological processes operate in many lowland rivers. Colonisation by macroinvertebrates was measured in a south-eastern Australian river over a 32-day period in an experiment testing the hypothesis that wood type influences the invertebrate assemblage structure. The wood types were green wood, dry wood, and dry but previously waterlogged wood. All wood
Jarod P. Lyon; Simon J. Nicol; Jason A. Lieschke; David S. L. Ramsey
A key was used to classify articles about livestock influences on riparian zones and fish habitat into 3 classes: papers that con- tained original data, those that were commentary, and reports about methodology such as classification systems, policies, and monitoring criteria. Four hundred and twenty-eight of the total articles were directly related to grazing impacts on riparian zones and fish
ROYCE E. LARSEN; WILLIAM C. KRUEGER; MELVIN R. GEORGE; MACK R. BARRINGTON; JOHN C. BUCKHOUSE; DOUGLAS E. JOHNSON
The efficiency of a pelagic longline fishing operation and the species composition of the resulting catch is influenced primarily by the relationship between the distribution of hooks and species vulnerability, with vulnerability described by either depth or some suite of environmental variables. We therefore fitted longline catch rate models to determine whether catch is estimated better by vertically distributing a
Understanding the effects of chemical contaminants on natural populations is challenging, as multiple anthropogenic and natural stressors may individually and interactively influence responses. Population models can be used to evaluate the impacts of multiple stressors and to provide insight into population-level effects and/or data gaps. For amphibians with complex life cycles, population models may be useful in understanding impacts of stressors that are unique to the habitat type (aquatic, terrestrial) and that operate at different times in the life cycle. We investigated the population-level effects of aquatic contaminants (coal combustion residues, CCR) and terrestrial habitat loss on the eastern narrowmouth toad, Gastrophryne carolinensis, using existing empirical data that demonstrated negative reproductive and developmental effects of CCR and a series of population models that incorporated density dependence and environmental stochasticity. Results of deterministic models indicated that when terrestrial habitat was abundant, CCR-exposed toads had a larger population size compared to the reference population as a result of reduced density-dependent effects on larval survival. However, when stochasticity in the form of catastrophic reproductive failure was included, CCR-exposed toads were more susceptible to decline and extinction compared to toads from the reference populations. The results highlight the complexities involved in assessing the effects of anthropogenic factors on natural populations, especially for species that are exposed to multiple biotic and abiotic stressors during different periods in the life cycle. PMID:21922532
Salice, Christopher J; Rowe, Christopher L; Pechmann, Joseph H K; Hopkins, William A
Habitat complexity strongly influences reef fish community composition. An understanding of the underlying reasons for this relationship is important for evaluating the suitability of artificial reef (AR) habitats as a marine resource management tool. We studied the influence of AR habitat structure on fish assemblage composition off the southern coast of Brazil. We found that reef blocks with greater area and number of holes possessed the greatest fish species richness and abundance. Reef blocks with greater complexity had higher abundance of almost 30% of fish species present. Natural reef (NR) and AR were different in their fish species composition, trophic structure and categories of water column occupancy by fish (spatial categories). Although NR was more diverse and harboured more trophic levels, AR presented the higher abundances and the presence of distinct fish species that underlined their importance at a regional scale. The greater availability of sheltering habitat where hard substrate is scarce, together with their frequent use by economically important species, make AR a useful tool for coastal management when certain ecological conditions are met. PMID:22014376
Hackradt, Carlos Werner; Félix-Hackradt, Fabiana Cézar; García-Charton, José Antonio
Interest in human-designed closed habitats - where the substances needed for human life support are continuously regenerated from waste products - is growing, as apparent from the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's Closed Ecological Life Support Systems Program, the Soviet Union's Bios experiments, and the Biosphere II Project in Arizona. Nuclear-powered bases on the moon and Mars will have food-growing capabilities, and through gas-exchange processes these crops will alter the atmospheric composition. This study focuses on major gases tied to human life support: CO/sub 2/, O/sub 2/, and water vapor. Since actual systems are years and likely decades away, simulation studies can indicate necessary further research and provide instruction about the predicted behavior of such systems. To look at the first-order plant dynamics, i.e., the production of O/sub 2/ and water vapor and the consumption of CO/sub 2/, a simulation model is constructed with crop, human, and waste subsystems. The plant can either share an atmosphere with the humans or be separate, linked by osmotic or mechanical gas exchangers. The crop subsystem is sketched. Stoichiometric equations for the biosynthesis of protein, carbohydrates, and lipids in the edible portion and carbohydrates, fiber, and lignin in the inedible portion govern growth, mimicking that currently observed in the latest hydroponic wheat experiments.
Modification of degraded habitats to increase populations of anadromous salmonids is a major focus of management agencies throughout the Pacific Northwest. Millions of dollars are spent annually on such efforts. Inherent in implementing habitat improvements is the need for quantitative evaluation of the biological and physical effects of such work. Reeves et al. (in press), however, noted that such evaluations are rare, making it difficult to assess the true results of habitat work. While it is not economically possible to thoroughly evaluate every habitat project, it is essential that intensive evaluations be done on selected representative projects. One such evaluation program has been underway since 1982 on Fish Creek, a tributary of the Clackamas River near Estacada, OR. Habitat modification has been done by the USDA Forest Service, Estacada Ranger District, Mt. Hood National Forest with funding provided in part by the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA). The USDA Forest Service, Anadromous Fish Habitat Research Unit, Pacific Northwest Research Station (PNW), Corvallis, OR is charged with: (1) evaluating the biological and physical responses to habitat modifications on a basin scale; and (2) developing a cost-benefit analysis of the program. Preliminary results have been reported in a series of annual publications, Everest and Sedell 1983, 1984 and Everest et al. 1985, 1986, 1987, 1988. The objectives of this paper are to: (1) report 1988 observations of biological and physical changes in habitat, salmonid populations, and smolt production in Fish Creek, and (2) examine preliminary trends in fish habitat and populations related to habitat improvement over the period 1983-1988. We have prefaced the trends in the latter objective as preliminary because we believe it could take a minimum of 10 years before the full biological and physical responses to habitat work are realized. We therefore urge caution in interpreting these preliminary results.
Reeves, Gordon H.; Everest, Fred H. (Oregon State University, Pacific Northwest Forest and Range Experiment Station, Corvallis, OR); Hohler, David B. (Mount Hood National Forest, Clackamas River Ranger District, Estacada, OR)
Understanding how habitat disturbance affects the occurrence of fauna is an important issue in the effective management of habitat and conservation of biodiversity. In this study, 11 paired sites were established around the periphery of Rushworth State Forest in central Victoria, south-eastern Australia, to examine the influence of disturbance to structural complexity in the ground strata on the occurrence of
With the continuing spread of urban areas, gaining a greater understanding of the effect of human presence on wildlife species\\u000a is essential for wildlife managers. We determined the influence of anthropogenic resources on home range size and habitat\\u000a selection of raccoons (Procyon lotor) during summer (June–August) 1996–2000 for 120 raccoons at three sites exposed to varying levels of urbanization and
This study examined the relative influence of nutrients (nitrogen and phosphorus) and habitat on algal biomass in five agricultural\\u000a regions of the United States. Sites were selected to capture a range of nutrient conditions, with 136 sites distributed over\\u000a five study areas. Samples were collected in either 2003 or 2004, and analyzed for nutrients (nitrogen and phosphorous) and\\u000a algal biomass
The dawn chorus of the black-capped chickadee (Poecile atricapillus) is a communication network that functions in the dissemination of essential information for both males and females. Habitat\\u000a type may influence the performance of this network, and if recognized, chickadees may attempt to behaviorally compensate for\\u000a detrimental changes in the form of increased movement. We studied the dawn chorus of 66
Ingebjørg Jean K. Hansen; Ken A. Otter; Harry van Oort; Carmen I. Holschuh
Studies of low-temperature environments on Earth can help guide exploration of other planetary environments that are of interest in the search for potential traces of life (or absence thereof) elsewhere in the solar system. Ice environments and habitats on Earth range from terrestrial permafrost to the polar ice caps or floating sea and lake ice. Despite the complexity of these
This section describes work accomplished in 1999 that continued to address two objectives of this project. These objectives are (1) determine the distribution of juvenile and adult bull trout Salvelinus confluentus and habitats associated with that distribution, and (2) determine fluvial and resident bull trout life history patterns. Completion of these objectives is intended through studies of bull trout in
Alan R. Hemmingsen; Stephanie L. Gunckel; Philip J. Howell
This section describes work accomplished in 2000 that continued to address two objectives of this project. These objectives are (1) determine the distribution of juvenile and adult bull trout Salvelinus confluentus and habitats associated with that distribution, and (2) determine fluvial and resident bull trout life history patterns. Completion of these objectives is intended through studies of bull trout in
Alan R. Hemmingsen; Stephanie L. Gunckel; Paul M. Sankovich; Philip J. Howell
The life history patterns of two isopod species from mesic habitats in a temperate region were studied. The isopods: Porcellio chuldaensia (Porcellionidae) and Armadillo sp. ('Brown') (Armadillidae) inhabit heavy soils in northern Israel. Both species breed during spring and early summer, but differ in the number of oocytes, eggs and mancas they produce, and thus in their reproductive allocation. Judging
Stream macroinvertebrate communities vary naturally among types of habitats where they are sampled, which affects the results of environmental assessment. We analyzed macroinvertebrates collected from riffle and snag habitats to evaluate influences of habitat-specific sampling on taxon occurrence, assemblage measures, and biotic indices. We found considerably more macroinvertebrate taxa unique to snags (143 taxa) than to riffles (75 taxa), and the numbers of taxa found in both riffles and snags (149 taxa) were similar to that found in snags. About 64% of the 47 macroinvertebrate measures we tested differed significantly between riffles and snags. Eighty percent intercepts of regressions between biotic indices and urban or agricultural land uses differed significantly between riffles and snags. The Hilsenhoff biotic index calculated from snag samples explained 69% of the variance of riffle samples and classified 66% of the sites into the same stream health group as the riffle samples. However, four multimetric indices for snag samples explained less than 50% of the variance of riffle samples and classified less than 50% of the sites into the same health group as the riffle samples. We concluded that macroinvertebrate indices developed for riffle/run habitat should not be used for snag samples to assess stream impairment. We recommend developing an index of biotic integrity specifically for snags and using snags as an alternate sampling substrate for streams that naturally lack riffles. PMID:16741823
Wang, Lizhu; Weigel, Brian W; Kanehl, Paul; Lohman, Kirk
Stream metabolism was measured in 33 streams across a gradient of nutrient concentrations in four agricultural areas of the USA to determine the relative influence of nutrient concentrations and habitat on primary production (GPP) and respiration (CR-24). In conjunction with the stream metabolism estimates, water quality and algal biomass samples were collected, as was an assessment of habitat in the sampling reach. When data for all study areas were combined, there were no statistically significant relations between gross primary production or community respiration and any of the independent variables. However, significant regression models were developed for three study areas for GPP (r 2 = 0.79-0.91) and CR-24 (r 2 = 0.76-0.77). Various forms of nutrients (total phosphorus and area-weighted total nitrogen loading) were significant for predicting GPP in two study areas, with habitat variables important in seven significant models. Important physical variables included light availability, precipitation, basin area, and in-stream habitat cover. Both benthic and seston chlorophyll were not found to be important explanatory variables in any of the models; however, benthic ash-free dry weight was important in two models for GPP. ?? 2009 The Author(s).
Frankforter, J. D.; Weyers, H. S.; Bales, J. D.; Moran, P. W.; Calhoun, D. L.
Identifying the ecological dynamics underlying human-wildlife conflicts is important for the management and conservation of wildlife populations. In landscapes still occupied by large carnivores, many ungulate prey species migrate seasonally, yet little empirical research has explored the relationship between carnivore distribution and ungulate migration strategy. In this study, we evaluate the influence of elk (Cervus elaphus) distribution and other landscape features on wolf (Canis lupus) habitat use in an area of chronic wolf-livestock conflict in the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem, USA. Using three years of fine-scale wolf (n = 14) and elk (n = 81) movement data, we compared the seasonal habitat use of wolves in an area dominated by migratory elk with that of wolves in an adjacent area dominated by resident elk. Most migratory elk vacate the associated winter wolf territories each summer via a 40-60 km migration, whereas resident elk remain accessible to wolves year-round. We used a generalized linear model to compare the relative probability of wolf use as a function of GIS-based habitat covariates in the migratory and resident elk areas. Although wolves in both areas used elk-rich habitat all year, elk density in summer had a weaker influence on the habitat use of wolves in the migratory elk area than the resident elk area. Wolves employed a number of alternative strategies to cope with the departure of migratory elk. Wolves in the two areas also differed in their disposition toward roads. In winter, wolves in the migratory elk area used habitat close to roads, while wolves in the resident elk area avoided roads. In summer, wolves in the migratory elk area were indifferent to roads, while wolves in resident elk areas strongly avoided roads, presumably due to the location of dens and summering elk combined with different traffic levels. Study results can help wildlife managers to anticipate the movements and establishment of wolf packs as they expand into areas with migratory or resident prey populations, varying levels of human activity, and front-country rangelands with potential for conflicts with livestock. PMID:23387126
Nelson, Abigail A; Kauffman, Matthew J; Middleton, Arthur D; Jimenez, Michael D; McWhirter, Douglas E; Barber, Jarrett; Gerow, Kenneth
This study examined the relative influence of nutrients (nitrogen and phosphorus) and habitat on algal biomass in five agricultural regions of the United States. Sites were selected to capture a range of nutrient conditions, with 136 sites distributed over five study areas. Samples were collected in either 2003 or 2004, and analyzed for nutrients (nitrogen and phosphorous) and algal biomass (chlorophyll a). Chlorophyll a was measured in three types of samples, fine-grained benthic material (CHLFG), coarse-grained stable substrate as in rock or wood (CHLCG), and water column (CHLS). Stream and riparian habitat were characterized at each site. TP ranged from 0.004-2.69 mg/l and TN from 0.15-21.5 mg/l, with TN concentrations highest in Nebraska and Indiana streams and TP highest in Nebraska. Benthic algal biomass ranged from 0.47-615 mg/m2, with higher values generally associated with coarse-grained substrate. Seston chlorophyll ranged from 0.2-73.1 ?g/l, with highest concentrations in Nebraska. Regression models were developed to predict algal biomass as a function of TP and/or TN. Seven models were statistically significant, six for TP and one for TN; r 2 values ranged from 0.03 to 0.44. No significant regression models could be developed for the two study areas in the Midwest. Model performance increased when stream habitat variables were incorporated, with 12 significant models and an increase in the r 2 values (0.16-0.54). Water temperature and percent riparian canopy cover were the most important physical variables in the models. While models that predict algal chlorophyll a as a function of nutrients can be useful, model strength is commonly low due to the overriding influence of stream habitat. Results from our study are presented in context of a nutrient-algal biomass conceptual model.
This study examined the relative influence of nutrients (nitrogen and phosphorus) and habitat on algal biomass in five agricultural regions of the United States. Sites were selected to capture a range of nutrient conditions, with 136 sites distributed over five study areas. Samples were collected in either 2003 or 2004, and analyzed for nutrients (nitrogen and phosphorous) and algal biomass (chlorophyll a). Chlorophyll a was measured in three types of samples, fine-grained benthic material (CHL(FG)), coarse-grained stable substrate as in rock or wood (CHL(CG)), and water column (CHL(S)). Stream and riparian habitat were characterized at each site. TP ranged from 0.004-2.69 mg/l and TN from 0.15-21.5 mg/l, with TN concentrations highest in Nebraska and Indiana streams and TP highest in Nebraska. Benthic algal biomass ranged from 0.47-615 mg/m(2), with higher values generally associated with coarse-grained substrate. Seston chlorophyll ranged from 0.2-73.1 microg/l, with highest concentrations in Nebraska. Regression models were developed to predict algal biomass as a function of TP and/or TN. Seven models were statistically significant, six for TP and one for TN; r(2) values ranged from 0.03 to 0.44. No significant regression models could be developed for the two study areas in the Midwest. Model performance increased when stream habitat variables were incorporated, with 12 significant models and an increase in the r(2) values (0.16-0.54). Water temperature and percent riparian canopy cover were the most important physical variables in the models. While models that predict algal chlorophyll a as a function of nutrients can be useful, model strength is commonly low due to the overriding influence of stream habitat. Results from our study are presented in context of a nutrient-algal biomass conceptual model. PMID:20143065
Habitat split is a major force behind the worldwide decline of amphibian populations, causing community change in richness and species composition. In fragmented landscapes, natural remnants, the terrestrial habitat of the adults, are frequently separated from streams, the aquatic habitat of the larvae. An important question is how this landscape configuration affects population levels and if it can drive species to extinction locally. Here, we put forward the first theoretical model on habitat split which is particularly concerned on how split distance – the distance between the two required habitats – affects population size and persistence in isolated fragments. Our diffusive model shows that habitat split alone is able to generate extinction thresholds. Fragments occurring between the aquatic habitat and a given critical split distance are expected to hold viable populations, while fragments located farther away are expected to be unoccupied. Species with higher reproductive success and higher diffusion rate of post-metamorphic youngs are expected to have farther critical split distances. Furthermore, the model indicates that negative effects of habitat split are poorly compensated by positive effects of fragment size. The habitat split model improves our understanding about spatially structured populations and has relevant implications for landscape design for conservation. It puts on a firm theoretical basis the relation between habitat split and the decline of amphibian populations.
Fonseca, Carlos Roberto; Coutinho, Renato M.; Azevedo, Franciane; Berbert, Juliana M.; Corso, Gilberto; Kraenkel, Roberto A.
Habitat split is a major force behind the worldwide decline of amphibian populations, causing community change in richness and species composition. In fragmented landscapes, natural remnants, the terrestrial habitat of the adults, are frequently separated from streams, the aquatic habitat of the larvae. An important question is how this landscape configuration affects population levels and if it can drive species to extinction locally. Here, we put forward the first theoretical model on habitat split which is particularly concerned on how split distance - the distance between the two required habitats - affects population size and persistence in isolated fragments. Our diffusive model shows that habitat split alone is able to generate extinction thresholds. Fragments occurring between the aquatic habitat and a given critical split distance are expected to hold viable populations, while fragments located farther away are expected to be unoccupied. Species with higher reproductive success and higher diffusion rate of post-metamorphic youngs are expected to have farther critical split distances. Furthermore, the model indicates that negative effects of habitat split are poorly compensated by positive effects of fragment size. The habitat split model improves our understanding about spatially structured populations and has relevant implications for landscape design for conservation. It puts on a firm theoretical basis the relation between habitat split and the decline of amphibian populations. PMID:23818967
Fonseca, Carlos Roberto; Coutinho, Renato M; Azevedo, Franciane; Berbert, Juliana M; Corso, Gilberto; Kraenkel, Roberto A
As a group, lizards occupy a vast array of habitats worldwide, yet there remain relatively few cases where habitat use (ecology), morphology, and thus, performance, are clearly related. The best known examples include: increased limb length in response to increased arboreal perch diameter in anoles and increased limb length in response to increased habitat openness for some skinks. Rocky habitats impose strong natural selection on specific morphological characteristics, which differs from that imposed on terrestrial species, because moving about on inclined substrates of irregular sizes and shapes constrains locomotor performance in predictable ways. We quantified habitat use, morphology, and performance of 19 species of lizards (family Scincidae, subfamily Lygosominae) from 23 populations in tropical Australia. These species use habitats with considerable variation in rock availability. Comparative phylogenetic analyses revealed that occupation of rock-dominated habitats correlated with the evolution of increased limb length, compared to species from forest habitats that predominantly occupied leaf litter. Moreover, increased limb length directly affected performance, with species from rocky habitats having greater sprinting, climbing, and clinging ability than their relatives from less rocky habitats. Thus, we found that the degree of rock use is correlated with both morphological and performance evolution in this group of tropical lizards. PMID:19137951
Goodman, Brett A; Miles, Donald B; Schwarzkopf, Lin
Biological and ecological traits of fauna have the potential to indicate changes in community structure that relate to function as an alternative to using traditional taxonomic descriptors. However, traits may be inherited, and consequently, not all species traits are independent of phylogeny. When used in analyses of community structure, results based on traits may be difficult to interpret; suites of traits may respond together even if only one trait is responding to changes in the habitat. To determine the relationship between traits and phylogeny, we examined life history and behavioral traits for the extant 45 families of Trichoptera. Traits such as larval size, respiratory strategies, case or net materials, locomotion, food and functional feeding group, voltanism, diapause, habitat, and reproduction were collected from published life histories. Traits were then coded and mapped onto the phylogeny of Trichoptera to determine the correlations between traits, as well as correlations directly influenced by the phylogeny. Traits such as functional feeding group, reproductive strategies, and building materials were correlated with phylogeny, while traits such as locomotion and habitat type were less influenced by phylogeny. Consideration of macroinvertebrate phylogenies when selecting biological and ecological traits may be essential for accurate interpretation of community function.
The environment of the Andes presents analogies with Mars when the planet was transitioning from a wetter to a drier, colder climate: thin atmosphere, high solar irradiance, depleted ozone, high temperature fluctuations with low averages, ice, low precipitation and RH, and volcanic activity. This region is also among three areas of the world most impacted by climate change, which results in enhanced evaporation and high negative water balance that modifies lake habitat rapidly. Data shows strong interannual fluctuations in precipitation, water balance, major ion concentration, and pH are well marked. Microorganisms dwelling near the surface are exposed to a UV flux 170% that of sea level, and exceptionally high UVB levels. The thin cold atmosphere generates sudden and significant inverse relationship between UV and temperatures. In this cold, unstable environment lake habitats host abundant life. In addition to adaptation strategies, the timing of key cycles appears to be a critical factor in life’ survival. Environmental analogy with early Mars is multifold. Aridification has resulted in an evaporative environment. Latitude and altitude generate a UV-flux double that of present-day Mars at the equator and UVB only half that of the red planet, low average total ozone, and a low atmospheric pressure. Yearly temperature extremes range from -40C to +9C. Lakes are ice-covered starting austral fall, reaching maximum thickness by mid-winter. Thawing occurs in spring, but negative night temperatures result in the formation of a thin film of ice that thaws by mid-morning in spring and summer. Because of their geophysical environment, rapid climate change, isolation, and mostly uncharted ecosystems, these lakes are representative of an end-member class of terrestrial lakes and are meaningful analogs to early martian lakes. With differences inherent to the study of terrestrial analogs, the overall environmental similarity of Andean lakes with Mars at the Noachian/Hesperian transition makes them uniquely similar to early martian lakes and a window into the likely transformation they experienced during the transition period from a wet to a dry Mars. Our results show that decline was unlikely to be monotonical over time on Mars, and therefore probably challenging for putative life, if any, to adapt to. Physicochemical changes associated with such variability are significant. There is currently no data to show how this environmental roller coaster impacts biodiversity at the level of the overall population’s density or that of the species. However, the relatively low diversity found in the samples of the microbial community is consistent with biodiversity loss and selection of specific species capable of mutating and adapting rapidly. The timing of key cycles appears critical to the ecosystem’s survival. Here, we will discuss our latest results, the main similarities and differences with Mars, and how exploring these analogs help us better learn how to identify their signatures on Mars.
Cabrol, N. A.; Grin, E. A.; High Lakes Project Team
In many marine and terrestrial systems, individuals of a focal species may be found in habitats that are neither essential nor of particular concern for conservation. For example, finding fish in a location does not make that location essential. This recognition begs the question of how one identifies the most important habitats for a particular species. We introduce new tools
Investigations of Mars as a potential location for life often make the assumption that where there are habitats, they will contain organisms. However, the observation of the ubiquitous distribution of life in habitable environments on the Earth does not imply the presence of life in Martian habitats. Although uninhabited habitats are extremely rare on the Earth, a lack of a
Charles S. Cockell; Matt Balme; John C. Bridges; Alfonso Davila; Susanne P. Schwenzer
While research and implementation of upstream migration solutions is extensive, and indeed often successful, full scale restoration projects and investigations of their influence on fish biology are rare in Norway. Acid deposition in Norwegian catchments peaked in the 1980's and resulted in both chronically and episodically acidified rivers and Salmonids in River Nidelva, one of the largest cathments in southern Norway, where extinct for decades. During this period hydropower development in the river paid limited attention to aquatic ecology. Weirs were constructed for esthetic purposes in the late 1970's and turned a 3 km stretch into a lake habitat, well suited for lake dwelling fish species, but unsuited for migration, spawning and juvenile habitat for salmonids. Since 2005, continuous liming to mitigate acidification has improved the water quality and a program for reintroduction of Atlantic salmon has been implemented. We used hydraulic modeling to plan the removal of two weirs on a bypass reach of the river. The 50 meters wide concrete weirs were blasted and removed in 2007, and ecological monitoring has been carried out in the river to assess the effect of weir removal. Topographic mapping, hydraulic measurements and modeling, in combination with biological surveys before and after the removal of the weirs, has proved to represent a powerful method for design of physical habitat adjustments and assessing their influence on fish biology. The model results also supported a rapid progress of planning and executing of the works. While telemetry studies before weir removal suggested that adult migration past the weirs was delayed with several weeks the fish can now pass the reach with minor obstacles. Spawning sites were discovered in the old bed substrate and were occupied already the first season after water velocities increased to suitable levels for spawning. Accordingly, the densities of Atlantic salmon juveniles have shown a marked increased after the conclusion of the project. Catches of pike and cyprinids on the reach is reduced, indicating that their habitat is no longer suitable, while salmon anglers have found new favorite spots in the restored pools and runs.
The objective of this project was to determine the life cycles, dispersal, and critical habitat utilization of the amphibians that migrate into and out of ephemeral wetlands in the Munson Sandhills portion of the Woodville Karst Plain. Researchers determi...
We analyzed data from riffle and snag habitats for 39 small cold water streams with different levels of watershed urbanization in Wisconsin and Minnesota to evaluate the influences of urban land use and instream habitat on macroinvertebrate communities. Multivariate analysis indicated that stream temperature and amount of urban land use in the watersheds were the most influential factors determining macroinvertebrate assemblages. The amount of watershed urbanization was nonlinearly and negatively correlated with percentages of Ephemeroptera-PlecopteraTrichoptera (EPT) abundance, EPT taxa, filterers, and scrapers and positively correlated with Hilsenhoff biotic index. High quality macroinvertebrate index values were possible if effective imperviousness was less than 7 percent of the watershed area. Beyond this level of imperviousness, index values tended to be consistently poor. Land uses in the riparian area were equal or more influential relative to land use elsewhere in the watershed, although riparian area consisted of only a small portion of the entire watershed area. Our study implies that it is extremely important to restrict watershed impervious land use and protect stream riparian areas for reducing human degradation on stream quality in low level urbanizing watersheds. Stream temperature may be one of the major factors through which human activities degrade cold-water streams, and management efforts that can maintain a natural thermal regime will help preserve stream quality.
Habitat structure and resources availability may differentially influence movement between habitat patches. We examined fly movement decisions (stay or leave) at the scale of individual trees by measuring the response of marked Rhagoletis indifferens (Diptera: Tephritidae) to sweet cherry trees (Prunus avium) that were manipulated by changing the shape of the tree (structure treatment = normal or reduced) and the fruit load (fruit treatment = augmented, normal, or reduced). More than 600 observations were made at two field sites that differed in the average inter-tree distance: Senger site, 10.1 +/- 4.5 m; Tuemp site, 29.0 +/- 19.3 m. At the Senger site, flies were resighted most often in the normal structure-augmented fruit trees. At the Tuemp site, however, there were fewer transfers between trees, unusual tree preferences, and significant treatment interaction terms. Using a first principles diffusion model of attraction and by varying fly perceptual range to limit tree choice, we generated unusual tree preferences based on differential attraction to individual trees. Our results suggest that manipulating tree attractiveness may be a viable pest management strategy for closely spaced trees but not for dispersed trees. Further study into the relationship between the spatial arrangement of trees and the flies' ability to detect specific tree characteristics is warranted. PMID:19508793
Senger, S E; Tyson, R; Roitberg, B D; Thistlewood, H M A; Harestad, A S; Chandler, M T
Habitat instability has an important influence on species' occurrence and community composition. For freshwater arthropods that occur in ephemeral rock pools, the most drastic habitat instabilities are droughts and the intermittent availability of water. However, although the desiccation of a rock pool is detrimental for planktonic populations, it may also bring certain benefits: the exclusion of predators or parasites, for example, or the coexistence of otherwise competitively exclusive species. The commonness of drought resistant resting stages in many aquatic organisms shows the ecological significance of droughts. We measured daily evaporation in 50 rock pools inhabited by three Daphnia species D. magna, D. longispina and D. pulex over one summer. Daily evaporation and ultimately desiccation showed significantly seasonally influenced correlation with pool surface area, presence of vegetation, ambient temperature, wind and standardized evaporation measures. We used the estimates from this analysis to develop a simulation model to predict changes in the water level in 530 individual pools on a daily basis over a 25-year period. Eventually, hydroperiod lengths and desiccation events could be predicted for all of these rock pools. We independently confirmed the validity of this simulation by surveying desiccation events in the 530 rock pools over a whole season in 2006. In the same 530 rock pools, Daphnia communities had been recorded over the 25 years the simulation model considered. We correlated pool-specific occupation lengths of the three species with pool-specific measures of desiccation risk. Occupation lengths of all three Daphnia species were positively correlated with maximum hydroperiod length and negatively correlated with the number of desiccation events. Surprisingly, these effects were not species-specific.
Altermatt, Florian; Pajunen, V. Ilmari; Ebert, Dieter
Studies investigating animal response to habitat in marine systems have mainly focused on habitat preference and complexity. This study is one of the first to investigate the affect of benthic habitat corridors and their characteristics on dispersal and colonization by estuarine macrofuana. In this study, mark-recapture field experiments using artificial seagrass units (ASUs) assessed the effects of seagrass corridors, interpatch
As the concepts of landscape ecology have been incorporated into otherdisciplines, the influence of spatial patterns on animal abundance anddistribution has attracted considerable attention. However, there remains asignificant gap in the application of landscape ecology theories and techniquesto wildlife research. By combining landscape ecology techniques withtraditionalwildlife habitat analysis methods, we defined an ‘organism-centeredperspective’for breeding bald eagles (Haliaeetus leucocephalus) alongthe Hudson
Streams in the loess hills of northwest Mississippi have undergone dramatic physical changes since European settlement and both physical and water quality processes may play a role in influencing biotic communities of these stream systems. The objectives of this study were to identify the response of macroinvertebrate taxa to water quality and habitat parameters in streams of northwest Mississippi, examine
J. D. Maul; J. L. Farris; C. D. Milam; C. M. Cooper; S. Testa III; D. L. Feldman
We investigated the influence of red alder (Alnus rubra) stand density in upland, riparian forests on invertebrate and detritus transport from fishless headwater streams to downstream, salmonid habitats in southeastern Alaska. Red alder commonly regenerates after soil disturbance (such as from natural landsliding or timber harvesting), and is common along streams in varying densities, but its effect on food delivery
The relative influences of water quality and in-streamhabitat on receiving water biology were investigatedin the Little Miami River, Ohio, a national and statescenic river located in the southwest corner of thestate. Monitored sample data for water chemistry,habitat, invertebrates and fish were obtained fromfederal and state sources and integrated via ageographical information system (GIS), using a uniquestream segmenting system. Locations and
S. D. Dyer; C. E. White-Hull; X. Wang; T. D. Johnson; G. J. Carr
We tested (1) how the presence of a diverse soil faunal community affects ecosystem carbon balance and (2) whether habitat patchiness modifies the influence of soil fauna on plant growth and carbon dynamics. We constructed cylindrical microcosms that contained coniferous forest humus and different litter materials either mixed or in separate patches, and in the presence or absence of diverse
Pekka Sulkava; Veikko Huhta; Jouni Laakso; Eeva-Riitta Gylén
Recent studies have demonstrated that terrestrial subaqueous basalts and hyaloclastites are suitable microbial habitats. During subaqueous basaltic volcanism, glass is produced by the quenching of basaltic magma upon contact with water. On Earth, microbes rapidly begin colonizing the glassy surfaces along fractures and cracks that have been exposed to water. Microbial colonization of basaltic glass leads to the alteration and
M. R. M. Izawa; N. R. Banerjee; R. L. Flemming; N. J. Bridge; C. Schultz
The Hadean\\/Early Archaean Earth was characterised by generally submerged protocontinents on a water-covered planet. The supracrustal rocks deposited on top of the protocontinents from the Early Archaean terrains of Barberton (S. Africa) and the Pilbara (Australia) contain evidence of widespread distributions of fossil bacterial biofilms in almost all the habitats available. These include shallow -water, intertidal (saline), and possibly subaerial
To assess the influence of zoogeographic factors and life-history parameters (effective population size, generation length, and dispersal) on the evolutionary genetic structure of marine fishes in the southeastern USA, phylogeographic patterns of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) were compared between disjunct Atlantic and Gulf of Mexico populations in three coastal marine fishes whose juveniles require an estuarine or freshwater habitat for development.
The sediments, morphological features and riverflows that define the hydrogeomorphology of natural river channels provide physical habitat diversity that sustains the aquatic biodiversity of river ecosystems. This simple concept underpins the large number of contemporary ecohydraulic models that are available in the literature. Such models have been widely used to predict how morphological diversity (taken here to encompass channel sediments, topography and flow velocity) influenceshabitat quality for target species at the reach scale. The accuracy of these predictions is a matter of considerable practical importance, as the results are frequently used as the basis for restoration or rehabilitation. However, such models are limited in that they do not account for dynamic changes in river morphology, which themselves are triggered by changes in the flows of water and sediment delivered from the watershed upstream and stimulated by climatic, tectonic or land cover perturbations across a wide range of temporal scales. Accordingly there is an urgent need to combine the outputs of catchment-based geomorphological models with ecohydraulic models, so that predictions of habitat quality focused on specific reaches can be placed into their appropriate (i.e., the watershed) spatial context. To address these issues we herein present preliminary simulations from a case study of the Sulphur Creek watershed, a 24.2 sq. km., third-order catchment draining one of 47 tributaries to the Napa River, which empties southerly into the San Francisco Bay of northern California. Therein, the influence of catchment-scale geomorphic dynamics on reach-scale fish habitat is investigated using the ooCAESAR landscape evolution model. This cellular automaton model, based on its predecessor CAESAR, was chosen because it can be run at spatial resolutions (1 to 5 m.) that are ecologically meaningful and at temporal resolutions that capture both individual event dynamics and long-term evolutionary history. Water depths, velocities and surface grain size distributions produced by the ooCAESAR simulations are used to model habitat suitability for spawning and rearing lifestages of Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) and steelhead (Oncorhynchus mykiss) using traditional habitat suitability curves. To drive the simulations, scenarios were developed that express a combination of plausible future events and time series based on climate (rainfall), land use, restoration and seismic variants. A subset of an ensemble of scenario-driven simulations are used to illustrate how non-linear catchment-scale dynamics influence the quality of fish habitat expressed at the reach-scale, in sometimes non-intuitive ways. Sediment budgets derived from the simulations help segregate processes and explain how the delivery and storage of sediment within the catchment combine to change physical habitat in reaches utilized by fish.
Wheaton, J. M.; Sear, D. A.; Darby, S. E.; Booker, D. E.; Acreman, M.
Bull trout Salvelinus confluentus exhibit a number of life history strategies. Stream-resident bull trout complete their life cycle in their natal tributaries. Migratory bull trout spawn in tributary streams where juvenile fish usually spend from one to four years before migrating to either a larger river (fluvial) or lake (adfluvial) where they rear before returning to the tributary stream to spawn (Fraley and Shepard 1989). These migratory forms occur where conditions allow movement from spawning locations to downstream waters that provide greater foraging opportunities (Dunham and Rieman 1999). Resident and migratory forms may occur together, and either form can produce resident or migratory offspring (Rieman and McIntyre 1993). The ability to migrate is important to the persistence of local bull trout populations (Rieman and McIntyre 1993). The identification of migratory corridors can help focus habitat protection efforts. Determining the life history form(s) that comprise local populations, the timing of seasonal movements, and the geographic extent of these movements are critical to bull trout protection and recovery efforts. This section describes work accomplished in 2001 that continued to address two objectives of this project. These objectives are (1) determine the distribution of juvenile and adult bull trout and habitats associated with that distribution, and (2) determine fluvial and resident bull trout life history patterns. Completion of these objectives is intended through studies of bull trout in the Grande Ronde, Walla Walla, and John Day basins. These basins were selected because they provide a variety of habitats, from relatively degraded to pristine, and bull trout populations were thought to vary from relatively depressed to robust. In the Grande Ronde and Walla Walla basins, we continued to monitor the movements of bull trout with radio transmitters applied in 1998 (Hemmingsen, Bellerud, Gunckel and Howell 2001) and 1999 (Hemmingsen, Gunckel and Howell 2001). No new radio transmitters were applied to bull trout of the upper John Day River subbasin, Mill Creek (Walla Walla Basin), or the Grande Ronde Basin in 2001. In Mill Creek, we used traps for the fourth consecutive year to obtain data on migrant bull trout. With these traps, we intended to determine the timing of bull trout movements both upstream and downstream, and to determine the relative abundance and size of migrant fish. No traps were operated in the John Day Basin in 2001.
Hemmingsen, Alan R.; Gunckel, Stephanie L.; Sankovich, Paul M.; Howell, Philip J.
To determine whether life history differences can occur in salt marsh fishes that occupy different habitats within the same\\u000a marsh, we compared reproductive allocation in female mummichog (Fundulus heteroclitus) inhabiting creeks and ponds of a coastal salt marsh in southern New Jersey, USA during the spring and summer of 2001 and\\u000a 2002. Females were collected in phase with the lunar
From 2002 through 2006 we investigated historical and contemporary variations in juvenile Chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha life histories, habitat associations, and food webs in the lower Columbia River estuary (mouth to rkm 101). At near-shore beach-seining sites in the estuary, Chinook salmon occurred during all months of the year, increasing in abundance from January through late spring or early summer and declining rapidly after July. Recently emerged fry dispersed throughout the estuary in early spring, and fry migrants were abundant in the estuary until April or May each year. Each spring, mean salmon size increased from the tidal freshwater zone to the estuary mouth; this trend may reflect estuarine growth and continued entry of smaller individuals from upriver. Most juvenile Chinook salmon in the mainstem estuary fed actively on adult insects and epibenthic amphipods Americorophium spp. Estimated growth rates of juvenile Chinook salmon derived from otolith analysis averaged 0.5 mm d-1, comparable to rates reported for juvenile salmon Oncorhynchus spp. in other Northwest estuaries. Estuarine salmon collections were composed of representatives from a diversity of evolutionarily significant units (ESUs) from the lower and upper Columbia Basin. Genetic stock groups in the estuary exhibited distinct seasonal and temporal abundance patterns, including a consistent peak in the Spring Creek Fall Chinook group in May, followed by a peak in the Western Cascades Fall Chinook group in July. The structure of acanthocephalan parasite assemblages in juvenile Chinook salmon from the tidal freshwater zone exhibited a consistent transition in June. This may have reflected changes in stock composition and associated habitat use and feeding histories. From March through July, subyearling Chinook salmon were among the most abundant species in all wetland habitat types (emergent, forested, and scrub/shrub) surveyed in the lower 100 km of the estuary. Salmon densities within wetland habitats fell to low levels by July, similar to the pattern observed at mainstem beach-seining sites and coincident with high water temperatures that approached or exceeded 19 C by mid-summer. Wetland habitats were used primarily by small subyearling Chinook salmon, with the smallest size ranges (i.e., rarely exceeding 70 mm by the end of the wetland rearing season) at scrub/shrub forested sites above rkm 50. Wetland sites of all types were utilized by a diversity of genetic stock groups, including less abundant groups such as Interior Summer/Fall Chinook.
Bottom, Daniel L.; Anderson, Greer; Baptisa, Antonio
Prey availability affects many aspects of predators' life history and is considered a primary factor influencing individuals' decisions regarding spatial ecology and behavior, but few experimental data are currently available. Snakes may represent ideal model organisms relative to other animal groups for addressing such resource dependency, due to a presumably more direct link between food resources and many aspects of behavior and natural history. We experimentally investigated the relationship between food intake and spatial behavior in a population of the snake Bothrops asper in a Costa Rican lowland rainforest. Six adult snakes were allowed to forage naturally while six were offered supplemental food in the field, with both groups monitored using radiotelemetry. Mean home range size did not differ between groups presumably due to small sample size, but supplementally fed snakes demonstrated altered patterns of macro- and microhabitat selection, shorter and less frequent movements, and increased mass acquisition. Fed snakes also devoted less time to foraging efforts, instead more frequently remaining inactive and utilizing shelter. Because snakes were always fed in situ and not at designated feeding stations, observed shifts in habitat selection are not explained by animals simply moving to areas of higher food availability. Rather, B. asper may have moved to swamps in order to feed on amphibians when necessary, but remained in preferred forest habitat when food was otherwise abundant. The strong behavioral and spatiotemporal responses of snakes in this population may have been influenced by an overall scarcity of mammalian prey during the study period. PMID:22440190
Aquatic plants mediate ecological processes in aquatic habitats, specifically predator–prey (bluegill sunfish (Lepomis macrochirus Rafinesque)-macroinvertebrate) interactions. Macroinvertebrate colonization is directly and indirectly influenced by substrate\\u000a heterogeneity, interstitial space, and surface complexity. Exotic invasive plant species, such as Hydrilla verticillata L.F. Royle, may alter the available structure in aquatic habitat by creating a shift to a homogeneous habitat, thus affecting\\u000a the
We used daytime and nighttime underwater observation to assess microhabitat use by bull trout Salvelinus confluentus (N = 213) in streams of the intermountain western USA during the summers of 2001 and 2002. We recorded fish focal points and measured a set of habitat characteristics as well as habitat availability via line transects. Bull trout were benthic and solitary; most
Nolan P. Banish; James T. Peterson; Russell F. Thurow
The spawning distribution of sockeye salmon Oncorhynchus nerka was compared between clear and glacially turbid habitats in Lake Clark, Alaska, with the use of radiotelemetry. Tracking of 241 adult sockeye salmon to 27 spawning locations revealed both essential habitats and the relationship between spawn timing and seasonal turbidity cycles. Sixty-six percent of radio-tagged sockeye salmon spawned in turbid waters (?5
We analyzed relationships between watershed land use and habitat quality, and between watershed land use and biotic integrity for 134 sites on 103 streams located throughout Wisconsin. Habitat quality and index of biotic integrity (IBI) scores were significantly positively correlated with the amount of forested land and negatively correlated with the amount of agricultural land in the entire watershed and
Northern pintail Anas acuta (hereafter pintail) populations wintering within Suisun Marsh, a large estuarine managed wetland near San Francisco Bay, California,USA, have declined markedly over the last four decades. The reasons for this decline are unclear. Information on how hunting and other factors influence the selection of vegetation types and sanctuaries would be beneficial to manage pintail populations in SuisunMarsh. During 1991-1993, we radio-marked and relocated female pintails (individuals: N = 203, relocations: N = 7,688) within Suisun Marsh to investigate habitat selection during the non-breeding months (winter). We calculated selection ratios for different vegetation types and for sanctuaries, and examined differences in those ratios between hunting season (i.e. hunting and non-hunting), age (hatchyear and after-hatch-year), and time of day (daylight or night hours). We found that diel patterns in selection were influenced by hunting disturbance. For example, prior to the hunting season and during daylight hours, pintails selected areas dominated by brass buttons Cotula coronopifolia, a potentially important food source, usually outside of sanctuary boundaries. However, during the hunting season, pintails did not select brass buttons during daylight hours, but instead highly selected permanent pools, mostly within sanctuaries. Also, during the hunting season, pintails showed strong selection for brass buttons at night. Sanctuaries provided more area of permanent water pools than within hunting areas and appeared to function as important refugia during daylight hours of the hunting season. Wildlife managers should encourage large protected permanent pools adjacent to hunted wetlands to increase pintail numbers within wetland environments and responsibly benefit hunting opportunities while improving pintail conservation.
Casazza, Michael L.; Coates, Peter S.; Miller, Michael R.; Overton, Cory T.; Yparraguirre, Daniel R.
Colonisation is often a critical stage in the life history of plants, and recruitment success is expected to have a strong impact on plant frequencies especially among herbs. Several plant traits (seed size, plant height, leaf dry weight and specific leaf area) are suggested to be functionally important in early life stages, and the impact of such traits is expected
Ecosystems are often indirectly connected through consumers with complex life cycles (CLC), in which different life stages inhabit different ecosystems. Using a structured consumer resource model that accounts for the independent effects of two resources on consumer growth and reproductive rates, we show that such indirect connections between ecosystems can result in alternative stable states characterized by adult- dominated and
This section describes work accomplished in 1999 that continued to address two objectives of this project. These objectives are (1) determine the distribution of juvenile and adult bull trout Salvelinus confluentus and habitats associated with that distribution, and (2) determine fluvial and resident bull trout life history patterns. Completion of these objectives is intended through studies of bull trout in the Grande Ronde, Walla Walla, and John Day basins. These basins were selected because they provide a variety of habitats, from relatively degraded to pristine, and bull trout populations were thought to vary from relatively depressed to robust. In all three basins we used radio telemetry to determine the seasonal movements of bull trout. In the John Day and Walla Walla basins we also used traps to capture migrant bull trout. With these traps, we intended to determine the timing of bull trout movements both upstream and downstream, determine the relative abundance, size and age of migrant fish, and capture bull trout to be implanted with radio transmitters. In the John Day basin, we captured adult and juvenile bull trout from the upper John Day River and its tributaries, Call Creek, Reynolds Creek, and Roberts Creek. In the Walla Walla basin, we captured adult and juvenile bull trout from Mill Creek.
Hemmingsen, Alan R.; Gunckel, Stephanie L.; Howell, Philip J.
Limesink wetlands are a common aquatic habitat in southwest Georgia, USA. These wetlands are non-alluvial, occupying shallow\\u000a depressions formed from dissolution of limestone bedrock and collapse of surface sands. They are seasonally inundated, with\\u000a a typical hydroperiod extending from late February to early July. Little is known about factors influencing invertebrate community\\u000a structure in limesink wetlands. Recently, it has been
Stephen W. Golladay; Brad W. Taylor; Brian J. Palikt
Life histories of two populations of Tanymastix stagnalisfrom sites in central Italy, differing in climate and altitude above sea level, were compared to obtain information on the tolerance limits of this species.
The Atacama Desert, one of the most arid landscapes on Earth, serves as an analog for the dry conditions on Mars and as a test bed in the search for life on other planets. During the Life in the Atacama (LITA) 2004 field experiment, satellite imagery and ground-based rover data were used in concert with a ‘follow-the-water’ exploration strategy to
K. Warren-Rhodes; S. Weinstein; J. Dohm; J. Piatek; E. Minkley; A. Hock; C. Cockell; D. Pane; L. A. Ernst; G. Fisher; S. Emani; A. S. Waggoner; N. A. Cabrol; D. S. Wettergreen; D. Apostolopoulos; P. Coppin; E. Grin; Chong Diaz; J. Moersch; G. G. Oril; T. Smith; K. Stubbs; G. Thomas; M. Wagner; M. Wyatt
The Atacama Desert, one of the most arid landscapes on Earth, serves as an analog for the dry conditions on Mars and as a test bed in the search for life on other planets. During the Life in the Atacama (LITA) 2004 field experiment, satellite imagery and ground-based rover data were used in concert with a `follow-the-water' exploration strategy to
K. Warren-Rhodes; S. Weinstein; J. Dohm; J. Piatek; E. Minkley; A. Hock; C. Cockell; D. Pane; L. A. Ernst; G. Fisher; S. Emani; A. S. Waggoner; N. A. Cabrol; D. S. Wettergreen; D. Apostolopoulos; P. Coppin; E. Grin; Chong Diaz; J. Moersch; G. G. Oril; T. Smith; K. Stubbs; G. Thomas; M. Wagner; M. Wyatt
Given bees' central effect on vegetation communities, it is important to understand how and why bee distributions vary across ecological gradients. We examined how plant community composition, plant diversity, nesting suitability, canopy cover, land use, and fire history affected bee distribution across an open-forest gradient in northwest Indiana, USA, a gradient similar to the historic Midwest United States landscape mosaic. When considered with the other predictors, plant community composition was not a significant predictor of bee community composition. Bee abundance was negatively related to canopy cover and positively to recent fire frequency, bee richness was positively related to plant richness and abundance of potential nesting resources, and bee community composition was significantly related to plant richness, soil characteristics potentially related to nesting suitability, and canopy cover. Thus, bee abundance was predicted by a different set of environmental characteristics than was bee species richness, and bee community composition was predicted, in large part, by a combination of the significant predictors of bee abundance and richness. Differences in bee community composition along the woody vegetation gradient were correlated with relative abundance of oligolectic, or diet specialist, bees. Because oligoleges were rarer than diet generalists and were associated with open habitats, their populations may be especially affected by degradation of open habitats. More habitat-specialist bees were documented for open and forest/scrub habitats than for savanna/woodland habitats, consistent with bees responding to habitats of intermediate woody vegetation density, such as savannas, as ecotones rather than as distinct habitat types. Similarity of bee community composition, similarity of bee abundance, and similarity of bee richness between sites were not significantly related to proximity of sites to each other. Nestedness analysis indicated that species composition in species-poor sites was not merely a subset of species composition at richer sites. The lack of significant proximity or nestedness effects suggests that factors at a small spatial scale strongly influence bees' use of sites. The findings indicate that patterns of plant diversity, nesting resource availability, recent fire, and habitat shading, present at the scale of a few hundred meters, are key determinants of bee community patterns in the mosaic open-savanna-forest landscape. ?? 2010 by the Ecological Society of America.
Grundel, R.; Jean, R. P.; Frohnapple, K. J.; Glowacki, G. A.; Scott, P. E.; Pavlovic, N. B.
Watershed land use in suburban areas can affect stream biota through degradation of instream habitat, water quality, and riparian vegetation. By monitoring stream biotic communities in various geographic regions, we can better understand and conserve our watershed ecosystems. The...
The potential driving force(s) of the vertical distribution of subtidal barnacle Balanus trigonus Darwin were investigated using both field and laboratory experiments. Early juveniles (approximately 24 h old) placed in intertidal [approximately 0.5 m above mean low water level (MLWL)] and subtidal (approximately 3 m below MLWL) habitats survived equally well, indicating that the intertidal absence of B. trigonus in Hong Kong waters was not determined by differential mortality. However, enhanced attachment of cyprids in subtidal habitats indicated the importance of differential larval choice in determining their vertical distribution. In the laboratory, cyprids preferred to attach in response to subtidal microbial films, which may implicate microbial films as a primary cue in driving the adult vertical distribution. Microbial films developed in these two habitats differed in their biomass (= total organic carbon), abundance of bacteria and diatoms (determined by fluorescence microscopy), and bacterial diversity (determined by DNA fingerprinting analysis). For example, 6-day films in subtidal habitat had a significantly higher biomass than in films from intertidal habitat (P < 0.05). There was no difference in the biomass of films from these two habitats in 9-day films (P > 0.05); however, bacterial abundance was greater in subtidal films than in intertidal films, irrespective of the age of the film, although there was no difference in diatom abundance in films from these two habitats. Neither the abundance of bacteria and diatoms nor the biomass correlated with the attachment preferences of cyprids. This study has not provided any data to prove the existence of inductive and inhibitive (to cyprid attachment) bacterial species in subtidal and intertidal films, respectively; however, results indicate that bacterial community provided qualitative information that might explain the preferential attachment of B. trigonus cyprids in subtidal habitat. PMID:16645929
Thiyagarajan, Vengatesen; Lau, Stanley C K; Cheung, Sam C K; Qian, Pei-Yuan
In this study we examined the importance of seasonal changes in habitat features and aquatic macroinvertebrate responses in\\u000a temporary and perennial streams from two different catchments in the Western Mediterranean region in Spain. Macroinvertebrate\\u000a sampling was spatially intensive to account for the relative frequency of meso- (i.e., riffles and pools) and micro-habitats\\u000a (i.e., different mineral and organic-based substrata) at each
Eduardo M. Garcia-RogerM; M. del Mar Sánchez-Montoya; Rosa Gómez; M. Luisa Suárez; M. Rosario Vidal-Abarca; Jérôme Latron; Maria Rieradevall; Narcís Prat
The seagrass Halophila johnsonii Eiseman grows from the upper intertidal to 3m depths in habitats ranging from near-marine inlets to tidal riverine. These habitats have distinct optical characteristics, primarily due to variable concentrations of watershed-derived chromophoric dissolved organic matter (CDOM), which increases the attenuation of short-wavelength (blue and UV) light. H. johnsonii contains a suite of flavonoids that are thought
It is required that infrastructure should satisfy performance requirement through their service life based on an appropriate life cycle management strategy. Now adays, to determine the maintenance strategy and to consider the appropriate timing and method of intervention, the life-cycle cost (LCC) has been widely used as one of the decision-making indices. However, many factors influence on the estimation of LCC and they have not been adequately investigated. In this paper, the authors have made analytical investigation to quantify the influence of important factors on the results of LCC estimation. Four kinds of mooring facilities are focused; two of them are open-type wharves and the other two are sheet pile type quay walls having different design water depths. Prediction of deterioration progress and performance degradation is made by using the Markov models. The influences of structural sizes, transition probability in the Markov model, design service life, periodic inspection and methods of intervention on LCC were investigated. The influence of those factors has been discussed based on the calculated results of LCC by creating the maintenance scenarios for model mooring facilities.
Examined relative influence of selected life history experiences on development of three vocational types proposed by Holland. Data from employees classified as Investigative (n=490), Social (N=1,421), and Enterprising (N=707) support Holland's premise that vocational type development is function of complex series of events resulting from family…
Habitat utilization and the life history of browntrout Salmo trutta and Arctic charr Salvelinus alpinus were investigated in fivesympatric populations and five allopatric brown troutpopulations in Høylandet catchment, a atmosphaericlow deposition area in Mid Norway. There was asignificant inverse correlation in abundance ofepibenthic Arctic charr and brown trout in theselakes, indicating that the latter species is dominant.The largest numbers of
Trygve Hesthagen; Bror Jonsson; Ola Ugedal; Torbjørn Forseth
BACKGROUND: The potential role hybridisation in adaptive radiation and the evolution of new lineages has received much recent attention. Hybridisation between roach (Rutilus rutilus L.) and bream (Abramis brama L.) is well documented throughout Europe, however hybrids in Ireland occur at an unprecedented frequency, often exceeding that of both parental species. Utilising an integrated approach, which incorporates geometric morphometrics, life
Brian Hayden; Domitilla Pulcini; Mary Kelly-Quinn; Martin O'Grady; Joe Caffrey; Aisling McGrath; Stefano Mariani
Oxidative stress, high radiation doses, low temperature and pressure are parameters which made Mars's surface adverse for life. Those conditions found on Mars surface are harsh conditions for life to deal with. Life, as we know it on Earth, needs several requirements for its establishment but, the only "sine qua nom" element is water. Extremophilic microorganisms widened the window of possibilities for life to develop in the universe, and as a consequence on Mars. Recently reported results in extreme environments indicate the possibility of presence of "oasys" for life in microniches due to water deliquescence in salts deposits. The compilation of data produced by the ongoing missions (Mars Global Surveyor, Mars Odyssey, Mars Express and Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity) offers a completely different view from that reported by Viking missions: signs of an early wet Mars and rather recent volcanic activity. The discovery of important accumulations of sulfates, and the existence of iron minerals like jarosite, goethite and hematite in rocks of sedimentary origin has allowed specific terrestrial models related with this type of mineralogy to come into focus. Río Tinto (Southwestern Spain, Iberian Pyritic Belt) is an extreme acidic environment, product of the chemolithotrophic activity of microorganisms that thrive in the massive pyrite-rich deposits of the Iberian Pyritic Belt. The high concentration of ferric iron and sulfates, products of the metabolism of pyrite, generate a collection of minerals, mainly gypsum, jarosite, goethite and hematites, all of which have been detected in different regions of Mars. Some particular protective environments or elements could house organic molecules or the first bacterial life forms on Mars surface. Terrestrial analogs could help us to afford its comprehension. We are reporting here some preliminary studies about endolithic niches inside salt deposits used by phototrophs for taking advantage of sheltering particular light wavelengths. These acidic salts deposits located in Río Tinto shelter life forms which are difficult to localize by eye. Techniques for its localization and study during space missions are needed to develop. Extreme environments are good scenarios where to test and train those techniques and where hypothetical astrobiological space missions could be simulated for increasing possibilities of micro niches identification.
Gómez, F.; Rodríguez-Manfredi, J. A.; Rodríguez, N.; Fernández-Sampedro, M.; Caballero-Castrejón, F. J.; Amils, R.
Aim: The western yellow-billed cuckoo (Coccyzus americanus occidentalis), a Neotropical migrant bird, is facing steep population declines in its western breeding grounds owing primarily to loss of native habitat. The favoured esting habitat for the cuckoo in the south-western United States is low-elevation riparian forests and woodlands. Our aim was to explore relationships between vegetation phenology patterns captured by satellite phenometrics and the distribution of the yellow-billed cuckoo, and to use this information to map cuckoo habitat. Location: Arizona, USA. Methods: Land surface phenometrics were derived from satellite Advanced Very High-Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR), bi-weekly time-composite, ormalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) data for 1998 and 1999 at a resolution of 1 km. Fourier harmonics were used to analyse the waveform of the annual NDVI profile in each pixel. To create the models, we coupled 1998 satellite phenometrics with 1998 field survey data of cuckoo presence or absence and with point data that sampled riparian and cottonwood–willow vegetation types. Our models were verified and refined using field and satellite data collected in 1999. Results: The models reveal that cuckoos prefer areas that experience peak greenness 29 days later, are 36% more dynamic and slightly (< 1%) more productive than their average cottonwood–willow habitat. The results support a scenario in which cuckoos migrate northwards, following the greening of riparian corridors and surrounding landscapes in response to monsoon precipitation, but then select a nesting site based on optimizing the near-term foraging potential of the neighbourhood. Main conclusions: The identification of preferred phenotypes within recognized habitat can be used to refine future habitat models, inform habitat response to climate change, and suggest adaptation strategies. For example, models of phenotype preferences can guide management actions by identifying and prioritizing for conservation those landscapes that reliably exhibit highly preferred phenometrics on a consistent basis.
Wallace, Cynthia S.; Villarreal, Miguel; Van Riper, Charles
The characteristics of the matrix, that is, the unsuitable habitat connecting host-plant patches may facilitate or limit herbivore movement thus affecting their population dynamics. We evaluated the effect of matrix habitat, distance between patches, and plant damage on movement of two leaf-beetles (Galerucella calmariensis Linnaeus and G. pusilla Duft) introduced to North America as biocontrol agents of the invasive purple loosestrife (Lythrum salicaria Linnaeus). Mark-recapture/resight experiments indicated (1) that leaf-beetles are more likely to colonize purple loosestrife patches surrounded by meadow than forest; (2) that previously attacked purple loosestrife plants are more likely to be colonized by Galerucella spp. than unattacked plants, especially in the forest habitat; and (3) that leaf beetle colonization of purple loosestrife decreased with distance from release point. Low colonization rates of purple loosestrife patches embedded in forests suggest either insufficient detection or active avoidance of such habitats. Biological control programs intend to manage dispersal of specialized insect herbivores for the purpose of sufficient and sustained control of their host plants. Such management needs to be informed by knowledge of interactions of habitat structure, plant damage, and dispersal capabilities of herbivores to facilitate release programs and control at the local and regional level. PMID:22251719
Abstract Phenotypic integration, in which a suite of traits change in a correlated or covarying response to shifts in environmental conditions, may enhance an organism's fitness. In skinks, rocky environments select for longer limbs and rapid running and climbing. We examined whether differences in nest temperature coincident with specific habitats caused phenotypically integrated effects on morphology, locomotor performance, and behavior in the skink Carlia longipes. Specifically, we determined whether microhabitat choices were integrated with adaptive morphology for each habitat. Using a split-clutch design, we incubated eggs at thermal regimes that mimicked the thermal environments of nests from two habitat types (forest = warm; rocky = cool). Hatchlings from cool incubation environments had longer limbs and greater running and climbing speeds, which are likely to be beneficial for rocky habitats. In addition, individuals from cool incubation environments selected rocky microhabitats more frequently than did hatchlings from warm incubation environments. We demonstrate phenotypic integration in response to nest temperature that affected morphology, performance, and ultimately habitat selection in a way that should increase hatchling fitness. PMID:24107373
Goodman, Brett A; Schwarzkopf, Lin; Krockenberger, Andrew K
In the present study 670 individuals of Gonatus onyx (Cephalopoda: Teuthoidea) were observed in Monterey Bay, California from a remotely operated vehicle. The vertical distribution\\u000a of this species was bimodal, with peaks at 400 and 800?m depth during the day and 300 and 500?m during the night. The bimodal\\u000a distribution reflects a life stage shift between younger, schooling juveniles living
As part of the three-year `Life in the Atacama' (LITA) project, plant and microbial abundance were mapped within three sites in the Atacama Desert, Chile, using an automated robotic rover. On-board fluorescence imaging of six biological signatures (e.g., chlorophyll, DNA, proteins) was used to assess abundance, based on a percent positive sample rating system and standardized robotic ecological transects. The
K. Warren-Rhodes; S. Weinstein; J. L. Piatek; J. Dohm; A. Hock; E. Minkley; D. Pane; L. A. Ernst; G. Fisher; S. Emani; A. S. Waggoner; N. A. Cabrol; D. S. Wettergreen; E. Grin; P. Coppin; Chong Diaz; J. Moersch; G. G. Oril; T. Smith; K. Stubbs; G. Thomas; M. Wagner; M. Wyatt; L. Ng Boyle
As part of the three-year ‘Life in the Atacama’ (LITA) project, plant and microbial abundance were mapped within three sites in the Atacama Desert, Chile, using an automated robotic rover. On-board fluorescence imaging of six biological signatures (e.g., chlorophyll, DNA, proteins) was used to assess abundance, based on a percent positive sample rating system and standardized robotic ecological transects. The
K. Warren-Rhodes; S. Weinstein; J. L. Piatek; J. Dohm; A. Hock; E. Minkley; D. Pane; L. A. Ernst; G. Fisher; S. Emani; A. S. Waggoner; N. A. Cabrol; D. S. Wettergreen; E. Grin; P. Coppin; Chong Diaz; J. Moersch; G. G. Oril; T. Smith; K. Stubbs; G. Thomas; M. Wagner; M. Wyatt; L. Ng Boyle
High Antarctic coastal marine environments are comparatively pristine with strong environmental gradients, which make them important places to investigate biodiversity relationships. Defining how different environmental features contribute to shifts in ?-diversity is especially important as these shifts reflect both spatio-temporal variations in species richness and the degree of ecological separation between local and regional species pools. We used complementary techniques (species accumulation models, multivariate variance partitioning and generalized linear models) to assess how the roles of productivity, bio-physical habitat heterogeneity and connectivity change with spatial scales from metres to 100's of km. Our results demonstrated that the relative importance of specific processes influencing species accumulation and ?–diversity changed with increasing spatial scale, and that patterns were never driven by only one factor. Bio-physical habitat heterogeneity had a strong influence on ?-diversity at scales <290 km, while the effects of productivity were low and significant only at scales >40 km. Our analysis supports the emphasis on the analysis of diversity relationships across multiple spatial scales and highlights the unequal connectivity of individual sites to the regional species pool. This has important implications for resilience to habitat loss and community homogenisation, especially for Antarctic benthic communities where rates of recovery from disturbance are slow, there is a high ratio of poor-dispersing and brooding species, and high biogenic habitat heterogeneity and spatio-temporal variability in primary production make the system vulnerable to disturbance. Consequently, large areas need to be included within marine protected areas for effective management and conservation of these special ecosystems in the face of increasing anthropogenic disturbance.
This section describes work accomplished in 2000 that continued to address two objectives of this project. These objectives are (1) determine the distribution of juvenile and adult bull trout Salvelinus confluentus and habitats associated with that distribution, and (2) determine fluvial and resident bull trout life history patterns. Completion of these objectives is intended through studies of bull trout in the Grande Ronde, Walla Walla, and John Day basins. These basins were selected because they provide a variety of habitats, from relatively degraded to pristine, and bull trout populations were thought to vary from relatively depressed to robust. In all three basins we continued to monitor the movements of bull trout with radio transmitters applied in 1998 (Hemmingsen, Bellerud, Gunckel and Howell 2001) and 1999 (Hemmingsen, Gunckel and Howell 2001). No new radio transmitters were applied to bull trout of the upper John Day River subbasin, Mill Creek (Walla Walla Basin), or the Grande Ronde Basin in 2000. We did implant radio transmitters in two bull trout incidentally captured in the John Day River near the confluence of the North Fork John Day River. In Mill Creek, we used traps to capture migrant bull trout to obtain data for the third successive year in this stream. With these traps, we intended to determine the timing of bull trout movements both upstream and downstream, and to determine the relative abundance, size and age of migrant fish. Because we captured migrant bull trout with traps for three years in the upper John Day River and its tributaries (Hemmingsen, Bellerud, Buchanan, Gunckel, Shappart and Howell 2001; Hemmingsen, Bellerud, Gunckel and Howell 2001; Hemmingsen, Gunckel and Howell 2001) and traps were no longer needed to capture bull trout for radio-tagging, no traps were operated in the John Day Basin in 2000.
Hemmingsen, Alan R.; Gunckel, Stephanie L.; Sankovich, Paul M.; Howell, Philip J.
This study was performed to gain more knowledge about the behaviour and habitat use of Haflinger mares, free-ranging in a low-productivity dune area. Detailed data on these animals' time budgets were collected over a full year, through the focal animal observation technique. On average the Haflinger horses spent 68 % of the daytime grazing, 18 % resting and 8 %
We analyzed data from coastal wetlands across all five Laurentian Great Lakes to identify patterns in fish assemblages and relationships to local habitat, watershed condition, and regional setting. NMDS ordination of electrofishing catch-per-effort data revealed an overriding ge...
We employ molecular methods to profile the diet of the little brown bat, Myotis lucifugus, and describe spatial and temporal changes in diet over their maternity season. We identified 61 prey species of insects and 5 species of arachnid. The largest proportion of prey (?32%) were identified as species of the mass-emerging Ephemeroptera (mayfly) genus Caenis. Bats roosting in agricultural settings had lower dietary richness than those occupying a roost located on a forest fragment in a conservation area. We detected temporal fluctuations in diet over the maternity season. Dipteran (fly) species dominated the diet early in the season, replaced later by species of mayfly. Because our methodology provides species-level identification of prey, we were able to isolate environmental indicator species in the diet and draw conclusions about the location and type of their foraging habitat and the health of these aquatic systems. The species detected suggested that the bats use variable habitats; members of one agricultural roost foraged on insects originating in rivers or streams while those in another agricultural roost and the forest roost fed on insects from pond or lake environments. All source water for prey was of fair to good quality, though no species detected are intolerant of pollution thus the habitat cannot be classified as pristine. Our study outlines a model system to investigate the abiotic and biotic interactions between habitat factors through this simple food chain to the top predator. PMID:21366747
Clare, E L; Barber, B R; Sweeney, B W; Hebert, P D N; Fenton, M B
Summary This example is provided so that non-theorists may see actual applications of the theory previously described. This study considered directly some of the components of Field Sparrow breeding success as a measure of habitat suitability, and found these to vary in a way which was inconsistent with hypotheses that territorial behavior either cues, or limits density. This study provides
Strong sociocultural forces affect individual attitudes toward health and choice of life-style. Economic deprivation fosters negative health behaviors. Positive health habits are reinforced by discrete societal groups. The news media, particularly television, disseminate much useful health information, though the overall educational value is diminished by the content of commercial messages and programming. The automobile is a major societal influence, but neither individual drivers nor the car manufacturers give enough priority to highway safety, leaving that role to governmental regulation. American industry is becoming a positive influence in the encouragement of good health habits, and fashion is lately an important ally in personal health maintenance.
Habitats are often defined by the presence of key species and biogenic features. However, the ecological consequences of interactions among distinct habitat-forming species in transition zones where their habitats overlap remain poorly understood. We investigated transition zone interactions by conducting experiments at three locations in Mahurangi Harbour, New Zealand, where the abundance of two habitat-forming marine species naturally varied. The two key species differed in form and function: One was a sessile suspension-feeding bivalve that protruded from the sediment (Atrina zelandica; Pinnidae); the other was a mobile infaunal urchin that bioturbated sediment (Echinocardium cordatum; Spatangoida). The experimental treatments established at each site reflected the natural densities of the species across sites (Atrina only, Echinocardium only, Atrina and Echinocardium together, and plots with neither species present). We identified the individual and combined effects of the two key species on sediment characteristics and co-occurring macrofauna. After five months, we documented significant treatment effects, including the highest abundance of co-occurring macrofauna in the Atrina-only treatments. However, the facilitation of macrofauna by Atrina (relative to removal treatments) was entirely negated in the presence of Echinocardium at densities >10 individuals/m2. The transitional areas in Mahurangi Harbour composed of co-occurring Atrina and Echinocardium are currently widespread and are probably more common now than monospecific patches of either individual species, due to the thinning of dense Atrina patches into sparser mixed zones during the last 10-15 years. Thus, although some ecologists avoid ecotones and habitat edges when designing experiments, suspecting that it will skew the extrapolation of results, this study increased our understanding of benthic community dynamics across larger proportions of the seascape and provided insights into temporal changes in community structure associated with patch dynamics. Particularly in situations where non-abrupt habitat transitions are commonplace, documentation of community dynamics in individual biogenic habitats and in mixed transition zones is required in order to scale-up and generalize results. PMID:23600248
Lohrer, Andrew M; Rodil, Iván F; Townsend, Michael; Chiaroni, Luca D; Hewitt, Judi E; Thrush, Simon F
Construction and evaluation of salmonid habitat improvements on Fish Creek, a tributary of the upper Clackamas River, is designed to increase the annual number of chinook and coho salmon, and steelhead trout smolt outmigrants. The primary objectives of the evaluation include the: (1) evaluation and quantification of changes in salmonid spawning and rearing habitat resulting from a variety of habitat improvements; (2) evaluation and quantification of changes in fish populations and biomass resulting from habitat improvements; and (3) evaluation of the cost-effectiveness of habitat improvements developed with BPA and Forest Service funds on Fish Creek. This report focuses on the projects completed in the basin in 1983, 1984, and 1985, and their evaluation.
Bottlenose dolphins are the only cetaceans regularly observed in the northern Adriatic Sea, but they survive at low densities and are exposed to significant threats. This study investigates some of the factors that influencehabitat use by the animals in a largely homogeneous environment by combining dolphin data with hydrological and physiographical variables sampled from oceanographic ships. Surveys were conducted year-round between 2003 and 2006, totalling 3,397 km of effort. Habitat modelling based on a binary stepwise logistic regression analysis predicted between 81% and 93% of the cells where animals were present. Seven environmental covariates were important predictors: oxygen saturation, water temperature, density anomaly, gradient of density anomaly, turbidity, distance from the nearest coast and bottom depth. The model selected consistent predictors in spring and summer. However, the relationship (inverse or direct) between each predictor and dolphin presence varied among seasons, and different predictors were selected in fall. This suggests that dolphin distribution changed depending on seasonal forcing. As the study area is relatively uniform in terms of bottom topography, habitat use by the animals seems to depend on complex interactions among hydrological variables, caused primarily by seasonal change and likely to determine shifts in prey distribution.
Caribou are an integral component of high-latitude ecosystems and represent a major subsistence food source for many northern people. The availability and quality of winter habitat is critical to sustain these caribou populations. Caribou commonly use older spruce woodlands with adequate terrestrial lichen, a preferred winter forage, in the understory. Changes in climate and fire regime pose a significant threat to the long-term sustainability of this important winter habitat. Computer simulations performed with a spatially explicit vegetation succession model (ALFRESCO) indicate that changes in the frequency and extent of fire in interior Alaska may substantially impact the abundance and quality of winter habitat for caribou. We modeled four different fire scenarios and tracked the frequency, extent, and spatial distribution of the simulated fires and associated changes to vegetation composition and distribution. Our results suggest that shorter fire frequencies (i.e., less time between recurring fires) on the winter range of the Nelchina caribou herd in eastern interior Alaska will result in large decreases of available winter habitat, relative to that currently available, in both the short and long term. A 30% shortening of the fire frequency resulted in a 3.5-fold increase in the area burned annually and an associated 41% decrease in the amount of spruce-lichen forest found on the landscape. More importantly, simulations with more frequent fires produced a relatively immature forest age structure, compared to that which currently exists, with few stands older than 100 years. This age structure is at the lower limits of stand age classes preferred by caribou from the Nelchina herd. Projected changes in fire regime due to climate warming and/or additional prescribed burning could substantially alter the winter habitat of caribou in interior Alaska and lead to changes in winter range use and/or population dynamics. ?? 2006 by the Ecological Society of America.
Rupp, T. S.; Olson, M.; Adams, L. G.; Dale, B. W.; Joly, K.; Henkelman, J.; Collins, W. B.; Starfield, A. M.
Construction and evaluation of salmonid habitat improvements on Fish Creek, a tributary of the upper Clackamas River, was continued in fiscal year 1985 by the Estacada Ranger District, Mt. Hood National Forest, and the Anadromous Fish Habitat Research Unit of the Pacific Northwest Forest and Range Experiment Station (PNW), USDA Forest Service. The study began in 1982 when PNW entered into an agreement with the Mt. Hood National Forest to evaluate fish habitat improvements in the Fish Creek basin on the Estacada Ranger District. The project was initially conceived as a 5-year effort (19824986) to be financed by Forest Service funds. Several factors limiting production of salmonids in the basin were identified during the first year of the study, and the scope of the habitat improvement effort was subsequently enlarged. The habitat improvement program and the evaluation of improvements were both expanded in mid-1983 when the Bonneville Power Administration entered into an agreement with the Mt. Hood National Forest to provide additional funding for work on Fish Creek. Habitat improvement work in the basin is designed to increase the annual number of chinook and coho salmon, and steelhead trout smolt outmigrants. The primary objectives of the evaluation include the: (1) Evaluation and quantification of changes in salmonid spawning and rearing habitat resulting from a variety of habitat Improvements. (2) Evaluation and quantification of changes in fish populations and biomass resulting from habitat improvements. (3) Evaluation of the cost-effectiveness of habitat improvements developed with BPA and Forest Service funds on Fish Creek. Several prototype enhancement projects were constructed and tested during the first three years of the study. The Intention was to identify successful techniques that could then be broadly applied within the bash. This stepwise procedure has been largely successful in identifying the most promising enhancement techniques for the Fish Creek basin. To date, 7-10 percent of the habitat area in the basin has been treated. When work on Fish Creek is completed, it is estimated that 50-60 percent of the total habitat area used by anadromous salmonids will have received some form of treatment. This annual progress report will focus on the projects completed in the basin In 1983, 1984, and 1985, and their evaluation. Winter habitat use and coho salmon and steelhead trout smolt production will also be emphasized.
Wolfe, John (Mount Hood National Forest, Clackamas River Ranger District, Estacada, OR); Everest, Fred H. (Oregon State University, Pacific Northwest Forest and Range Experiment Station, Corvallis, OR); Heller, David A. (Mount Hood National Forest, Gresham, OR)
Habitat fragmentation may change local climatic conditions leading to altered selection regimes for life-history traits in small ectotherms, including several insects. We investigated temperature-related performance in terms of fitness among populations of the woodland butterfly Pararge aegeria (L.) originating from populations of a closed, continuous woodland landscape versus populations of an open, highly fragmented agricultural landscape in central Belgium. Female fecundity and longevity were evaluated in a temperature-gradient experiment. As predicted, females of woodland landscape origin reached higher maximum daily fecundity and lifetime number of eggs than did agricultural landscape females at low ambient temperatures, but this reversed at high ambient temperature. Egg weight decreased with temperature, and eggs of woodland butterflies were smaller. Contrary to what is generally assumed, remaining thorax mass was a better predictor of lifetime reproductive output than was abdomen mass. Since we used the F2 generation from wild-caught females reared under common garden conditions, the observed effects are likely to rely on intrinsic, heritable variation. Our results suggest that differential selection regimes associated with different landscapes intervene by intraspecific variation in the response of a butterfly to variation in ambient temperature, and may thus be helpful when making predictions of future impacts on how wild populations respond to environmental conditions under a global change scenario, with increasing temperatures and fragmented landscapes.
Habitat fragmentation may change local climatic conditions leading to altered selection regimes for life-history traits in small ectotherms, including several insects. We investigated temperature-related performance in terms of fitness among populations of the woodland butterfly Pararge aegeria (L.) originating from populations of a closed, continuous woodland landscape versus populations of an open, highly fragmented agricultural landscape in central Belgium. Female fecundity and longevity were evaluated in a temperature-gradient experiment. As predicted, females of woodland landscape origin reached higher maximum daily fecundity and lifetime number of eggs than did agricultural landscape females at low ambient temperatures, but this reversed at high ambient temperature. Egg weight decreased with temperature, and eggs of woodland butterflies were smaller. Contrary to what is generally assumed, remaining thorax mass was a better predictor of lifetime reproductive output than was abdomen mass. Since we used the F2 generation from wild-caught females reared under common garden conditions, the observed effects are likely to rely on intrinsic, heritable variation. Our results suggest that differential selection regimes associated with different landscapes intervene by intraspecific variation in the response of a butterfly to variation in ambient temperature, and may thus be helpful when making predictions of future impacts on how wild populations respond to environmental conditions under a global change scenario, with increasing temperatures and fragmented landscapes. PMID:16024390
Background The potential role hybridisation in adaptive radiation and the evolution of new lineages has received much recent attention. Hybridisation between roach (Rutilus rutilus L.) and bream (Abramis brama L.) is well documented throughout Europe, however hybrids in Ireland occur at an unprecedented frequency, often exceeding that of both parental species. Utilising an integrated approach, which incorporates geometric morphometrics, life history and molecular genetic analyses we identify the levels and processes of hybridisation present, while also determining the direction of hybridisation, through the analysis of mitochondrial DNA. Results The presence of F2 hybrids was found to be unlikely from the studied populations, although significant levels of backcrossing, involving both parental taxa was observed in some lakes. Hybridisation represents a viable conduit for introgression of genes between roach and bream. The vast majority of hybrids in all populations studied exhibited bream mitochondrial DNA, indicating that bream are maternal in the majority of crosses. Conclusions The success of roach × bream hybrids in Ireland is not due to a successful self reproducing lineage. The potential causes of widespread hybridisation between both species, along with the considerations regarding the role of hybridisation in evolution and conservation, are also discussed.
American marten (Martes americana) are associated with late-successional, coniferous forests throughout much of their range. In the northeastern US, however, marten also occur in forests dominated by mid-successional, mixed coniferous–deciduous and deciduous stands. Structural attributes other than forest-stand age and dominant overstory type may be important determinants of habitat quality for marten. To identify structural conditions associated with patterns of
Pinpointing the factors that alter the population viability of long-lived organisms, such as perennial plants, is especially\\u000a useful for informing conservation management policies for threatened and endangered species. In this study, I used 4 years\\u000a of demographic data on rare plant Polemonium vanbruntiae (Eastern Jacob’s ladder, Polemoniaceae) to determine how white-tailed deer herbivory and habitat type (wet meadow and forest\\u000a seep)
Watershed land use in suburban areas can affect stream biota through degradation of instream habitat, water quality, and riparian\\u000a vegetation. By monitoring stream biotic communities in various geographic regions, we can better understand and conserve our\\u000a watershed ecosystems. The objective of this study was to examine the relationship between watershed land use and the integrity\\u000a of benthic invertebrate communities in
Suzanne M. Lussier; Sara N. da Silva; Michael Charpentier; James F. Heltshe; Susan M. Cormier; Donald J. Klemm; Marnita Chintala; Saro Jayaraman
Investigations of Mars as a potential location for life often make the assumption that where there are habitats, they will contain organisms. However, the observation of the ubiquitous distribution of life in habitable environments on the Earth does not imply the presence of life in martian habitats. Although uninhabited habitats are extremely rare on the Earth, a lack of a productive photosynthetic biosphere on Mars to generate organic carbon and oxygen, thus providing a rapidly available redox couple for energy acquisition by life and/or a lack of connectivity between habitats potentially increases the scope and abundance of uninhabited habitats for much of the geological history of the planet. Uninhabited habitats could have existed on Mars from the Noachian to the present-day in impact hydrothermal systems, megaflood systems, lacustrine environments, transient melted permafrost, gullies and local regions of volcanic activity; and there may be evidence for them in martian meteorites. Uninhabited habitats would provide control habitats to investigate the role of biology in planetary-scale geochemical processes on the Earth and they would provide new constraints on the habitability of Mars. Future robotic craft and samples returned from Mars will be able to directly show if uninhabited habitats exist or existed on Mars.
Cockell, Charles S.; Balme, Matt; Bridges, John C.; Davila, Alfonso; Schwenzer, Susanne P.
The effects of streamflows on temporal variation in stream habitat were analyzed from the data collected 6-11 years apart at 38 sites across the United States. Multiple linear regression was used to assess the variation in habitat caused by streamflow at the time of sampling and high flows between sampling. In addition to flow variables, the model also contained geomorphic and land use factors. The regression model was statistically significant (p < 0.05; R 2 = 0.31-0.46) for 5 of 14 habitat variables: mean wetted stream depth, mean bankfull depth, mean wetted stream width, coefficient of variation of wetted stream width, and the percent frequency of bank erosion. High flows between samples accounted for about 16% of the total variation in the frequency of bank erosion. Streamflow at the time of sampling was the main source of variation in mean stream depth and contributed to the variation in mean stream width and the frequency of bank erosion. Urban land use (population change) accounted for over 20% of the total variation in mean bankfull depth, 15% of the total variation in the coefficient of variation of stream width, and about 10% of the variation in mean stream width. ?? 2007 American Water Resources Association.
The aim of this paper was to assess the influence of tamarisk shrubs on soil fertility, salinity and nematode communities in various habitats located in an arid desert-oasis region in northwest China. Three habitats were studied: sand dune, riparian zone and saline meadow, where tamarisk shrubs have been established in recent decades in order to vegetation restoration used as desertification control and saline land rehabilitation projects and become the dominant plant community. The parameters measured include soil organic carbon (SOC), total nitrogen, available phosphorus (P) and potassium (K), pH, salt component, and nematode community characteristics. Enrichment ratios (a comparison of the soil measurements between soils under canopy and in the open interspaces) for soil nutrients and salinity were used to evaluate fertility and salinity islands underneath the tamarisk shrubs. The soil nematode community was used as a biological indicator of soil condition. SOC and available P and K were higher beneath the plant canopy than in the open interspaces outside that canopy. The enrichment ratios for SOC and nutrients were highest for the sand dune habitat and tamarisk shrubs clearly created islands of greater salinity under the canopies. Nematode abundance per 100 g dry soil varied considerably between the locations and habitats, with the highest abundance found in sand dune and the lowest in saline meadow. A significantly higher nematode abundance and a lower trophic diversity were found in soils under the canopy compared to the soils in the open interspaces. With the exception of saline meadow, the abundance of bacterivores increased and fungivores decreased under the canopy relative to the open interspaces, and bacterivores dominated under the canopies in the sand dune and riparian habitats. The enrichment ratios for salinity were higher than for fertility, suggesting that improved soil fertility can not limit the impact of salinization beneath tamarisk shrubs. The adverse effect of salt accumulation on the soil environment should be taken into account when using tamarisk as restoration plant species, especially in saline meadow and controlling of tamarisk density should be considered when undertaking re-vegetation projects in the arid desert oasis regions.
Yong-zhong, Su; Xue-fen, Wang; Rong, Yang; Xiao, Yang; Wen-jie, Liu
The aim of this paper was to assess the influence of tamarisk shrubs on soil fertility, salinity and nematode communities in various habitats located in an arid desert-oasis region in northwest China. Three habitats were studied: sand dune, riparian zone and saline meadow, where tamarisk shrubs have been established in recent decades in order to vegetation restoration used as desertification control and saline land rehabilitation projects and become the dominant plant community. The parameters measured include soil organic carbon (SOC), total nitrogen, available phosphorus (P) and potassium (K), pH, salt component, and nematode community characteristics. Enrichment ratios (a comparison of the soil measurements between soils under canopy and in the open interspaces) for soil nutrients and salinity were used to evaluate fertility and salinity islands underneath the tamarisk shrubs. The soil nematode community was used as a biological indicator of soil condition. SOC and available P and K were higher beneath the plant canopy than in the open interspaces outside that canopy. The enrichment ratios for SOC and nutrients were highest for the sand dune habitat and tamarisk shrubs clearly created islands of greater salinity under the canopies. Nematode abundance per 100 g dry soil varied considerably between the locations and habitats, with the highest abundance found in sand dune and the lowest in saline meadow. A significantly higher nematode abundance and a lower trophic diversity were found in soils under the canopy compared to the soils in the open interspaces. With the exception of saline meadow, the abundance of bacterivores increased and fungivores decreased under the canopy relative to the open interspaces, and bacterivores dominated under the canopies in the sand dune and riparian habitats. The enrichment ratios for salinity were higher than for fertility, suggesting that improved soil fertility can not limit the impact of salinization beneath tamarisk shrubs. The adverse effect of salt accumulation on the soil environment should be taken into account when using tamarisk as restoration plant species, especially in saline meadow and controlling of tamarisk density should be considered when undertaking re-vegetation projects in the arid desert oasis regions. PMID:22610148
Yong-zhong, Su; Xue-fen, Wang; Rong, Yang; Xiao, Yang; Wen-jie, Liu
The recent population explosion along the coastal zoneof the southeast United States and the Gulf of Mexicohas accelerated the development rate of waterfrontproperty, and particularly along the Gulf Coast ofMississippi. We compared use of pristine and alteredshoreline habitat by early life-history stages of fishand crustaceans to assess the potential effects ofthis development. Monthly beam trawls were taken at13 sites along
M. S. Peterson; B. H. Comyns; J. R. Hendon; P. J. Bond; G. A. Duff
• Background and Aims In clonal plants, internode connections allow translocation of photosynthates, water, nutrients and other substances among ramets. Clonal plants form large systems that are likely to experience small-scale spatial heterogeneity. Physiological and morphological responses of Fragaria vesca to small-scale heterogeneity in soil quality were investigated, together with how such heterogeneity influences the placement of ramets. As a result of their own activities plants may modify the suitability of their habitats over time. However, most experiments on habitat selection by clonal plants have not generally considered time as an important variable. In the present study, how the foraging behaviour of clonal plants may change over time was also investigated. • Methods In a complex of environments with different heterogeneity, plant performance was determined in terms of biomass, ramet production and photosynthetic activity. To identify habitat selection, the number of ramets produced and patch where they rooted were monitored. • Key Results Parent ramets in heterogeneous environments showed significantly higher maximum and effective quantum yields of photosystem II than parents in homogeneous environments. Parents in heterogeneous environments also showed significantly higher investment in photosynthetic biomass and stolon/total biomass, produced longer stolons, and had higher mean leaf size than parents in homogeneous environments. Total biomass and number of offspring ramets were similar in both environments. However, plants in homogeneous environments showed random allocation of offspring ramets to surrounding patches, whereas plants in heterogeneous environments showed preferential allocation of offspring to higher-quality patches. • Conclusions The results suggest that F. vesca employs physiological and morphological strategies to enable efficient resource foraging in heterogeneous environments and demonstrate the benefits of physiological integration in terms of photosynthetic efficiency. The findings indicate that short-term responses cannot be directly extrapolated to the longer term principally because preferential colonization of high-quality patches means that these patches eventually show reduced quality. This highlights the importance of considering the time factor in experiments examining responses of clonal plants to heterogeneity.
We examined the impact of single-tree selective logging and fuel reduction burns on the abundance of hollow-nesting bird species at a regional scale in southeastem Queensland, Australia. Data were collected on species abundance and habitat structure of dry sclerophyll production forest at 36 sites with known logging and fire histories. Sixteen bird species were recorded with most being resident, territorial, obligate hollow nesters that used hollows that were either small (< 10 cm diameter) or very large (>18 cm diameter). Species densities were typically low, but combinations of two forest management and three habitat structural variables influenced the abundances of eight bird species in different and sometimes conflicting ways. The results suggest that habitat tree management for biodiversity in production forests cannot depend upon habitat structural characteristics alone. Management histories appear to have independent influence (on some bird species) that are distinguishable from their impacts on habitat structure per se. Rather than managing to maximize species abundances to maintain biodiversity, we may be better off managing to avoid extinctions of populations by identifying thresholds of acceptable fluctuations in populations of not only hollow-nesting birds but other forest dependent wildlife relative to scientifically valid forest management and habitat structural surrogates. PMID:12481921
The role of fecal indicator bacteria (FIB) in water quality assessment is to provide a warning of the increased risk of pathogen presence. An effective surrogate for waterborne pathogens would have similar survival characteristics in aquatic environments. Although the effect of abiotic factors such as sunlight and salinity on the survival of FIB and pathogens are becoming better understood, the effect of the indigenous microbiota is not well characterized. The influence of biotic factors on the survival of non-pathogenic Escherichia coli, Enterococcus faecalis, and E.?coli O157:H7 were compared in fresh (river) water and sediments over 5 days. Treatments were (i) disinfection (filtration of water and baking of sediments) to remove indigenous protozoa (predators) and bacteria (competitors), and (ii) kanamycin treatment to reduce competition from indigenous bacteria. The disinfection treatment significantly increased survival of E.?coli, E.?coli O157:H7 and Ent.?faecalis in the water column. In sediments, survival of FIB but not that of E.?coli O157:H7 increased in disinfected treatments, indicating that the pathogen's survival was unaffected by the natural microbiota. Location (water or sediment) influenced bacterial survival more than species/type in the disinfection experiment. In the competition experiments where only the natural bacterial flora was manipulated, the addition of kanamycin did not affect the survival of Ent.?faecalis, but resulted in greater survival of E.?coli in water and sediment. Species/type influenced survival more than the level of competition in this experiment. This study demonstrates the complexity of interactions of FIB and pathogens with indigenous microbiota and location in aquatic habitats, and argues against over-generalizing conclusions derived from experiments restricted to a particular organism or habitat. PMID:23013262
Although evolutionary change within most species is thought to occur slowly, recent studies have identified cases where evolutionary change has apparently occurred over a few generations. Anthropogenically altered environments appear particularly open to rapid evolutionary change over comparatively short time scales. Here, we consider a Pacific salmon population that may have experienced life-history evolution, in response to habitat alteration, within
John G. Williams; Richard W. Zabel; Robin S. Waples; Jeffrey A. Hutchings; William P. Connor
This brochure is intended to educate the public about the need to conserve and preserve the earth's environment (man's habitat). It contains an introduction to the ocean world and threats to coastal habitat. Photos and narrative revolve around the theme "Earth is a Marine Habitat." Sections include: "The Web of Life,""Oceans and the United…
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (DOC), Rockville, MD.
|This brochure is intended to educate the public about the need to conserve and preserve the earth's environment (man's habitat). It contains an introduction to the ocean world and threats to coastal habitat. Photos and narrative revolve around the theme "Earth is a Marine Habitat." Sections include: "The Web of Life,""Oceans and the United…
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (DOC), Rockville, MD.
The physical habitat characteristics associated with spatial distribution patterns of the freshwater mussel Pronodularia japanensis, which is used for oviposition by the Tokyo bitterling Tanakia tanago, were investigated in a small stream within a Tokyo bitterling protected area. The distribution of the mussels was found to be in an under-dispersed, non-random spatial pattern. Mussel occurrence correlated negatively with sediment softness, and positively with flow velocity, while mussel abundance was associated negatively with sediment softness and positively with sediment type (particle size). Furthermore, mussels were scarce in riverbed areas with a lack of sediment. These correlations suggest that the population dynamics of mussels and Tokyo bitterling may be influenced by changes in stream sediment conditions. To conserve the symbiosis between Tokyo bitterlings and mussels, a suitable benthic environment is required. PMID:21110716
Within the context of present and future in situ missions to Mars to investigate its habitability and to search for traces of life, we studied the habitability and traces of past life in ˜3.5 Ga-old volcanic sands deposited in littoral environments an analogue to Noachian environments on Mars. The environmental conditions on Noachian Mars (4.1-3.7 Ga) and the Early Archaean (4.0-3.3 Ga) Earth were, in many respects, similar: presence of liquid water, dense CO 2 atmosphere, availability of carbon and bio-essential elements, and availability of energy. For this reason, information contained in Early Archaean terrestrial rocks concerning habitable conditions (on a microbial scale) and traces of past life are of relevance in defining strategies to be used to identify past habitats and past life on Mars. One such example is the 3.446 Ga-old Kitty's Gap Chert in the Pilbara Craton, NW. Australia. This formation consists of volcanic sediments deposited in a coastal mudflat environment and is thus a relevant analogue for sediments deposited in shallow water environments on Noachian Mars. Two main types of habitat are represented, a volcanic (lithic) habitat and planar stabilized sediment surfaces in sunlit shallow waters. The sediments hosted small (<1 ?m in size) microorganisms that formed colonies on volcanic particle surfaces and in pore waters within the volcanic sediments, as well as biofilms on stabilised sediment surfaces. The microorganisms included coccoids, filaments and rare rod-shaped organisms associated with microbial polymer (EPS). The preserved microbial community was apparently dominated by chemotrophic organisms but some locally transported filaments and filamentous mat fragments indicate that possibly photosynthetic mats formed nearby. Both microorganisms and sediments were silicified during very early diagenesis. There are no macroscopic traces of fossilised life in these volcanic sediments and sophisticated instrumentation and specialized sample preparation techniques are required to establish the biogenicity and syngenicity of the traces of past life. The fact that the traces of life are cryptic, and the necessity of using sophisticated instrumentation, reinforces the challenges and difficulties of in situ robotic missions to identify past life on Mars. We therefore recommend the return of samples from Mars to Earth for a definitive search for traces of life.
Habitat use has important consequences for avian reproductive success and survival. In coastal areas with recreational activity, human disturbance may limit use of otherwise suitable habitat. Snowy plovers Charadrius nivosus have a patchy breeding distrib...
The aim of this paper is to reach the following objectives: to identify the determinants that have significant influence on life expectancy for European countries, in 2007; to measure the significance level of the influence of the determinants on life expectancy; to classify the European countries according to life expectancy and its determining factors. The research is based on the
A literature review encompassing habitat and species characteristics of the bluegill (Lepomis macrochirus) is followed by a discussion of the relationship of habitat variables and life requisites of this species. These data re then incorporated into Habitat Suitability Index models for the bluegill. This is one in a series of publications describing habitat requirements of selected fish and wildlife species. Numerous literature sources have been consulted in an effort to consolidate scientific data on species habitat relationships. These data have subsequently been synthesized into Habitat Suitability Index (HSI) models. the models are based on suitability indices formulated for variables found to affect the life cycle and survival of the species. The models are designed to be modified to evaluate specific habitat alterations using the HSI model building techniques presented in the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service's Habitat Evaluation Procedures.
Stuber, Robert J.; Gebhart, Glen; Maughan, O. Eugene
Theory suggests that habitat structure and population density profoundly influence the phenotypic development of animals. Here, we predicted that reduced rearing density and increased structural complexity promote food search ability, anti-predator response and the ability to forage on novel prey, all behavioural skills important for surviving in the wild. Brown trout were reared at three densities (conventional hatchery density, a fourth of conventional hatchery density and natural density) in tanks with or without structure. Treatment effects on behaviour were studied on trout fry and parr, whereupon 20 trout from each of the six treatment groups were released in an enclosed natural stream and recaptured after 36 days. Fry reared at natural density were faster to find prey in a maze. Moreover, parr reared at natural density were faster to eat novel prey, and showed more efficient anti-predator behaviour than fish reared at higher densities. Furthermore, parr reared at reduced densities were twice as likely to survive in the stream as trout reared at high density. In contrast, we found no clear treatment effects of structure. These novel results suggest that reduced rearing densities can facilitate the development of behavioural life skills in captive animals, thereby increasing their contribution to natural production.
Exposed riverine sediments (ERS) are frequently inundated areas of relatively un-vegetated, fluvially deposited sediment (sand, silt, gravel and pebble). These habitats provide an important interface allowing the interaction of aquatic and terrestrial habitats and species. ERS are highly valuable for many rare and specialist invertebrates particularly beetles. Within an area of ERS, beetle species richness tends to be highest along the water's edge. This higher species richness may be linked to: (1) the availability of food items in the form of emerging and stranded aquatic invertebrates and (2) favourable physical microhabitat conditions in terms of temperature and moisture. This paper explores the role of microclimate and food availability by creating areas of ‘water's edge' habitat in the centre of a gravel bar. Typically these areas are drier, reach higher temperatures and devoid of emerging aquatic invertebrate prey. Four 2m x 2m experimental plots were created: one wet plot, one wet- fed plot, one dry-fed plot and one dry plot (control). These plots were each replicated on three separate areas of ERS. Sixty colour marked ERS specialist ground beetles (Bembidion atrocaeruleum) were released into each plot to monitor beetle persistence and movement on and between plots. The plots were maintained wet using a capillary pump system, and fed with dried blood worms for 30 days. Sediment temperature (0.05 m depth) was measured at 15 minute intervals and spot measurements of surface temperature were taken daily. A hand search was carried out on 25% of each plot after 7, 14, 21 and 30 days. Significant temperature differences were observed between the wet and dry sediment and air temperature. The wet plots on average were 1.8oC cooler than the dry plots and had a reduced temperature range. Both wet and dry sediments remained significantly warmer than air temperature. The wet and wet-fed plots yielded significantly greater numbers of beetles and marked beetles than the dry and dry-fed plots; however, no significant difference was found between the wet and wet-fed plots. These results indicate that microhabitat in terms of increased moisture and lower temperature is the driving factor influencing beetle distribution and movement. Food alone is not as influential. ERS carabid beetles may be using lower temperatures and increased moisture as a cue for aquatic food availability.
Scleractinian corals vary in response to rapid shifts in the marine environment and changes in reef community structure post-disturbance reveal a clear relationship between coral performance and morphology. With exceptions, massive corals are thought to be more tolerant and branching corals more vulnerable to changing environmental conditions, notably thermal stress. The typical responses of massive and branching coral taxa, respectively, are well documented; however, the biological and functional characteristics that underpin this variation are not well understood. We address this gap by comparing multiple biological attributes that are correlated with skeletal architecture in two perforate (having porous skeletal matrices with intercalating tissues) and two imperforate coral species (Montipora aequituberculata, Porites lobata, Pocillopora damicornis, and Seriatopora hystrix) representing three morphotypes. Our results reveal inherent biological heterogeneity among corals and the potential for perforate skeletons to create complex, three-dimensional internal habitats that impact the dynamics of the symbiosis. Patterns of tissue thickness are correlated with the concentration of symbionts within narrow regions of tissue in imperforate corals versus broad distribution throughout the larger tissue area in perforate corals. Attributes of the perforate and environmentally tolerant P. lobata were notable, with tissues ?5 times thicker than in the sensitive, imperforate species P. damicornis and S. hystrix. Additionally, P. lobata had the lowest baseline levels of superoxide and Symbiodinium that provisioned high levels of energy. Given our observations, we hypothesize that the complexity of the visually obscured internal environment has an impact on host-symbiont dynamics and ultimately on survival, warranting further scientific investigation. PMID:23992772
Yost, Denise M; Wang, Li-Hsueh; Fan, Tung-Yung; Chen, Chii-Shiarng; Lee, Raymond W; Sogin, Emilia; Gates, Ruth D
Recovery of an ecosystem following disturbance can be severely hampered or even shift altogether when a point disturbance exceeds a certain spatial threshold. Such scale-dependent dynamics may be caused by preemptive competition, but may also result from diminished self-facilitation due to weakened ecosystem engineering. Moreover, disturbance can facilitate colonization by engineering species that alter abiotic conditions in ways that exacerbate stress on the original species. Consequently, establishment of such counteracting engineers might reduce the spatial threshold for the disturbance, by effectively slowing recovery and increasing the risk for ecosystem shifts to alternative states. We tested these predictions in an intertidal mudflat characterized by a two-state mosaic of hummocks (humps exposed during low tide) dominated by the sediment-stabilizing seagrass Zostera noltii) and hollows (low-tide waterlogged depressions dominated by the bioturbating lugworm Arenicola marina). In contrast to expectations, seagrass recolonized both natural and experimental clearings via lateral expansion and seemed unaffected by both clearing size and lugworm addition. Near the end of the growth season, however, an additional disturbance (most likely waterfowl grazing and/or strong hydrodynamics) selectively impacted recolonizing seagrass in the largest (1 m2) clearings (regardless of lugworm addition), and in those medium (0.25 m2) clearings where lugworms had been added nearly five months earlier. Further analyses showed that the risk for the disturbance increased with hollow size, with a threshold of 0.24 m2. Hollows of that size were caused by seagrass removal alone in the largest clearings, and by a weaker seagrass removal effect exacerbated by lugworm bioturbation in the medium clearings. Consequently, a sufficiently large disturbance increased the vulnerability of recolonizing seagrass to additional disturbance by weakening seagrass engineering effects (sediment stabilization). Meanwhile, the counteracting ecosystem engineering (lugworm bioturbation) reduced that threshold size. Therefore, scale-dependent interactions between habitat-mediated facilitation, competition and disturbance seem to maintain the spatial two-state mosaic in this ecosystem.
Eklof, Johan S.; van der Heide, Tjisse; Donadi, Serena; van der Zee, Els M.; O'Hara, Robert; Eriksson, Britas Klemens
The activity pattern of intertidal crabs is influenced by factors that usually change rhythmically following tidal and/or diel cycles, and is often associated with the use of refuges. The movement activity of the burrowing crab Neohelice granulata was compared among three populations from SW Atlantic coastal areas where they face different tidal regimes, water salinities, substrata and biological factors. At each site, we examined the seasonal activity of the crabs (individuals collected in pitfall traps) in two types of habitat: mudflat and salt marsh. The working hypothesis is that the activity would vary according to the diverse environmental conditions encountered at geographical and local scales. Crab activity varied between sites and seasons showing to be more intense when habitats were covered by water. The most active groups were large males, followed by large non-ovigerous females. Ovigerous females were almost inactive. Most crabs were near or inside burrows at low tides in Mar Chiquita and Bahía Blanca, but they were active at both low and high tides in San Antonio during spring and summer. N. granulata were active in a wide range of temperatures: from 10 to 37 °C at low tides and at temperatures as low as 2 °C when covered by water. Differences of activity between mudflat and salt marsh varied among sites depending on flooding frequencies. Movement activity of N. granulata varied both in space and in time; crabs move under very different abiotic conditions (e.g., low or high tide, daylight or night, low and high temperature) and their movement may also be prevented or elicited by biotic conditions like burrow complexity, food quality and predation pressure. The wide set of conditions under which N. granulata can be active may explain why this is the only semiterrestrial crab inhabiting latitudes higher than 40°S in South America.
The objectives of this study were to examine the interactions of the riparian setting (logged vs forested) and prey availability on the prey capture efficiency and growth of cutthroat trout, and to determine if the riparian setting influences the impact of trout predation on drift composition. Short-term relative growth rates of cutthroat trout, experimentally confined in stream pools, were greater
While research and implementation of upstream migration solutions is extensive, and indeed often successful, full scale restoration projects and investigations of their influence on fish biology are rare in Norway. Acid deposition in Norwegian catchments peaked in the 1980's and resulted in both chronically and episodically acidified rivers and Salmonids in River Nidelva, one of the largest cathments in southern
Multiple age-classes of Bonneville cutthroat trout Oncorhynchus clarkii utah throughout two Rocky Mountain watersheds were influenced by interactions among geomorphology, land use, activity by beavers Castor canadensis, and drought. Age-0 trout were present in a limited portion of the watersheds, and their distribution became increasingly restricted as drought conditions developed over a 3-year period. The Coal Creek watershed (including Huff
This field activity allows students to discover the impacts of habitat fragmentation on air and soil temperature, canopy cover, and invasive species presence. It is a versatile activity that can be conducted on a typical campus and modified based on resources available.
The influence of spatial heterogeneity on the population dynamics of a naturally occurring invertebrate host-pathogen system\\u000a was experimentally investigated. At ten week intervals over a two year period, I quantified the spatial distribution of natural\\u000a populations of the terrestrial isopod crustacean Porcellio scaber infected with the isopod iridescent virus (IIV). During the seasonally dry periods of summer and early fall
Lianas and other climbers are important ecological and structural components of forest communities. Like other plants, their abundance in a given habitat depends on a variety of factors, such as light, soil moisture and nutrients. However, since lianas require external support, host tree characteristics also influence their distribution. Lianas are conspicuous life forms in tropical regions, but in temperate areas,
Stacey A. Leicht-Young; Noel B. Pavlovic; Krystalynn J. Frohnapple; Ralph Grundel
Background When studying the genetic structure of human populations, the role of cultural factors may be difficult to ascertain due to a lack of formal models. Linguistic diversity is a typical example of such a situation. Patrilocality, on the other hand, can be integrated into a biological framework, allowing the formulation of explicit working hypotheses. The present study is based on the assumption that patrilocal traditions make the hypervariable region I of the mtDNA a valuable tool for the exploration of migratory dynamics, offering the opportunity to explore the relationships between genetic and linguistic diversity. We studied 85 Niger-Congo-speaking patrilocal populations that cover regions from Senegal to Central African Republic. A total of 4175 individuals were included in the study. Results By combining a multivariate analysis aimed at investigating the population genetic structure, with a Bayesian approach used to test models and extent of migration, we were able to detect a stepping-stone migration model as the best descriptor of gene flow across the region, with the main discontinuities corresponding to forested areas. Conclusions Our analyses highlight an aspect of the influence of habitat variation on human genetic diversity that has yet to be understood. Rather than depending simply on geographic linear distances, patterns of female genetic variation vary substantially between savannah and rainforest environments. Our findings may be explained by the effects of recent gene flow constrained by environmental factors, which superimposes on a background shaped by pre-agricultural peopling.
Land development pressures that threaten habitat core areas and connectivity are intensifying across the nation and extending beyond urbanized areas in the form of rural residential development. This is particularly true in the temperate forests of the northeastern U.S. If current trends continue, increased conversion and fragmentation of many roadless areas by exurban development is likely, exacerbating the likelihood of local species extinctions and complicating efforts to preserve intact functional ecosystems. We used a suite of nationally available data sets to identify roadless areas of the northeastern USA including impervious cover (urbanized and developed areas), road networks (and derived density), and forest cover (canopy density). We analyzed the influence of different types of unimproved roads and amount of forest cover on identification of the extent and configuration of roadless areas, and then assessed these areas in terms of land ownership (public, private) and management (parks, refuges, multi-use, etc.). We also derived patch connectivity metrics using a graph theory approach, making use of cost surfaces that accounted for the above variables and associated landscape metrics. Our results suggest a starting point for the construction of a more comprehensive and ecologically functional reserve network for the region. Because the data sets we used are available nationally, similar analyses could be conducted to assess the extent and status of roadless areas nationally or for other specific regions.
Previous research describing the distribution of sympatric native and non-native trout have centered on mountain stream habitats where gradient and elevation are more pronounced. To determine if this pattern is similar in other stream habitats, we described the distribution of sympatric brook (Salvelinus fontinalis), brown (Salmo trutta), and rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) in a low gradient, low elevation, spring-fed Minnesota
Wildfire is an important natural process in many stream ecosystems, but the ability of fish to respond to wildfire-related disturbances is increasingly constrained by human activities that fragment and degrade stream habitats. In this study, we used molecular genetic markers (nuclear microsatellites) to examine the effects of wildfire and related disturbances along with habitat fragmentation on native rainbow trout in
Helen Neville; Jason Dunham; Amanda Rosenberger; John Umek; Brooke Nelson
Food consumption plays an important role in health, and understanding the process of food choice is central to health promotion. A person's life-course transitions and trajectories (persistent thoughts, feelings, strategies, and actions over the lifespan) are fundamental influences on the development of his or her personal system for making food choices. This analysis used a life-course perspective to examine influences
Carol M. Devine; Margaret Connors; Carole A. Bisogni; Jeffery Sobal
A method based on the orthotropic elastic finite element analysis (FEA) has been presented to analyze the fatigue life of cooled turbine blades made of nickel-based single crystal superalloy (SC). Special attention was put on the influence of the crystallographic orientations on the strength and fatigue life of SC cooled turbine blades. It is shown that, due to the influence
Objective: The purpose of this study is to examine the influence of adverse life experiences and mood disorders on delayed presentation of breast cancer. Methods: One hundred fifty-eight patients were interviewed 5 months after diagnosis to assess the prevalence of adverse life events and difficulties using the Bedford College Life Events and Difficulties Schedule, and psychiatric morbidity using the Structured
C. C Burgess; A. J Ramirez; P Smith; M. A Richards
Studies to understand litter processes and soil properties are useful for maintaining pastureland productivity as animal husbandry is the dominant occupation in the hot arid region. We aimed to quantify how micro-habitats and combinations of litters of the introduced leguminous tree Colophospermum mopane with the grasses Cenchrus ciliaris or Lasiurus sindicus influence decomposition rate and soil nutrient changes in a hot desert silvopasture system. Litter bags with tree litter alone (T), tree + C. ciliaris in 1:1 ratio (TCC) and tree + L. sindicus 1:1 ratio (TLS) litter were placed inside and outside of the C. mopane canopy and at the surface, 3-7 cm and 8-12 cm soil depths. We examined litter loss, soil fauna abundance, organic carbon (SOC), total (TN), ammonium (NH4-N) and nitrate (NO3-N) nitrogen, phosphorus (PO4-P), soil respiration (SR) and dehydrogenase activity (DHA) in soil adjacent to each litter bag. After 12 months exposure, the mean residual litter was 40.2% of the initial value and annual decomposition rate constant (k) was 0.98 (0.49-1.80). Highest (p < 0.01) litter loss was in the first four months, when faunal abundance, SR, DHA and humidity were highest but it decreased with time. These variables and k were highest under the tree canopies. The litter loss and k were highest (p < 0.01) in TLS under the tree canopy, but the reverse trend was found for litter outside the canopy. Faunal abundance, litter loss, k, nutrient release and biochemical activities were highest (p < 0.01) in the 3-7 cm soil layer. Positive correlations of litter loss and soil fauna abundance with soil nutrients, SR and DHA demonstrated the interactions of litter quality and micro-habitats together with soil fauna on increased soil fertility. These results suggest that a Colophospermum mopane and L. sindicus silvopasture system best promotes faunal abundance, litter decomposition and soil fertility. The properties of these species and the associated faunal resources may be utilised as an ecosystem-restoration strategy in designing a silvopasture system. This may help to control land degradation and increase productivity sustainably in this environment.
The terrestrial record is punctuated by major clustered asteroid and comet impacts, which affected the appearance, episodic extinction, radiation, and reemergence of biogenic habitats. Here I examine manifest and potential extraterrestrial impact effects on the onset and evolution of Archaean to early Proterozoic (3.8- 2.4-Ga) habitats, with reference to the Pilbara (Western Australia) and Kaapvaal (eastern Transvaal) Cratons. The range of extraterrestrial connections of microbial habitats includes cometary contribution of volatiles and amino acids, sterilization by intense asteroid and comet bombardment, supernova and solar flares, and impacttriggered volcanic and hydrothermal activity, tectonic modifications, and tsunami effects. Whereas cometary dusting of planetary atmosphere may contribute littlemodi fied extraterrestrial organic components, large impact effects result in both incineration of organic molecules and shock synthesis of new components. From projected impact incidence, ~1.3% of craters >100 km and ~3.8% of craters >250 km have to date been identified for post-3.8-Ga events, due to the mm-scale of impact spherules and the difficulty in their identification in the field - only the tip of the iceberg is observed regarding the effects of large impacts on the Precambrian biosphere, to date no direct or genetic relations between impacts and the onset or extinction of early Precambrian habitats can be confirmed. However, potential relations include (1) ~3.5-3.43 Ga - intermittent appearance of stromatolite-like structures of possible biogenic origin on felsic volcanic shoals representing intervals between mafic volcanic episodes in rapidly subsiding basins, a period during which asteroid impacts are recorded; (2) ~3.26-3.225 Ga - impact-triggered crustal transformation from mafic-ultramafic volcanic environments to rifted troughs dominated by felsic volcanics and turbidites, marked by a major magmatic peak, resulting in extensive hydrothermal activity and development of sulphate-reducing microbes around anoxic submarine fumarole ("black smoker") environments; (3) ~2.63-2.47 Ga - impact-triggered tsunami effects in oxygenated carbonate-dominated epicontinental and intracratonic environments (Hamersley and Transvaal basins); (4) in at least three instances onset of ferruginous sedimentation closely following major impact events, possibly signifying hydrothermal Fe-enrichment related to impact-triggered volcanic activity. Due to limitations on the phylogenic speciation of Precambrian stromatolite and bacterial populations, major impact-extinction-radiation relations are identified only from the late Proterozoic, beginning with the ~0.
Bull trout Salvelinus confluentus exhibit a number of life history strategies. Stream-resident bull trout complete their life cycle in their natal tributaries. Migratory bull trout spawn in tributary streams where juvenile fish usually spend from one to four years before migrating to either a larger river (fluvial) or lake (adfluvial) where they rear before returning to the tributary stream to
Alan R. Hemmingsen; Stephanie L. Gunckel; Paul M. Sankovich; Philip J. Howell
This is one of a series of publications that provide information on the habitat requirements of selected fish and wildlife species. Literature describing the relationship between habitat variables related to life requisites and habitat suitability for the Smallmouth buffalo (Ictiobus bubalus) are synthesized. These data are subsequently used to develop Habitat Suitability (HIS) models. The HSI models are designed to provide information that can be used in impact assessment and habitat management.
This is one of a series of publications that provide information on the habitat requirements of selected fish and wildlife species. Literature describing the relationship between habitat variables related to life requisites and habitat suitability for the Black bullhead (Ictalurus melas) are synthesized. These data are subsequently used to develop Habitat Suitability (HIS) models. The HSI models are designed to provide information that can be used in impact assessment and habitat management.
This is one of a series of publications that provide information on the habitat requirements of selected fish and wildlife species. Literature describing the relationship between habitat variables related to life requisites and habitat suitability for the Common carp (Cyprinus carpio) are synthesized. These data are subsequently used to develop Habitat Suitability (HIS) models. The HSI models are designed to provide information that can be used in impact assessment and habitat management.
This is one of a series of publications that provide information on the habitat requirements of selected fish and wildlife species. Literature describing the relationship between habitat variables related to life requisites and habitat suitability for the Green sunfish (Lepomis cyanellus) are synthesized. These data are subsequently used to develop Habitat Suitability (HIS) models. The HSI models are designed to provide information that can be used in impact assessment and habitat management.
Stuber, Robert J.; Gebhart, Glen; Maughan, O. Eugene
Channelized headwater streams are common throughout agricultural watersheds in the Midwestern United States. Understanding the relative impacts of agricultural contaminants and habitat degradation on the aquatic biota within agricultural headwater streams will provide information that can assist wi...
EPA's Western Ecology Division is undertaking research addressing catchment-scale dynamics of freshwater habitat productivity for native fishes. Through partnerships with state and federal agencies and private landowners, current field efforts focus on linkages among stream chemi...
The erection of dams alters habitat and longitudinal stream connectivity for migratory diadromous and potamodromous fish species\\u000a and interrupts much of organismal exchange between freshwater and marine ecosystems. In the US, this disruption began with\\u000a colonial settlement in the seventeenth century but little quantitative assessment of historical impact on accessible habitat\\u000a and population size has been conducted. We used published
Desiccation resistance and water balance were examined in the adults of seven trogid species, which differed both in body\\u000a size and in the habitats from which they were collected. Body water contents (51–58% fresh mass) and desiccation rates at\\u000a 27?°C (0.00026–0.00093 g?h?1) in these species were very similar to those of unrelated, similar-sized beetles from arid habitats. The keratin beetles
This work focuses on the numerical modeling of Columbia River estuarine circulation and associated modeling-supported analyses conducted as an integral part of a multi-disciplinary and multi-institutional effort led by NOAA's Northwest Fisheries Science Center. The overall effort is aimed at: (1) retrospective analyses to reconstruct historic bathymetric features and assess effects of climate and river flow on the extent and distribution of shallow water, wetland and tidal-floodplain habitats; (2) computer simulations using a 3-dimensional numerical model to evaluate the sensitivity of salmon rearing opportunities to various historical modifications affecting the estuary (including channel changes, flow regulation, and diking of tidal wetlands and floodplains); (3) observational studies of present and historic food web sources supporting selected life histories of juvenile salmon as determined by stable isotope, microchemistry, and parasitology techniques; and (4) experimental studies in Grays River in collaboration with Columbia River Estuary Study Taskforce (CREST) and the Columbia Land Trust (CLT) to assess effects of multiple tidal wetland restoration projects on various life histories of juvenile salmon and to compare responses to observed habitat-use patterns in the mainstem estuary. From the above observations, experiments, and additional modeling simulations, the effort will also (5) examine effects of alternative flow-management and habitat-restoration scenarios on habitat opportunity and the estuary's productive capacity for juvenile salmon. The underlying modeling system is part of the SATURN1coastal-margin observatory . SATURN relies on 3D numerical models [2, 3] to systematically simulate and understand baroclinic circulation in the Columbia River estuary-plume-shelf system [4-7] (Fig. 1). Multi-year simulation databases of circulation are produced as an integral part of SATURN, and have multiple applications in understanding estuary/plume variability, the role of the estuary and plume on salmon survival, and functional changes in the estuary-plume system in response to climate and human activities.
Baptista, António M. [Oregon Health & Science University, Science and Technology Center for Coastal Margin Observation and Prediction
Astrobiology today has a strong anticipatory focus, and efforts are concentrated on determining the factors behind the potential presence, type, and distribution of life in our solar system and beyond. The critical requirements for life: a liquid solvent, and electron acceptors and donors for metabolism, guide the search, and is a central concept to the location and extent of circumstellar habitable zones. For our own solar system, however, the search can be widened beyond this narrow band of 'earth-like' conditions, and our increasing knowledge of the capabilities of life, as well as higher resolution imaging and analysis of solar system bodies, warrants the application of a more expansive habitable niche approach. The Saturnian and Jovian satellite systems are ideal for the application of this concept, and are here used to demonstrate how a collection of system characteristics may be used to assess the potential for individual bodies to harbour life. Europa, Callisto, and Ganymede in the Jovian system, and Enceladus, Titan, Hyperion, Iapetus, and Hyperion in the Saturnian system all possess characters that could make them conducive to the origin or maintenance of life upon or within them. The possibility of some of these bodies containing extraterrestrial life is reflected in future explorative missions.
Tropical ferns are characterized by a high diversity of plant life forms, yet there have been few large-scale studies on the functional ecology of these different forms. We examined epiphytic, hemiepiphytic, and terrestrial ferns, and asked whether there are differences in the mineral nutrition and water relations across different growth forms of a diverse assemblage of species. We measured specific leaf area, leaf nitrogen concentrations, and natural abundance of the stable isotopes delta(15)N and delta(13)C of 48 fern species from 36 genera across a wide range of habitats at La Selva Biological Station in Costa Rica. We found that epiphytes were significantly different in all measured variables from hemiepiphytic and terrestrial species, and that terrestrial and soil-rooted hemiepiphytes were indistinguishable in all variables excluding SLW. A multivariate analysis revealed that aspects of N nutrition were the most reliable at separating epiphytic species from other life forms. Our study demonstrates that the natural abundance of both C and N as well as N relations and leaf morphology are useful when segregating different plant life forms, and that the N cycle of epiphytic and terrestrial habitats function independently from each other. PMID:17415590
Watkins, James E; Rundel, Philip W; Cardelús, Catherine L
The objective of the present work is to show the influence of machining and anodizing processes on fatigue life of alloy 7010-T7451. Two different cutting conditions were employed to obtain two different initial surface roughnesses. Degreasing, pickling and anodizing were then carried out. In the as machined condition, surface roughness is clearly effective in reducing fatigue life in this material.
The influence of strain estimating techniques on life predictions using the local strain approach has been studied. Strain prediction methods included Neuber's rule in its original form and a generalized form, the equivalent strain energy density method, and the finite element analysis using ABAQUS code. Life predictions were made using the local strain method for two aluminium coupons (7050-T7451), one
Evidently Tuberculosis remains a major threat to public health globally. Latterly academia with exertion dedication has tried to extract the health related quality of life of the people with active tuberculosis. Meager studies in Pakistan have tried to explore the factors that influences patient’s health related quality of life besides the disease. The intentions of this study were to scrutinize
Sarwar Awan Masood; Waqas Muhammad; Amir Aslam Muhammad
This study examined organizational factors affecting the impact of shiftwork on work life conflict and subjective health. A model was proposed in which support from supervisors, support from colleagues, and team identity influence time-based work life conflict through two mediating variables: team climate and control over the working environment. Reduced conflict, in turn, produces enhanced psychological well-being and diminished physical
Anne Pisarski; Sandra A. Lawrence; Philip Bohle; Christine Brook
|Explores the creation of "An Extraordinary Life: The Story of a Monarch Butterfly." Selects this book because of the unprecedented decision to give the 1998 Orbis Pictus Award to both the author and the illustrator for a work in which text and illustration melded together. Develops an event model, revealing the creation of this illustrated…
BACKGROUND: With effective treatment strategies, the focus of tuberculosis (TB) management has shifted from the prevention of mortality to the avoidance of morbidity. As such, there should be an increased focus on quality of life (QoL) experienced by individuals being treated for TB. The objective of our study was to identify areas of QoL that are affected by active TB
Carlo A Marra; Fawziah Marra; Victoria C Cox; Anita Palepu; J Mark Fitzgerald
An experimental program was conducted to study the damaging effects of tensile and compressive prestrains on the fatigue life of nickel-base, Inconel 718 superalloy at room temperature. To establish baseline fatigue behavior, virgin specimens with a solid uniform gage section were fatigued to failure under fully-reversed strain-control. Additional specimens were prestrained to 2 percent, 5 percent, and 10 percent (engineering strains) in the tensile direction and to 2 percent (engineering strain) in the compressive direction under stroke-control, and were subsequently fatigued to failure under fully-reversed strain-control. Experimental results are compared with estimates of remaining fatigue lives (after prestraining) using three life prediction approaches: (1) the Linear Damage Rule; (2) the Linear Strain and Life Fraction Rule; and (3) the nonlinear Damage Curve Approach. The Smith-Watson-Topper parameter was used to estimate fatigue lives in the presence of mean stresses. Among the cumulative damage rules investigated, best remaining fatigue life predictions were obtained with the nonlinear Damage Curve Approach.
Introduced salmonid fishes may have affected native galaxiid fishes in New Zealand by forcing alterations in their use of spatial resources. A stream simulator was used to test the effects of juvenile brown trout (Salmo trutta) (fork length range 66–115 mm) on habitat use of inanga (Galaxias maculatus) (fork length range 51–100 mm) during autumn. The stream simulator consisted of
A spatiotemporal comparison of habitat suitability of oyster reefs for fishes and decapod crustaceans was conducted for the lower Caloosahatchee Estuary, Florida. Lift nets (1-m2) containing 5 liters (volume displacement) of oyster clusters were deployed monthly at three sites al...
The impact from transportation corridors on surrounding habitat often reaches far beyond the edge of the corridor. The altered disturbance regime in plant communities along corridor edges and vehicle traffic facilitate the spread and establishment of invasive non-native plant species. We compared the frequency of non-native plant species along highways and railways and the ability of these species to invade
We surveyed 104 potential amphibian-breeding sites in northwest Indiana for the presence and abundance of amphibians, habitat parameters, and water chemistry. Linear regression was used as an exploratory analysis, and stepwise multiple regression and ANOVA were used to model factors that best explained amphibian species richness, abundance, and number of years with breeding populations. The most important breeding site factors
Robert Brodman; Jill Ogger; Tracey Bogard; Amanda J. Long; Rachel A. Pulver; Katherine Mancuso; Denise Falk
Seasonal samples from Shark Bay on the west coast of Australia were used to determine (1) the habitats occupied by the juveniles and adults of Acanthopagrus latus in this large subtropical marine embayment and (2) the extent to which the dietary composition of this sparid is influenced by habitat type, body length and season. Sampling was undertaken in two habitat types in which A. latus was known to be abundant, namely mangrove (Avicennia marina) creeks and nearby rocky areas, the latter comprising sandstone boulders and/or limestone reefs. The mean total length ±95% CLs of A. latus was far lower in mangrove creeks, 126 ± 6.1 mm, than in rocky areas, 313 ± 4.7 mm. As A. latus attains maturity at ca. 245 mm, the juveniles of this species typically occupy mangrove areas and then, with increasing body size, move to nearshore rocky areas, where they become adults. The species composition of the food ingested by juvenile A. latus in mangrove creeks differed markedly from that of large juveniles and adults in rocky areas. Based on analyses of data for both habitat types combined, this difference was far greater than that between size classes and season, which was negligible. There were indications, however, that, overall within each habitat, the dietary composition did change seasonally, although not with body size. Acanthopagrus latus fed predominantly on mangrove material, sesarmid crabs and small gastropods in mangrove habitats, and mainly on Brachidontes ustulatus in rocky areas, where this mytilid bivalve is very abundant. The mangrove material, which contributed nearly 40% of its overall dietary volume in mangrove creeks, consisted mainly of lateral root primordia. This apparently unique food source for a teleost is presumably ingested through subsurface nipping, which would be facilitated by the mouth and dentitional characteristics of sparids. The almost total lack of correspondence in the dietary compositions of fish in the length class that was well represented in both mangrove and rocky areas illustrates the extent to which this sparid is capable of opportunistic feeding behaviour.
Platell, M. E.; Ang, H. P.; Hesp, S. A.; Potter, I. C.
|Rural students, who live in the villages of Russia, are more resolved than ever to leave their native land. Their decision is influenced by the mass media, which plays a large role in determining their views and the way they relate to the world. In this article, the author examines the influence of the mass media on the life of rural students…
|Studied the implications of being involved in either the design of changes or the application of a Quality of Work Life (QWL) change for four aspects of experienced influence. Results indicated the people who experienced the most increase in influence were those who helped design the change. (Author/RC)|
The purpose of this study was to examine the influence of the income tax laws on the mathematical model. The two principal influences of the tax laws on the economic life of construction equipment are (1) the prohibition against using double declining bal...
Intrauterine growth restriction can lead to significant long-term health consequences such as metabolic and cardiovascular\\u000a disorders, but less is known about its effects on choice and behavioral adaptation in later life. Virgin Wistar rats were\\u000a time mated and randomly assigned to receive either ad-libitum access to chow or 30% of that level of nutrition during pregnancy\\u000a to generate growth-restricted offspring.
Jason Landon; Michael Davison; Christian U. Krägeloh; Nichola M. Thompson; Jennifer L. Miles; Mark H. Vickers; Mhoyra Fraser; Bernhard H. Breier
An experimental program was conducted to study the damaging effects of tensile and compressive prestrains on the fatigue life of nickel-base, Inconel 718 superalloy at room temperature. To establish baseline fatigue behavior, virgin specimens with a solid uniform gage section were fatigued to failure under fully-reversed strain-control. Additional specimens were prestrained to 2 percent, 5 percent, and 10 percent (engineering
Gary R. Halford; Michael A. McGaw; Sreeramesh Kalluri
A study of coal ponds formed by strip mining in eastern Oklahoma included 25 ponds formed by strip mining from the Croweburg, McAlester, and Iron Post coal seams and 6 noncoal-mine ponds in the coal-mining area. Water-quality samples were collected in the spring and summer of 1985 to determine the suitability of the ponds for public water supply, aquatic life, waterfowl habitat, livestock watering, irrigation, and recreation. The rationale for water-quality criteria and the criteria used for each proposed use are discussed. The ponds were grouped by the coal seam mined or as noncoal-mine ponds, and the number of ponds from each group containing water that exceeded a given criterion is noted. Water in many of the ponds can be used for public water supplies if other sources are not available. Water in most of these ponds exceeds one or more secondary standards, but meets all primary standards. Water samples from the epilimnion (shallow strata as determined by temperature) of six ponds exceeded one or more primary standards, which are criteria protective of human health. Water samples from five of eight Iron Post ponds exceeded the selenium criterion. Water samples from all 31 ponds exceeded one or more secondary standards, which are for the protection of human welfare. The criteria most often exceeded were iron, manganese, dissolved solids, and sulfate, which are secondary standards. The criteria for iron and manganese were exceeded more frequently in the noncoal-mine ponds, whereas ponds formed by strip mining were more likely to exceed the criteria for dissolved solids and sulfate. The ponds are marginally suited for aquatic life. Water samples from the epilimnion of 18 ponds exceeded criteria protective of aquatic life. The criteria for mercury and iron were exceeded most often. Little difference was detected between mine ponds and noncoal-mine ponds. Dissolved oxygen concentrations in the hypolimnion (deepest strata) of all the ponds were less than the minimum criterion during the summer. This decreases available fish habitat and affects the type and number of benthic invertebrates. The ponds are generally well suited for use by wintering and migrating waterfowl. Thirteen of the ponds contained water that exceeded the pH, alkalinity, and selenium criteria. The noncoal-mine ponds had the largest percentage of ponds exceeding pH and alkalinity criteria. Water samples from five of eight Iron Post ponds exceeded the selenium criterion. All ponds are generally unsuitable as waterfowl habitat during the summer because of high temperatures and low dissolved oxygen. Most of the ponds are well suited for livestock watering. Water samples from the epilimnion of 29 ponds met all chemical and physical criteria. Water samples from five ponds exceeded the criteria in the hypolimnion. Mine ponds exceeded chemical and physical criteria more often than noncoal-mine ponds. All the ponds contained phytoplankton species potentially toxic to livestock. Water from most of the ponds is marginally suitable for irrigation of sensitive crops, but is more suitable for irrigation of semitolerant and tolerant crops. Most major cash crops grown in eastern Oklahoma are semitolerant and tolerant crops. Water from the epilimnion of 14 ponds was suitable for irrigation under almost all conditions. Water from the epilimnion of 20 ponds was suitable for irrigation of semitolerant crops, and water from the epilimnion of 25 ponds is suitable for irrigation of tolerant crops. The dissolved solids criterion was exceeded the most often. Most of the ponds would not be suitable for swimming. The pH criterion was exceeded in 17 ponds and turbidity restricts visibility needed for diving in 23 ponds. Little difference was detected between mine ponds and noncoal-mine ponds. Many of the ponds formed by strip mining have steep banks that may be dangerous to swimmers.
We prospectively investigated the effect of personality on sexual quality of life (SQOL) in 49 epilepsy patients (23 women). Fifteen patients had generalised epilepsy and 34 had focal epilepsy. SQOL was determined using the Derogatis Interview for Sexual Function - Self Report Inventory (DISF-SR) and personality was studied using the NEO five-factor inventory (NEO-FFI). Lower extraversion and female sex were factors associated with decreased SQOL, accounting for 22% of SQOL variance. Our results suggest that particularly introverted women with epilepsy may have an elevated risk of decreased SQOL. PMID:20497913
Mölleken, Daniela; Richter-Appelt, Hertha; Stodieck, Stefan; Bengner, Thomas
Travertine deposition occurs in streams worldwide but its effects on stream communities are poorly understood. I sampled benthic\\u000a macroinvertebrates, periphyton, and reach-scale environmental variables in coastal streams in Big Sur, central California,\\u000a USA, to determine the specific effects of travertine that occurred at some sites as well as to provide a broader assessment\\u000a of community–habitat relationships. Total density and biomass
This lesson plan is part of the DiscoverySchool.com lesson plan library for grades 6-8. Students conduct research by sampling organisms in a nearby freshwater habitat to determine how an organism's behavior and adaptation relate to its habitat, and how freshwater habitats have different characteristics depending on whether water is still or moving. Included are objectives, materials, procedures, discussion questions, evaluation ideas, suggested readings, and vocabulary. There are videos available to order which complement this lesson, an audio-enhanced vocabulary list, and links to teaching tools for making custom quizzes, worksheets, puzzles and lesson plans.
In the tropical rainforests of northern Australia, we investigated the effects of habitat fragmentation and ecological parameters on the prevalence of blood-borne parasites (Plasmodium and Haemoproteus) in bird communities. Using mist-nets on forest edges and interiors, we sampled bird communities across six study sites: 3 large fragments (20–85 ha) and 3 continuous-forest sites. From 335 mist-net captures, we recorded 28 bird species and screened 299 bird samples with PCR to amplify and detect target DNA. Of the 28 bird species sampled, 19 were infected with Plasmodium and/or Haemoproteus and 9 species were without infection. Over one third of screened birds (99 individuals) were positive for Haemoproteus and/or Plasmodium. In forest fragments, bird capture rates were significantly higher than in continuous forests, but bird species richness did not differ. Unexpectedly, we found that the prevalence of the dominant haemosporidian infection, Haemoproteus, was significantly higher in continuous forest than in habitat fragments. Further, we found that ecological traits such as diet, foraging height, habitat specialisation and distributional ranges were significantly associated with blood-borne infections.
Laurance, Susan G. W.; Jones, Dean; Westcott, David; Mckeown, Adam; Harrington, Graham; Hilbert, David W.
In the tropical rainforests of northern Australia, we investigated the effects of habitat fragmentation and ecological parameters on the prevalence of blood-borne parasites (Plasmodium and Haemoproteus) in bird communities. Using mist-nets on forest edges and interiors, we sampled bird communities across six study sites: 3 large fragments (20-85 ha) and 3 continuous-forest sites. From 335 mist-net captures, we recorded 28 bird species and screened 299 bird samples with PCR to amplify and detect target DNA. Of the 28 bird species sampled, 19 were infected with Plasmodium and/or Haemoproteus and 9 species were without infection. Over one third of screened birds (99 individuals) were positive for Haemoproteus and/or Plasmodium. In forest fragments, bird capture rates were significantly higher than in continuous forests, but bird species richness did not differ. Unexpectedly, we found that the prevalence of the dominant haemosporidian infection, Haemoproteus, was significantly higher in continuous forest than in habitat fragments. Further, we found that ecological traits such as diet, foraging height, habitat specialisation and distributional ranges were significantly associated with blood-borne infections. PMID:24124541
Laurance, Susan G W; Jones, Dean; Westcott, David; McKeown, Adam; Harrington, Graham; Hilbert, David W
We used occupancy and productivity data collected at 67 cliffs used for nesting from 1972 to 1999 to assess patterns of distribution and nest-site selection in an increasing population of Peregrine Falcons (Falco peregrinus) in central West Greenland. Peregrine Falcons breeding at traditionally occupied cliffs used for nesting had significantly lower variation in productivity and thus these cliffs were better quality sites. This indicates that Peregrine Falcons occupied cliffs according to a pattern of despotic distribution. Falcons breeding at cliffs that were consistently occupied during the breeding season had higher average productivity and lower variation in productivity than falcons at inconsistently occupied cliffs, and thus consistent occupancy also was indicative of cliff quality. Features of high quality habitat included tall cliffs, greater change in elevation from the lowest point within 3 km of the cliff to the cliff top (elevation gain), and protection from weather on the eyrie ledge. Spacing of suitable and occupied cliffs also was an important feature, and the best cliffs generally were more isolated. Increased spacing was likely a mechanism for reducing intraspecific competition. Our results suggest that Peregrine Falcons use a resource defense strategy to compete for better quality habitats and may use spacing and physical features of a nest site to identify good quality breeding habitat. ?? The Cooper Ornithological Society 2006.
We used occupancy and productivity data collected at 67 cliffs used for nesting from 1972 to 1999 to assess patterns of distribution and nest-site selection in an increasing population of Peregrine Falcons (Falco peregrinus) in central West Greenland. Peregrine Falcons breeding at traditionally occupied cliffs used for nesting had significantly lower variation in productivity and thus these cliffs were better quality sites. This indicates that Peregrine Falcons occupied cliffs according to a pattern of despotic distribution. Falcons breeding at cliffs that were consistently occupied during the breeding season had higher average productivity and lower variation in productivity than falcons at inconsistently occupied cliffs, and thus consistent occupancy also was indicative of cliff quality. Features of high quality habitat included tall cliffs, greater change in elevation from the lowest point within 3 km of the cliff to the cliff top (elevation gain), and protection from weather on the eyrie ledge. Spacing of suitable and occupied cliffs also was an important feature, and the best cliffs generally were more isolated. Increased spacing was likely a mechanism for reducing intraspecific competition. Our results suggest that Peregrine Falcons use a resource defense strategy to compete for better quality habitats and may use spacing and physical features of a nest site to identify good quality breeding habitat.
Jupiter's moon Europa possesses an icy shell kilometers thick that may overlie a briny ocean. The inferred presence of water, tidal and volcanic energy, and nutrients suggests that Europa is potentially inhabited by some kind of life; indeed Europa is a primary target in the search for life in the Solar System although no evidence yet exists for any kind of life. The thickness of the icy crust would impose limits on life, but at least 15 broad kinds of habitats seem possible for Europa. They include several on the sea floor, at least 3 in the water column, and many in the ice itself. All of these habitats are in, or could be transported to, the icy shell where they could be exposed by geologic activity or impacts so they might be explored from the surface or orbit by future planetary missions. Taphonomic processes that transport, preserve, and expose habitats include buoyant ice removing bottom habitats and sediment to the underside of the ice, water currents depositing components of water column habitats on the ice bottom, cryovolcanoes depositing water on the surface, tidal pumping bringing water column and ice habitats to the near-surface ice, and subice freezing and diapiric action incorporating water column and bottom ice habitats into the lower parts of the icy shell. The preserved habitats could be exposed at or near the surface of Europa chiefly in newly-formed ice, tilted or rotated ice blocks, ridge debris, surface deposits, fault scarps, the sides of domes and pits, and impact craters and ejecta. Future exploration of Europa for life must consider careful targeting of sites where habitats are most likely preserved or exist close to the surface.
Characteristics and habitat requirements of the black crappie (Pomoxis nigromaculatus) are described in a review of Habitat Suitability Index models. This is one in a series of publications to provide information on the habitat requirements of selected fish and wildlife species. Numerous literature sources have been consulted in an effort to consolidate scientific data on species-habitat relationships. These data have subsequently been synthesized into explicit Habitat Suitability Index (HSI) models. The models are based on suitability indices indicating habitat preferences. Indices have been formulated for variables found to affect the life cycle and survival of each species. Habitat Suitability Index (HSI) models are designed to provide information for use in impact assessment and habitat management activities. The HSI technique is a corollary to the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service's Habitat Evaluation Procedures.
Edwards, Elizabeth A.; Krieger, Douglas A.; Bacteller, Mary; Maughan, O. Eugene
Habitat selection can be viewed as an emergent property of the quality and availability of habitat but also of the number of individuals and the way they compete for its use. Consequently, habitat selection can change across years due to fluctuating resources or to changes in population numbers. However, habitat selection predictive models often do not account for ecological dynamics, especially density dependent processes. In stage-structured population, the strength of density dependent interactions between individuals of different age classes can exert a profound influence on population trajectories and evolutionary processes. In this study, we aimed to assess the effects of fluctuating densities of both older and younger competing life stages on the habitat selection patterns (described as univariate and multivariate resource selection functions) of young-of-the-year, juvenile and adult brown trout Salmo trutta. We observed all age classes were selective in habitat choice but changed their selection patterns across years consistently with variations in the densities of older but not of younger age classes. Trout of an age increased selectivity for positions highly selected by older individuals when their density decreased, but this pattern did not hold when the density of younger age classes varied. It suggests that younger individuals are dominated by older ones but can expand their range of selected habitats when density of competitors decreases, while older trout do not seem to consider the density of younger individuals when distributing themselves even though they can negatively affect their final performance. Since these results may entail critical implications for conservation and management practices based on habitat selection models, further research should involve a wider range of river typologies and/or longer time frames to fully understand the patterns of and the mechanisms underlying the operation of density dependence on brown trout habitat selection.
This multiwave longitudinal study tested two quantitative genetic developmental models to examine genetic and environmental influences on exposure to negative dependent and independent life events. Participants (N = 457 twin pairs) completed measures of life events annually from ages 9 to 16. The same genetic factors influenced exposure to dependent events across time and increased in magnitude during the transition to adolescence. Independent events were less genetically influenced than dependent events in boys, but not girls. Shared environmental influences decreased in magnitude as youth transitioned into adolescence. Nonshared environmental influences were mostly age specific and contributed significantly to both types of events at all ages. Results provide theoretical implications for developmental risk pathways to stress exposure and stress-related psychopathology. PMID:23379294
Johnson, Daniel P; Rhee, Soo Hyun; Whisman, Mark A; Corley, Robin P; Hewitt, John K
Low neighborhood-level socioeconomic status has been associated with poorer health, reduced physical activity, increased psychological stress, and less neighborhood-based social support. These outcomes are correlates of late life cognition, but few studies have specifically investigated the neighborhood as a unique source of explanatory variance in cognitive aging. This study supplemented baseline cognitive data from the ACTIVE (Advanced Cognitive Training for Independent and Vital Elderly) study with neighborhood-level data to investigate (1) whether neighborhood socioeconomic position (SEP) predicts cognitive level, and if so, whether it differentially predicts performance in general and specific domains of cognition and (2) whether neighborhood SEP predicts differences in response to short-term cognitive intervention for memory, reasoning, or processing speed. Neighborhood SEP positively predicted vocabulary, but did not predict other general or specific measures of cognitive level, and did not predict individual differences in response to cognitive intervention.
Background E-communities, social groups interacting online, have recently become an object of interdisciplinary research. As with face-to-face meetings, Internet exchanges may not only include factual information but also emotional information – how participants feel about the subject discussed or other group members. Emotions in turn are known to be important in affecting interaction partners in offline communication in many ways. Could emotions in Internet exchanges affect others and systematically influence quantitative and qualitative aspects of the trajectory of e-communities? The development of automatic sentiment analysis has made large scale emotion detection and analysis possible using text messages collected from the web. However, it is not clear if emotions in e-communities primarily derive from individual group members' personalities or if they result from intra-group interactions, and whether they influence group activities. Methodology/Principal Findings Here, for the first time, we show the collective character of affective phenomena on a large scale as observed in four million posts downloaded from Blogs, Digg and BBC forums. To test whether the emotions of a community member may influence the emotions of others, posts were grouped into clusters of messages with similar emotional valences. The frequency of long clusters was much higher than it would be if emotions occurred at random. Distributions for cluster lengths can be explained by preferential processes because conditional probabilities for consecutive messages grow as a power law with cluster length. For BBC forum threads, average discussion lengths were higher for larger values of absolute average emotional valence in the first ten comments and the average amount of emotion in messages fell during discussions. Conclusions/Significance Overall, our results prove that collective emotional states can be created and modulated via Internet communication and that emotional expressiveness is the fuel that sustains some e-communities.
Chmiel, Anna; Sienkiewicz, Julian; Thelwall, Mike; Paltoglou, Georgios; Buckley, Kevan; Kappas, Arvid; Holyst, Janusz A.
Comparisons of genetic diversity and population genetic structure among different life history stages provide important information on the effect of the different forces and micro-evolutionary processes that mould diversity and genetic structure after fragmentation. Here we assessed genetic diversity and population genetic structure using 32 allozymic loci in adults, seeds, seedlings and juveniles of eight populations of the micro-endemic shrub Cestrum miradorense in a highly fragmented cloud forest in central-eastern Mexico. We expected that due to its long history or rarity, this species may have endured the negative effects of fragmentation and would show moderate to high levels of genetic diversity. High genetic diversity (H(e) = 0.445 ± 0.03), heterozygote excess (F(IT) = -0.478 ± 0.034, F(IS) = -0.578 ± 0.023) and low population differentiation (F(ST) = 0.064 ± 0.011) were found. Seeds had higher genetic diversity (H(e) = 0.467 ± 0.05) than the later stages (overall mean for adults, seedlings and juveniles H(e) = 0.438 ± 0.08). High gene flow was observed despite the fact that the fragmentation process began more than 100 years ago. We conclude that the high genetic diversity was the result of natural selection, which favours heterozygote excess in all stages, coupled with a combination of a reproductive system and seed/pollen dispersal mechanisms that favour gene flow. PMID:22672140
This activity is designed to help students understand the complexity of nature by utilizing an online illustration of the ways in which various elements of a rainforest ecosystem are interconnected. Students will map the online habitat and create their own hyperlink habitat, either in print or on the Web, for a local ecosystem. When they are finished, they can submit their work to the Discovery Channel School.
It has been well known that the flaking failure in rolling contact fatigue (RCF) originates from nonmetallic inclusions in steels, and their apparent size is one of the important factors affecting RCF life. However, the influence of inclusion shape on the RCF life has not been fully clarified. In this study, attention was paid to the influence of the inclusion shape on the RCF life. This was evaluated by using carburized JIS-SCM420 (SAE4320) steels that contained two different shapes of MnS—stringer type and spheroidized type—as inclusions. Sectional observations were made to investigate the relation between the occurrence of shear crack in the subsurface and the shape of MnS. It was found that the RCF life was well correlated with the length of MnS projected to the load axis, and the initiation of shear crack in subsurface was accelerated as the length of MnS increased.
Knowledge of how factors related to esophageal cancer resection affect long-term quality of life after surgery is scarce,\\u000a and no population-based studies are available. Therefore, we conducted a Swedish nationwide, prospective, population-based\\u000a study of how esophageal surgery–related factors influence quality of life 6 months postoperatively. The Swedish Esophageal\\u000a and Cardia Cancer register (SECC-register) encompasses 174 hospital departments (97%). Microscopically radically
We developed scenarios for shallow and deep subsurface cryptic niches for microbial life on Mars. Such habitats could have considerably prolonged the persistence of life on Mars as surface conditions became increasingly inhospitable. The scenarios rely on...
The pathogenesis of mesial temporal lobe epilepsy (MTLE), the most prevalent form of refractory focal epilepsy in adults, is thought to begin in early life, even though seizures may not commence until adolescence or adulthood. Amongst the range of early life factors implicated in MTLE causation (febrile seizures, traumatic brain injury, etc.), stress may be one important contributor. Early life stress is an a priori agent deserving study because of the large amount of neuroscientific data showing enduring effects on structure and function in hippocampus and amygdala, the key structures involved in MTLE. An emerging body of evidence directly tests hypotheses concerning early life stress and limbic epilepsy: early life stressors, such as maternal separation, have been shown to aggravate epileptogenesis in both status epilepticus and kindling models of limbic epilepsy. In addition to elucidating its influence on limbic epileptogenesis itself, the study of early life stress has the potential to shed light on the psychiatric disorder that accompanies MTLE. For many years, psychiatric comorbidity was viewed as an effect of epilepsy, mediated psychologically and/or neurobiologically. An alternative - or complementary - perspective is that of shared causation. Early life stress, implicated in the pathogenesis of several psychiatric disorders, may be one such causal factor. This paper aims to critically review the body of experimental evidence linking early life stress and epilepsy; to discuss the direct studies examining early life stress effects in current models of limbic seizures/epilepsy; and to suggest priorities for future research. PMID:19838325
Koe, Amelia S; Jones, Nigel C; Salzberg, Michael R
The pathogenesis of mesial temporal lobe epilepsy (MTLE), the most prevalent form of refractory focal epilepsy in adults, is thought to begin in early life, even though seizures may not commence until adolescence or adulthood. Amongst the range of early life factors implicated in MTLE causation (febrile seizures, traumatic brain injury, etc.), stress may be one important contributor. Early life stress is an a priori agent deserving study because of the large amount of neuroscientific data showing enduring effects on structure and function in hippocampus and amygdala, the key structures involved in MTLE. An emerging body of evidence directly tests hypotheses concerning early life stress and limbic epilepsy: early life stressors, such as maternal separation, have been shown to aggravate epileptogenesis in both status epilepticus and kindling models of limbic epilepsy. In addition to elucidating its influence on limbic epileptogenesis itself, the study of early life stress has the potential to shed light on the psychiatric disorder that accompanies MTLE. For many years, psychiatric comorbidity was viewed as an effect of epilepsy, mediated psychologically and/or neurobiologically. An alternative – or complementary – perspective is that of shared causation. Early life stress, implicated in the pathogenesis of several psychiatric disorders, may be one such causal factor. This paper aims to critically review the body of experimental evidence linking early life stress and epilepsy; to discuss the direct studies examining early life stress effects in current models of limbic seizures/epilepsy; and to suggest priorities for future research.
Koe, Amelia S.; Jones, Nigel C.; Salzberg, Michael R.
Background Avian malaria (Plasmodium sp.) is globally widespread, but considerable variation exists in infection (presence/absence) patterns at small spatial scales. This variation can be driven by variation in ecology, demography, and phenotypic characters, in particular those that influence the host’s resistance. Generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) is one of the host’s initial immune responses to combat parasitic invasion. However, long-term ROS exposure can harm the host and the redox response therefore needs to be adjusted according to infection stage and host phenotype. Here we use experimental and correlational approaches to assess the relative importance of host density, habitat composition, individual level variation and redox physiology for Plasmodium infection in a wild population of great tits, Parus major. Results We found that 36% of the great tit population was infected with Plasmodium (22% P. relictum and 15% P. circumflexum prevalence) and that patterns of infection were Plasmodium species-specific. First, the infection of P. circumflexum was significantly higher in areas with experimental increased host density, whereas variation in P. relictum infection was mainly attributed to age, sex and reproduction. Second, great tit antioxidant responses – total and oxidizied glutathione - showed age- , sex- and Plasmodium species-specific patterns between infected and uninfected individuals, but reactive oxygen metabolites (ROM) showed only a weak explanatory power for patterns of P. relictum infection. Instead ROM significantly increased with Plasmodium parasitaemia. Conclusions These results identify some key factors that influence Plasmodium infection in wild birds, and provide a potential explanation for the underlying physiological basis of recently documented negative effects of chronic avian malaria on survival and reproductive success.
Organisms selecting retreat sites may evaluate not only the quality of the specific shelter, but also the proximity of that site to resources in the surrounding area. Distinguishing between habitat selection at these two spatial scales is complicated by co-variation among microhabitat factors (i.e., the attributes of individual retreat sites often correlate with their proximity to landscape features). Disentangling this co-variation may facilitate the restoration or conservation of threatened systems. To experimentally examine the role of landscape attributes in determining retreat-site quality for saxicolous ectotherms, we deployed 198 identical artificial rocks in open (sun-exposed) sites on sandstone outcrops in southeastern Australia, and recorded faunal usage of those retreat sites over the next 29 months. Several landscape-scale attributes were associated with occupancy of experimental rocks, but different features were important for different species. For example, endangered broad-headed snakes (Hoplocephalus bungaroides) preferred retreat sites close to cliff edges, flat rock spiders (Hemicloea major) preferred small outcrops, and velvet geckos (Oedura lesueurii) preferred rocks close to the cliff edge with higher-than-average sun exposure. Standardized retreat sites can provide robust experimental data on the effects of landscape-scale attributes on retreat site selection, revealing interspecific divergences among sympatric taxa that use similar habitats. PMID:22701592
Croak, Benjamin M; Pike, David A; Webb, Jonathan K; Shine, Richard
Dam construction has serious consequences, and one of the most serious concerns is the fragmentation of riverine ecosystems.\\u000a We reviewed the influence of habitat fragmentation on white-spotted charr Salvelinus leucomaenis populations. First, habitat fragmentation by damming has serious consequences in terms of alternative life-history strategies.\\u000a Most fish in dammed-off areas do not migrate to the sea and instead become resident
Kentaro Morita; Shoko H. Morita; Shoichiro Yamamoto
The structure of the habitat is usually crucial for growth and survival of young life stages. Presently, some nursery areas\\u000a of fish larvae are changing due to eutrophication, e.g. due to enhanced growth of ephemeral filamentous algae at the expense\\u000a of perennial species. We studied the influence of two habitats, one with filamentous algae (Cladophora glomerata) and the other with
Jonna Engström-Öst; Emmi Immonen; Ulrika Candolin; Johanna Mattila
|Purpose: We examined whether the presence of a spouse and the frequency of interaction with children, relatives, and friends significantly influence the risk of dying in late life. We assessed these effects separately by gender, controlling for self-reported health. In addition, we examined whether interaction with the co-twin has a different…
The aim of our study was to evaluate factors influencing health related quality of life in Hungarian postmenopausal women who underwent osteodensitometry. A questionnaire-based cross-sectional study was carried out; 359 women aged over 40 years were involved, attending the outpatient Bone Densitometry Centre of Szeged. Two kinds of tools were…
In earlier studies we have found that the difference between short and long life spans of two inbred strains of Drosophila melanogaster is controlled by nuclear major genes. The present study has revealed a cytoplasmic factor that influences the expression of the nuclear longevity genes. The factor shows a typical maternal inheritance and is considered to be an extranuclear gene,
Isamu Yonemura; Tomio Motoyama; Hayato Hasekura; Barry Boettcher
|High turnover has been a major problem in healthcare organizations. The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship among job characteristics, social support, and organizational characteristics on quality of the working life. Subsequently, the intent was to examine how those factors collectively influence turnover intention. A…
Use of toxicity test data for population-level risk assessment was investigated as follows: 1) the influence of life history characteristics of menhaden and striped bass on vulnerability of contaminant-induced stress, (2) the importance of test data availability, and (3) the infl...
Conditions of older care recipients and their care providers are supposed to affect each other, in light of a dialectical perspective. A possibility is the reciprocal influences between a care recipient's quality of life and his or her care provider's burnout. A study of the possibility surveyed 232 Hong Kong Chinese older care recipients, their professional care providers, and primary
In a prospective-longitudinal study of a representative birth cohort, we tested why stressful experiences lead to depression in some people but not in others. A functional polymorphism in the promoter region of the serotonin transporter (5-HTT) gene was found to moderate the influence of stressful life events on depression. Individuals with one or two copies of the short allele of
Avshalom Caspi; Karen Sugden; Terrie E. Moffitt; Alan Taylor; Ian W. Craig; HonaLee Harrington; Joseph McClay; Jonathan Mill; Judy Martin; Antony Braithwaite; Richie Poulton
In recent years, workaholism has become prevalent throughout organizations and has captured the attention of organizational leaders as well as the academic and scientific communities. Most research in this area has focused on the negative consequences of workaholism, specifically work–life imbalance. One area of research that has largely been ignored is the potential influence of demographic variables on the relationship
Shahnaz Aziz; Carrie T. Adkins; Alan G. Walker; Karl L. Wuensch
This article proposes that the current conceptualisation of occupation within the dominant Anglophone literature reflects central elements of Western society's construction of a ‘healthy’ daily life, the ‘ideal’ and expected way to live. Contemporary theories of social action are used to describe the structuring influence of social institutions on daily activity. Four of the commonly identified characteristics of occupation, that
|The aim of our study was to evaluate factors influencing health related quality of life in Hungarian postmenopausal women who underwent osteodensitometry. A questionnaire-based cross-sectional study was carried out; 359 women aged over 40 years were involved, attending the outpatient Bone Densitometry Centre of Szeged. Two kinds of tools were…
Purpose – The purpose of this study is to examine whether the development of materialistic values in early life reflects cultural norms or is the outcome of media and family influences. It seeks to examine the role of family communication and television, which were found to promote materialistic values in individualistic countries, by assessing their effects on youths in four
George Moschis; Fon Sim Ong; Anil Mathur; Takako Yamashita; Sarah Benmoyal-Bouzaglo
Amazonian forest fragments and second-growth forests often differ substantially from undisturbed forests in their microclimate, plant-species composition, and soil fauna. To determine if these changes could affect litter decomposition, we quantified the mass loss of two contrasting leaf-litter mixtures, in the presence or absence of soil macroinvertebrates, and in three forest habitats. Leaf-litter decomposition rates in second-growth forests (>10 years old) and in fragment edges (<100 m from the edge) did not differ from that in the forest interior (>250 m from the edges of primary forests). In all three habitats, experimental exclusion of soil invertebrates resulted in slower decomposition rates. Faunal-exclosure effects were stronger for litter of the primary forest, composed mostly of leaves of old-growth trees, than for litter of second-growth forests, which was dominated by leaves of successional species. The latter had a significantly lower initial concentration of N, higher C:N and lignin:N ratios, and decomposed at a slower rate than did litter from forest interiors. Our results indicate that land-cover changes in Amazonia affect decomposition mainly through changes in plant species composition, which in turn affect litter quality. Similar effects may occur on fragment edges, particularly on very disturbed edges, where successional trees become dominant. The drier microclimatic conditions in fragment edges and second-growth forests (>10 years old) did not appear to inhibit decomposition. Finally, although soil invertebrates play a key role in leaf-litter decomposition, we found no evidence that differences in the abundance, species richness, or species composition of invertebrates between disturbed and undisturbed forests significantly altered decomposition rates. PMID:15942762
Age-0 brown trout, Salmo trutta, inhabit shallow and slow-flowing habitats where they can easily maintain stationary swimming positions. However, recent results have shown that they use deeper and faster habitats during daylight than at night, suggesting the occurrence of a nocturnal movement toward stream-margin habitats. Experiments were conducted to describe precisely when this diel pattern of habitat use appears during
Habitat change statistics were used to estimate the effects of alternative future scenarios for agriculture on non-fish vertebrate diversity in Iowa farmlands. Study areas were two watersheds in central Iowa of about 50 and 90 square kilometers, respectively. Future scenarios w...
1. Individuals should benefit from settling in high-quality habitats, but dispersers born under favourable conditions have a better physical condition and should therefore be more successful at settling in high-quality habitats. 2. We tested these predictions with root voles (Microtus oeconomus) by a manipulation of individual condition through litter-size enlargement and reduction during lactation combined with a manipulation of habitat quality through degradation of the vegetation cover. We accurately monitored movements of 149 juveniles during a settlement and breeding period of 3 months. 3. The litter size treatment had long-lasting effects on body size, life-history traits and home range size, but did not influence dispersal behaviour. 4. Different stages of dispersal were influenced by habitat quality. In low-quality patches, females dispersed earlier, spent more time prospecting their environment before settling, and settlers had a smaller adult body size than in high-quality patches. Preference and competition for high-quality patches is likely adaptive as it increased fitness both in terms of survival and reproduction. 5. We found no interactive effect of individual condition and habitat quality on natal dispersal and habitat selection. 6. These findings suggest that immediate conditions are more important determinants of dispersal decisions than conditions experienced early in life. PMID:21521215
Rémy, Alice; Le Galliard, Jean-François; Gundersen, Gry; Steen, Harald; Andreassen, Harry P
Fish assemblages play a key role in stream ecosystems and are influenced by physical habitat. We analyzed fish assemblages and physical habitat at 93 randomly selected sites on second- through fifth-order wadeable Iowa streams to explore fish assemblage relationships with reach-scale physical habitat in this agriculturally dominated landscape. Sites were sampled using DC electrofishing and the wadeable streams physical habitat
For organisms with complex life cycles, processes occurring at the interface between life stages can disproportionately impact survival and population dynamics. Temperature is an important factor influencing growth in poikilotherms, and growth-related processes are frequently correlated with survival. We examined the influence of water temperature on growth-related early life history traits (ELHTs) and differential mortality during the transition from larval to early juvenile stage in sixteen monthly cohorts of bicolor damselfish Stegastes partitus, sampled on reefs of the upper Florida Keys, USA over 6 years. Otolith analysis of settlers and juveniles coupled with environmental data revealed that mean near-reef water temperature explained a significant proportion of variation in pelagic larval duration (PLD), early larval growth, size-at-settlement, and growth during early juvenile life. Among all cohorts, surviving juveniles were consistently larger at settlement, but grew more slowly during the first 6 d post-settlement. For the other ELHTs, selective mortality varied seasonally: during winter and spring months, survivors exhibited faster larval growth and shorter PLDs, whereas during warmer summer months, selection on PLD reversed and selection on larval growth became non-linear. Our results demonstrate that temperature not only shapes growth-related traits, but can also influence the direction and intensity of selective mortality. PMID:21559305
For organisms with complex life cycles, processes occurring at the interface between life stages can disproportionately impact survival and population dynamics. Temperature is an important factor influencing growth in poikilotherms, and growth-related processes are frequently correlated with survival. We examined the influence of water temperature on growth-related early life history traits (ELHTs) and differential mortality during the transition from larval to early juvenile stage in sixteen monthly cohorts of bicolor damselfish Stegastes partitus, sampled on reefs of the upper Florida Keys, USA over 6 years. Otolith analysis of settlers and juveniles coupled with environmental data revealed that mean near-reef water temperature explained a significant proportion of variation in pelagic larval duration (PLD), early larval growth, size-at-settlement, and growth during early juvenile life. Among all cohorts, surviving juveniles were consistently larger at settlement, but grew more slowly during the first 6 d post-settlement. For the other ELHTs, selective mortality varied seasonally: during winter and spring months, survivors exhibited faster larval growth and shorter PLDs, whereas during warmer summer months, selection on PLD reversed and selection on larval growth became non-linear. Our results demonstrate that temperature not only shapes growth-related traits, but can also influence the direction and intensity of selective mortality.
The disappearance of Acropora palmata from reefs in the Florida Keys National Marine Sanctuary (FKNMS) represents a significant loss in the amount of structurally complex habitat available for reef-associated species. The consequences of such a widespread loss of complex structure on ecosystem processes are still unclear. We sought to determine whether the disappearance of complex structure has adversely affected grazing and invertebrate predation rates on a shallow reef in the FKNMS. Surprisingly, we found grazing rates and invertebrate predation rates were lower in the structurally complex A. palmata branches than on the topographically simple degraded reefs. We attribute these results to high densities of aggressively territorial damselfish, Stegastes planifrons, living within A. palmata. Our study suggests the presence of agonistic damselfish can cause the realized spatial patterns of ecosystem processes to deviate from the expected patterns. Reef ecologists must therefore carefully consider the assemblage of associate fish communities when assessing how the mortality of A. palmata has affected coral reef ecosystem processes.
Background Natural communities are structured by intra-guild competition, predation or parasitism and the abiotic environment. We studied\\u000a the relative importance of these factors in two host-social parasite ecosystems in three ant communities in Europe (Bavaria)\\u000a and North America (New York, West Virginia). We tested how these factors affect colony demography, life-history and the spatial\\u000a pattern of colonies, using a large sample
The influence of rodent activity on the distribution of the seaside sparrow Ammospiza maritima was investigated.1.Seaside sparrows nest in Juncus less frequently than in shorter, sparser vegetation (Distichlis and Salicornia), where nests are more often subjected to flooding and predation by fish crows.2.The activity spaces of seaside sparrows and rice rats Oryzomys palustris overlap, and the two species use similar
Populations of bank voles (Clethrionomys glareolus) were monitored during a 4-year study in southern Belgium to assess the influence of agonistic behavior, reproductive status, mobility, and distribution of the rodents on the dynamics of Puumala virus (abbreviation: PUUV; genus: Hantavirus) infection. Concor- dance was high between data from serologic testing and results of viral RNA detection. Wounds resulting from biting
Sophie Escutenaire; Patrice Chalon; Florence De Jaegere; Lucie Karelle-Bui; Georges Mees; Bernard Brochier; Francine Rozenfeld; Paul-Pierre Pastoret
The purpose of this study was to assess the variables that influence quality of life (QoL) and disability in patients with\\u000a Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease (CMT). We performed a prospective multicentre study using validated clinical disability and QoL\\u000a measurements. Multivariate analysis was performed using QoL as a dependent variable and duration of symptoms, age, gender\\u000a and CMT type, depression and disability measurements
L. Padua; I. Aprile; T. Cavallaro; I. Commodari; G. La Torre; D. Pareyson; A. Quattrone; N. Rizzuto; G. Vita; P. Tonali; A. Schenone
Age-related increases in childhood and age-related decreases in adulthood have been reported for a wide variety of cognitive variables, but relatively little research has addressed the question of the independence of these influences. In this project, cross-sectional life span data (age 5 to 94 years) from the nationally representative sample used to establish the norms for the Woodcock–Johnson Psycho-Educational Battery
A study was carried out to determine the influence of acid and alkaline treatments on pathogens and the shelf life of poultry meat. The following acid and alkaline substances were used: 1% lactic acid, (PuracR), a 1% formulation of active constituents (sugars, foodstuff phosphates, ascorbic\\/isoascorbic acid or their inorganic salts) with lactic acid as activator (Glutamal bioactiveR) and 10% trisodium
Parental environments could play an important role in controlling insect outbreaks, provided they influence changes in physiological, developmental or behavioural life-history traits related to fluctuations in population density. However, the potential implication of parental influence in density-related changes in life-history traits remains unclear in many insects that exhibit fluctuating population dynamics, particularly locusts. In this study, we report a laboratory experiment, which enabled us to characterize the life-history trait modifications induced by parental crowding of female individuals from a frequently outbreaking population of Locusta migratoria (Linnaeus) (Orthoptera: Acrididae). We found that a rearing history of crowding led to reduced female oviposition times and increased offspring size but did not affect the developmental time, survival, fecundity, and the sex-ratio and the number of offspring. Because all studied females were raised in a common environment (isolation conditions), these observed reproductive differences are due to trans-generational effects induced by density. We discuss the ecological and evolutionary implications of the observed density-dependent parental effects on the life-history of L. migratoria. PMID:19413914
Chapuis, M-P; Crespin, L; Estoup, A; Augé-Sabatier, A; Foucart, A; Lecoq, M; Michalakis, Y
The study of life history variation is central to the evolutionary theory. In many ectothermic lineages, including lizards, life history traits are plastic and relate to several sources of variation including body size, which is both a factor and a life history trait likely to modulate reproductive parameters. Larger species within a lineage, for example tend to be more fecund and have larger clutch size, but clutch size may also be influenced by climate, independently of body size. Thus, the study of climatic effects on lizard fecundity is mandatory on the current scenario of global climatic change. We asked how body and clutch size have responded to climate through time in a group of tropical lizards, the Tropidurinae, and how these two variables relate to each other. We used both traditional and phylogenetic comparative methods. Body and clutch size are variable within Tropidurinae, and both traits are influenced by phylogenetic position. Across the lineage, species which evolved larger size produce more eggs and neither trait is influenced by temperature components. A climatic component of precipitation, however, relates to larger female body size, and therefore seems to exert an indirect relationship on clutch size. This effect of precipitation on body size is likely a correlate of primary production. A decrease in fecundity is expected for Tropidurinae species on continental landmasses, which are predicted to undergo a decrease in summer rainfall.
In Japan, rice paddies play an important role as a substitute habitat for wetland species, and support rich indigenous ecosystems. However, since the 1950s, agricultural modernization has altered the rice paddy environment, and many previously common species are now endangered. It is urgently necessary to evaluate rice paddies as habitats for conservation. Among the species living in rice paddies, frogs are representative and are good indicator species, so we focused on frog species and analyzed the influence of environmental factors on their habitat use. We found four frog species and one subspecies (Hyla japonica, Pelophylax nigromaculatus, Glandirana rugosa, Lithobates catesbeianus, and Pelophylax porosa brevipoda) at our study sites in Shiga prefecture. For all but L. catesbeianus, we analyzed the influence of environmental factors related to rice paddy structure, water management and availability, agrochemical use, connectivity, and land use on breeding and non-breeding habitat use. We constructed generalized additive mixed models with survey date as the smooth term and applied Akaike's information criterion to choose the bestranked model. Because life histories and biological characteristics vary among species, the factors affecting habitat use by frogs are also expected to differ by species. We found that both breeding and non-breeding habitat uses of each studied species were influenced by different combinations of environmental factors and that in most cases, habitat use showed seasonality. For frog conservation in rice paddies, we need to choose favorable rice paddy in relation to surrounding land use and apply suitable management for target species. PMID:22943781
_Urban Habitats_, published by the Center for Urban Restoration Ecology (CURE), is "a peer-reviewed, fully indexed scientific journal written and edited for a wide audience of researchers, restoration ecologists, park and preserve managers, government officials, and naturalists." The premier issue of this e-journal (focused on urban flora worldwide) is available online, and researchers are encouraged to submit articles and multimedia resources for future issues (detailed submission guidelines provided). CURE is a joint project of Rutgers University and the Brooklyn Botanic Garden.
There is increasing evidence that chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is not simply a disease of old age that is largely restricted to heavy smokers, but may be associated with insults to the developing lung during foetal life and the first few years of postnatal life, when lung growth and development are rapid. A better understanding of the long-term effects of early life factors, such as intrauterine growth restriction, prenatal and postnatal exposure to tobacco smoke and other pollutants, preterm delivery and childhood respiratory illnesses, on the subsequent development of chronic respiratory disease is imperative if appropriate preventive and management strategies to reduce the burden of COPD are to be developed. The extent to which insults to the developing lung are associated with increased risk of COPD in later life depends on the underlying cause, timing and severity of such derangements. Suboptimal conditions in utero result in aberrations of lung development such that affected individuals are born with reduced lung function, which tends to remain diminished throughout life, thereby increasing the risk both of wheezing disorders during childhood and subsequent COPD in genetically susceptible individuals. If the current trend towards the ever-increasing incidence of COPD is to be reversed, it is essential to minimize risks to the developing lung by improvements in antenatal and neonatal care, and to reduce prenatal and postnatal exposures to environmental pollutants, including passive tobacco smoke. Furthermore, adult physicians need to recognize that lung disease is potentially associated with early life insults and provide better education regarding diet, exercise and avoidance of smoking to preserve precious reserves of lung function in susceptible adults. This review focuses on factors that adversely influence lung development in utero and during the first 5 years of life, thereby predisposing to subsequent COPD. PMID:23439689
The study investigates the influences of women’s attitudes about gender and couples’ housework allocation patterns on women’s employment status and work hours across the life course. The influence of these factors on the employment characteristics of continuously married women is investigated at four time points: 1977, 1980, 1985, and 1993. Data come from the Intergenerational Panel Study of Parents and Children and the analysis sample includes 556 continuously married women. Findings from structural equation, fixed effects, and tobit models offer consistent evidence of long-term positive influences of women’s egalitarian gender ideology and men’s participation in routine housework on women’s labor force participation. The results provide support for hypotheses based on the notion of lagged adaptation.
1. Habitat heterogeneity has important repercussions for species abundance, demography and life-history patterns. While habitat effects have been more thoroughly studied in top-down situations (e.g. in association with predation), their role in bottom-up situations (e.g. in association with food abundance) has been less explored and the underlying mechanism(s) behind the ecological patterns have not commonly been identified. 2. With material from 1993 to 2003, we test the hypothesis that the reproduction of Finnish northern goshawks Accipiter gentilis (L.) is bottom-up limited by habitat composition, especially in situations where the density of their main prey (grouse) is low. Special emphasis was placed on identifying the mechanism(s) behind potential habitat effects. 3. While laying date and large-scale variation in the main prey density (but not habitat composition) were related to the number of eggs goshawks laid, small-scale differences in alternative prey density between different territories later influenced how many young were fledged via the mechanism of habitat-dependent partial-brood loss. As a result of this mechanism, a difference in nestling condition also arose between goshawk territories with differing habitat compositions. 4. As the relative proportions of different landscape elements in a given landscape is a function of large-scale differences in geomorphology and land use, this means that the reproductive performance of goshawks as averaged over larger scales can be understood correctly only in respect to the fact that habitat gradients differ across landscapes. 5. In addition to being one of the first papers identifying the mechanism of partial brood loss as being primarily responsible for the habitat-specific differences in the production of young, this study further illustrates the need to identify small-scale mechanisms to correctly understand the large-scale patterns of reproductive performance in territorial species. The repercussions of the observed habitat effect for local population development are discussed. PMID:17302847
Jul 21, 2013 ... The initial habitat-scale densities of trout were positively related to both depth ... no clear relationship to any of the physical factors that we measured. Mean growth was density dependent, positively influenced by habitat depth, ...
Background Viability in a non dividing state is referred to as chronological life span (CLS). Most grape juice fermentation happens when Saccharomyces cerevisiae yeast cells have stopped dividing; therefore, CLS is an important factor toward winemaking success. Results We have studied both the physical and chemical determinants influencing yeast CLS. Low pH and heat shorten the maximum wine yeast life span, while hyperosmotic shock extends it. Ethanol plays an important negative role in aging under winemaking conditions, but additional metabolites produced by fermentative metabolism, such as acetaldehyde and acetate, have also a strong impact on longevity. Grape polyphenols quercetin and resveratrol have negative impacts on CLS under winemaking conditions, an unexpected behavior for these potential anti-oxidants. We observed that quercetin inhibits alcohol and aldehyde dehydrogenase activities, and that resveratrol performs a pro-oxidant role during grape juice fermentation. Vitamins nicotinic acid and nicotinamide are precursors of NAD+, and their addition reduces mean longevity during fermentation, suggesting a metabolic unbalance negative for CLS. Moreover, vitamin mix supplementation at the end of fermentation shortens CLS and enhances cell lysis, while amino acids increase life span. Conclusions Wine S. cerevisiae strains are able to sense changes in the environmental conditions and adapt their longevity to them. Yeast death is influenced by the conditions present at the end of wine fermentation, particularly by the concentration of two-carbon metabolites produced by the fermentative metabolism, such as ethanol, acetic acid and acetaldehyde, and also by the grape juice composition, particularly its vitamin content.
In songbirds, the ability to learn and render the species-specific song is influenced by the development of both the song nuclei in the brain and the syrinx (bird's vocal apparatus) early in the bird's life. In black-capped chickadees (Poecille atricapillus), habitat quality is known to affect song structure, with birds in high-quality habitat (mature forest) having a higher song consistency than birds in low-quality habitat (young forest). Although this difference is suspected to stem from differences in development, the developmental status of juvenile birds in either habitat remains unexplored. In this study, we used ptilochronology and feather corticosterone to compare the conditional state of juvenile chickadees in young and mature forest during two distinct periods of song learning - the sensory phase, which occurs prior to settlement, and the sensorimotor phase, which occurs post-settlement. A sample of juvenile males was captured and euthanized several weeks prior to their first breeding season to compare the development of song center nuclei and syrinx in both habitats. The corticosterone levels of natally-grown feathers were greater among birds that settled in mature than young forests - as these feathers were grown pre-settlement, they reflect differences in physiology during the sensory phase. This difference in conditional state is reflected by differences in syrinx and song center nuclei development later during the sensorimotor phase - birds in young forest have smaller syrinx, and moderately-larger RA, than birds in mature forest. Those differences could be responsible for the difference in consistency in song structure observed across habitats. The difference in physiological state across habitats, combined with potential compounding effect of differences in winter resources between habitats, could influence the difference in syrinx and neural development seen in juvenile males during the early spring, and influence the male's ability to learn and render their species-specific song. PMID:23951257
Grava, Thibault; Fairhurst, Graham D; Avey, Marc T; Grava, Angelique; Bradley, James; Avis, Jillian L; Bortolotti, Gary R; Sturdy, Christopher B; Otter, Ken A
In songbirds, the ability to learn and render the species-specific song is influenced by the development of both the song nuclei in the brain and the syrinx (bird's vocal apparatus) early in the bird's life. In black-capped chickadees (Poecille atricapillus), habitat quality is known to affect song structure, with birds in high-quality habitat (mature forest) having a higher song consistency than birds in low-quality habitat (young forest). Although this difference is suspected to stem from differences in development, the developmental status of juvenile birds in either habitat remains unexplored. In this study, we used ptilochronology and feather corticosterone to compare the conditional state of juvenile chickadees in young and mature forest during two distinct periods of song learning - the sensory phase, which occurs prior to settlement, and the sensorimotor phase, which occurs post-settlement. A sample of juvenile males was captured and euthanized several weeks prior to their first breeding season to compare the development of song center nuclei and syrinx in both habitats. The corticosterone levels of natally-grown feathers were greater among birds that settled in mature than young forests - as these feathers were grown pre-settlement, they reflect differences in physiology during the sensory phase. This difference in conditional state is reflected by differences in syrinx and song center nuclei development later during the sensorimotor phase - birds in young forest have smaller syrinx, and moderately-larger RA, than birds in mature forest. Those differences could be responsible for the difference in consistency in song structure observed across habitats. The difference in physiological state across habitats, combined with potential compounding effect of differences in winter resources between habitats, could influence the difference in syrinx and neural development seen in juvenile males during the early spring, and influence the male's ability to learn and render their species-specific song.
Grava, Thibault; Fairhurst, Graham D.; Avey, Marc T.; Grava, Angelique; Bradley, James; Avis, Jillian L.; Bortolotti, Gary R.; Sturdy, Christopher B.; Otter, Ken A.
In karst landscapes, aquatic habitats differ in terms of the relative contributions of different water sources (allogenic surface stream vs autogenic karst groundwater) and their geomorphology. Benthic macroinvertebrate community structure in these habitats is likely to vary in response to this heterogeneity, as well as to the physicochemical differences between water flowing through pasture vs native forest dominated catchments. Surveys
DJ Reid; Scarsbrook; AE Wright-Stow; KSS van Houte-Howes; K Joy
Myotis capaccinii is one of the most endangered Mediterranean bats. We radio tracked 21 adult individuals to assess foraging range and analyse micro-habitat selection around a nursery roost in central Italy. Habitats were characterized by development of riparian vegetation, distance between banks, degree of water clutter and levels of water pollution (expressed by macro-benthic bioindicators). Diet was also analysed to
S. Biscardi; D. Russo; V. Casciani; D. Cesarini; M. Mei; L. Boitani
PATCH is a spatially explicit, individual-based, life history simulator designed to project populations of territorial terrestrial vertebrate species through time. PATCH is ideal for investigations involving wildlife species that are mobile habitat specialists. PATCH's data req...
As habitats become more fragmented, understanding landscape-level effects ,on habitat quality becomes increasingly important. These effects include factors intrinsic to the habitat fragments, such as vegetation cover and structure, and extrinsic factors, such as the modifying influences of surrounding (matrix) habitats. We develop a spatial model, the Effective Area Model (EAM), that predicts the effects of matrix habitats on species
Summary 1. Identifying the habitat features that influencehabitat selection and enhance fitness is critical for effective management. Ecological theory predicts that habitat choices should be adaptive, such that fitness is enhanced in preferred habitats. However, studies often report mismatches between habitat preferences and fitness consequences across a wide variety of taxa based on a single spatial scale and\\/or a
Manta rays Manta alfredi are present all year round at Lady Elliot Island (LEI) in the southern Great Barrier Reef, Australia, with peaks in abundance during autumn and winter. Drivers influencing these fluctuations in abundance of M. alfredi at the site remain uncertain. Based on daily count, behavioural, weather and oceanographic data collected over a three-year period, this study examined the link between the relative number of sightings of manta rays at LEI, the biophysical environment, and the habitat use of individuals around the LEI reef using generalised additive models. The response variable in each of the three generalised additive models was number of sightings (per trip at sea) of cruising, cleaning or foraging M. alfredi. We used a set of eleven temporal, meteorological, biological, oceanographic and lunar predictor variables. Results for cruising, cleaning and foraging M. alfredi explained 27.5%, 32.8% and 36.3% of the deviance observed in the respective models and highlighted five predictors (year, day of year, wind speed, chlorophyll-a concentration and fraction of moon illuminated) as common influences to the three models. There were more manta rays at LEI in autumn and winter, slower wind speeds, higher productivity, and around the new and full moon. The winter peak in sightings of foraging M. alfredi was found to precede peaks in cleaning and cruising activity around the LEI reef, which suggests that enhanced food availability may be a principal driver for this seasonal aggregation. A spatial analysis of behavioural observations highlighted several sites around the LEI reef as 'multi-purpose' areas where cleaning and foraging activities commonly occur, while the southern end of the reef is primarily a foraging area. The use of extensive citizen science datasets, such as those collected by dive operators in this study, is encouraged as they can provide valuable insights into a species' ecology. PMID:23056255
Jaine, Fabrice R A; Couturier, Lydie I E; Weeks, Scarla J; Townsend, Kathy A; Bennett, Michael B; Fiora, Kym; Richardson, Anthony J
Manta rays Manta alfredi are present all year round at Lady Elliot Island (LEI) in the southern Great Barrier Reef, Australia, with peaks in abundance during autumn and winter. Drivers influencing these fluctuations in abundance of M. alfredi at the site remain uncertain. Based on daily count, behavioural, weather and oceanographic data collected over a three-year period, this study examined the link between the relative number of sightings of manta rays at LEI, the biophysical environment, and the habitat use of individuals around the LEI reef using generalised additive models. The response variable in each of the three generalised additive models was number of sightings (per trip at sea) of cruising, cleaning or foraging M. alfredi. We used a set of eleven temporal, meteorological, biological, oceanographic and lunar predictor variables. Results for cruising, cleaning and foraging M. alfredi explained 27.5%, 32.8% and 36.3% of the deviance observed in the respective models and highlighted five predictors (year, day of year, wind speed, chlorophyll-a concentration and fraction of moon illuminated) as common influences to the three models. There were more manta rays at LEI in autumn and winter, slower wind speeds, higher productivity, and around the new and full moon. The winter peak in sightings of foraging M. alfredi was found to precede peaks in cleaning and cruising activity around the LEI reef, which suggests that enhanced food availability may be a principal driver for this seasonal aggregation. A spatial analysis of behavioural observations highlighted several sites around the LEI reef as ‘multi-purpose’ areas where cleaning and foraging activities commonly occur, while the southern end of the reef is primarily a foraging area. The use of extensive citizen science datasets, such as those collected by dive operators in this study, is encouraged as they can provide valuable insights into a species' ecology.
Jaine, Fabrice R. A.; Couturier, Lydie I. E.; Weeks, Scarla J.; Townsend, Kathy A.; Bennett, Michael B.; Fiora, Kym; Richardson, Anthony J.
The objective of this study is to analyze the effect of falls and their consequences on the quality of life of elderly people living in a low-income community in the city of Rio de Janeiro. This article is part of an explorative research conducted at CLAVES, using quantitative and qualitative methods. In this study we used quantitative data about falls and quality of life. 72 elderly aged over 60 years participated in the study. 51,4% of them were females, 20,8% lived alone and 37,5% admitted having suffered a fall during the last year. Among the most frequently mentioned consequences were fractures (24,3%), the fear of falling (88,5%), abandonment of activities (26,9%), change of habits (23,1%) and immobilization (19%). The analysis showed that falls have influence upon in the quality of life of the aged. The WHOQOL-Bref domain scores showed a reduction in the means of the group that had suffered falls during the last year in comparison to those who didn't fall, and the difference was more significant in the psychological field. In short, falls are frequent among the elderly and bring consequences that change the quality of life of these people in a negative way. Their incidence can be avoided by identifying the causes and developing appropriate preventive measures. PMID:18813626
Ribeiro, Adalgisa Peixoto; de Souza, Edinilsa Ramos; Atie, Soraya; de Souza, Amaro Crispim; Schilithz, Arthur Orlando
The evolutionary rate at which DNA sequences evolve is known to differ between different groups of organisms. However, the reasons for these different rates are seldom known. Among plants, the generation-time hypothesis, which states that organisms that reproduce faster also have more DNA substitutions per time, has gained most popularity. We evaluate the generation-time hypothesis using 131 DNA sequences from the plastid trnLF region and the nuclear ribosomal ITS region of the genus Veronica (Plantaginaceae). We also examine the alternative hypothesis that a higher substitution rate is correlated with selfing breeding system. Selfing is associated with annual life history in many organisms and may thus often be the underlying reason for observed correlations of annual life history with other characters. We provide evidence that annual life history is more likely to be the responsible factor for higher substitution rates in Veronica than a selfing breeding system. Nevertheless, the way in which annual life history may influence substitution rate in detail remains unknown, and some possibilities are discussed. PMID:20024538
The population of nodulating R. leguminosarum bv. viciae in soil from a grass-covered valley area which had been used for bovine slurry deposition over a period of 5 years was analyzed. For these studies, a rapid and reproducible method based on enterobacterial repetitive intergenic consensus (ERIC)-PCR was applied to identify Rhizobium strains which had infected pea nodules. Soil samples were taken from different areas and further analyzed in plant tests to determine the impact of the application of slurry (polluted or nonpolluted), the slope position (summit or toe), and exposure (north or south). After comparison of all PCR fingerprint patterns, 24 strain groups were defined. Some strain groups from the nonpolluted soil were suppressed in the polluted samples, and new strain groups were detected in the slurry-polluted soil. After analyzing relationships between the strain groups, we determined the influences of local factors on the nodulating R. leguminosarum bv. viciae population. We show that one of those local parameters, slope position, had significantly greater impact on the composition of the Rhizobium population than the presence of slurry.
The diet of the portunid crab Liocarcinus depurator (L.) in soft-bottom areas of the Ría de Arousa (Galicia, north-west Spain) was studied by analysis of stomach contents, and by comparison of habitats of contrasting abundance, composition and diversity of prey communities. Monthly samples were taken from July 1989 to June 1990 (N=3747) in mussel (Mytilus galloprovincialis) raft-culture areas and central
Palliative care is an important aspect of nursing when comfort and quality of life are the patient goals. The End-of-Life Nursing Education Consortium (ELNEC) developed a comprehensive program of teaching care of the dying to nurses and nursing students. This pretest-posttest study evaluated the influence of the integration of the ELNEC curriculum into a baccalaureate nursing program on students' attitudes toward care of the dying. The Frommelt Attitudes toward Care of the Dying Scale for nurses (FATCOD) was administered to traditional and accelerated baccalaureate students before and after exposure to a nursing curriculum that integrated essential ELNEC elements. Multiple regression analyses indicated that no previous experience with death and an age of 18-22 accounted for the most variance in attitude change. The findings suggest that integrating the ELNEC curriculum throughout a baccalaureate program positively affects the attitudes of nursing students toward the care of patients who are dying. PMID:18384269
This paper employs the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (2001) data in conjunction with the Environmental Protection Agency's Air Quality System data to investigate how air pollution caused by motor vehicle emissions affects the likelihood of good health and the amount of health investments. Models are estimated using three different measures of overall health: a measure of self-assessed health and two health outcome indicators (asthma and blood pressure). A multivariate probit approach is used to estimate recursive systems of equations for self-assessed health, health outcomes and life-styles. The most interesting result concerns the influence of pollution on health-improving life-style choices: only if traffic pollution is in the 'satisfactory range' (AQI level at or below 100), individuals will have incentive to invest in health. PMID:19827167
|Consists of activities which address the causes of habitat destruction and the effects of habitat loss on animals and plants. Identifies habitat loss as the major reason for the endangerment and extinction of plant and animal species. (ML)|
Consists of activities which address the causes of habitat destruction and the effects of habitat loss on animals and plants. Identifies habitat loss as the major reason for the endangerment and extinction of plant and animal species. (ML)
This paper examines the influence of life histories and apprenticeship of observation on the formation of student teachers’ idealised identities. The life histories of 15 student teachers are decoded. Through eliciting from the student teachers the teacher they wish to be, the paper focuses on the interplay between the personal histories and ideal teacher identities for the future. The implications
Amphibians are highly adapted for life in wetland habitats. They form a major component of wetland faunas, and being both prey and predator, they are important in ecosystem functioning. Wetlands provide aquatic habitats that amphibians require for breeding, development, foraging, hibernation and refuge, and they form an interface with essential adjacent upland habitat. The size and type of wetlands as
Two studies examined the associations between life regrets and indicators of quality of life across the adult life span. Given that opportunities to undo regrets decline with age, regret intensity was expected to be inversely associated with subjective well-being and health among older adults. In addition, the research explored protective factors that have the potential to reduce older adults' regret
Carsten Wrosch; Isabelle Bauer; Michael F. Scheier
Purpose The aim of this study was to determine the influence of maternal dental anxiety on perceptions about oral health–related quality\\u000a of life (OHRQoL) of preschool children.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted with 608 mother–child dyads during the Children’s National Immunization Campaign in\\u000a Pelotas, Brazil. Mothers answered a questionnaire on dental anxiety (DAS), socioeconomic status, use of dental services, and\\u000a perception
Marília Leão Goettems; Thiago Machado Ardenghi; Ana Regina Romano; Flávio Fernando Demarco; Dione Dias Torriani
Age-related increases in childhood and age-related decreases in adulthood have been reported for a wide variety of cognitive variables, but relatively little research has addressed the question of the independence of these influences. In this project, cross-sectional life span data (age 5 to 94 years) from the nationally representative sample used to establish the norms for the Woodcock-Johnson Psycho-Educational Battery (R. W. Woodcock & M. B. Johnson, 1989, 1990) were subjected to several types of analyses. The results indicated that the majority of age-related differences appear to be shared across different cognitive variables and are well predicted by individual differences in higher order factors. These findings suggest that the role of task-specific interpretations of developmental differences in cognition needs to be reevaluated to take into consideration the lack of independence of age-related influences on a variety of cognitive variables. PMID:9779733
This report is a synthesis of existing literature and survey data for West Virginia birds. The objectives of this report are to summarize available bird population data for major habitat types in West Virginia, to indicate how changes in habitatinfluence...
Aquatic vegetation is one of the most widespread and important types of aquatic habitat, in part because of the exceptional productivity of the plants. Aquatic vegetation also strongly influences local physical and chemical habitat conditions of significance to fish and shellfis...
A review and synthesis of existing information were used to develop estuarine habitat models for coastal stocks of striped bass (Morone saxatilis). Models for five life stages are scaled to produce an index of habitat suitability between 0 (unsuitable habitat) and 1 (optimally suitable habitat) for estuarine areas of the continental United States. Habitat suitability indexes are designed for use with the habitat evaluation procedures developed by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service. Guidelines for coastal striped bass model applications and techniques for estimating model variable are described.
Conversion of tropical forests into agriculture may present a serious risk to amphibian diversity if amphibians are not able to use agricultural areas as habitat. Recently, in Xishuangbanna Prefecture, Yunnan Province - a hotspot of frog diversity within China - two-thirds of the native tropical rainforests have been converted into rubber plantation agriculture. We conducted surveys and experiments to quantify habitat use for breeding and non-breeding life history activities of the native frog species in rainforest, rubber plantation and other human impacted sites. Rubber plantation sites had the lowest species richness in our non-breeding habitat surveys and no species used rubber plantation sites as breeding habitat. The absence of breeding was likely not due to intrinsic properties of the rubber plantation pools, as our experiments indicated that rubber plantation pools were suitable for tadpole growth and development. Rather, the absence of breeding in the rubber plantation was likely due to a misalignment of breeding and non-breeding habitat preferences. Analyses of our breeding surveys showed that percent canopy cover over pools was the strongest environmental variable influencing breeding site selection, with species exhibiting preferences for pools under both high and low canopy cover. Although rubber plantation pools had high canopy cover, the only species that bred in high canopy cover sites used the rainforest for both non-breeding and breeding activities, completing their entire life cycle in the rainforest. Conversely, the species that did use the rubber plantation for non-breeding habitat preferred to breed in low canopy sites, also avoiding breeding in the rubber plantation. Rubber plantations are likely an intermediate habitat type that 'slips through the cracks' of species habitat preferences and is thus avoided for breeding. In summary, unlike the rainforests they replaced, rubber plantations alone may not be able to support frog populations. PMID:24040026
Demographic processes exert different degrees of control as individuals grow, and in species that span several habitats and spatial scales, this can influence our ability to predict their population at a particular life-history stage given the previous life stage. In particular, when keystone species are involved, this relative coupling between demographic stages can have significant implications for the functioning of ecosystems. We examined benthic and pelagic abundances of the sea urchin Paracentrotus lividus in order to: 1) understand the main life-history bottlenecks by observing the degree of coupling between demographic stages; and 2) explore the processes driving these linkages. P. lividus is the dominant invertebrate herbivore in the Mediterranean Sea, and has been repeatedly observed to overgraze shallow beds of the seagrass Posidonia oceanica and rocky macroalgal communities. We used a hierarchical sampling design at different spatial scales (100 s, 10 s and <1 km) and habitats (seagrass and rocky macroalgae) to describe the spatial patterns in the abundance of different demographic stages (larvae, settlers, recruits and adults). Our results indicate that large-scale factors (potentially currents, nutrients, temperature, etc.) determine larval availability and settlement in the pelagic stages of urchin life history. In rocky macroalgal habitats, benthic processes (like predation) acting at large or medium scales drive adult abundances. In contrast, adult numbers in seagrass meadows are most likely influenced by factors like local migration (from adjoining rocky habitats) functioning at much smaller scales. The complexity of spatial and habitat-dependent processes shaping urchin populations demands a multiplicity of approaches when addressing habitat conservation actions, yet such actions are currently mostly aimed at managing predation processes and fish numbers. We argue that a more holistic ecosystem management also needs to incorporate the landscape and habitat-quality level processes (eutrophication, fragmentation, etc.) that together regulate the populations of this keystone herbivore. PMID:22536355
Factors influencing suitable habitats of juvenile southern flounder (Paralichthys lethostigma) within the Galveston Bay Complex (GBC), Texas, were assessed using generalized additive models (GAM). Fishery independent data collected with bag seines throughout the GBC from 1999 to 2009 were used to predict the probability of southern flounder occurrence. Binomial GAMs were used to assess presence/absence of southern flounder and models included temporal variables, benthic variables such as distance to habitats generated within a geographic information system, and physicochemical conditions of the water column. Separate models were generated for newly settled southern flounder, young-of-the-year (YOY) southern flounder observed in the summer, and YOY southern flounder observed in fall based on size and collection month. Factors affecting southern flounder occurrence changed seasonally, as did the corresponding shifts in the spatial distribution of suitable habitat. Temporal effects (year and month) were retained in all models. Physicochemical conditions (temperature, turbidity, and measures of environmental variability), and the presence of seagrass beds were influential for newly settled southern flounder. Distance to marine and/or freshwater sources were found to be important for YOY southern flounder in the summer and fall seasons. The abundance of brown shrimp was found to only influence the distribution of YOY southern flounder in the fall, when intermediate abundances of the potential prey item increased the occurrence of southern flounder. After model completion, the availability and spatial distribution of suitable habitat within the GBC was predicted using available environmental and spatial data for 2005. Spatial distributions of predicted suitable habitat stress the relative importance of West Bay during the newly settled stage and in the fall season, and Upper Bay during the summer and fall of the first year of life. These models demonstrate the potential dynamics of suitable habitats for juvenile southern flounder and provide insight into ontogenetic shifts in habitat preference during the first year of life.
Environmental educators in Australia (n = 82), and Canada (n = 48) wrote autobiographical statements describing the formative influences and significant life experiences (SLE) which led to their concern for the environment. Content analysis identified the influences\\/experiences mentioned most often, both as single factors, e.g. ‘close family’, and as groups of logically related factors, e.g. ‘people’, a group composed of
JOY A. PALMER; JENNIFER SUGGATE; IAN ROBOTTOM; PAUL HART
It has been suggested that increased predation rates may rival habitat alteration as a causal agent in farmland bird population declines. Such a view may be over-simplistic, however, as changes in habitat structure may influencehabitat selection and foraging efficiency through their influence on perceived and actual predation risk. We review evidence from the literature on the effects of habitat
Psychological abnormality is a fundamental concept in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-IV-TR; APA, 2000) and in all clinical evaluations. How do practicing clinical psychologists use the context of life events to judge the abnormality of a person’s current behaviors? The appropriate role of life-event context in assessment has long been the subject of intense debate and scrutiny among clinical theorists, yet relatively little is known about clinicians’ own judgments in practice. We propose a proportionate-response hypothesis, such that judgments of abnormality are influenced by whether the behaviors are a disproportionate response to past events, rendering them difficult to understand or explain. We presented licensed, practicing clinical psychologists (N=77) with vignettes describing hypothetical people’s behaviors (disordered, mildly distressed, or unaffected) that had been preceded by either traumatic or mildly distressing events. Experts’ judgments of abnormality were strongly and systematically influenced by the degree of mismatch between the past event and current behaviors in strength and valence, such that the greater the mismatch, the more abnormal the person seemed. A separate, additional group of clinical psychologists (N=20) further confirmed that the greater the degree of mismatch, the greater the perceived difficulty in understanding the patient. These findings held true across clinicians of different theoretical orientations and in disorders for which these patterns of judgments ran contrary to formal recommendations in the DSM-IV-TR (APA, 2000). The rationality of these effects and implications for clinical decision science are discussed.
Kim, Nancy S.; Paulus, Daniel J.; Gonzalez, Jeffrey S.; Khalife, Danielle
Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a chronic inflammatory disease that develops as a result of the interaction between genetic and environmental risk factors. Although increasing evidence shows the importance of genes in determining the risk of RA, it is clear that environmental factors also have a vital role. Studies to date have tended to concentrate on environmental influences around the time of disease onset. However, a number of pieces of evidence, including the fact that autoantibodies, such as rheumatoid factor (RF), can develop several years before the onset of clinical disease, suggest that environmental factors may influence disease susceptibility during early life. Several recent studies lend weight to this possibility, with an increased risk of RA in the offspring of mothers who smoked during pregnancy and in those with higher birth weight. There has also been a suggestion that the risk of RA is reduced in breast-fed infants. We describe the evidence surrounding the effect of early life factors on the risk of developing RA and possible mechanisms by which they may act.
Habitat heterogeneity is considered an important mechanism influencing diversity patterns in spatially structured habitats. However, spatial heterogeneity is not static and it can change along temporal scales. These changes, whether gradual or rapid, have the potential of forcing species extinctions or facilitating the introduction of nonnative species. Here, we present modeling results that show how changes in spatial heterogeneity over several generations can produce strong changes in benthic species composition residing in eastern Long Island Sound, USA. For many benthic species, hard substrate is a limiting resource which can vary in availability among different coastal areas. We modeled gradual changes from a heterogeneous landscape (mimicking patches of natural hard and soft substrate) to a homogenous one (analogous to a fully developed coast with hard, manmade substrate) and followed the abundance and distribution patterns of species possessing four different life histories. We also modeled changes from homogeneous to heterogeneous landscapes. We found that as regions become more homogeneous, species extinctions become more frequent and poor dispersers dominate locally. In contrast, as habitats become more heterogeneous, species distributing across localities leads to regional species coexistence and fewer extinctions. These results suggest that focusing on changing habitat heterogeneity can be a useful management strategy to prevent poor dispersing species, such as invasive ascidians, from driving communities to monocultures. PMID:21639055
Munguia, Pablo; Osman, Richard W; Hamilton, John; Whitlatch, Robert; Zajac, Roman
Wood cockroaches are an important prey of the red-cockaded woodpecker, Picoides borealis, an endangered species inhabiting pine forests in the southern United States. These woodpeckers forage on the boles of live pine trees, but their prey consists of a high proportion of wood cockroaches, Parcoblatta spp., that are more commonly associated with dead plant material. Cockroach population density samples were conducted on live pine trees, dead snags and coarse woody debris on the ground. The studies showed that snags and logs are also important habitats of wood cockroaches in pine forests.
The purpose of this study was to investigate the influence of shift work and chronotype on the quality of life of nursing staff at a university hospital in the state of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. It is an analytical and cross-sectional study, developed with a sample of 101 nursing professionals working in clinical and surgical units for adult inpatients. Chronotype and quality of life were evaluated using the Horne and Ostberg Morningness-Eveningness Questionnaire (MEQ) and the WHOQOL-Brief None of the WHOQOL-Brief domains demonstrated any association with shift work (p > 0.05). It was observed however, that individuals with a certain chronotype agreeing with the shift in which they work (67.01 +/- 10.8) showed higher means than those disagreeing (59.16 +/- 14.67) on the WHOQOL field that assesses the environment (p = 0.03). Thus, it is suggested that agreement with the chronobiological shift might be a factor determining quality of life for the nursing staff PMID:23596920
Life-history characteristics are an important determinant of a species' dispersal abilities. We predict that variation in life history can influence population-level genetic patterns. To test this prediction, we estimate population-level genetic structure for two sympatric species of stream-breeding salamander. The Cope's giant salamander (Dicamptodon copei) rarely metamorphoses into a terrestrial adult, thereby limiting overland dispersal and potentially gene flow. In contrast, the Pacific giant salamander (D. tenebrosus) commonly metamorphoses, which is expected to facilitate overland dispersal and gene flow. Three sets of analyses based on microsatellite data support these hypotheses, showing that D. tenebrosus displays minimal population-level genetic structuring and no pattern of isolation by distance, whereas D. copei displays a high degree of population-level genetic structure and significant isolation by distance. Specifically, nearly all pairwise F(ST )values were significantly different from 0 between populations of D. copei, with fewer than half the pairwise F(ST )values significant from 0 in D. tenebrosus. Additionally, Structure analyses indicated eight genetic clusters for D. copei but only one genetic cluster for D. tenebrosus. Finally, Mantel tests showed significant correlations between stream and overland distance with genetic distance for D. copei but no significant correlations of either landscape feature for D. tenebrosus at the scale of the study. These results provide a case study of the link between life-history variation and population genetic patterns while controlling for phylogeny and environmental variation. PMID:19302353
Stress dependent electrochemical dissolution is identified as one of the key mechanisms governing surface degradation in fretting and crevice corrosion of biomedical implants. The present study focuses on delineating the roles of mechanical stress and chemical conditions on the life expectancy of modular hip implants. First, material removal on a stressed surface of Ti6Al4V subjected to single asperity contact is investigated experimentally to identify the influence of contact load, in-plane stress and chemical environment on mean wear rates. A range of known stress levels are applied to the specimen while its surface is mechanically stimulated in different non-reactive to oxidizing aqueous environments. Evolution of surface degradation is monitored, and its mechanism is elucidated. This phase allows estimation of Preston Constant which is later used in the analysis. Second phase of the work is semi-analytical and computational, where, based on the estimated Preston constant and other material and process parameters, the scratch propensity (consisting of magnitude of scratch depth and their frequency per unit area) due to micro-motion in modular hip implants is estimated. The third phase views these scratches as initial notches and utilizes a mixed-mode fatigue crack propagation model to estimate the critical crack length for onset of instability. The number of loading cycles needed to reach this critical crack length is then labeled as the expected life of the implant under given mechanical and chemical conditions. Implications of different material and process conditions to life expectancy of orthopedic implants are discussed. It is observed that transverse micro-motion, compared to longitudinal micro-motion, plays a far more critical role in determining the implant life. Patient body weight, as well as proximity of the joint fluid to its iso-electric point play key roles in determining wear rates and associated life expectancies of modular hip implants. Sustained aeration of joint fluid, as well as proper tolerancing of mating surfaces, along with a proper choice of material microstructure may be utilized to extend implant life. PMID:22098898
Chandra, A; Ryu, J J; Karra, P; Shrotriya, P; Tvergaard, V; Gaisser, M; Weik, T
Habitat edges frequently possess distinct ecological conditions that affect interactions such as competition and predation. Within a species' preferred habitat, the structural complexity and resource availability of adjacent habitats may influence the effect of edges on ecological processes. In nearshore waters of New England, American lobsters (Homarus americanus) inhabit fragmented cobble reefs that often are bordered by unvegetated sediment and
Jennifer C. Selgrath; Kevin A. Hovel; Richard A. Wahle
Spatial and temporal environmental heterogeneity in lotic ecosystems can be quantitatively described and identified with characteristic\\u000a levels of ecological organization. The long-term pattern of physicochemical variability in conjunction with the complexity\\u000a and stability of the substratum establishes a physical habitat template that theoretically influences which combinations of\\u000a behavioral, physiological and life history characteristics constitute appropriate “ecological strategies” for persistence\\u000a in
We evaluated the influence of scale on habitat use for three wetland-obligate bird species with divergent life history characteristics and possible scale-dependent criteria for nesting and foraging in South Dakota, USA. A stratified, two-stage cluster sample was used to randomly select survey wetlands within strata defined by region, wetland density, and wetland surface area. We used 18-m (0.1 ha) fixed radius
David E. Naugle; Kenneth F. Higgins; Sarah M. Nusser; W. Carter Johnson
Within the context of present and future in situ missions to Mars to investigate its habitability and to search for traces of life, we studied the habitability and traces of past life in ?3.5Ga-old volcanic sands deposited in littoral environments an analogue to Noachian environments on Mars. The environmental conditions on Noachian Mars (4.1–3.7Ga) and the Early Archaean (4.0–3.3Ga) Earth
Frances Westall; Frédéric Foucher; Barbara Cavalazzi; Sjoukje T. de Vries; Wouter Nijman; Victoria Pearson; Jon Watson; Alexander Verchovsky; Ian Wright; Jean-Noel Rouzaud; Daniele Marchesini; Severine Anne
River channel dynamics play an important role in creating and maintaining diverse habitat conditions for multiple life stages of aquatic organisms. As a result, many river restoration projects seek to re-establish ecosystems in which an enhanced degree of habitat complexity is sustained through natural fluvial processes of flow, sediment transport, and channel change. Few field cases have effectively quantified the evolution of channel morphology and habitat complexity in restored rivers, however, and the outcomes of restoration actions remain difficult to predict. Our objective was to quantify the extent to which morphology, flow complexity and salmonid spawning and rearing habitat develop from the simplified initial conditions commonly observed in re-configured meandering channels. Using a time-series of topographic data, we measured rates of morphologic change in a recently restored gravel-bed reach of the Merced River, California, USA. We constructed two-dimensional (2D) hydrodynamic models to quantify how the evolving morphology influenced hydraulic conditions, flow complexity and suitability for Chinook salmon spawning and rearing. Following two large flood events, point bar development led to order-of-magnitude increases in modeled flow complexity, as quantified via the metrics of kinetic energy gradient, vorticity and hydraulic strain. On a bend-averaged scale, morphologic changes produced up to a two-fold increase in flow circulation, indicating a direct linkage between geomorphic processes and the development of habitat complexity at both the local (1.0 m2 grid cell) and meander wavelength scale. Habitat modeling indicated that the availability of Chinook salmon spawning habitat has increased over time, whereas the majority of the reach provides low-medium quality rearing habitat for juvenile salmonids, primarily due to a lack of low velocity refuge zones. These results demonstrate the ability of geomorphic processes to increase flow complexity and enhance spawning habitat, yet there is little indication that morphological changes alone will create bioenergetically favorable conditions for juvenile salmonids in the absence of off-channel habitat and large wood. In order to better understand the relations between channel dynamics, flow complexity and individual fish performance at a given life stage, ongoing efforts are focused on using Dynamic Energy Budget theory to develop a mechanistic framework integrating information on the different salmon life stages with flow fields of varying complexity.
Harrison, L. R.; Legleiter, C. J.; Pecquerie, L.; Dunne, T.
In recent years, workaholism has become prevalent throughout organizations and has captured the attention of organizational leaders as well as the academic and scientific communities. Most research in this area has focused on the negative consequences of workaholism, specifically work-life imbalance. One area of research that has largely been ignored is the potential influence of demographic variables on the relationship between workaholism and work-life imbalance. Therefore, the current study focused on how cultural origin might influence the intensity of this relationship. Based on relative deprivation theory and previous empirical work, it was expected that cultural origin would moderate the relationship between workaholism and work-life imbalance. Specifically, it was predicted that Caucasian participants would score higher on levels of workaholism than Black participants, and that the relationship between workaholism and work-life imbalance would be stronger for Caucasians than for Blacks. The results revealed that high levels of workaholism were significantly correlated with high levels of work-life imbalance. However, results also indicated that cultural origin did not moderate the relationship between workaholism and work-life imbalance, and there was no significant mean difference between Caucasian and Black participants on our measure of workaholism. These findings are important in that it is essential for employers to be aware of workaholic tendencies so they can better handle the negative consequences that result for the organization, and to also help promote the well-being of their employees. En los últimos años la adicción al trabajo se ha vuelto muy popular en las organizaciones y ha capturado la atención tanto de líderes organizacionales, así como de las comunidades científicas y académicas. La mayoría de investigaciones en esta área se han focalizado en las consequencias negativas de la adicción al trabajo (workoholismo), específicamente en el desequilibrio entre trabajo-vida. Una área de investigación que ha sido ignorada por mucho tiempo es la influencia potencial de las variables demográficas sobre la relación entre adicción al trabajo y el desequilibrio trabajo-vida. Por este motivo es que el presente estudio se focalizó en como el origen cultural puede influenciar la intensidad de esta relación. Tomando como base la teoría de la deprivación relativa y estudios empíricos previos, se esperó que el origen cultural moderaría la relación entre adicción al trabajo y desequilibrio trabajo-vida. Específicamente se pudo predecir que los participantes caucásicos mostraron más elevados puntajes en los niveles de adicción al trabajo que los participantes negros, y que la relación entre adicción al trabajo y desequilibrio trabajo-vida era más intensa entre los caucásicos que entre los negros. Los resultados revelaron que elevados niveles de adicción al trabajo correlacionaron significativamente con altos niveles de desequilibrio trabajo-vida. Sin embargo los resultados también revelaron que el origen cultural no moderaba la relación entre adicción al trabajo y desequilibrio trabajo-vida, y que además no había una diferencia significativa de medias entre los participantes caucásicos y negros respecto de nuestras mediciones de adicción al trabajo. Estos resultados son importantes en la medida en que es esencial para los empleadores el ser conscientes respecto de las tendencias de adicción al trabajo, lo que les permitirá manejar con mayor efectividad las consequencias negativas para la empresa resultantes de estas tendencias, y por otro lado apoyar a sus empleados en la promoción de su bienestar. Au cours des dernières années, le travaillolisme (workaholism) a pris de l'ampleur dans les organisations et a capté l'attention à la fois des dirigeants d'organisations et des communautés académique et scientifique. La majorité de la recherche dans ce domaine fut orientée sur les conséquences négatives du travaillolisme et, plus spécifiquement, sur le conflit travai
Aziz, Shahnaz; Adkins, Carrie T; Walker, Alan G; Wuensch, Karl L
Seasonal variation in dengue virus transmission in northwestern Thailand is inversely related to the magnitude of diurnal temperature fluctuations, although mean temperature does not vary significantly across seasons. We tested the hypothesis that diurnal temperature fluctuations negatively influence epidemiologically important life-history traits of the primary dengue vector, Aedes aegypti (L.), compared with a constant 26 degrees C temperature. A large diurnal temperature range (DTR) (approximately equals 18 degrees C daily swing) extended immature development time (>1 d), lowered larval survival (approximately equals 6%), and reduced adult female reproductive output by 25% 14 d after blood feeding, relative to the constant 26 degreesC temperature. A small DTR (approximately equal 8 degrees C daily swing) led to a negligible or slightly positive effect on the life history traits tested. Our results indicate that there is a negative impact of large DTR on mosquito biology and are consistent with the hypothesis that, in at least some locations, large temperature fluctuations contribute to seasonal reduction in dengue virus transmission. PMID:23427651
Carrington, Lauren B; Seifert, Stephanie N; Willits, Neil H; Lambrechts, Louis; Scott, Thomas W
The aim of the present systematic review was to evaluate the influence of early life exposure (maternal and childhood) to peanuts and the subsequent development of sensitisation or allergy to peanuts during childhood. Studies were identified using electronic databases and bibliography searches. Studies that assessed the impact of non-avoidance compared with avoidance or reduced quantities of peanuts or peanut products on either sensitisation or allergy to peanuts, or both outcomes, were eligible. Six human studies were identified: two randomised controlled trials, two case-control studies and two cross-sectional studies. In addition, published animal and mechanistic studies, relevant to the question of whether early life exposure to peanuts affects the subsequent development of peanut sensitisation, were reviewed narratively. Overall, the evidence reviewed was heterogeneous, and was limited in quality, for example, through lack of adjustment for potentially confounding factors. The nature of the evidence has therefore hindered the development of definitive conclusions. The systematic review of human studies and narrative expert-led reviews of animal studies do not provide clear evidence to suggest that either maternal exposure, or early or delayed introduction of peanuts in the diets of children, has an impact upon subsequent development of sensitisation or allergy to peanuts. Results from some animal studies (and limited evidence from human subjects) suggest that the dose of peanuts is an important mediator of peanut sensitisation and tolerance; low doses tend to lead to sensitisation and higher doses tend to lead to tolerance. PMID:20100372
Thompson, Rachel L; Miles, Lisa M; Lunn, Joanne; Devereux, Graham; Dearman, Rebecca J; Strid, Jessica; Buttriss, Judith L
River water quality is strongly influenced by their sediments and their associated pollutants. To assess the toxic potential of sediments, sediment toxicity tests require reliable control sediments, potentially including formulated control sediments as one major option. Although some standardization has been carried out, one critical issue still remains the quality of sediment organic matter (SOM). Organic carbon not only binds hydrophobic contaminants, but may be a source of mild toxicity, even if the SOM is essentially uncontaminated. We tested two different sources of organic carbon and the mixture of both (Sphagnum peat (P) and one commercial humic substances preparation-HuminFeed(®), HF) in terms of life trait variables and expression profiles of selected life performance and stress genes of the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans. In synchronous cultures, gene expression profiling was done after 6 and 48 h, respectively. The uncontaminated Sphagnum P reduced growth, but increased numbers of offspring, whereas HF did not significantly alter life trait variables. The 6 h expression profile showed most of the studied stress genes repressed, except for slight to strong induction in cyp-35B1 (all exposures), gst-38 (only mixture), and small hsp-16 genes (all exposures). After 48 h, the expression of almost all studied genes increased, particularly genes coding for antioxidative defense, multiple xenobiotic resistance, vitellogenin-like proteins, and genes regulating lifespan. Overall, even essentially uncontaminated SOM may induce several modes of action on the molecular level in C. elegans which may lead to false results if testing synthetic xenobiotics. This contribution is a plea for a strict standardization of the SOM quality in formulated sediments and to check for corresponding effects in other model sediment organisms, especially if using molecular toxicity endpoints. PMID:22080434
Franzen, Julia; Menzel, Ralph; Höss, Sebastian; Claus, Evelyn; Steinberg, Christian E W
We report on life history characteristics, temporal, and age-related effects influencing the frequency of occurrence of avian influenza (AI) viruses in four species of migratory geese breeding on the Yukon-Kuskokwim Delta, Alaska. Emperor geese (Chen canagica), cackling geese (Branta hutchinsii), greater white-fronted geese (Anser albifrons), and black brant (Branta bernicla), were all tested for active infection of AI viruses upon arrival in early May, during nesting in June, and while molting in July and August, 2006-2010 (n?=?14,323). Additionally, prior exposure to AI viruses was assessed via prevalence of antibodies from sera samples collected during late summer in 2009 and 2010. Results suggest that geese are uncommonly infected by low pathogenic AI viruses while in Alaska. The percent of birds actively shedding AI viruses varied annually, and was highest in 2006 and 2010 (1-3%) and lowest in 2007, 2008, and 2009 (<0.70%). Contrary to findings in ducks, the highest incidence of infected birds was in late spring when birds first arrived from staging and wintering areas. Despite low prevalence, most geese were previously exposed to AI viruses, as indicated by high levels of seroprevalence during late summer (47%-96% across species; n?=?541). Seroprevalence was >95% for emperor geese, a species that spends part of its life cycle in Asia and is endemic to Alaska and the Bering Sea region, compared to 40-60% for the other three species, whose entire life cycles are within the western hemisphere. Birds <45 days of age showed little past exposure to AI viruses, although antibodies were detected in samples from 5-week old birds in 2009. Seroprevalence of known age black brant revealed that no birds <4 years old had seroconverted, compared to 49% of birds ?4 years of age. PMID:23469210
Ely, Craig R; Hall, Jeffrey S; Schmutz, Joel A; Pearce, John M; Terenzi, John; Sedinger, James S; Ip, Hon S
In working with students to provide suitable habitat for species of interest, teachers can begin to develop the school campus into an outdoor classroom. Students will build self-esteem while obtaining useful real-life skills related to ecological practices. Students will have the opportunity to work with professionals from related fields of study. The hands-on activities give students a chance to put into practice the theories and themes that have been studied in a closed classroom setting. Students will learn to read aerial photographs, perform biological surveys, and write wildlife management plans. They will carry out management practices on the campus site and learn to evaluate the success of their program.
BEGIN:VCARD VERSION:2.1 FN:Francis Carter N:Carter;Francis ORG:Somerset High School REV:2005-04-15 END:VCARD
Recent declines in North American breeding populations have sparked great concern over the effects of habitat fragmentation. Neotropical migrant birds use and are influenced by two biomes during a single life span. Yet assessment of the relative importance of changes in tropical wintering areas versus temperate breeding areas is complicated by regional variation in rates and extent of habitat change. Landscape-level measurements of forest fragmentation derived from remotely-sensed data provide a means to compare the patterns of habitat modification on the wintering and breeding grounds of migrant birds. This study quantifies patterns of forest fragmentation in the Southern Appalachian Mountains and tropical Amazon and relates these patterns to the resource needs of neotropical migrant birds. Study sites were selected from remotely-sensed images to represent a range of forest fragmentation (highly fragmented landscape to continuous forest).
Socio-economic differentials in health in Russia are not well understood and the life course approach has been relatively neglected. This paper examines the influence of socio-economic risk factors over the life course on the self-rated health of older Russian men and women. A random sample (response rate 61%) of the general population of the Russian Federation in 2002 included 1004
Amanda Nicholson; Martin Bobak; Michael Murphy; Richard Rose; Michael Marmot
The use of alcohol by adolescents is a growing problem and has become an important research topic in the etiology of the alcohol use disorders. A key component of this research has been the development of animal models of adolescent alcohol consumption and alcohol response. Due to their extended period of adolescence, rhesus macaques are especially well-suited for modeling alcohol-related phenotypes that contribute to the adolescent propensity for alcohol consumption. In this review, we discuss studies from our laboratory that have investigated both the initial response to acute alcohol administration and the consumption of alcohol in voluntary self-administration paradigms in adolescent rhesus macaques. These studies confirm that adolescence is a time of dynamic change both behaviorally and physiologically, and that alcohol response and alcohol consumption are influenced by life history variables such as age, sex, and adverse early experience in the form of peer-rearing. Furthermore, genetic variants that alter functioning of the serotonin, endogenous opioid, and corticotropin releasing hormone systems are shown to influence both physiological and behavioral outcomes, in some cases interacting with early experience to indicate gene by environment interactions. These findings highlight several of the pathways involved in alcohol response and consumption, namely reward, behavioral dyscontrol, and vulnerability to stress, and demonstrate a role for these pathways during the early stages of alcohol exposure in adolescence.
Schwandt, Melanie L.; Lindell, Stephen G.; Chen, Scott; Higley, J. Dee; Suomi, Stephen J.; Heilig, Markus; Barr, Christina S.
Caregiving can have a profound effect on the health of the caregiver, yet research on caregiving among American Indians is limited. The purpose of this study was to examine the influence of caregiving on the health-related quality of life (HRQoL) of American Indians enrolled in the Education And Research Towards Health (EARTH) study. Participants in the EARTH study represented three different tribes in the Northern Plains and Southwestern regions of the United States who completed self-administered, computer-assisted questionnaires between 2003 and 2006. Participants were classified as caregivers if at least one adult relied on them for personal care or as non-caregivers (n = 3,736). Caregivers were further classified according to type; those caring for an adult with unspecified needs (CAU, n = 482) and those caring for an adult with mental or physical difficulties (CAD, n = 295). HRQoL was measured using the mental and physical health component scores of the Medical Outcomes Study 12-item Short-Form Health Survey. Regional differences emerged with regard to caregiver type. Across both regions, non-caregivers reported significantly better mental and physical health than CAD, and the health of participants classified as CAU did not differ from that of non-caregivers. The health of American Indian caregivers depends on the kind of care provided, but detailed measures of caregiving are necessary to understand how caregiving influences health. This has implications for the design of effective interventions in tribal communities. PMID:24001320
Spencer, S Melinda; Goins, R Turner; Henderson, Jeffrey A; Wen, Yang; Goldberg, Jack
Making the appropriate decision in the face of predation risk dictates the fate of prey, and predation risk is highest at life history boundaries such as settlement. At the end of the larval phase, most coral reef fishes enter patches of reef containing novel predators. Since vision is often obscured in the complex surroundings, chemical information released from damaged conspecific is used to forewarn prey of an active predator. However, larvae enter the reef environment with their own feeding and growth histories, which will influence their motivation to feed and take risks. The present study explored the link between recent growth, feeding history, current performance and behavioural risk taking in newly settling stages of a coral reef damselfish ( Pomacentrus amboinensis). Older and larger juveniles in good body condition had a stronger response to chemical alarm cues of injured conspecifics; these fish spent a longer time in shelter and displayed a more dramatic decrease in foraging behaviour than fish in lower body condition. Feeding experiments supported these findings and emphasized the importance of body condition in affecting risk assessment. Evidently, larval growth history and body condition influences the likelihood of taking risks under the threat of predation immediately after settlement, thereby affecting the probability of survival in P. amboinensis.
Ecologists increasingly recognize that their choice of spatial scales may influence greatly their interpretation of ecological systems, and that small changes in the patchiness of habitat resources can produce abrupt, sometimes dramatic shifts in distribution and abundance patterns of a species. Moreover, identification of scale- and habitat-dependent ecological patterns are central to management efforts aimed at predicting the response of
David B Eggleston; Ward E Elis; Lisa L Etherington; Craig P Dahlgren; Martin H Posey
Background Our aim was to investigate the existence of a reciprocal relationship between patients' assessment of quality of life and their appraisal of health. If present, this relationship will interfere with the interpretation of heart surgery's effect on overall quality of life. Methods Path analysis was used to investigate reciprocal causal relationships between general health perceptions and overall quality of life before and after heart surgery. Longitudinal data from a study of coronary artery bypass surgery were used to model lagged, cross-lagged, and simultaneous paths over four time-points of assessment from before surgery to one year afterwards. The conceptual framework for the analysis was the Wilson and Cleary causal pathway model. General health perceptions were measured with the Short Form 36. Overall quality of life was measured with i) a single question regarding life satisfaction and ii) the multi-item Quality of Life Survey. Results Acceptable model fit was obtained for reciprocal causation between general health perceptions and overall quality of life. Regression coefficients changed over different phases of rehabilitation. Serial correlation accounted for much of the variance within variables over time. Conclusion The present analysis demonstrates that unidirectional models of causality are inadequate to explain the effect of heart surgery on overall quality of life. Overall quality of life can causally influence as well as be an outcome of health status after coronary artery bypass surgery.
Mathisen, Lars; Andersen, Marit H; Veenstra, Marijke; Wahl, Astrid K; Hanestad, Berit R; Fosse, Erik
Fire effects on invasive species are an important land management issue in areas subjected to prescribed fires as well as wildfires. These effects on invasive species can be manifested across life stages. The liana Celastrus orbiculatus (oriental bittersweet) is a widespread invader of eastern US habitats including those where fire management is in practice. This study examined if prescribed fire makes these habitats more susceptible to invasion of C. orbiculatus by seed at Indiana Dunes National Lakeshore. Four treatments (control, litter removed, high and low intensity fire) were applied in six habitat types (sand savanna/woodland, sand prairie, moraine prairie, sand oak forest, beech-maple forest, and oak-hickory forest) and germinating seedlings were tracked over two growing seasons. Treatment did not have a significant effect on the germination, survival, or biomass of C. orbiculatus. However, habitat type did influence these responses mostly in the first growing season. Moraine prairie, beech-maple forest, and oak-hickory forests had the greatest peak percentage of germinants. Moraine prairie had significantly greater survival than oak forest and savanna habitats. Control plots with intact litter, and the moraine prairie habitat had the tallest seedlings at germination, while tallest final heights and greatest aboveground biomass were highest in oak forest. Thus, fire and litter removal did not increase the susceptibility of these habitats to germination and survival of C. orbiculatus. These results indicate that most eastern US habitats are vulnerable to invasion by this species via seed regardless of the level or type of disturbance to the litter layer.
Leicht-Young, Stacey A.; Pavlovic, Noel B; Grundel, Ralph
|The "Fishing: Get in the Habitat! MinnAqua Leader's Guide" is a curriculum created by the Minnesota Department of Natural Resources for educators working primarily with children in grades three through five in formal and nonformal education settings. Like many agency-developed supplemental educational resources, the Leader's Guide is available…
Vitis grapevinesare the native host of the grape berry moth, Endopiza viteana Clemens (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), and are found in uncultivated habitatsthroughout eastern North America. Levelsof infes tation by grape berry moth larvae at vineyard bordersand interiorswere compared among vineyardsadjacent to four typesof uncultivated habitats: deciduouswoods, coniferouswoods, a single row of trees, and grasses. Adult male moths were monitored at these
In this study, field biotelemetry and laboratory physiology ap- proaches were coupled to allow understanding of the behavioral and physiological responses of fish to winter hypoxia. The bio- telemetry study compared dissolved oxygen levels measured throughout the winter period with continually tracked locations of nine adult largemouth bass obtained from a whole-lake sub- merged telemetry array. Fish habitat usage was
Most states in the U.S. are currently developing methods for assessing the integrity of aquatic habitats through the development of regional biocriteria. While multimetric indices have been used to show community composition, pollution tolerance, species diversity, and trophic structure with a combined index, the specific environmental factors that drive biological communities may be better explained through the use of multivariate
James A. Sawyer; Paul M. Stewart; Michael M. Mullen; Thomas P. Simon; Holly H. Bennett
The "Fishing: Get in the Habitat! MinnAqua Leader's Guide" is a curriculum created by the Minnesota Department of Natural Resources for educators working primarily with children in grades three through five in formal and nonformal education settings. Like many agency-developed supplemental educational resources, the Leader's Guide is available…
Comprehensive text reference describes rocky intertidal habitats and their biological diversity, distribution patterns, temporal changes, links to other habitats and assemblages, and management issues. Supporting materials include photos, tables, figures, and in-text definitions.
Salmonid populations can be affected by alterations in stream physical habitat. Fish productivity is determined by the stream's physical habitat structure ( channel form, substrate distribution, riparian vegetation), water quality, flow regime and inputs from the watershed (sedim...
The purpose of this Mule Deer (Odocoileus hemionus) Habitat Management Guide is principally to assist BLM managers and biologists in planning for and managing mule deer habitat on public lands administered by the Bureau of Land Management. For many years ...
Seborrheic dermatitis is a common inflammatory skin condition occurring mostly on the face, scalp and chest. Despite its high frequency, the impact of seborrheic dermatitis on patients' quality of life (QoL) has not been studied well so far. The objectives of this study were to analyse how seborrheic dermatitis affects the patients' QoL and which socio-economic factors could modulate QoL in these patients. A total of 3000 patients with seborrheic dermatitis and/or dandruff were enrolled into the study. All participants were divided into subgroups according to gender, age and education level. A specially designed questionnaire with demographic and clinical details of patients as well as Dermatology Life Quality Index (DLQI) was completed during a patient visit in an outpatient clinic. Data were collected by local dermatologists who were instructed regarding the inclusion and exclusion criteria and the questionnaires were sent back to us upon completion. The mean DLQI score for all patients was 6.92±5.34 points. Patients with dandruff had significantly better QoL than subjects with seborrheic dermatitis (5.34±4.67 points vs. 7.73±5.3 points, respectively; P<0.001) or individuals with dandruff plus seborrheic dermatitis (7.54±5.6 points, P<0.001). In addition, women, younger patients and subjects with higher educational level were more affected than the rest of the patients. Seborrheic dermatitis had significant, negative influence on patients' QoL. Observed discrepancies between subgroups could be explained by different roles played by different patient subgroups in the society. DLQI can be successfully used for the assessment of QoL in large populational studies. PMID:18793259
Szepietowski, Jacek C; Reich, Adam; Weso?owska-Szepietowska, Ewa; Baran, Eugeniusz
The influences of two welding processes, namely, shielded metal arc welding (SMAW) and flux cored arc welding (FCAW), on fatigue life of cruciform joints, containing lack of penetration (LOP) defects, have been studied. Load carrying cruciform joints were fabricated from high strength, quenched and tempered steels of pressure vessel (ASTM 517 ‘F’) grade. Fatigue crack growth experiments were carried out
There is growing evidence to suggest that childhood deprivation is linked to social inequalities and has important consequences for health in later life. Past studies tend to focus on the influence of cumulative deprivation on the risk of developing a particular disease. This study is innovative because it explores how deprivation in childhood may be linked to how people (who
|Previous research has documented that adverse life experiences during adolescence, particularly for ethnic minorities, have a long-term influence on income and asset attainment and that this relationship is largely mediated by educational achievement. We extend prior research by investigating three research questions. First, we investigate the…
Wickrama, K. A. S.; Simons, Leslie Gordon; Baltimore, Diana
SUMMARY On the Czech set of European Longitudinal Study of Pregnancy and Childhood (ELSPAC), we tried to verify whether it is possible to confirm the results of foreign studies which found out that the both prenatal and postnatal exposure of newborns to chemicals on cigarette smoke could influence the newbornsmorbidity in the first six months of their life. Mothers, who
Variation in genes implicated in serotonin neurotransmission may interact with environmental factors to influence antidepressant response. We aimed to determine how a range of polymorphisms in serotonergic genes determine this response to treatment and how they interact with childhood trauma and recent life stress in a Chinese sample. In total, 14 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in coding regions of 10
Experimental studies conducted on a particular cast acrylic composite demonstrate the significant influence of the interfacial bond strength between filler particles and the polymer matrix on the fatigue life, and mechanical properties. The composite studied in this project is composed of a ductile matrix, which is lightly cross-linked poly-methyl methacrylate (PMMA) and hard, brittle alumina trihydrate (ATH) agglomerate particle filler.
|This study explores cultural influences in the first three months of life by comparing the daily experiences of first generation Chinese-American and European-American infants whose parents were born in the United States. The study focused on 10 Chinese-American and 10 European-American families whose mothers were recruited during the third…
OBJECTIVE: The aim of the study was to evaluate factors influencing quality of life (QOL) in Moroccan postmenopausal women with osteoporotic vertebral fracture assessed by the Arabic version of ECOS 16 questionnaire. METHODS: 357 postmenopausal women were included in this study. The participants underwent bone mineral density (BMD) measurements by DXA of the lumbar spine and the total hip as
Fatima E Abourazzak; Fadoua Allali; Samira Rostom; Ihsane Hmamouchi; Linda Ichchou; Laila El Mansouri; Loubna Bennani; Hamza Khazzani; Redouane Abouqal; Najia Hajjaj-Hassouni
Created by Enchanted Learning, this kid-friendly Biome-Habitats website introduces children to many of the earth's biomes. Although the site provides basic information about many different biomes, the main emphasis is on the animals that live in each habitat. From the homepage, site visitors can link to almost twenty separate biome / habitat sites including Desert, Cave, Savanna, and Coral Reef-just too name a few. Each site presents a brief introduction covering general characteristics, such as plant life and climate, and then provides links to many separate animal pages ranging from grasshoppers to eagles. The animal pages feature nice diagrams (that can be printed out for coloring) and basic information about anatomy, diet and more. The Biome-Habitats homepage also contains a simple chart listing differences between biomes including elements such as amount of water, temperature range, and soil quality. (Note: While the site asks for a $20 / year donation, it is free to use and requires no registration or fee).
Concern over the fate of plant and animal species throughout the world has accelerated over recent decades. Habitat loss is considered the main culprit in reducing many species’ abundance and range, leading to numerous efforts to plan and manage habitat preservation. Our work uses Geographic Information Systems (GIS) data and modeling to define a spatially explicit analysis of habitat value,
Ross Gerrard; Peter Stine; Richard Church; Michael Gilpin
This chapter summarizes and evaluated the habitat assessment protocols of five agencies, USEPA/EMAP/SW, USGS/NAWQA, USEPA/RBP, Ohio EPA, and MDNR/MBSS. It begins with a description of the origin of the habitat indices most widely used by these agencies. Then the habitat assessmen...
Primary productivity, community respiration, chlorophyll a concentration, phytoplankton species composition, and environmental factors were compared in the Yolo Bypass floodplain and\\u000a adjacent Sacramento River in order to determine if passage of Sacramento River through floodplain habitat enhanced the quantity\\u000a and quality of phytoplankton carbon available to the aquatic food web and how primary productivity and phytoplankton species\\u000a composition in these
Introduced species pose a major threat to biodiversity across the globe. Understanding the impact of introduced species is critical for effective management. Many species around the world are reliant on tree cavities, and competition for these resources can be intense: threatening the survival of native species. Through the establishment of 225 nest boxes, we examined the relationship between tree density and the abundance and nesting success of three bird species in Canberra, Australia. The common myna ( Acridotheres tristis) is an introduced species in Australia, and the crimson rosella ( Platycercus elegans) and eastern rosella ( Platycercus eximius) are native species. We then investigated the impact of common myna nest box occupation on crimson rosella and eastern rosella abundance. Tree density significantly influenced the abundance and cavity-nesting of all three species. Common myna abundance (birds per square kilometer) was greatest at low tree density sites (101.9 ± 22.4) and declined at medium (45.4 ± 10.1) and high (9.7 ± 3.6) tree density sites. The opposite pattern was observed for the crimson rosella, with greater abundance (birds per square kilometer) at high tree density sites (83.9 ± 9.3), declining over medium (61.6 ± 6.4) and low (31.4 ± 3.9) tree density sites. The eastern rosella was more abundant at medium tree density sites (48.6 ± 8.0 birds per square kilometer). Despite the strong influence of tree density, we found a significant negative relationship between common myna nest box occupancy and the abundance of the crimson rosella ( F 1,13 = 7.548, P = 0.017) and eastern rosella ( F 1,13 = 9.672, P < 0.001) at some sites. We also observed a slight increase in rosella nesting interruptions by the common myna at lower tree densities (high: 1.3 % ± 1.3, medium: 6.6 % ± 2.2, low: 12.7 % ± 6.2), although this increase was not statistically significant ( F 2,40 = 2.435, P = 0.100). Our study provides the strongest evidence to date for the negative impact of the common myna on native bird abundance through cavity-nesting competition. However, due to the strong influence of habitat on species abundance and nesting, it is essential to investigate the impacts of introduced species in conjunction with habitat variation. We also suggest one component of introduced species management could include habitat restoration to reduce habitat suitability for introduced species.
Grarock, Kate; Lindenmayer, David B.; Wood, Jeffrey T.; Tidemann, Christopher R.
The objective of the present study was to investigate if a psychological adaptation capacity exists in kidney transplant bearers, even with ageing, in relation to erectile dysfunction (ED). We studied ED using IIEF-5 and health-related quality of life (HRQoL) using the SF-36 Health Survey, in a large sample of male renal transplant patients (n=242), searching for the influence of ED on HRQoL. Patients included 199 patients (82%); the median age was 52 y (43-62); 106 patients (54.9%) presented ED. These patients were divided into four groups according to median age. SF-36 scores were worse for ED vs non-ED patients in the first three age groups, but not in age group 4. SF-36 Mental Component Summary was similar for patients with ED and without ED in all age groups. We confirm the hypothesis that a psychological adaptation occurs in renal transplant patients in all age groups, when suffering ED. PMID:14961058
Rebollo, P; Ortega, F; Valdés, C; Fernández-Vega, F; Ortega, T; García-Mendoza, M; Gómez, E
Across angiosperms, variable rates of molecular substitution are linked with life-history attributes associated with woody and herbaceous growth forms. As the number of generations per unit time is correlated with molecular substitution rates, it is expected that rates of phenotypic evolution would also be influenced by differences in generation times. Here, we make the first broad-scale comparison of growth-form-dependent rates of niche evolution. We examined the climatic niches of species on large time-calibrated phylogenies of five angiosperm clades and found that woody lineages have accumulated fewer changes per million years in climatic niche space than related herbaceous lineages. Also, climate space explored by woody lineages is consistently smaller than sister lineages composed mainly of herbaceous taxa. This pattern is probably linked to differences in the rate of climatic niche evolution. These results have implications for niche conservatism; in particular, the role of niche conservatism in the distribution of plant biodiversity. The consistent differences in the rate of climatic niche evolution also emphasize the need to incorporate models of phenotypic evolution that allow for rate heterogeneity when examining large datasets.
Aquagenic pruritus (AP) is a symptom typical for polycythemia vera, but very little is known about its exact frequency, characteristics, influence on quality of life, and proper treatment. Therefore, we investigated these aspects in a large cohort of German patients with polycythemia vera using a patient directed questionnaire. Our analysis revealed that 301 of 441 analyzed patients suffered from AP. In 64.8%, AP occurred on average 2.9 years prior to diagnosis of polycythemia vera. Only in 15.4% did this lead to a hematological investigation. AP occurs primarily on the trunk and proximal parts of the extremities. Most patients complain about itching (71.8%), the remainder about tickling, stinging, or burning sensations. Forty-four patients (14.6%) classified the pruritus as "unbearable." Patients with AP reported reduced global health status and higher fatigue, pain, and dyspnea. Only 24% of patients received pruritus specific treatment for pruritus consisting mostly of histamine antagonists, which ameliorated symptoms in about half of the patients. In 5.6% of patients, polycythemia vera directed therapy (phlebotomy/cytoreduction) resolved the symptoms. In summary, AP is a serious symptom in patients with polycythemia vera, which until recently was difficult to treat. The advent of the novel JAK2 inhibitors, however, may open new ways for therapy. PMID:23657863
Siegel, Fabian P; Tauscher, Jan; Petrides, Petro E
|This study examined predictors of employee perceptions of organizational work-life support. Using organizational support theory and conservation of resources theory, we reasoned that workplace demands and resources shape employees' perceptions of work-life support through two mechanisms: signaling that the organization cares about their work-life…
This study examined predictors of employee perceptions of organizational work-life support. Using organizational support theory and conservation of resources theory, we reasoned that workplace demands and resources shape employees' perceptions of work-life support through two mechanisms: signaling that the organization cares about their work-life…
Objective?To examine the relationship of external influence to parental distress when making a decision about research or treatment for a child with a life-threatening illness and to test potential moderators of this relationship.?Methods?Parents (n?=?219) who made a decision about research or treatment for a child completed measures of external influence, distress, decision-making preference, and coping.?Results?More external influence was associated with more hostility, uncertainty, and confusion. Decision-making preference and coping style moderated the relationship between external influence and distress: More external influence was associated with more distress when decision-making preference was low and task-focused coping was high.?Conclusions External influence appears to be related to distress in parents making research and treatment decisions for children with life-threatening illnesses. However, it is important to consider parent characteristics, such as decision-making preference and coping style, when examining the effects of contextual factors on distress during decision making.
In this activity, learners compare plant and animal life in different habitats including a sidewalk crack and lawn. Learners sort human-made materials and natural materials found in each habitat. Learners also examine the specimens with a magnifying glass and make sketches. This activity can be used to explore human impact, habitats, and/or field studies.
Relatively little information is available on environmental associations and the conservation of Odonata in the Maltese Islands. Aquatic habitats are normally spatio-temporally restricted, often located within predominantly rural landscapes, and are thereby susceptible to farmland water management practices, which may create additional pressure on water resources. This study investigates how odonate assemblage structure and diversity are associated with habitat variables of local breeding habitats and the surrounding agricultural landscapes. Standardized survey methodology for adult Odonata involved periodical counts over selected water-bodies (valley systems, semi-natural ponds, constructed agricultural reservoirs). Habitat variables relating to the type of water body, the floristic and physiognomic characteristics of vegetation, and the composition of the surrounding landscape, were studied and analyzed through a multivariate approach. Overall, odonate diversity was associated with a range of factors across multiple spatial scales, and was found to vary with time. Lentic water-bodies are probably of high conservation value, given that larval stages were mainly associated with this habitat category, and that all species were recorded in the adult stage in this habitat type. Comparatively, lentic and lotic seminatural waterbodies were more diverse than agricultural reservoirs and brackish habitats. Overall, different odonate groups were associated with different vegetation life-forms and height categories. The presence of the great reed, Arundo donax L., an invasive alien species that forms dense stands along several water-bodies within the Islands, seems to influence the abundance and/or occurrence of a number of species. At the landscape scale, roads and other ecologically disturbed ground, surface water-bodies, and landscape diversity were associated with particular components of the odonate assemblages. Findings from this study have several implications for the use of Odonata as biological indicators, and for current trends with respect to odonate diversity conservation within the Maltese Islands.
Relatively little information is available on environmental associations and the conservation of Odonata in the Maltese Islands. Aquatic habitats are normally spatio-temporally restricted, often located within predominantly rural landscapes, and are thereby susceptible to farmland water management practices, which may create additional pressure on water resources. This study investigates how odonate assemblage structure and diversity are associated with habitat variables of local breeding habitats and the surrounding agricultural landscapes. Standardized survey methodology for adult Odonata involved periodical counts over selected water-bodies (valley systems, semi-natural ponds, constructed agricultural reservoirs). Habitat variables relating to the type of water body, the floristic and physiognomic characteristics of vegetation, and the composition of the surrounding landscape, were studied and analyzed through a multivariate approach. Overall, odonate diversity was associated with a range of factors across multiple spatial scales, and was found to vary with time. Lentic water-bodies are probably of high conservation value, given that larval stages were mainly associated with this habitat category, and that all species were recorded in the adult stage in this habitat type. Comparatively, lentic and lotic seminatural waterbodies were more diverse than agricultural reservoirs and brackish habitats. Overall, different odonate groups were associated with different vegetation life-forms and height categories. The presence of the great reed, Arundo donax L., an invasive alien species that forms dense stands along several water-bodies within the Islands, seems to influence the abundance and/or occurrence of a number of species. At the landscape scale, roads and other ecologically disturbed ground, surface water-bodies, and landscape diversity were associated with particular components of the odonate assemblages. Findings from this study have several implications for the use of Odonata as biological indicators, and for current trends with respect to odonate diversity conservation within the Maltese Islands. PMID:23427906
Meningiomas may influence both survival and neurological functions. Studies assessing the impact of surgery on health-related quality of life (HRQL) remain absent. In this prospective study we aimed to describe HRQL dynamics before and after surgery in patients with meningiomas. HRQL assessments were performed using EuroQol-5D (EQ-5D), a generic HRQL instrument. All adult patients with suspected intracranial meningioma from 2007 through 2011 were eligible for inclusion, and 54 patients were included after informed consent. All patients received a histopathological diagnosis of meningioma. The average preoperative EQ-5D index value (±SD) was 0.69 ± 0.26. The mean improvement 6 weeks after surgery was 0.06 (95 % CI, -0.03 to 0.16; p = 0.161) and the mean long term improvement was 0.09 (95 % CI, 0.00-0.17; p = 0.040). Surgery reduced pain/discomfort and anxiety/depression and improved the capability of performing usual activities. Clinically significant improvement at long-term assessment was noted in 25 patients (49 %) while a significant deterioration was reported in 10 patients (20 %). Patients who reported postoperative worsening of HRQL were also reporting better preoperative scores, suggesting a possible ceiling effect of EQ-5D in some of these patients. In our patients a modest average improvement in HRQL was seen after surgery for meningioma. About half of the patients reported a clinical important improvement at the late follow-up assessment. This improvement was mainly observed in the domains usual activities, pain/discomfort and anxiety/depression. However, one in five patients fared worse on late follow-up assessment, a figure of particular importance when treating asymptomatic meningiomas. PMID:22837023
Jakola, Asgeir S; Gulati, Michel; Gulati, Sasha; Solheim, Ole
We analyzed what are the best ecological conditions for megafauna associated with the bamboo coral Isidella elongata based on the geomorphological, physical and trophic information taken in 3 stations (St1, St2, St3) off the southern Catalonian coasts at 620 m depth in June 2011. Results were compared with assemblage compositions recorded in past cruises (May 1992, 1994) at the same 3 stations. St1 was in a fishing ground exploited since the 1940s over a relatively wide slope at ca. 22 km from the nearest canyon head; St2 and St3 were on a narrower slope closer to canyon heads and to the Ebro river mouth than St1. I. elongata had formed (to May 1994, at least) a dense coral forest at St2-St3 (to ca. 255 colonies/ha at St3), and some isolated colonies (to ca. 0.9 colonies/ha) were still collected in 2011. Fish and invertebrate communities significantly differed between St1 and St2/St3, with two macrourid fishes (Trachrhynchus trachyrhynchus and Nezumia aequalis) and two decapods (Plesionika martia and Plesionika acanthonotus) more abundant at St2/St3. The following ecological indicators imply better food conditions for megafauna at St2-St3 and for I. elongata itself: (i) greater density of zooplankton (copepods, euphausiids, and others) as potential prey for planktivores (including I. elongata); (ii) greater biomass and mean weight of epifaunal and infaunal deposit feeders; (iii) higher feeding intensity, F, at St3 for benthos feeders (Phycis blennoides, N. aequalis and Aristeus antennatus). Also, at St2-St3 we found higher near-bottom turbidity (indicating particle resuspension: food for suspension feeders) and finer and more reduced (Eh) sediments. The results let us suggest that corals and accompanying fauna preferently found optimal ecological conditions in the same habitat, while habitat-forming capacity by I. elongata seemed weak to generate these conditions. Coral forests may enhance detritus accumulations around them, improving habitat conditions for benthos feeders (e.g. macrourid fish). At St3 our side-scan sonar recorded three types of tracks produced by trawler doors, which match with three identified vessels occasionally operating in the area. After this low fishing activity off the Ebro Delta since the mid-1990s, almost all colonies of I. elongata has been removed. However, this impact has hardly altered fish and invertebrate composition without any significant loss of diversity, pointing also toward a rather low capacity of I. elongata facies in forming habitat for megafauna on muddy bottoms of the Mediterranean slope.
Cartes, J. E.; LoIacono, C.; Mamouridis, V.; López-Pérez, C.; Rodríguez, P.
There is increasing evidence that work-life imbalance has a direct impact on societal issues, such as delayed parenting, declining fertility rates, ageing populations, and decreasing labour supply. It is documented that work-life balance policies are beneficial for individuals, their families, organisations, and society. However, other evidence demonstrates that the associated benefits are not always realised and work-life balance policies can
Paula Brough; Jackie Holt; Rosie Bauld; Amanda Biggs; Claire Ryan
There is increasing evidence that work—life imbalance has a direct impact on societal issues, such as delayed parenting, declining fertility rates, ageing populations, and decreasing labour supply. It is documented that work—life balance policies are beneficial for individuals, their families, organisations, and society. However, other evidence demonstrates that the associated benefits are not always realised and work—life balance policies can
Paula Brough; Jackie Holt; Rosie Bauld; Amanda Biggs; Claire Ryan
Countries with better health, as indexed by life expectancy, score higher on subjective well-being (SWB). It was predicted\\u000a that deviations from the average sex difference in life expectancy (reflecting reproductive competition among males and discrimination\\u000a against females) would be inversely related to happiness. Regression analysis of SWB for 178 countries found that deviations\\u000a from the average sex difference in life
The goal of this guide is to address a major environmental dilemma: worldwide habitat destruction and the disappearance of species. This guide is one of six that are included in the Habitat Ecology Learning Program (HELP), a holistic life science curriculum that involves students in an in-depth study of ecology. HELP includes six teaching guides…
The goal of this guide is to address a major environmental dilemma: worldwide habitat destruction and the disappearance of species. This guide is one of six that are included in the Habitat Ecology Learning Program (HELP), a holistic life science curriculum that involves students in an in-depth study of ecology. HELP includes six teaching guides…
The goal of this guide is to address a major environmental dilemma: worldwide habitat destruction and the disappearance of species. This guide is one of six that are included in the Habitat Ecology Learning Program (HELP), a holistic life science curriculum that involves students in an in-depth study of ecology. HELP includes six teaching guides…
The goal of this guide is to address a major environmental dilemma: worldwide habitat destruction and the disappearance of species. This guide is one of six that are included in the Habitat Ecology Learning Program (HELP), a holistic life science curriculum that involves students in an in-depth study of ecology. HELP includes six teaching guides…
Metamorphosis from a pelagic to a benthic stage is a critical transition in the life cycle of sessile marine invertebrates. The barnacle Semibalanus balanoides attaches permanently during set- tlement, and once attached, its gross location in the adult habitat is fixed. The partitioning of benthic habitat among barnacles in a recruit cohort is often mediated by settlement timing because early
|The goal of this guide is to address a major environmental dilemma: worldwide habitat destruction and the disappearance of species. This guide is one of six that are included in the Habitat Ecology Learning Program (HELP), a holistic life science curriculum that involves students in an in-depth study of ecology. HELP includes six teaching guides…
|The goal of this guide is to address a major environmental dilemma: worldwide habitat destruction and the disappearance of species. This guide is one of six that are included in the Habitat Ecology Learning Program (HELP), a holistic life science curriculum that involves students in an in-depth study of ecology. HELP includes six teaching guides…
|The goal of this guide is to address a major environmental dilemma: worldwide habitat destruction and the disappearance of species. This guide is one of six that are included in the Habitat Ecology Learning Program (HELP), a holistic life science curriculum that involves students in an in-depth study of ecology. HELP includes six teaching guides…
|The goal of this guide is to address a major environmental dilemma: worldwide habitat destruction and the disappearance of species. This guide is one of six that are included in the Habitat Ecology Learning Program (HELP), a holistic life science curriculum that involves students in an in-depth study of ecology. HELP includes six teaching guides…
|The goal of this guide is to address a major environmental dilemma: worldwide habitat destruction and the disappearance of species. This guide is one of six that are included in the Habitat Ecology Learning Program (HELP), a holistic life science curriculum that involves students in an in-depth study of ecology. HELP includes six teaching guides…
We investigated the relationship between maternal and early lifeinfluences, calcaneal ultrasound parameters, and metacarpal\\u000a morphometry in 7- to 9-year-old children (n = 109) of mixed ancestral origin from a working class community. Their mothers had participated in a nutrition and pregnancy\\u000a study at the time of the birth. Demographic and maternal data were collected. Anthropometry was assessed. Broadband ultrasound
Lisa Micklesfield; Naomi Levitt; Muhammed Dhansay; Shane Norris; Lize van der Merwe; Estelle Lambert
The India Habitat Centre(IHC) was created in New Delhi, India, to "provide a physical environment [to] serve as a catalyst for a synergetic relationship between individuals and institutions working in diverse habitat related areas." Their website gives visitors a generous glimpse into what it is like to enjoy such features as the "Habitat Film Club", "Habitat Learning Centre", and the "IHC Visual Arts Gallery". Like a multi-faceted community center, the IHC houses a "Habitat Library & Resource Centre" and offers a monthly "Habitat Walk", among other activities. The "Habitat Walk" gives community members the opportunity to visit various natural and historical sites, and provides several pages of background on the sites that visitors can download or print from the "Habitat Walk" link on the website. The center also reaches out and empowers the community by encouraging students and non-students to participate in their annual contest for the Habitat Young Visionary Award, a photography fellowship, and in the recent past, internships in a non-governmental organization.
Large portions of anadromous salmonid habitat in the western United States has been lost because of dams and other blockages. This loss has the potential to affect salmonid evolution through natural selection if the loss is biased, affecting certain types of habitat differentially, and if phenotypic traits correlated with those habitat types are heritable. Habitat loss can also affect salmonid evolution indirectly, by reducing genetic variation and changing its distribution within and among populations. In this paper, we compare the characteristics of lost habitats with currently accessible habitats and review the heritability of traits which show correlations with habitat/environmental gradients. We find that although there is some regional variation, inaccessible habitats tend to be higher in elevation, wetter and both warmer in the summer and colder in the winter than habitats currently available to anadromous salmonids. We present several case studies that demonstrate either a change in phenotypic or life history expression or an apparent reduction in genetic variation associated with habitat blockages. These results suggest that loss of habitat will alter evolutionary trajectories in salmonid populations and Evolutionarily Significant Units. Changes in both selective regime and standing genetic diversity might affect the ability of these taxa to respond to subsequent environmental perturbations. Both natural and anthropogenic and should be considered seriously in developing management and conservation strategies.
McClure, Michelle M; Carlson, Stephanie M; Beechie, Timothy J; Pess, George R; Jorgensen, Jeffrey C; Sogard, Susan M; Sultan, Sonia E; Holzer, Damon M; Travis, Joseph; Sanderson, Beth L; Power, Mary E; Carmichael, Richard W
In native habitats, channeled applesnails (Pomacea canaliculata) graze periphyton. However, casual observations from introduced populations suggest these invaders show variation in feeding ecology, predator response and life history strategies. Attempts to predict this consumer influence on ecosystem function suffer from a lack of basic data. We tested how salinity affected snail mortality. Both adults and hatchlings tolerated salinity levels up
Using national data from the U.S., we find that poor health at birth and limited parental resources (including low income, lack of health insurance, and unwanted pregnancy) interfere with cognitive development and health capital in childhood, reduce educational attainment, and lead to worse labor market and health outcomes in adulthood. These effects are substantial and robust to the inclusion of sibling fixed effects and an extensive set of controls. The results reveal that low birth weight ages people in their 30s and 40s by 12 years, increases the probability of dropping out of high school by one-third, lowers labor force participation by 5 percentage points, and reduces labor market earnings by roughly 15 percent. While poor birth outcomes reduce human capital accumulation, they explain only 10 percent of the total effect of low birth weight on labor market earnings. Taken together, the evidence is consistent with a negative reinforcing intergenerational transmission of disadvantage within the family; parental economic status influences birth outcomes, birth outcomes have long reaching effects on health and economic status in adulthood, which in turn leads to poor birth outcomes for one’s own children.
The temperature and stress distribution in freight car wheel are very important to the operation life. According to the data of investigation, the relationship among the wheel service life, crack rate on web hole and rim thickness is analyzed. The loads, boundary conditions and loading processes in the finite element analysis of temperature, stress field and wheel-railway mechanical stress are
Satisfaction in different life domains was examined with respect to parent and peer attachment relationships in middle childhood and early adolescence. Three hundred and three students, evenly distributed across sex and grade (fourth, sixth, and eighth) were administered "People in My Life," a measure of attachment relationships, and the…
In this paper it is illustrated how statistical residual life estimates of bearings can be used to justify maintenance practices. Residual life estimates are based on Proportional Intensity Models for non-repairable systems utilising historic failure data and corresponding diagnostic measurements. A case study is presented where failure and diagnostic data obtained from roller bearings operating in the dryer section of
Density-dependent larval life history characteristics of sea lampreys Petromyzon marinus may have important management implications for sea lamprey control if life history attributes directly respond to conditions created by control strategies. Our objective was to examine the effects of larval sea lamprey density on sex ratio, size at metamorphosis, and age at metamorphosis in Lewis Creek, Vermont (one reach with
In many species, certain life-history stages are difficult or impossible to observe directly, hampering management. Often more easily observed stages are mon- itored instead, but the extent to which various forms of uncertainty cloud our ability to discern trends in one critical life-history stage by observing another is poorly studied. We develop a stochastic simulation model for threatened Califor- nia
Herbivores have diverse impacts on their host plants, potentially altering survival, growth, fecundity, and other aspects of plant performance. Especially for longer-lived plant species, the effects of a single herbivore species can vary markedly throughout the life of the host plant. In addition, the effects of herbivory during any given life history stage of a host plant may also vary
Who can benefit from this web site: Everyone interested in protecting wildlife along highways and the habitats that sustain them. What are the issues: Roads are the arteries of life. They get us where we want to go. They also stop animals in their tracks ...
Background The importance of neonatal experience upon behaviour in later life is increasingly recognised. The overlap between pain and reward pathways led us to hypothesise that neonatal pain experience influences reward-related pathways and behaviours in adulthood. Methodology/Principal Findings Rat pups received repeat plantar skin incisions (neonatal IN) or control procedures (neonatal anesthesia only, AN) at postnatal days (P)3, 10 and 17. When adult, rats with neonatal ‘pain history’ showed greater sensory sensitivity than control rats following acute plantar skin incision. Motivational behaviour in the two groups of rats was tested in a novelty-induced hypophagia (NIH) paradigm. The sensitivity of this paradigm to pain-induced changes in motivational behaviour was shown by significant increases in the time spent in the central zone of the arena (43.7±5.9% vs. 22.5±6.7%, p<0.05), close to centrally placed food treats, and decreased number of rears (9.5±1.4 vs. 19.2±2.3, p<0.001) in rats with acute plantar skin incision compared to naive, uninjured animals. Rats with a neonatal ‘pain history’ showed the same pain-induced behaviour in the novelty-induced hypophagia paradigm as controls. However, differences were observed in reward-related neural activity between the two groups. Two hours after behavioural testing, brains were harvested and neuronal activity mapped using c-Fos expression in lateral hypothalamic orexin neurons, part of a specific reward seeking pathway. Pain-induced activity in orexin neurons of control rats (18.4±2.8%) was the same as in uninjured naive animals (15.5±2.6%), but in those rats with a ‘pain history’, orexinergic activity was significantly increased (27.2±4.1%, p<0.01). Furthermore the extent of orexin neuron activation in individual rats with a ‘pain history’ was highly correlated with their motivational behaviour (r?=??0.86, p?=?0.01). Conclusions/Significance These results show that acute pain alters motivational behaviour and that neonatal pain experience causes long-term changes in brain motivational orexinergic pathways, known to modulate mesolimbic dopaminergic reward circuitry.
Background The life history strategy of a species can influence how populations of that species respond to environmental variation. In this study, we used a matrix modeling approach to examine how life history differences among sympatric rock and white-tailed ptarmigan affect the influence of demographic rates on population growth (?) and the potential response to a changing climate. Rock ptarmigan have a slower life history strategy than white-tailed ptarmigan in the study region with lower annual reproductive effort but higher adult survival. Results Based on data from a 5-year field study, deterministic estimates of ? indicated that populations were stable for rock ptarmigan (??=?1.01), but declining for white-tailed ptarmigan (??=?0.96). The demographic rates with the highest elasticity for rock ptarmigan were the survival of after-second year females, followed by juvenile survival and success of the first nest. For white-tailed ptarmigan, juvenile survival had the highest elasticity followed by success of the first nest and survival of second-year females. Incorporating stochasticity into the demographic rates led to a 2 and 4% drop in ? for rock and white-tailed ptarmigan respectively. Using data from the first three years we also found that population growth rates of both species were depressed following an increased frequency of severe years, but less so for rock ptarmigan which showed greater resilience under these conditions. Conclusions Our results provide evidence that populations of closely related species can vary in their response to environmental change as a consequence of life history differences. Rock ptarmigan, with a slower life history, are more responsive to demographic rates that influence survival and older life stages but this response is tempered by the extent of variability in each of the rates. Thus, predictions need to consider both aspects in modeling population response to a varying climate. Juvenile survival was a highly influential rate for both species, but the period from independence to first breeding is a poorly understood stage for many bird species. Additional study on juvenile survival, the influence of density dependence and the effects of predators as the mechanism driving survival-reproduction tradeoffs are all areas requiring further study.
Send light weight, radiation shielded, temp controlled, inflatable/deflatable habitat to Mars. Sensors, life support, mining and localized manufacturing equip. Also gather data to improve radiation models of Earth, Mars, and the space in between.
Background: There is conflicting evidence about the influence of race/ethnicity on the use of intensive care at the end of life, and little is known about the influence of socioeconomic status. Methods: We examined patients who died in the ICU in 15 hospitals. Race/ethnicity was assessed as white and nonwhite. Socioeconomic status included patient education, health insurance, and income by zip code. To explore differences in end-of-life care, we examined the use of (1) advance directives, (2) life-sustaining therapies, (3) symptom management, (4) communication, and (5) support services. Results: Medical charts were abstracted for 3,138/3,400 patients of whom 2,479 (79%) were white and 659 (21%) were nonwhite (or Hispanic). In logistic regressions adjusted for patient demographics, socioeconomic factors, and site, nonwhite patients were less likely to have living wills (OR, 0.41; 95% CI, 0.32-0.54) and more likely to die with full support (OR, 1.59; 95% CI, 1.30-1.94). In documentation of family conferences, nonwhite patients were more likely to have documentation that prognosis was discussed (OR, 1.47; 95% CI, 1.21-1.77) and that physicians recommended withdrawal of life support (OR, 1.57; 95% CI, 1.11-2.21). Nonwhite patients also were more likely to have discord documented among family members or with clinicians (OR, 1.49; 95% CI, 1.04-2.15). Socioeconomic status did not modify these associations and was not a consistent predictor of end-of-life care. Conclusions: We found numerous racial/ethnic differences in end-of-life care in the ICU that were not influenced by socioeconomic status. These differences could be due to treatment preferences, disparities, or both. Improving ICU end-of-life care for all patients and families will require a better understanding of these issues. Trial registry: ClinicalTrials.gov; No.: NCT00685893; URL: www.clinicaltrials.gov
The effects of waveform symmetry on the low-cycle fatigue life of the \\u0009Sn-3.0Ag-0.5Cu alloy have been investigated, using\\u000a micro solder joint specimens with approximately the same volume of solder as is used in actual products. Focusing on crack\\u000a initiation life, fatigue tests on Sn-Ag-Cu micro solder joints using asymmetrical triangular waveforms revealed no significant\\u000a reduction in fatigue life. A slight
|This project aims to provide basic steps for students to restore and create wildlife habitats on school grounds. Four chapters are included in this guide, and each chapter is divided into teacher and student sections. Chapter 1 provides necessary information for starting a habitat project. Chapters 2, 3, and 4 discuss the details for the Forest…
Human organism is sensitive to space environment factors such as temperature variations, ra-diation, microgravity, that exist in all space missions on the board of space ships and space stations on Low Earth Orbit (LEO). The materials and constructions of modern space ships and ISS provide acceptable conditions for human crew during some months on the LEO. Fu-ture space flights to Moon, Mars and further will require new materials and stronger protection against high intensity solar irradiation, which could kill living organisms when flight is over the radiation belt of Earth. One of the modern project for future space flight is a large size habitat based on inflatable technology with rigidization of the habitat walls after deployment. The requirements for radiation protection, stable inflating, rigidization and sufficient mechan-ical properties during long life-time of the habitat are key question for selection of a suitable materials of the habitat. The properties of the inflatable rigidizable habitat to save life in far space are considered and discussed.
Flounder (Platichthys flesus) is a temperate marine fish that is well adapted to the brackish waters of the Baltic Sea. There are two sympatric flounder populations in the Baltic Sea, pelagic and demersal spawners, which differ in their spawning habitat and egg characteristics. In the present study, pelagic spawning flounder of the central Baltic Sea was studied. We examined whether variations in hydrological regime can explain fluctuations in flounder early life stages that have occurred over the past 30 years (1970-2005). Using generalized additive modeling to explain the abundance of flounder eggs and larvae in a Latvian ichthyoplankton dataset, we evaluate the hypothesis that the available reproductive volume, defined as the water column with dissolved oxygen larger than 1 ml/l and salinity between 10.6 and 12 PSU, affects the survival of flounder ichthyoplankton and determines recruitment success.Both reproductive volume and spawning stock biomass were significant factors determining flounder ichthyoplankton abundance. Different measures of water temperature did not contribute significantly to the variability of eggs or larvae. However, recruitment did not correlate to the supply of larvae. The findings presented in this study on the relationship between flounder reproduction, spawning stock biomass and reproductive volume, as well as the lack of correlation to recruitment, are valuable for the understanding of flounder ecology in the Baltic Sea, and for developing the management of the species.
Ustups, Didzis; Müller-Karulis, Bärbel; Bergstrom, Ulf; Makarchouk, Andrej; Sics, Ivo
The effects of waveform symmetry on the low-cycle fatigue life of the Sn-3.0Ag-0.5Cu alloy have been investigated, using micro solder joint specimens with approximately the same volume of solder as is used in actual products. Focusing on crack initiation life, fatigue tests on Sn-Ag-Cu micro solder joints using asymmetrical triangular waveforms revealed no significant reduction in fatigue life. A slight reduction in fatigue life at low strain ranges caused by an increase in the fatigue ductility exponent, which is the result of a weakening microstructure due to loads applied at high temperature for long testing time, was observed. This was due to the fact that grain boundary damage, which has been reported in large-size specimens subjected to asymmetrical triangular waveforms, does not occur in Sn-Ag-Cu micro size solder joints with only a small number of crystal grain boundaries.
The implications of shallow water impacts such as fishing and climate change on fish assemblages are generally considered in isolation from the distribution and abundance of these fish assemblages in adjacent deeper waters. We investigate the abundance and length of demersal fish assemblages across a section of tropical continental shelf at Ningaloo Reef, Western Australia, to identify fish and fish habitat relationships across steep gradients in depth and in different benthic habitat types. The assemblage composition of demersal fish were assessed from baited remote underwater stereo-video samples (n?=?304) collected from 16 depth and habitat combinations. Samples were collected across a depth range poorly represented in the literature from the fringing reef lagoon (1–10 m depth), down the fore reef slope to the reef base (10–30 m depth) then across the adjacent continental shelf (30–110 m depth). Multivariate analyses showed that there were distinctive fish assemblages and different sized fish were associated with each habitat/depth category. Species richness, MaxN and diversity declined with depth, while average length and trophic level increased. The assemblage structure, diversity, size and trophic structure of demersal fishes changes from shallow inshore habitats to deeper water habitats. More habitat specialists (unique species per habitat/depth category) were associated with the reef slope and reef base than other habitats, but offshore sponge-dominated habitats and inshore coral-dominated reef also supported unique species. This suggests that marine protected areas in shallow coral-dominated reef habitats may not adequately protect those species whose depth distribution extends beyond shallow habitats, or other significant elements of demersal fish biodiversity. The ontogenetic habitat partitioning which is characteristic of many species, suggests that to maintain entire species life histories it is necessary to protect corridors of connected habitats through which fish can migrate.
Fitzpatrick, Ben M.; Harvey, Euan S.; Heyward, Andrew J.; Twiggs, Emily J.; Colquhoun, Jamie
Purpose: To examine spiritual quality of life (QOL) of veterans with intestinal ostomies. Design: Mixed-method cross-sectional. Methods: Male veterans with total scores in the upper (n = 59) and lower (n = 61) quartiles of the City of Hope Quality-of-Life–Ostomy survey provided spiritual QOL data. Analyses included chi-square and analysis of variance with significance set at p < .05. Content
Carol M. Baldwin; Marcia Grant; Christopher Wendel; Susan Rawl; C. Max Schmidt; Clifford Ko; Robert S. Krouse
Drawing from an ecological assets framework as well as research and theory on positive youth development, this study examined\\u000a the relationship of early adolescents’ satisfaction with life to trait optimism and assets representing the social contexts\\u000a in which early adolescents spend most of their time. Self-reports of satisfaction with life, optimism, and ecological assets\\u000a in the school (school connectedness), neighborhood
Eva OberleKimberly; Kimberly A. Schonert-Reichl; Bruno D. Zumbo
For the purpose of development of measures directed toward increasing the life of the VTR-20, the lining failure mechanism was investigated with the use of microscopic, x-ray diffraction, and analytical chemiacl methods of analysis. It was concluded that the life of the periclase lining of a high-temperature reactor in the production of ferrochrome is determined by a combiantion of factors
V. I. Vasilev; L. A. Dyakonova; I. A. Gnedina; T. L. Rozhdestvenskaya
This study examined relations between gender-linked personality traits (i.e., agency and communion) and life goals in a sample\\u000a of 237 undergraduates. In addition, gender similarities and differences in the relative importance of life goals were explored.\\u000a As predicted, agency was positively associated with the importance of most achievement goals such as having a career, whereas\\u000a communion and unmitigated communion were
Animals often prefer areas containing physical structure, and population density often increases with structural complexity, presumably because physical complexity in habitats may offer protection from predators and aggressive competitors. Consequently, increased habitat complexity often results in reduced territory size, lower aggression levels and reduced resource monopolisation by dominants. If behavioural plasticity is limited at early life stages, increased habitat complexity
Subjective quality of life (SQOL) is an important outcome in the treatment of patients with schizophrenia. However, there is only limited evidence on factors influencing SQOL, and little is known about whether the same factors influence SQOL in patients with schizophrenia and other mental disorders. This study aimed to identify the factors associated with SQOL and test whether these factors are equally important in schizophrenia and other disorders. For this we used a pooled data set obtained from 16 studies that had used either the Lancashire Quality of Life Profile or the Manchester Short Assessment of Quality of Life for assessing SQOL. The sample comprised 3936 patients with schizophrenia, mood disorders, and neurotic disorders. After controlling for confounding factors, within-subject clustering, and heterogeneity of findings across studies in linear mixed models, patients with schizophrenia had more favourable SQOL scores than those with mood and neurotic disorders. In all diagnostic groups, older patients, those in employment, and those with lower symptom scores had higher SQOL scores. Whilst the strength of the association between age and SQOL did not differ across diagnostic groups, symptom levels were more strongly associated with SQOL in neurotic than in mood disorders and schizophrenia. The association of employment and SQOL was stronger in mood and neurotic disorders than in schizophrenia. The findings may inform the use and interpretation of SQOL data for patients with schizophrenia. PMID:20483566
Intrinsic processes are assumed to underlie life history expression and trade-offs, but extrinsic inputs are theorised to shift trait expression and mask trade-offs within species. Here, we explore application of this theory across species. We do this based on parentally induced embryo temperature as an extrinsic input, and mass-specific embryo metabolism as an intrinsic process, underlying embryonic development rate. We found that embryonic metabolism followed intrinsic allometry rules among 49 songbird species from temperate and tropical sites. Extrinsic inputs via parentally induced temperatures explained the majority of variation in development rates and masked a relationship with metabolism; metabolism explained a minor proportion of the variation in development rates among species, and only after accounting for temperature effects. We discuss evidence that temperature further obscures the expected interspecific trade-off between development rate and offspring quality. These results demonstrate the importance of considering extrinsic inputs to trait expression and trade-offs across species. PMID:23473270
The goal of habitat restoration is to provide environmental conditions that promote the maintenance and growth of target populations. But rarely is it considered how the allocation of resources influences the diversity of phenotypes in these populations. Here we present a framework for considering how habitat restoration can shape the development and expression of phenotypes. We call this approach phenotype
Jason V. Watters; Sean C. Lema; Gabrielle A. Nevitt
Habitat loss and fragmentation are among the greatest threats to biodiversity, and these threats can be exacerbated or alleviated by the presence of interacting species. The effect of habitat loss and fragmentation on predator-prey systems has received extensive theoretical attention, but empirical studies of these systems yield few clear patterns. I examined the influence of prey abundance and spatial distribution
Why do some people take risks and live for the present, whereas others avoid risks and save for the future? The evolutionary framework of life history theory predicts that preferences for risk and delay in gratification should be influenced by mortality and resource scarcity. A series of experiments examined how mortality cues influenced decisions involving risk preference (e.g., $10 for sure vs. 50% chance of $20) and temporal discounting (e.g., $5 now vs. $10 later). The effect of mortality depended critically on whether people grew up in a relatively resource-scarce or resource-plentiful environment. For individuals who grew up relatively poor, mortality cues led them to value the present and gamble for big immediate rewards. Conversely, for individuals who grew up relatively wealthy, mortality cues led them to value the future and avoid risky gambles. Overall, mortality cues appear to propel individuals toward diverging life history strategies as a function of childhood socioeconomic status, suggesting important implications for how environmental factors influence economic decisions and risky behaviors.
Griskevicius, Vladas; Tybur, Joshua M.; Delton, Andrew W.; Robertson, Theresa E.
Research chronicling links between a polymorphism in the serotonin-transporter gene (5-HTTLPR) and neuroticism has yielded inconsistent results. One possible explanation for this inconsistency is that any gene-phenotype association is obscured by a gene-X-environment (GXE) interaction. We studied a healthy non-clinical sample (N=118) to determine whether the 5-HTTLPR interacts with current life events in predicting neuroticism. The differential-susceptibility hypothesis led to the prediction of such an interaction, reflecting the fact that individuals with short alleles would be affected more by both negative and positive life events than those homozygous for long alleles. Participants completed questionnaires concerning recent life events and neuroticism. The 5-HTTLPR was genotyped using a standard protocol with DNA extracted from oral fluid. For those homozygous for the short allele, more negative life events proved related to greater neuroticism, whereas more positive life events proved related to less neuroticism. No such association emerged in the case of those homozygous for the long allele. Whereas neuroticism is likely to be an especially stable trait in individuals homozygous for the long allele, this may be less so the case for those carrying short alleles. PMID:20573579
Pluess, Michael; Belsky, Jay; Way, Baldwin M; Taylor, Shelley E
Maternally derived yolk antibodies provide neonates with immune protection in early life at negligible cost to mothers. However, developmental effects on the neonate's future immunity are potentially costly and thus could limit yolk antibody deposition. The benefits to neonatal immunity must be balanced against costs, which may depend on neonate vulnerability to pathogens, developmental trajectories and the immunological strategies best suited to a species' pace of life. We measured yolk antibodies and life-history features of 23 species of small Neotropical birds and assessed the evidence for each of several hypotheses for life history and ecological effects on the evolution of yolk antibody levels. Developmental period and yolk antibodies are negatively related, which possibly reflect the importance of humoral immune priming through antigen exposure, and selection to avoid autoimmunity, in species with a slower pace of life. There is also a strong relationship between body size and yolk antibody concentration, suggesting that larger species are architecturally equipped to produce and transfer higher concentrations of antibodies. These results suggest that developmental effects of maternally derived antibodies, such as imprinting effects on B-cell diversity or autoimmune effects, are important and deserve more consideration in future research.
Addison, BriAnne; Klasing, Kirk C.; Robinson, W. Douglas; Austin, Suzanne H.; Ricklefs, Robert E.
We explore the content and correlates of older adults’ end-of-life treatment preferences in two hypothetical terminal illness scenarios: severe physical pain with no cognitive impairment, and severe cognitive impairment with no physical pain. For each scenario, we assess whether participants would reject life-prolonging treatment, accept treatment, or do not know their preferences. Using data from the 2004 wave of the Wisconsin Longitudinal Study (N = 5,106), we estimate multinomial logistic regression models to evaluate whether treatment preferences are associated with direct experience with end-of-life issues, personal beliefs, health, and sociodemographic characteristics. Persons who have made formal end-of-life preparations, persons with no religious affiliation, mainline Protestants, and persons who are pessimistic about their own life expectancy are more likely to reject treatment in both scenarios. Women and persons who witnessed the painful death of a loved one are more likely to reject treatment in the cognitive impairment scenario only. Consistent with rational choice perspectives, our results suggest that individuals prefer treatments that they perceive to have highly probable desirable consequences for both self and family.
The monogenean Protopolystoma xenopodis has been established in Wales for >40 years following introduction with Xenopus laevis from South Africa. This provides an experimental system for determining constraints affecting introduced species in novel environments. Parasite development post-infection was followed at 15, 20 and 25°C for 15 weeks and at 10°C for ?1 year and correlated with temperatures recorded in Wales. Development was slowed/arrested at ?10°C which reflects habitat conditions for >6 months/year. There was wide variation in growth at constant temperature (body size differing by >10 times) potentially attributable in part to genotype-specific host-parasite interactions. Parasite density had no effect on size but host sex did: worms in males were 1·8 times larger than in females. Minimum time to patency was 51 days at 25°C and 73 days at 20°C although some infections were still not patent at both temperatures by 105 days p.i. In Wales, fastest developing infections may mature within one summer (about 12 weeks), possibly accelerated by movements of hosts into warmer surface waters. Otherwise, development slows/stops in October-April, delaying patency to about 1 year p.i., while wide variation in developmental rates may impose delays of 2 years in some primary infections and even longer in secondary infections. PMID:21733261
Tinsley, R C; York, J E; Stott, L C; Everard, A L E; Chapple, S J; Tinsley, M C