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Sample records for habitat-specialist mediterranean narrow

  1. Geographical Structuring of Genetic Diversity Across the Whole Distribution Range of Narcissus longispathus, a Habitat-specialist, Mediterranean Narrow Endemic

    PubMed Central

    Medrano, Mónica; Herrera, Carlos M.

    2008-01-01

    Background and Aims High mountain ranges of the Mediterranean Basin harbour a large number of narrowly endemic plants. In this study an investigation is made of the levels and partitioning of genetic diversity in Narcissus longispathus, a narrow endemic of south-eastern Spanish mountains characterized by a naturally fragmented distribution due to extreme specialization on a rare habitat type. By using dense sampling of populations across the species' whole geographical range, genetic structuring at different geographical scales is also examined. Methods Using horizontal starch-gel electrophoresis, allozyme variability was screened at 19 loci for a total of 858 individuals from 27 populations. The data were analysed by means of standard statistical approaches in order to estimate gene diversity and the genetic structure of the populations. Key Results Narcissus longispathus displayed high levels of genetic diversity and extensive diversification among populations. At the species level, the percentage of polymorphic loci was 68 %, with average values of 2·1, 0·11 and 0·14 for the number of alleles per locus, observed heterozygosity and expected heterozygosity, respectively. Southern and more isolated populations tended to have less genetic variability than northern and less-isolated populations. A strong spatial patterning of genetic diversity was found at the various spatial scales. Gene flow/drift equilibrium occurred over distances <4 km. Beyond that distance divergence was relatively more influenced by drift. The populations studied seem to derive from three panmictic units or ‘gene pools’, with levels of admixture being greatest in the central and south-eastern portions of the species' range. Conclusions In addition to documenting a case of high genetic diversity in a narrow endemic plant with naturally fragmented populations, the results emphasize the need for dense population sampling and examination of different geographical scales for understanding

  2. The age of island-like habitats impacts habitat specialist species richness.

    PubMed

    Horsák, Michal; Hájek, Michal; Spitale, Daniel; Hájková, Petra; Díte, Daniel; Nekola, Jeffrey C

    2012-05-01

    While the effects of contemporaneous local environment on species richness have been repeatedly documented, much less is known about historical effects, especially over large temporal scales. Using fen sites in the Western Carpathian Mountains with known radiocarbon-dated ages spanning Late Glacial to modern times (16 975-270 cal years before 2008), we have compiled richness data from the same plots for three groups of taxa with contrasting dispersal modes: (1) vascular plants, which have macroscopic propagules possessing variable, but rather low, dispersal abilities; (2) bryophytes, which have microscopic propagules that are readily transported long distances by air; and (3) terrestrial and freshwater mollusks, which have macroscopic individuals with slow active migration rates, but which also often possess high passive dispersal abilities. Using path analysis we tested the relationships between species richness and habitat age, area, isolation, and altitude for these groups. When only matrix-derived taxa were considered, no significant positive relation was noted between species richness and habitat size or age. When only calcareous-fen specialists were considered, however, habitat age was found to significantly affect vascular plant richness and, marginally, also bryophyte richness, whereas mollusk richness was significantly affected by habitat area. These results suggest that in inland insular systems only habitat specialist (i.e., interpatch disperser and/or relict species) richness is influenced by habitat age and/or area, with habitat age becoming more important as species dispersal ability decreases. PMID:22764496

  3. Phylogeography sheds light on the central–marginal hypothesis in a Mediterranean narrow endemic plant

    PubMed Central

    Pouget, Marine; Youssef, Sami; Migliore, Jérémy; Juin, Marianick; Médail, Frédéric; Baumel, Alex

    2013-01-01

    Background and Aims Understanding the factors that shape variation in genetic diversity across the geographic ranges of species is an important challenge in the effort to conserve evolutionary processes sustaining biodiversity. The historical influences leading to a central–marginal organization of genetic diversity have been explored for species whose range is known to have expanded from refugia after glacial events. However, this question has rarely been addressed for Mediterranean endemic plants of azonal habitats such as rocky slopes or screes. In this context, this comprehensive study examined molecular and field data from Arenaria provincialis (Caryophyllaceae), a narrow endemic plant of south-eastern France. Methods Across the whole geographic range, an investigation was made of whether high levels of abundance and genetic diversity (estimated from amplified fragment length polymorphism markers) are centrally distributed, to evaluate the relevance of the central–marginal hypothesis. Phylogeographic patterns inferred from chloroplast DNA (cpDNA) were used, applying Bayesian methods to test the influence of past biogeographic events. Multivariate analysis combining phylogeographic and ecological data was used to reveal the historical and ecological distinctiveness of populations. Key Results Despite the narrow distribution of A. provincialis, a high level of nucleotide variation is found within cpDNA loci, supporting its persistence throughout the Pleistocene period. The area characterized by the highest genetic diversity is centrally located. Structured phylogeography and Bayesian factor analysis supported the hypothesis that the central area of the distribution was the source of both westward and eastward migrations, probably during arid periods of the Pleistocene, and more recently was a crossroads of backward migrations. By contrast, the two areas located today at the range limits are younger, have reduced genetic diversity and are marginal in the

  4. A multiscale analysis of gene flow for the New England cottontail, an imperiled habitat specialist in a fragmented landscape.

    PubMed

    Fenderson, Lindsey E; Kovach, Adrienne I; Litvaitis, John A; O'Brien, Kathleen M; Boland, Kelly M; Jakubas, Walter J

    2014-05-01

    Landscape features of anthropogenic or natural origin can influence organisms' dispersal patterns and the connectivity of populations. Understanding these relationships is of broad interest in ecology and evolutionary biology and provides key insights for habitat conservation planning at the landscape scale. This knowledge is germane to restoration efforts for the New England cottontail (Sylvilagus transitionalis), an early successional habitat specialist of conservation concern. We evaluated local population structure and measures of genetic diversity of a geographically isolated population of cottontails in the northeastern United States. We also conducted a multiscale landscape genetic analysis, in which we assessed genetic discontinuities relative to the landscape and developed several resistance models to test hypotheses about landscape features that promote or inhibit cottontail dispersal within and across the local populations. Bayesian clustering identified four genetically distinct populations, with very little migration among them, and additional substructure within one of those populations. These populations had private alleles, low genetic diversity, critically low effective population sizes (3.2-36.7), and evidence of recent genetic bottlenecks. Major highways and a river were found to limit cottontail dispersal and to separate populations. The habitat along roadsides, railroad beds, and utility corridors, on the other hand, was found to facilitate cottontail movement among patches. The relative importance of dispersal barriers and facilitators on gene flow varied among populations in relation to landscape composition, demonstrating the complexity and context dependency of factors influencing gene flow and highlighting the importance of replication and scale in landscape genetic studies. Our findings provide information for the design of restoration landscapes for the New England cottontail and also highlight the dual influence of roads, as both

  5. A multiscale analysis of gene flow for the New England cottontail, an imperiled habitat specialist in a fragmented landscape

    PubMed Central

    Fenderson, Lindsey E; Kovach, Adrienne I; Litvaitis, John A; O'Brien, Kathleen M; Boland, Kelly M; Jakubas, Walter J

    2014-01-01

    Landscape features of anthropogenic or natural origin can influence organisms' dispersal patterns and the connectivity of populations. Understanding these relationships is of broad interest in ecology and evolutionary biology and provides key insights for habitat conservation planning at the landscape scale. This knowledge is germane to restoration efforts for the New England cottontail (Sylvilagus transitionalis), an early successional habitat specialist of conservation concern. We evaluated local population structure and measures of genetic diversity of a geographically isolated population of cottontails in the northeastern United States. We also conducted a multiscale landscape genetic analysis, in which we assessed genetic discontinuities relative to the landscape and developed several resistance models to test hypotheses about landscape features that promote or inhibit cottontail dispersal within and across the local populations. Bayesian clustering identified four genetically distinct populations, with very little migration among them, and additional substructure within one of those populations. These populations had private alleles, low genetic diversity, critically low effective population sizes (3.2–36.7), and evidence of recent genetic bottlenecks. Major highways and a river were found to limit cottontail dispersal and to separate populations. The habitat along roadsides, railroad beds, and utility corridors, on the other hand, was found to facilitate cottontail movement among patches. The relative importance of dispersal barriers and facilitators on gene flow varied among populations in relation to landscape composition, demonstrating the complexity and context dependency of factors influencing gene flow and highlighting the importance of replication and scale in landscape genetic studies. Our findings provide information for the design of restoration landscapes for the New England cottontail and also highlight the dual influence of roads, as both

  6. The Predictability of Phytophagous Insect Communities: Host Specialists as Habitat Specialists

    PubMed Central

    Müller, Jörg; Stadler, Jutta; Jarzabek-Müller, Andrea; Hacker, Hermann; ter Braak, Cajo; Brandl, Roland

    2011-01-01

    The difficulties specialized phytophagous insects face in finding habitats with an appropriate host should constrain their dispersal. Within the concept of metacommunities, this leads to the prediction that host-plant specialists should sort into local assemblages according to the local environmental conditions, i.e. habitat conditions, whereas assemblages of host-plant generalists should depend also on regional processes. Our study aimed at ranking the importance of local environmental factors and species composition of the vegetation for predicting the species composition of phytophagous moth assemblages with either a narrow or a broad host range. Our database consists of 351,506 specimens representing 820 species of nocturnal Macrolepidoptera sampled between 1980 and 2006 using light traps in 96 strict forest reserves in southern Germany. Species were grouped as specialists or generalists according to the food plants of the larvae; specialists use host plants belonging to one genus. We used predictive canonical correspondence and co-correspondence analyses to rank the importance of local environmental factors, the species composition of the vegetation and the role of host plants for predicting the species composition of host-plant specialists and generalists. The cross-validatory fit for predicting the species composition of phytophagous moths was higher for host-plant specialists than for host-plant generalists using environmental factors as well as the composition of the vegetation. As expected for host-plant specialists, the species composition of the vegetation was a better predictor of the composition of these assemblages than the environmental variables. But surprisingly, this difference for specialized insects was not due to the occurrence of their host plants. Overall, our study supports the idea that owing to evolutionary constraints in finding a host, host-plant specialists and host-plant generalists follow two different models of metacommunities: the

  7. Investigating genetic diversity and habitat dynamics in Plantago brutia (Plantaginaceae), implications for the management of narrow endemics in Mediterranean mountain pastures.

    PubMed

    De Vita, A; Bernardo, L; Gargano, D; Palermo, A M; Peruzzi, L; Musacchio, A

    2009-11-01

    Many factors have contributed to the richness of narrow endemics in the Mediterranean, including long-lasting human impact on pristine landscapes. The abandonment of traditional land-use practices is causing forest recovery throughout the Mediterranean mountains, by increasing reduction and fragmentation of open habitats. We investigated the population genetic structure and habitat dynamics of Plantago brutia Ten., a narrow endemic in mountain pastures of S Italy. Some plants were cultivated in the botanical garden to explore the species' breeding system. Genetic diversity was evaluated based on inter-simple sequence repeat (ISSR) polymorphisms in 150 individuals from most of known stands. Recent dynamics in the species habitat were checked over a 14-year period. Flower phenology, stigma receptivity and experimental pollinations revealed protogyny and self-incompatibility. With the exception of very small and isolated populations, high genetic diversity was found at the species and population level. amova revealed weak differentiation among populations, and the Mantel test suggested absence of isolation-by-distance. Multivariate analysis of population and genetic data distinguished the populations based on genetic richness, size and isolation. Landscape analyses confirmed recent reduction and isolation of potentially suitable habitats. Low selfing, recent isolation and probable seed exchange may have preserved P. brutia populations from higher loss of genetic diversity. Nonetheless, data related to very small populations suggest that this species may suffer further fragmentation and isolation. To preserve most of the species' genetic richness, future management efforts should consider the large and isolated populations recognised in our analyses. PMID:19796359

  8. Too hot to trot? evaluating the effects of wildfire on patterns of occupancy and abundance for a climate-sensitive habitat-specialist

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Varner, Johanna; Lambert, Mallory S.; Horns, Joshua J.; Laverty, Sean; Dizney, Laurie; Beever, Erik; Dearing, M. Denise

    2015-01-01

    Wildfires are increasing in frequency and severity as a result of climate change in many ecosystems; however, effects of altered disturbance regimes on wildlife remain poorly quantified. Here, we leverage an unexpected opportunity to investigate how fire affects the occupancy and abundance of a climate-sensitive habitat specialist, the American pika (Ochotona princeps). We determine the effects of a fire on microclimates within talus and explore habitat factors promoting persistence and abundance in fire-affected habitat. During the fire, temperatures in talus interstices remained below 19°C, suggesting that animals could have survived in situ. Within 2 years, pikas were widely distributed throughout burned areas and did not appear to be physiologically stressed at severely burned sites. Furthermore, pika densities were better predicted by topographic variables known to affect this species than by metrics of fire severity. This widespread distribution may reflect quick vegetation recovery and the fact that the fire did not alter the talus microclimates in the following years. Together, these results highlight the value of talus as a thermal refuge for small animals during and after fire. They also underscore the importance of further study in individual species’ responses to typical and altered disturbance regimes.

  9. The effects of island forest restoration on open habitat specialists: the endangered weevil Hadramphus spinipennis Broun and its host-plant Aciphylla dieffenbachii Kirk.

    PubMed

    Fountain, Emily D; Malumbres-Olarte, Jagoba; Cruickshank, Robert H; Paterson, Adrian M

    2015-01-01

    Human alteration of islands has made restoration a key part of conservation management. As islands are restored to their original state, species interactions change and some populations may be impacted. In this study we examine the coxella weevil, (Hadramphus spinipennis Broun) and its host-plant Dieffenbach's speargrass (Aciphylla dieffenbachii Kirk), which are both open habitat specialists with populations on Mangere and Rangatira Islands, Chathams, New Zealand. Both of these islands were heavily impacted by the introduction of livestock; the majority of the forest was removed and the weevil populations declined due to the palatability of their host-plant to livestock. An intensive reforestation program was established on both islands over 50 years ago but the potential impacts of this restoration project on the already endangered H. spinipennis are poorly understood. We combined genetic and population data from 1995 and 2010-2011 to determine the health and status of these species on both islands. There was some genetic variation between the weevil populations on each island but little variation within the species as a whole. The interactions between the weevil and its host-plant populations appear to remain intact on Mangere, despite forest regeneration. A decline in weevils and host-plant on Rangatira does not appear to be caused by canopy regrowth. We recommend that (1) these populations be monitored for ongoing effects of long-term reforestation, (2) the cause of the decline on Rangatira be investigated, and (3) the two populations of weevils be conserved as separate evolutionarily significant units. PMID:25699201

  10. The effects of island forest restoration on open habitat specialists: the endangered weevil Hadramphus spinipennis Broun and its host-plant Aciphylla dieffenbachii Kirk

    PubMed Central

    Malumbres-Olarte, Jagoba; Cruickshank, Robert H.; Paterson, Adrian M.

    2015-01-01

    Human alteration of islands has made restoration a key part of conservation management. As islands are restored to their original state, species interactions change and some populations may be impacted. In this study we examine the coxella weevil, (Hadramphus spinipennis Broun) and its host-plant Dieffenbach’s speargrass (Aciphylla dieffenbachii Kirk), which are both open habitat specialists with populations on Mangere and Rangatira Islands, Chathams, New Zealand. Both of these islands were heavily impacted by the introduction of livestock; the majority of the forest was removed and the weevil populations declined due to the palatability of their host-plant to livestock. An intensive reforestation program was established on both islands over 50 years ago but the potential impacts of this restoration project on the already endangered H. spinipennis are poorly understood. We combined genetic and population data from 1995 and 2010–2011 to determine the health and status of these species on both islands. There was some genetic variation between the weevil populations on each island but little variation within the species as a whole. The interactions between the weevil and its host-plant populations appear to remain intact on Mangere, despite forest regeneration. A decline in weevils and host-plant on Rangatira does not appear to be caused by canopy regrowth. We recommend that (1) these populations be monitored for ongoing effects of long-term reforestation, (2) the cause of the decline on Rangatira be investigated, and (3) the two populations of weevils be conserved as separate evolutionarily significant units. PMID:25699201

  11. Mediterranean diet

    MedlinePlus

    ... doctor if you should take a calcium supplement. Wine is a common part of a Mediterranean eating ... but some people should not drink alcohol. Avoid wine if you are prone to alcohol abuse, pregnant, ...

  12. Narrowness and Liberality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Agresto, John

    2003-01-01

    John Agresto, whose task has been to rebuild the war-ravaged infrastructure of a Middle-Eastern university system, is discouraged to see that narrow expertise is the only goal of education there, to the utter exclusion of intellectual breadth. He comments that, although it is not that bad in the U.S., he feels that doctoral programs as currently…

  13. Narrow Width Pentaquarks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buccella, F.; Sorba, P.

    A general study of pentaquarks built with four quarks in a L=1 state and an antiquark in S-wave shows that several of such states are forbidden by a selection rule, which holds in the limit of flavor symmetry, to decay into a baryon and a meson final state. We identify the most promising /line{10} multiplet for the classification of the Θ+ and Ξ-- particles recently discovered with the prediction of a narrow width for both of them.

  14. Narrow Angle movie

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    This brief three-frame movie of the Moon was made from three Cassini narrow-angle images as the spacecraft passed by the Moon on the way to its closest approach with Earth on August 17, 1999. The purpose of this particular set of images was to calibrate the spectral response of the narrow-angle camera and to test its 'on-chip summing mode' data compression technique in flight. From left to right, they show the Moon in the green, blue and ultraviolet regions of the spectrum in 40, 60 and 80 millisecond exposures, respectively. All three images have been scaled so that the brightness of Crisium basin, the dark circular region in the upper right, is the same in each image. The spatial scale in the blue and ultraviolet images is 1.4 miles per pixel (2.3 kilometers). The original scale in the green image (which was captured in the usual manner and then reduced in size by 2x2 pixel summing within the camera system) was 2.8 miles per pixel (4.6 kilometers). It has been enlarged for display to the same scale as the other two. The imaging data were processed and released by the Cassini Imaging Central Laboratory for Operations (CICLOPS) at the University of Arizona's Lunar and Planetary Laboratory, Tucson, AZ.

    Photo Credit: NASA/JPL/Cassini Imaging Team/University of Arizona

    Cassini, launched in 1997, is a joint mission of NASA, the European Space Agency and Italian Space Agency. The mission is managed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington DC. JPL is a division of the California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA.

  15. NFC - Narrow Field Camera

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koukal, J.; Srba, J.; Gorková, S.

    2015-01-01

    We have been introducing a low-cost CCTV video system for faint meteor monitoring and here we describe the first results from 5 months of two-station operations. Our system called NFC (Narrow Field Camera) with a meteor limiting magnitude around +6.5mag allows research on trajectories of less massive meteoroids within individual parent meteor showers and the sporadic background. At present 4 stations (2 pairs with coordinated fields of view) of NFC system are operated in the frame of CEMeNt (Central European Meteor Network). The heart of each NFC station is a sensitive CCTV camera Watec 902 H2 and a fast cinematographic lens Meopta Meostigmat 1/50 - 52.5 mm (50 mm focal length and fixed aperture f/1.0). In this paper we present the first results based on 1595 individual meteors, 368 of which were recorded from two stations simultaneously. This data set allows the first empirical verification of theoretical assumptions for NFC system capabilities (stellar and meteor magnitude limit, meteor apparent brightness distribution and accuracy of single station measurements) and the first low mass meteoroid trajectory calculations. Our experimental data clearly showed the capabilities of the proposed system for low mass meteor registration and for calculations based on NFC data to lead to a significant refinement in the orbital elements for low mass meteoroids.

  16. Ultraviolet Spectroscopy of Narrow CMEs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dobrzycka, D.; Raymond, J. C.; Biesecker, D. A.; Li, J.; Ciaravella, A.

    2002-12-01

    Coronal mass ejections (CMEs) are commonly described as new, discrete, bright features appearing in the field of view of a white light coronagraph and moving outward over a period of minutes to hours. Apparent angular widths of the CMEs cover a wide range, from few to 360°. The very narrow structures (narrower than ~15-20°) form only a small subset of all the observed CMEs and are usually referred to as rays, spikes, fans, etc. Recently, Gilbert et al. (2001, ApJ, 550, 1093) reported LASCO white light observations of 15 selected narrow CMEs. We extended the study and analyzed ultraviolet spectroscopy of narrow ejections, including several events listed by Gilbert et al. The data were obtained by the Ultraviolet Coronagraph Spectrometer (UVCS/SOHO). We present comparison of narrow and large CMEs and discuss the relation of the narrow CMEs to coronal jets and/or other narrow transient events. This work is supported by NASA under Grant NAG5-11420 to the Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory, by the Italian Space Agency and by PRODEX (Swiss contribution).

  17. Mediterranean diet and longevity.

    PubMed

    Trichopoulou, A; Vasilopoulou, E

    2000-12-01

    Mortality statistics from the WHO database covering the period 1960 to 1990 have provided intriguing evidence that something unusual has been affecting in a beneficial way the health of the Mediterranean population. In recent papers, which evaluated the evidence accumulated over the last three decades, it was concluded that the traditional Mediterranean diet meets several important criteria for a healthy diet. Direct evidence in support of the beneficial properties of the Mediterranean diet has also become available. These data were derived from three studies, which have used a diet score, devised a priori on the basis of eight desirable key features of the traditional common diet in the Mediterranean region. The conclusion of these studies is that a diet that adheres to the principles of the traditional Mediterranean one is associated with longer survival. The Greek version of the Mediterranean diet is dominated by the consumption of olive oil and by high consumption of vegetables and fruits. Antioxidants represent a common element in these foods and an antioxidant action provides a plausible explanation for the apparent benefits. Wild edible greens frequently eaten in rural Greece in the form of salads and pies contain very high quantities of flavonoids-- considerably higher than those found in red wine or black tea. While there is no direct evidence that these antioxidants are central to the benefits of the Mediterranean Diet, indirect evidence from epidemiological data and the increasing understanding of their mechanisms of action suggest that antioxidants may play a major role. PMID:11242471

  18. Early Experience & Multisensory Perceptual Narrowing

    PubMed Central

    Lewkowicz, David J.

    2014-01-01

    Perceptual narrowing is a reflection of early experience and contributes in key ways to perceptual and cognitive development. In general, findings have shown that unisensory perceptual sensitivity in early infancy is broadly tuned such that young infants respond to, and discriminate, native as well as non-native sensory inputs, whereas older infants only respond to native inputs. Recently, my colleagues and I discovered that perceptual narrowing occurs at the multisensory processing level as well. The present article reviews this new evidence and puts it in the larger context of multisensory perceptual development and the role that perceptual experience plays in it. Together, the evidence on unisensory and multisensory narrowing shows that early experience shapes the emergence of perceptual specialization and expertise. PMID:24435505

  19. Familial Mediterranean Fever

    PubMed Central

    Schwabe, Arthur D.; Terasaki, Paul I.; Barnett, Eugene V.; Territo, Mary C.; Klinenberg, James R.; Peters, Robert S.

    1977-01-01

    The success of colchicine therapy in the management of familial Mediterranean fever has provided new direction to investigations into the pathogenesis of this disease. Examination of HLA antigen frequencies in 53 patients with familial Mediterranean fever and appropriate controls, as well as various immunologic studies have yielded no significant differences. However, B lymphocyte typing and assays for immune complexes, lymphokines and prostaglandins may be of potential interest. Preliminary studies indicate that leukocytes of patients with familial Mediterranean fever release increased amounts of lysozyme (P<0.01), when subjected to high temperatures, and of both lysozyme and myeloperoxidase at low osmotic concentrations. The known and potential effects of colchicine on leukocyte and cellular metabolism, and the current status of colchicine prophylaxis are reviewed. In patients receiving an optimum colchicine dose of 1.5 to 1.8 mg per day, side effects have been minimal and the frequency of attacks has been decreased significantly. PMID:878470

  20. Mediterranean sea level variations.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vigo, I.; Sánchez Reales, J. M.; García, D.; Chao, B. F.

    2009-04-01

    In this work we report an updated study of the sea level variations for the Mediterranean sea for the period from October 1992 to January 2008. The study addresses two mayor issues: (i)The analysis of the spatial and temporal variability of sea surface height (SSH) from radar altimetry measurements (from TOPEX/Poseidon (T/P) + Jason-1, etc.). We use EOF analysis to explain most of its interannual variation, and how the different basins interact. (ii) The analysis of dynamics and balance of water mass transport for the whole period. We estimate the steric SSH by combining the steric SSH estimated from temperature and salt profiles simulated by the ECCO model with time-variable gravity (TVG) data (from GRACE) for the Mediterranean Sea. The estimated steric SSH together with the SSH obtained from altimetry allow for a more realistic estimation of the water mass variations in the Mediterranean for the whole period.

  1. Is there a Mediterranean bioethics?

    PubMed

    Mallia, Pierre

    2012-11-01

    Is there a special Mediterranean approach to Bioethics and if so what are the roots of this approach? And why not a Bosphorus, or a 'lake Michigan' bioethics? The answer to such a question depends on the focus one takes on defining 'Mediterranean'? On the one hand one can refer to the Mediterranean region which includes the surrounding coasts, having Europe on its northern coast line, northern Africa on its southern coast line (and these will include the north and South West coasts), and in the Eastern region countries which border with Middle-Eastern countries. This approach is the approach currently being taken by European Parliamentarians when they speak about the Mediterranean, namely including countries like France, Italy and Libya. On the other hand there is the look upon the Mediterranean as 'Southern Europe'; this is a more 'traditional' way on how westerners view the Mediterranean. This common approach is often recognized when, for example, we speak of 'Mediterranean diet', or, 'Mediterranean Temperament'. It would include Eastern countries like Greece and Cyprus. This article focuses on these two approaches to Mediterranean ethics after discussing issues pertaining to the region which are important to define in this context. It then analyses the need for having a Mediterranean approach to bioethical issues. PMID:23070886

  2. There are many Mediterranean diets.

    PubMed

    Noah, A; Truswell, A S

    2001-01-01

    Interest in Mediterranean diet began 30 years ago, when Ancel Keys published the results of the famous Seven Countries Study, Since 1945, almost 1.3 million people have come to Australia from Mediterranean countries as new settlers. There are 18 countries with coasts on the Mediterranean sea: Spain, southern France, Italy, Malta, Croatia, Bosnia, Albania, Greece, Cyprus, Turkey, Syria, Lebanon, Egypt, Libya, Malta, Tunisia, Algeria and Morocco. This study from which this report derives aims to investigate the influence of the food habits of immigrants from Mediterranean countries on Australian food intake. Here we look at the 'traditional' food habits of the above Mediterranean countries as told by 102 people we interviewed in Sydney, who came from 18 Mediterranean countries to Sydney. Most of the informants were women, their age ranged from 35 to 55 years. The interview was open-ended and held in the informant's home. It usually lasted around 1 1/2 hours. The interview had three parts. Personal information was obtained, questions relating to the food habits of these people back in their original Mediterranean countries and how their food intake and habits have changed in Australia were also asked. From the interviews, we have obtained a broad picture of 'traditional' food habits in different Mediterranean countries. The interview data was checked with books of recipes for the different countries. While there were similarities between the countries, there are also important differences in the food habits of the Mediterranean countries. Neighbouring countries' food habits are closer than those on opposite sides of the Mediterranean Sea. We suggest that these food habits can be put into four groups. The data here refer to food habits in Mediterranean countries 20 or 30 years ago, as they were recovering from the Second World War. There is no single ideal Mediterranean diet. Nutritionists who use the concept should qualify the individual country and the time in

  3. SMED - Sulphur MEditerranean Dispersion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salerno, Giuseppe G.; Sellitto, Pasquale; Corradini, Stefano; Di Sarra, Alcide Giorgio; Merucci, Luca; Caltabiano, Tommaso; La Spina, Alessandro

    2016-04-01

    Emissions of volcanic gases and particles can have profound impacts on terrestrial environment, atmospheric composition, climate forcing, and then on human health at various temporal and spatial scales. Volcanic emissions have been identified as one of the largest sources of uncertainty in our understanding of recent climate change trends. In particular, a primary role is acted by sulphur dioxide emission due to its conversion to volcanic sulphate aerosol via atmospheric oxidation. Aerosols may play a key role in the radiative budget and then in photochemistry and tropospheric composition. Mt. Etna is one of the most prodigious and persistent emitters of gasses and particles on Earth, accounting for about 10% of global average volcanic emission of CO2 and SO2. Its sulphur emissions stand for 0.7 × 106 t S/yr9 and then about 10 times bigger than anthropogenic sulphur emissions in the Mediterranean area. Centrepiece of the SMED project is to advance the understanding of volcanogenic sulphur dioxide and sulphate aerosol particles dispersion and radiative impact on the downwind Mediterranean region by an integrated approach between ground- and space-based observations and modelling. Research is addressed by exploring the potential relationship between proximal SO2 flux and aerosol measured remotely in the volcanic plume of Mt. Etna between 2000 and 2014 and distal aerosol ground-based measurements in Lampedusa, Greece, and Malta from AERONET network. Ground data are combined with satellite multispectral polar and geostationary imagers able to detect and retrieve volcanic ash and SO2. The high repetition time of SEVIRI (15 minutes) will ensure the potential opportunity to follow the entire evolution of the volcanic cloud, while, the higher spatial resolution of MODIS (1x1 km2), are exploited for investigating the probability to retrieve volcanic SO2 abundances from passive degassing. Ground and space observations are complemented with atmospheric Lagrangian model

  4. Cryogenic Detectors (Narrow Field Instruments)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoevers, H.; Verhoeve, P.

    Two cryogenic imaging spectrometer arrays are currently considered as focal plane instruments for XEUS. The narrow field imager 1 (NFI 1) will cover the energy range from 0.05 to 3 keV with an energy resolution of 2 eV, or better, at 500 eV. A second narrow field imager (NFI 2) covers the energy range from 1 to 15 keV with an energy resolution of 2 eV (at 1 keV) and 5 eV (at 7 keV), creating some overlap with part of the NFI 1 energy window. Both narrow field imagers have a 0.5 arcmin field of view. Their imaging capabilities are matched to the XEUS optics of 2 to 5 arcsec leading to 1 arcsec pixels. The detector arrays will be cooled by a closed cycle system comprising a mechanical cooler with a base temperature of 2.5 K and either a low temperature 3He sorption pump providing the very low temperature stage and/or an Adiabatic Demagnetization Refrigerator (ADR). The ADR cooler is explicitly needed to cool the NFI 2 array. The narrow field imager 1} Currently a 48 times 48 element array of superconducting tunnel junctions (STJ) is envisaged. Its operating temperature is in the range between 30 and 350 mK. Small, single Ta STJs (20-50 mum on a side) have shown 3.5 eV (FWHM) resolution at E = 525 eV and small arrays have been successfully demonstrated (6 times 6 pixels), or are currently tested (10 times 12 pixels). Alternatively, a prototype Distributed Read-Out Imaging Device (DROID), consisting of a linear superconducting Ta absorber of 20 times 100 mum2, including a 20 times 20 mum STJ for readout at either end, has shown a measured energy resolution of 2.4 eV (FWHM) at E = 500 eV. Simulations involving the diffusion properties as well as loss and tunnel rates have shown that the performance can be further improved by slight modifications in the geometry, and that the size of the DROIDS can be increased to 0.5-1.0 mm without loss in energy resolution. The relatively large areas and good energy resolution compared to single STJs make DROIDS good candidates for the

  5. Reviving the Mediterranean Olive Community

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zaferatos, Nicholas C.

    2011-01-01

    This article presents the findings of a collaborative investigation by six nongovernment organisations (NGOs) from five European-Mediterranean countries to identify a framework for reversing rural marginalisation in Mediterranean communities through sustainable forms of community-based agricultural development. The project brought together…

  6. Dust in the Mediterranean

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    On July 24, the Sea-viewing Wide Field-of-view Sensor (SeaWiFS), acquired this true-color image of a large cloud of dust blowing from northern Africa across the Mediterranean Sea. The dust storm has persisted in the region for at least a week. In this image, the brownish dust plume appears to originate about 260 miles (400 km) east of Algiers, Algeria, and is blowing toward the northwest coast of Sardinia, Italy. SeaWiFS flies aboard the OrbView-2 Satellite. Image courtesy the SeaWiFS Project, NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center and ORBIMAGE

  7. Role of Marine Gateways in the Paleoceanography of the Miocene Mediterranean Sea; A Model Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de la Vara, A.; Meijer, P. T.

    2015-12-01

    During the Miocene, due to the convergence of the African plate and the Eurasian plate, the Mediterranean region was subject to profound paleogeographic changes. The evolving coastline and bathymetry of the Mediterranean Sea and, in particular, the opening and closure of the marine connections between the Mediterranean and the outside oceans, triggered important changes in Mediterranean circulation and, indirectly, also affected the global-scale ocean circulation. Until about the Middle Miocene the proto-Mediterranean Sea was open to the Indo-Pacific Ocean through the so-called Indian Gateway. Although the exact age of closure of this gateway is still debated, it is accepted that it substantially affected the paleoceanography of the Mediterranean Sea. Later in time, during the Late Miocene, the Mediterranean was only connected to the Atlantic Ocean but by two marine corridors: the Betic and Rifian corridors. Closure of these narrow passages resulted in the Messinian Salinity Crisis, during which a sequence of evaporites was deposited throughout the Mediterranean basin. In this work we use a regional-scale ocean general circulation model (the Princeton Ocean Model) to gain insight into the role of the evolving gateways. The analysis focuses on large-scale (overturning) circulation, patterns of exchange in the gateways and properties of the Mediterranean water. By comparing our model results to geological data we are able to propose new scenarios or rule out previously proposed ones, and determine the conditions evidenced by the geological observations. More specifically we investigate two different topics: (i) the effects of shoaling and closure of the Indian Gateway and (ii) the functioning of the Late Miocene double gateway to the Atlantic.

  8. Finding success in ACA narrow networks.

    PubMed

    Daly, Rich

    2015-12-01

    Health systems should carefully consider the specific details of their local market before deciding to launch a narrow network plan or to join an existing insurer's narrow network. Key steps to take in the evaluation process include: Determining insurer interest in forming a true partnership. Assessing capability for greater efficiency. Assessing insurer priorities. Obtaining access to enrollee data. Identifying capabilities that differentiate it from other narrow networks. PMID:26793944

  9. Anger perceptually and conceptually narrows cognitive scope.

    PubMed

    Gable, Philip A; Poole, Bryan D; Harmon-Jones, Eddie

    2015-07-01

    For the last 50 years, research investigating the effect of emotions on scope of cognitive processing was based on models proposing that affective valence determined cognitive scope. More recently, our motivational intensity model suggests that this past work had confounded valence with motivational intensity. Research derived from this model supports the idea that motivational intensity, rather than affective valence, explains much of the variance emotions have on cognitive scope. However, the motivational intensity model is limited in that the empirical work has examined only positive affects high in approach and negative affects high in avoidance motivation. Thus, perhaps only approach-positive and avoidance-negative states narrow cognitive scope. The present research was designed to clarify these conceptual issues by examining the effect of anger, a negatively valenced approach-motivated state, on cognitive scope. Results revealed that anger narrowed attentional scope relative to a neutral state and that attentional narrowing to anger was similar to the attentional narrowing caused by high approach-motivated positive affects (Study 1). This narrowing of attention was related to trait approach motivation (Studies 2 and Study 3). Anger also narrowed conceptual cognitive categorization (Study 4). Narrowing of categorization related to participants' approach motivation toward anger stimuli. Together, these results suggest that anger, an approach-motivated negative affect, narrows perceptual and conceptual cognitive scope. More broadly, these results support the conceptual model that motivational intensity per se, rather than approach-positive and avoidance-negative states, causes a narrowing of cognitive scope. PMID:26011662

  10. Infants Experience Perceptual Narrowing for Nonprimate Faces

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simpson, Elizabeth A.; Varga, Krisztina; Frick, Janet E.; Fragaszy, Dorothy

    2011-01-01

    Perceptual narrowing--a phenomenon in which perception is broad from birth, but narrows as a function of experience--has previously been tested with primate faces. In the first 6 months of life, infants can discriminate among individual human and monkey faces. Though the ability to discriminate monkey faces is lost after about 9 months, infants…

  11. Do narrow {Sigma}-hypernuclear states exist?

    SciTech Connect

    Chrien, R.E.

    1995-12-31

    Reports of narrow states in {Sigma}-hypernucleus production have appeared from time to time. The present experiment is a repeat of the first and seemingly most definitive such experiment, that on a target of {sup 9}Be, but with much better statistics. No narrow states were observed.

  12. Qibla in the Mediterranean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rius-Piniés, Mònica

    Orientation toward Mecca has been compulsory for Muslims in all time periods and in all places. In fact, mosques were built in such a way as to help believers to pray toward the right direction. Nevertheless, the alignment of the sacred buildings was not always exact, and many did not actually face the Kaaba. There are many reasons for this "mistake", the main one being that at the time of the construction of the most important mosques, the astronomical and geographical knowledge needed to make accurate calculations was lacking. In the Mediterranean area, the scholars who were most involved in this task were the fuqahā' (experts in Islamic jurisprudence) who were sometimes well versed in astronomical knowledge or, at least, were skilled in the practice of popular astronomy. The combination of astronomy and religion, mixed with the political and topographical conditions, produces a unique area of study which remains controversial today.

  13. Narrow band gap amorphous silicon semiconductors

    DOEpatents

    Madan, A.; Mahan, A.H.

    1985-01-10

    Disclosed is a narrow band gap amorphous silicon semiconductor comprising an alloy of amorphous silicon and a band gap narrowing element selected from the group consisting of Sn, Ge, and Pb, with an electron donor dopant selected from the group consisting of P, As, Sb, Bi and N. The process for producing the narrow band gap amorphous silicon semiconductor comprises the steps of forming an alloy comprising amorphous silicon and at least one of the aforesaid band gap narrowing elements in amount sufficient to narrow the band gap of the silicon semiconductor alloy below that of amorphous silicon, and also utilizing sufficient amounts of the aforesaid electron donor dopant to maintain the amorphous silicon alloy as an n-type semiconductor.

  14. Hierarchical analysis of genetic structure in the habitat-specialist Eastern Sand Darter (Ammocrypta pellucida)

    PubMed Central

    Ginson, Robert; Walter, Ryan P; Mandrak, Nicholas E; Beneteau, Courtney L; Heath, Daniel D

    2015-01-01

    Quantifying spatial genetic structure can reveal the relative influences of contemporary and historic factors underlying localized and regional patterns of genetic diversity and gene flow – important considerations for the development of effective conservation efforts. Using 10 polymorphic microsatellite loci, we characterize genetic variation among populations across the range of the Eastern Sand Darter (Ammocrypta pellucida), a small riverine percid that is highly dependent on sandy substrate microhabitats. We tested for fine scale, regional, and historic patterns of genetic structure. As expected, significant differentiation was detected among rivers within drainages and among drainages. At finer scales, an unexpected lack of within-river genetic structure among fragmented sandy microhabitats suggests that stratified dispersal resulting from unstable sand bar habitat degradation (natural and anthropogenic) may preclude substantial genetic differentiation within rivers. Among-drainage genetic structure indicates that postglacial (14 kya) drainage connectivity continues to influence contemporary genetic structure among Eastern Sand Darter populations in southern Ontario. These results provide an unexpected contrast to other benthic riverine fish in the Great Lakes drainage and suggest that habitat-specific fishes, such as the Eastern Sand Darter, can evolve dispersal strategies that overcome fragmented and temporally unstable habitats. PMID:25691991

  15. Phylogeography of a Habitat Specialist with High Dispersal Capability: The Savi’s Warbler Locustella luscinioides

    PubMed Central

    Neto, Júlio M.; Arroyo, José L.; Bargain, Bruno; Monrós, Juan S.; Mátrai, Norbert; Procházka, Petr; Zehtindjiev, Pavel

    2012-01-01

    In order to describe the influence of Pleistocene glaciations on the genetic structure and demography of a highly mobile, but specialized, passerine, the Savi’s Warbler (Locustella luscinioides), mitochondrial DNA sequences (ND2) and microsatellites were analysed in c.330 individuals of 17 breeding and two wintering populations. Phylogenetic, population genetics and coalescent methods were used to describe the genetic structure, determine the timing of the major splits and model the demography of populations. Savi’s Warblers split from its sister species c.8 million years ago and have two major haplotype groups that diverged in the early/middle Pleistocene. One of these clades originated in the Balkans and is currently widespread, showing strong evidence for population expansion; whereas the other is restricted to Iberia and remained stable. Microsatellites agreed with a genetic break around the Pyrenees, but showed considerable introgression and a weaker genetic structure. Both genetic markers showed an isolation-by-distance pattern associated with the population expansion of the eastern clade. Breeding populations seem to be segregated at the wintering sites, but results on migratory connectivity are preliminary. Savi’s Warbler is the only known migratory bird species in which Iberian birds did not expand beyond the Pyrenees after the last glaciation. Despite the long period of independent evolution of western and eastern populations, complete introgression occurred when these groups met in Iberia. Mitochondrial sequences indicated the existence of refugia-within-refugia in the Iberian Peninsula during the last glacial period, which is surprising given the high dispersal capacity of this species. Plumage differences of eastern subspecies seemed to have evolved recently through natural selection, in agreement with the glacial expansion hypothesis. This study supports the great importance of the Iberian Peninsula and its role for the conservation of genetic variation. PMID:22701653

  16. Spatiotemporal strategies that facilitate recruitment in a habitat specialist tree species.

    PubMed

    Krishna, Shivani; Somanathan, Hema

    2016-01-01

    Our understanding of processes underlying plant recruitment emerges from species and habitats that are widely distributed at regional and global scales. However, the applicability of dispersal-recruitment models and the role of dispersal limitation versus microsite limitation have not been examined for specialized habitats. In patchy, freshwater Myristica swamp forests (Western Ghats, India), we examine the roles of primary seed dispersal, secondary seed removal and microsite suitability for the establishment of a swamp specialist tree, Myristica fatua We estimated primary seed shadows, performed secondary removal experiments and enumerated recruits in swamp sites. Steady-state fruiting was observed with the extended production (>7 months) of small numbers of fruits. Frugivores dropped most of the large and heavy seeds under parent crowns, while a few seeds were transported over short distances by hornbills. Seed placement experiments indicated that removal, germination and establishment were similar within swamp microsites, while seeds failed to survive in matrix habitats surrounding the swamp. Crabs, which were major secondary removers of M. fatua, did not alter the initial seed dispersal patterns substantially, which led to the retention of seeds within the swamp. Distribution of saplings and adults from previous seasons also suggest that dispersal-recruitment dynamics in the swamp specialist M. fatua did not strictly follow predictions of Janzen-Connell model while abiotic effects were significant. Large seeds, steady-state fruiting and small crop sizes may be significant selective forces facilitating escape from density and distance-dependent effects in space and time in specialist plant species such as M. fatua. PMID:27179540

  17. Spatiotemporal strategies that facilitate recruitment in a habitat specialist tree species

    PubMed Central

    Krishna, Shivani; Somanathan, Hema

    2016-01-01

    Our understanding of processes underlying plant recruitment emerges from species and habitats that are widely distributed at regional and global scales. However, the applicability of dispersal-recruitment models and the role of dispersal limitation versus microsite limitation have not been examined for specialized habitats. In patchy, freshwater Myristica swamp forests (Western Ghats, India), we examine the roles of primary seed dispersal, secondary seed removal and microsite suitability for the establishment of a swamp specialist tree, Myristica fatua. We estimated primary seed shadows, performed secondary removal experiments and enumerated recruits in swamp sites. Steady-state fruiting was observed with the extended production (>7 months) of small numbers of fruits. Frugivores dropped most of the large and heavy seeds under parent crowns, while a few seeds were transported over short distances by hornbills. Seed placement experiments indicated that removal, germination and establishment were similar within swamp microsites, while seeds failed to survive in matrix habitats surrounding the swamp. Crabs, which were major secondary removers of M. fatua, did not alter the initial seed dispersal patterns substantially, which led to the retention of seeds within the swamp. Distribution of saplings and adults from previous seasons also suggest that dispersal-recruitment dynamics in the swamp specialist M. fatua did not strictly follow predictions of Janzen-Connell model while abiotic effects were significant. Large seeds, steady-state fruiting and small crop sizes may be significant selective forces facilitating escape from density and distance-dependent effects in space and time in specialist plant species such as M. fatua. PMID:27179540

  18. Alcohol in the Mediterranean diet.

    PubMed

    Rimm, E B; Ellison, R C

    1995-06-01

    Alcohol consumption clearly reduces risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) in populations throughout the world and may contribute to lower rates of CVD among residents of Mediterranean countries. In addition, overall mortality rates are generally slightly lower among moderate drinkers than among abstainers. However, several studies have linked alcohol consumption (even amounts equivalent to two drinks daily) to increased rates for certain cancers, especially breast cancer in women. A Mediterranean diet, which is high in fruit, vegetables, and grains, also typically includes one to two drinks per day. Whether one to two drinks adversely affect cancer incidence in the presence of a Mediterranean diet has not been fully explored. With the evidence currently available, we conclude that alcohol, when consumed responsibly in most populations, is an important component of the Mediterranean diet and a component of a healthy lifestyle. PMID:7754991

  19. Narrow Absorption Components in Be Star Winds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grady, C. A.

    1985-01-01

    The stars omega Ori (B2 IIIe), 66 Oph (B2 IVe), and 59 Cyg (B1.5 IVe) are discussed. The extent to which the narrow absorption components in these Be stars differs from narrow components in the O stars and gamma Cas is explored. Any models or mechanisms for the formation of narrow absorption features in the UV resonance lines of Be star spectra must account for the presence of multiple narrow absorption features which are variable in number, radial velocity, and strength. Models predicting a high and low density structure to the stellar wind caused by instabilities in a flow driven by radiation pressure or by variable mass loss may be more successful in describing the behavior of winds in early Be stars. These models appear to be capable of producing single absorption components in the velocity range observed for O stars and very early Be stars.

  20. Narrow Vertical Caves: Mapping Volcanic Fissure Geometries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parcheta, C.; Nash, J.; Parness, A.; Mitchell, K. L.; Pavlov, C. A.

    2015-10-01

    Volcanic conduits are difficult to quantify, but their geometry fundamentally influences how eruptions occur. We robotically map old fissure conduits - elongated narrow cracks in the ground that transported magma to the surface during an eruption.

  1. Hot Wax Sweeps Debris From Narrow Passages

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ricklefs, Steven K.

    1990-01-01

    Safe and effective technique for removal of debris and contaminants from narrow passages involves entrainment of undesired material in thermoplastic casting material. Semisolid wax slightly below melting temperature pushed along passage by pressurized nitrogen to remove debris. Devised to clean out fuel passages in main combustion chamber of Space Shuttle main engine. Also applied to narrow, intricate passages in internal-combustion-engine blocks, carburetors, injection molds, and other complicated parts.

  2. Zoonoses in the Mediterranean region.

    PubMed

    Seimenis, Aristarco; Morelli, Daniela; Mantovani, Adriano

    2006-01-01

    The Mediterranean and Middle East Region (MME) is considered the most important area for the historical development and concentration of zoonoses. Besides the classical Mediterranean pattern, an urbanised pattern has emerged which is strongly influenced by globalisation. Both patterns co-exist and have many peculiarities affecting the life cycles of zoonoses and their social impact. The features of those zoonoses which are now most relevant in the MME (brucellosis, rabies, cystic echinococcosis, leishmaniasis, food-borne zoonoses) are discussed. Besides other relevant activities, the World Health Organization has established, since 1979, a specialised programme with a unit coordinating and managing activities: i.e. the Mediterranean Zoonoses Control Centre, operating from Athens, Greece. PMID:17361068

  3. Kinematic restoration of the Mediterranean region since the Triassic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Hinsbergen, Douwe; Torsvik, Trond; Matenco, Liviu; Schmid, Stefan; Maffione, Marco; Spakman, Wim

    2014-05-01

    The Mediterranean region is one of the most complexly deformed areas in the world and its tectonic evolution has been instrumental in the development of numerous fundamental geological principles and geodynamic concepts. Reconstructions of the Mediterranean region invariably demonstrated that the area had a complex paleogeography with ribbon continents or micro-plates and narrow, elongated ocean basins systems in Mesozoic time. A western and northern ocean basin system was genetically related to the Atlantic Ocean, opened in Jurassic time and is known as the Alpine Tethys Ocean. A southern and eastern basin system was genetically related to the Neotethys domain located between Gondwana and Eurasia and - in the Mediterranean realm - opened in Triassic to Jurassic times. Continental domains of variable size within and between these ocean systems rifted away from Eurasia or Africa. This mosaic of pieces of continental and oceanic lithosphere became consumed by a complex configuration of subduction zones that accommodated convergence between the African and Eurasian plates since middle Jurassic times. Since Oligocene time, the overriding plate above subduction zones throughout the Mediterranean region became extended, locally leading to formation of new ocean floor, as a result of roll-back of subducted slab segments, culminating in todays complex and strongly curved configuration of subduction zones and slab segments. An area such as the tectonically complex Mediterranean invites attempt to kinematic restoration, and various reconstructions are already available. However, by now such reconstructions are no more merely a translation of - frequently qualitative - geological data into a quantitative description of surface evolution: with the advent of 3-dimensional numerical modeling tools that can be kinematically driven by plate reconstructions, they become critical input for attempts to integrate surface evolution into mantle dynamics. An increasingly widely used

  4. Postfire chaparral regeneration under mediterranean and non-mediterranean climates

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Keeley, Jon E.; Fotheringham, Connie J.; Rundel, Philip W.

    2012-01-01

    This study compares postfire regeneration and diversity patterns in fire-prone chaparral shrublands from mediterranean (California) and non-mediterranean-type climates (Arizona). Vegetation sampling was conducted in tenth hectare plots with nested subplots for the first two years after fire. Floras in the two regions were compared with Jaccard's Index and importance of families and genera compared with dominance-diversity curves. Although there were 44 families in common between the two regions, the dominant families differed; Poaceae and Fabaceae in Arizona and Hydrophyllaceae and Rosaceae in California. Dominance diversity curves indicated in the first year a more equable distribution of families in Arizona than in California. Woody plants were much more dominant in the mediterranean climate and herbaceous plants more dominant in the bimodal rainfall climate. Species diversity was comparable in both regions at the lowest spatial scales but not at the tenth hectare scale. Due to the double growing season in the non-mediterranean region, the diversity for the first year comprised two different herbaceous floras in the fall and spring growing seasons. The Mediterranean climate in California, in contrast, had only a spring growing season and thus the total diversity for the first year was significantly greater in Arizona than in California for both annuals and herbaceous perennials. Chaparral in these two climate regimes share many dominant shrub species but the postfire communities are very different. Arizona chaparral has both a spring and fall growing season and these produce two very different postfire floras. When combined, the total annual diversity was substantially greater in Arizona chaparral.

  5. Discovery of a narrow line quasar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stocke, J.; Liebert, J.; Maccacaro, T.; Griffiths, R. E.; Steiner, J. E.

    1982-01-01

    A stellar object is reported which, while having X-ray and optical luminosities typical of quasars, has narrow permitted and forbidden emission lines over the observed spectral range. The narrow-line spectrum is high-excitation, the Balmer lines seem to be recombinational, and a redder optical spectrum than that of most quasars is exhibited, despite detection as a weak radio source. The object does not conform to the relationships between H-beta parameters and X-ray flux previously claimed for a large sample of the active galactic nuclei. Because reddish quasars with narrow lines, such as the object identified, may not be found by the standard techniques for the discovery of quasars, the object may be a prototype of a new class of quasars analogous to high-luminosity Seyfert type 2 galaxies. It is suggested that these objects cannot comprise more than 10% of all quasars.

  6. Narrowing of intersensory speech perception in infancy.

    PubMed

    Pons, Ferran; Lewkowicz, David J; Soto-Faraco, Salvador; Sebastián-Gallés, Núria

    2009-06-30

    The conventional view is that perceptual/cognitive development is an incremental process of acquisition. Several striking findings have revealed, however, that the sensitivity to non-native languages, faces, vocalizations, and music that is present early in life declines as infants acquire experience with native perceptual inputs. In the language domain, the decline in sensitivity is reflected in a process of perceptual narrowing that is thought to play a critical role during the acquisition of a native-language phonological system. Here, we provide evidence that such a decline also occurs in infant response to multisensory speech. We found that infant intersensory response to a non-native phonetic contrast narrows between 6 and 11 months of age, suggesting that the perceptual system becomes increasingly more tuned to key native-language audiovisual correspondences. Our findings lend support to the notion that perceptual narrowing is a domain-general as well as a pan-sensory developmental process. PMID:19541648

  7. Congenital narrowing of the cervical spinal canal.

    PubMed Central

    Kessler, J T

    1975-01-01

    The clinical and laboratory findings in six patients with congenital narrowing of the cervical spinal canal and neurological symptoms are described. A variable age of onset and an entirely male occurrence were found. Signs and symptoms of spinal cord dysfunction predominated in all but one patient. Symptoms were produced in five patients by increased physical activity alone. Congenital narrowing of the cervical spinal canal may result in cord compression without a history of injury and occasionally without evidence of significant bony degenerative changes. The clinical features may be distinguishable from those found in cervical spondylosis without congenital narrowing. Intermittent claudication of the cervical spinal cord appears to be an important feature of this syndrome. Surgery improved four out of five people. PMID:1219087

  8. Anisotropic de Gennes Narrowing in Confined Fluids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nygârd, Kim; Buitenhuis, Johan; Kagias, Matias; Jefimovs, Konstantins; Zontone, Federico; Chushkin, Yuriy

    2016-04-01

    The collective diffusion of dense fluids in spatial confinement is studied by combining high-energy (21 keV) x-ray photon correlation spectroscopy and small-angle x-ray scattering from colloid-filled microfluidic channels. We find the structural relaxation in confinement to be slower compared to the bulk. The collective dynamics is wave vector dependent, akin to the de Gennes narrowing typically observed in bulk fluids. However, in stark contrast to the bulk, the structure factor and de Gennes narrowing in confinement are anisotropic. These experimental observations are essential in order to develop a microscopic theoretical description of collective diffusion of dense fluids in confined geometries.

  9. Compact narrow linewidth semiconductor laser module

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poulin, M.; Ayotte, S.; Latrasse, C.; Painchaud, Y.; Cliche, J. F.; Babin, A.; Aubé, M.; Picard, M.; Costin, F.; Têtu, M.; Lafrance, G.

    2009-05-01

    Frequency noise reduction of semiconductor lasers using electrical feedback from an optical frequency discriminator is an efficient and simple approach to realize narrow linewidth lasers. These lasers are of great interest for applications such as LIDAR, RF photonics and interferometric sensing. In this paper, we review the technological choices made by TeraXion for the realization of its Narrow Linewidth Laser modules. The method enables to decrease the linewidth of DFB lasers from several hundreds of kHz to a few kHz. We present the work in progress to integrate such system into a miniature package and to incorporate advanced functionalities such as multi-laser phase locking.

  10. PON1 and Mediterranean Diet.

    PubMed

    Lou-Bonafonte, José M; Gabás-Rivera, Clara; Navarro, María A; Osada, Jesús

    2015-06-01

    The Mediterranean diet has been proven to be highly effective in the prevention of cardiovascular diseases. Paraoxonase 1 (PON1) has been implicated in the development of those conditions, especially atherosclerosis. The present work describes a systematic review of current evidence supporting the influence of Mediterranean diet and its constituents on this enzyme. Despite the differential response of some genetic polymorphisms, the Mediterranean diet has been shown to exert a protective action on this enzyme. Extra virgin olive oil, the main source of fat, has been particularly effective in increasing PON1 activity, an action that could be due to low saturated fatty acid intake, oleic acid enrichment of phospholipids present in high-density lipoproteins that favor the activity, and increasing hepatic PON1 mRNA and protein expressions induced by minor components present in this oil. Other Mediterranean diet constituents, such as nuts, fruits and vegetables, have been effective in modulating the activity of the enzyme, pomegranate and its compounds being the best characterized items. Ongoing research on compounds isolated from all these natural products, mainly phenolic compounds and carotenoids, indicates that some of them are particularly effective, and this may enhance the use of nutraceuticals and functional foods capable of potentiating PON1 activity. PMID:26024295

  11. PON1 and Mediterranean Diet

    PubMed Central

    Lou-Bonafonte, José M.; Gabás-Rivera, Clara; Navarro, María A.; Osada, Jesús

    2015-01-01

    The Mediterranean diet has been proven to be highly effective in the prevention of cardiovascular diseases. Paraoxonase 1 (PON1) has been implicated in the development of those conditions, especially atherosclerosis. The present work describes a systematic review of current evidence supporting the influence of Mediterranean diet and its constituents on this enzyme. Despite the differential response of some genetic polymorphisms, the Mediterranean diet has been shown to exert a protective action on this enzyme. Extra virgin olive oil, the main source of fat, has been particularly effective in increasing PON1 activity, an action that could be due to low saturated fatty acid intake, oleic acid enrichment of phospholipids present in high-density lipoproteins that favor the activity, and increasing hepatic PON1 mRNA and protein expressions induced by minor components present in this oil. Other Mediterranean diet constituents, such as nuts, fruits and vegetables, have been effective in modulating the activity of the enzyme, pomegranate and its compounds being the best characterized items. Ongoing research on compounds isolated from all these natural products, mainly phenolic compounds and carotenoids, indicates that some of them are particularly effective, and this may enhance the use of nutraceuticals and functional foods capable of potentiating PON1 activity. PMID:26024295

  12. [Mediterranean lymphoma mimicking Crohn's disease].

    PubMed

    Jouini, S; Ayadi, K; Mokrani, A; Wachuku, E; Hmouda, H; Gourdie, R

    2001-07-01

    We report an uncommon localization of mediterranean lymphoma of the terminal ileum in a 28 year-old male patient. Ultrasound and Computed Tomography showed moderate regular and symmetrical intestinal wall thickening simulating Crohn's disease. We highlight the role of computed tomography in the diagnosis, staging and detection of complications. PMID:11507451

  13. Narrow-Band Applications of Communications Satellites.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cowlan, Bert; Horowitz, Andrew

    This paper attempts to describe the advantages of "narrow-band" applications of communications satellites for education. It begins by discussing the general controversy surrounding the use of satellites in education, by placing the concern within the larger context of the general debate over the uses of new technologies in education, and by…

  14. Adverse effects of prohibiting narrow provider networks.

    PubMed

    Howard, David H

    2014-08-14

    Many insurers participating in the new insurance exchanges are controlling costs by offering plans with narrow provider networks. Proposed regulations would promote network adequacy, but a pro-provider stance may not be inherently pro-consumer or even pro-patient. PMID:25119604

  15. Ultraviolet Spectroscopy of Narrow Coronal Mass Ejections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dobrzycka, D.; Raymond, J. C.; Biesecker, D. A.; Li, J.; Ciaravella, A.

    2003-05-01

    We present Ultraviolet Coronagraph Spectrometer (UVCS) observations of five narrow coronal mass ejections (CMEs) that were among 15 narrow CMEs originally selected by Gilbert and coworkers. Two events (1999 March 27, April 15) were ``structured,'' i.e., in white-light data they exhibited well-defined interior features, and three (1999 May 9, May 21, June 3) were ``unstructured,'' i.e., appeared featureless. In UVCS data the events were seen as 4°-13° wide enhancements of the strongest coronal lines H I Lyα and O VI λλ1032, 1037. We derived electron densities for several of the events from the Large Angle and Spectrometric Coronagraph Experiment (LASCO) C2 white-light observations. They are comparable to or smaller than densities inferred for other CMEs. We modeled the observable properties of examples of the structured (1999 April 15) and unstructured (1999 May 9) narrow CMEs at different heights in the corona between 1.5 and 2 Rsolar. The derived electron temperatures, densities, and outflow speeds are similar for those two types of ejections. They were compared with properties of polar coronal jets and other CMEs. We discuss different scenarios of narrow CME formation as either a jet formed by reconnection onto open field lines or a CME ejected by expansion of closed field structures. Overall, we conclude that the existing observations do not definitively place the narrow CMEs into the jet or the CME picture, but the acceleration of the 1999 April 15 event resembles acceleration seen in many CMEs, rather than constant speeds or deceleration observed in jets.

  16. Mediterranean Outflow Mixing and Dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Price, James F.; O'Neil Baringer, Molly; Lueck, Rolf G.; Johnson, Gregory C.; Ambar, Isabel; Parrilla, Gregorio; Cantos, Alain; Kennelly, Maureen A.; Sanford, Thomas B.

    1993-02-01

    The Mediterranean Sea produces a salty, dense outflow that is strongly modified by entrainment as it first begins to descend the continental slope in the eastern Gulf of Cadiz. The current accelerates to 1.3 meters per second, which raises the internal Froude number above 1, and is intensely turbulent through its full thickness. The outflow loses about half of its density anomaly and roughly doubles its volume transport as it entrains less saline North Atlantic Central water. Within 100 kilometers downstream, the current is turned by the Coriolis force until it flows nearly parallel to topography in a damped geostrophic balance. The mixed Mediterranean outflow continues westward, slowly descending the continental slope until it becomes neutrally buoyant in the thermocline where it becomes an important water mass.

  17. Mediterranean outflow mixing and dynamics.

    PubMed

    Price, J F; Baringer, M O; Lueck, R G; Johnson, G C; Ambar, I; Parrilla, G; Cantos, A; Kennelly, M A; Sanford, T B

    1993-02-26

    The Mediterranean Sea produces a salty, dense outflow that is strongly modified by entrainment as it first begins to descend the continental slope in the eastern Gulf of Cadiz. The current accelerates to 1.3 meters per second, which raises the internal Froude number above 1, and is intensely turbulent through its full thickness. The outflow loses about half of its density anomaly and roughly doubles its volume transport as it entrains less saline North Atlantic Central water. Within 100 kilometers downstream, the current is turned by the Coriolis force until it flows nearly parallel to topography in a damped geostrophic balance. The mixed Mediterranean outflow continues westward, slowly descending the continental slope until it becomes neutrally buoyant in the thermocline where it becomes an important water mass. PMID:17732247

  18. Anisotropic de Gennes Narrowing in Confined Fluids.

    PubMed

    Nygård, Kim; Buitenhuis, Johan; Kagias, Matias; Jefimovs, Konstantins; Zontone, Federico; Chushkin, Yuriy

    2016-04-22

    The collective diffusion of dense fluids in spatial confinement is studied by combining high-energy (21 keV) x-ray photon correlation spectroscopy and small-angle x-ray scattering from colloid-filled microfluidic channels. We find the structural relaxation in confinement to be slower compared to the bulk. The collective dynamics is wave vector dependent, akin to the de Gennes narrowing typically observed in bulk fluids. However, in stark contrast to the bulk, the structure factor and de Gennes narrowing in confinement are anisotropic. These experimental observations are essential in order to develop a microscopic theoretical description of collective diffusion of dense fluids in confined geometries. PMID:27152823

  19. Creep turns linear in narrow ferromagnetic nanostrips

    PubMed Central

    Leliaert, Jonathan; Van de Wiele, Ben; Vansteenkiste, Arne; Laurson, Lasse; Durin, Gianfranco; Dupré, Luc; Van Waeyenberge, Bartel

    2016-01-01

    The motion of domain walls in magnetic materials is a typical example of a creep process, usually characterised by a stretched exponential velocity-force relation. By performing large-scale micromagnetic simulations, and analyzing an extended 1D model which takes the effects of finite temperatures and material defects into account, we show that this creep scaling law breaks down in sufficiently narrow ferromagnetic strips. Our analysis of current-driven transverse domain wall motion in disordered Permalloy nanostrips reveals instead a creep regime with a linear dependence of the domain wall velocity on the applied field or current density. This originates from the essentially point-like nature of domain walls moving in narrow, line- like disordered nanostrips. An analogous linear relation is found also by analyzing existing experimental data on field-driven domain wall motion in perpendicularly magnetised media. PMID:26843125

  20. Current Propagation in Narrow Bipolar Pulses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watson, S. S.; Marshall, T. C.

    2005-12-01

    We model the observed electric fields of a particular narrow bipolar pulse (NBP) published in Eack [2004]. We assume an exponential growth of current carriers due to a runaway breakdown avalanche and show that this leads to a corresponding increase in current. With specific input values for discharge altitude, length, current, and propagation velocity, the model does a good job of reproducing the observed near and far electric field. The ability of the model to reproduce the observed electric fields is an indication that our assumptions concerning the runaway avalanche may be correct, and this indication is further strengthened by the inability of the simple transmission line model to reproduce simultaneously both the near and far electric fields. Eack, K. B. (2004), Electrical characteristics of narrow bipolar events, Geophys. Res. Lett., 31, L20102, doi:10.1029/2004/GL021117.

  1. Creep turns linear in narrow ferromagnetic nanostrips.

    PubMed

    Leliaert, Jonathan; Van de Wiele, Ben; Vansteenkiste, Arne; Laurson, Lasse; Durin, Gianfranco; Dupré, Luc; Van Waeyenberge, Bartel

    2016-01-01

    The motion of domain walls in magnetic materials is a typical example of a creep process, usually characterised by a stretched exponential velocity-force relation. By performing large-scale micromagnetic simulations, and analyzing an extended 1D model which takes the effects of finite temperatures and material defects into account, we show that this creep scaling law breaks down in sufficiently narrow ferromagnetic strips. Our analysis of current-driven transverse domain wall motion in disordered Permalloy nanostrips reveals instead a creep regime with a linear dependence of the domain wall velocity on the applied field or current density. This originates from the essentially point-like nature of domain walls moving in narrow, line- like disordered nanostrips. An analogous linear relation is found also by analyzing existing experimental data on field-driven domain wall motion in perpendicularly magnetised media. PMID:26843125

  2. Creep turns linear in narrow ferromagnetic nanostrips

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leliaert, Jonathan; van de Wiele, Ben; Vansteenkiste, Arne; Laurson, Lasse; Durin, Gianfranco; Dupré, Luc; van Waeyenberge, Bartel

    2016-02-01

    The motion of domain walls in magnetic materials is a typical example of a creep process, usually characterised by a stretched exponential velocity-force relation. By performing large-scale micromagnetic simulations, and analyzing an extended 1D model which takes the effects of finite temperatures and material defects into account, we show that this creep scaling law breaks down in sufficiently narrow ferromagnetic strips. Our analysis of current-driven transverse domain wall motion in disordered Permalloy nanostrips reveals instead a creep regime with a linear dependence of the domain wall velocity on the applied field or current density. This originates from the essentially point-like nature of domain walls moving in narrow, line- like disordered nanostrips. An analogous linear relation is found also by analyzing existing experimental data on field-driven domain wall motion in perpendicularly magnetised media.

  3. Narrow-Line Seyfert 1 Galaxies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leighly, Karen M.

    2000-01-01

    The primary work during this year has been the analysis and interpretation of our HST spectra from two extreme Narrow-line Seyfert 1 galaxies (NLS1s) Infrared Astronomy Satellite (IRAS) 13224-3809 and 1H 0707-495. This work has been presented as an invited talk at the workshop entitled "Observational and theoretical progress in the Study of Narrow-line Seyfert 1 Galaxies" held in Bad Honnef, Germany December 8-11, as a contributed talk at the January 2000 AAS meeting in Atlanta, Georgia, and as a contributed talk at the workshop "Probing the Physics of Active Galactic Nuclei by Multiwavelength Monitoring" held at Goddard Space Flight Center June 20-22, 2000.

  4. Treatment of Mediterranean visceral leishmaniasis.

    PubMed Central

    Gradoni, L.; Bryceson, A.; Desjeux, P.

    1995-01-01

    Up-to-date information is given on the epidemiological situation of zoonotic visceral leishmaniasis (ZVL) in nine Mediterranean countries, and on drug regimens adopted in the management of ZVL patients in each country. Results of experimental and clinical trials on the efficacy and tolerability of liposomal amphotericin B in laboratory animals and in patients with ZVL are presented, as well as conclusions and recommendations on drug regimens to be used in the treatment of ZVL. PMID:7743590

  5. Multiwatts narrow linewidth fiber Raman amplifiers.

    PubMed

    Feng, Yan; Taylor, Luke; Bonaccini Calia, Domenico

    2008-07-21

    Up to 4.8 W, approximately 10 MHz, 1178 nm laser is obtained by Raman amplification of a distributed feedback diode laser in standard single mode fibers pumped by an 1120 nm Yb fiber laser. More than 10% efficiency and 27 dB amplification is achieved, limited by onset of stimulated Brillouin scattering. The ratio of Raman to Brillouin gain coefficient of a fiber is identified as a figure of merit for building a narrow linewidth fiber Raman amplifier. PMID:18648406

  6. [Amyloidosis and familial Mediterranean fever].

    PubMed

    Pras, M

    1986-01-01

    Familial Mediterranean Fever (F. M. F.) is an autosomal recessive disorder occurring most commonly in Sepharadi Jews and Armenians. Two phenotypic features characterize the disease: brief episodic febrile attacks of peritonitis, pleuritis or synovitis recurring from childhood or adolescence and the development of systemic amyloidosis. Attacks are accompanied by striking elevations of acute phase proteins, including serum amyloid A protein. The amyloidosis of Familial Mediterranean Fever is of the AA type, and manifest clinically as a nephropathy that passes through proteinuria, nephrotic and uremic stages to renal death. Although there is ethnic variation in the incidence of amyloidosis of F. M. F. in our patient population--predominantly Sepharadi Jews of North African extraction--an amyloidotic death at an early age is their genetic destiny. Since the introduction in 1972 of colchicine to prevent the febrile attacks, the drug has been proven and become the main stay of therapy. Today, colchicine has been shown to be effective in preventing amyloidosis as well as the febrile attacks in Familial Mediterranean Fever. End stage renal disease is not the end of the road for patients with F.M.F. because of improving outlook for dialysis and renal transplantation in these patients. PMID:2943362

  7. Narrow line photoassociation in an optical lattice.

    PubMed

    Zelevinsky, T; Boyd, M M; Ludlow, A D; Ido, T; Ye, J; Ciuryło, R; Naidon, P; Julienne, P S

    2006-05-26

    With ultracold 88Sr in a 1D magic wavelength optical lattice, we performed narrow-line photoassociation spectroscopy near the 1S0 - 3P1 intercombination transition. Nine least-bound vibrational molecular levels associated with the long-range 0u and 1u potential energy surfaces were measured and identified. A simple theoretical model accurately describes the level positions and treats the effects of the lattice confinement on the line shapes. The measured resonance strengths show that optical tuning of the ground state scattering length should be possible without significant atom loss. PMID:16803171

  8. The Flow of Gases in Narrow Channels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rasmussen, R E H

    1951-01-01

    Measurements were made of the flow of gases through various narrow channels a few microns wide at average pressures from 0.00003 to 40 cm. Hg. The flow rate, defined as the product of pressure and volume rate of flow at unit pressure difference, first decreased linearly with decrease in mean pressure in the channel, in agreement with laminar-flow theory, reached a minimum when the mean path length was approximately equal to the channel width, and then increased to a constant value. The product of flow rate and square root of molecular number was approximately the same function of mean path length for all gases for a given channel.

  9. Mediterranean diet: the past and the present.

    PubMed

    Trichopoulou, A

    2001-08-01

    Mortality statistics from the World Health Organization have provided early evidence that diet in the Mediterranean countries has been affecting the health of the respective populations and, in particular, their coronary health. Keys (1) has taken the lead arguing that the traditional Mediterranean diet has beneficial effects on health. Recent studies, capturing the evidence accumulated over the last three decades, have documented that the traditional Mediterranean diet meets several important criteria for a healthy diet. An attempt to conceptualize the proper diet and to make it able to function has been reported and a score has been developed and evaluated. Studies among the elderly in Greece, Denmark, Australia, Spain and China have shown that the overall Mediterranean dietary pattern was more important for longevity than single nutrients. These findings suggest, therefore, that a Mediterranean diet is associated with longer survival. Two additional questions should be addressed at this time: Is the Mediterranean diet an integral entity, or the sum of identifiable components that can and should be separately considered in the development of guidelines? Is the Mediterranean diet or its major components transferable to populations living far from the Mediterranean area? Answers to these questions would be important for scientific and policy reasons. The dietary patterns that prevail in the Mediterranean area have many common characteristics, most of which stem from the fact that olive oil plays an important role in all of them. Thus, although different regions in the Mediterranean basin have their own diets, it is legitimate to consider them as variants of a single entity, the Mediterranean diet. The Mediterranean diet can be described as the dietary pattern found in the olive growing areas of the Mediterranean region, in the late '50s and early '60s, when the consequences of World War II were overcome, but the fast-food culture had not reached the area yet (2

  10. Mediterranean diets: are they environmentally responsible?

    PubMed

    Gussow, J D

    1995-06-01

    Dietary recommendations made to promote health seldom, if ever, take account of environmental implications of producing recommended foods. This paper considers several aspects of the traditional Mediterranean diet in relation to global sustainability. Plant-centered diets, such as those consumed around the Mediterranean Sea during the 1950s and 1960s, would be environmentally beneficial because they imply need for a much smaller population of domestic animals and, consequently, lowered demand on soil, water, and energy resources. Although fish consumption is high in some Mediterranean diets, fish should not be used to replace animal flesh because all of the world's major fisheries are currently overexploited. As for the appropriateness of Mediterranean fresh fruit and vegetables (which would need to be imported into non-Mediterranean regions), locally producible substitutes should be used wherever possible to reduce the environmental costs of transporting food great distances. Research is needed to examine the environmental consequences of certain exports such as olive oil. PMID:7754992

  11. Geometrical Bounds on the Atlantic - Mediterranean connection during the Messinian Salinity Crisis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simon, Dirk; Meijer, Paul; Wortel, Rinus

    2014-05-01

    gateways will restrict the exchange flux enough, but also narrow or long corridors can lead to the same effect. Using these model results as a framework, it will move the interpretation of MSC related observations a step forward. Key Words: Messinian Salinity Crisis, Strait/Fluid Dynamics, Modelling, Strait of Gibraltar, Mediterranean Sea

  12. Narrow field electromagnetic sensor system and method

    DOEpatents

    McEwan, T.E.

    1996-11-19

    A narrow field electromagnetic sensor system and method of sensing a characteristic of an object provide the capability to realize a characteristic of an object such as density, thickness, or presence, for any desired coordinate position on the object. One application is imaging. The sensor can also be used as an obstruction detector or an electronic trip wire with a narrow field without the disadvantages of impaired performance when exposed to dirt, snow, rain, or sunlight. The sensor employs a transmitter for transmitting a sequence of electromagnetic signals in response to a transmit timing signal, a receiver for sampling only the initial direct RF path of the electromagnetic signal while excluding all other electromagnetic signals in response to a receive timing signal, and a signal processor for processing the sampled direct RF path electromagnetic signal and providing an indication of the characteristic of an object. Usually, the electromagnetic signal is a short RF burst and the obstruction must provide a substantially complete eclipse of the direct RF path. By employing time-of-flight techniques, a timing circuit controls the receiver to sample only the initial direct RF path of the electromagnetic signal while not sampling indirect path electromagnetic signals. The sensor system also incorporates circuitry for ultra-wideband spread spectrum operation that reduces interference to and from other RF services while allowing co-location of multiple electronic sensors without the need for frequency assignments. 12 figs.

  13. Narrow field electromagnetic sensor system and method

    DOEpatents

    McEwan, Thomas E.

    1996-01-01

    A narrow field electromagnetic sensor system and method of sensing a characteristic of an object provide the capability to realize a characteristic of an object such as density, thickness, or presence, for any desired coordinate position on the object. One application is imaging. The sensor can also be used as an obstruction detector or an electronic trip wire with a narrow field without the disadvantages of impaired performance when exposed to dirt, snow, rain, or sunlight. The sensor employs a transmitter for transmitting a sequence of electromagnetic signals in response to a transmit timing signal, a receiver for sampling only the initial direct RF path of the electromagnetic signal while excluding all other electromagnetic signals in response to a receive timing signal, and a signal processor for processing the sampled direct RF path electromagnetic signal and providing an indication of the characteristic of an object. Usually, the electromagnetic signal is a short RF burst and the obstruction must provide a substantially complete eclipse of the direct RF path. By employing time-of-flight techniques, a timing circuit controls the receiver to sample only the initial direct RF path of the electromagnetic signal while not sampling indirect path electromagnetic signals. The sensor system also incorporates circuitry for ultra-wideband spread spectrum operation that reduces interference to and from other RF services while allowing co-location of multiple electronic sensors without the need for frequency assignments.

  14. Magnetoacoustic transport in narrow electron channels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aizin, Gregory; Gumbs, Godfrey; Pepper, M.

    2000-03-01

    We develop a theory of the effect due to a small perpendicular magnetic field on the quantized acoustoelectric current induced by a surface acoustic wave (SAW) in a narrow electron channel. The quasi one-dimensional channel is formed in a piezoelectric GaAs/AlGaAs semiconductor structure by a split gate technique with the gate voltage beyond pinch-off. The current is the result of the trapping of electrons in the SAW induced moving quantum dots and the transfer of electrons residing in these dots through the channel. It has been observed recently (J. Cunningham, et al., Phys. Rev.B, 1999) that in small magnetic fields the acoustoelectric current oscillates as a function of magnetic field. Based on a simple model for the quantized acoustoelecric transport in a narrow channel (G. Gumbs et al., Phys. Rev.B, Rapid Commun., 60, N20, R13954, 1999) we develop a theory for these oscillations. The case when one electron is captured in the dot is considered, and the period, the amplitude, and the phase of the current oscillations as a function of the system's parameters are obtained and analyzed.

  15. Studies of narrow autoionizing resonances in gadolinium

    SciTech Connect

    Bushaw, Bruce A.; Nortershauser, W.; Blaum, K.; Wendt, Klaus

    2003-06-30

    The autoionization (AI) spectrum of gadolinium between the first and second limits has been investigated by triple-resonance excitation with high-resolution cw lasers. A large number of narrow AI resonances have been observed and assigned total angular momentum J values. The resonances are further divided into members of AI Rydberg series converging to the second limit or other ''interloping'' levels. Fine structure in the Rydberg series has been identified and interpreted in terms of Jc j coupling. A number of detailed studies have been performed on the interloping resonances: These include lifetime determination by lineshape analysis, isotope shifts, hyperfine structure, and photoionization saturation parameters. The electronic structure of the interloping levels is discussed in terms of these studies. Linewidths generally decrease with increasing total angular momentum and the J = 7 resonances are extremely narrow with Lorentzian widths ranging from < 1 MHz up to 157 MHz. The strongest resonances are found to have cross-sections of {approx}10-12 cm{sup 2} and photoionization can be saturated with powers available from cw diode lasers.

  16. Statins Might Protect People with Narrowed Leg Arteries

    MedlinePlus

    ... nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/news/fullstory_158707.html Statins Might Protect People With Narrowed Leg Arteries Study ... FRIDAY, May 6, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- Cholesterol-lowering statins may spare people with narrowed leg arteries from ...

  17. 33 CFR 117.561 - Kent Island Narrows.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Kent Island Narrows. 117.561... DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Maryland § 117.561 Kent Island Narrows. The draw of the U.S. Route 50/301 bridge, mile 1.0, Kent Island Narrows, operates as follows: (a) From November...

  18. 33 CFR 117.561 - Kent Island Narrows.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Kent Island Narrows. 117.561... DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Maryland § 117.561 Kent Island Narrows. The draw of the U.S. Route 50/301 bridge, mile 1.0, Kent Island Narrows, operates as follows: (a) From November...

  19. 33 CFR 117.561 - Kent Island Narrows.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Kent Island Narrows. 117.561... DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Maryland § 117.561 Kent Island Narrows. The draw of the U.S. Route 50/301 bridge, mile 1.0, Kent Island Narrows, operates as follows: (a) From November...

  20. 33 CFR 117.561 - Kent Island Narrows.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Kent Island Narrows. 117.561... DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Maryland § 117.561 Kent Island Narrows. The draw of the U.S. Route 50/301 bridge, mile 1.0, Kent Island Narrows, operates as follows: (a) From November...

  1. 33 CFR 117.561 - Kent Island Narrows.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Kent Island Narrows. 117.561... DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Maryland § 117.561 Kent Island Narrows. The draw of the U.S. Route 50/301 bridge, mile 1.0, Kent Island Narrows, operates as follows: (a) From November...

  2. 2. Photocopied July 1971 from photostat Jordan Narrows Folder #1, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. Photocopied July 1971 from photostat Jordan Narrows Folder #1, Engineering Department, Utah Power and Light Co., Salt Lake City, Utah. JORDAN NARROWS STATION. PLAN AND SECTION. - Salt Lake City Water & Electrical Power Company, Jordan Narrows Hydroelectric Plant, Jordan River, Riverton, Salt Lake County, UT

  3. Promoting L2 Vocabulary Learning through Narrow Reading

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kang, Eun Young

    2015-01-01

    Krashen (2004) has advocated that narrow reading, i.e., reading a series of texts addressing one specific topic, is an effective method to grow vocabulary. While narrow reading has been championed to have many advantages for L2 vocabulary learning, there remains a relative dearth of empirical studies that test the impact of narrow reading on L2…

  4. Management model application at nested spatial levels in Mediterranean Basins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lo Porto, Antonio; De Girolamo, Anna Maria; Froebrich, Jochen

    2014-05-01

    and anthropogenic pressures acting on it to define management policies, three spatial levels must be taken into account: the basin, sub-basin and reach level. The common experience showed that different issues can be properly assessed and handled at these three levels. Furthermore different difficulties and problems affect modeling at the same spatial levels. The basin scale is the geographical unit (as required by the WFD) in which coherent management policy must be designed and a Program of Measures must be implemented. At this spatial level a comprehensive understanding of processes acting in the basin area is synthesized (i.e. nutrient loads delivered to the sea). In Mediterranean region land use is commonly very fragmented and also because of complex geomorphology the use of remote sensing can be not easy or sufficient to derive reliable land use maps of agricultural areas. The sub-basin level (<100 km2) is the most suited to gather information on land and water resources use, agricultural practices and pressures by using direct surveys and local knowledge. At this spatial resolution soil and rainfall variability are somehow "averaged" and the model simulation tend to attenuate the complex, local patterns of runoff generation. As a results, an acceptable flow modeling is possible, being this a common issue in the Mediterranean areas where intermittency of rivers is the rule. The reach level is the spatial unit in which physical and ecological processes can be assessed. It is sufficiently narrow to observe peculiarities of geomorphology and water works (i.e. check dams, water abstractions) that can greatly interact with natural flow. At this level modeling often fails in simulating actual streamflow. At local scale field observations can help also to overcome recorded flow measurements inconsistencies, due to the difficulties in metering low flows (i.e. rivulets can detour and skip flow meters) that often lead to underestimate extreme low flow. The modeling of

  5. Drought Variability in Mediterranean Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meko, D. M.; Touchan, R.

    2010-12-01

    Projections from general circulation models are consistent in identifying the Mediterranean Basin as a region of expected drying in response to increased greenhouse gases. The Mediterranean and its bordering countries, while giving rise to the classic “Mediterranean” climate-type, are characterized by a complex precipitation climatology, with strong influences from land-sea contrasts, topography, intrusions of polar air from various lowland pathways, and occasional tropical influence from systems originating south of the Atlas Mountains. Identification of an anthropogenic signature of drying with instrumental climate data can benefit from information on the natural spatio-temporal variability of drought on time scales of decades to centuries in this complex precipitation regime. An expanding tree-ring network will eventually yield multi-century drought records for the region (117 chronologies now developed or in progress). Aspects of spatio-temporal variability on shorter time scales in the southern part of the Mediterranan Basin (south of about 40°N) are examined in this presentation with the aid of gridded precipitation, temperature and Z-index - a dimensionless intermediate variable in Palmer Drought Index computation. Cross-spectral analysis is applied to summarize covariance of drought-related variables across the region. Ocean-atmosphere circulation indices are explored for direct causative factors in episodes of exceptional widespread seasonal and multi-season drought in the region.

  6. Indium nitride: A narrow gap semiconductor

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, J.; Walukiewicz, W.; Yu, K.M.; Ager III, J.W.; Haller, E.E.; Lu, H.; Schaff, W.J.

    2002-08-14

    The optical properties of wurtzite InN grown on sapphire substrates by molecular-beam epitaxy have been characterized by optical absorption, photoluminescence, and photomodulated reflectance techniques. All these three characterization techniques show an energy gap for InN between 0.7 and 0.8 eV, much lower than the commonly accepted value of 1.9 eV. The photoluminescence peak energy is found to be sensitive to the free electron concentration of the sample. The peak energy exhibits a very weak hydrostatic pressure dependence and a small, anomalous blueshift with increasing temperature. The bandgap energies of In-rich InGaN alloys were found to be consistent with the narrow gap of InN. The bandgap bowing parameter was determined to be 1.43 eV in InGaN.

  7. Robotic chair at steep and narrow stairways

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Imazato, Masahiro; Yamaguchi, Masahiro; Moromugi, Shunji; Ishimatsu, Takakazu

    2007-12-01

    A robotic chair is developed to support mobility of elderly and disabled people living in the house where steep and narrow stairways are installed. In order to deal with such mobility problem the developed robotic chair has a compact original configuration. The robotic chair vertically moves by actuation of electric cylinders and horizontally moves by push-pull operation given by a care-giver. In order to navigate safely every action of the chair is checked by the operator. Up-and-down motions of the robotic chair on the stairway are executed through combinations of motor and cylinder actuations. Performance of the robotic chair was evaluated through two kinds of experiments. The excellent ability of the robotic chair could be confirmed through these experiments.

  8. Nondecaying Hydrodynamic Interactions along Narrow Channels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Misiunas, Karolis; Pagliara, Stefano; Lauga, Eric; Lister, John R.; Keyser, Ulrich F.

    2015-07-01

    Particle-particle interactions are of paramount importance in every multibody system as they determine the collective behavior and coupling strength. Many well-known interactions such as electrostatic, van der Waals, or screened Coulomb interactions, decay exponentially or with negative powers of the particle spacing r . Similarly, hydrodynamic interactions between particles undergoing Brownian motion decay as 1 /r in bulk, and are assumed to decay in small channels. Such interactions are ubiquitous in biological and technological systems. Here we confine two particles undergoing Brownian motion in narrow, microfluidic channels and study their coupling through hydrodynamic interactions. Our experiments show that the hydrodynamic particle-particle interactions are distance independent in these channels. This finding is of fundamental importance for the interpretation of experiments where dense mixtures of particles or molecules diffuse through finite length, water-filled channels or pore networks.

  9. Nondecaying Hydrodynamic Interactions along Narrow Channels.

    PubMed

    Misiunas, Karolis; Pagliara, Stefano; Lauga, Eric; Lister, John R; Keyser, Ulrich F

    2015-07-17

    Particle-particle interactions are of paramount importance in every multibody system as they determine the collective behavior and coupling strength. Many well-known interactions such as electrostatic, van der Waals, or screened Coulomb interactions, decay exponentially or with negative powers of the particle spacing r. Similarly, hydrodynamic interactions between particles undergoing Brownian motion decay as 1/r in bulk, and are assumed to decay in small channels. Such interactions are ubiquitous in biological and technological systems. Here we confine two particles undergoing Brownian motion in narrow, microfluidic channels and study their coupling through hydrodynamic interactions. Our experiments show that the hydrodynamic particle-particle interactions are distance independent in these channels. This finding is of fundamental importance for the interpretation of experiments where dense mixtures of particles or molecules diffuse through finite length, water-filled channels or pore networks. PMID:26230830

  10. Bioequivalence and narrow therapeutic index drugs.

    PubMed

    Benet, L Z; Goyan, J E

    1995-01-01

    Every prescription written for a generic drug requires an act of faith by the prescriber that any one of the several available products will be therapeutically equivalent to the innovator (brand name) products. Concerns about this act of faith have been expressed for many years, particularly in the wake of the generic scandals that occurred in 1989-1990, and especially relative to the drugs with a narrow therapeutic range. We contend that these drugs are actually the least likely to pose problems in ensuring therapeutic equivalence, but that new criteria must be established for bioequivalence because the present system is wasteful and is stifling innovation in the industry. We propose four suggestions to the scientific and regulatory communities that we believe could assist in modifying the process such that innovation is encouraged and practitioners are reassured relative to the appropriateness of using generic drugs. PMID:7479195

  11. Isolating prompt photons with narrow cones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Catani, S.; Fontannaz, M.; Guillet, J. Ph.; Pilon, E.

    2013-09-01

    We discuss the isolation of prompt photons in hadronic collisions by means of narrow isolation cones and the QCD computation of the corresponding cross sections. We reconsider the occurence of large perturbative terms with logarithmic dependence on the cone size and their impact on the fragmentation scale dependence. We cure the apparent perturbative violation of unitarity for small cone sizes, which had been noticed earlier in next-to-leading-order (NLO) calculations, by resumming the leading logarithmic dependence on the cone size. We discuss possible implications regarding the implementation of some hollow cone variants of the cone criterion, which simulate the experimental difficulty to impose isolation inside the region filled by the electromagnetic shower that develops in the calorimeter.

  12. Line Narrowing Parameter Measurement by Modulation Spectroscopy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dharamsi, Amin N.

    1998-01-01

    Accurate Characterization of Oxygen A-Band Line Parameters by Wavelength Modulation Spectroscopy with tunable diode lasers is an ongoing research at Old Dominion University, under sponsorship from NASA Langley research Center. The work proposed here will be undertaken under the guidance of Dr. William Chu and Dr. Lamont Poole of the Aerosol Research Branch at NASA Langley-Research Center in Hampton, Virginia. The research was started about two years ago and utilizes wavelength modulation absorption spectroscopy with higher harmonic detection, a technique that we developed at Old Dominion University, to obtain the absorption line characteristics of the Oxygen A-band rovibronic lines. Accurate characterization of this absorption band is needed for processing of data that will be obtained in experiments such as the NASA Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiment III (SAGE III) as part of the US Mission to Planet Earth. The research work for Summer Fellowship undertook a measurement of the Dicke line-narrowing parameters of the Oxygen A-Band lines by using wavelength modulation spectroscopy. Our previous theoretical results had indicated that such a measurement could be done sensitively and in a convenient fashion by using this type of spectroscopy. In particular, theoretical results had indicated that the signal magnitude would depend on pressure in a manner that was very sensitive to the narrowing parameter. One of the major tasks undertaken during the summer of 1998 was to establish experimentally that these theoretical predictions were correct. This was done successfully and the results of the work are being prepared for publication. Experimental Results were obtained in which the magnitude of the signal was measured as a function of pressure, for various harmonic detection orders (N = 1, 2, 3, 4, 5). A comparison with theoretical results was made, and it was shown that the agreement between theory and experiment was very good. More importantly, however, it was shown

  13. Gated narrow escape time for molecular signaling.

    PubMed

    Reingruber, Jürgen; Holcman, David

    2009-10-01

    The mean time for a diffusing ligand to activate a target protein located on the surface of a microdomain can regulate cellular signaling. When the ligand switches between various states induced by chemical interactions or conformational changes, while target activation occurs in only one state, this activation time is affected. We investigate this dynamics using new equations for the sojourn times spent in each state. For two states, we obtain exact solutions in dimension one, and asymptotic ones confirmed by Brownian simulations in dimension 3. We find that the activation time is quite sensitive to changes of the switching rates, which can be used to modulate signaling. Interestingly, our analysis reveals that activation can be fast although the ligand spends most of the time "hidden" in the nonactivating state. Finally, we obtain a new formula for the narrow escape time in the presence of switching. PMID:19905605

  14. [Differential diagnosis of a narrow QRS tachycardia].

    PubMed

    Lewalter, Thorsten

    2015-09-01

    The differential diagnosis of a narrow QRS tachycardia requires on the one hand knowledge about the clinical data of the tachycardia patient but on the other hand a systematic step by step analysis of the electrocardiogram (ECG) is the most successful approach. Apart from the question of regularity or irregularity of the QRS complexes, the presence and detection of P waves is also of importance. The P wave timing in relation to the preceding and the following QRS complexes as well as the numerical relationship of P waves and QRS complexes allow a well-founded suspected diagnosis to be achieved in most cases. Even the differentiation between atrioventricular (AV) nodal reentrant tachycardia (AVNRT) versus orthodromic AV reentrant tachycardia (AVRT), e.g. by accessory leads, is in most cases possible in a surface ECG. Obviously, there are constellations which need an invasive electrophysiological procedure for a definitive diagnosis. PMID:26287273

  15. An Instability in Narrow Planetary Rings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weiss, J. W.; Stewart, G. R.

    2003-08-01

    We will present our work investigating the behavior of narrow planetary rings with low dispersion velocities. Such narrow a ring will be initially unstable to self-gravitational collapse. After the collapse, the ring is collisionally very dense. At this stage, it is subject to a new instability. Waves appear on the inner and outer edges of the ring within half of an orbital period. The ring then breaks apart radially, taking approximately a quarter of an orbital period of do so. As clumps of ring particles expand radially away from the dense ring, Kepler shear causes these clumps to stretch out azimuthally, and eventually collapse into a new set of dense rings. Small-scale repetitions of the original instability in these new rings eventually leads to a stabilized broad ring with higher dispersion velocities than the initial ring. Preliminary results indicate that this instability may be operating on small scales in broad rings in the wake-like features seen by Salo and others. Some intriguing properties have been observed during this instability. The most significant is a coherence in the epicyclic phases of the particles. Both self-gravity and collisions in the ring operated to create and enforce this coherence. The coherence might also be responsible for the instability to radial expansion. We also observe that guiding centers of the particles do not migrate to the center of the ring during the collapse phase of the ring. In fact, guiding centers move radially away from the core of the ring during this phase, consistent with global conservation of angular momentum. We will show the results of our simulations to date, including movies of the evolution of various parameters. (Audiences members wanting popcorn are advised to bring their own.) This work is supported by a NASA Graduate Student Research Program grant and by the Cassini mission.

  16. Lightning multiplicity characteristics in Eastern Mediterranean thunderstorms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shalev, S.; Saaroni, H.; Ziv, B.; Yair, Y.

    2012-04-01

    Cloud-to-ground lightning flashes consist of one or several strokes coming in very short temporal succession and close spatial proximity. There are several methods for converting stroke data into flashes. In the NLDN (US), the thresholds for determining flash multiplicity are 0.5 seconds and 10 km radius between successive strokes (Cummins et al., 1998). We used location-based algorithm with several spatial and temporal ranges, and analyzed stroke data which were obtained by the Israel Lightning Location System (ILLS) during the period 1.8.2009-31.7.2010. We computed multiplicity, the percentage of single stroke flashes and the geographical distribution of single vs. multiple-stroke flashes for the Eastern Mediterranean region. Results show that for the NLDN thresholds, the percentage of single stroke flashes was 44% and the average multiplicity was 1.6. Since the average time interval between successive return strokes in a flash is usually only several tens of milliseconds (Saba et al., 2010), a value of 0.2 s may better represent the real multiplicity. Similarly, most video-based studies show a mean range of less than 2.5 km between two ground terminations of the same flash (Stall et al., 2009) and so a spatial range of 10 km may misclassify independent flashes as subsequent strokes of a single flash. This may lead to lower values of flash density than occur in reality (due to the broad clustering criteria). Therefore, we recommend a spatial range of twice the detection error, which for the ILLS is 0.5 km. For the narrower thresholds of 1 km and 0.2 s our data show a multiplicity (for both negative and positive flashes) of 1.1 and a percentage of 86% for single stroke flashes. We find that the land-sea multiplicity distributions are very sensitive to the thresholds used. Cummins, K. L., Murphy, M. J., Bardo, E. A., Hiscox, W. L., Pyle, R. B. and Pifer, A. E., (1998), A combined TOA/MDF technology upgrade of the U.S. National Lighting Detection Network, J. Geophys

  17. The Mediterranean: Strategic hub of oil activity

    SciTech Connect

    Vielvoye, R.

    1988-06-20

    The author says, the Mediterranean has always been a hub of oil industry activity. Pipeline and canal links into the Middle East, sizable oil and gas production along the North African shore, and access to the huge European markets through terminals on the southern European coast combine to give the region great strategic importance. The outbreak of the Iran-Iraq war emphasized the Mediterranean's key role in transporting Middle Eastern crude. This special Journal report provides an exclusive look at operations of Middle East, European, and North African countries on the rim of the Mediterranean Sea.

  18. Effects of Extreme Climate on Mediterranean Societies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xoplaki, Elena

    2009-04-01

    Climate Extremes During Recent Millennia and Their Impact on Mediterranean Societies; Athens, Greece, 13-16 September 2008; Climatic extremes in the past few thousand years have severely affected societies throughout the Mediterranean region and have changed the outcome of historical events in some instances. Climatic extremes—droughts, floods, prolonged cold and heat—affect society in a variety of ways, operating through famine, disease, and social upheaval. These topics were discussed at an interdisciplinary symposium at the National and Kapodistrian University, in Greece, that brought together climatologists, paleoclimatologists, anthropologists, geologists, archaeologists, and historians working in the greater Mediterranean region.

  19. Metagenomes of Mediterranean Coastal Lagoons

    PubMed Central

    Ghai, Rohit; Hernandez, Claudia Mella; Picazo, Antonio; Mizuno, Carolina Megumi; Ininbergs, Karolina; Díez, Beatriz; Valas, Ruben; DuPont, Christopher L.; McMahon, Katherine D.; Camacho, Antonio; Rodriguez-Valera, Francisco

    2012-01-01

    Coastal lagoons, both hypersaline and freshwater, are common, but still understudied ecosystems. We describe, for the first time, using high throughput sequencing, the extant microbiota of two large and representative Mediterranean coastal lagoons, the hypersaline Mar Menor, and the freshwater Albufera de Valencia, both located on the south eastern coast of Spain. We show there are considerable differences in the microbiota of both lagoons, in comparison to other marine and freshwater habitats. Importantly, a novel uncultured sulfur oxidizing Alphaproteobacteria was found to dominate bacterioplankton in the hypersaline Mar Menor. Also, in the latter prokaryotic cyanobacteria were almost exclusively comprised by Synechococcus and no Prochlorococcus was found. Remarkably, the microbial community in the freshwaters of the hypertrophic Albufera was completely in contrast to known freshwater systems, in that there was a near absence of well known and cosmopolitan groups of ultramicrobacteria namely Low GC Actinobacteria and the LD12 lineage of Alphaproteobacteria. PMID:22778901

  20. Familial Mediterranean fever: current perspectives

    PubMed Central

    Sönmez, Hafize Emine; Batu, Ezgi Deniz; Özen, Seza

    2016-01-01

    Familial Mediterranean fever (FMF) is the most frequent monogenic autoinflammatory disease, and it is characterized by recurrent attacks of fever and polyserositis. The disease is associated with mutations in the MEFV gene encoding pyrin, which causes exaggerated inflammatory response through uncontrolled production of interleukin 1. The major long-term complication of FMF is amyloidosis. Colchicine remains the principle therapy, and the aim of treatment is to prevent acute attacks and the consequences of chronic inflammation. With the evolution in the concepts about the etiopathogenesis and genetics of the disease, we have understood that FMF is more complicated than an ordinary autosomal recessive monogenic disorder. Recently, recommendation sets have been generated for interpretation of genetic testing and genetic diagnosis of FMF. Here, we have reviewed the current perspectives in FMF in light of recent recommendations. PMID:27051312

  1. Mediterranean Ocean Colour Chlorophyll Trends.

    PubMed

    Colella, Simone; Falcini, Federico; Rinaldi, Eleonora; Sammartino, Michela; Santoleri, Rosalia

    2016-01-01

    In being at the base of the marine food web, phytoplankton is particularly important for marine ecosystem functioning (e.g., biodiversity). Strong anthropization, over-exploitation of natural resources, and climate change affect the natural amount of phytoplankton and, therefore, represent a continuous threat to the biodiversity in marine waters. In particular, a concerning risks for coastal waters is the increase in nutrient inputs of terrestrial/anthropogenic origin that can lead to undesirable modifications of phytoplankton concentration (i.e., eutrophication). Monitoring chlorophyll (Chl) concentration, which is a proxy of phytoplankton biomass, is an efficient tool for recording and understanding the response of the marine ecosystem to human pressures and thus for detecting eutrophication. Here, we compute Chl trends over the Mediterranean Sea by using satellite data, also highlighting the fact that remote sensing may represent an efficient and reliable solution to synoptically control the "good environmental status" (i.e., the Marine Directive to achieve Good Environmental Status of EU marine waters by 2020) and to assess the application of international regulations and environmental directives. Our methodology includes the use of an ad hoc regional (i.e., Mediterranean) algorithm for Chl concentration retrieval, also accounting for the difference between offshore (i.e., Case I) and coastal (i.e., Case II) waters. We apply the Mann-Kendall test and the Sens's method for trend estimation to the Chl concentration de-seasonalized monthly time series, as obtained from the X-11 technique. We also provide a preliminary analysis of some particular trends by evaluating their associated inter-annual variability. The high spatial resolution of our approach allows a clear identification of intense trends in those coastal waters that are affected by river outflows. We do not attempt to attribute the observed trends to specific anthropogenic events. However, the trends

  2. Mediterranean Ocean Colour Chlorophyll Trends

    PubMed Central

    Colella, Simone; Falcini, Federico; Rinaldi, Eleonora; Sammartino, Michela; Santoleri, Rosalia

    2016-01-01

    In being at the base of the marine food web, phytoplankton is particularly important for marine ecosystem functioning (e.g., biodiversity). Strong anthropization, over-exploitation of natural resources, and climate change affect the natural amount of phytoplankton and, therefore, represent a continuous threat to the biodiversity in marine waters. In particular, a concerning risks for coastal waters is the increase in nutrient inputs of terrestrial/anthropogenic origin that can lead to undesirable modifications of phytoplankton concentration (i.e., eutrophication). Monitoring chlorophyll (Chl) concentration, which is a proxy of phytoplankton biomass, is an efficient tool for recording and understanding the response of the marine ecosystem to human pressures and thus for detecting eutrophication. Here, we compute Chl trends over the Mediterranean Sea by using satellite data, also highlighting the fact that remote sensing may represent an efficient and reliable solution to synoptically control the “good environmental status” (i.e., the Marine Directive to achieve Good Environmental Status of EU marine waters by 2020) and to assess the application of international regulations and environmental directives. Our methodology includes the use of an ad hoc regional (i.e., Mediterranean) algorithm for Chl concentration retrieval, also accounting for the difference between offshore (i.e., Case I) and coastal (i.e., Case II) waters. We apply the Mann-Kendall test and the Sens’s method for trend estimation to the Chl concentration de-seasonalized monthly time series, as obtained from the X-11 technique. We also provide a preliminary analysis of some particular trends by evaluating their associated inter-annual variability. The high spatial resolution of our approach allows a clear identification of intense trends in those coastal waters that are affected by river outflows. We do not attempt to attribute the observed trends to specific anthropogenic events. However, the

  3. Genetics Home Reference: familial Mediterranean fever

    MedlinePlus

    ... Epub 2013 Sep 9. Review. Citation on PubMed Lidar M, Kedem R, Berkun Y, Langevitz P, Livneh ... 090401. Epub 2009 Dec 15. Citation on PubMed Lidar M, Livneh A. Familial Mediterranean fever: clinical, molecular ...

  4. Night Views Over the Mediterranean Sea

    NASA Video Gallery

    This video over the Mediterranean Sea was taken by the crew of Expedition 29 aboard the International Space Station. This sequence of shots was taken on Oct. 6, 2011, from 22:58:09 to 23:13:15 GMT,...

  5. [Mediterranean diet. Characteristics and health benefits].

    PubMed

    Serra Majem, Lluís; García Alvarez, Alicia; Ngo de la Cruz, Joy

    2004-06-01

    The purpose of this article is to define the concept of Mediterranean Diet or Diets and to describe the associated health benefits recognised by the scientific community. The characteristics of the Mediterranean Diet are described as well as the effects the foods comprising it have on the most common pathologies such as cardiovascular disease and cancer. The Spanish Society of Community Nutrition's consensus based Healthy Diet Pyramid, along with Greece's pyramid for food guidelines for the adult population (from the Greek Ministry of Health), are presented and compared. They are the graphic representation of the food and physical activity guides of two typically Mediterranean countries. Nutritional and sociological trends are also discussed and their impact on the evolution of the Mediterranean Diet. PMID:15584472

  6. Probing continental collision in the Mediterranean Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robertson, A. H. F.

    Knowledge about the processes of continental collisional would unlock a wealth of data for the field of tectonics, but such processes have been poorly documented by academic ocean drilling. On the basis of 1993 data confirming that the easternmost Mediterranean is in the initial stages of continental collision, the Ocean Drilling Program has scheduled two legs of drilling for summer 1995 in the eastern and western parts of the Mediterranean Sea.Effects of continental collision in the easternmost Mediterranean include the Quaternary uplift of Cyprus [Poole and Robertson, 1991] and the break up and subsidence of the Eratosthenes Seamount, which is located in the easternmost Mediterranean between Cyprus and the Levantine Basin (Figure 1).

  7. Spectral narrowing of solid state lasers by narrow-band PTR Bragg mirrors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chung, T.; Rapaport, A.; Chen, Y.; Smirnov, V.; Hemmer, M.; Glebov, L. B.; Richardson, M. C.; Bass, M.

    2006-05-01

    Dramatic spectral narrowing of normally broad band lasers, Ti:Sapphire,Cr:LiSAF, and alexandrite was achieved by simply replacing the output mirror with a reflective, volumetric Bragg grating recorded in photo thermal refractive (PTR) glass. The output power of each laser was changed very slightly from that obtained using dielectric coated output mirrors with the same output coupling as the Bragg grating while spectral brightness increased by about three orders of magnitude.

  8. Structure of an energetic narrow discrete arc

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcfadden, J. P.; Carlson, C. W.; Boehm, M. H.

    1990-01-01

    Particle distributions, waves, dc electric fields, and magnetic fields were measured by two sounding rockets at altitudes of 950 and 430 km through an energetic (greater than 5 keV) narrow (about 10 km) stable discrete arc. Although the payloads' magnetic footprints were separated by only 50 km, differences in the arc's structure were observed including the spatial width, peak energy, and characteristic spectra. The energetic electron precipitation included both slowly varying isotropic fluxes that formed an inverted-V energy-time signature and rapidly varying field-aligned fluxes at or below the isotropic spectral peak. The isotropic precipitation had a flux discontinuity inside the arc indicating the arc was present on a boundary between two different magnetospheric plasmas. Dispersive and nondispersive bursts of field-aligned electrons were measured throughout the arc, appearing over broad energy ranges or as monoenergetic beams. Dispersive bursts gave variable source distances less than 8000 km. Plateauing of some of the most intense bursts suggests that waves stabilized these electrons. During the lower altitude arc crossing, the field-aligned component formed a separate inverted-V energy-time signature whose peak energy was half the isotropic peak energy.

  9. Ultra-narrow metallic armchair graphene nanoribbons.

    PubMed

    Kimouche, Amina; Ervasti, Mikko M; Drost, Robert; Halonen, Simo; Harju, Ari; Joensuu, Pekka M; Sainio, Jani; Liljeroth, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Graphene nanoribbons (GNRs)-narrow stripes of graphene-have emerged as promising building blocks for nanoelectronic devices. Recent advances in bottom-up synthesis have allowed production of atomically well-defined armchair GNRs with different widths and doping. While all experimentally studied GNRs have exhibited wide bandgaps, theory predicts that every third armchair GNR (widths of N=3m+2, where m is an integer) should be nearly metallic with a very small bandgap. Here, we synthesize the narrowest possible GNR belonging to this family (five carbon atoms wide, N=5). We study the evolution of the electronic bandgap and orbital structure of GNR segments as a function of their length using low-temperature scanning tunnelling microscopy and density-functional theory calculations. Already GNRs with lengths of 5 nm reach almost metallic behaviour with ∼100 meV bandgap. Finally, we show that defects (kinks) in the GNRs do not strongly modify their electronic structure. PMID:26658960

  10. Reconditioning of Cassini Narrow-Angle Camera

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    These five images of single stars, taken at different times with the narrow-angle camera on NASA's Cassini spacecraft, show the effects of haze collecting on the camera's optics, then successful removal of the haze by warming treatments.

    The image on the left was taken on May 25, 2001, before the haze problem occurred. It shows a star named HD339457.

    The second image from left, taken May 30, 2001, shows the effect of haze that collected on the optics when the camera cooled back down after a routine-maintenance heating to 30 degrees Celsius (86 degrees Fahrenheit). The star is Maia, one of the Pleiades.

    The third image was taken on October 26, 2001, after a weeklong decontamination treatment at minus 7 C (19 F). The star is Spica.

    The fourth image was taken of Spica January 30, 2002, after a weeklong decontamination treatment at 4 C (39 F).

    The final image, also of Spica, was taken July 9, 2002, following three additional decontamination treatments at 4 C (39 F) for two months, one month, then another month.

    Cassini, on its way toward arrival at Saturn in 2004, is a cooperative project of NASA, the European Space Agency and the Italian Space Agency. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena, manages the Cassini mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C.

  11. Ultra-narrow metallic armchair graphene nanoribbons

    PubMed Central

    Kimouche, Amina; Ervasti, Mikko M.; Drost, Robert; Halonen, Simo; Harju, Ari; Joensuu, Pekka M.; Sainio, Jani; Liljeroth, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Graphene nanoribbons (GNRs)—narrow stripes of graphene—have emerged as promising building blocks for nanoelectronic devices. Recent advances in bottom-up synthesis have allowed production of atomically well-defined armchair GNRs with different widths and doping. While all experimentally studied GNRs have exhibited wide bandgaps, theory predicts that every third armchair GNR (widths of N=3m+2, where m is an integer) should be nearly metallic with a very small bandgap. Here, we synthesize the narrowest possible GNR belonging to this family (five carbon atoms wide, N=5). We study the evolution of the electronic bandgap and orbital structure of GNR segments as a function of their length using low-temperature scanning tunnelling microscopy and density-functional theory calculations. Already GNRs with lengths of 5 nm reach almost metallic behaviour with ∼100 meV bandgap. Finally, we show that defects (kinks) in the GNRs do not strongly modify their electronic structure. PMID:26658960

  12. Tunable pulsed narrow bandwidth light source

    DOEpatents

    Powers, Peter E.; Kulp, Thomas J.

    2002-01-01

    A tunable pulsed narrow bandwidth light source and a method of operating a light source are provided. The light source includes a pump laser, first and second non-linear optical crystals, a tunable filter, and light pulse directing optics. The method includes the steps of operating the pump laser to generate a pulsed pump beam characterized by a nanosecond pulse duration and arranging the light pulse directing optics so as to (i) split the pulsed pump beam into primary and secondary pump beams; (ii) direct the primary pump beam through an input face of the first non-linear optical crystal such that a primary output beam exits from an output face of the first non-linear optical crystal; (iii) direct the primary output beam through the tunable filter to generate a sculpted seed beam; and direct the sculpted seed beam and the secondary pump beam through an input face of the second non-linear optical crystal such that a secondary output beam characterized by at least one spectral bandwidth on the order of about 0.1 cm.sup.-1 and below exits from an output face of the second non-linear optical crystal.

  13. Latitude dependence of narrow bipolar pulse emissions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahmad, M. R.; Esa, M. R. M.; Cooray, V.; Baharudin, Z. A.; Hettiarachchi, P.

    2015-06-01

    In this paper, we present a comparative study on the occurrence of narrow bipolar pulses (NBPs) and other forms of lightning flashes across various geographical areas ranging from northern regions to the tropics. As the latitude decreased from Uppsala, Sweden (59.8°N) to South Malaysia (1.5°N), the percentage of NBP emissions relative to the total number of lightning flashes increased significantly from 0.13% to 12%. Occurrences of positive NBPs were more common than negative NBPs at all observed latitudes. However, as latitudes decreased, the negative NBP emissions increased significantly from 20% (Uppsala, Sweden) to 45% (South Malaysia). Factors involving mixed-phase region elevations and vertical extents of thundercloud tops are invoked to explain the observed results. These factors are fundamentally latitude dependent. Our results suggest that the NBP emission rate is not a useful measure to monitor thunderstorm severity because regular tropical thunderstorms, where relatively high NBP emissions occur, lack suitable conditions to become severe (i.e., there is modest convective available potential energy and a lack of baroclinity in such regions). Observations of significantly high negative NBP occurrences together with very rare occurrences of positive cloud-to-ground flashes and isolated breakdown pulses in tropical thunderstorms are indicative of a stronger negative screening layer magnitude and weaker lower positive charge region magnitude than those in northern regions.

  14. Narrow bandpass cryogenic filter for microwave measurements.

    PubMed

    Ivanov, B I; Klimenko, D N; Sultanov, A N; Il'ichev, E; Meyer, H-G

    2013-05-01

    An ultra-wide stopband hairpin bandpass filter with integrated nonuniform transmission lines was designed and fabricated for highly sensitive measurements at cryogenic temperatures down to millikelvin and a frequency range of 10 Hz-10 GHz. The scattering matrices of the filter were characterized at T = 4.2 K. The filter provides a stopband from 10 Hz to 2.2 GHz and from 2.3 GHz to 10 GHz with more than 50 dB and 40 dB of amplitude suppression, respectively. The center frequency of the passband is f0 = 2.25 GHz with a bandwidth Δf = 80 MHz. The maximum insertion loss in the passband is 4 dB. The filter has a 50 Ω input and output impedance, SubMiniature version A connector termination, and significantly reduced form factor. The wide stopband frequency range and narrow passband in conjunction with small dimensions make the filter suitable to use it as a part of a high sensitive readout for superconducting quantum circuits, such as superconducting quantum bits and cryogenic parametric amplifiers. PMID:23742575

  15. Narrow bandpass cryogenic filter for microwave measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ivanov, B. I.; Klimenko, D. N.; Sultanov, A. N.; Il'ichev, E.; Meyer, H.-G.

    2013-05-01

    An ultra-wide stopband hairpin bandpass filter with integrated nonuniform transmission lines was designed and fabricated for highly sensitive measurements at cryogenic temperatures down to millikelvin and a frequency range of 10 Hz-10 GHz. The scattering matrices of the filter were characterized at T = 4.2 K. The filter provides a stopband from 10 Hz to 2.2 GHz and from 2.3 GHz to 10 GHz with more than 50 dB and 40 dB of amplitude suppression, respectively. The center frequency of the passband is f0 = 2.25 GHz with a bandwidth Δf = 80 MHz. The maximum insertion loss in the passband is 4 dB. The filter has a 50 Ω input and output impedance, SubMiniature version A connector termination, and significantly reduced form factor. The wide stopband frequency range and narrow passband in conjunction with small dimensions make the filter suitable to use it as a part of a high sensitive readout for superconducting quantum circuits, such as superconducting quantum bits and cryogenic parametric amplifiers.

  16. Electrostatic Changes Observed with Narrow Bipolar Pulses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karunarathne, S.; Marshall, T. C.; Stolzenburg, M.; Karunarathna, N.

    2015-12-01

    Narrow bipolar pulses (NBPs) or compact intracloud discharges are impulsive discharges that are considered to be the strongest natural emitters in the HF radio band; they usually occur at high altitudes in some thunderstorms. In the summer of 2011, we collected E-change data with wideband flat-plate antennas (0.16 Hz - 2.5 MHz) at ten stations covering an area of nearly 70 km x 100 km in and around Kennedy Space Center, Florida, USA. On one thunderstorm day, 14 August 2011, we detected 226 positive NBPs, and some observations of these pulses were published in Karunarathne et al. [2015, JGR-atmospheres]. Of these 226 NBPs, 50 (22.1 %) occurred within 10 km horizontally of at least one sensor. All of these closer sensors show electrostatic changes associated with corresponding NBPs, with a net electrostatic change in the main bipolar pulse and with a slower electrostatic change after the bipolar pulse that seems similar to short continuing current immediately after some cloud-to-ground return strokes. Although NBPs have been considered as short duration pulses (10 - 20 microseconds), the electrostatic changes after the main bipolar pulse ranged from 0.7 ms to 34 ms and associated charge moments were calculated. The total duration of the electrostatic E-change was strongly dependent on the distance to the sensors. In this presentation, we will present data for these electrostatic changes, some statistics, and physical background and reasoning for the electrostatic changes.

  17. Isostasy-controlled thinning-upward cycles in the Mediterranean?; a comparison with the Zechstein salt giant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Van den Belt, Frank J. G.; De Boer, Poppe L.

    2014-05-01

    The desiccated deep-basin model, originally developed for the Mediterranean salt giant, deviated significantly from existing models and it has never been satisfactorily translated into a general concept. With time, however, Mediterranean models evolved towards moderate basin depths and the view that deposition took place in a flooded basin has gained reputation. These new insights have bridged the gap with general evaporite models and open possibilities of integrating concepts developed for other salt giants into the model. Recent modelling work (Van den Belt & De Boer, 2012) based on the Zechstein salt basin has shown that the thickness and composition of subsequent evaporite cycles can be explained by a model that involves a repetition of a three-stage process of 1) progressive narrowing of an ocean corridor in response to sulphate-platform progradation, resulting in 2) brine concentration and rapid infilling of the basin with halite and potash salts, the load of which causes 3) isostatic creation of accommodation space for the next cycle. Isostatic theory predicts that each cycle has approximately half the thickness of the previous one, e.g. 1.0 > 0.50 > 0.25 > 0.125 followed by a number of (coalesced) smaller cycles with a joint thickness of 0.125. The sequence in the basin centre then adds up to 2, which is two times the original basin depth. For the Zechstein case actual cycle thickness well matches these predicted values with cycle thicknesses of about 1.06 > 0.54 > 0.18 > 0.10 and 0.12. The cycle build-up of the Mediterranean salt giant is less well known, because of limited deep drilling. There are at least two cycles, a thin upper overlying a thick lower unit, but comparison of Zechstein patterns with Mediterranean sections has shown that more cycles may be present. Typical cycle boundaries include K/Mg-salt interbeds in halite units, and halite interbeds in sulphate units. Interestingly, analysis has shown that such indicators in Mediterranean sections

  18. Structuring eccentric-narrow planetary rings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Papaloizou, J. C. B.; Melita, M. D.

    2005-06-01

    A simple and general description of the dynamics of a narrow-eccentric ring is presented. We view an eccentric ring which precesses uniformly at a slow rate as exhibiting a global m=1 mode, which can be seen as originating from a standing wave superposed on an axisymmetric background. We adopt a continuum description using the language of fluid dynamics which gives equivalent results for the secular dynamics of thin rings as the well-known description in terms of a set of discrete elliptical streamlines formulated by Goldreich and Tremaine (1979, Astron. J. 84, 1638-1641). We use this to discuss the nonlinear mode interactions that appear in the ring through the excitation of higher m modes because of the coupling of the m=1 mode with an external satellite potential, showing that they that can lead to the excitation of the m=1 mode through a feedback process. In addition to the external perturbations by neighboring satellites, our model includes effects due to inelastic inter-particle collisions. Two main conditions for the ring to be able to maintain a steady m=1 normal mode are obtained. One can be expressed as an integral condition for the normal mode pattern to precess uniformly, which requires the correct balance between the differential precession induced by the oblateness of the central planet, self-gravity and collisional effects is the continuum form of that obtained from the N streamline model of Goldreich and Tremaine (1979, Astron. J. 84, 1638-1641). The other condition, not before examined in detail, is for the steady maintenance of the nonzero radial action that the ring contains because of its finite normal mode. This requires a balance between injection due to eccentric resonances arising from external satellites and additional collisional damping associated with the presence of the m=1 mode. We estimate that such a balance can occur in the ɛ-ring of Uranus, given its currently observed physical and orbital parameters.

  19. Seven ambiguities in the Mediterranean palaeoenvironmental narrative

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tzedakis, P. C.

    2007-09-01

    A review of seven outstanding issues on Mediterranean palaeoenvironments is presented. These are related to the dominant orbital pacing of climate variability, the length of the interglacial vegetation succession, the influence of the African summer monsoon, the seasonality of precipitation during boreal insolation maxima, the moisture balance during glacial maxima and the appearance of the mediterranean-type climate rhythm and evolution of mediterranean sclerophyllous plants. What emerges is that (1) marine δ 18O planktonic and SST records show that precession has been a fundamental tempo of Mediterranean climate change, representing both a low-latitude signal (runoff from North Africa) and the direct influence of insolation at Mediterranean latitudes, but high-latitude glacial effects (41-kyr and 100-kyr cycles) became superimposed after 2.8 Ma. Sapropel and dust deposition patterns in marine cores reveal that obliquity also has an effect on Mediterranean climate through dry-wet oscillations, which are independent of glacial-interglacial variability. (2) The temperate part of interglacial vegetation succession has a duration of approximately half a precession cycle. This persisted during the interval of obliquity-dominated glacial cycles (˜2.8-1 Ma), with distinct forest successions following the precessional cycles. However, these are not always separated by an open vegetation phase because of minimal ice growth, producing an impression of a prolonged interglacial forest interval. (3) The effect of an enhanced African monsoon during summer insolation maxima has been mainly indirect, in terms of Nile discharge and runoff along the North African coast, leading to increased freshwater input into the Mediterranean Sea, reduced deep-water ventilation and sapropel deposition. (4) The notion of an accentuated summer rain regime in the northern Mediterranean borderlands also contributing to a freshening of the Mediterranean Sea during boreal insolation maxima is not

  20. The Eratosthenes Seamount - Eastern Mediterranean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ehrhardt, A.; Schnabel, M.; Damm, V.

    2012-04-01

    The Eratosthenes Seamount forms a prominent landmark in the Eastern Mediterranean. It is located south of Cyprus with the Levantine Basin on its eastern side, the Herodotus Basin on its western side and the Nile Cone south of the seamount. The Eratosthenes Seamount rises up to 750 m below sea surface and is about 1200 m higher than the surrounding seafloor of the Levantine Basin and the Nile Cone sediments. The Eratosthenes Seamount is considered as a continental fragment of the former African-Nubian Plate that was rifted to its present position relative to Africa during the formation of the Tethyan Ocean. In 2010 a detailed geophysical survey was carried out in the area of the Eratosthenes Seamount by the Federal Institute for Geosciences and Natural Resources of Germany including multichannel seismic (MCS), refraction seismics, magnetic, gravity and magnetotelluric data acquisition. First results show a highly deformed seamount, with a plateau-like top that is impacted by west-east trending graben formation. The slopes of the seamount are eroded showing deep incised ripple patterns and recent submarine landslides. The Eratosthenes Seamount produces also a prominent magnetic and gravity anomaly, both supporting its uniqueness in the area of the Eastern Mediterranean. Velocity information by refraction seismic modeling, as well as the models of the magnetic and gravity data show evidence for a volcanic core of the seamount with carbonate layers on top of the volcanic core. The slopes of the seamount terminate against a conspicuous rim-like escarpment that forms in addition the northern and western termination of the Messinian Evaporites in the study area. The MCS and refraction seismic data show a very deep Levantine Basin with maximum acoustic basement depths of 12 to 14 km very close to the slope of the Eratosthenes Seamount. The deepest sediments resolved by the MCS data are of Lower Cretaceous to Jurassic age. The refraction seismic model shows a 14 km thick

  1. Summer fire predictability in a Mediterranean environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marcos, Raül; Turco, Marco; Bedía, Joaquín; Llasat, Maria Carmen; Provenzale, Antonello

    2015-04-01

    Each year approximately 500000 hectares burn in Europe. Most of them are consequence of Mediterranean summer fires that lead to damages to the natural environment causing important economic and life losses. In order to allow the preparedness of adequate prevention measures in European Mediterranean regions, a better understanding of the summer fire predictability is crucial. Climate is a primary driver of the interannual variability of fires in Mediterranean-type ecosystems, controlling fuel flammability and fuel structure [1, 2]. That is, summer fires are linked to current-year climate values (proxies for the climatic factors that affect fuel flammability) and to antecedent climate variables (proxies for the climatic factors influencing fine fuel availability and connectivity). In our contribution we explore the long-term predictability of wildfires in a Mediterranean region (NE Spain), driving a multiple linear regression model with observed antecedent climate variables and with predicted variables from the ECMWF System-4 seasonal forecast. The approaches are evaluated through a leave-one-out cross-validation over the period 1983-2010. While the ECMWF System-4 proved of limited usefulness due to its limited skill, the model driven with antecedent climate variables alone allowed for satisfactory long-term prediction of above-normal fire activity, suggesting the feasibility of successful seasonal prediction of summer fires in Mediterranean-type regions. *References [1] M. Turco, M. C. Llasat, J. von Hardenberg, and A. Provenzale. Impact of climate variability on summer fires in a mediterranean environment (northeastern iberian peninsula). Climatic Change, 116:665-678, 2013. [2] M. Turco, M. C. Llasat, J. von Hardenberg, and A. Provenzale. Climate change impacts on wildfires in a Mediterranean environment. Climatic Change, 125: 369-380, 2014.

  2. Atlantic forcing of the Mediterranean oligotrophy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huertas, I. E.; RíOs, A. F.; GarcíA-Lafuente, J.; Navarro, G.; Makaoui, A.; SáNchez-RomáN, A.; Rodriguez-Galvez, S.; Orbi, A.; RuíZ, J.; PéRez, F. F.

    2012-06-01

    The Mediterranean Sea shows a peculiar anomaly in its nutrient pattern compared to the global ocean, as there is decrease in nutrient concentration from west to east. This feature has been attributed to the antiestuarine circulation at the Strait of Gibraltar, where an eastward flow of Atlantic nutrient-poor surface waters is compensated by a westward countercurrent of Mediterranean nutrient-rich deep waters. This water exchange has been suggested as the ultimate cause for the oligotrophy of the Mediterranean basin, even though only a few studies have accurately examined the magnitude of the nutrient flux through the Strait of Gibraltar. In this work, data from the Gibraltar Fixed Time series (GIFT) between 2005 and 2008 were used to assess nutrient distributions. Applying a two-layer model of water mass exchange and using the Mediterranean outflow recorded in situ, the net export of nutrients from the Mediterranean to the Atlantic was calculated as 139 and 4.8 Gmol yr-1 of nitrate and phosphate, respectively. The results also demonstrated that the Atlantic inflow is not nutrient depleted and in particular contains significant levels of phosphate, which is the limiting factor for biological productivity in the eastern Mediterranean. The distribution of the quasi-conservative parameter N* in the western and eastern basins indicated that nitrate-deficient surface waters are transformed into phosphate-deficient bottom waters by internal cycling processes. Therefore, phosphate depletion in the Mediterranean does not have its origin in the entry of a phosphorus-impoverished Atlantic inflow through the Strait of Gibraltar.

  3. Metabolic acceleration in Mediterranean Perciformes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lika, Konstadia; Kooijman, Sebastiaan A. L. M.; Papandroulakis, Nikos

    2014-11-01

    Larval stages are considered the most critical of fish development. During a very short period of time (2 to 3 months), larvae undergo major morphoanatomical and functional changes in order to transform into juveniles while remaining functioning (developing, eating, surviving). Depending on species and environmental conditions, patterns in larval development may vary. We study the patterns of larval development for nine fish species of Perciformes reared under aquaculture conditions and compare them in terms of species-specific parameters derived from DEB theory. We extended the standard DEB model to include metabolic acceleration during the larval period, where maximum specific assimilation and energy conductance increase with length between birth and metabolic metamorphosis. Metabolic acceleration has as a consequence that larvae initially grow slower than juveniles and adults. Our results indicate that the species with higher acceleration have lower growth rates at birth and they also suggest that metabolic acceleration is related to spawning season. High metabolic acceleration of demersal species is associated with summer-autumn spawning in the Mediterranean, where temperature is high and food availability is low.

  4. Myxozoan infections in Mediterranean mariculture.

    PubMed

    Palenzuela, O

    2006-06-01

    Fish mariculture has dramatically expanded in recent years in Mediterranean countries. In this scenario, several pathological problems have logically arisen and parasitological etiologies are increasingly being reported, either as primary or secondary pathogens. Myxozoa is the most diverse and economically important group of fish parasites, and several species are known to cause or contribute to losses in mariculture. Species of the genus Enteromyxum currently constitute the most serious parasitological threat. Some unusual biological characters, such as wide host spectrum and direct fish-to-fish transmission, together with high virulence for some host species, combine a dangerous cocktail which is emerging in recent years. Closed-system (recirculation) and heated-water locations are especially sensitive to chronic infections by these parasites, which can cause serious mortality and even discourage culture of some fish species at certain locations (i.e, Diplodus puntazzo). The presentation presents an overview of recent advances in research of marine myxozoans, focusing mainly in the most pathogenic, Enteromyxum spp. The incidence of these and other emerging infections, and the design of potential strategies for control will be introduced. PMID:16881390

  5. Seasonality of Arctic Mediterranean Exchanges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rieper, Christoph; Quadfasel, Detlef

    2015-04-01

    The Arctic Mediterranean communicates through a number of passages with the Atlantic and the Pacific Oceans. Most of the volume exchange happens at the Greenland-Scotland-Ridge: warm and saline Atlantic Water flows in at the surface, cold, dense Overflow Water flows back at the bottom and fresh and cold Polar Water flows out along the East Greenland coast. All surface inflows show a seasonal signal whereas only the outflow through the Faroe Bank Channel exhibits significant seasonality. Here we present a quantification of the seasonal cycle of the exchanges across the Greenland-Scotland ridge based on volume estimates of the in- and outflows within the last 20 years (ADCP and altimetry). Our approach is comparatistic: we compare different properties of the seasonal cycle like the strength or the phase between the different in- and outflows. On the seasonal time scale the in- and outflows across the Greenland-Scotland-Ridge are not balanced. The net flux thus has to be balanced by the other passages on the Canadian Archipelago, Bering Strait as well as runoff from land.

  6. Woodlands Grazing Issues in Mediterranean Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Campos, P.

    2009-04-01

    In Mediterranean basin, woodlands grazing still continue to be important commercial owners' benefits. These owners manage woodlands vegetations as if they were not at risk of degradation and declining. Frequently, no temporally grazing set-aside is taken into account to avoid overgrazing of annual and perennial vegetations. Although less common, in the northern shore of Mediterranean basin undergrazing might increase the frequency and the number of catastrophic forest fires. This under/over grazing regime occurs in the Mediterranean basin woodlands with contrasted differences on land property rights, local economies and government livestock policy incentives. Spain and Tunisia are examples of these Mediterranean livestock contrasts. Most of Spanish Mediterranean woodlands and livestock herds are large private ownerships and owners could maintain their lands and livestock herds properties on the basis of moderate cash-income compensation against land revaluation and exclusive amenity self-consumption. The later is less tangible benefit and it could include family land legacy, nature enjoyment, country stile of life development, social status and so on. In public woodlands, social and environmental goals -as they are cultural heritage, biodiversity loss mitigation, soil conservation and employment- could maintain market unprofitable woodlands operations. Last three decades Spanish Mediterranean woodlands owners have increased the livestock herds incentivized by government subsidies. As result, grazing rent is pending on the level of European Union and Spanish government livestock subsidies. In this context, Spanish Mediterranean woodlands maintain a high extensive livestock stoking population, which economy could be called fragile and environmentally unsustainable because forest degradation and over/under grazing practices. Tunisian Mediterranean woodlands are state properties and livestock grazing is practice as a free private regimen. Livestock herds are small herd

  7. Bayesian Face Recognition and Perceptual Narrowing in Face-Space

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Balas, Benjamin

    2012-01-01

    During the first year of life, infants' face recognition abilities are subject to "perceptual narrowing", the end result of which is that observers lose the ability to distinguish previously discriminable faces (e.g. other-race faces) from one another. Perceptual narrowing has been reported for faces of different species and different races, in…

  8. 33 CFR 162.240 - Tongass Narrows, Alaska; navigation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Register citations affecting § 162.240, see the List of CFR Sections Affected, which appears in the Finding... Narrows, Alaska; navigation. (a) Definitions. The term “Tongass Narrows” includes the body of water lying... position 55°19′22.0″ N, 131°36′40.5″ W and Tongass Narrows West Channel Regulatory marker at position...

  9. 33 CFR 162.240 - Tongass Narrows, Alaska; navigation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Tongass Narrows, Alaska; navigation. 162.240 Section 162.240 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) PORTS AND WATERWAYS SAFETY INLAND WATERWAYS NAVIGATION REGULATIONS § 162.240 Tongass Narrows, Alaska; navigation. (a)...

  10. 3. Photocopied July 1971 from Photo 741, Jordan Narrows Folder ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. Photocopied July 1971 from Photo 741, Jordan Narrows Folder #1, Engineering Department, Utah Power and Light Co., Salt Lake City, Utah. INTERIOR VIEW, JULY 2, 1909. - Salt Lake City Water & Electrical Power Company, Jordan Narrows Hydroelectric Plant, Jordan River, Riverton, Salt Lake County, UT

  11. 1. Photocopied July 1971 from Photo 745, Jordan Narrows Folder ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. Photocopied July 1971 from Photo 745, Jordan Narrows Folder #1, Engineering Department, Utah Power and Light Co., Salt Lake City, Utah. JORDAN STATION, JULY 2, 1909. GENERAL VIEW. - Salt Lake City Water & Electrical Power Company, Jordan Narrows Hydroelectric Plant, Jordan River, Riverton, Salt Lake County, UT

  12. Biomass production of sugarcane on narrow-rows in Florida

    SciTech Connect

    Cayton, J.E.; Eiland, B.R.

    1981-01-01

    Sugarcane production for biomass was examined on three narrow-row patterns in Florida. Equipment and production methods were modified for planting, spraying and harvesting the narrow-row patterns. No large increases in yields of vigorous varieties were found when compared to those from conventional rows. Some increases were observed in varieties which have low stalk populations. 4 refs.

  13. The features of a "Mediterranean" Bioethics.

    PubMed

    Leone, Salvino

    2012-11-01

    Even if somebody considers inappropriate any geographic adjective for Bioethics, nevertheless we think that there are some specific features of "Mediterranean" Bioethics that could distinguish it from a "Northern-European and Northern-American" one. First of all we must consider that medical ethics was born and grew in Mediterranean area. First by the thought of great Greek philosophers as Aristotle (that analyse what ethics is), then by Hippocrates, the "father" of medical ethics. The ethical pattern of Aristotle was based on "virtues" and their practice. In this perspective we can already note a strong difference with actual North-European or American principialist ethics. But a second consideration concerns the role that great Mediterranean religions (Judaism, Christianity and Islam) had in the construction of the ethical thought especially on the matter of life and its respect. So, in our pluralistic and multicultural society is absolutely necessary to rescue an approach that considers both "lungs" of ethical thought (Mediterranean and Northern one) and highlights the role that Mediterranean Ethics still has in this way. PMID:22441971

  14. The dynamical structure of intense Mediterranean cyclones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flaounas, Emmanouil; Raveh-Rubin, Shira; Wernli, Heini; Drobinski, Philippe; Bastin, Sophie

    2015-05-01

    This paper presents and analyzes the three-dimensional dynamical structure of intense Mediterranean cyclones. The analysis is based on a composite approach of the 200 most intense cyclones during the period 1989-2008 that have been identified and tracked using the output of a coupled ocean-atmosphere regional simulation with 20 km horizontal grid spacing and 3-hourly output. It is shown that the most intense Mediterranean cyclones have a common baroclinic life cycle with a potential vorticity (PV) streamer associated with an upper-level cyclonic Rossby wave breaking, which precedes cyclogenesis in the region and triggers baroclinic instability. It is argued that this common baroclinic life cycle is due to the strongly horizontally sheared environment in the Mediterranean basin, on the poleward flank of the quasi-persistent subtropical jet. The composite life cycle of the cyclones is further analyzed considering the evolution of key atmospheric elements as potential temperature and PV, as well as the cyclones' thermodynamic profiles and rainfall. It is shown that most intense Mediterranean cyclones are associated with warm conveyor belts and dry air intrusions, similar to those of other strong extratropical cyclones, but of rather small scale. Before cyclones reach their mature stage, the streamer's role is crucial to advect moist and warm air towards the cyclones center. These dynamical characteristics, typical for very intense extratropical cyclones in the main storm track regions, are also valid for these Mediterranean cases that have features that are visually similar to tropical cyclones.

  15. The dynamical structure of intense Mediterranean cyclones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flaounas, Emmanouil; Raveh-Rubin, Shira; Wernli, Heini; Drobinski, Philippe; Bastin, Sophie

    2014-09-01

    This paper presents and analyzes the three-dimensional dynamical structure of intense Mediterranean cyclones. The analysis is based on a composite approach of the 200 most intense cyclones during the period 1989-2008 that have been identified and tracked using the output of a coupled ocean-atmosphere regional simulation with 20 km horizontal grid spacing and 3-hourly output. It is shown that the most intense Mediterranean cyclones have a common baroclinic life cycle with a potential vorticity (PV) streamer associated with an upper-level cyclonic Rossby wave breaking, which precedes cyclogenesis in the region and triggers baroclinic instability. It is argued that this common baroclinic life cycle is due to the strongly horizontally sheared environment in the Mediterranean basin, on the poleward flank of the quasi-persistent subtropical jet. The composite life cycle of the cyclones is further analyzed considering the evolution of key atmospheric elements as potential temperature and PV, as well as the cyclones' thermodynamic profiles and rainfall. It is shown that most intense Mediterranean cyclones are associated with warm conveyor belts and dry air intrusions, similar to those of other strong extratropical cyclones, but of rather small scale. Before cyclones reach their mature stage, the streamer's role is crucial to advect moist and warm air towards the cyclones center. These dynamical characteristics, typical for very intense extratropical cyclones in the main storm track regions, are also valid for these Mediterranean cases that have features that are visually similar to tropical cyclones.

  16. Tectonic control on past circulation of the Mediterranean Sea; A model approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meijer, P.; Wortel, R.; Slingerland, R.

    2003-04-01

    The sediments of the Mediterranean basin tell us that the circulation and water properties of the sea have changed through time. While some of these changes appear closely related to variations in climate, other aspects have been tentatively linked to changes in the geometry of the sub-basins and of the intervening straits. These changes in geometry have been profound and result from tectonic activity associated with the last stages of convergence between the African plate and the Eurasian plate. We study the effects of paleogeography on Mediterranean circulation using an oceanic general circulation model. Our first focus is the Late Miocene (Tortonian) when sub-basin shape was significantly different from the present-day (wider Adriatic Sea, narrow Tyrrhenian Sea) and the Mediterranean as a whole was connected to the Atlantic ocean via two gateways: across southern Iberia and through northwestern Africa. In order to isolate the effects of paleogeography we subject both a model for the present-day and a first model for the Late Miocene to the present-day atmospheric forcing. Moreover, in the paleo-experiment, the depth of the straits connecting the western and eastern subbasins and that of the Mediterranean-Atlantic gateways is kept at 300 meter approximately the present-day depth of the straits of Gibraltar and Sicily. At surface and intermediate levels the circulation and water properties thus found with the Late Miocene geometry are similar to the present-day situation. Location and intensity of vertical mixing are different, however, which points to an effect of basin geometry on deep circulation. Subsequent experiments are aimed at determining the effect of specific aspects of the paleogeography: presence or absence of a connection with the Paratethys and the role of straits across the early Apennines, for example.

  17. Stability of narrow emission line clouds in active galactic nuclei

    SciTech Connect

    Mathews, W.G.; Veilleux, S.

    1989-01-01

    The effects of the lateral flow and Rayleigh-Taylor instabilities on clouds in the narrow-line region of active galaxies are considered using cloud densities and velocities based on observations. A simplified model for the lateral flow instability governed only by overpressures is discussed. The associated radiative acceleration is considered, and parameters describing the narrow-line region and the central nonstellar continuum are presented. It is shown that many otherwise acceptable narrow-line clouds are unstable to lateral flows, particularly if their column depths are small. It is argued that the most likely narrow-line clouds have column densities of about 10 to the 23rd/sq cm and that these clouds are accelerated by winds in the intercloud medium. Arguments are made against models in which narrow-line clouds move inward. 22 references.

  18. Natural variability and anthropogenic effects in a Central Mediterranean core

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alessio, S.; Vivaldo, G.; Taricco, C.; Ghil, M.

    2012-04-01

    We evaluate the contribution of natural variability to the modern decrease in foraminiferal δ18O by relying on a 2200-yr-long, high-resolution record of oxygen isotopic ratio from a Central Mediterranean sediment core. Pre-industrial values are used to train and test two sets of algorithms that are able to forecast the natural variability in δ18O over the last 150 yr. These algorithms are based on autoregressive models and neural networks, respectively; they are applied separately to each of the δ18O series' significant variability components, rather than to the complete series. The separate components are extracted by singular-spectrum analysis and have narrow-band spectral content, which reduces the forecast error. By comparing the sum of the predicted low-frequency components to its actual values during the Industrial Era, we deduce that the natural contribution to these components of the modern δ18O variation decreased gradually, until it reached roughly 40%, as early as the end of the 1970s.

  19. Natural variability and anthropogenic effects in a Central Mediterranean core

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alessio, S.; Vivaldo, G.; Taricco, C.; Ghil, M.

    2011-10-01

    We evaluate the contribution of natural variability to the modern decrease in foraminiferal δ18O by relying on a 2200-years-long, high-resolution record of oxygen isotopic ratio from a Central Mediterranean sediment core. Pre-industrial values are used to train and test two sets of algorithms that are able to forecast the natural variability in δ18O over the last 150 yr. These algorithms are based on autoregressive models and neural networks, respectively; they are applied separately to each of the δ18O series' significant variability components, rather than to the complete series. The separate components are extracted by singular-spectrum analysis and have narrow-band spectral content, which reduces the forecast error. By comparing the sum of the predicted components to the actual values during the Industrial Era, we deduce that the natural contribution to the modern δ18O variation decreased gradually, until it reached roughly 40% as early as the end of the 1970s.

  20. Analysis of current intensification in the Northwest Mediterranean shelf

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mestres, M.; Grifoll, M.; Sánchez-Arcilla, A.

    2016-02-01

    Flow intensification episodes lasting more than 12 h are observed occasionally at different locations along the Northwestern Mediterranean coast. In the last years, these pulses have hindered ship operations outside the Barcelona harbour, thus attracting the attention of the port authorities. In this paper, the strongest intensification events in the Barcelona coast area are quantified and characterized in order to identify the mechanisms which generate them. For this, current, sea level and meteorological measured and modelled data, at local and regional scale, are analysed. The results show that the flow accelerations are due to the combination of a narrow coastal shelf and the prevalence of a strong and sustained wind from the NE to SE. The synoptic atmospheric conditions that lead to this meteorological scenario are described. For one of the events, the presence and contribution to the current fluctuations of a coastal trapped wave, likely generated at the Eastern edge of the Gulf of Lions shelf, and other factors such as a freshwater discharge are also identified and discussed.

  1. Mediterranean Diet and Workplace Health Promotion.

    PubMed

    Korre, Maria; Tsoukas, Michael A; Frantzeskou, Elpida; Yang, Justin; Kales, Stefanos N

    2014-01-01

    Analytical and experimental studies confirm relationships between the consumption of certain foods and cardiovascular disease, diabetes, and cancer. Mediterranean diet patterns have long been associated with a reduced risk of major diseases and many favorable health outcomes. Data from observational, longitudinal, and randomized controlled trials have demonstrated that Mediterranean-style diets can improve body mass index and body weight, reduce the incidence of diabetes mellitus and metabolic syndrome risk factors, decrease cardiovascular morbidity and coronary heart disease mortality, as well as decrease all-cause mortality. Recently, efforts have attempted to improve dietary habits in the workplace, by modifying food selection, eating patterns, meal frequency, and the sourcing of meals taken during work. Evidence supporting the Mediterranean diet and the potential cardioprotective role of healthier diets in the workplace are reviewed here, and promising strategies to improve metabolic and cardiovascular health outcomes are also provided. PMID:25328563

  2. Dsp in Moroccan Mediterranean Sea.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rachid, Fadel

    At sea temperate, there is usually a sole major floraison of the phytoplancton (in the spring) that exhausts the available stock of nutritious salt. This phenomenon is natural. It's more known under the name of "red tide or colored waters", it brings about a danger, with hazardous consequences on the wildlife water wildlife. The toxins emitted by certain seaweeds, of this phytoplancton, are transmitted through the trophic chain to man. Sometimes the contamination of these sea fruits provokes empoisoning to the consumers. Sometimes phytoplanctonics efflorescences do not present any significant coloring but can generate an increased liberation of toxins in sea water. The relative concentration of the one here then is detected in the shellfishes. These organisms concentrate the phocotoxines in their hepatopancreas. These are therefore bio potential indicators of the sea environment. We studied, in parallel, the variation of the characteristic abiotics of the Mediterranean sites previously choosen (physico-chimicals parameters and oceanographics parameters) and the variation of the relative toxicity of the bio indicators in every site. It in springs that the zones navies, subjected to important water provisions coming from a river, undergo several excessive floraisons during the spring and the summer, thanks to their continuous supplying in nutriments. We noted that the arrival new water masses. We draw from this that the coastal areas, due to the precipitations of the winter, translates itself at the level of the embouchure of the estuary Oued Laou by the maximum concentration of contained toxins in the shellfishes and that these waters were loaded with drifts of the olive waste, liquid loss abandoned to himself after extraction of the oil of the renowned olives of this region.

  3. Decreasing Fires in Mediterranean Europe

    PubMed Central

    Turco, Marco; Bedia, Joaquín; Di Liberto, Fabrizio; Fiorucci, Paolo; von Hardenberg, Jost; Koutsias, Nikos; Llasat, Maria-Carmen; Xystrakis, Fotios; Provenzale, Antonello

    2016-01-01

    Forest fires are a serious environmental hazard in southern Europe. Quantitative assessment of recent trends in fire statistics is important for assessing the possible shifts induced by climate and other environmental/socioeconomic changes in this area. Here we analyse recent fire trends in Portugal, Spain, southern France, Italy and Greece, building on a homogenized fire database integrating official fire statistics provided by several national/EU agencies. During the period 1985-2011, the total annual burned area (BA) displayed a general decreasing trend, with the exception of Portugal, where a heterogeneous signal was found. Considering all countries globally, we found that BA decreased by about 3020 km2 over the 27-year-long study period (i.e. about -66% of the mean historical value). These results are consistent with those obtained on longer time scales when data were available, also yielding predominantly negative trends in Spain and France (1974-2011) and a mixed trend in Portugal (1980-2011). Similar overall results were found for the annual number of fires (NF), which globally decreased by about 12600 in the study period (about -59%), except for Spain where, excluding the provinces along the Mediterranean coast, an upward trend was found for the longer period. We argue that the negative trends can be explained, at least in part, by an increased effort in fire management and prevention after the big fires of the 1980’s, while positive trends may be related to recent socioeconomic transformations leading to more hazardous landscape configurations, as well as to the observed warming of recent decades. We stress the importance of fire data homogenization prior to analysis, in order to alleviate spurious effects associated with non-stationarities in the data due to temporal variations in fire detection efforts. PMID:26982584

  4. Decreasing Fires in Mediterranean Europe.

    PubMed

    Turco, Marco; Bedia, Joaquín; Di Liberto, Fabrizio; Fiorucci, Paolo; von Hardenberg, Jost; Koutsias, Nikos; Llasat, Maria-Carmen; Xystrakis, Fotios; Provenzale, Antonello

    2016-01-01

    Forest fires are a serious environmental hazard in southern Europe. Quantitative assessment of recent trends in fire statistics is important for assessing the possible shifts induced by climate and other environmental/socioeconomic changes in this area. Here we analyse recent fire trends in Portugal, Spain, southern France, Italy and Greece, building on a homogenized fire database integrating official fire statistics provided by several national/EU agencies. During the period 1985-2011, the total annual burned area (BA) displayed a general decreasing trend, with the exception of Portugal, where a heterogeneous signal was found. Considering all countries globally, we found that BA decreased by about 3020 km2 over the 27-year-long study period (i.e. about -66% of the mean historical value). These results are consistent with those obtained on longer time scales when data were available, also yielding predominantly negative trends in Spain and France (1974-2011) and a mixed trend in Portugal (1980-2011). Similar overall results were found for the annual number of fires (NF), which globally decreased by about 12600 in the study period (about -59%), except for Spain where, excluding the provinces along the Mediterranean coast, an upward trend was found for the longer period. We argue that the negative trends can be explained, at least in part, by an increased effort in fire management and prevention after the big fires of the 1980's, while positive trends may be related to recent socioeconomic transformations leading to more hazardous landscape configurations, as well as to the observed warming of recent decades. We stress the importance of fire data homogenization prior to analysis, in order to alleviate spurious effects associated with non-stationarities in the data due to temporal variations in fire detection efforts. PMID:26982584

  5. Solar dimming/brightening in the Mediterranean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kambezidis, Harry; Demetriou, Dora; Kaskaoutis, Dimitris; Nastos, Panagiotis

    2010-05-01

    Early analyses of solar radiation records have pointed to a widespread decline of surface solar radiation from the 1950s up to the 1980s in various parts of the world. This phenomenon was attributed to increasing air pollution and has been named "global dimming". More recent analyses with data records updated to near present suggested that surface solar radiation shows no sign of decrease anymore since the 1980s or even started to recover at many locations. This recovery has been named "solar brightening". Air pollution control and the economic breakdown of the former communist countries are the major influential factors for this transition. Further the influence of the recovery from the dimming caused by Mt. Pinatubo volcanic eruption in 1991 and internal climate variability with associated cloud variations were suggested to contribute to the brightening in the 1990s. Despite the interest in the solar dimming/brightening phenomenon the Mediterranean area has not attracted the attention of the scientists in this respect so far. Therefore, the present work tries to fill this gap by providing spatio-temporal analysis of the incoming short-wave solar radiation in the whole area of the Mediterranean Sea in the period 1979-2004 taken from satellites. To give better spatial information about the phenomenon the Mediterranean region has been divided into three sub-regions: the West Mediterranean, from Gibraltar to Corsica, the Central Mediterranean, from Corsica to the Ionian Sea, and the East Mediterranean, from the Ionian Sea to the shores of Syria. The analysis shows that the three sub-regions have not undergone the same spatio-temporal pattern of the phenomenon probably due to the different distribution of aerosols in the region.

  6. Drilling probes Mediterranean climate and oceanography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    ODP Legs 160; 161 Shipboard Scientific Party

    Marine sediments are an important repository of information on climatic change, and retrieving sediment sequences from climate-sensitive areas is an important aspect of paleoclimate research. In the spring of 1995, over 7000 m of sediments that reach back more than 5 million years to the Miocene/Pliocene boundary were recovered in the Mediterranean by the Ocean Drilling Program (ODP) Legs 160 and 161. Because the Mediterranean is a semi-enclosed, land-locked basin with restricted, open-ocean water exchange, the composition of these sediments is especially sensitive to climate change, and environmental signals are preserved in great detail.

  7. Narrow-band generation in random distributed feedback fiber laser.

    PubMed

    Sugavanam, Srikanth; Tarasov, Nikita; Shu, Xuewen; Churkin, Dmitry V

    2013-07-15

    Narrow-band emission of spectral width down to ~0.05 nm line-width is achieved in the random distributed feedback fiber laser employing narrow-band fiber Bragg grating or fiber Fabry-Perot interferometer filters. The observed line-width is ~10 times less than line-width of other demonstrated up to date random distributed feedback fiber lasers. The random DFB laser with Fabry-Perot interferometer filter provides simultaneously multi-wavelength and narrow-band (within each line) generation with possibility of further wavelength tuning. PMID:23938497

  8. Ring resonator based narrow-linewidth semiconductor lasers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ksendzov, Alexander (Inventor)

    2005-01-01

    The present invention is a method and apparatus for using ring resonators to produce narrow linewidth hybrid semiconductor lasers. According to one embodiment of the present invention, the narrow linewidths are produced by combining the semiconductor gain chip with a narrow pass band external feedback element. The semi conductor laser is produced using a ring resonator which, combined with a Bragg grating, acts as the external feedback element. According to another embodiment of the present invention, the proposed integrated optics ring resonator is based on plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD) SiO.sub.2 /SiON/SiO.sub.2 waveguide technology.

  9. The Narrow-Band Model and Semi-Conductor Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tanner, B. K.

    1976-01-01

    Applies the narrow-band model to the instruction of intrinsic and extrinsic semiconductors along with the phenomenon of compensation. Advocates the model for undergraduate instruction due to its intuitive appeal and mathematical simplicity. (CP)

  10. Morbillivirus and Pilot Whale Deaths, Mediterranean Sea

    PubMed Central

    Esperón, Fernando; Herraéz, Pedro; de los Monteros, Antonio Espinosa; Clavel, Cristina; Bernabé, Antonio; Sánchez-Vizcaino, J. Manuel; Verborgh, Philippe; DeStephanis, Renaud; Toledano, Francisco; Bayón, Alejandro

    2008-01-01

    An outbreak of a lethal morbillivirus infection of long-finned pilot whales occurred in the Mediterranean Sea from the end of October 2006 through April 2007. Sequence analysis of a 426-bp conserved fragment of the morbillivirus phosphoprotein gene indicates that the virus is more closely related to dolphin morbillivirus than to pilot whale morbillivirus. PMID:18439363

  11. Climatic Feedbacks and Desertification: The Mediterranean Model.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Millán, M. M.; Estrela, M. J.; Sanz, M. J.; Mantilla, E.; Martín, M.; Pastor, F.; Salvador, R.; Vallejo, R.; Alonso, L.; Gangoiti, G.; Ilardia, J. L.; Navazo, M.; Albizuri, A.; Artíñano, B.; Ciccioli, P.; Kallos, G.; Carvalho, R. A.; Andrés, D.; Hoff, A.; Werhahn, J.; Seufert, G.; Versino, B.

    2005-03-01

    Mesometeorological information obtained in several research projects in southern Europe has been used to analyze perceived changes in the western Mediterranean summer storm regime. A procedure was developed to disaggregate daily precipitation data into three main components: frontal precipitation, summer storms, and Mediterranean cyclogenesis. Working hypotheses were derived on the likely processes involved. The results indicate that the precipitation regime in this Mediterranean region is very sensitive to variations in surface airmass temperature and moisture. Land-use perturbations that accumulated over historical time and greatly accelerated in the last 30 yr may have induced changes from an open, monsoon-type regime with frequent summer storms over the mountains inland to one dominated by closed vertical recirculations where feedback mechanisms favor the loss of storms over the coastal mountains and additional heating of the sea surface temperature during summer. This, in turn, favors Mediterranean cyclogenesis and torrential rains in autumn-winter. Because these intense rains and floods can occur anywhere in the basin, perturbations to the hydrological cycle in any part of the basin can propagate to the whole basin and adjacent regions. Furthermore, present levels of air pollutants can produce greenhouse heating, amplifying the perturbations and pushing the system over critical threshold levels. The questions raised are relevant for the new European Union (EU) water policies in southern Europe and for other regions dominated by monsoon-type weather systems.

  12. Plastic Accumulation in the Mediterranean Sea

    PubMed Central

    Cózar, Andrés; Sanz-Martín, Marina; Martí, Elisa; González-Gordillo, J. Ignacio; Ubeda, Bárbara; Gálvez, José Á.; Irigoien, Xabier; Duarte, Carlos M.

    2015-01-01

    Concentrations of floating plastic were measured throughout the Mediterranean Sea to assess whether this basin can be regarded as a great accumulation region of plastic debris. We found that the average density of plastic (1 item per 4 m2), as well as its frequency of occurrence (100% of the sites sampled), are comparable to the accumulation zones described for the five subtropical ocean gyres. Plastic debris in the Mediterranean surface waters was dominated by millimeter-sized fragments, but showed a higher proportion of large plastic objects than that present in oceanic gyres, reflecting the closer connection with pollution sources. The accumulation of floating plastic in the Mediterranean Sea (between 1,000 and 3,000 tons) is likely related to the high human pressure together with the hydrodynamics of this semi-enclosed basin, with outflow mainly occurring through a deep water layer. Given the biological richness and concentration of economic activities in the Mediterranean Sea, the affects of plastic pollution on marine and human life are expected to be particularly frequent in this plastic accumulation region. PMID:25831129

  13. MEDITERRANEAN FRUITS: ANCIENT HISTORY AND MODERN PROMISE

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The National Clonal Germplasm Repository (NCGR) in Davis, California is home of the national collections of most Mediterranean-adapted fruits and nuts (including fig, olive and pomegranate), while the NCGR at Riverside, CA maintains the dates and citrus. Our missions are to acquire, preserve, charac...

  14. The Mediterranean diet: a view from history.

    PubMed

    Haber, B

    1997-10-01

    Although the virtues of the Mediterranean diet have been advocated since the Renaissance, adoption of the diet outside the Mediterranean region has proved difficult but not impossible. Efforts at promoting dietary change have been explored in the writings of Europeans and Americans since 1614 when Giacomo Castelvetro, an exile from Modena, Italy, published a book in England on Italian fruit, herbs, and vegetables. The historical causes of resistance by groups and individuals-culture, class, sex, and human psychology-are revealed by asking the question, What does food mean to people? Particularly instructive are failed efforts by well-meaning late-19th-century American reformers to hasten the assimilation of newly arrived immigrants by interfering with their eating habits. The establishment of the New England Kitchen, which provided inexpensive Yankee cooking intended to Americanize poor immigrants, served only to expedite food distribution networks between California farms and urban centers, allowing mainly Mediterranean groups to eat their customary foods. Successful efforts at change are also explored, leading to the conclusion that the satisfying flavors of the Mediterranean diet provide the best chance of influencing people to abandon unhealthy foods in favor of fresh vegetables, fruit, grains, and olive oil. The diet must be promoted, however, not only by medical and nutritional authorities, but also by people who have the power to persuade: authorities on cooking and experts in advertising and marketing. PMID:9322586

  15. Dolphin Morbillivirus Epizootic Resurgence, Mediterranean Sea

    PubMed Central

    Raga, Juan-Antonio; Domingo, Mariano; Corteyn, Mandy; Van Bressem, Marie-Françoise; Fernández, Mercedes; Aznar, Francisco-Javier; Barrett, Thomas

    2008-01-01

    In July 2007, >100 striped dolphins, Stenella coeruleoalba, were found dead along the coast of the Spanish Mediterranean. Of 10 dolphins tested, 7 were positive for a virus strain closely related to the dolphin morbillivirus that was isolated during a previous epizootic in 1990. PMID:18325265

  16. Plastic accumulation in the Mediterranean sea.

    PubMed

    Cózar, Andrés; Sanz-Martín, Marina; Martí, Elisa; González-Gordillo, J Ignacio; Ubeda, Bárbara; Gálvez, José Á; Irigoien, Xabier; Duarte, Carlos M

    2015-01-01

    Concentrations of floating plastic were measured throughout the Mediterranean Sea to assess whether this basin can be regarded as a great accumulation region of plastic debris. We found that the average density of plastic (1 item per 4 m2), as well as its frequency of occurrence (100% of the sites sampled), are comparable to the accumulation zones described for the five subtropical ocean gyres. Plastic debris in the Mediterranean surface waters was dominated by millimeter-sized fragments, but showed a higher proportion of large plastic objects than that present in oceanic gyres, reflecting the closer connection with pollution sources. The accumulation of floating plastic in the Mediterranean Sea (between 1,000 and 3,000 tons) is likely related to the high human pressure together with the hydrodynamics of this semi-enclosed basin, with outflow mainly occurring through a deep water layer. Given the biological richness and concentration of economic activities in the Mediterranean Sea, the affects of plastic pollution on marine and human life are expected to be particularly frequent in this plastic accumulation region. PMID:25831129

  17. Box modeling of the Eastern Mediterranean sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ashkenazy, Yosef; Stone, Peter H.; Malanotte-Rizzoli, Paola

    2012-02-01

    In ˜1990 a new source of deep water formation in the Eastern Mediterranean was found in the southern part of the Aegean sea. Till then, the only source of deep water formation in the Eastern Mediterranean was in the Adriatic sea; the rate of the deep water formation of the new Aegean source is 1 Sv, three times larger than the Adriatic source. We develop a simple three-box model to study the stability of the thermohaline circulation of the Eastern Mediterranean sea. The three boxes represent the Adriatic sea, Aegean sea, and the Ionian seas. The boxes exchange heat and salinity and may be described by a set of nonlinear differential equations. We analyze these equations and find that the system may have one, two, or four stable flux states. We conjecture that the change in the deep water formation in the Eastern Mediterranean sea is attributed to a switch between the different states on the thermohaline circulation; this switch may result from decreased temperature and/or increased salinity over the Aegean sea.

  18. Meteotsunami occurrence frequency along the Mediterranean coasts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masina, Marinella; Archetti, Renata; Lamberti, Alberto

    2016-04-01

    A number of research studies describe exceptional destructive meteotsunami events since long time whereas no systematic database is available of moderate events because sea level data were recorded with insufficient resolution. Sea level measurements recently collected with high sampling rate, one per minute or less, by tide gauges positioned along the Mediterranean coasts are examined, aiming to analyze the occurrence of oscillation events in the tsunami frequency range. Sea level data from operating tide stations inside the Mediterranean basin are made publicly available through the Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission Sea Level Monitoring Facility web site (http://www.ioc-sealevelmonitoring.org/). After the implementation of a rigorous quality check procedure to the raw water level time series, Hilbert transform is applied to two hour high-pass filtered observations to identify tsunami-like oscillation events. Events of seismic origin are identified by consistency between earthquake occurrence and tsunami wave travel time from the earthquake epicenter to the specific tide gauge. Similar analyses are performed to exclude sea waves induced harbor seiches events. A list of probable meteotsunami episodes occurred in the Mediterranean region is so compiled and their occurrence frequency and intensity statistics are evaluated at the different tide gauge sites over the time period of high frequency water level data availability ranging from five to seven years. The effects of atmospheric conditions and seabed topography are discussed. Detection and characterization of meteotsunamis, both of exceptional character and of weak intensity, represent an essential step toward improved assessments of coastal flooding risk along the Mediterranean coasts.

  19. 33 CFR 162.240 - Tongass Narrows, Alaska; navigation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Narrows, Alaska; navigation. (a) Definitions. The term “Tongass Narrows” includes the body of water lying... position 55°19′22.0″ N, 131°36′40.5″ W and Tongass Narrows West Channel Regulatory marker at position 55°19′28.5″ N, 131°39′09.7″ W, respectively. (c) No vessel shall while moored or at anchor, or by...

  20. 33 CFR 162.240 - Tongass Narrows, Alaska; navigation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Narrows, Alaska; navigation. (a) Definitions. The term “Tongass Narrows” includes the body of water lying... position 55°19′22.0″ N, 131°36′40.5″ W and Tongass Narrows West Channel Regulatory marker at position 55°19′28.5″ N, 131°39′09.7″ W, respectively. (c) No vessel shall while moored or at anchor, or by...

  1. Mineral dust deposition in Western Mediterranean basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vincent, Julie; Laurent, Benoit; Bergmatti, Gilles; Losno, Rémi; Bon Nguyen, Elisabeth; Chevaillier, Servanne; Roulet, Pierre; Sauvage, Stéphane; Coddeville, Patrice; Ouboulmane, Noura; Siour, Guillaume; Tovar Sanchez, Antonio; Massanet, Ana; Morales Baquero, Rafael; Di Sarra, Giogio; Sferlazzo, Damiano; Dulac, François; Fornier, Michel; Coursier, Cyril

    2014-05-01

    North African deserts are the world's largest sources of atmospheric mineral dust produced by aeolian erosion. Saharan dust is frequently transported toward Europe over the Mediterranean basin. When deposited in oceanic areas, mineral dust can constitute a key input of nutrients bioavailable for the oceanic biosphere. For instance, Saharan dust deposited in the in the Mediterranean Sea can be a significant source of nutrient like Fe, P and N during summer and autumn. Our objective is to study the deposition Saharan mineral dust in the western Mediterranean basin and to improve how deposition processes are parameterized in 3D regional models. To quantify the deposition flux of Saharan dust in the western Mediterranean region a specific collector (CARAGA) to sample automatically the insoluble atmospheric particle deposition was developed (LISA-ICARE) and a network of CARAGA collectors have been set up. Since 2011, eight CARAGA are then deployed in Frioul, Casset, Montandon and Ersa in France, Mallorca and Granada in Spain, Lampedusa in Italia, and Medenine in Tunisia, along a South-North gradient of almost 2000km from the North African coast to the South of Europe. We observe 10 well identified dust Saharan deposition events at Lampedusa and 6 at Mallorca for a 1-yr sampling period. These dust events are sporadic and the South-North gradient of deposition intensity and frequency is observed (the highest dust mass sampled at the stations are : 2,66 g.m-2 at Lampedusa ; 0,54 g.m-2 at Majorque ; 0,33 g.m-2 at Frioul ; 0,16 g.m-2 at Casset). The ability of the CHIMERE model to reproduce the deposition measurements is tested. The mineral dust plumes simulated over the western Mediterranean basin are also compared to satellite observations (OMI, MODIS) and in-situ measurements performed during the ChArMEx campaign and in the AERONET stations.

  2. Mediterranean dietary pattern and chronic diseases.

    PubMed

    Panico, Salvatore; Mattiello, Amalia; Panico, Camilla; Chiodini, Paolo

    2014-01-01

    The study of the relationship between the Mediterranean way of eating and the occurrence of diseases typical of the economically developed countries has been considered the starting point of nutritional epidemiology. From the Seven Countries Study in the 1950s to the recent European EPIC collaboration, the evaluation of the components of diet-affecting chronic diseases such as cardiovascular disease and cancer has been crucially based on the analysis of foods and nutrients characterizing the Mediterranean dietary habits. This long research history has been marked by a consistency of data over time when either single nutrients/food groups or more complex dietary patterns have been analyzed: The Mediterranean way of eating is a protective tool from cardiovascular diseases and many cancers. Italy has been a natural point of observation, starting from cardiovascular disease in the mid-1950s and continuing with major cancers. In spite of unfavorable lifestyle changes in the Italian population mostly due to globalization of unhealthy habits (richer diet and lower levels of physical activity), those individuals still close to the Mediterranean style are significantly protected. The very recent Italian data derived from the observation of about 50,000 individuals, participating in the Italian cohorts of the EPIC study, confirm these findings and are consistent with results from other European populations and in some cases also from North American populations. Moreover, several dietary trials suggest that such a way of eating improves both the metabolic risk condition for chronic disease and the occurrence of those diseases. In conclusion, a way of eating inspired by a Mediterranean dietary pattern is not only based on evidence but is also a palatable style that has contributed to protection from the epidemic of chronic diseases. PMID:24114475

  3. Erosion and Land Degradation in Mediterranean areas as a adaptive response to Mediterranean agriiculture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Imeson, Anton

    2014-05-01

    The motivation for this session is the statement or claim that Mediterranean areas are sensitive to erosion and desertification. One result of the LEDDRA Approach, which is applying the Complex Adaptive (CAS)paradigm at study sites in Mediterranean Spain, Greece and Italy is that there is just a single socio-environmental system in which land degradation is being caused by the actions of people and the Mediterranean soils have co-eveolved with people under the influence of fire and grazing. They are therefore resilient, and this was demonstrated by Naveh and Thornes. Also the Medalus field sites showed very low rates of erosion. With examples from different Mediterranean landscapes, it is considered that Mediterranean landscapes went through an initial phase of being sensitive to erosion which ended up with the original soils before ploughing or deforestation, being eroded from most of the areas, In some places these are found. LEDDRA The Leddra approach is to consider different states which are separated by transitions. The first state is that of the deforestaion and destruction of the forest that took place 6000 10000 years ago, in the Eastern and Northern Mediterranean, and 2000 to 4,000 years ago in large areas of the Western Mediterranean, and 100 to 400 years ago in California. Australia, New Zealand and Chile. The second state involves appropriating and settling the land from indigenous people and introducing cattle and sheep and Mediterranean crops. The current state of desertification is one in which erosion occurs because of the use of specific cultivation methods and subsidies for irrigating and producing crops outside of their range. In the Mediterranean landscape State, such as found near Santiago in Chile and in Crete, society gains many cultural benefits from grazing. However, the consequences of this are that the whole ecosystem is maintained in an arid state, so that areas in Crete receiving 800-1100 mm rainfall have a semi arid vegetation, instead

  4. Importance of upper-level troughs in Mediterranean precipitating systems from satellite climatology to case studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chaboureau, J.-P.; Argence, S.; Lambert, D.; Richard, E.; Claud, C.; Funatsu, B. M.; Gauthier, N.; Arbogast, P.; Maynard, K.; Hauchecorne, A.

    2009-09-01

    Heavy precipitating events are rather common in the Mediterranean region, with both local effects and large scale dynamics contributing to their occurrence and severity. Because of the several scale interactions and the inherent non-linearity of the atmospheric dynamics, the predictability of such events is limited at best to a couple of days, and indicating the importance of a precise description of the environment in which they develop. The importance of upper-level troughs is first shown by contrasting the large-scale environment associated with moderate and extreme precipitating systems in the Mediterranean, using 7 years (2001-2007) data from the Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit (AMSU), on board NOAA satellites (Funatsu et al. MWR 2009 in press). Channel 8 of AMSU-A is used to identify upper-level troughs, while combinations of channels 3 to 5 of AMSU-B are used to detect precipitation following Funatsu et al. (JGR 2007). A climatology of precipitation shows that rain occurrence is widespread over the Mediterranean except in the eastern part of the basin in summer. Convective precipitation presents a seasonal migration being more frequent over land from April to August and over the Mediterranean Sea from September to December. A composite analysis was performed for selected regions where the frequency of intense precipitation is relatively high. Two cases were contrasted: rain without convection and extensive areas of deep convection. The composites show that an upper-level trough is present in both moderate and extreme rainfall, but the trough is narrower and deeper in the extreme precipitation events, in all seasons. At low-levels, sea surface temperature composites from ECMWF analyses show that the Mediterranean is often about 1 K warmer for extreme rainfall, and low-level winds much stronger and coming from the sea, suggesting that surface fluxes are essential in the development and maintenance of such heavy rainfall events. The role of upper-level troughs

  5. Influence of a narrow strait connecting a large ocean and a small sea on magnetotelluric data: Gibraltar Strait

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    González-Castillo, Lourdes; Junge, Andreas; Galindo-Zaldívar, Jesús; Löwer, Alexander

    2015-11-01

    Long period magnetotelluric (LMT) data are generally used as the prime tool to shed light on the conductivity of the deep crust and upper mantle structure. Naturally, LMT data are sensitive to the influence of highly conductive bodies even at far distances. Sea water constitutes the main widespread electrical conductor at shallow levels of the Earth's crust. Its low resistivity values, around 0.25 Ωm, contrast sharply with most geological structures of solid earth. Consequently, the presence of irregular continental borders and varying bathymetries significantly influences LMT parameter, such as phase tensor and tipper vectors. This effect is especially important in areas where large and small oceans are connected by narrow gateways. The Gibraltar Strait (southern Spain) connects the vast Atlantic Ocean with the irregular and relatively small Mediterranean Sea. Several 3D models have been developed in the region nearby the Strait, some featuring a roughly simplified geological structure, to show the influence of seawater on tipper and phase tensor. Here, detailed bathymetry (General Bathymetric Chart of the Oceans, GEBCO) including the coastline is considered in a model that enables us to analyze the influence of the Strait of Gibraltar on LMT data. We stress the significance of the Sea for LMT data interpretation and the development of 3D conductivity models, especially in regions involving complex coastline geometries and bathymetry near narrow straits. Forward modeling studies are essential to accurately appraise the sea influence, which may mask 3D geological structures.

  6. Diffusion in narrow domains and application to phototransduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reingruber, Jürgen; Holcman, David

    2009-03-01

    The mean time for a Brownian particle to find a small target inside a narrow domain is a key parameter for many chemical reactions occurring in cellular microstructures. Although current estimations are given for a large class of domains, they cannot be used for narrow domains often encountered in cellular biology, such as the synaptic cleft, narrow compartments in the outer segment of vertebrate photoreceptors, or neuron-glia contact. We compute here the mean time for a Brownian particle to hit a small target placed on the surface of a narrow cylinder. We then use this result to estimate the rate constant of cyclic-GMP (cGMP) hydrolysis by the activated enzyme phosphodiesterase (PDE) in the narrow microdomains that build up the outer segment of a rod photoreceptor. By controlling the cGMP concentration, PDE activity is at the basis of the early photoresponse chemical reaction cascade. Our approach allows us to compute the cGMP rate constant as a function of biophysical parameters.

  7. Food Processing and the Mediterranean Diet

    PubMed Central

    Hoffman, Richard; Gerber, Mariette

    2015-01-01

    The benefits of the Mediterranean diet (MD) for protecting against chronic disorders such as cardiovascular disease are usually attributed to high consumption of certain food groups such as vegetables, and low consumption of other food groups such as meat. The influence of food processing techniques such as food preparation and cooking on the nutrient composition and nutritional value of these foods is not generally taken into consideration. In this narrative review, we consider the mechanistic and epidemiological evidence that food processing influences phytochemicals in selected food groups in the MD (olives, olive oil, vegetables and nuts), and that this influences the protective effects of these foods against chronic diseases associated with inflammation. We also examine how the pro-inflammatory properties of meat consumption can be modified by Mediterranean cuisine. We conclude by discussing whether food processing should be given greater consideration, both when recommending a MD to the consumer and when evaluating its health properties. PMID:26393643

  8. Climate field reconstructions of eastern Mediterranean hydroclimate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anchukaitis, K. J.; Touchan, R.; Meko, D. M.; Cook, B.; Shishov, V.; Sivrikaya, F.; Attieh, J.; Stephan, J.; Ketmen, M.; Mitsopoulos, I.; Christou, A.

    2013-12-01

    The Mediterranean Basin has suffered from severe droughts in the past several decades and has been identified by general circulation models as a region likely to experience increasingly dry conditions as a consequence of anthropogenic climate change. Models disagree however on the magnitude of changes in precipitation, soil moisture, and evapotranspiration associated with projected drying in the region. Here we use a 'Point-to-Point' local principal components regression approach to develop climate field reconstructions of drought and precipitation variability in the eastern Mediterranean from a network of over 70 tree-ring width chronologies back to 1238 CE. Reconstructions reveal droughts substantially more severe than observed throughout the record, particularly in the 15th century when tree rings indicate an epoch of sustained drought conditions. Comparing this new reconstruction with our previous work in northwestern Africa shows a tendency for both regions to be simultaneously in drought, in agreement with climate models and limited observations.

  9. Prognosis of Central-Eastern Mediterranean waterspouts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keul, Alexander G.; Sioutas, Michalis V.; Szilagyi, Wade

    The North American waterspout forecasting methodology by Szilagyi is applied on a sample of 110 waterspout events for the years 2002-2006 over the Central-Eastern Mediterranean (the Adriatic, Ionian and Aegean Sea). First, the geographical distribution and frequency of the phenomena are shown. Four synoptic types of waterspout-prone circulation patterns are considered. For the Adriatic cases, five thermodynamic indices (KI, TT, SWEAT, CAPE, BRN) are used as possible predictors. The testing of the Szilagyi Waterspout Nomogram and Index (SWI), developed for the Great Lakes region, was favorable for the Mediterranean case data, validating its use as a prognostic tool. Results were presented and discussed at the 4th European Conference on Severe Storms ECSS at Trieste. Meteorologists should standardize and evaluate waterspout prognostic tools and implement a visual interface to improve the service for relevant user groups.

  10. Climatic Signals from Intra-annual Density Fluctuation Frequency in Mediterranean Pines at a Regional Scale.

    PubMed

    Zalloni, Enrica; de Luis, Martin; Campelo, Filipe; Novak, Klemen; De Micco, Veronica; Di Filippo, Alfredo; Vieira, Joana; Nabais, Cristina; Rozas, Vicente; Battipaglia, Giovanna

    2016-01-01

    Tree rings provide information about the climatic conditions during the growing season by recording them in different anatomical features, such as intra-annual density fluctuations (IADFs). IADFs are intra-annual changes of wood density appearing as latewood-like cells within earlywood, or earlywood-like cells within latewood. The occurrence of IADFs is dependent on the age and size of the tree, and it is triggered by climatic drivers. The variations of IADF frequency of different species and their dependence on climate across a wide geographical range have still to be explored. The objective of this study is to investigate the effect of age, tree-ring width and climate on IADF formation and frequency at a regional scale across the Mediterranean Basin in Pinus halepensis Mill., Pinus pinaster Ait., and Pinus pinea L. The analyzed tree-ring network was composed of P. pinea trees growing at 10 sites (2 in Italy, 4 in Spain, and 4 in Portugal), P. pinaster from 19 sites (2 in Italy, 13 in Spain, and 4 in Portugal), and P. halepensis from 38 sites in Spain. The correlations between IADF frequency and monthly minimum, mean and maximum temperatures, as well as between IADF frequency and total precipitation, were analyzed. A significant negative relationship between IADF frequency and tree-ring age was found for the three Mediterranean pines. Moreover, IADFs were more frequent in wider rings than in narrower ones, although the widest rings showed a reduced IADF frequency. Wet conditions during late summer/early autumn triggered the formation of IADFs in the three species. Our results suggest the existence of a common climatic driver for the formation of IADFs in Mediterranean pines, highlighting the potential use of IADF frequency as a proxy for climate reconstructions with geographical resolution. PMID:27200052

  11. Deciphering the Western Mediterranean mantle heterogeneities through a statistical approach of the erupted volcanic rocks.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fernandez, M.; Melchiorre, M.; Verges, J.; Coltorti, M.; Torne, M.; Casciello, E.

    2015-12-01

    The Western Mediterranean (We-Me) is characterized by a complex geodynamic history related to subduction events that can be explained by three different models: A) N-NW dipping slab extending from the Gibraltar arc to the Balearic promontory retreating in S-SE direction; B) NW dipping slab under the Balearic promontory, retreating in SE direction towards the Gibraltar strait C) two opposite-directed subductions separated by a transform fault subparellel to the Pierre Fallot Fault Since Oligocene the geological evolution of this part of the Mediterranean is characterized by widespread volcanic activity, related to subductive (orogenic) or intraplate (anorogenic) settings. We merged two huge orogenic and anorogenic datasets containing over 14,000 chemical analyses and processed them through factor analysis, in order to reduce the large number of geochemical parameters describing each sample (major/trace elements, isotopic ratios) through a smaller number of factors. Binary diagrams obtained combining seven resulting factors allow to distinguish the anorogenic field from the orogenic one. Anorogenic rocks usually fall in a narrow range of variation, while orogenic are characterized by a greater variability and by alignment along different trends. These different trends account for large heterogeneities of the sub lithospheric mantle due to extensive recycling of geochemically different materials through time, supporting the idea that different reservoirs are responsible for the Mediterranean volcanism [1]. The spatio-temporal evolution of the We-Me lamproites allows us to speculate a two-step evolution of the mantle beneath southern Spain. This evolution has been evaluated in light of the three models. We therefore propose that a type C model accounting for the presence of two juxtaposed slabs beneath the We-Me is the most feasible model to describe the geodynamic evolution of this area. [1] Conticelli et al. (2009). Lithos 107, 68-92.

  12. Climatic Signals from Intra-annual Density Fluctuation Frequency in Mediterranean Pines at a Regional Scale

    PubMed Central

    Zalloni, Enrica; de Luis, Martin; Campelo, Filipe; Novak, Klemen; De Micco, Veronica; Di Filippo, Alfredo; Vieira, Joana; Nabais, Cristina; Rozas, Vicente; Battipaglia, Giovanna

    2016-01-01

    Tree rings provide information about the climatic conditions during the growing season by recording them in different anatomical features, such as intra-annual density fluctuations (IADFs). IADFs are intra-annual changes of wood density appearing as latewood-like cells within earlywood, or earlywood-like cells within latewood. The occurrence of IADFs is dependent on the age and size of the tree, and it is triggered by climatic drivers. The variations of IADF frequency of different species and their dependence on climate across a wide geographical range have still to be explored. The objective of this study is to investigate the effect of age, tree-ring width and climate on IADF formation and frequency at a regional scale across the Mediterranean Basin in Pinus halepensis Mill., Pinus pinaster Ait., and Pinus pinea L. The analyzed tree-ring network was composed of P. pinea trees growing at 10 sites (2 in Italy, 4 in Spain, and 4 in Portugal), P. pinaster from 19 sites (2 in Italy, 13 in Spain, and 4 in Portugal), and P. halepensis from 38 sites in Spain. The correlations between IADF frequency and monthly minimum, mean and maximum temperatures, as well as between IADF frequency and total precipitation, were analyzed. A significant negative relationship between IADF frequency and tree-ring age was found for the three Mediterranean pines. Moreover, IADFs were more frequent in wider rings than in narrower ones, although the widest rings showed a reduced IADF frequency. Wet conditions during late summer/early autumn triggered the formation of IADFs in the three species. Our results suggest the existence of a common climatic driver for the formation of IADFs in Mediterranean pines, highlighting the potential use of IADF frequency as a proxy for climate reconstructions with geographical resolution. PMID:27200052

  13. Enhanced Total Ionizing Dose Susceptibility in Narrow Channel Devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Zhang-Li; Hu, Zhi-Yuan; Zhang, Zheng-Xuan; Shao, Hua; Ning, Bing-Xu; Bi, Da-Wei; Chen, Ming; Zou, Shi-Chang

    2011-07-01

    Total ionizing dose effects of different transistor sizes in a 0.18 μm technology are studied by 60Co γ-ray irradiation. Significant threshold voltage shift is observed for the narrow channel devices, which is called the radiation induced narrow channel effect (RINCE). A charge sharing model is introduced to understand the phenomenon. The devices' characteristic degradations after irradiation, such as threshold voltage shift, increase in on-state current under different drain biases and substrate biases, are discussed in detail. Radiation induced oxide trapped charge at the edges of shallow trench isolation plays an important role in the RINCE. Narrow channel devices are susceptible to the total ionizing dose effect.

  14. Sharp monotonic resolution of discontinuities without clipping of narrow extrema

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leonard, B. P.; Niknafs, H. S.

    1991-01-01

    A strategy is presented for accurately simulating highly convective flows containing discontinuities such as density fronts or shock waves, without distorting smooth profiles or clipping narrow local extrema. The convection algorithm is based on non-artificially-diffusive third-order upwinding in smooth regions, with automatic adaptive stencil expansion to (in principle, arbitrarily) higher order upwinding locally, in regions of rapidly changing gradients. This is highly cost-effective because the wider stencil is used only where needed - in isolated narrow regions. A recently developed universal limiter assures sharp monotonic resolution of discontinuities without introducing artificial diffusion or numerical compression. An adaptive discriminator is constructed to distinguish between spurious overshoots and physical peaks; this automatically relaxes the limiter near local turning points, thereby avoiding loss of resolution in narrow extrema. Examples are given for one-dimensional pure convection of scalar profiles at constant velocity.

  15. CT demonstration of pharyngeal narrowing in adult obstructive sleep apnea

    SciTech Connect

    Bohlman, M.E.; Haponik, E.F.; Smith, P.L.; Allen, R.P.; Bleecker, E.R.; Goldman, S.M.

    1983-03-01

    Sleep apnea is a major cause of daytime hypersomnolence. Among the proposed etiologies, focal obstruction of the airways at the level of the pharynx has been suggested but not proven. Using computed tomography, the cross-sectional area of the airway can be readily assessed. Thirty-three adults with clinically proven sleep apnea and 12 normal adults underwent systematic computed tomography of the neck. Significant airway narrowing was demonstrated in all the patients with obstructive sleep apnea, whereas no such narrowing was seen in the controls. In 11, the narrowing was at a single level, whereas in 22 patients two or more levels were affected. This study has shown that a structurally abnormal airway may serve as an anatomic substrate for the development of sleep apnea. On the basis of this evidence, uvulopalatopharyngoplasty has been performed in two patients with relief of symptoms in one.

  16. Pressure Fluctuation Characteristics of Narrow Gauge Train Running Through Tunnel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suzuki, Masahiro; Sakuma, Yutaka

    Pressure fluctuations on the sides of narrow (1067 mm) gauge trains running in tunnels are measured for the first time to investigate the aerodynamic force acting on the trains. The present measurements are compared with earlier measurements obtained with the Shinkansen trains. The results are as follows: (1) The aerodynamic force, which stems from pressure fluctuations on the sides of cars, puts the energy into the vibration of the car body running through a tunnel. (2) While the pressure fluctuations appear only on one of the two sides of the trains running in double-track tunnels, the fluctuations in opposite phase on both sides in single-track tunnels. (3) The on-track test data of the narrow gauge trains show the same tendency as those of the Shinkansen trains, although it is suggested that the pressure fluctuations develop faster along the narrow gauge trains than the Shinkansen trains.

  17. Ultra-narrow linewidth measurement based on Voigt profile fitting.

    PubMed

    Chen, Mo; Meng, Zhou; Wang, Jianfei; Chen, Wei

    2015-03-01

    We study the method of Voigt profile fitting for ultra-narrow linewidth measurement. It filters out the effect of the spectrum broadening due to the 1/f frequency noise and extracts out the Lorentzian lineshape from the measured spectrum. The resolution is thus greatly promoted than the direct measurement from the self-heterodyne technique. We apply this method to an ultra-narrow-linewidth (~40 Hz by heterodyne beat technique) Brillouin/erbium fiber laser. The linewidth estimated from Voigt fitting method is indicated to be more accurate. In contrast, the linewidths estimated direct from the 3-dB and the 20-dB heterodyne-spectrum width are far over the true linewidth of the BEFL. The Voigt fitting method provides an efficient tool for ultra-narrow-linewidth measurement. And compared with heterodyne beat technique, it is applicable for all types of lasers. PMID:25836899

  18. Sediment transport in two mediterranean regulated rivers.

    PubMed

    Lobera, G; Batalla, R J; Vericat, D; López-Tarazón, J A; Tena, A

    2016-01-01

    Mediterranean climate is characterized by highly irregular rainfall patterns with marked differences between wet and dry seasons which lead to highly variable hydrological fluvial regimes. As a result, and in order to ensure water availability and reduce its temporal variability, a high number of large dams were built during the 20th century (more than 3500 located in Mediterranean rivers). Dams modify the flow regime but also interrupt the continuity of sediment transfer along the river network, thereby changing its functioning as an ecosystem. Within this context, the present paper aims to assess the suspended sediment loads and dynamics of two climatically contrasting Mediterranean regulated rivers (i.e. the Ésera and Siurana) during a 2-yr period. Key findings indicate that floods were responsible for 92% of the total suspended sediment load in the River Siurana, while this percentage falls to 70% for the Ésera, indicating the importance of baseflows on sediment transport in this river. This fact is related to the high sediment availability, with the Ésera acting as a non-supply-limited catchment due to the high productivity of the sources (i.e. badlands). In contrast, the Siurana can be considered a supply-limited system due to its low geomorphic activity and reduced sediment availability, with suspended sediment concentration remaining low even for high magnitude flood events. Reservoirs in both rivers reduce sediment load up to 90%, although total runoff is only reduced in the case of the River Ésera. A remarkable fact is the change of the hydrological character of the River Ésera downstream for the dam, shifting from a humid mountainous river regime to a quasi-invariable pattern, whereas the Siurana experiences the opposite effect, changing from a flashy Mediterranean river to a more constant flow regime below the dam. PMID:26372613

  19. Detecting slab structure beneath the Mediterranean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, Meghan S.; Sun, Daoyuan; Piana Agostinetti, Nicola

    2013-04-01

    The presence of subducted slabs in the Mediterranean has been well documented with seismic tomography, however, these images, which are produced by smoothed, damped inversions, underestimate the sharpness of the structures. The position and extent of the slabs and the presence possible tears or gaps in the subducted lithosphere are still debated, yet the shape and location these structures are important for kinematic reconstructions and evolution of the entire subduction zone system. Extensive distribution of broadband seismic instrumentation in the Mediterranean (Italian National Seismic Network in Italy and the NSF-PICASSO project in Spain and Morocco) has allowed us to use alternative methodologies to detect the position of the slabs and slab tears beneath the Central and Western Mediterranean. Using S receiver functions we are able to identify S-to-p conversions from the bottom of the subducted slab and a lack of these signals where there are gaps or tears in the slab. We also analyze broadband waveforms for changes in P wave coda from deep (> 300 km depth) local earthquakes. The waveform records for stations in southern Italy and around the Betic-Rif show large amplitude, high frequency (f > 5 Hz) late arrivals with long coda after relatively low-frequency onset. High frequency arrivals are the strongest from events whose raypaths travel within the slab to the stations where they are recorded allowing for mapping of where the subducted material is located within the upper mantle. These two methods, along with inferring the slab position from fast P-wave velocity perturbations in tomography and intermediate depth seismicity, provide additional geophysical evidence to aid in interpretation of the complex, segmented slab structure beneath the Mediterranean.

  20. The alarming decline of Mediterranean fish stocks.

    PubMed

    Vasilakopoulos, Paraskevas; Maravelias, Christos D; Tserpes, George

    2014-07-21

    In recent years, fisheries management has succeeded in stabilizing and even improving the state of many global fisheries resources [1-5]. This is particularly evident in areas where stocks are exploited in compliance with scientific advice and strong institutional structures are in place [1, 5]. In Europe, the well-managed northeast (NE) Atlantic fish stocks have been recovering in response to decreasing fishing pressure over the past decade [3-6], albeit with a long way to go for a universal stock rebuild [3, 7]. Meanwhile, little is known about the temporal development of the European Mediterranean stocks, whose management relies on input controls that are often poorly enforced. Here, we perform a meta-analysis of 42 European Mediterranean stocks of nine species in 1990-2010, showing that exploitation rate has been steadily increasing, selectivity (proportional exploitation of juveniles) has been deteriorating, and stocks have been shrinking. We implement species-specific simulation models to quantify changes in exploitation rate and selectivity that would maximize long-term yields and halt stock depletion. We show that stocks would be more resilient to fishing and produce higher long-term yields if harvested a few years after maturation because current selectivity is far from optimal, especially for demersal stocks. The European Common Fisheries Policy that has assisted in improving the state of NE Atlantic fish stocks in the past 10 years has failed to deliver similar results for Mediterranean stocks managed under the same policy. Limiting juvenile exploitation, advancing management plans, and strengthening compliance, control, and enforcement could promote fisheries sustainability in the Mediterranean. PMID:25017210

  1. box modeling of the eastern mediterranean sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ashkenazy, Y.; Stone, P. H.

    2003-04-01

    Recently (~1990) a new source of deep water formation in the Eastern Mediterranean was found in the southern part of the Aegean sea. Till then, the only source of deep water formation in the Eastern Mediterranean was in the Adriatic sea; the rate of the deep water formation of the new Aegean source is 1Sv=10^6m^3/s, three times larger then the Adriatic source. We develop a simple 3 box-model to study the stability of the thermohaline circulation of the Eastern Mediterranean sea. The 3 boxes represent the Adriatic sea, Aegean sea, and the Ionian sea. The boxes exchange heat and salinity and may be described by a set of nonlinear differential equations. We analytically analyze these equations and find that the system may have one, two, or four stable flux states. We consider two cases for which the temperatures of the boxes are (i) fixed or (ii) variable. After setting the parameters to correspond to the Eastern Mediterranean we find that the system has two stable states, one with (i) two thermally dominant sources of deep water formation in the Adriatic and Aegean and the other with (ii) a salinity dominant source of deep water formation in the Adriatic and a thermally dominant source in the Aegean. While the Adriatic thermally dominant source is comparable to the observed flux of 0.3Sv the Aegean source has much smaller flux than the observed value. This situation is analogous to the state of the thermohaline circulation pre 1990 where the only source of deep water formation was in the Adriatic. If we decrease the atmospheric temperature of the Aegean box by 2C in accordance with recent observations, we find that the deep water formation of the Aegean increases significantly to a value comparable to the recently observed flux.

  2. Mediterranean Miocene carbonates: facies models and diagenesis

    SciTech Connect

    Esteban, M.E.

    1987-11-01

    Miocene carbonates can bridge the gap between Holocene and older carbonate sequences, thus enhancing understanding of depositional and diagenetic patterns. Miocene carbonates can bridge this gap because of their similarity to Holocene counterparts and the ease of using these carbonates to reconstruct tectonic, paleogeographic, and paleoclimatic settings. In the Mediterranean, the Miocene provides a superb set of exposures and a wide variety of facies models in different geologic settings.

  3. First Record of the Mediterranean Recluse Spider Loxosceles rufescens (Araneae: Sicariidae) from Iran.

    PubMed

    Zamani, Alireza; Rafinejad, Javad

    2014-12-01

    Loxosceles rufescens, commonly known as the Mediterranean Recluse or Mediterranean Fiddle-Back Spider is recorded from Iran for the first time. The genus Loxosceles contains 103 accepted species, two of them (including L. rufescens) are cosmopolitan. All Loxosceles species tested so far possess necrotic venoms, which is a unique characteristic among the Order Araneae. Considering this characteristic, it is of medical importance to determine a specific geographical distribution of these spiders. Collecting methods include visual inspection and direct hand collecting. All of the specimens were collected in Tehran. Six specimens of both sexes were collected from parks, houses and apartments. The characteristics of the genus, which are the unique arrangement of six eyes in three diads, the violin shaped mark on the cephalothorax, and the short tibia of adult male palpi with narrow base and it's embolus which is about as long as the width of the globular bulb were observed and recorded. Having the cytotoxicity of the venom and its urban distribution in mind, L. rufescens is probably among the more important spider species of Iran. Since there are no reports of loxoscelism from Iran, we assume that the bites are either infrequent or misdiagnosed. Therefore further studies are needed to clarify the medical importance degree of this species. PMID:26114138

  4. First Record of the Mediterranean Recluse Spider Loxosceles rufescens (Araneae: Sicariidae) from Iran

    PubMed Central

    Zamani, Alireza; Rafinejad, Javad

    2014-01-01

    Loxosceles rufescens, commonly known as the Mediterranean Recluse or Mediterranean Fiddle-Back Spider is recorded from Iran for the first time. The genus Loxosceles contains 103 accepted species, two of them (including L. rufescens) are cosmopolitan. All Loxosceles species tested so far possess necrotic venoms, which is a unique characteristic among the Order Araneae. Considering this characteristic, it is of medical importance to determine a specific geographical distribution of these spiders. Collecting methods include visual inspection and direct hand collecting. All of the specimens were collected in Tehran. Six specimens of both sexes were collected from parks, houses and apartments. The characteristics of the genus, which are the unique arrangement of six eyes in three diads, the violin shaped mark on the cephalothorax, and the short tibia of adult male palpi with narrow base and it’s embolus which is about as long as the width of the globular bulb were observed and recorded. Having the cytotoxicity of the venom and its urban distribution in mind, L. rufescens is probably among the more important spider species of Iran. Since there are no reports of loxoscelism from Iran, we assume that the bites are either infrequent or misdiagnosed. Therefore further studies are needed to clarify the medical importance degree of this species. PMID:26114138

  5. Virus diseases of peas, beans, and faba bean in the Mediterranean region.

    PubMed

    Makkouk, Khaled; Pappu, Hanu; Kumari, Safaa G

    2012-01-01

    In the Mediterranean region, pea, bean, and faba bean production is affected by around 17 major viruses. These viruses do not have the same ecology and consequently require a variety of different preventive measures to control them. Some of these viruses have a narrow host range, such as Faba bean necrotic yellows virus (FBNYV), and others, such as Alfalfa mosaic virus (AMV) and Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV), a very wide host range. Such features are important when identifying sources of virus inoculum in a region, and the vectors can transmit viruses from natural reservoirs to the crop plants. Some of these viruses are seed borne and, consequently, can be disseminated long distances through infected seeds. Crop losses caused by these viruses are variable, depending on the sensitivity and susceptibility of the crop to infection. Host resistance genes have been identified for some of these viruses, but in others, such as FBNYV, no resistance genes in faba bean have been identified yet. Significant progress was made in developing precise methods for the identification of these viruses, and new virus problems are being identified every year. This chapter is not intended to be a review for pea, bean, and faba bean viruses, but rather focuses on the major viruses which affect these crops in the Mediterranean basin with focus on the progress made over the past two decades. PMID:22682174

  6. Hydrodynamic modelling of coastal seas: the role of tidal dynamics in the Messina Strait, Western Mediterranean Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cucco, Andrea; Quattrocchi, Giovanni; Olita, Antonio; Fazioli, Leopoldo; Ribotti, Alberto; Sinerchia, Matteo; Tedesco, Costanza; Sorgente, Roberto

    2016-07-01

    This work explores the importance of considering tidal dynamics when modelling the general circulation in the Messina Strait, a narrow passage connecting the Tyrrhenian and the Ionian subbasins in the Western Mediterranean Sea. The tides and the induced water circulation in this Strait are among the most intense oceanographic processes in the Mediterranean Sea. The quantification of these effects can be particularly relevant for operational oceanographic systems aimed to provide short-term predictions of the main hydrodynamics in the Western Mediterranean subbasins. A numerical approach based on the use of a high-resolution hydrodynamic model was followed to reproduce the tides propagation and the wind-induced and thermohaline water circulation within the Strait and in surrounding areas. A set of numerical simulations was carried out to quantify the role of the Strait dynamics on the larger-scale water circulation. The obtained results confirmed the importance of a correct representation of the hydrodynamics in the Messina Strait even when focusing on predicting the water circulation in the external sea traits. In fact, model results show that tidal dynamics deeply impact the reproduction of the instantaneous and residual circulation pattern, waters thermohaline properties and transport dynamics both inside the Messina Strait and in the surrounding coastal and open waters.

  7. Bioethics in Mediterranean culture: the Spanish experience.

    PubMed

    Busquets, Ester; Roman, Begoña; Terribas, Núria

    2012-11-01

    This article presents a view of bioethics in the Spanish context. We may identify several features common to Mediterranean countries because of their relatively similar social organisation. Each country has its own distinguishing features but we would point two aspects which are of particular interest: the Mediterranean view of autonomy and the importance of Catholicism in Mediterranean culture. The Spanish experience on bioethics field has been marked by these elements, trying to build a civic ethics alternative, with the law as an important support. So, Spanish bioethics has been developed in two parallel levels: in the academic and policy maker field (University and Parliament) and in clinical practice (hospitals and healthcare ethics committees), with different paces and methods. One of the most important changes in the paternalistic mentality has been promoted through the recognition by law of the patient's rights and also through the new generation of citizens, clearly aware on the exercise of autonomy. Now, the healthcare professionals have a new challenge: adapt their practice to this new paradigm. PMID:22033813

  8. Contrasted patterns of hyperdiversification in Mediterranean hotspots.

    PubMed

    Sauquet, Hervé; Weston, Peter H; Anderson, Cajsa Lisa; Barker, Nigel P; Cantrill, David J; Mast, Austin R; Savolainen, Vincent

    2009-01-01

    Dating the Tree of Life has now become central to relating patterns of biodiversity to key processes in Earth history such as plate tectonics and climate change. Regions with a Mediterranean climate have long been noted for their exceptional species richness and high endemism. How and when these biota assembled can only be answered with a good understanding of the sequence of divergence times for each of their components. A critical aspect of dating by using molecular sequence divergence is the incorporation of multiple suitable age constraints. Here, we show that only rigorous phylogenetic analysis of fossil taxa can lead to solid calibration and, in turn, stable age estimates, regardless of which of 3 relaxed clock-dating methods is used. We find that Proteaceae, a model plant group for the Mediterranean hotspots of the Southern Hemisphere with a very rich pollen fossil record, diversified under higher rates in the Cape Floristic Region and Southwest Australia than in any other area of their total distribution. Our results highlight key differences between Mediterranean hotspots and indicate that Southwest Australian biota are the most phylogenetically diverse but include numerous lineages with low diversification rates. PMID:19116275

  9. The Mediterranean Diet: A History of Health

    PubMed Central

    ALTOMARE, Roberta; CACCIABAUDO, Francesco; DAMIANO, Giuseppe; PALUMBO, Vincenzo Davide; GIOVIALE, Maria Concetta; BELLAVIA, Maurizio; TOMASELLO, Giovanni; LO MONTE, Attilio Ignazio

    2013-01-01

    The Mediterranean tradition offers a cousine rich in colors, aromas and memories, which support the taste and the spirit of those who live in harmony with nature. Everyone is talking about the Mediterranean diet, but few are those who do it properly, thus generating a lot of confusion in the reader. And so for some it coincides with the pizza, others identified it with the noodles with meat sauce, in a mixture of pseudo historical traditions and folklore that do not help to solve the question that is at the basis of any diet: combine and balance the food so as to satisfy the qualitative and quantitative needs of an individual and in a sense, preserves his health through the use of substances that help the body to perform normal vital functions. The purpose of our work is to demonstrate that the combination of taste and health is a goal that can be absolutely carried out by everybody, despite those who believe that only a generous caloric intake can guarantee the goodness of a dish and the satisfaction of the consumers. That should not be an absolute novelty, since the sound traditions of the Mediterranean cuisine we have used for some time in a wide variety of tasty gastronomic choices, from inviting colors and strong scents and absolutely in line with health. PMID:23802101

  10. "Towards an even healthier Mediterranean diet".

    PubMed

    Estruch, R; Salas-Salvadó, J

    2013-12-01

    Dietary guidelines to promote good health are usually based on foods, nutrients, and dietary patterns predictive of chronic disease risk in epidemiologic studies. However, sound nutritional recommendations for cardiovascular prevention should be based on the results of large randomized clinical trials with "hard" end-points as the main outcome. Such evidence has been obtained for the Mediterranean diet from the PREDIMED (Prevención con Dieta Mediterránea) trial and the Lyon Heart Study. The traditional Mediterranean diet was that found in olive growing areas of Crete, Greece, and Southern Italy in the late 1950s. Their major characteristics include: a) a high consumption of cereals, legumes, nuts, vegetables, and fruits; b) a relatively high-fat consumption, mostly provided by olive oil; c) moderate to high fish consumption; d) poultry and dairy products consumed in moderate to small amounts; e) low consumption of red meats, and meat products; and f) moderate alcohol intake, usually in the form of red wine. However, these protective effects of the traditional Mediterranean diet may be even greater if we upgrade the health effects of this dietary pattern changing the common olive oil used for extra-virgin olive oil, increasing the consumption of nuts, fatty fish and whole grain cereals, reducing sodium intake, and maintaining a moderate consumption of wine with meals. PMID:24263037

  11. Iron Line Diagnostics of Narrow Emission Line Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nousek, John A.

    1996-05-01

    This report describes the activities at Penn State University supported by NASA Grant NAG5-2528, 'Iron Line Diagnostics of Narrow Emission Line Galaxies'. The aim of this investigation was to accurately measure the iron (Fe K) line emission in two X-ray selected Seyfert 2 galaxies (NGC 2992 and MCG-5-23-16). The astrophysics being probed was to determine whether the Fe line was narrow, broad or both. The broad line component is very important as a probe of the nature of the innermost accretion onto the central engine in AGN's.

  12. Packet narrowing and quantum entanglement in photoionization and photodissociation

    SciTech Connect

    Fedorov, M.V.; Efremov, M.A.; Kazakov, A.E.; Chan, K.W.; Eberly, J.H.; Law, C.K.

    2004-05-01

    The narrowing of electron and ion wave packets in the process of photoionization is investigated, with the electron-ion recoil taken fully into account. Packet localization of this type is directly related to entanglement in the joint quantum state of the electron and ion, and to Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen localization. Experimental observation of such packet-narrowing effects is suggested via coincidence registration by two detectors, with a fixed position of one and varying position of the other. A similar effect, typically with an enhanced degree of entanglement, is shown to occur in the case of photodissociation of molecules.

  13. Search for narrow resonances lighter than Upsilon mesons

    SciTech Connect

    Aaltonen, T.; Adelman, Jahred A.; Akimoto, T.; Alvarez Gonzalez, B.; Amerio, S.; Amidei, Dante E.; Anastassov, A.; Annovi, Alberto; Antos, Jaroslav; Apollinari, G.; Apresyan, A.; /Purdue U. /Waseda U.

    2009-03-01

    We report a search for narrow resonances, produced in p{bar p} collisions at {radical}s = 1.96 TeV, that decay into muon pairs with invariant mass between 6.3 and 9.0 GeV/c{sup 2}. The data, collected with the CDF II detector at the Fermilab Tevatron collider, correspond to an integrated luminosity of 630 pb{sup -1}. We use the dimuon invariant mass distribution to set 90% upper credible limits of about 1% to the ratio of the production cross section times muonic branching fraction of possible narrow resonances to that of the {Upsilon}(1S) meson.

  14. Miocene to Pliocene osmium isotopic records of Mediterranean sediments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuroda, Junichiro; Jiménez-Espejo, Francisco J.; Nozaki, Tatsuo; Gennari, Rocco; Lugli, Stefano; Manzi, Vinicio; Roveri, Marco; Flecker, Rachel; Suzuki, Katsuhiko; Yoshimura, Toshihiro; Sierro, Francisco; Ohkouchi, Naohiko

    2015-04-01

    In the late Miocene the Mediterranean Sea experienced a salinity crisis and thick sequences of evaporites precipitated across the basin. In this study we report Os isotopic records from drilled cores in the Mediterranean; the Balearic Sea, the Tyrrhenian Sea, the Ionian Basin and the Florence Rise. Pliocene sediments at all sites show 187Os/188Os values close to that of the coeval ocean water, indicating that the Mediterranean was connected to the North Atlantic. Evaporitic sediments deposited during the late Miocene however, have 187Os/188Os values lower than coeval ocean water values and samples from the eastern Mediterranean and Ionian basins are particularly low. Os isotopic ratios of the pre-evaporite sediments in the western Mediterranean are almost identical to that of the coeval ocean water. In contrast, equivalent sediments from the Florence Rise have significantly lower 187Os/188Os values. The offset of Mediterranean evaporite 187Os/188Os is attributed to limited exchange with the North Atlantic during the Messinian Salinity Crisis (MSC). The source of unradiogenic Os is likely to be weathering of ultramafic rocks (ophiolites) cropping out in the Mediterranean's drainage basins. The offset in the Os ratio on the Florence Rise is attributed either to limited water exchange between eastern and western Mediterranean, or to local effects associated with exhumation of ophiolites around the eastern Mediterranean Sea.

  15. Adaptive Radiation in Mediterranean Cistus (Cistaceae)

    PubMed Central

    Guzmán, Beatriz; Lledó, María Dolores; Vargas, Pablo

    2009-01-01

    Background Adaptive radiation in Mediterranean plants is poorly understood. The white-flowered Cistus lineage consists of 12 species primarily distributed in Mediterranean habitats and is herein subject to analysis. Methodology/Principal Findings We conducted a “total evidence” analysis combining nuclear (ncpGS, ITS) and plastid (trnL-trnF, trnK-matK, trnS-trnG, rbcL) DNA sequences and using MP and BI to test the hypothesis of radiation as suggested by previous phylogenetic results. One of the five well-supported lineages of the Cistus-Halimium complex, the white-flowered Cistus lineage, comprises the higher number of species (12) and is monophyletic. Molecular dating estimates a Mid Pleistocene (1.04±0.25 Ma) diversification of the white-flowered lineage into two groups (C. clusii and C. salviifolius lineages), which display asymmetric characteristics: number of species (2 vs. 10), leaf morphologies (linear vs. linear to ovate), floral characteristics (small, three-sepalled vs. small to large, three- or five-sepalled flowers) and ecological attributes (low-land vs. low-land to mountain environments). A positive phenotype-environment correlation has been detected by historical reconstructions of morphological traits (leaf shape, leaf labdanum content and leaf pubescence). Ecological evidence indicates that modifications of leaf shape and size, coupled with differences in labdanum secretion and pubescence density, appear to be related to success of new species in different Mediterranean habitats. Conclusions/Significance The observation that radiation in the Cistus salviifolius lineage has been accompanied by the emergence of divergent leaf traits (such as shape, pubescence and labdanum secretion) in different environments suggets that radiation in the group has been adaptive. Here we argued that the diverse ecological conditions of Mediterranean habitats played a key role in directing the evolution of alternative leaf strategies in this plant group. Key

  16. Droughts and forest fires in Mediterranean Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turco, Marco; Llasat, Maria-Carmen; von Hardenberg, Jost; Provenzale, Antonello

    2015-04-01

    Most of the total burned area in Europe occurs in Mediterranean regions, with severe economic and environmental damage, life loss and an average of about 4500 km2 burned every year. A better understanding of the impacts on wildfires of environmental and socioeconomic changes is crucial to develop adequate measures of prevention, adaptation and mitigation in this area. Here we focus on the impact of droughts on fires in European Mediterranean regions (Portugal, Spain, the south of France, Italy, Greece). This goal will be achieved through three specific supporting objectives: (1) Understanding past changes in fires in this region (extending the study of [1]); (2) Comparing and analyzing different drought indices (e.g. SPI, SPEI and SSI; see [2, 3] for more details on those indices); (3) Modeling the interaction between drought and fires (following and extending the study of [4]). We develop relatively simple regression models that link the fire activity to the key climate drivers. These models could be used to estimate fire responses to different climate change projections and environmental and socioeconomic scenarios ([5]). *References [1] Turco M., Llasat M. C., Tudela A., Castro X., and Provenzale A. Brief communication Decreasing fires in a Mediterranean region (1970-2010, NE Spain). Natural Hazards and Earth System Science, 13(3):649-652, 2013. [2] Zengchao H., AghaKouchak A., Nakhjiri N., and Farahmand A. Global Integrated Drought Monitoring and Prediction System. Scientific Data, 1:1-10, 2014. [3] Vicente-Serrano, S. M., Beguería, S. and López-Moreno, J. I. A multiscalar drought index sensitive to global warming: The standardized precipitation evapotranspiration index. Journal of Climate, 23:1696-1718, 2010. [4] Turco M., Llasat M. C., von Hardenberg J., and Provenzale A. Impact of climate variability on summer fires in a Mediterranean environment (northeastern Iberian Peninsula). Climatic Change, 116:665-678, 2013. [5] Turco M., Llasat M. C., von

  17. Estimation of Atlantic-Mediterranean netflow variability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guerreiro, Catarina; Peliz, Alvaro; Miranda, Pedro

    2016-04-01

    The exchanges at the Strait of Gibraltar are extremely difficult to measure due to the strong temporal and across-strait variabilities; yet the Atlantic inflow into the Mediterranean is extremely important both for climate and to ecosystems. Most of the published numerical modeling studies do not resolve the Strait of Gibraltar realistically. Models that represent the strait at high resolution focus primarily in high frequency dynamics, whereas long-term dynamics are studied in low resolution model studies, and for that reason the Strait dynamics are poorly resolved. Estimating the variability of the exchanges requires long term and high-resolutions studies, thus an improved simulation with explicit and realistic representation of the Strait is necessary. On seasonal to inter-annual timescales the flow is essentially driven by the net evaporation contribution and consequently realistic fields of precipitation and evaporation are necessary for model setup. A comparison between observations, reanalysis and combined products shows ERA-Interim Reanalysis has the most suitable product for Mediterranean Sea. Its time and space variability are in close agreement with NOC 1.1 for the common period (1980 - 1993) and also with evaporation from OAFLUX (1989 - 2014). Subinertial fluctuations, periods from days to a few months, are the second most energetic, after tides, and are the response to atmospheric pressure fluctuations and local winds. Atmospheric pressure fluctuations in the Mediterranean cause sea level oscillations that induce a barotropic flow through the Strait. Candela's analytical model has been used to quantify this response in later studies, though comparison with observations points to an underestimation of the flow at strait. An improved representation of this term contribution to the Atlantic - Mediterranean exchange must be achieved on longer time-scales. We propose a new simulation for the last 36 years (1979 - 2014) for the Mediterranean - Atlantic

  18. 9. INTERIOR LIVING ROOM DETAIL OF ONE OF TWO NARROW ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. INTERIOR LIVING ROOM DETAIL OF ONE OF TWO NARROW 4-LIGHT OVER 4-LIGHT, DOUBLE-HUNG, WOOD-FRAMED WINDOWS ON EITHER SIDE OF FRONT DOOR SHOWING EXPOSED COUNTERBALANCE CABLE. VIEW TO SOUTHWEST. - Bishop Creek Hydroelectric System, Plant 4, Worker Cottage, Bishop Creek, Bishop, Inyo County, CA

  19. Note: Folded optical system for narrow forward looking probe

    SciTech Connect

    Hou, Hsuan-Chao; Hah, Dooyoung; Kim, Jeonghwan; Feldman, M.

    2014-02-15

    An optical system is described in which a laser beam makes three passes through a single graded index lens, forming a focus along the optic axis. It has important applications in endoscopic probes, where the forward looking characteristic permits the avoidance of obstacles and the narrow structure makes it minimally invasive.

  20. Narrow-Band WGM Optical Filters With Tunable FSRs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mohageg, Makan; Matsko, Andrey; Savchenkov, Anatoliy; Maleki, Lute; Iltchenko, Vladimir; Strekalov, Dmitry

    2007-01-01

    Optical resonators of the whispering-gallery-mode (WGM) type featuring DC-tunable free spectral ranges (FSRs) have been demonstrated. By making the FSR tunable, one makes it possible to adjust, during operation, the frequency of a microwave signal generated by an optoelectronic oscillator in which an WGM optical resonator is utilized as a narrow-band filter.

  1. 33 CFR 162.240 - Tongass Narrows, Alaska; navigation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Tongass Narrows, Alaska; navigation. 162.240 Section 162.240 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) PORTS AND WATERWAYS SAFETY INLAND WATERWAYS NAVIGATION REGULATIONS § 162.240...

  2. The Tacoma Narrows Bridge Collapse on Film and Video

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olson, Don; Hook, Joseph; Doescher, Russell; Wolf, Steven

    2015-01-01

    This month marks the 75th anniversary of the Tacoma Narrows Bridge collapse. During a gale on Nov. 7, 1940, the bridge exhibited remarkable oscillations before collapsing spectacularly (Figs. 1-5). Physicists over the years have spent a great deal of time and energy studying this event. By using open-source analysis tools and digitized footage of…

  3. Narrow grass hedge effects on nutrient transport following compost application

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The use of stiff-stemmed grass hedges can be a valuable soil conservation measure. A study was conducted to measure the effectiveness of a narrow grass hedge, planted on the contour along the hillslope, in reducing runoff nutrient transport from plots with a range of soil nutrient values. Composted ...

  4. Career Attainment among Healthcare Executives: Is the Gender Gap Narrowing?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Branin, Joan Julia

    2009-01-01

    Health care occupations are expected to be among the fastest growing professions in the next ten years. With such incredible growth expected in employment and wages, and with women's participation in the industry remaining strong, are women in the health care industry, particularly those in health care administration, experiencing a narrowing of…

  5. Revisiting the Case for Narrow Reading with English Language Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hansen, Laurie E.; Collins, Penelope

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated children's access to books, narrow independent reading volume, and growth in vocabulary knowledge and comprehension. Two hundred-twenty English language learners and native-English speaking children from diverse socioeconomic backgrounds were given measures of vocabulary and literacy in the fall and spring of fourth grade.…

  6. World Food Resources and Population: The Narrowing Margin.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Lester R.

    1981-01-01

    This bulletin examines the narrowing margin between global food production and population growth. Between 1950 and 1971, world grain production nearly doubled and per capita production increased 31 percent. During the 1970s, gains in output barely kept pace with population growth, consumption per person declined in sub-Saharan Africa and parts of…

  7. High average power, narrow band 248 nm alexandrite laser system

    SciTech Connect

    Kuper, J.W.; Chin, T.C.; Papanestor, P.A.

    1994-12-31

    A compact line-narrowed 248 nm solid state laser source operating at 15 mJ {at} 100 Hz PRF was demonstrated. Constraints due to thermal loading of components were addressed. Tradeoffs between pulse energy and repetition rate were investigated. A method for overcoming thermal dephasing in the THG material was achieved by scanning a slab shaped crystal.

  8. A "Narrowing of Inquiry" in American Moral Psychology and Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richardson, Michael J.; Slife, Brent D.

    2013-01-01

    We explore the possibility that a priori philosophical commitments continue to result in a narrowing of inquiry in moral psychology and education where theistic worldviews are concerned. Drawing from the theories of Edward L. Thorndike and John Dewey, we examine naturalistic philosophical commitments that influenced the study of moral psychology…

  9. The electronic structure of heavy fermions: Narrow temperature independent bands

    SciTech Connect

    Arko, A.J.; Joyce, J.J.; Smith, J.L.; Andrews, A.B.

    1996-08-01

    The electronic structure of both Ce and U heavy fermions appears to consist of extremely narrow temperature independent bands. There is no evidence from photoemission for a collective phenomenon normally referred to as the Kondo resonance. In uranium compounds a small dispersion of the bands is easily measurable.

  10. Moving beyond Idealistically Narrow Discourses in Citizenship Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fischman, Gustavo E.; Haas, Eric

    2014-01-01

    The main goal of this article is to provide conceptual guidelines to move the pedagogical debate in the field of citizenship education beyond idealistically narrow models. We begin by providing an overview of key shortcomings presented in most citizenship education programs, specifically in the United States of America. The second section presents…

  11. INTERIOR VIEW OF THE KITCHEN. NOTE THE NARROW DOOR OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    INTERIOR VIEW OF THE KITCHEN. NOTE THE NARROW DOOR OF THE FORMER COOLER (LEFT), SINGLE-LIGHT OVER THREE-PANEL DOOR TO THE SERVICE PORCH (CENTER), AND BUILT-IN SPICE RACK (RIGHT). VIEW FACING EAST. - Hickam Field, NCO Housing Type 1, 211 Tenth Street, Honolulu, Honolulu County, HI

  12. Pulmonary surfactant will secure free airflow through a narrow tube.

    PubMed

    Liu, M Y; Wang, L M; Li, E; Enhorning, G

    1991-08-01

    Well functioning pulmonary surfactant is necessary to ensure alveolar stability. It is proposed that surfactant is also required to keep the finest cylindrical airways open, thereby securing an unrestricted flow of air to and from the alveoli. If the surfactant is inadequate in quality or quality there is a risk that liquid will accumulate in the most marrow section of the airway and form a blocking column. To study that possibility special glass capillaries were used. The glass capillaries were heated and extended to make a short section very narrow. In the lumen of that section a minute volume (1 microliter) of liquid was deposited, which formed a blocking column. When pressure was raised on one side of the column, it forced the liquid to move away from the narrow section. Pressure dropped to zero as air could pass, and if the liquid column consisted of calf lung surfactant extract (CLSE), pressure remained at zero because a new liquid column did not form. If, on the other hand, the liquid column consisted of saline solution it would repeatedly reform as soon as it had been pressed out of the capillary's narrow section. The same occurred if the CLSE suspension forming the liquid column was very dilute or contained inhibiting proteins. These observations did not require that the capillary consisted of the material glass; they were also noted when the narrow tube was outlined by epithelium. PMID:1938748

  13. INTERIOR VIEW OF THE SOUTH ROOM. DOOR TO THE NARROW ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    INTERIOR VIEW OF THE SOUTH ROOM. DOOR TO THE NARROW CORRIDOR IS ON THE LEFT, DOOR TO THE NORTH ROOM IS ON THE RIGHT. VIEW FACING WEST - U.S. Naval Base, Pearl Harbor, Ford Island 5-Inch Antiaircraft Battery, Battery Command Center, Ford Island, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  14. INTERIOR VIEW OF NARROW CORRIDOR. NOTE THE ENTRY STAIRWAY (STAIRS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    INTERIOR VIEW OF NARROW CORRIDOR. NOTE THE ENTRY STAIRWAY (STAIRS COVERED WITH EARTH) LEADING UP TO GROUND LEVEL ON THE LEFT. VIEW FACING WEST - U.S. Naval Base, Pearl Harbor, Ford Island 5-Inch Antiaircraft Battery, Battery Command Center, Ford Island, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  15. Interior direct view of unit narrow kitchen with highlevel barred ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Interior direct view of unit narrow kitchen with high-level barred windows at 2nd floor of Building 7, looking south - North Beach Place, 431 Bay Street, 530 Francisco Street, 431 Bay Street, 530 Francisco Street, San Francisco, San Francisco County, CA

  16. DETAIL OF THE NARROW CLOSET DOORS IN THE KITCHEN. THE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    DETAIL OF THE NARROW CLOSET DOORS IN THE KITCHEN. THE DOOR OF THE FORMER COOLER IS DIRECTLY LEFT OF THE SINGLE-LIGHT OVER THREE PANEL DOOR TO THE GARAGE. NOTE THE DOOR OF THE BUILT-IN IRONING BOARD AT THE RIGHT. VIEW FACING WEST. - Hickam Field, NCO Housing Type 4, 212 Tenth Street, Honolulu, Honolulu County, HI

  17. Is the Achievement Gap in Indiana Narrowing? Special Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spradlin, Terry E.; Kirk, Ryan; Walcott, Crystal; Kloosterman, Peter; Zaman, Khadija; McNabb, Sarah; Zapf, Jason

    2005-01-01

    In this Special Report, the Center for Evaluation and Education Policy at Indiana University examines the factors that contribute to student achievement gaps, defines the scope of the achievement gaps that exist in Indiana, evaluates whether these gaps are narrowing or will persist as Neal suggests, and offers strategies that have been identified…

  18. Langevin equation approach to granular flow in a narrow pipe

    SciTech Connect

    Riethmueller, T.; Schimansky-Geier, L.; Rosenkranz, D.; Poeschel, T.

    1997-01-01

    The gravity-driven flow of granular material through a rough, narrow vertical pipe is described using the Langevin equation formalism. Above a critical particle density the homogeneous flow becomes unstable with respect to short-wave length perturbations. In correspondence with experimental observations, we find clogging and density waves in the flowing material.

  19. Eutrophication and environmental policy in the Mediterranean Sea: a review.

    PubMed

    Karydis, Michael; Kitsiou, Dimitra

    2012-08-01

    The Mediterranean Sea is a semienclosed basin connected with the open sea mainly through the Strait of Gibraltar. Due to the circulation pattern and the long residence time ranging between 80 and 100 years, the Mediterranean Sea is a sensitive environment to eutrophication pressures. The main body of water of the Mediterranean is characterized by very low nutrient concentrations, and therefore, the Mediterranean is classified among the most oligotrophic (very poor waters in nutrients) seas of the world's oceans. However, some coastal areas, mainly in the northern part of the basin, receive excessive loads of nutrients from sewage effluents, river fluxes, aquaculture farms, fertilizers, and industrial facilities, showing intense eutrophic phenomena with many adverse effects for the marine ecosystem and humans. Various national and international authorities, in addition to monitoring, have taken legal and administrative measures to mitigate eutrophication trends in the area. The Mediterranean environment is a good paradigm of integration of extensive legal framework, scientific knowledge, and administrative practices. The Barcelona Convention, the Mediterranean Action Plan, and European Union Directives on water quality and coastal management, together with scientific information derived from international research programs in the Mediterranean, provide a sound background for practical actions in eutrophication problems. In the present work, the problem of coastal eutrophication in the Mediterranean is reviewed in connection with public policies of the Mediterranean States based on national and international legislation and scientific knowledge on Mediterranean oceanography-ecology and actions coordinated by international bodies. These common actions and practices on coastal management are also discussed in relation to the need for sustainable development and protection of the coastal zone in the Mediterranean Sea. PMID:21956336

  20. A spectrophotometric atlas of Narrow-Line Seyfert 1 galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Véron-Cetty, M.-P.; Véron, P.; Gonçalves, A. C.

    2001-06-01

    We have compiled a list of 83 objects classified as Narrow-Line Seyfert 1 galaxies (NLS1s) or known to have a broad Balmer component narrower than 2 000 km s-1. Of these, 19 turned out to have been spectroscopically misidentified in previous studies; only 64 of the selected objects are genuine NLS1s. We have spectroscopically observed 59 of them and tried to characterize their Narrow and Broad-Line Regions (NLR and BLR) by fitting the emission-lines with Gaussian and/or Lorentzian profiles. In most cases, the broad Balmer components are well fitted by a single Lorentzian profile, confirming previous claims that Lorentzian rather than Gaussian profiles are better suited to reproduce the shape of the NLS1s broad emission lines. This has consequences concerning their FWHMs and line ratios: when the broad Balmer components are fitted with a Lorentzian, most narrow line regions have line ratios typical of Seyfert 2s while, when a Gaussian profile is used for fitting the broad Balmer components, the line ratios are widely scattered in the usual diagnostic diagrams (Veilleux & Osterbrock \\cite{vei87}); moreover, the FWHM of the best fitting Lorentzian is systematically smaller than the FWHM of the Gaussian. We find that, in general, the [O III] lines have a relatively narrow Gaussian profile ( ~ 200-500 km s-1 FWHM) with often, in addition, a second broad ( ~ 500-1 800 km s-1 FWHM), blueshifted Gaussian component. We do not confirm that the [O III] lines are weak in NLS1s. As previously suggested, there is a continuous transition of all properties between NLS1s and classical Broad-Line Seyfert 1 Galaxies (BLS1s) and the limit of 2000 km s-1 used to separate the two species is arbitrary; R4570, the ratio of the Fe II to the Hβ fluxes, could be a physically more meaningful parameter to distinguish them.

  1. INTRODUCTION: DESERTIFICATION AND SECURITY - PERSPECTIVES FOR THE MEDITERRANEAN REGION

    EPA Science Inventory

    This book focuses on two basic concepts: security and desertification in the Mediterranean Region and their linkages. It emerged from a single meeting of the "Workshop on Desertification in the Mediterranean Region. A Security Issue" held in Valencia, Spain on 2-5 December 2003...

  2. Mediterranean Diet and cancer risk: an open issue.

    PubMed

    D'Alessandro, Annunziata; De Pergola, Giovanni; Silvestris, Franco

    2016-09-01

    The traditional Mediterranean Diet of the early 1960s meets the characteristics of an anticancer diet defined by the World Cancer Research Fund/American Institute for Cancer Research (WCRF/AIRC). A diet rich of whole grains, pulses, vegetables and fruits, limited in high-calorie foods (foods high in sugar or fat), red meat and foods high in salt, without sugary drinks and processed meat is recommended by the WCRF/AIRC experts to reduce the risk of cancer. The aim of this review was to examine whether Mediterranean Diet is protective or not against cancer risk. Three meta-analyses of cohort studies reported that a high adherence to the Mediterranean Diet significantly reduces the risk of cancer incidence and/or mortality. Nevertheless, the Mediterranean dietary pattern defined in the studies' part of the meta-analyses has qualitative and/or quantitative differences compared to the Mediterranean Diet of the early 1960s. Therefore, the protective role of the Mediterranean Diet against cancer has not definitely been established. In epidemiological studies, a universal definition of the Mediterranean Diet, possibly the traditional Mediterranean Diet of the early 1960s, could be useful to understand the role of this dietary pattern in cancer prevention. PMID:27251477

  3. Interplay of plate convergence and arc migration in the central Mediterranean (Sicily and Calabria)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nijholt, Nicolai; Govers, Rob; Wortel, Rinus

    2016-04-01

    Key components in the current geodynamic setting of the central Mediterranean are continuous, slow Africa-Eurasia plate convergence (~5 mm/yr) and arc migration. This combination encompasses roll-back, tearing and detachment of slabs, and leads to back-arc opening and orogeny. Since ~30 Ma the Apennnines-Calabrian and Gibraltar subduction zones have shaped the western-central Mediterranean region. Lithospheric tearing near slab edges and the accompanying surface expressions (STEP faults) are key in explaining surface dynamics as observed in geologic, geophysical and geodetic data. In the central Mediterranean, both the narrow Calabrian subduction zone and the Sicily-Tyrrhenian offshore thrust front show convergence, with a transfer (shear) zone connecting the distinct SW edge of the former with the less distinct, eastern limit of the latter (similar, albeit on a smaller scale, to the situation in New Zealand with oppositely verging subduction zones and the Alpine fault as the transfer shear zone). The ~NNW-SSE oriented transfer zone (Aeolian-Sisifo-Tindari(-Ionian) fault system) shows transtensive-to-strike slip motion. Recent seismicity, geological data and GPS vectors in the central Mediterranean indicate that the region can be subdivided into several distinct domains, both on- and offshore, delineated by deformation zones and faults. However, there is discussion about the (relative) importance of some of these faults on the lithospheric scale. We focus on finding the best-fitting assembly of faults for the transfer zone connecting subduction beneath Calabria and convergence north of Sicily in the Sicily-Tyrrhenian offshore thrust front. This includes determining whether the Alfeo-Etna fault, Malta Escarpment and/or Ionian fault, which have all been suggested to represent the STEP fault of the Calabrian subduction zone, are key in describing the observed deformation patterns. We first focus on the present-day. We use geodynamic models to reproduce observed GPS

  4. Geographical variation in metazoan parasites of the deep-sea fish Bathypterois mediterraneus Bauchot, 1962 (Osteichthyes: Ipnopidae) from the Western Mediterranean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mateu, Paula; Montero, Francisco E.; Carrassón, Maite

    2014-05-01

    This study examines the parasite fauna of Bathypterois mediterraneus, the most common fish below 1500 m in Western Mediterranean waters. Samples were obtained during July 2010 from the continental slope of two different areas (off Catalonia and Balearic Islands) in three different bathymetric strata at depths between 1000 and 2200 m. The parasite fauna of B. mediterraneus included a narrow range of species: Steringophorus cf. dorsolineatum, Scolex pleuronectis, Hysterothylacium aduncum, Anisakis sp. larva 3 type II and Sarcotretes sp. Steringophorus cf. dorsolineatum and H. aduncum were the most predominant parasites. H. aduncum showed significant differences in abundance between depths of 2000-2200 m with 1000-1400 m and 1400-2000 m, irrespective of locality, whereas S. cf. dorsolineatum showed significant differences between the two localities at all depths except for 2000-2200 m. We suggest the possible usefulness of these two parasites as geographical indicators for discriminating discrete stocks of B. mediterraneus in Western Mediterranean waters.

  5. Proposal of a Mediterranean Diet Serving Score

    PubMed Central

    Monteagudo, Celia; Mariscal-Arcas, Miguel; Rivas, Ana; Lorenzo-Tovar, María Luisa; Tur, Josep A.; Olea-Serrano, Fátima

    2015-01-01

    Background and Aims Numerous studies have demonstrated a relationship between Mediterranean Diet (MD) adherence and the prevention of cardiovascular diseases, cancer, and diabetes, etc. The study aim was to validate a novel instrument to measure MD adherence based on the consumption of food servings and food groups, and apply it in a female population from southern Spain and determining influential factors. Methods and Results The study included 1,155 women aged 12-83 yrs, classified as adolescents, adults, and over-60-yr-olds. All completed a validated semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire (FFQ). The Mediterranean Dietary Serving Score (MDSS) is based on the latest update of the Mediterranean Diet Pyramid, using the recommended consumption frequency of foods and food groups; the MDSS ranges from 0 to 24. The discriminative power or correct subject classification capacity of the MDSS was analyzed with the Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) curve, using the MDS as reference method. Predictive factors for higher MDSS adherence were determined with a logistic regression model, adjusting for age. According to ROC curve analysis, MDSS evidenced a significant discriminative capacity between adherents and non-adherents to the MD pattern (optimal cutoff point=13.50; sensitivity=74%; specificity=48%). The mean MDSS was 12.45 (2.69) and was significantly higher with older age (p<0.001). Logistic regression analysis showed highest MD adherence by over 60-year-olds with low BMI and no habit of eating between meals. Conclusions The MDSS is an updated, easy, valid, and accurate instrument to assess MD adherence based on the consumption of foods and food groups per meal, day, and week. It may be useful in future nutritional education programs to prevent the early onset of chronic non-transmittable diseases in younger populations. PMID:26035442

  6. Medieval iconography of watermelons in Mediterranean Europe

    PubMed Central

    Paris, Harry S.; Daunay, Marie-Christine; Janick, Jules

    2013-01-01

    Background and Aims The watermelon, Citrullus lanatus (Cucurbitaceae), is an important fruit vegetable in the warmer regions of the world. Watermelons were illustrated in Mediterranean Antiquity, but not as frequently as some other cucurbits. Little is known concerning the watermelons of Mediterranean Europe during medieval times. With the objective of obtaining an improved understanding of watermelon history and diversity in this region, medieval drawings purportedly of watermelons were collected, examined and compared for originality, detail and accuracy. Findings The oldest manuscript found that contains an accurate, informative image of watermelon is the Tractatus de herbis, British Library ms. Egerton 747, which was produced in southern Italy, around the year 1300. A dozen more original illustrations were found, most of them from Italy, produced during the ensuing two centuries that can be positively identified as watermelon. In most herbal-type manuscripts, the foliage is depicted realistically, the plants shown as having long internodes, alternate leaves with pinnatifid leaf laminae, and the fruits are small, round and striped. The manuscript that contains the most detailed and accurate image of watermelon is the Carrara Herbal, British Library ms. Egerton 2020. In the agriculture-based manuscripts, the foliage, if depicted, is not accurate, but variation in the size, shape and coloration of the fruits is evident. Both red-flesh and white-flesh watermelons are illustrated, corresponding to the typical sweet dessert watermelons so common today and the insipid citron watermelons, respectively. The variation in watermelon fruit size, shape and coloration depicted in the illustrations indicates that at least six cultivars of watermelon are represented, three of which probably had red, sweet flesh and three of which appear to have been citrons. Evidently, citron watermelons were more common in Mediterranean Europe in the past than they are today. PMID:23904443

  7. Phycobiliprotein distribution across the western Mediterranean divergence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Algarra, Patricia; Estrada, Marta; Niell, F. Xavier

    1988-08-01

    A modified method is presented to determine phycobiliprotein distribution across the western Mediterranean divergence. A deep C-phycoerythrin maximum is detected between 60 and 80 m, but when irradiance in the water column decreases this maximum is shallower and occurs at around the 1% light level. Even though other factors cannot be discarded, the relationships between C-phycoerythrin (associated to Synechococcus cyanobacteria), chlorophyll a and light intensity distributions suggest that this last factor plays an important role in the maintenance of the deep pigment maxima detected.

  8. Mediterranean Holocene climate, environment and human societies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holmgren, Karin; Gogou, Alexandra.; Izdebski, Adam.; Luterbacher, Juerg.; Sicre, Marie-Alexandrine; Xoplaki, Elena

    2016-03-01

    This paper introduces the reader to a special issue of articles that explores links and processes behind societal change, climate change and environmental change in a Holocene perspective in the Mediterranean region. All papers are, by purpose, co-authored by scientists representing different disciplines. The cross-cutting theme has been to reach beyond simple explanations of potential climate-society relationships and advance our understanding on how to improve research methods and theories in the field. The thirteen papers in this issue address these questions in three different ways, by i) conceptual/methodological approaches; ii) review papers; and iii) case studies.

  9. Phytotoxic activities of Mediterranean essential oils.

    PubMed

    de Almeida, Luiz Fernando Rolim; Frei, Fernando; Mancini, Emilia; De Martino, Laura; De Feo, Vincenzo

    2010-06-01

    Twelve essential oils from Mediterranean aromatic plants were tested for their phytotoxic activity, at different doses, against the germination and the initial radicle growth of seeds of Raphanus sativus, Lactuca sativa and Lepidium sativum. The essential oils were obtained from Hyssopus officinalis, Lavandula angustifolia, Majorana hortensis, Melissa officinalis, Ocimum basilicum, Origanum vulgare, Salvia officinalis and Thymus vulgaris (Lamiaceae), Verbena officinalis (Verbenaceae), Pimpinella anisum, Foeniculum vulgare and Carum carvi (Apiaceae). The germination and radicle growth of tested seeds were affected in different ways by the oils. Thyme, balm, vervain and caraway essential oils were more active against both germination and radicle elongation. PMID:20657443

  10. Study of Anticyclogenesis Affecting the Mediterranean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hatzaki, M.; Flocas, H. A.; Simmonds, I.; Kouroutzoglou, J.; Garde, L.; Keay, K.; Bitsa, E.

    2014-12-01

    A comprehensive climatology of migratory anticyclones affecting the Mediterranean was generated by the University of Melbourne finding and tracking algorithm (MS algorithm), applied to 34 years (1979-2012) of ERA-Interim MSLP on a 1.5°x1.5° resolution. The algorithm was employed for the first time for anticyclones in this region, thus, its robustness and reliability in efficiently capturing the individual characteristics of the anticyclonic tracks in such a closed basin with complex topography were checked and verified. Then, the tracks and the statistical properties of the migratory systems were calculated and analyzed. Considering that cold-core anticyclones are shallow and weaken with height contrary to the warm-core that exhibit a vertically well-organized structure, the vertical thermal extend of the systems was studied with an algorithm developed as an extension module of the MS algorithm using ERA-Interim temperatures on several isobaric levels from 1000hPa to 100hPa on an 1.5°x1.5° resolution. The results verified that during both cold and warm period, cold-core anticyclones mainly affect the northern parts of the Mediterranean basin, with their behavior to be strongly regulated by cyclonic activity from the main storm track areas of the North Atlantic and Europe. On the other hand, warm-core anticyclones were found mainly in the southern Mediterranean and North African areas. Here, in order to get a perspective on the dynamic and thermodynamic processes in anticyclonic formation, a dynamical analysis at several vertical levels is performed. The study of mean fields of potential vorticity, temperature advection, vorticity advection at various levels can elucidate the role of upper and low levels during anticyclogenesis and system evolvement and help to further understand the dynamic mechanisms which are responsible for the anticyclogenesis over the Mediterranean region. Acknowledgement: This research project is implemented within the framework of the

  11. Fluorescence nanoscopy by polarization modulation and polarization angle narrowing.

    PubMed

    Hafi, Nour; Grunwald, Matthias; van den Heuvel, Laura S; Aspelmeier, Timo; Chen, Jian-Hua; Zagrebelsky, Marta; Schütte, Ole M; Steinem, Claudia; Korte, Martin; Munk, Axel; Walla, Peter J

    2014-05-01

    When excited with rotating linear polarized light, differently oriented fluorescent dyes emit periodic signals peaking at different times. We show that measurement of the average orientation of fluorescent dyes attached to rigid sample structures mapped to regularly defined (50 nm)(2) image nanoareas can provide subdiffraction resolution (super resolution by polarization demodulation, SPoD). Because the polarization angle range for effective excitation of an oriented molecule is rather broad and unspecific, we narrowed this range by simultaneous irradiation with a second, de-excitation, beam possessing a polarization perpendicular to the excitation beam (excitation polarization angle narrowing, ExPAN). This shortened the periodic emission flashes, allowing better discrimination between molecules or nanoareas. Our method requires neither the generation of nanometric interference structures nor the use of switchable or blinking fluorescent probes. We applied the method to standard wide-field microscopy with camera detection and to two-photon scanning microscopy, imaging the fine structural details of neuronal spines. PMID:24705472

  12. Broad beam and narrow beam attenuation in Lipowitz's metal.

    PubMed

    el-Khatib, E E; Podgorsak, E B; Pla, C

    1987-01-01

    Attenuation properties of Lipowitz's metal have been studied for narrow and broad beams of cobalt-60 gamma rays and 4-10 MV x-rays. The measured transmitted fraction for geometries used in radiotherapy depends on the field size and depth of measurement. Therefore a calculation of dose for partially attenuated beams based on narrow beam attenuation coefficients can cause large errors in dosimetry. Our simple calculation of transmitted fractions based on primary attenuation and scattered radiation agrees quite well with the measured data for therapeutic geometries. Also given is a table for linear, mass attenuation, and mass energy absorption coefficients of Lipowitz's metal in the photon energy range from 10 keV to 10 MeV. PMID:3104738

  13. Narrow-band oscillations in probabilistic cellular automata.

    PubMed

    Puljic, Marko; Kozma, Robert

    2008-08-01

    Dynamical properties of neural populations are studied using probabilistic cellular automata. Previous work demonstrated the emergence of critical behavior as the function of system noise and density of long-range axonal connections. Finite-size scaling theory identified critical properties, which were consistent with properties of a weak Ising universality class. The present work extends the studies to neural populations with excitatory and inhibitory interactions. It is shown that the populations can exhibit narrow-band oscillations when confined to a range of inhibition levels, with clear boundaries marking the parameter region of prominent oscillations. Phase diagrams have been constructed to characterize unimodal, bimodal, and quadromodal oscillatory states. The significance of these findings is discussed in the context of large-scale narrow-band oscillations in neural tissues, as observed in electroencephalographic and magnetoencephalographic measurements. PMID:18850928

  14. NARROW ATOMIC FEATURES FROM RAPIDLY SPINNING NEUTRON STARS

    SciTech Connect

    Bauboeck, Michi; Psaltis, Dimitrios; Oezel, Feryal E-mail: dpsaltis@email.arizona.edu

    2013-04-01

    Neutron stars spinning at moderate rates ({approx}300-600 Hz) become oblate in shape and acquire a nonzero quadrupole moment. In this paper, we calculate the profiles of atomic features from such neutron stars using a ray-tracing algorithm in the Hartle-Thorne approximation. We show that line profiles acquire cores that are much narrower than the widths expected from pure Doppler effects for a large range of observer inclinations. As a result, the effects of both the oblateness and the quadrupole moments of neutron stars need to be taken into account when aiming to measure neutron-star radii from rotationally broadened lines. Moreover, the presence of these narrow cores substantially increases the likelihood of detecting atomic lines from rapidly spinning neutron stars.

  15. Coulomb and nuclear excitations of narrow resonances in 17Ne

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marganiec, J.; Wamers, F.; Aksouh, F.; Aksyutina, Yu.; Álvarez-Pol, H.; Aumann, T.; Beceiro-Novo, S.; Bertulani, C. A.; Boretzky, K.; Borge, M. J. G.; Chartier, M.; Chatillon, A.; Chulkov, L. V.; Cortina-Gil, D.; Emling, H.; Ershova, O.; Fraile, L. M.; Fynbo, H. O. U.; Galaviz, D.; Geissel, H.; Heil, M.; Hoffmann, D. H. H.; Hoffmann, J.; Johansson, H. T.; Jonson, B.; Karagiannis, C.; Kiselev, O. A.; Kratz, J. V.; Kulessa, R.; Kurz, N.; Langer, C.; Lantz, M.; Le Bleis, T.; Lemmon, R.; Litvinov, Yu. A.; Mahata, K.; Müntz, C.; Nilsson, T.; Nociforo, C.; Nyman, G.; Ott, W.; Panin, V.; Paschalis, S.; Perea, A.; Plag, R.; Reifarth, R.; Richter, A.; Rodriguez-Tajes, C.; Rossi, D.; Riisager, K.; Savran, D.; Schrieder, G.; Simon, H.; Stroth, J.; Sümmerer, K.; Tengblad, O.; Typel, S.; Weick, H.; Wiescher, M.; Wimmer, C.

    2016-08-01

    New experimental data for dissociation of relativistic 17Ne projectiles incident on targets of lead, carbon, and polyethylene targets at GSI are presented. Special attention is paid to the excitation and decay of narrow resonant states in 17Ne. Distributions of internal energy in the 15O + p + p three-body system have been determined together with angular and partial-energy correlations between the decay products in different energy regions. The analysis was done using existing experimental data on 17Ne and its mirror nucleus 17N. The isobaric multiplet mass equation is used for assignment of observed resonances and their spins and parities. A combination of data from the heavy and light targets yielded cross sections and transition probabilities for the Coulomb excitations of the narrow resonant states. The resulting transition probabilities provide information relevant for a better understanding of the 17Ne structure.

  16. Period Effects, Cohort Effects, and the Narrowing Gender Wage Gap

    PubMed Central

    Campbell, Colin; Pearlman, Jessica

    2015-01-01

    Despite the abundance of sociological research on the gender wage gap, questions remain. In particular, the role of cohorts is under investigated. Using data from the Current Population Survey, we use Age-Period-Cohort analysis to uniquely estimate age, period, and cohort effects on the gender wage gap. The narrowing of the gender wage gap that occurred between 1975 and 2009 is largely due to cohort effects. Since the mid-1990s, the gender wage gap has continued to close absent of period effects. While gains in female wages contributed to declines in the gender wage gap for cohorts born before 1950, for later cohorts the narrowing of the gender wage gap is primarily a result of declines in male wages. PMID:24090861

  17. Magnetic Field Generation During the Collision of Narrow Plasma Clouds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sakai, Jun-ichi; Kazimura, Yoshihiro; Haruki, Takayuki

    1999-06-01

    We investigate the dynamics of the collision of narrow plasma clouds,whose transverse dimension is on the order of the electron skin depth.A 2D3V (two dimensions in space and three dimensions in velocity space)particle-in-cell (PIC) collisionless relativistic code is used toshow the generation of a quasi-staticmagnetic field during the collision of narrow plasma clouds both inelectron-ion and electron-positron (pair) plasmas. The localizedstrong magnetic fluxes result in the generation of the charge separationwith complicated structures, which may be sources of electromagneticas well as Langmuir waves. We also present one applicationof this process, which occurs during coalescence of magnetic islandsin a current sheet of pair plasmas.

  18. Period effects, cohort effects, and the narrowing gender wage gap.

    PubMed

    Campbell, Colin; Pearlman, Jessica

    2013-11-01

    Despite the abundance of sociological research on the gender wage gap, questions remain. In particular, the role of cohorts is under investigated. Using data from the Current Population Survey, we use age-period-cohort analysis to uniquely estimate age, period, and cohort effects on the gender wage gap. The narrowing of the gender wage gap that occurred between 1975 and 2009 is largely due to cohort effects. Since the mid-1990s, the gender wage gap has continued to close absent of period effects. While gains in female wages contributed to declines in the gender wage gap for cohorts born before 1950, for later cohorts the narrowing of the gender wage gap is primarily a result of declines in male wages. PMID:24090861

  19. Model of Layered Weld Formation Under Narrow Gap Pulse Welding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krampit, A. G.

    2016-04-01

    The model parameters of narrow gap pulse welding can be divided into input, internal and output ones. The breadth of gap, that is, clearance breadth between upright edges is one of key parameters securing high quality of a weld joint. The paper presents theoretical outcomes for the model of layered weld formation under narrow gap pulse welding. Based on these studies is developed model of processes, which occur in the weld pool under pulse grove welding. It comprises the scheme of liquid metal motion in the weld pool, scheme of fusion with the side edge and in the bottom part, and the scheme of welding current impulse effect on the structure of a weld joint.

  20. Narrow groove welding gas diffuser assembly and welding torch

    SciTech Connect

    Rooney, Stephen J.

    2000-02-04

    A diffuser assembly is provided for narrow groove welding using an automatic gas tungsten arc welding torch. The diffuser assembly includes manifold adapted for adjustable mounting on the welding torch which is received in a central opening in the manifold. Laterally extending manifold sections communicate with a shield gas inlet such that shield gas supplied to the inlet passes to gas passages of the manifold sections. First and second tapered diffusers are respectively connected to the manifold sections in fluid communication with the gas passages thereof. The diffusers extend downwardly along the torch electrode on opposite sides thereof so as to release shield gas along the length of the electrode and at the distal tip of the electrode. The diffusers are of a transverse width which is on the order of the thickness of the electrode so that the diffusers can, in use, be inserted into a narrow welding groove before and after the electrode in the direction of the weld operation.

  1. Narrow groove welding gas diffuser assembly and welding torch

    DOEpatents

    Rooney, Stephen J.

    2001-01-01

    A diffuser assembly is provided for narrow groove welding using an automatic gas tungsten arc welding torch. The diffuser assembly includes a manifold adapted for adjustable mounting on the welding torch which is received in a central opening in the manifold. Laterally extending manifold sections communicate with a shield gas inlet such that shield gas supplied to the inlet passes to gas passages of the manifold sections. First and second tapered diffusers are respectively connected to the manifold sections in fluid communication with the gas passages thereof. The diffusers extend downwardly along the torch electrode on opposite sides thereof so as to release shield gas along the length of the electrode and at the distal tip of the electrode. The diffusers are of a transverse width which is on the order of the thickness of the electrode so that the diffusers can, in use, be inserted into a narrow welding groove before and after the electrode in the direction of the weld operation.

  2. A camera for a narrow and deep welding groove

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vehmanen, Miika S.; Korhonen, Mika; Mäkynen, Anssi J.

    2008-06-01

    In this paper welding seam imaging in a very narrow and deep groove is presented. Standard camera optics can not be used as it does not reach the bottom of the groove. Therefore, selecting suitable imaging optics and components was the main challenge of the study. The implementation is based on image transmission via a borescope. The borescope has a long and narrow tube with graded index relay optics inside. To avoid excessive heating, the borescope tube is enclosed in a cooling pipe. The performance of the imaging system was tested by measuring its modulation transfer function (MTF) and visually evaluated its distortion. The results show that a borescope providing VGA resolution is adequate for the application. The spectrum of the welding processes was studied to determine optimum window to observe the welding seam and electrode. Optimal bandwidth was found in region of 700nm-1000nm.

  3. 980 nm narrow linewidth Yb-doped phosphate fiber laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Pingxue; Yao, Yifei; Hu, Haowei; Chi, Junjie; Yang, Chun; Zhao, Ziqiang; Zhang, Guangju

    2014-12-01

    A narrow-linewidth ytterbium (Yb)-doped phosphate fiber laser based on fiber Bragg grating (FBG) operating around 980 nm is reported. Two different kinds of cavity are applied to obtain the 980 nm narrow-linewidth output. One kind of the cavity consists of a 0.35 nm broadband lindwidth high-reflection FBG and the Yb-doped phosphate fiber end with 0° angle, which generates a maximum output power of 25 mW. The other kind of resonator is composed of a single mode Yb-doped phosphate fiber and a pair of FBGs. Over 10.7 mW stable continuous wave are obtained with two longitudinal modes at 980 nm. We have given a detailed analysis and discussion for the results.

  4. Water–Soluble Narrow Line Radicals for Dynamic Nuclear Polarization

    PubMed Central

    Haze, Olesya; Corzilius, Björn; Smith, Albert A.; Griffin, Robert G.; Swager, Timothy M.

    2012-01-01

    The synthesis of air-stable highly water-soluble organic radicals containing a 1,3-bisdiphenylene-2-phenylallyl (BDPA) core is reported. A sulfonated derivative, SA-BDPA, retains the narrow EPR linewidth (<30 MHz at 5 T) of the parent BDPA in highly concentrated glycerol/water solutions (40 mM), which enables its use as polarizing agent for solid effect dynamic nuclear polarization (SE DNP). Sensitivity enhancement of 110 was obtained in high field magic-angle-spinning nuclear magnetic resonance (MAS NMR) experiments. The ease of synthesis and high maximum enhancements obtained with the BDPA-based radicals constitute a major advance over the trityl-type narrow line polarization agents. PMID:22917088

  5. Light source for narrow and broadband coherent Raman scattering microspectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Brinkmann, Maximilian; Dobner, Sven; Fallnich, Carsten

    2015-12-01

    We present a light source that is well adapted to both narrow- and broadband coherent Raman scattering (CRS) methods. Based on a single oscillator, the light source delivers synchronized broadband pulses via supercontinuum generation and narrowband, frequency-tunable pulses via four-wave mixing in a photonic crystal fiber. Seeding the four-wave mixing with a spectrally filtered part of the supercontinuum yields high-pulse energies up to 8 nJ and the possibility of scanning a bandwidth of 2000  cm(-1) in 25 ms. All pulses are emitted with a repetition frequency of 1 MHz, which ensures efficient generation of CRS signals while avoiding significant damage of the samples. Consequently, the light source combines the performance of individual narrow- and broadband CRS light sources in one setup, thus enabling hyperspectral imaging and rapid single-resonance imaging in parallel. PMID:26625022

  6. The Structure of A Pacific Narrow Cold Frontal Rainband

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jorgensen, David P.; Pu, Zhaoxia; Persson, Ola; Tao, Wei-Kuo; Starr, David OC. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    A NOAA P-3 instrumented aircraft observed an intense, fast-moving narrow cold frontal Farmhand as it approached the Pacific Northwest coast on 19 February 2001 during the Pacific Coastal Jets Experiment. Pseudo-dual-Doppler analyses performed on the airborne Doppler radar data while the frontal system was well offshore indicated that a narrow ribbon of very high radar reflectively convective cores characterized the Farmhand at low levels with echo tops to approximately 4-5 km. The NCFR exhibited gaps in its narrow ribbon of high reflectively, probably as a result of hydrodynamic instability all no its advancing cold pool leading edge. In contrast to some earlier studies of cold frontal rainbands, density current theory described well the motion of the overall front. The character of the updraft structure associated with the heavy rainfall at its leading edge varied across the gap region. The vertical shear of the cross-frontal low-level ambient flow exerted a strong influence on the updraft character, consistent with theoretical arguments developed for squall lines describing the balance of vorticity at the leading edge. In short regions south of the gaps the vertical wind shear was strongest with the updrafts and rain shafts more intense, narrower, and more erect or even downshear tilted. North of the gaps the wind shear weakened with less intense Dihedrals which tilted upshear with a broader band of rainfall. Simulations using a nonhydrostatic mesoscale nested grid model are used to investigate the gap regions, particularly the balance of cold pool induced to pre-frontal ambient shears at the leading edge. Observations confirm the model results that the updraft character depends on the balance of vorticity at the leading edge. Downshear-tilted updrafts imply that convection south of the gap regions would weaken with time relative to the frontal segments north of the gaps since inflow air would be affected by passage through the heavy rain region before ascent

  7. 4. Overhead view showing the 1927 bridge (narrow bridgeleft side) ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. Overhead view showing the 1927 bridge (narrow bridge-left side) and 1959 bridge (right side) across Carquinez Strait. Town of Crockett is on south bank (bottom of image). C&H sugar factory is along the strait to the east (right) side of the 1959 bridge. The toll plaza is at the top of the image on the 1959 bridge side. - Carquinez Bridge, Spanning Carquinez Strait at Interstate 80, Vallejo, Solano County, CA

  8. Analysis of ultra-narrow ferromagnetic domain walls

    SciTech Connect

    Jenkins, Catherine; Paul, David

    2012-01-10

    New materials with high magnetic anisotropy will have domains separated by ultra-narrow ferromagnetic walls with widths on the order of a few unit cells, approaching the limit where the elastic continuum approximation often used in micromagnetic simulations is accurate. The limits of this approximation are explored, and the static and dynamic interactions with intrinsic crystalline defects and external driving elds are modeled. The results developed here will be important when considering the stability of ultra-high-density storage media.

  9. Critical Heat Flux in Inclined Rectangular Narrow Gaps

    SciTech Connect

    Jeong J. Kim; Yong H. Kim; Seong J. Kim; Sang W. Noh; Kune Y. Suh; Joy L. Rempe; Fan-Bill Cheung; Sang B. Kim

    2004-06-01

    In light of the TMI-2 accident, in which the reactor vessel lower head survived the attack by molten core material, the in-vessel retention strategy was suggested to benefit from cooling the debris through a gap between the lower head and the core material. The GAMMA 1D (Gap Apparatus Mitigating Melt Attack One Dimensional) tests were conducted to investigate the critical heat flux (CHF) in narrow gaps with varying surface orientations. The CHF in an inclined gap, especially in case of the downward-facing narrow gap, is dictated by bubble behavior because the departing bubbles are squeezed. The orientation angle affects the bubble layer and escape of the bubbles from the narrow gap. The test parameters include gap sizes of 1, 2, 5 and 10 mm and the open periphery, and the orientation angles range from the fully downward-facing (180o) to the vertical (90o) position. The 15 ×35 mm copper test section was electrically heated by the thin film resistor on the back. The heater assembly was installed to the tip of the rotating arm in the heated water pool at the atmospheric pressure. The bubble behavior was photographed utilizing a high-speed camera through the Pyrex glass spacer. It was observed that the CHF decreased as the surface inclination angle increased and as the gap size decreased in most of the cases. However, the opposing results were obtained at certain surface orientations and gap sizes. Transition angles, at which the CHF changed in a rapid slope, were also detected, which is consistent with the existing literature. A semi-empirical CHF correlation was developed for the inclined narrow rectangular channels through dimensional analysis. The correlation provides with best-estimate CHF values for realistically assessing the thermal margin to failure of the lower head during a severe accident involving relocation of the core material.

  10. 28. ROOM 211, VIEW TO THE SOUTHEAST. THE LONG NARROW ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    28. ROOM 211, VIEW TO THE SOUTHEAST. THE LONG NARROW SPACE HAS EXPOSED TRUSSWORK IN UNPAINTED WOOD AS DID ALL UPSTAIRS ROOMS IN THEIR ORIGINAL CONDITION. CLERESTORY WINDOWS ARE INTERSPERSED WITH VENTS ALONG BOTH LONG SIDES OF THE ROOM. WALLS HAVE WIDE WOOD PANELING THAT IS PAINTED, FLOORS ARE WOOD. DOORWAY IN SOUTHWEST WALL LEADS TO UNFINISHED ATTIC SPACE. - Presidio of San Francisco, Cavalry Stables, Cowles Street, between Lincoln Boulevard & McDowell Street, San Francisco, San Francisco County, CA

  11. Eddy-Current Inspection of Narrow Metal Tubes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ambrose, H. H.; Kleint, R. E.; Kirkham, K. E.

    1984-01-01

    Inspection technique for narrow-bore metal tubing involves use of small internal eddy-current probe. Probe consists of thin copper wire wrapped on bobbin. Probe small enough to pass through bends in tube being measured. Technique useful for strain measurements where operating conditions or inaccessibility prevent use of such conventional methods as X-ray diffraction, electrical-resistance measurements, strain gages, or holography.

  12. Photoluminescence from narrow InAs-AlSb quantum wells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brar, Berinder; Kroemer, Herbert; Ibbetson, James; English, John H.

    1993-01-01

    We report on photoluminescence spectra from narrow InAs-AlSb quantum wells. Strong, clearly resolved peaks for well widths from 2 to 8 monolayers were observed. Transmission electron micrographs show direct evidence for the structural quality of the quantum well structures. The transition energies of the narrowest wells suggest a strong influence of the AlSb X-barrier on the electronic states in the conduction band.

  13. Effect of narrow sperm head shape on fertility in cattle

    PubMed Central

    Barth, Albert D.; Bowman, Pamela A.; Bo, Gabriel A.; Mapletoft, Reuben J.

    1992-01-01

    Seven experiments were done in feedlot heifers to determine the importance of various degrees of narrowness of the sperm head on fertility in feedlot heifers. Frozen semen used in these experiments was selected to be normal in all respects except for very high numbers of a single specific type of sperm head aberration. Semen with the sperm aberration in question and control semen were selected to be as similar as possible in dose and postthaw viability so that differences in fertility would be attributable to the morphological variant under study. Fertilization rates were determined by collecting embryos from the reproductive tracts of superovulated heifers which had been slaughtered seven days after insemination. Pregnancy rates and rates of embryonic loss were studied in estrus-synchronized heifers by repeated transrectal ultrasound examinations from day 22 to day 55 after insemination. Reproductive tracts were collected and examined after slaughter at 60 days postinsemination. The combined results of these experiments show that a moderate degree of sperm head narrowness, in the absence of other seminal signs of a disturbance of spermatogenesis, is not detrimental to fertility. However, extreme narrowness of the postacrosomal region of the sperm head of most spermatozoa, as was found in two bulls without other seminal signs of a disturbance of spermatogenesis, resulted in significantly reduced fertility. The data suggest that, although a decision between normal and abnormal sperm morphology may contain a degree of subjectivity, of the defects studied only sperm with extreme narrowness of the post-acrosomal region are likely to reduce fertility. ImagesFigure 1.Figure 2. PMID:17423927

  14. Spin-exchange narrowing in a nuclear magnetic transverse oscillator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Korver, Anna; Thrasher, Daniel; Bulatowicz, Michael; Walker, Thad

    2015-05-01

    We demonstrate spin exchange narrowing in synchronously pumped Xe NMR. The Xe NMR is driven by spin exchange with Rb atoms whose polarization is square-wave modulated at the Xe NMR frequency. On resonance, the nuclei precess in phase with the Rb polarization. Off resonance, however, the spin-exchange fields from the Rb cause the Xe to develop a static orthogonal spin component. This induces broadening in the NMR line while also dramatically suppressing the phase shift between the precessing Rb and Xe polarizations. We can compensate for this effect by adding an oscillating magnetic field oriented along the optical pumping axis and 180 degrees out of phase with the Rb polarization. This narrows the NMR line width to approximately the T1 limit, and nearly restores the usual relationship between detuning and phase shift. These results suggest the possibility of using the alkali field with appropriate magnetic field feedback along the bias field direction to narrow the NMR linewidth below the usual T1 limit. Support by the NSF and Northrop Grumman Co.

  15. Riparian deforestation, stream narrowing, and loss of stream ecosystem services.

    PubMed

    Sweeney, Bernard W; Bott, Thomas L; Jackson, John K; Kaplan, Louis A; Newbold, J Denis; Standley, Laurel J; Hession, W Cully; Horwitz, Richard J

    2004-09-28

    A study of 16 streams in eastern North America shows that riparian deforestation causes channel narrowing, which reduces the total amount of stream habitat and ecosystem per unit channel length and compromises in-stream processing of pollutants. Wide forest reaches had more macroinvertebrates, total ecosystem processing of organic matter, and nitrogen uptake per unit channel length than contiguous narrow deforested reaches. Stream narrowing nullified any potential advantages of deforestation regarding abundance of fish, quality of dissolved organic matter, and pesticide degradation. These findings show that forested stream channels have a wider and more natural configuration, which significantly affects the total in-stream amount and activity of the ecosystem, including the processing of pollutants. The results reinforce both current policy of the United States that endorses riparian forest buffers as best management practice and federal and state programs that subsidize riparian reforestation for stream restoration and water quality. Not only do forest buffers prevent nonpoint source pollutants from entering small streams, they also enhance the in-stream processing of both nonpoint and point source pollutants, thereby reducing their impact on downstream rivers and estuaries. PMID:15381768

  16. Quantum information processing with narrow band two-photon state

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Yajun

    Application of quantum sources in communication and information processing are believed to bring a new revolution to the on-going information age. The generation of applicable quantum sources such as single photon state and two-photon state, appears to be one of the most difficult in experimental quantum optics. Spontaneous Parametric Down-Conversion (PDC) is known to generate two-photon state, but bandwidth problem makes it less applicable in quantum information processing. The aim of this work is to generate a narrow band two-photon state and apply it to quantum information processing. We start by developing a cavity enhanced PDC device to narrow the bandwidth of the two-photon state. Direct measurement of the bandwidth of the generated state has been made and the quantum theory of such a device has been investigated. An application of this narrow band two-photon state is to generate anti-bunched photons for quantum cryptography, based on the quantum interference between the two-photon state and a coherent state. The feasibility of this scheme for pulsed pump is also investigated. When applying the concept of mode locking in lasers to a two-photon state, we have mode-locked two-photon state which exhibits a comb-like correlation function and may be used for engineering of quantum states in time domain. Other applications such as demonstration of single photon nonlocality, nonlinear sign gate in quantum computation, and direct measurement of quantum beating, will also be addressed.

  17. Novel structural flexibility identification in narrow frequency bands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, J.; Moon, F. L.

    2012-12-01

    A ‘Sub-PolyMAX’ method is proposed in this paper not only for estimating modal parameters, but also for identifying structural flexibility by processing the impact test data in narrow frequency bands. The traditional PolyMAX method obtains denominator polynomial coefficients by minimizing the least square (LS) errors of frequency response function (FRF) estimates over the whole frequency range, but FRF peaks in different structural modes may have different levels of magnitude, which leads to the modal parameters identified for the modes with small FRF peaks being inaccurate. In contrast, the proposed Sub-PolyMAX method implements the LS solver in each subspace of the whole frequency range separately; thus the results identified from a narrow frequency band are not affected by FRF data in other frequency bands. In performing structural identification in narrow frequency bands, not in the whole frequency space, the proposed method has the following merits: (1) it produces accurate modal parameters, even for the modes with very small FRF peaks; (2) it significantly reduces computation cost by reducing the number of frequency lines and the model order in each LS implementation; (3) it accurately identifies structural flexibility from impact test data, from which structural deflection under any static load can be predicted. Numerical and laboratory examples are investigated to verify the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  18. Social anxiety and narrowed attentional breadth toward faces.

    PubMed

    Yoon, K Lira; Vidaurri, Desirae N; Joormann, Jutta; De Raedt, Rudi

    2015-12-01

    The amount of information that can be perceived and processed will be partly determined by attentional breadth (i.e., the scope of attention), which might be narrowed in social anxiety due to a negative attentional bias. The current study examined the effects of stimulus valence on socially anxious individuals' attentional breadth. Seventy-three undergraduate students completed a computerized dual-task experiment during which they were simultaneously presented with a facial picture at the center of the screen and a black circle (i.e., a target) at the periphery. Participants' task was to indicate the gender of the model in the picture and the location of the peripheral target. The peripheral target was presented either close to or far from the central picture. Higher levels of social anxiety were significantly associated with greater difficulties detecting the target presented far from the central facial pictures, suggesting that social anxiety is associated with narrowed attentional breadth around social cues. Narrowing of attentional breadth among socially anxious individuals might hamper their ability to process all available social cues, thereby perpetuating social anxiety. PMID:25867919

  19. Photonic bandgap narrowing in conical hollow core Bragg fibers

    SciTech Connect

    Ozturk, Fahri Emre; Yildirim, Adem; Kanik, Mehmet; Bayindir, Mehmet

    2014-08-18

    We report the photonic bandgap engineering of Bragg fibers by controlling the thickness profile of the fiber during the thermal drawing. Conical hollow core Bragg fibers were produced by thermal drawing under a rapidly alternating load, which was applied by introducing steep changes to the fiber drawing speed. In conventional cylindrical Bragg fibers, light is guided by omnidirectional reflections from interior dielectric mirrors with a single quarter wave stack period. In conical fibers, the diameter reduction introduced a gradient of the quarter wave stack period along the length of the fiber. Therefore, the light guided within the fiber encountered slightly smaller dielectric layer thicknesses at each reflection, resulting in a progressive blueshift of the reflectance spectrum. As the reflectance spectrum shifts, longer wavelengths of the initial bandgap cease to be omnidirectionally reflected and exit through the cladding, which narrows the photonic bandgap. A narrow transmission bandwidth is particularly desirable in hollow waveguide mid-infrared sensing schemes, where broadband light is coupled to the fiber and the analyte vapor is introduced into the hollow core to measure infrared absorption. We carried out sensing simulations using the absorption spectrum of isopropyl alcohol vapor to demonstrate the importance of narrow bandgap fibers in chemical sensing applications.

  20. Riparian deforestation, stream narrowing, and loss of stream ecosystem services

    PubMed Central

    Sweeney, Bernard W.; Bott, Thomas L.; Jackson, John K.; Kaplan, Louis A.; Newbold, J. Denis; Standley, Laurel J.; Hession, W. Cully; Horwitz, Richard J.

    2004-01-01

    A study of 16 streams in eastern North America shows that riparian deforestation causes channel narrowing, which reduces the total amount of stream habitat and ecosystem per unit channel length and compromises in-stream processing of pollutants. Wide forest reaches had more macroinvertebrates, total ecosystem processing of organic matter, and nitrogen uptake per unit channel length than contiguous narrow deforested reaches. Stream narrowing nullified any potential advantages of deforestation regarding abundance of fish, quality of dissolved organic matter, and pesticide degradation. These findings show that forested stream channels have a wider and more natural configuration, which significantly affects the total in-stream amount and activity of the ecosystem, including the processing of pollutants. The results reinforce both current policy of the United States that endorses riparian forest buffers as best management practice and federal and state programs that subsidize riparian reforestation for stream restoration and water quality. Not only do forest buffers prevent nonpoint source pollutants from entering small streams, they also enhance the in-stream processing of both nonpoint and point source pollutants, thereby reducing their impact on downstream rivers and estuaries. PMID:15381768

  1. Characteristics of narrow bipolar pulses observed in Malaysia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Azlinda Ahmad, Noor; Fernando, M.; Baharudin, Z. A.; Cooray, V.; Ahmad, H.; Abdul Malek, Z.

    2010-04-01

    Narrow bipolar pulses (NBPs) are considered as isolated intracloud events with higher peak amplitude and strong high frequency emission compared to the first return strokes and other intracloud discharges. From 182 NBPs recorded in Malaysia in the tropic, 75 were narrow negative bipolar pulses (NNBPs) while 107 were narrow positive bipolar pulses (NPBPs). The mean duration of NNBPs was 24.6±17.1 [mu]s, while 30.2±12.3 [mu]s was observed for NPBPs. The mean full-width at half-maximum (FWHM) was 2.2±0.7 and 2.4±1.4 [mu]s for NNBPs and NPBPs, respectively. The mean peak amplitude of NPBPs normalized to 100 km was 22.7 V/m, a factor of 1.3 higher than that of NNBPs which is 17.6 V/m. In contrast to the previous studies, it was observed that the electric field change was characterized by a bipolar pulse with a significant amount of fine structures separated by a few tens of nanoseconds intervals, embedded on it.

  2. Mediterranean Way of Drinking and Longevity.

    PubMed

    Giacosa, Attilio; Barale, Roberto; Bavaresco, Luigi; Faliva, Milena Anna; Gerbi, Vincenzo; La Vecchia, Carlo; Negri, Eva; Opizzi, Annalisa; Perna, Simone; Pezzotti, Mario; Rondanelli, Mariangela

    2016-01-01

    The relation between alcohol consumption and mortality is a J-shaped curve in most of the many studies published on this topic. The Copenhagen Prospective Population Studies demonstrated in the year 2000 that wine intake may have a beneficial effect on all cause mortality that is additive to that of alcohol. Wine contains various poliphenolic substances which may be beneficial for health and in particular flavonols (such as myricetin and quercetin), catechin and epicatechin, proanthocyanidins, anthocyanins, various phenolic acids and the stilbene resveratrol. In particular, resveratrol seems to play a positive effect on longevity because it increases the expression level of Sirt1, besides its antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and anticarcinogenic properties. Moderate wine drinking is part of the Mediterranean diet, together with abundant and variable plant foods, high consumption of cereals, olive oil as the main (added) fat and a low intake of (red) meat. This healthy diet pattern involves a "Mediterranean way of drinking," that is a regular, moderate wine consumption mainly with food (up to two glasses a day for men and one glass for women). Moderate wine drinking increases longevity, reduces the risk of cardiovascular diseases and does not appreciably influence the overall risk of cancer. PMID:25207479

  3. Floating debris in the Mediterranean Sea.

    PubMed

    Suaria, Giuseppe; Aliani, Stefano

    2014-09-15

    Results from the first large-scale survey of floating natural (NMD) and anthropogenic (AMD) debris (>2 cm) in the central and western part of the Mediterranean Sea are reported. Floating debris was found throughout the entire study area with densities ranging from 0 to 194.6 items/km(2) and mean abundances of 24.9 AMD items/km(2) and 6.9 NMD items/km(2) across all surveyed locations. On the whole, 78% of all sighted objects were of anthropogenic origin, 95.6% of which were petrochemical derivatives (i.e. plastic and styrofoam). Maximum AMD densities (>52 items/km(2)) were found in the Adriatic Sea and in the Algerian basin, while the lowest densities (<6.3 items/km(2)) were observed in the Central Tyrrhenian and in the Sicilian Sea. All the other areas had mean densities ranging from 10.9 to 30.7 items/km(2). According to our calculations, more than 62 million macro-litter items are currently floating on the surface of the whole Mediterranean basin. PMID:25127501

  4. Sprite climatology in the Eastern Mediterranean Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yair, Yoav; Price, Colin; Katzenelson, Dor; Rosenthal, Neta; Rubanenko, Lior; Ben-Ami, Yuval; Arnone, Enrico

    2015-04-01

    We present statistical analysis of 436 sprites observed in 7 winter campaigns from 2006/7-2012/13. Results show a clear peak in the frequency of sprite detections, with maximum values (< 40% of events) between 00:30 and 02:15 LST (22:30-00:15 UT; LST = UT + 2). The detection times of sprites are well-correlated with a relative increase in the fraction of + CG strokes, which exhibit maxima between 00:00 and 02:00 LST. The morphological distribution of 339 sprites, that we were able to clearly identify, is dominated by column sprites (49.3%), with angels (33.0%) and carrots (25.7%) being less frequent. This is similar to reports of winter sprites over the Sea of Japan and summer ones in Central Europe. Other shapes such as trees, wishbones, etc. appear quite rarely. Single element events constitute 16.5% of observations, with 83.5% containing 2 elements or more. Clusters of homogenous types are slightly more frequent than mixed ones (55%). Our observations suggest winter Mediterranean thunderstorms to have a vertical structure in between high tropical convective systems and the lower cloud-top cells in Japan. The climatology shows the Eastern Mediterranean to be a major sprite producer in Northern Hemisphere winter, and offers ground-based coverage for future space missions.

  5. Sprite Climatology in the Eastern Mediterranean Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yair, Yoav; Price, Colin; Katzenelson, Dor; Rosenthal, Neta; Rubanenko, Lior; Ben-Ami, Yuval; Arnone, Enrico

    2015-04-01

    We present statistical analysis of 436 sprites observed in 7 winter campaigns from 2006/7-2012/13. Results show a clear peak in the frequency of sprite detections, with maximum values (< 40% of events) between 00:30-02:15 LST (22:30-00:15 UT; LST=UT+2). The detection times of sprites are well-correlated with a relative increase in the fraction of +CG strokes, which exhibit maxima between 00:00-02:00 LST. The morphological distribution of 339 sprites, that we were able to clearly identify, is dominated by column sprites (49.3%), with angels (33.0%) and carrots (25.7%) being less frequent. This is similar to reports of winter sprites over the Sea of Japan and summer ones in central Europe. Other shapes such as trees, wishbones, etc. appear quite rarely. Single element events constitute 16.5% of observations, with 83.5% containing 2 elements or more. Clusters of homogeneous types are slightly more frequent than mixed ones (55%). Our observations suggest winter East Mediterranean thunderstorms to have a vertical structure that is an intermediate type between high tropical convective systems and the lower cloud-top cells in winter thunderstorms over the Sea of Japan. The climatology shows that the Eastern Mediterranean is a major sprite producer during Northern Hemisphere winter, and thus the existing and future optical observation infrastructure in Israel offers ground-based coverage for upcoming space missions that aim to map global sprite activity.

  6. Mediterranean Jellyfish Venoms: A Review on Scyphomedusae

    PubMed Central

    Mariottini, Gian Luigi; Pane, Luigi

    2010-01-01

    The production of natural toxins is an interesting aspect, which characterizes the physiology and the ecology of a number of marine species that use them for defence/offence purposes. Cnidarians are of particular concern from this point of view; their venoms are contained in specialized structures–the nematocysts–which, after mechanical or chemical stimulation, inject the venom in the prey or in the attacker. Cnidarian stinging is a serious health problem for humans in the zones where extremely venomous jellyfish or anemones are common, such as in temperate and tropical oceanic waters and particularly along several Pacific coasts, and severe cases of envenomation, including also lethal cases mainly induced by cubomedusae, were reported. On the contrary, in the Mediterranean region the problem of jellyfish stings is quite modest, even though they can have anyhow an impact on public health and be of importance from the ecological and economic point of view owing to the implications on ecosystems and on some human activities such as tourism, bathing and fishing. This paper reviews the knowledge about the various aspects related to the occurrence and the stinging of the Mediterranean scyphozoan jellyfish as well as the activity of their venoms. PMID:20479971

  7. Tsunami Catalogues for the Eastern Mediterranean - Revisited.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ambraseys, N.; Synolakis, C. E.

    2008-12-01

    We critically examine examine tsunami catalogues of tsunamis in the Eastern Mediterranean published in the last decade, by reference to the original sources, see Ambraseys (2008). Such catalogues have been widely used in the aftermath of the 2004 Boxing Day tsunami for probabilistic hazard analysis, even to make projections for a ten year time frame. On occasion, such predictions have caused panic and have reduced the credibility of the scientific community in making hazard assessments. We correct classification and other spurious errors in earlier catalogues and posit a new list. We conclude that for some historic events, any assignment of magnitude, even on a six point intensity scale is inappropriate due to lack of information. Further we assert that any tsunami catalogue, including ours, can only be used in conjunction with sedimentologic evidence to quantitatively infer the return period of larger events. Statistical analyses correlating numbers of tsunami events derived solely from catalogues with their inferred or imagined intensities are meaningless, at least when focusing on specific locales where only a handful of tsunamis are known to have been historically reported. Quantitative hazard assessments based on scenario events of historic tsunamis for which -at best- only the size and approximate location of the parent earthquake is known should be undertaken with extreme caution and only with benefit of geologic studies to enhance the understanding of the local tectonics. Ambraseys N. (2008) Earthquakes in the Eastern Mediterranean and the Middle East: multidisciplinary study of 2000 years of seimicity, Cambridge Univ. Press, Cambridge (ISBN 9780521872928).

  8. Tracking rainfall in the northern Mediterranean borderlands during sapropel deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toucanne, Samuel; Angue Minto'o, Charlie Morelle; Fontanier, Christophe; Bassetti, Maria-Angela; Jorry, Stephan J.; Jouet, Gwenaël

    2015-12-01

    The role of mid-latitude precipitation in the hydrological forcing leading to the deposition of sapropels in the Mediterranean Sea remains unclear. The new GDEC-4-2 borehole, East Corsica margin (northern Tyrrhenian Sea), provides the first precisely dated evidence for enhanced rainfall in the Western Mediterranean during warm intervals of interglacial periods over the last 547 kyr. Comparison of GDEC-4-2 proxy records with pollen sequences and speleothems from the central and eastern Mediterranean reveals that these pluvial events were regional in character and occurred probably in response to the intensification of the Mediterranean storm track along the northern Mediterranean borderlands in autumn/winter. Our dataset suggests that the timing of maxima of the Mediterranean autumn/winter storm track precipitation coincide with that of the North African summer monsoon and sapropel deposition. Besides highlighting a close coupling between mid- and low-latitude hydrological changes, our findings suggest that during warm intervals of interglacial periods the reduced sea-surface water salinities, together with the high flux of nutrient and organic matter, produced by the monsoonal Nile (and wadi-systems) floods, were maintained throughout the winter by the Mediterranean rainfall. This provides an important additional constraint on the hydrological perturbation causing sapropel formation.

  9. Effectiveness of the Mediterranean diet in the elderly

    PubMed Central

    Roman, Blanca; Carta, Laura; Ángel, Miguel; Martínez-González; Serra-Majem, Lluís

    2008-01-01

    The Mediterranean diet is known to be one of the healthiest dietary patterns in the world due to its relation with a low morbidity and mortality for some chronic diseases. The purpose of this study was to review literature regarding the relationship between Mediterranean diet and healthy aging. A MEDLINE search was conducted looking for literature regarding the relationship between Mediterranean diet and cardiovascular disease (or risk factors for cardiovascular disease), cancer, mental health and longevity and quality of life in the elderly population (65 years or older). A selection of 36 articles met the criteria of selection. Twenty of the studies were about Mediterranean diets and cardiovascular disease, 2 about Mediterranean diets and cancer, 3 about Mediterranean diets and mental health and 11 about longevity (overall survival) or mental health. The results showed that Mediterranean diets had benefits on risks factors for cardiovascular disease such as lipoprotein levels, endothelium vasodilatation, insulin resistance, the prevalence of the metabolic syndrome, antioxidant capacity, the incidence of acute myocardial infarction, and cardiovascular mortality. Some positive associations with quality of life and inverse associations with the risk of certain cancers and with overall mortality were also reported. PMID:18494169

  10. Late Tertiary paleogeographic and tectonic evolution of the Mediterranean area

    SciTech Connect

    Arnott, R.J.; Haan, E.A.

    1988-08-01

    The present geography of the Mediterranean Sea is the result of late Tertiary tectonic processes and hardly reflects its Mesozoic and early Tertiary evolution. This paper outlines a plate tectonics model for the Mediterranean area from the Oligocene to the Pliocene. Seismic and well data have been integrated into the regional structural framework to produce a set of paleogeographic maps, which includes the Oligocene, early and middle Miocene, late Miocene, and Pliocene. These maps highlight the changes in sedimentation patterns in response to the tectonic development of the Mediterranean area. Special attention will be given to the Messinian desiccation event.

  11. Diversity, distribution and population size structure of deep Mediterranean gorgonian assemblages (Menorca Channel, Western Mediterranean Sea)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grinyó, Jordi; Gori, Andrea; Ambroso, Stefano; Purroy, Ariadna; Calatayud, Clara; Dominguez-Carrió, Carlos; Coppari, Martina; Lo Iacono, Claudio; López-González, Pablo J.; Gili, Josep-Maria

    2016-06-01

    Gorgonians are a key group of organisms in benthic marine communities with a wide bathymetric and geographical distribution. Although their presence on continental shelves and slopes has been known for more than 100 years, knowledge concerning the ecology of deep gorgonian species is still in a very preliminary stage. To overcome this situation, gorgonian assemblages located at 40-360 m depth were studied over a large geographical area on the continental shelf and upper slope of the Menorca Channel (Western Mediterranean Sea). A quantitative analysis of video transects recorded by a manned submersible and a remotely operated vehicle, were used to examine the diversity, distribution and demography of gorgonian species. Results showed high gorgonian diversity within this depth range (a total of nine species were observed) compared to Mediterranean coastal areas. Gorgonian assemblages on the continental shelf and upper slope were mostly monospecific (respectively 73% and 76% of occupied sampling units contained one single species), whereas shelf edge assemblages were highly multispecific (92% of occupied sampling units contained several species). This contrasts with the monospecificity of Mediterranean coastal gorgonian assemblages. Gorgonian populations on the continental shelf were mostly dominated by small colonies (88% of measured colonies) with few intermediate and large colonies (12% of measured colonies). In deeper areas small colonies were still dominant (60% of measured colonies), but intermediate and large colonies were much more abundant (40% of measured colonies). This suggests high recruitment rates on the continental shelf, but perturbations (trammel nets, long lines and strong storms) may limit the presence of intermediate and large colonies. Conversely, on the shelf edge and upper slope a more stable environment may allow colonies to reach larger dimensions. The identification and ecological characterization of these deep assemblages further extends

  12. Longitudinal variability of the biogeochemical role of Mediterranean aerosols in the Mediterranean Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ternon, E.; Guieu, C.; Ridame, C.; L'Helguen, S.; Catala, P.

    2010-11-01

    The Mediterranean Sea is a semi-enclosed basin characterized by a strong thermal stratification during summer during which the atmosphere is the main source of new nutrients to the nutrient-depleted surface layer. From aerosol sampling and microcosm experiments performed during the TransMed BOUM cruise (June-July 2008) we showed that: (i) the Mediterranean atmosphere composition (Al, Fe, P) was homogeneous over ~28° of longitude and was a mixture with a constant proportion of anthropogenic contribution and a variable but modest contribution of crustal aerosols. This quite stable composition over a one month period and a long transect (~2500 km) allowed to define the Mediterranean atmospheric "background" that characterizes the summer season in the absence of major Saharan event and forest fires, (ii) primary production significantly increased at all tested stations after aerosols addition collected on-board and after Saharan dust analog addition, indicating that both additions relieved on-going (co)-limitations. Although both additions significantly increased the N2 fixation rates at the western station, diazotrophic activity remained very low (~0.2 nmol N L-1 d-1), (iii) due to the presence of anthropogenic particles, the probable higher solubility of nutrients associated with mixed aerosols (crustal + anthropogenic contribution), conferred a higher fertilizing potential to on-board collected aerosol as compared to Saharan dust analog. Finally, those experiments showed that atmospheric inputs from a mixed atmospheric event ("summer rain" type) or from a high-intensity Saharan event would induce comparable response by the biota in the stratified Mediterranean SML, during summer.

  13. Longitudinal variability of the biogeochemical role of Mediterranean aerosols in the Mediterranean Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ternon, E.; Guieu, C.; Ridame, C.; L'Helguen, S.; Catala, P.

    2011-05-01

    The Mediterranean Sea is a semi-enclosed basin characterized by a strong thermal stratification during summer during which the atmosphere is the main source of new nutrients to the nutrient-depleted surface layer. From aerosol sampling and microcosm experiments performed during the TransMed BOUM cruise (June-July 2008) we showed that: (i) the Mediterranean atmosphere composition (Al, Fe, P) was homogeneous over ~28° of longitude and was a mixture with a constant proportion of anthropogenic contribution and a variable but modest contribution of crustal aerosols. This quite stable composition over a one month period and a long transect (~2500 km) allowed to define the Mediterranean atmospheric "background" that characterizes the summer season in the absence of major Saharan event and forest fires, (ii) primary production significantly increased at all tested stations after aerosols addition collected on-board and after Saharan dust analog addition, indicating that both additions relieved on-going (co)-limitations. Although both additions significantly increased the N2 fixation rates at the western station, diazotrophic activity remained very low (~0.2 nmol N L-1 d-1), (iii) due to the presence of anthropogenic particles, the probable higher solubility of nutrients associated with mixed aerosols (crustal + anthropogenic contribution), conferred a higher fertilizing potential to on-board collected aerosol as compared to Saharan dust analog. Finally, those experiments showed that atmospheric inputs from a mixed atmospheric event ("summer rain" type) or from a high-intensity Saharan event would induce comparable response by the biota in the stratified Mediterranean SML, during summer.

  14. The Mediterranean Forecasting System: recent developments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tonani, Marina; Oddo, Paolo; Korres, Gerasimos; Clementi, Emanuela; Dobricic, Srdjan; Drudi, Massimiliano; Pistoia, Jenny; Guarnieri, Antonio; Romaniello, Vito; Girardi, Giacomo; Grandi, Alessandro; Bonaduce, Antonio; Pinardi, Nadia

    2014-05-01

    Recent developments of the Mediterranean Monitoring and Forecasting Centre of the EU-Copernicus marine service, the Mediterranean Forecasting System (MFS), are presented. MFS provides forecast, analysis and reanalysis for the physical and biogeochemical parameters of the Mediterranean Sea. The different components of the system are continuously updated in order to provide to the users the best available product. This work is focus on the physical component of the system. The physical core of MFS is composed by an ocean general circulation model (NEMO) coupled with a spectral wave model (Wave Watch-III). The NEMO model provides to WW-III surface currents and SST fields, while WW-III returns back to NEMO the neutral component of the surface drag coefficient. Satellite Sea Level Anomaly observations and in-situ T & S vertical profiles are assimilated into this system using a variational assimilation scheme based on 3DVAR (Dobricic, 2008) . Sensitive experiments have been performed in order to assess the impact of the assimilation of the latest available SLA missions, Altika and Cryosat together with the long term available mission of Jason2. The results show a significant improvement of the MFS skill due to the multi-mission along track assimilation. The primitive equations module has been recently upgraded with the introduction of the atmospheric pressure term and a new, explicit, numerical scheme has been adopted to solve the barotropic component of the equations of motion. The SLA satellite observations for data assimilation have been consequently modified in order to account for the new atmospheric pressure term introduced in the equations. This new system has been evaluated using tide gauge coastal buoys and the satellite along track data. The quality of the SSH has improved significantly while a minor impact has been observed on the other state variables (temperature, salinity and currents). Experiments with a higher resolution NWP (numerical weather prediction

  15. The mechanism of water diffusion in narrow carbon nanotubes.

    PubMed

    Striolo, Alberto

    2006-04-01

    Carbon nanotubes show exceptional physical properties that render them promising candidates as building blocks for nanostructured materials. Many ambitious applications, ranging from gene therapy to membrane separations, require the delivery of fluids, in particular aqueous solutions, through the interior of carbon nanotubes. To foster these and other applications, it is necessary to understand the thermodynamic and transport properties of water confined within long narrow carbon nanotubes. Previous theoretical work considered either short carbon nanotubes or short periods of time. By conducting molecular dynamics simulations in the microcanonical ensemble for water confined in infinitely long carbon nanotubes of diameter 1.08 nm, we show here that confined water molecules diffuse through a fast ballistic motion mechanism for up to 500 ps at room temperature. By comparing the results obtained for the diffusion of water to those obtained for the diffusion of a reference Lennard-Jones fluid, we prove here that long-lasting hydrogen bonds are responsible for the ballistic diffusion of water clusters in narrow carbon nanotubes, as opposed to spatial mismatches between pore-fluid and fluid-fluid attractive interactions which, as shown previously by others, are responsible for the concerted motion of simple fluids in molecular sieves. Additionally we prove here for the first time that, despite the narrow diameter of the carbon nanotubes considered which may suggest the existence of single-file diffusion, when the trajectories of confined water are studied at time scales in excess of 500 ps, a Fickian-type diffusion mechanism prevails. Our results are important for designing nano fluidic apparatuses to develop, for example, novel drug-delivery devices. PMID:16608257

  16. Perceptual training narrows the temporal window of multisensory binding

    PubMed Central

    Powers, Albert R.; Hillock, Andrea R.; Wallace, Mark T.

    2009-01-01

    The brain’s ability to bind incoming auditory and visual stimuli depends critically on the temporal structure of this information. Specifically, there exists a temporal window of audiovisual integration within which stimuli are highly likely to be bound together and perceived as part of the same environmental event. Several studies have described the temporal bounds of this window, but few have investigated its malleability. Here, the plasticity in the size of this temporal window was investigated using a perceptual learning paradigm in which participants were given feedback during a two-alternative forced-choice (2-AFC) audiovisual simultaneity judgment task. Training resulted in a marked (i.e., approximately 40%) narrowing in the size of the window. To rule out the possibility that this narrowing was the result of changes in cognitive biases, a second experiment employing a two-interval forced choice (2-IFC) paradigm was undertaken during which participants were instructed to identify a simultaneously-presented audiovisual pair presented within one of two intervals. The 2-IFC paradigm resulted in a narrowing that was similar in both degree and dynamics to that using the 2-AFC approach. Together, these results illustrate that different methods of multisensory perceptual training can result in substantial alterations in the circuits underlying the perception of audiovisual simultaneity. These findings suggest a high degree of flexibility in multisensory temporal processing and have important implications for interventional strategies that may be used to ameliorate clinical conditions (e.g., autism, dyslexia) in which multisensory temporal function may be impaired. PMID:19793985

  17. Theta brain rhythms index perceptual narrowing in infant speech perception

    PubMed Central

    Bosseler, Alexis N.; Taulu, Samu; Pihko, Elina; Mäkelä, Jyrki P.; Imada, Toshiaki; Ahonen, Antti; Kuhl, Patricia K.

    2013-01-01

    The development of speech perception shows a dramatic transition between infancy and adulthood. Between 6 and 12 months, infants' initial ability to discriminate all phonetic units across the world's languages narrows—native discrimination increases while non-native discrimination shows a steep decline. We used magnetoencephalography (MEG) to examine whether brain oscillations in the theta band (4–8 Hz), reflecting increases in attention and cognitive effort, would provide a neural measure of the perceptual narrowing phenomenon in speech. Using an oddball paradigm, we varied speech stimuli in two dimensions, stimulus frequency (frequent vs. infrequent) and language (native vs. non-native speech syllables) and tested 6-month-old infants, 12-month-old infants, and adults. We hypothesized that 6-month-old infants would show increased relative theta power (RTP) for frequent syllables, regardless of their status as native or non-native syllables, reflecting young infants' attention and cognitive effort in response to highly frequent stimuli (“statistical learning”). In adults, we hypothesized increased RTP for non-native stimuli, regardless of their presentation frequency, reflecting increased cognitive effort for non-native phonetic categories. The 12-month-old infants were expected to show a pattern in transition, but one more similar to adults than to 6-month-old infants. The MEG brain rhythm results supported these hypotheses. We suggest that perceptual narrowing in speech perception is governed by an implicit learning process. This learning process involves an implicit shift in attention from frequent events (infants) to learned categories (adults). Theta brain oscillatory activity may provide an index of perceptual narrowing beyond speech, and would offer a test of whether the early speech learning process is governed by domain-general or domain-specific processes. PMID:24130536

  18. Nanoslit-microcavity-based narrow band absorber for sensing applications.

    PubMed

    Lu, Xiaoyuan; Zhang, Lingxuan; Zhang, Tongyi

    2015-08-10

    We propose an ultranarrow bandwidth perfect infrared absorber consisting of a metal periodic structured surface with nanoslits, a spacer dielectric, and a metal back plate. Its bandwidth and aborption are respectively about 8 nm and 95%. The thickness of the nanobars and the spacer, and the width of the nanoslits are primary factors determining the absorption performance. This structure not only has narrow bandwidth but also can obtain the giant electric field enhancement in the tiny volume of the nanoslits. Operated as a refractive index sensor, this structure has figure of merit as high as 25. It has potential in biomedical and sensing applications. PMID:26367923

  19. An Injection-seeded Narrow Linewidth Singly Resonant ZGP OPO

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yu, Jirong; Barnes, Norman P.; Lee, Hyung R.; Bai, Yingxin

    2006-01-01

    Injection seeding of a singly resonant ZnGeP2 (ZGP) mid-infrared optical parametric oscillator (OPO) using a continuous wave 3.39 micrometers laser and a tunable near-infrared laser has been demonstrated. This ZGP OPO utilizes a bow-tie shape cavity with a partially reflective mirror for injection seeding at the signal wavelength. It produces high energy pulses in the mid-IR range from 4-10 micrometers. The injection seeded OPO provides a narrow idler wavelength linewidth of approximately 1 nm, limited by the measurement resolution of the monochromator.

  20. A simulation of the Tacoma narrows bridge oscillations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Slogoff, Harriet; Berner, Bill

    2000-10-01

    The famous collapse of the Tacoma Narrows Bridge in November of 1940 has been a topic of lively discussion ever since. The reasons for the collapse are complex, and in the past it has been treated as a case of destructive resonance and more recently as a case of aerodynamic self-excitation. We have developed a very simple real-time demonstration using a box supported with rubber bands and a fan that clearly shows how large oscillations can be generated in an unstable object with a simple air source.

  1. The Meteorology of Storms that Produce Narrow Bipolar Events

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lang, Timothy; McCaul, Bill; Fuchs, Brody; Cummer, Steve

    2013-01-01

    Narrow Bipolar Event's (NBE) are compact (< 2 km), powerful (> 10 kW in VHF), and impulsive (approx 10 micro s) electrical discharges in thunderstorms, also known as compact intracloud discharges (CIDs). Can be either positive or negative polarity and have distinctive broadband waveform signatures sometimes confused for +CGs in the past by NLDN and other networks. NBEs are related to lightning but are likely optically "dark". As revealed by VHF sensors (both satellite and ground): (1) The most powerful lightning-­-related VHF sources observed (2) Tend to occur at the beginning of intracloud discharges (3) Difficult to estimate altitude properly due to receiver saturation.

  2. Masas de agujeros negros en Narrow Line Seyfert 1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmidt, E.; Ferreiro, D.; Oio, G.; Vega, L.; Donoso, L.

    We describe two of the ways to estimate black hole masses in AGN, and then we estimate the black hole masses of 13 Narrow Line Seyfert 1 galaxies with the two methods: virial masses, using the correlation found by Greene & Ho (2005, ApJ, 630, 122); and the correlation found by Tremaine et al. (2002, ApJ, 574, 740). For this work we analyzed the optical spectroscopy data we obtained from CASLEO (San Juan). We compare the results obtained through both methods. FULL TEXT IN SPANISH

  3. Evidence for a narrow anti-charmed baryon state

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aktas, A.; Andreev, V.; Anthonis, T.; Asmone, A.; Babaev, A.; Backovic, S.; Bähr, J.; Baranov, P.; Barrelet, E.; Bartel, W.; Baumgartner, S.; Becker, J.; Beckingham, M.; Behnke, O.; Behrendt, O.; Belousov, A.; Berger, Ch.; Berger, N.; Berndt, T.; Bizot, J. C.; Böhme, J.; Boenig, M.-O.; Boudry, V.; Bracinik, J.; Brisson, V.; Bröker, H.-B.; Brown, D. P.; Bruncko, D.; Büsser, F. W.; Bunyatyan, A.; Buschhorn, G.; Bystritskaya, L.; Campbell, A. J.; Caron, S.; Cassol-Brunner, F.; Cerny, K.; Chekelian, V.; Collard, C.; Contreras, J. G.; Coppens, Y. R.; Coughlan, J. A.; Cox, B. E.; Cozzika, G.; Cvach, J.; Dainton, J. B.; Dau, W. D.; Daum, K.; Delcourt, B.; Demirchyan, R.; De Roeck, A.; Desch, K.; De Wolf, E. A.; Diaconu, C.; Dingfelder, J.; Dodonov, V.; Dubak, A.; Duprel, C.; Eckerlin, G.; Efremenko, V.; Egli, S.; Eichler, R.; Eisele, F.; Ellerbrock, M.; Elsen, E.; Erdmann, M.; Erdmann, W.; Faulkner, P. J. W.; Favart, L.; Fedotov, A.; Felst, R.; Ferencei, J.; Fleischer, M.; Fleischmann, P.; Fleming, Y. H.; Flucke, G.; Flügge, G.; Fomenko, A.; Foresti, I.; Formánek, J.; Franke, G.; Frising, G.; Gabathuler, E.; Gabathuler, K.; Garutti, E.; Garvey, J.; Gayler, J.; Gerhards, R.; Gerlich, C.; Ghazaryan, S.; Glazov, A.; Goerlich, L.; Gogitidze, N.; Gorbounov, S.; Grab, C.; Grässler, H.; Greenshaw, T.; Gregori, M.; Grindhammer, G.; Gwilliam, C.; Haidt, D.; Hajduk, L.; Haller, J.; Hansson, M.; Heinzelmann, G.; Henderson, R. C. W.; Henschel, H.; Henshaw, O.; Heremans, R.; Herrera, G.; Herynek, I.; Heuer, R.-D.; Hildebrandt, M.; Hiller, K. H.; Höting, P.; Hoffmann, D.; Horisberger, R.; Hovhannisyan, A.; Ibbotson, M.; Ismail, M.; Jacquet, M.; Janauschek, L.; Janssen, X.; Jemanov, V.; Jönsson, L.; Johnson, D. P.; Jung, H.; Kant, D.; Kapichine, M.; Karlsson, M.; Katzy, J.; Keller, N.; Kennedy, J.; Kenyon, I. R.; Kiesling, C.; Klein, M.; Kleinwort, C.; Klimkovich, T.; Kluge, T.; Knies, G.; Knutsson, A.; Koblitz, B.; Korbel, V.; Kostka, P.; Koutouev, R.; Kropivnitskaya, A.; Kroseberg, J.; Kückens, J.; Kuhr, T.; Landon, M. P. J.; Lange, W.; Laštovička, T.; Laycock, P.; Lebedev, A.; Leißner, B.; Lemrani, R.; Lendermann, V.; Levonian, S.; Lindfeld, L.; Lipka, K.; List, B.; Lobodzinska, E.; Loktionova, N.; Lopez-Fernandez, R.; Lubimov, V.; Lueders, H.; Lüke, D.; Lux, T.; Lytkin, L.; Makankine, A.; Malden, N.; Malinovski, E.; Mangano, S.; Marage, P.; Marks, J.; Marshall, R.; Martisikova, M.; Martyn, H.-U.; Maxfield, S. J.; Meer, D.; Mehta, A.; Meier, K.; Meyer, A. B.; Meyer, H.; Meyer, J.; Michine, S.; Mikocki, S.; Milcewicz, I.; Milstead, D.; Mohamed, A.; Moreau, F.; Morozov, A.; Morozov, I.; Morris, J. V.; Mozer, M. U.; Müller, K.; Murín, P.; Nagovizin, V.; Naroska, B.; Naumann, J.; Naumann, Th.; Newman, P. R.; Niebuhr, C.; Nikiforov, A.; Nikitin, D.; Nowak, G.; Nozicka, M.; Oganezov, R.; Olivier, B.; Olsson, J. E.; Ossoskov, G.; Ozerov, D.; Pascaud, C.; Patel, G. D.; Peez, M.; Perez, E.; Perieanu, A.; Petrukhin, A.; Pitzl, D.; Plačakyt≐, R.; Pöschl, R.; Portheault, B.; Povh, B.; Raicevic, N.; Ratiani, Z.; Reimer, P.; Reisert, B.; Rimmer, A.; Risler, C.; Rizvi, E.; Robmann, P.; Roland, B.; Roosen, R.; Rostovtsev, A.; Rurikova, Z.; Rusakov, S.; Rybicki, K.; Sankey, D. P. C.; Sauvan, E.; Schätzel, S.; Scheins, J.; Schilling, F.-P.; Schleper, P.; Schmidt, S.; Schmitt, S.; Schneider, M.; Schoeffel, L.; Schöning, A.; Schröder, V.; Schultz-Coulon, H.-C.; Schwanenberger, C.; Sedlák, K.; Sefkow, F.; Sheviakov, I.; Shtarkov, L. N.; Sirois, Y.; Sloan, T.; Smirnov, P.; Soloviev, Y.; South, D.; Spaskov, V.; Specka, A.; Spitzer, H.; Stamen, R.; Stella, B.; Stiewe, J.; Strauch, I.; Straumann, U.; Tchoulakov, V.; Thompson, G.; Thompson, P. D.; Tomasz, F.; Traynor, D.; Truöl, P.; Tsipolitis, G.; Tsurin, I.; Turnau, J.; Tzamariudaki, E.; Uraev, A.; Urban, M.; Usik, A.; Utkin, D.; Valkár, S.; Valkárová, A.; Vallée, C.; Van Mechelen, P.; Van Remortel, N.; Vargas Trevino, A.; Vazdik, Y.; Veelken, C.; Vest, A.; Vinokurova, S.; Volchinski, V.; Wacker, K.; Wagner, J.; Weber, G.; Weber, R.; Wegener, D.; Werner, C.; Werner, N.; Wessels, M.; Wessling, B.; Winter, G.-G.; Wissing, Ch.; Woehrling, E.-E.; Wolf, R.; Wünsch, E.; Xella, S.; Yan, W.; Yeganov, V.; Žáček, J.; Zálešák, J.; Zhang, Z.; Zhokin, A.; Zohrabyan, H.; Zomer, F.; H1 Collaboration

    2004-05-01

    A narrow resonance in D∗ -p and D∗ +p¯ invariant mass combinations is observed in inelastic electron-proton collisions at centre-of-mass energies of 300 GeV and 320 GeV at HERA. The resonance has a mass of 3099±3(stat.)±5(syst.) MeV and a measured Gaussian width of 12±3(stat.) MeV, compatible with the experimental resolution. The resonance is interpreted as an anti-charmed baryon with a minimal constituent quark composition of uuddc¯, together with the charge conjugate.

  4. Distribution of narrow-width magnetic anomalies in Antarctica

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Behrendt, John C.

    1964-01-01

    Data for aeromagnetic profiles obtained in Antarctica during the 1963-64 austral summer were used together with earlier results to construct a map showing the areal distribution of narrow-width magnetic anomalies. Numerous anomalies are associated with known volcanic mountains in western Antarctica. A large area of few anomalies is probably a result of an extension of the thick metasedimentary section observed in the Ellsworth Mountains. Portions of the Trans-Antarctic Mountains have associated anomalies which are probably caused by late Cenozoic volcanic rocks.

  5. Radiative recombination of hot carriers in narrow-gap semiconductors

    SciTech Connect

    Pavlov, N. V.; Zegrya, G. G.

    2012-01-15

    The mechanism of the radiative recombination of hot carriers in narrow-gap semiconductors is analyzed using the example of indium antimonide. It is shown that the CHCC Auger recombination process may lead to pronounced carrier heating at high excitation levels. The distribution functions and concentrations of hot carriers are determined. The radiative recombination rate of hot carriers and the radiation gain coefficient are calculated in terms of the Kane model. It is demonstrated that the radiative recombination of hot carriers will make a substantial contribution to the total radiative recombination rate at high carrier concentrations.

  6. Narrow-band tunable alexandrite laser with passive Q switching

    SciTech Connect

    Tyryshkin, I S; Ivanov, N A; Khulugurov, V M

    1998-06-30

    An alexandrite laser with a self-injection of narrow-band radiation into its cavity was developed. A Fabry - Perot interferometer and a diffraction grating were used as dispersive components in an additional cavity. The cavity was switched by an LiF crystal with F{sub 3}{sup -} colour centres. The laser generated a single pulse of {approx} 180 ns duration and of 1.5 mJ energy, and with a spectrum 5 x 10{sup -3} cm{sup -1} wide. The laser emitted in the spectral range 720 - 780 nm. (lasers, active media)

  7. Coupling Through Tortuous Path Narrow Slot Apertures into Complex Cavitivies

    SciTech Connect

    Jedlicka, Russell P.; Castillo, Steven P.; Warne, Larry K.

    1999-07-26

    A hybrid FEM/MoM model has been implemented to compute the coupling of fields into a cavity through narrow slot apertures having depth. The model utilizes the slot model of Warne and Chen [23]-[29] which takes into account the depth of the slot, wall losses, and inhomogeneous dielectrics in the slot region. The cavity interior is modeled with the mixed-order, covariant-projection hexahedral elements of Crowley [32]. Results are given showing the accuracy and generality of the method for modeling geometrically complex slot-cavity combinations.

  8. Refraction of narrow probing light beam in multilayer optical fiber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mirovitskaya, S. D.; Kudryavtsev, D. L.

    1984-11-01

    For an experimental design and performance evaluation of optical fibers, it is necessary to establish an analytical relation between the refraction angle of a probing light beam and the geometrical parameters of the fiber. Here the problem is solved by application of Snell's law for a narrow light beam, first to a double-layer fiber consisting of a gradient core inside a homogeneous sheath and then to a triple-layer fiber consisting of a gradient core inside a double-layer sheath.

  9. Fast IMRT with narrow high energy scanned photon beams

    SciTech Connect

    Andreassen, Bjoern; Straaring t, Sara Janek; Holmberg, Rickard; Naefstadius, Peder; Brahme, Anders

    2011-08-15

    Purpose: Since the first publications on intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) in the early 1980s almost all efforts have been focused on fairly time consuming dynamic or segmental multileaf collimation. With narrow fast scanned photon beams, the flexibility and accuracy in beam shaping increases, not least in combination with fast penumbra trimming multileaf collimators. Previously, experiments have been performed with full range targets, generating a broad bremsstrahlung beam, in combination with multileaf collimators or material compensators. In the present publication, the first measurements with fast narrow high energy (50 MV) scanned photon beams are presented indicating an interesting performance increase even though some of the hardware used were suboptimal. Methods: Inverse therapy planning was used to calculate optimal scanning patterns to generate dose distributions with interesting properties for fast IMRT. To fully utilize the dose distributional advantages with scanned beams, it is necessary to use narrow high energy beams from a thin bremsstrahlung target and a powerful purging magnet capable of deflecting the transmitted electron beam away from the generated photons onto a dedicated electron collector. During the present measurements the scanning system, purging magnet, and electron collimator in the treatment head of the MM50 racetrack accelerator was used with 3-6 mm thick bremsstrahlung targets of beryllium. The dose distributions were measured with diodes in water and with EDR2 film in PMMA. Monte Carlo simulations with geant4 were used to study the influence of the electrons transmitted through the target on the photon pencil beam kernel. Results: The full width at half-maximum (FWHM) of the scanned photon beam was 34 mm measured at isocenter, below 9.5 cm of water, 1 m from the 3 mm Be bremsstrahlung target. To generate a homogeneous dose distribution in a 10 x 10 cm{sup 2} field, the authors used a spot matrix of 100 equal intensity

  10. Fatigue failure of materials under narrow band random vibrations. I.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huang, T. C.; Hubbard, R. B.; Lanz, R. W.

    1971-01-01

    A novel approach for the study of fatigue failure of materials under the multifactor influence of narrow band random vibrations is developed. The approach involves the conduction of an experiment in conjunction with various statistical techniques. Three factors including two statistical properties of the excitation or response are considered and varied simultaneously. A minimum of 6 tests for 3 variables is possible for a fractional f actorial design. The four coefficients of the predicting equation can be independently estimated. A look at 3 predicting equations shows the predominant effect of the root mean square stress of the first order equation.

  11. Million-line failure distributions for narrow interconnects

    SciTech Connect

    Bartelt, M.C.; Hoyt, J.J.; Bartelt, N.C.; Dike, J.J.; Wolfer, W.G.

    1997-12-01

    The authors examine the distribution of failure times in a simple and computationally efficient, yet reasonably authentic, model of interconnect reliability that allows consideration of statistically significant samples. The model includes an approximate description of the distribution of grain sizes and texture in narrow interconnects, an effective treatment of stress evolution associated with mass transport along grain boundaries, and local relaxation of stresses due to void formation. Failure time distributions for populations of idealized structures are analyzed to aid in interpretation of model behavior.

  12. Synthesis of supported metal oxide nanoparticles with narrow size distribution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salem, Diana; Smolyakov, Georgiy; Schosseler, François; Petit, Pierre

    2012-06-01

    We report a versatile synthetic route allowing the formation of transition metal oxide nanoparticles supported on solid surfaces. Basically, the method lies on the complexation of metal cations with both anionic surfactant and hydroxilated surfaces, which results in the formation of small aggregates onto the surface. At thermodynamical equilibrium, the resulting balance between the loss of entropy due to the aggregation and the gain in enthalpy due to hydrophobic interactions between the alkyl chains of the surfactant governs the size of these aggregates. After calcination in air, metal oxide nanoparticles with very narrow size distribution are obtained.

  13. Variability Studies of Narrow Line Seyfert 1 Galaxy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marshall, Hermann

    1994-01-01

    I supported the data reduction and analysis. We found that the source was not as variable as other soft AGN such as the narrow line Sy 1 galaxies (NLSls). The NLSls vary on time scales of days, while the ROSAT data for this target was fairly constant over a week at a time. Thus, it was very important to have a light curve that spanned 60 days as was the case for these ROSAT observations because the power spectral distribution can be established to very low frequencies that are rarely measured.

  14. Moisture sources in the Mediterranean basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mar Gómez Hernández, M.; Hernández Martín, Emiliano; Queralt, Sara; Casanova, Carlos

    2010-05-01

    Water is the main element for life development on Earth and it is essential on the climatic system due to its absorption spectrum on long and short longwaves. One of the statements obtained from the analysis of climate change is about the global atmosphere circulation and its changes on the future. This is consequence of climate change on the atmosphere dynamics. Nowadays, the knowledge of moisture sources in any region is a very important issue, owing to the fact that it is strongly influenced by the following contributions: a)Moisture sources in the own region b)Moisture sources attributed to evapotranspiration processes from the same surface c)Moisture advection from different regions The most important purpose of this study is to determinate and assess the moisture sources involved in the Mediterranean basin using lagrangian tools as Flexpart model.

  15. Ischemic heart disease and the Mediterranean diet.

    PubMed

    Whayne, Thomas F

    2014-01-01

    Lifestyle modification is primary in cardiovascular (CV) disease prevention. A major contribution is the Mediterranean diet (MedDiet), defined by two of seven components. Italian investigators determined a significant decrease in peripheral arterial disease of 56 % for a high score. Multiple specific CV risk factors are also favorably modified by the MedDiet. This includes beneficial effect on inflammation, vascular endothelium, and insulin resistance. There is also evidence that coronary heart disease, diabetes mellitus, and metabolic syndrome are decreased. Benefit appears to extend to new migrants in France. The economics of dietary adherence are favorable with decreased total lifetime health costs. Although mixed nuts appear to be a major factor in the MedDiet, special emphasis goes to extra virgin olive oil. Benefit also extends to other noncommunicable diseases with a decrease in cancer, Parkinson's disease, and Alzheimer's disease. Further quantitation of benefit and understanding of mechanisms involved in dietary benefit is essential. PMID:24743900

  16. Intercomparison of six Mediterranean zooplankton time series

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berline, Léo; Siokou-Frangou, Ioanna; Marasović, Ivona; Vidjak, Olja; Fernández de Puelles, M.a. Luz; Mazzocchi, Maria Grazia; Assimakopoulou, Georgia; Zervoudaki, Soultana; Fonda-Umani, Serena; Conversi, Alessandra; Garcia-Comas, Carmen; Ibanez, Frédéric; Gasparini, Stéphane; Stemmann, Lars; Gorsky, Gabriel

    2012-05-01

    We analyzed and compared Mediterranean mesozooplankton time series spanning 1957-2006 from six coastal stations in the Balearic, Ligurian, Tyrrhenian, North and Middle Adriatic and Aegean Sea. Our analysis focused on fluctuations of major zooplankton taxonomic groups and their relation with environmental and climatic variability. Average seasonal cycles and interannual trends were derived. Stations spanned a large range of trophic status from oligotrophic to moderately eutrophic. Intra-station analyses showed (1) coherent multi-taxa trends off Villefranche sur mer that diverge from the previous results found at species level, (2) in Baleares, covariation of zooplankton and water masses as a consequence of the boundary hydrographic regime in the middle Western Mediterranean, (3) decrease in trophic status and abundance of some taxonomic groups off Naples, and (4) off Athens, an increase of zooplankton abundance and decrease in chlorophyll possibly caused by reduction of anthropogenic nutrient input, increase of microbial components, and more efficient grazing control on phytoplankton. (5) At basin scale, the analysis of temperature revealed significant positive correlations between Villefranche, Trieste and Naples for annual and/or winter average, and synchronous abrupt cooling and warming events centered in 1987 at the same three sites. After correction for multiple comparisons, we found no significant correlations between climate indices and local temperature or zooplankton abundance, nor between stations for zooplankton abundance, therefore we suggest that for these coastal stations local drivers (climatic, anthropogenic) are dominant and that the link between local and larger scale of climate should be investigated further if we are to understand zooplankton fluctuations.

  17. Healthy Fats in Mediterranean Diet Won't Boost Weight

    MedlinePlus

    ... Fats in Mediterranean Diet Won't Boost Weight Vegetable oils, nuts can be a part of a healthful ... health benefits and includes healthy fats, such as vegetable oils, fish and nuts," Estruch explained in a journal ...

  18. Toward homogenization of Mediterranean lagoons and their loss of hydrodiversity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferrarin, Christian; Bajo, Marco; Bellafiore, Debora; Cucco, Andrea; De Pascalis, Francesca; Ghezzo, Michol; Umgiesser, Georg

    2014-08-01

    Lagoons are considered to be the most valuable systems of the Mediterranean coastal area, with crucial ecological, historical, economical, and social relevance. Climate change strongly affects coastal areas and can deeply change the status of transitional areas like lagoons. Herein we investigate the hydrological response of 10 Mediterranean lagoons to climate change by means of numerical models. Our results suggest that Mediterranean lagoons amplify the salinity and temperature changes expected for the open sea. Moreover, numerical simulations indicate that there will be a general loss of intralagoon and interlagoon variability of their physical properties. Therefore, as a result of climate change, we see on Mediterranean lagoons an example of a common process that in future may effect many coastal environments: that of homogenization of the physical characteristics with a tendency toward marinization.

  19. Sensitivity of Mediterranean groundwater resources to potential climate futures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hartmann, Andreas; Gleeson, Tom; Wagener, Thorsten

    2014-05-01

    A large fraction of the Mediterranean water supply originates from karst aquifers that evolved through the dissolution of carbonate rock. Climate simulations indicate that the Mediterranean will experience a strong increase in temperature and a significant decrease in precipitation within the next 100 years. To be prepared, policy-makers need quantitative and reliable estimates of potential changes to karst water resources. In this study we present the result of a very first attempt to quantify karst water resources over the whole Mediterranean region. Instead of considering groundwater volumes, we consider the flux of water into the aquifer, called groundwater recharge, as a useful indicator for groundwater sustainability. We developed a process-based karst recharge model that is driven by large-scale meteorological observations or downscaled climate scenarios. Using a new metric for quantifying the sensitivity of recharge to climatic changes (termed recharge elasticity) we can explore the sensitivity of Mediterranean karstic groundwater resources to future climatic boundary conditions.

  20. Cognitive health and Mediterranean diet: just diet or lifestyle pattern?

    PubMed

    Yannakoulia, Mary; Kontogianni, Meropi; Scarmeas, Nikolaos

    2015-03-01

    Mediterranean diet is a term used to describe the traditional eating habits of people in Crete, South Italy and other Mediterranean countries. It is a predominantly plant-based diet, with olive oil being the main type of added fat. There are many observational studies exploring the potential association between adherence to the Mediterranean diet and cognitive decline. The present review focuses on longitudinal studies with repeated cognitive assessments. It also evaluates evidence on behaviors related to the Mediterranean way of living, that have been shown to be associated with cognition, namely social interaction, participation in leisure activities, including physical activities, and sleep quality. The synergistic association-effect of these lifestyle behaviors, including diet, is unknown. Lifestyle patterns may constitute a new research and public health perspective. PMID:25461244

  1. The toxicology of Latrodectus tredecimguttatus: the Mediterranean Black Widow spider.

    PubMed

    Bonnet, M S

    2004-01-01

    The symptomatology of envenomation by the Mediterranean Black Widow Spider, Latrodectus tredecimguttatus, is reviewed. The results confirm the hypothesis that the homeopathic remedy, Tarentula hispanica, is derived from this spider, not from the Wolf spider, Lycosa tarentula. PMID:14960100

  2. Visceral Leishmaniasis and HIV Coinfection in the Mediterranean Region

    PubMed Central

    Monge-Maillo, Begoña; Norman, Francesca F.; Cruz, Israel; Alvar, Jorge; López-Vélez, Rogelio

    2014-01-01

    Visceral leishmaniasis is hypoendemic in Mediterranean countries, where it is caused by the flagellate protozoan Leishmania infantum. VL cases in this area account for 5%–6% of the global burden. Cases of Leishmania/HIV coinfection have been reported in the Mediterranean region, mainly in France, Italy, Portugal, and Spain. Since highly active antiretroviral therapy was introduced in 1997, a marked decrease in the number of coinfected cases in this region has been reported. The development of new diagnostic methods to accurately identify level of parasitemia and the risk of relapse is one of the main challenges in improving the treatment of coinfected patients. Clinical trials in the Mediterranean region are needed to determine the most adequate therapeutic options for Leishmania/HIV patients as well as the indications and regimes for secondary prophylaxis. This article reviews the epidemiological, diagnostic, clinical, and therapeutic aspects of Leishmania/HIV coinfection in the Mediterranean region. PMID:25144380

  3. The Mediterranean interannual variability in MEDRYS, a Mediterranean Sea reanalysis over 1992-2013

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beuvier, Jonathan; Hamon, Mathieu; Lellouche, Jean-Michel; Greiner, Eric; Alias, Antoinette; Arsouze, Thomas; Benkiran, Mounir; Béranger, Karine; Drillet, Yann; Sevault, Florence; Somot, Samuel

    2015-04-01

    The French research community on the Mediterranean Sea and the French operational ocean forecasting center Mercator Océan are gathering their skills and expertises in physical oceanography, ocean modelling, atmospheric forcings and data assimilation, to carry out a MEDiterranean Sea ReanalYsiS (MEDRYS) at high resolution for the period 1992-2013. The reanalysis is used to have a realistic description of the ocean state over the recent decades and it will help to understand the long-term water cycle over the Mediterranean basin in terms of variability and trends, contributing thus to the HyMeX international program. The ocean model used is NEMOMED12 [Lebeaupin Brossier et al., 2011, Oc. Mod., 2012, Oc. Mod.; Beuvier et al., 2012a, JGR, 2012b, Mercator Newsl.], a Mediterranean configuration of NEMO [Madec and the NEMO Team, 2008], with a 1/12° (about 7 km) horizontal resolution and 75 vertical z-levels with partial steps. It is forced by the 3-hourly atmospheric fluxes coming from an ALADIN-Climate simulation at 12 km of resolution [Herrmann et al., 2011, NHESS], driven by the ERA-Interim atmospheric reanalysis. The exchanges with the Atlantic Ocean are performed through a buffer zone, with a damping on 3D theta-S and on sea level towards the ORA-S4 oceanic reanalysis [Balmaseda et al., 2012, QJRMS]. This model configuration is used to carry a 34-year free simulation over the period 1979-2013. This free simulation is the initial state of the reanalysis in October 1992. It is also used to compute anomalies from which the data assimilation scheme derives required characteristic covariances of the ocean model. MEDRYS1 uses the current Mercator Océan operational data assimilation system [Lellouche et al., 2013, Oc.Sci.]. It uses a reduced order Kalman filter with a 3D multivariate modal decomposition of the forecast error. A 3D-Var scheme corrects biases in temperature and salinity for the slowly evolving large-scale. In addition, some modifications dedicated to the

  4. Superscattering-enhanced narrow band forward scattering antenna

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, De-Jiao; Zhang, Zhi-You; Du, Jing-Lei

    2015-10-01

    We present a narrow band forward scattering optical antenna which is based on the excitation of distinctive whispering gallery modes (WGMs). The antenna is composed of three coaxial cylinder layers: a dielectric layer is sandwiched between a metallic core and cladding. Owing to the destructive interference between the scattering of the outer metallic cladding and the WGM in the backward direction, the power flow in the forward direction is increased. Simulation and analysis show that in proper geometry conditions, the cavity can be tuned into a superscattering state. At this state, both the zeroth and the first order of WGM are excited and contribute to the total scattering. It is shown that the power ratio (power towards backward divided by power towards forward) can be enhanced to about 27 times larger than that for a non-resonant position by the superscattering. Owing to the confinement of the cladding to WGMs, the wavelength range of effective forward scattering is considerably narrow (about 15 nm). Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 61377054), the Collaborative Innovation Foundation of Sichuan University, China (Grant No. XTCX 2013002), and the International Cooperation and Exchange of Science and Technology Project in Sichuan Province, China (Grant No. 2013HH0010).

  5. Electronic characterization of defects in narrow gap semiconductors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Patterson, James D.

    1993-01-01

    The study of point defects in semiconductors has a long and honorable history. In particular, the detailed understanding of shallow defects in common semiconductors traces back to the classic work of Kohn and Luttinger. However, the study of defects in narrow gap semiconductors represents a much less clear story. Here, both shallow defects (caused by long range potentials) and deep defects (from short range potentials) are far from being completely understood. In this study, all results are calculational and our focus is on the chemical trend of deep levels in narrow gap semiconductors. We study substitutional (including antisite), interstitial and ideal vacancy defects. For substitutional and interstitial impurities, the efects of relaxation are included. For materials like Hg(1-x)Cd(x)Te, we study how the deep levels vary with x, of particular interest is what substitutional and interstitial atoms yield energy levels in the gap i.e. actually produce deep ionized levels. Also, since the main technique utilized is Green's functions, we include some summary of that method.

  6. Sub-kilohertz laser linewidth narrowing using polarization spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Torrance, Joshua S; Sparkes, Ben M; Turner, Lincoln D; Scholten, Robert E

    2016-05-30

    We identify several beneficial characteristics of polarization spectroscopy as an absolute atomic reference for frequency stabilization of lasers, and demonstrate sub-kilohertz laser spectral linewidth narrowing using polarization spectroscopy with high-bandwidth feedback. Polarization spectroscopy provides a highly dispersive velocity-selective absolute atomic reference based on frequency-dependent birefringence in an optically pumped atomic gas. The pumping process leads to dominance of the primary closed transition, suppressing closely-spaced subsidiary resonances which reduce the effective capture range for conventional atomic references. The locking signal is based on subtraction of two orthogonal polarization signals, reducing the effect of laser intensity noise to the shot noise limit. We measure noise-limited servo bandwidth comparable to that of a high-finesse optical cavity without the frequency limit or complexity imposed by optical modulation normally associated with high bandwidth laser frequency stabilization. We demonstrate narrowing to 600±100 Hz laser linewidth using the beatnote between two similarly locked external cavity diode lasers. PMID:27410068

  7. Narrow band imaging: clinical applications in oral and oropharyngeal cancer.

    PubMed

    Vu, A; Farah, C S

    2016-07-01

    Narrow Band Imaging (NBI) is an endoscopic optical imaging enhancement technology that improves the contrast of mucosal surface texture, and enhances visualisation of mucosal and submucosal vasculature. White light is filtered to emit two 30-nm narrow bands of blue (415 nm) and green light (540 nm) light simultaneously, the former corresponding to the main peak absorption spectrum of haemoglobin, and the latter allowing visualisation of blood vessels in the deeper mucosal and submucosal layers. NBI has been used to better assess oral potentially malignant disorders (OPMD), identify oral and oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma (SCC), and to define surgical margins of head and neck malignancies. NBI shows great potential in improving detection rates of OPMD, facilitating better assessment of oral and oropharyngeal SCC, and reducing the risk of recurrence for oral SCC. Although further research is required to better understand and define intrapapillary capillary loop (IPCL) patterns and to relate these with clinical, histopathological and molecular parameters especially for early mucosal changes, there is building evidence to recommend its use as the new gold standard for endoscopic assessment in head and neck oncology. PMID:26713751

  8. Critical Heat Flux In Inclined Rectangular Narrow Long Channel

    SciTech Connect

    J. L. Rempe; S. W. Noh; Y. H. Kim; K. Y. Suh; F.B.Cheung; S. B. Kim

    2005-05-01

    In the TMI-2 accident, the lower part of the reactor pressure vessel had been overheated and then rather rapidly cooled down, as was later identified in a vessel investigation project. This accounted for the possibility of gap cooling feasibility. For this reason, several investigations were performed to determine the critical heat flux (CHF) from the standpoint of invessel retention. The experiments are conducted to investigate the general boiling phenomena, and the triggering mechanism for the CHF in a narrow gap using a 5 x 105 mm2 crevice type heater assembly and de-mineralized water. The test parameters include the gap size of 5 mm, and the surface orientation angles from the downward facing position (180o) to the vertical position (90o). The orientation angle affects the bubble layer and escape from the narrow gap. The CHF is less than that in a shorter channel, compared with the previous experiments having a heated length of 35 mmin the copper test section.

  9. Linewidth Narrowing for 31Phosphorus MRI of Bones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frey, Merideth; Barrett, Sean

    2011-03-01

    Bone is a particularly challenging tissue to study with conventional MRI given the relatively low water density and wider linewidths of its solid components. Recent fundamental research in quantum computing gave rise to a new NMR pulse sequence that can be used to narrow the broad NMR spectrum of solids. Here we narrow the spectrum of the 31 P in natural bone mineral (by a factor of up to 1600x). This technique offers a new route to do high spatial resolution, 3D 31 P MRI of bone which complements conventional MRI and x-ray based techniques to study bone physiology and structure. Thus far we have used our pulse sequence to do high spatial resolution (sub-250 μ m)3 3 D 31 P MRI of ex vivo dry bovine cortical bones, wet procine rib bones, and wet rabbit femoral bones at 4T. We have also explored the use of compressive sampling to push imaging time down to less than two hours without distracting artifacts. F. W. Wehrli, J. MRI 25, 390 (2007); S. Anumula et al., Bone 42, 405 (2008); D. Idiyatullin et al., J. Mag Res 193, 267 (2008); E.E. Sigmund et al., NMR Biomed 22, 436 (2009); Y. Wu et al., J. MRI 31, 954 (2010)

  10. Robust Mosaicking of Uav Images with Narrow Overlaps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, J.; Kim, T.; Shin, D.; Kim, S. H.

    2016-06-01

    This paper considers fast and robust mosaicking of UAV images under a circumstance that each UAV images have very narrow overlaps in-between. Image transformation for image mosaicking consists of two estimations: relative transformations and global transformations. For estimating relative transformations between adjacent images, projective transformation is widely considered. For estimating global transformations, panoramic constraint is widely used. While perspective transformation is a general transformation model in 2D-2D transformation, this may not be optimal with weak stereo geometry such as images with narrow overlaps. While panoramic constraint works for reliable conversion of global transformation for panoramic image generation, this constraint is not applicable to UAV images in linear motions. For these reasons, a robust approach is investigated to generate a high quality mosaicked image from narrowly overlapped UAV images. For relative transformations, several transformation models were considered to ensure robust estimation of relative transformation relationship. Among them were perspective transformation, affine transformation, coplanar relative orientation, and relative orientation with reduced adjustment parameters. Performance evaluation for each transformation model was carried out. The experiment results showed that affine transformation and adjusted coplanar relative orientation were superior to others in terms of stability and accuracy. For global transformation, we set initial approximation by converting each relative transformation to a common transformation with respect to a reference image. In future work, we will investigate constrained relative orientation for enhancing geometric accuracy of image mosaicking and bundle adjustments of each relative transformation model for optimal global transformation.

  11. Defect-induced bandgap narrowing in low-k dielectrics

    SciTech Connect

    Guo, X.; Zheng, H.; Shohet, J. L.; King, S. W.; Afanas'ev, V. V.; Baklanov, M. R.; Marneffe, J.-F. de; Nishi, Y.

    2015-08-24

    In this work, core-level X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy was utilized to determine the surface bandgap for various porous and non-porous low-k a-SiCOH dielectrics before and after ion sputtering. By examining the onset of inelastic energy loss in O 1s core-level spectra, the gap narrowing was universally found in Ar{sup +} ion sputtered low-k dielectrics. The reduction of the bandgap ranges from 1.3 to 2.2 eV depending on the film composition. We show that the bandgap narrowing in these low-k dielectrics is caused by development of the valence-band tail as evidenced by the presence of additional electronic states above the valence-band maximum. Electron-spin-resonance measurements were made on a-SiCOH films to gain atomic insight into the nature of the sputtering-induced defects and reveal formation of carbon-related defects as the most probable origin of the gap states.

  12. Theory of current states in narrow superconducting channels

    SciTech Connect

    Ivlev, B.I.; Kopnin, N.B.

    1984-03-01

    The properties of narrow superconducting channels carrying a direct current are reviewed. Among the topics covered are the stability of the normal state of the current-carrying channel and the mechanism for a transition from this normal state to the superconducting state. In a homogeneous channel, the transition occurs through the formation of a critical nucleus and is a first-order phase transition. In a channel with inhomogeneities, the transition is quite different. In this case the normal state can exist only down to a certain value of the current, below which the normal state is absolutely unstable. The review is devoted primarily to the theory of the resistive state of narrow channels, which exists at currents above the critical Ginzburg-Landau current. The description is based on the concept of phase-slippage centers. Phenomenological models are discussed, as is a model of a fluctuational excitation of phase-slippage centers. The results obtained from the microscopic dynamic theory of superconductivity are discussed at length. Among these results are the voltage-current characteristic of the resistive state, the abrupt change in the voltage on this characteristic, and the structure of the phase-slippage centers.

  13. QSO Narrow [OIII] Line Width and Host Galaxy Luminosity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonning, E. W.; Shields, G. A.; Salviander, S.

    2004-05-01

    Established correlations between galaxy bulge luminosity L, black hole mass MBH, and stellar velocity dispersion sigma in galaxies suggest a close relationship between the growth of supermassive black holes and their host galaxies. Measurements of the MBH - sigma relationship as a function of cosmic time may shed light on the origin of this relationship. One approach is to derive MBH and sigma from the widths of QSO broad and narrow lines, respectively (Shields et al. 2003, ApJ, 583, 124; Nelson 2000, ApJ, 544, L91). We investigate the utility of using the velocity of the narrow line emitting gas as a surrogate for stellar velocity dispersion in QSOs by examining host magnitudes and [OIII] line widths for low redshift QSOs. For our limited range of L, the increase in sigma with L predicted by the Faber-Jackson relation is substantially obscured by scatter. However, sigma([O III]) is consistent in the mean with host galaxy luminosity. EWB is a NASA GSRP fellow. GAS and SS are supported under Texas Advanced Research Program grant 003658-0177-2001 and NSF grant AST-0098594.

  14. Electrocardiographical case. Narrow complex tachycardia provoked by the Valsalva manoeuvre.

    PubMed

    Koh, C H; Foo, D; Ng, K S; Chong, C H

    2009-04-01

    A 19-year-old Chinese man presented with tachyarrhythmia during a human centrifuge session while performing a Valsalva manoeuvre at near normal (+1.4 Gz) centripetal forces. It was likely that the hydrostatic effects of sustained centrifugal forces, the distortion of the heart's shape, as well as swings in the autonomic dominance pre- and post-Valsalva manoeuvre, contributed to the tachyarrhythmia. The 12-lead ECG showed a narrow complex tachycardia with visible P-waves after the QRS complexes consistent with a long R-P' tachycardia. The intracardiac electrogram demonstrated a concentric retrograde atrial activation during narrow complex tachycardia. The V-A interval was 150 ms which was much longer than in typical atrioventricular nodal reentry tachycardia, which is usually less than 70 ms. The A-H interval was short and the H-A interval was long, indicating that antegrade activation was over the fast pathway and retrograde activation was over the slow pathway. The diagnosis was atypical atrioventricular nodal reentry tachycardia, and radiofrequency ablation was successfully applied to the slow AV nodal pathway. PMID:19421691

  15. Linewidth narrowing for 31Phosphorus MRI of cell membranes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barrett, Sean; Frey, Merideth; Madri, Joseph; Michaud, Michael

    2011-03-01

    Most 31 P Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy studies of tissues try to avoid contamination by a relatively large, but broad, spectral feature attributed to cell membrane phospholipids. MRI using this broad 31 P membrane spectrum is not even attempted, since the spatial resolution and signal-to-noise would be poor, relative to conventional MRI using the narrow 1 H water spectrum. This long-standing barrier has been overcome by a novel pulse sequence, recently discovered in fundamental quantum computation research, which narrows the broad 31 P spectrum by ~ 1000 × . Applying time-dependent gradients in synch with a repeating pulse block enables a new route to high spatial resolution, 3D 31 P MRI of the soft solid components of cells and tissues. So far, intact and sectioned samples of ex vivo fixed mouse organs have been imaged, with (sub-mm)3 voxels. Extending the reach of MRI to broad spectra in natural and artificial tissues opens a new window into cells, enabling progress in biomedical research. W.J. Thoma et al., J. MR 61, 141 (1985); E.J. Murphy et al., MR Med 12, 282 (1989); R. McNamara et al., NMR Biomed 7, 237 (1994).

  16. Miocene to Pleistocene osmium isotopic records of the Mediterranean sediments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuroda, Junichiro; Jiménez-Espejo, Francisco J.; Nozaki, Tatsuo; Gennari, Rocco; Lugli, Stefano; Manzi, Vinicio; Roveri, Marco; Flecker, Rachel; Sierro, Francisco J.; Yoshimura, Toshihiro; Suzuki, Katsuhiko; Ohkouchi, Naohiko

    2016-01-01

    In the late Miocene the Mediterranean Sea experienced a salinity crisis and thick sequences of evaporites precipitated across the deep and marginal basins. In this study we report Os isotopic records from Deep Sea Drilling Project and Ocean Drilling Project cores in the Mediterranean: the Balearic Sea (Site 372), the Tyrrhenian Sea (Site 654), the Ionian Basin (Site 374), and the Florence Rise (Sites 375-376), as well as Integrated Ocean Drilling Project Site U1387 in Gulf of Cadiz, North Atlantic. Pliocene-Pleistocene sediments at all sites show 187Os/188Os values close to that of the coeval ocean water, indicating that the Mediterranean was connected to the North Atlantic. Evaporitic sediments deposited during the latest Miocene, however, have 187Os/188Os values significantly lower than coeval ocean water values. The offset of the Mediterranean evaporite 187Os/188Os is attributed to limited exchange with the North Atlantic during the Messinian salinity crisis. The source of unradiogenic Os is likely to be weathering of ultramafic rocks (ophiolites) cropping out in the Mediterranean's drainage basins. Based on a box model we estimated the amount of unradiogenic Os and the Atlantic-Mediterranean exchange rate to explain this offset. Os isotopic ratios of the pre-evaporite sediments in the western Mediterranean are almost identical to that of the coeval ocean water. In contrast, equivalent sediments from the Florence Rise have significantly lower 187Os/188Os values. The offset in the Os isotopic ratio on the Florence Rise is attributed either to limited water exchange between eastern and western Mediterranean or to local effects associated with exhumation of the Troodos ophiolites (Cyprus).

  17. A phylogenetic perspective on the evolution of Mediterranean teleost fishes.

    PubMed

    Meynard, Christine N; Mouillot, David; Mouquet, Nicolas; Douzery, Emmanuel J P

    2012-01-01

    The Mediterranean Sea is a highly diverse, highly studied, and highly impacted biogeographic region, yet no phylogenetic reconstruction of fish diversity in this area has been published to date. Here, we infer the timing and geographic origins of Mediterranean teleost species diversity using nucleotide sequences collected from GenBank. We assembled a DNA supermatrix composed of four mitochondrial genes (12S ribosomal DNA, 16S ribosomal DNA, cytochrome c oxidase subunit I and cytochrome b) and two nuclear genes (rhodopsin and recombination activating gene I), including 62% of Mediterranean teleost species plus 9 outgroups. Maximum likelihood and Bayesian phylogenetic and dating analyses were calibrated using 20 fossil constraints. An additional 124 species were grafted onto the chronogram according to their taxonomic affinity, checking for the effects of taxonomic coverage in subsequent diversification analyses. We then interpreted the time-line of teleost diversification in light of Mediterranean historical biogeography, distinguishing non-endemic natives, endemics and exotic species. Results show that the major Mediterranean orders are of Cretaceous origin, specifically ~100-80 Mya, and most Perciformes families originated 80-50 Mya. Two important clade origin events were detected. The first at 100-80 Mya, affected native and exotic species, and reflects a global diversification period at a time when the Mediterranean Sea did not yet exist. The second occurred during the last 50 Mya, and is noticeable among endemic and native species, but not among exotic species. This period corresponds to isolation of the Mediterranean from Indo-Pacific waters before the Messinian salinity crisis. The Mediterranean fish fauna illustrates well the assembly of regional faunas through origination and immigration, where dispersal and isolation have shaped the emergence of a biodiversity hotspot. PMID:22590545

  18. Channel narrowing and vegetation development following a great plains flood

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Friedman, J.M.; Osterkamp, W.R.; Lewis, W.M., Jr.

    1996-01-01

    Streams in the plains of eastern Colorado are prone to intense floods following summer thunderstorms. Here, and in other semiarid and arid regions, channel recovery after a flood may take several decades. As a result, flood history strongly influences spatial and temporal variability in bottomland vegetation. Interpretation of these patterns must be based on understanding the long-term response of bottomland morphology and vegetation to specific floods. A major flood in 1965 on Plum Creek, a perennial sandbed stream, removed most of the bottomland vegetatiqn and transformed the single-thread stream into a wider, braided channel. Channel narrowing began in 1973 and continues today. In 1991, we determined occurrences of 150 vascular plant species in 341 plots (0.5 m2) along a 7-km reach of Plum Creek near Louviers, Colorado. We related patterns of vegetation to elevation, litter cover, vegetative cover, sediment particle size, shade, and year of formation of the underlying surface (based on age of the excavated root flare of the oldest woody plants). Geomorphic investigation determined that Plum Creek fluvial surfaces sort into five groups by year of formation: terraces of fine sand formed before 1965; terraces of coarse sand deposited by the 1965 flood; stable bars formed by channel narrowing during periods of relatively high bed level (1973-1986); stable bars similarly formed during a recent period of low bed level (1987-1990); and the present channel bed (1991). Canonical correspondence analysis indicates a strong influence of elevation and litter cover, and lesser effects of vegetative cover, shade, and sediment particle size. However, the sum of all canonical eigenvalues explained by these factors is less than that explained by an analysis including only the dummy variables that define the five geomorphically determined age groups. The effect of age group is significant even when all five other environmental variables are specified as covariables. Therefore, the

  19. Extra-Mediterranean refugia: The rule and not the exception?

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Some decades ago, biogeographers distinguished three major faunal types of high importance for Europe: (i) Mediterranean elements with exclusive glacial survival in the Mediterranean refugia, (ii) Siberian elements with glacial refugia in the eastern Palearctic and only postglacial expansion to Europe and (iii) arctic and/or alpine elements with large zonal distributions in the periglacial areas and postglacial retreat to the North and/or into the high mountain systems. Genetic analyses have unravelled numerous additional refugia both of continental and Mediterranean species, thus strongly modifying the biogeographical view of Europe. This modified notion is particularly true for the so-called Siberian species, which in many cases have not immigrated into Europe during the postglacial period, but most likely have survived the last, or even several glacial phases, in extra-Mediterranean refugia in some climatically favourable but geographically limited areas of southern Central and Eastern Europe. Recently, genetic analyses revealed that typical Mediterranean species have also survived the Last Glacial Maximum in cryptic northern refugia (e.g. in the Carpathians or even north of the Alps) in addition to their Mediterranean refuge areas. PMID:22953783

  20. Cyclone contribution to the Mediterranean Sea water budget

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flaounas, E.; Di Luca, A.; Drobinski, P.; Mailler, S.; Arsouze, T.; Bastin, S.; Beranger, K.; Lebeaupin Brossier, C.

    2016-02-01

    This paper analyzes the impact of cyclones to the atmospheric components on the Mediterranean Sea Water Budget, namely the cyclones contribution to precipitation and evaporation over the Mediterranean Sea. Three regional simulations were performed with the WRF model for the period 1989-2008. The model was run (1) as a standalone model, (2) coupled with the oceanic model NEMO-MED12 and (3) forced by the smoothed Sea Surface Temperature (SST) fields from the second simulation. Cyclones were tracked in all simulations, and their contribution to the total rainfall and evaporation was quantified. Results show that cyclones are mainly associated with extreme precipitation, representing more than 50 % of the annual rainfall over the Mediterranean Sea. On the other hand, we found that cyclone-induced evaporation represents only a small fraction of the annual total, except in winter, when the most intense Mediterranean cyclones take place. Despite the significant contribution of cyclones to rainfall, our results show that there is a balance between cyclone-induced rainfall and evaporation, suggesting a weak net impact of cyclones on the Mediterranean Sea water budget. The sensitivity of our results with respect to rapid SST changes during the development of cyclones was also investigated. Both rainfall and evaporation are affected in correlation with the SST response to the atmosphere. In fact, air feedbacks to the Mediterranean Sea during the cyclones occurrence were shown to cool down the SST and consequently to reduce rainfall and evaporation at the proximity of cyclone centers.

  1. The Mediterranean and Black Sea fisheries at risk from overexploitation.

    PubMed

    Tsikliras, Athanassios C; Dinouli, Anny; Tsiros, Vasileios-Zikos; Tsalkou, Eleni

    2015-01-01

    The status of the Mediterranean and Black Sea fisheries was evaluated for the period 1970-2010 on a subarea basis, using various indicators including the temporal variability of total landings, the number of recorded stocks, the mean trophic level of the catch, the fishing-in-balance index and the catch-based method of stock classification. All indicators confirmed that the fisheries resources of the Mediterranean and Black Sea are at risk from overexploitation. The pattern of exploitation and the state of stocks differed among the western (W), central (C) and eastern (E) Mediterranean subareas and the Black Sea (BS), with the E Mediterranean and BS fisheries being in a worst shape. Indeed, in the E Mediterranean and the BS, total landings, mean trophic level of the catch and fishing-in-balance index were declining, the cumulative percentage of overexploited and collapsed stocks was higher, and the percentage of developing stocks was lower, compared to the W and C Mediterranean. Our results confirm the need for detailed and extensive stock assessments across species that will eventually lead to stocks recovering through conservation and management measures. PMID:25793975

  2. The Mediterranean and Black Sea Fisheries at Risk from Overexploitation

    PubMed Central

    Tsikliras, Athanassios C.; Dinouli, Anny; Tsiros, Vasileios-Zikos; Tsalkou, Eleni

    2015-01-01

    The status of the Mediterranean and Black Sea fisheries was evaluated for the period 1970-2010 on a subarea basis, using various indicators including the temporal variability of total landings, the number of recorded stocks, the mean trophic level of the catch, the fishing-in-balance index and the catch-based method of stock classification. All indicators confirmed that the fisheries resources of the Mediterranean and Black Sea are at risk from overexploitation. The pattern of exploitation and the state of stocks differed among the western (W), central (C) and eastern (E) Mediterranean subareas and the Black Sea (BS), with the E Mediterranean and BS fisheries being in a worst shape. Indeed, in the E Mediterranean and the BS, total landings, mean trophic level of the catch and fishing-in-balance index were declining, the cumulative percentage of overexploited and collapsed stocks was higher, and the percentage of developing stocks was lower, compared to the W and C Mediterranean. Our results confirm the need for detailed and extensive stock assessments across species that will eventually lead to stocks recovering through conservation and management measures. PMID:25793975

  3. 76 FR 60733 - Drawbridge Operation Regulations; Narrow Bay, Smith Point, NY

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-30

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 117 Drawbridge Operation Regulations; Narrow Bay, Smith Point, NY AGENCY... the Smith Point Bridge, 6.1, across Narrow Bay, between Smith Point and Fire Island, New York. The.... SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: The Smith Point Bridge, across Narrow Bay, mile 6.1, between Smith Point and...

  4. Grassy Narrows Reserve: Mercury Pollution, Social Disruption, and Natural Resources: A Question of Autonomy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vecsey, Christopher

    1987-01-01

    Presents chronological socio-economic account of Grassy Narrows Reserve, focusing on the 1962-1970 mercury pollution that poisoned the reserve's river system and on resulting negotiations between the Ojibway people of Grassy Narrows, the government, and the polluting company. Examines the question of Grassy Narrows people gaining autonomy over the…

  5. Injury Mechanisms and Severity in Narrow Offset Frontal Impacts

    PubMed Central

    Pintar, Frank A.; Yoganandan, Narayan; Maiman, Dennis J.

    2008-01-01

    Current standard frontal crash tests include full frontal or 40% offset. Frontal impacts with offsets less than 40% and corner impacts have received little attention. Because of the limited engagement of vehicle structures that would permit less energy dissipation, these crashes have the potential for severe trauma to the near-side occupant. Narrow offset and corner-impact crashes under a frontal impact classification were analyzed using data obtained from the United States Department of Transportation National Highway Traffic Safety Administration crash databases: Crash Injury Research and Engineering Network (CIREN) and the National Automotive Sampling System (NASS) 2000–2006. A subset of crashes that could be defined clearly as narrow offset crashes were then examined. The Collision Damage Classification (CDC) classification was used to obtain only crashes with a “FLEE” code for drivers and a “FREE” code for right front passengers. These codes were used to separate out crashes that had bumper and lower vehicle engagement and less than 41 cm of front vehicle damage. The NASS data indicated that corner impacts (“Y” and “Z” type) and narrow overlap (“L” and “R” type) constitute 26 % each of all frontal impacts. When occupants were severely injured in frontal crashes 20 % of the occupants were in “L” and “R” type crashes and 31 % were in “Y” and “Z” type crashes. The percentage of near side “FLEE” and “FREE” crash occupants with severe injuries by body region demonstrated that head, thorax, upper, and lower extremity injuries dominate the data set. For the 71 CIREN cases, lower extremity injuries dominated. The injury severity score did not correlate well with assumed severity parameters like extent of crush and delta-V, however, crashes with extent zones 2–5 had a greater percentage of occupants with chest and spine injuries than crashes with extent zones 6–9. Vehicle rotation after front impact in extent zone 2

  6. Investigation of ionization mechanism of extended narrow line region.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hashimoto, T. H.; Iye, M. I.; Aoki, K. A.

    2006-08-01

    The narrow line regions of active galaxies have the potential to provide key information about the nature of the central energy sources, the triggering and fueling of the activity, and the dynamical and/or chemical evolution of the narrow line region (NLR). However, if we are to use them in this way, it is crucial to understand the dominant physical mechanism of emission line region. Since Dopita et al.1995,1996 suggested that their radiative shock model is capable of explaining to some extent the spectrum of Seyfert 2 galaxies, detailed observations of individual NLR or extended narrow line region (ENLR) have been performed to clarify the actual ionization mechanism for individual object. It is probably fair to say that at present time, although individual studies may favor gas models photoionized by nonthermal power law photons or other ionization scenario, no clear-cut answer has yet emerged. For the purpose of investigating the importance of shock ionization around NLR we performed optical long-slit spectroscopic observation of Seyfert 2 galaxy, NGC7319, using Subaru telescope during guaranteed time of Faint Object Camera And Spectrograph (FOCAS). We confirmed that NGC7319 has the ENLR (~4kpc) with relatively good alignment with radio components and found the distribution of observed regions in the "diagnostic diagrams"(line ratio versus line ratio plot) are approximately consistent with radiative shock ionization models which assumed about shock front velocity of 500km/s. In addition we discovered the clear anti-corelation between the indicators of gas excitation ([OIII]5007/ Hbeta and [SII](6716+6731)/Halpha) and velocity dispersion over whole observed ENLR. Any other photoionization model could not explain gas kinematics-excitation relation and this anti-corelation is strong evidence of radiative shock ionization, which is probably induced by interaction between jet plasma and NLR clouds. The evidence of the importance of jet-induced shock ionization even

  7. Localization of the familial Mediterranean fever gene (FMF) to a 250-kb interval in non-Ashkenazi Jewish founder haplotypes

    SciTech Connect

    1996-09-01

    Chromosome 16p13.3 harbors a gene (MEF) associated with familial Mediterranean fever (FMF), a recessive disease very common in populations of Mediterranean ancestry. In the course of positional cloning of MEF, we genotyped 26 non-Ashkenazi Jewish FMF pedigrees (310 meioses) with 15 microsatellite markers, most of which were recently developed by Genethon. Identification of recombination events in the haplotypes allowed narrowing of the MEF interval to a region between D16S3124 (telomeric) and D16S475 (centromeric). Two markers, D16S3070 and D16S3275, a microsatellite marker isolated from a YAC that also contains D16S3070, showed no recombination with the disease. Linkage disequilibrium and haplotype analysis high-lighted the existence of a founder haplotype in our population. The core ancestral alleles were present in 71% of MEF-bearing chromosomes at loci D16S3070 and D16S3275. Furthermore, identification of historical crossing-over events in these pedigrees indicated that MEF is located between these two loci, which are both contained in a 250-kb genomic fragment. 24 refs., 4 figs., 3 tabs.

  8. TERENO-MED: Terrestrial Environmental Observatories in the Mediterranean Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krueger, Elisabeth; Friesen, Jan; Kallioras, Andreas; Bogena, Heye; Devaraju, Anusuriya; Vereecken, Harry; Teutsch, Georg

    2013-04-01

    The Mediterranean region is one of the most imperilled regions in the world concerning present and future water scarcity. The region is delicately positioned at the crossroads between East and West, interlinking Europe, Asia and Africa. Societal and economic changes causing population growth, industrialisation and urbanisation lead to significant increases in food, water and energy demand. Hence, natural resources, such as water and soils, as well as ecosystems are put under pressure and water availability and quality will be severely affected in the future. At the same time, climate and extreme event projections from climate models for the Mediterranean are, unlike for most regions worldwide, consistent in their trends based on various scenarios. This consistency in the model predictions shows that the Mediterranean will face some of the most severe increases in dryness worldwide (based on consecutive dry days and soil moisture), and indicate a decrease of up to 50 % in available water resources within the next 50-100 years. These developments are accentuated by the fact that in many of the Mediterranean countries, natural renewable water resources are fully exploited or over-exploited already today, mainly due to agricultural irrigation, but also touristic activities. At the same time, the Mediterranean region is a global hot spot of freshwater biodiversity, with a high proportion of endemic and endangered species. While trend projections for water availability and climate change derived from global studies are consistent, regional patterns and heterogeneities, as well as local adaptation measures will largely determine the functioning of societies and the health of ecosystems. However, a lack of environmental data prohibits the development of sustainable adaptation measures to water scarcity on a scientific basis. Building on the experiences gained in the national TERENO network, a Mediterranean observatory network will be set-up, coordinated by two Helmholtz

  9. Multi-Model approach to reconstruct the Mediterranean Freshwater Evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simon, Dirk; Marzocchi, Alice; Flecker, Rachel; Lunt, Dan; Hilgen, Frits; Meijer, Paul

    2016-04-01

    Today the Mediterranean Sea is isolated from the global ocean by the Strait of Gibraltar. This restricted nature causes the Mediterranean basin to react more sensitively to climatic and tectonic related phenomena than the global ocean. Not just eustatic sea-level and regional river run-off, but also gateway tectonics and connectivity between sub-basins are leaving an enhanced fingerprint in its geological record. To understand its evolution, it is crucial to understand how these different effects are coupled. The Miocene-Pliocene sedimentary record of the Mediterranean shows alternations in composition and colour and has been astronomically tuned. Around the Miocene-Pliocene Boundary the most extreme changes occur in the Mediterranean Sea. About 6% of the salt in the global ocean deposited in the Mediterranean Region, forming an approximately 2 km thick salt layer, which is still present today. This extreme event is named the Messinian Salinity Crisis (MSC, 5.97-5.33 Ma). The gateway and climate evolution is not well constrained for this time, which makes it difficult to distinguish which of the above mentioned drivers might have triggered the MSC. We, therefore, decided to tackle this problem via a multi-model approach: (1) We calculate the Mediterranean freshwater evolution via 30 atmosphere-ocean-vegetation simulations (using HadCM3L), to which we fitted to a function, using a regression model. This allows us to directly relate the orbital curves to evaporation, precipitation and run off. The resulting freshwater evolution can be directly correlated to other sedimentary and proxy records in the late Miocene. (2) By feeding the new freshwater evolution curve into a box/budget model we can predict the salinity and strontium evolution of the Mediterranean for a certain Atlantic-Mediterranean gateway. (3) By comparing these results to the known salinity thresholds of gypsum and halite saturation of sea water, but also to the late Miocene Mediterranean strontium

  10. Hydrological response of the Mediterranean catchments- A review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Merheb, Mohammad; Moussa, Roger; Abdallah, Chadi; Colin, François; Perrin, Charles; Baghdadi, Nicolas

    2015-04-01

    The Mediterranean region is a water stressed environment with increasing climatic and anthropogenic pressures. This work presents a review of 120 hydrological studies carried out in the Mediterranean region. It contributes to the ongoing hydrological research initiative on "Hydrology in a changing world" launched by the IAHS in 2014. It aims to understand the characteristics of hydrological response under Mediterranean conditions, taking into account changes driven by anthropogenic and climatic factors; and to compare modeling and regionalization approaches in use. The study region is divided into three sub-regions: Northwestern Mediterranean (NWM), Eastern (EM) and Southern Mediterranean (SM). Information on catchments responses and modeling approaches at different time scales (annual, dry season and event) were extracted from published studies, and analyzed. Results indicate regional discrepancies (between NWM, EM and SM sub-regions) in the distribution of climatic and hydrological response characteristics at the annual and the event scale. The NWM catchments are the wettest, and the SM catchments are the driest, while the EM catchments are intermediate and exhibit the largest variability. The NWM sub-region shows the most extreme rainfall regime in the Mediterranean, particularly, in an arc that extends from Northeastern Spain to Northeastern Italy. Observations indicate decreasing tendency in water resources due to both anthropogenic and climatic impacts, and a more extreme rainfall regime. Moreover, Mediterranean catchments show very heterogeneous responses in time and space which make the modeling of their hydrological functioning very complicated and data demanding, with increasing model limitations and uncertainties. Nevertheless, the models in use are classical ones; very few were developed to address these regional specificities. Regionalization studies in the Mediterranean are scarce even in term of low flows and FDCs which is surprising in a water

  11. Search for narrow resonances below the Upsilon mesons

    SciTech Connect

    Apollinari, G.; Barone, M.; Carithers, W.; Dell'Orso, M.; Dorigo, T.; Fiori, I; Franklin, M.; Giannetti, P.; Giromini, P.; Happacher, F.; Miscetti, S.; Parri, A.; Ptohos, F.; Velev, G.; /Frascati /Fermilab /Harvard U. /LBL, Berkeley /INFN, Pisa /Pisa U. /Pisa, Scuola Normale Superiore /Padua U. /INFN, Padua

    2005-07-01

    The authors have investigated the invariant mass spectrum of dimuons collected by the CDF experiment during the 1992-1995 run of the Fermilab Tevatron collider to improve the limit on the existence of narrow resonances set by the experiments at the SPEAR e{sup +}e{sup -} collider. In the mass range 6.3-9.0 GeV/c{sup 2} they derive an average 90% upper credible limit of 8 eV to the leptonic width of possible resonances. This limit is much worse at the mass of 7.2 GeV/c{sup 2} due to an excess of 250 {+-} 61 events with a width consistent with the detector resolution.

  12. Ciliochoroidal melanomas treated with a narrow medical proton beam

    SciTech Connect

    Brovkina, A.F.; Zarubei, G.D.

    1986-03-01

    We treated 63 patients with intraocular melanomas by means of a narrow medical proton beam. Tumors were irradiated with 2,500 rad at each of four to five sessions, with an interval of one to two days between sessions. The melanomas ranged in diameter from 8 to 20 mm and were from 3.0 to 13.7 mm in thickness. Patients were followed up for three months to seven years. In 11 cases, the tumor was fully resorbed. Complications included radiation cataract, postradiation glaucoma, radiation retinopathy, and exudative retinal detachment. In 12 cases, enucleation was performed because tumor growth persisted. Four patients died during follow-up period because of metastasis. The eye was preserved in 47 cases.

  13. Neutral and positively charged excitons in narrow quantum ring

    SciTech Connect

    Porras Monroy, L. C.; Rodríguez-Prada, F. A.; Mikhailov, I. D.

    2014-05-15

    We study theoretically quantized states of a neutral and a positively charged exciton (trion X{sup +}) confined in a heterostructure with the ring-like geometry. In order to assess the experimentally relevant domain of parameters, we adopt a simple model of a narrow ring when 3D wave equations for the neutral and positively charged excitons can be separated. By using the Fourier series method, we have calculated the energy spectra of excitons complexes in a quantum ring as a function of the electron-to-hole mass ratio, the ring radius, and the magnetic field strength. The quantum-size effect and the size-dependent magnetic oscillations of energy levels of excitons' complexes spectra have been revealed.

  14. An above-barrier narrow resonance in 15F

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Grancey, F.; Mercenne, A.; de Oliveira Santos, F.; Davinson, T.; Sorlin, O.; Angélique, J. C.; Assié, M.; Berthoumieux, E.; Borcea, R.; Buta, A.; Celikovic, I.; Chudoba, V.; Daugas, J. M.; Dumitru, G.; Fadil, M.; Grévy, S.; Kiener, J.; Lefebvre-Schuhl, A.; Michel, N.; Mrazek, J.; Negoita, F.; Okołowicz, J.; Pantelica, D.; Pellegriti, M. G.; Perrot, L.; Płoszajczak, M.; Randisi, G.; Ray, I.; Roig, O.; Rotaru, F.; Saint Laurent, M. G.; Smirnova, N.; Stanoiu, M.; Stefan, I.; Stodel, C.; Subotic, K.; Tatischeff, V.; Thomas, J. C.; Ujić, P.; Wolski, R.

    2016-07-01

    Intense and purified radioactive beam of post-accelerated 14O was used to study the low-lying states in the unbound 15F nucleus. Exploiting resonant elastic scattering in inverse kinematics with a thick target, the second excited state, a resonance at ER = 4.757 (6) (10) MeV with a width of Γ = 36 (5) (14) keV was measured for the first time with high precision. The structure of this narrow above-barrier state in a nucleus located two neutrons beyond the proton drip line was investigated using the Gamow Shell Model in the coupled channel representation with a 12C core and three valence protons. It is found that it is an almost pure wave function of two quasi-bound protons in the 2s1/2 shell.

  15. Polaron formation in the vicinity of a narrow Feshbach resonance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Casteels, W.; Wouters, M.

    2014-10-01

    The polaronic system consisting of an impurity in a dilute Bose-Einstein condensate is considered in the presence of a narrow Feshbach resonance. For this purpose a coupled-channel model is used, which at the mean-field level predicts the formation of quasiparticles that are a superposition of the impurity and the molecular states. The impurity-boson interactions and the coupling between the open and closed channels are then considered weak and a perturbative calculation of the corrections to the mean-field results is presented. This allows us to examine the properties of the quasiparticles, such as the lifetime and the effective mass. The relation between the model parameters and the experimental parameters is determined by identifying the low-energy T matrix and applying a proper renormalization scheme.

  16. Neutral and positively charged excitons in narrow quantum ring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Porras Monroy, L. C.; Rodríguez-Prada, F. A.; Mikhailov, I. D.

    2014-05-01

    We study theoretically quantized states of a neutral and a positively charged exciton (trion X+) confined in a heterostructure with the ring-like geometry. In order to assess the experimentally relevant domain of parameters, we adopt a simple model of a narrow ring when 3D wave equations for the neutral and positively charged excitons can be separated. By using the Fourier series method, we have calculated the energy spectra of excitons complexes in a quantum ring as a function of the electron-to-hole mass ratio, the ring radius, and the magnetic field strength. The quantum-size effect and the size-dependent magnetic oscillations of energy levels of excitons' complexes spectra have been revealed.

  17. Generation of narrow-band hyperentangled nondegenerate paired photons.

    PubMed

    Yan, Hui; Zhang, Shanchao; Chen, J F; Loy, M M T; Wong, G K L; Du, Shengwang

    2011-01-21

    We report the generation of nondegenerate narrow-bandwidth paired photons with time-frequency and polarization entanglements from laser cooled atoms. We observe the two-photon interference caused by Rabi splitting with a coherence time of about 30 ns and a visibility of 81.8% which verifies the time-frequency entanglement of the paired photons. The polarization entanglement is confirmed by polarization correlation measurements which exhibit a visibility of 89.5% and characterized by quantum-state tomography with a fidelity of 90.8%. Taking into account the transmission losses and duty cycle, we estimate that the system generates hyperentangled paired photons into opposing single-mode fibers at a rate of 320 pairs per second. PMID:21405274

  18. Generation of Narrow-Band Hyperentangled Nondegenerate Paired Photons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Hui; Zhang, Shanchao; Chen, J. F.; Loy, M. M. T.; Wong, G. K. L.; Du, Shengwang

    2011-01-01

    We report the generation of nondegenerate narrow-bandwidth paired photons with time-frequency and polarization entanglements from laser cooled atoms. We observe the two-photon interference caused by Rabi splitting with a coherence time of about 30 ns and a visibility of 81.8% which verifies the time-frequency entanglement of the paired photons. The polarization entanglement is confirmed by polarization correlation measurements which exhibit a visibility of 89.5% and characterized by quantum-state tomography with a fidelity of 90.8%. Taking into account the transmission losses and duty cycle, we estimate that the system generates hyperentangled paired photons into opposing single-mode fibers at a rate of 320 pairs per second.

  19. Narrow spectral width laser diode for metastable argon atoms pumping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Jun; Li, Bin; Wang, Xinbing; Zuo, Duluo

    2016-03-01

    Diode laser pump source with narrow emitting spectrum for optically pumped metastable rare gas laser (OPRGL) of argon was achieved by employing a complex external cavity coupled with volume Bragg grating (VBG). A commercially available c-mount laser diode with rated power of 6 W was used and studied in both the free running mode and VBG external cavity. The maximum output power of 3.9 W with FWHM less than 25 pm and peak wavelength locked around 811.53 nm was obtained from the VBG external cavity laser diode. Precise control of VBG temperature enabled fine tuning of the emission wavelength over a range of 450 pm. Future researches on OPRGL of argon will benefit from it.

  20. Long-pulse-width narrow-bandwidth solid state laser

    DOEpatents

    Dane, C. Brent; Hackel, Lloyd A.

    1997-01-01

    A long pulse laser system emits 500-1000 ns quasi-rectangular pulses at 527 nm with near diffraction-limited divergence and near transform-limited bandwidth. The system consists of one or more flashlamp-pumped Nd:glass zig-zag amplifiers, a very low threshold stimulated-Brillouin-scattering (SBS) phase conjugator system, and a free-running single frequency Nd:YLF master oscillator. Completely passive polarization switching provides eight amplifier gain passes. Multiple frequency output can be generated by using SBS cells having different pressures of a gaseous SBS medium or different SBS materials. This long pulse, low divergence, narrow-bandwidth, multi-frequency output laser system is ideally suited for use as an illuminator for long range speckle imaging applications. Because of its high average power and high beam quality, this system has application in any process which would benefit from a long pulse format, including material processing and medical applications.

  1. Long-pulse-width narrow-bandwidth solid state laser

    DOEpatents

    Dane, C.B.; Hackel, L.A.

    1997-11-18

    A long pulse laser system emits 500-1000 ns quasi-rectangular pulses at 527 nm with near diffraction-limited divergence and near transform-limited bandwidth. The system consists of one or more flashlamp-pumped Nd:glass zig-zag amplifiers, a very low threshold stimulated-Brillouin-scattering (SBS) phase conjugator system, and a free-running single frequency Nd:YLF master oscillator. Completely passive polarization switching provides eight amplifier gain passes. Multiple frequency output can be generated by using SBS cells having different pressures of a gaseous SBS medium or different SBS materials. This long pulse, low divergence, narrow-bandwidth, multi-frequency output laser system is ideally suited for use as an illuminator for long range speckle imaging applications. Because of its high average power and high beam quality, this system has application in any process which would benefit from a long pulse format, including material processing and medical applications. 5 figs.

  2. Friction-factor characteristics for narrow channels with honeycomb surfaces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ha, T. W.; Morrison, G. L.; Childs, D. W.

    1992-01-01

    The experimental determination of friction-factors for the flow of air in a narrow channel lined with various honeycomb geometries has been carried out. Test results show that, generally, the friction-factor is nearly constant or slightly decreases as the Reynolds number increases, a characteristic common to turbulent flow in pipes. However, in some test geometries this trend is remarkably different. The friction factor dramatically drops and then rises as the Reynolds number increases. This phenomenon can be characterized as a 'friction-factor jump'. Further investigations of the acoustic spectrum and friction-factor measurements for a broad range of Reynolds numbers indicate that the 'friction-factor jump' phenomenon is accompanied by an onset of a normal mode resonance excited coherent flow fluctuation structure, which occurs at Reynolds number of the order of 10,000. The purpose of this paper is to explain the friction-factor-jump phenomenon and friction-factor characteristics.

  3. Single-Frequency Narrow Linewidth 2 Micron Fiber Laser

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jiang, Shibin (Inventor); Spiegelberg, Christine (Inventor); Luo, Tao (Inventor)

    2006-01-01

    A compact single frequency, single-mode 2 .mu.m fiber laser with narrow linewidth, <100 kHz and preferably <100 kHz, is formed with a low phonon energy glass doped with triply ionized rare-earth thulium and/or holmium oxide and fiber gratings formed in sections of passive silica fiber and fused thereto. Formation of the gratings in passive silica fiber both facilitates splicing to other optical components and reduces noise thus improving linewidth. An increased doping concentration of 0.5 to 15 wt. % for thulium, holmium or mixtures thereof produces adequate gain, hence output power levels for fiber lengths less than 5 cm and preferably less than 3 cm to enable single-frequency operation.

  4. Density Fluctuations of Hard-Sphere Fluids in Narrow Confinement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nygârd, Kim; Sarman, Sten; Hyltegren, Kristin; Chodankar, Shirish; Perret, Edith; Buitenhuis, Johan; van der Veen, J. Friso; Kjellander, Roland

    2016-01-01

    Spatial confinement induces microscopic ordering of fluids, which in turn alters many of their dynamic and thermodynamic properties. However, the isothermal compressibility has hitherto been largely overlooked in the literature, despite its obvious connection to the underlying microscopic structure and density fluctuations in confined geometries. Here, we address this issue by probing density profiles and structure factors of hard-sphere fluids in various narrow slits, using x-ray scattering from colloid-filled nanofluidic containers and integral-equation-based statistical mechanics at the level of pair distributions for inhomogeneous fluids. Most importantly, we demonstrate that density fluctuations and isothermal compressibilities in confined fluids can be obtained experimentally from the long-wavelength limit of the structure factor, providing a formally exact and experimentally accessible connection between microscopic structure and macroscopic, thermodynamic properties. Our approach will thus, for example, allow direct experimental verification of theoretically predicted enhanced density fluctuations in liquids near solvophobic interfaces.

  5. Extended narrow escape problem: Boundary homogenization-based analysis

    PubMed Central

    Berezhkovskii, A. M.; Barzykin, A. V.

    2016-01-01

    Diffusion of particles in confined domains with absorbing spots on the otherwise reflecting boundaries is ubiquitous in nature and technology. Because of nonuniform boundary conditions, the problem of finding the mean first passage time (MFPT) of the particle to one of the spots is extremely complicated. We show how the difficulties can be overcome by means of boundary homogenization when the domain is a circular disk whose boundary contains n nonoverlapping identical absorbing arcs, which may occupy an arbitrary fraction of the boundary. We find the MFPT as a function of the fraction of the boundary occupied by the arcs (i) for n evenly spaced arcs and (ii) for two arcs arbitrarily located on the boundary. As the arc length tends to zero, our approximate solution reduces to the known asymptotic formula for the MFPT rigorously derived in studies devoted of the narrow escape problem. PMID:20866572

  6. Tracking photosynthetic efficiency with narrow-band spectroradiometry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gamon, John A.; Field, Christopher B.

    1992-01-01

    Narrow-waveband spectroradiometry presents the possibility of detecting subtle signals closely related to the current physiological state of vegetation. One such signal related to the epoxidation state of the xanthophyll cycle pigments, violaxanthin, antheraxanthin, and zeaxanthin is discussed. Recent advances in plant ecophysiology demonstrated a close relationship between these pigments and the regulatory state of photosystem 2 in photosynthesis. Our recent field studies of sunflower (Helianthus annuus) and oak (Quercus agrifolia) demonstrated that a 'xanthophyll signal' can be isolated from the diurnal reflectance spectra of intact canopies. Furthermore, the xanthophyll signal can be used to derive a 'physiological reflectance index' (PRI) that closely correlates with the actual photosynthetic efficiency (defined as the photosynthetic rate divided by the incident PAR) in closed canopies. If these signals were detectable in Airborne Visible/Infrared Imaging Spectrometers (AVIRIS) images, they could lead to improved remote estimates of photosynthetic fluxes.

  7. Narrow bandpass tunable terahertz filter based on photonic crystal cavity.

    PubMed

    He, Jinglong; Liu, Pingan; He, Yalan; Hong, Zhi

    2012-02-20

    We have fabricated a very narrow bandpass tunable terahertz (THz) filter based on a one-dimensional photonic crystal cavity. Since the filter consists of silicon wafers and air spacers, it has a very high quality factor of about 1500. The full width at half maximum (FWHM) of the passband is only about 200 MHz, and the peak transmission is higher than -4 dB. Besides, the central frequency can be tuned rapidly over the entire bandgap with the length of cavity adjusted by a motorized linear stage. Further analytical calculations indicate that a high-Q tunable filter with both high peak transmission and wide tunable range is possible if thinner silicon layers are used. PMID:22358169

  8. Narrow band 3 × 3 Mueller polarimetric endoscopy

    PubMed Central

    Qi, Ji; Ye, Menglong; Singh, Mohan; Clancy, Neil T.; Elson, Daniel S.

    2013-01-01

    Mueller matrix polarimetric imaging has shown potential in tissue diagnosis but is challenging to implement endoscopically. In this work, a narrow band 3 × 3 Mueller matrix polarimetric endoscope was designed by rotating the endoscope to generate 0°, 45° and 90° linearly polarized illumination and positioning a rotating filter wheel in front of the camera containing three polarisers to permit polarization state analysis for backscattered light. The system was validated with a rotating linear polarizer and a diffuse reflection target. Initial measurements of 3 × 3 Mueller matrices on a rat are demonstrated, followed by matrix decomposition into the depolarization and retardance matrices for further analysis. Our work shows the feasibility of implementing polarimetric imaging in a rigid endoscope conveniently and economically in order to reveal diagnostic information. PMID:24298405

  9. Solder wetting kinetics in narrow V-grooves

    SciTech Connect

    Yost, F.G.; Rye, R.R.; Mann, J.A. Jr.

    1997-12-01

    Experiments are performed to observe capillary flow in grooves cut into copper surfaces. Flow kinetics of two liquids, 1-heptanol and eutectic Sn-Pb solder, are modeled with modified Washburn kinetics and compared to flow data. It is shown that both liquids flow parabolically in narrow V-grooves, and the data scale as predicted by the modified Washburn model. The early portions of the flow kinetics are characterized by curvature in the length vs time relationship which is not accounted for in the modified Washburn model. This effect is interpreted in terms of a dynamic contact angle. It is concluded that under conditions of rapid flow, solder spreading can be understood as a simple fluid flow process. Slower kinetics, e.g. solder droplet spreading on flat surfaces, may be affected by subsidiary chemical processes such as reaction.

  10. CVD films of narrow atomically precise graphene nanoribbons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shekhirev, Mikhail; Lipatov, Alexey; Harkleroad, Ashley; Sinitskii, Alexander

    Atomically precise graphene nanoribbons (GNRs) is a promising material for the next-generation electronics and optoelectronics. So far, solution-based and surface-assisted approaches have been the two main routes to synthesize GNRs with atomically smooth armchair edges. However, efficient processing of the resulting GNRs into uniform thin films to fabricate GNR-based functional devices remains a formidable challenge. In this presentation we will report the synthesis of narrow armchair GNRs using an alternative approach - a radical polymerization of rationally designed molecular precursors. The technique allows fabrication of thin, transparent and conductive films of GNRs on almost any substrate. Microscopic structure and electrical properties of the fabricated GNR films will also be discussed.

  11. Prediction of narrow N* and {Lambda}* with hidden charm

    SciTech Connect

    Wu Jiajun; Molina, R.; Oset, E.; Zou, B. S.

    2011-10-24

    The interaction between various charmed mesons and charmed baryons, such as D-bar{Sigma}{sub c}-D-bar{Lambda}{sub c}, D-bar*{Sigma}{sub c}-D-bar*{Lambda}{sub c}, and related strangeness channels, are studied within the framework of the coupled channel unitary approach with the local hidden gauge formalism. Six narrow N* and {Lambda}* resonances are dynamically generated with mass above 4 GeV and width smaller than 100 MeV. These predicted new resonances definitely cannot be accommodated by quark models with three constituent quarks. We make estimates of production cross sections of these predicted resonances in p-barp collisions for PANDA at the forthcoming FAIR facility.

  12. Flow regimes and heat transfer in vertical narrow annuli

    SciTech Connect

    Ulke, A.; Goldberg, I.

    1993-11-01

    In shell side boiling heat exchangers narrow crevices that are formed between the tubes and the tube support structure provide areas for local thermal-hydraulic conditions which differ significantly from bulk fluid conditions. Understanding of the processes of boiling and dryout in flow restricted crevices can help in designing of tube support geometries to minimize the likelihood of tube support plate and tube corrosion observed in commercial power plant steam generators. This paper describes a one dimensional thermal-hydraulic model of a vertical crevice between a tube and a support plate with cylindrical holes. The annulus formed by the support plate hole and an eccentrically located tube has been represented by vertical strips. The formation, growth and collapse of a steam bubble in each strip has been determined. Based on the bubble history, and flow regimes characterized by ``isolated`` bubbles, ``coalesced`` bubbles and liquid deficient regions have been defined.

  13. Shining a new narrow band of light on old problems.

    PubMed

    Chan, Daniel K; Wang, Kenneth K

    2014-06-01

    Improvements in narrow band imaging (NBI) may provide an improved view of colonic mucosa for detection of polyps and adenomas. In this issue, Leung et al. report findings to suggest that this next-generation NBI technology is superior to conventional high-definition white light endoscopy in polyp detection. These findings are based on brighter illumination, which has been a problem with older generations of NBI, which did not increase polyp detection but were useful for polyp characterization. Although these findings are very promising for this new role of second-generation NBI in polyp detection, the study must be viewed with consideration of the history of the older NBI system, the analysis of which through multiple positive and negative studies ultimately led to the conclusion that it was not beneficial for detection. PMID:24896757

  14. Precisely tunable, narrow-band pulsed dye laser

    SciTech Connect

    Bhatia, P.S.; Keto, J.W.

    1996-07-01

    A narrow-band, precisely tunable dye laser pumped by an injection-seeded YAG laser is described. The laser achieves an output of 100 mJ/pulse and 40{percent} efficiency when one uses Rhodamine 6G dyes. The output pulse is Gaussian both in time and spatial profile. The laser oscillator employs an intracavity {acute e}talon that is repetitively pressure scanned over one free spectral range while the grating successively steps to consecutive {acute e}talon modes. We pressure scanned the {acute e}talon under computer control using a bellows. Methods are described for calibrating the tuning elements for absolute precision. We demonstrated that the laser has an absolute precision of {plus_minus}0.4 pm over a 1.0-nm scan. This accuracy is achievable over the wavelength range of a dye. {copyright} {ital 1996 Optical Society of America.}

  15. Water transportation across narrow channel of nanometer dimension

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wan, Rongzheng; Fang, Haiping

    2010-06-01

    Since the discovery of the carbon nanotube and aquaporin, the study of the transportation of water across nanochannels has become one of the hot subjects. When the radius of a nanochannel is only about one nanometer or a little larger, water confined in those nanoscale channels usually exhibits dynamics different from those in bulk system, such as the wet-dry transition due to the confinement, concerted hydrogen-bond orientations and flipping, concerted motion of water molecules, and strong interactions with external charges. Those dynamics correlate with the unique behavior of the water transportation across the channels, such as the extra-high permeability, excellent on-off gating behavior with response to the external mechanical and electrical signals and noises, enhancement by structure outside the channel, directional transportation driven by charges close to a channel or electric field. In this article, we review some of the recent progress on the study of the water molecules inside those narrow nanochannels.

  16. Optimization of narrow optical spectral filters for nonparallel monochromatic radiation.

    PubMed

    Linder, S L

    1967-07-01

    This paper delineates a method of determining the design criteria for narrow optical passband filters used in the reception of nonparallel modulated monochromatic radiation. The analysis results in straightforward mathematical expressions for calculating the filter width and design center wavelength which maximize the signal-to-noise ratio. Two cases are considered: (a) the filter is designed to have a maximum transmission (for normal incidence) at the incident wavelength, but with the spectral width optimized, and (b) both the design wavelength and the spectral width are optimized. It is shown that the voltage signal-to-noise ratio for case (b) is 2((1/2)) that of case (a). Numerical examples are calculated. PMID:20062163

  17. Quantum phase slip phenomenon in ultra-narrow superconducting nanorings

    PubMed Central

    Arutyunov, Konstantin Yu.; Hongisto, Terhi T.; Lehtinen, Janne S.; Leino, Leena I.; Vasiliev, Alexander L.

    2012-01-01

    The smaller the system, typically - the higher is the impact of fluctuations. In narrow superconducting wires sufficiently close to the critical temperature Tc thermal fluctuations are responsible for the experimentally observable finite resistance. Quite recently it became possible to fabricate sub-10 nm superconducting structures, where the finite resistivity was reported within the whole range of experimentally obtainable temperatures. The observation has been associated with quantum fluctuations capable to quench zero resistivity in superconducting nanowires even at temperatures T→0. Here we demonstrate that in tiny superconducting nanorings the same phenomenon is responsible for suppression of another basic attribute of superconductivity - persistent currents - dramatically affecting their magnitude, the period and the shape of the current-phase relation. The effect is of fundamental importance demonstrating the impact of quantum fluctuations on the ground state of a macroscopically coherent system, and should be taken into consideration in various nanoelectronic applications. PMID:22389762

  18. Narrow Field of View Zenith Radiometer (NFOV) Handbook

    SciTech Connect

    Chiu, C; Marshak, A; Hodges, G; Barnard, JC; Schmelzer, J

    2008-11-01

    The two-channel narrow field-of-view radiometer (NFOV2) is a ground-based radiometer that looks straight up and measures radiance directly above the instrument at wavelengths of 673 and 870 nm. The field-of-view of the instrument is 1.2 degrees, and the sampling time resolution is one second. Measurements of the NFOV2 have been used to retrieve optical properties for overhead clouds that range from patchy to overcast. With a one-second sampling rate of the NFOV2, faster than almost any other ARM Climate Research Facility (ACRF) instrument, we are able, for the first time, to capture changes in cloud optical properties at the natural time scale of cloud evolution.

  19. Leo Szilard: Physics, Politics, and the Narrow Margin of Hope.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lanouette, William

    1998-04-01

    Leo Szilard (1898-1964) was a creative physicist and biologist. But concern about how scientific discoveries might affect humanity also led him to seek political solutions to enlarge the benefits and limit the damage caused by his work. This disposition to save the world came to Szilard by the age of 10, when he read The Tragedy of Man, a Hungarian epic poem in which humanity faces extinction yet continues to survive by maintaining a narrow margin of hope. With this hope Szilard brought about improbable scientific and political feats (such as the nuclear chain reaction and the Moscow-Washington Hotline). This talk focuses on Szilard's many attempts in 1945 to prevent the atomic bombing of Japan. William Lanouette, a writer and public policy analyst, is the author of Genius in the Shadows: A Biography of Leo Szilard, The Man Behind the Bomb. (University of Chicago Press, 1994)

  20. Narrow-field radiometry in a quasi-isotropic atmosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holmes, A.; Palmer, J. M.; Tomasko, M. G.

    1979-01-01

    If a radiometer having a narrow field of view is used to measure the radiance of a source such as a quasi-isotropic atmosphere, a knowledge of the out-of-field responsivity is critical. For example, if a radiometer with a field of view of 5 deg (full-angle) has a relative responsivity of 0.0001 for the out-of-field radiation, the contribution of the out-of-field radiation (assuming an isotropic source subtending 2 steradians) is 10.5% of the total signal. Either the stray light suppression of the radiometer must be extremely high or methods of determining the out-of-field response must be developed. A description of one method of determining the effect of out-of-field response and its application to a planetary atmospheric radiometer is presented.

  1. Validity of the Janssen law in narrow granular columns.

    PubMed

    Bratberg, I; Måløy, K J; Hansen, A

    2005-11-01

    We have performed experiments on narrow granular columns to test the validity of the Janssen law under such conditions. The weight at the bottom of the cylinder and the compression and movement of the packing have been measured. The apparent mass dependence on height is not in good agreement with the Janssen law using a one-parameter fit. A two-parameter fit yielded good results for the apparent mass during upward and downward movement at constant velocity of the granular column inside the enclosing cylinder. The dependence of the apparent mass on the diameter of the column does not follow the Janssen law. Rather, it depends strongly on details of the packing. A slow force relaxation was observed when stopping the translational stage after upward motion. PMID:16231076

  2. The Tacoma Narrows Bridge Collapse on Film and Video

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olson, Don; Hook, Joseph; Doescher, Russell; Wolf, Steven

    2015-11-01

    This month marks the 75th anniversary of the Tacoma Narrows Bridge collapse. During a gale on Nov. 7, 1940, the bridge exhibited remarkable oscillations before collapsing spectacularly (Figs. 1-5). Physicists over the years have spent a great deal of time and energy studying this event. By using open-source analysis tools and digitized footage of the disaster, physics students in both high school and college can continue in this tradition. Students can watch footage of "Galloping Gertie," ask scientific questions about the bridge's collapse, analyze data, and draw conclusions from that analysis. Students should be encouraged to pursue their own investigations, but the question that drove our inquiry was this: "When physics classes watch modern video showing the oscillations and the free fall of the bridge fragments, are these scenes sped up, slowed down, or at the correct speed compared to what was observed by the eyewitnesses on Nov. 7, 1940?"

  3. PCF based high power narrow line width pulsed fiber laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, H.; Yan, P.; Xiao, Q.; Wang, Y.; Gong, M.

    2012-09-01

    Based on semiconductor diode seeded multi-stage cascaded fiber amplifiers, we have obtained 88-W average power of a 1063-nm laser with high repetition rate of up to 1.5 MHz and a constant 2-ns pulse duration. No stimulated Brillouin scattering pulse or optical damage occurred although the maximum pulse peak power has exceeded 112 kW. The output laser exhibits excellent beam quality (M2x = 1.24 and M2y = 1.18), associated with a spectral line width as narrow as 0.065 nm (FWHM). Additionally, we demonstrate high polarization extinction ratio of 18.4 dB and good pulse stabilities superior to 1.6 % (RMS).

  4. Concurrent bandgap narrowing and polarization enhancement in epitaxial ferroelectric nanofilms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tyunina, Marina; Yao, Lide; Chvostova, Dagmar; Dejneka, Alexandr; Kocourek, Tomas; Jelinek, Miroslav; Trepakov, Vladimir; van Dijken, Sebastiaan

    2015-04-01

    Perovskite-type ferroelectric (FE) crystals are wide bandgap materials with technologically valuable optical and photoelectric properties. Here, versatile engineering of electronic transitions is demonstrated in FE nanofilms of KTaO3, KNbO3 (KNO), and NaNbO3 (NNO) with a thickness of 10-30 unit cells. Control of the bandgap is achieved using heteroepitaxial growth of new structural phases on SrTiO3 (001) substrates. Compared to bulk crystals, anomalous bandgap narrowing is obtained in the FE state of KNO and NNO films. This effect opposes polarization-induced bandgap widening, which is typically found for FE materials. Transmission electron microscopy and spectroscopic ellipsometry measurements indicate that the formation of higher-symmetry structural phases of KNO and NNO produces the desirable red shift of the absorption spectrum towards visible light, while simultaneously stabilizing robust FE order. Tuning of optical properties in FE films is of interest for nanoscale photonic and optoelectronic devices.

  5. Narrow band amplification of light carrying orbital angular momentum.

    PubMed

    Borba, G C; Barreiro, S; Pruvost, L; Felinto, D; Tabosa, J W R

    2016-05-01

    We report on the amplification of an optical vortex beam carrying orbital angular momentum via induced narrow Raman gain in an ensemble of cold cesium atoms. A 20% single-pass Raman gain of a weak vortex signal field is observed with a spectral width of order of 1 MHz, much smaller than the natural width, demonstrating that the amplification process preserves the phase structure of the vortex beam. The gain is observed in the degenerated two-level system associated with the hyperfine transition 6S1/2(F = 3) ↔ 6P3/2(F' = 2) of cesium. Our experimental observations are explained with a simple theoretical model based on a three-level Λ system interacting coherently with the weak Laguerre-Gauss field and a strong coupling field, including an incoherent pumping rate between the two degenerate ground-states. PMID:27137618

  6. Narrow-field imaging of the lunar sodium exosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stern, S. Alan; Flynn, Brian C.

    1995-01-01

    We present the first results of a new technique for imaging the lunar Na atmosphere. The technique employs high resolution, a narrow bandpass, and specific observing geometry to suppress scattered light and image lunar atmospheric Na I emission down to approximately 50 km altitude. Analysis of four latitudinally dispersed images shows that the lunar Na atmosphere exhibits intersting latitudinal and radial dependencies. Application of a simple Maxwellian collisionless exosphere model indicates that: (1) at least two thermal populations are required to adequately fit the soldium's radial intensity behavior, and (2) the fractional abundances and temperatures of the two components vary systematically with latitude. We conclude that both cold (barometric) and hot (suprathermal) Na may coexist in the lunar atmosphere, either as distinct components or as elements of a continuum of populations ranging in temperature from the local surface temperature up to or exceeding escape energies.

  7. Narrow-line fiber-coupled modules for DPAL pumping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koenning, Tobias; McCormick, Dan; Irvin, David; Stapleton, Dean; Guiney, Tina; Patterson, Steve

    2015-03-01

    Recent advances in high power diode laser technologies have enabled advanced research on diode pumped alkali metal vapor lasers (DPALs). Due to their low quantum defect, DPALs offer the promise of scalability to very high average power levels while maintaining excellent beam quality. Research is being conducted on a variety of gain media species, requiring different pump wavelengths: near 852nm for cesium, 780nm for rubidium, 766nm for potassium, and 670nm for lithium atoms. The biggest challenge in pumping these materials efficiently is the narrow gain media absorption band of approximately 0.01nm. Typical high power diode lasers achieve spectral widths around 3nm (FWHM) in the near infrared spectrum. Gratings may be used internal or external to the cavity to reduce the spectral width to 0.5nm to 1nm for high power diode laser modules. Recently, experimental results have shown narrower line widths ranging from picometers (pm) at very low power levels to sub-100 picometers for water cooled stacks around 1kW of output power. The focus of this work is a further reduction in the spectral line width of high power diode laser bars emitting at 766nm, with full applicability to other wavelengths of interest. One factor limiting the reduction of the spectral line width is the optical absorption induced thermal gradient inside the volume Bragg grating (VBG). Simulated profiles and demonstrated techniques to minimize thermal gradients will be presented. To enable the next stage of DPAL research, a new series of fiber coupled modules is being introduced featuring greater than 400W from a 600μm core fiber of 0.22NA. The modules achieve a spectral width of <<0.1nm and wavelength tunability of +/- 0.15nm.

  8. Keeping the Edges Sharp II: Honing Simulations of Narrow Rings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rimlinger, Thomas; Hamilton, Douglas; Hahn, Joseph M.

    2016-05-01

    It has long been believed that shepherd satellites are necessary to keep narrow rings confined. While a pair of nearby satellites brackets Saturn’s F ring and Uranus’ Epsilon ring, dozens of other ringlets observed around the outer three planets seem to be unattended. Hamilton et al. (this meeting) have argued analytically that eccentric or inclined rings can maintain their sharp edges for millions or even billions of years despite continually dissipating energy. Here, we present numerical integrations showing isolated eccentric ringlets that do not spread; our model includes only the gravity from an oblate planet, ring self-gravity, and viscosity. We use the symplectic integrator epi_int written by Hahn & Spitale (2013).For narrow rings, the weak perturbation forces that we study act on secular rather than orbital timescales. Therefore, we find that we can use an unusually long timestep, in which these weak forces are applied once every ~30 orbits, with good energy and angular momentum conservation. Long timesteps allow us to run simulations that might otherwise take hours or even days in a matter of minutes. We present comparisons between simulations with identical initial conditions but varying timesteps to show that our approach is appropriate for this class of problems. This technique of speeding up numerical integrations works for any symplectic integrator, requiring only that the forces be weak and that the timescale of interest be long. Problems well suited to this approach (those with only secular and drag forces) include tidally-damped exoplanets and dust grains subject to radiation pressure and Poynting-Robertson drag.

  9. Narrow-track wheeled agricultural tractor parameter variation.

    PubMed

    Guzzomi, A; Rondelli, V

    2013-10-01

    Despite a general consensus among farmers, manufacturers, and researchers that wheeled agricultural tractor design has changed over time, there is little published evidence. There is debate as to whether the standardized rollover protective structure (ROPS) energy and force requirements, based on a tractor reference mass and pertaining to studies conducted more than 40 years ago, are appropriate for modern tractors. This article investigated the physical parameters of 326 modern narrow-track tractors, measured according to OECD Code 6 over 16 years (1993 to 2008 inclusive): 252 (-77%) were fixed-chassis tractors and 74 (-23%) were articulated. To understand the significance of design changes, the data were analyzed with respect to time and as a function of tractor mass. Articulated and fixed-chassis data were treated separately. The time data allowed qualitative analysis, while the mass data allowed quantitative analysis. The parameters show some changes over time and clearly indicate differences between articulated and fixed-chassis types. The parameter changes, along with the differences between types, may have important safety ramifications for ROPS energy absorption requirements, and these aspects are discussed. Regression lines with R2 values were fitted to the mass-related data for fixed-chassis and articulated tractors to determine the suitability of fit. The mass relations also displayed differences between fixed-chassis and articulated tractors. Thus, the most significant recommendation from this study is that the standardized testing procedure for narrow-track wheeled agricultural tractor category should be split into two groups: fixed-chassis and articulated. PMID:24673034

  10. Medclic: the Mediterranean in one click

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Troupin, Charles; Frontera, Biel; Sebastián, Kristian; Pau Beltran, Joan; Krietemeyer, Andreas; Gómara, Sonia; Gomila, Mikel; Escudier, Romain; Juza, Mélanie; Mourre, Baptiste; Garau, Angels; Cañellas, Tomeu; Tintoré, Joaquín

    2016-04-01

    "Medclic: the Mediterranean in one click" is a research and dissemination project focused on the scientific, technological and societal approaches of the Balearic Islands Coastal Observing and Forecasting System ({SOCIB}{www.socib.es}) in a collaboration with "la Caixa" Foundation. SOCIB aims at research excellence and the development of technology which enables progress toward the sustainable management of coastal and marine environments, providing solutions to meet the needs of society. Medclic goes one step forward and has two main goals: at the scientific level, to advance in establishing and understanding the mesoscale variability at the regional scale and its interaction, and thus improving the characterisation of the "oceanic weather" in the Mediterranean; at the outreach level: to bring SOCIB and the new paradigm of multi-platform observation in real time closer to society, through scientific outreach. SOCIB Data Centre is the core of the new multi-platform and real time oceanography and is responsible for directing the different stages of data management, ranging from data acquisition to its distribution and visualization through web applications. The system implemented relies on open source solutions and provides data in line with international standards and conventions (INSPIRE, netCDF Climate and Forecast, ldots). In addition, the Data Centre has implemented a REST web service, called Data Discovery. This service allows data generated by SOCIB to be integrated into applications developed by the Data Centre itself or by third parties, as it is the case with Medclic. Relying on this data distribution, the new web Medclic, www.medclic.es, constitutes an interactive scientific and educational area of communication that contributes to the rapprochement of the general public with the new marine and coastal observing technologies. Thanks to the Medclic web, data coming from new observing technologies in oceanography are available in real time and in one clic

  11. Mediterranean diet and Alzheimer disease mortality

    PubMed Central

    Scarmeas, Nikolaos; Luchsinger, Jose A.; Mayeux, Richard; Stern, Yaakov

    2009-01-01

    Background We previously reported that the Mediterranean diet (MeDi) is related to lower risk for Alzheimer disease (AD). Whether MeDi is associated with subsequent AD course and outcomes has not been investigated. Objectives To examine the association between MeDi and mortality in patients with AD. Methods A total of 192 community-based individuals in New York who were diagnosed with AD were prospectively followed every 1.5 years. Adherence to the MeDi (0- to 9-point scale with higher scores indicating higher adherence) was the main predictor of mortality in Cox models that were adjusted for period of recruitment, age, gender, ethnicity, education, APOE genotype, caloric intake, smoking, and body mass index. Results Eighty-five patients with AD (44%) died during the course of 4.4 (±3.6, 0.2 to 13.6) years of follow-up. In unadjusted models, higher adherence to MeDi was associated with lower mortality risk (for each additional MeDi point hazard ratio 0.79; 95% CI 0.69 to 0.91; p = 0.001). This result remained significant after controlling for all covariates (0.76; 0.65 to 0.89; p = 0.001). In adjusted models, as compared with AD patients at the lowest MeDi adherence fertile, those at the middle fertile had lower mortality risk (0.65; 0.38 to 1.09; 1.33 years’ longer survival), whereas subjects at the highest fertile had an even lower risk (0.27; 0.10 to 0.69; 3.91 years’ longer survival; p for trend = 0.003). Conclusion Adherence to the Mediterranean diet (MeDi) may affect not only risk for Alzheimer disease (AD) but also subsequent disease course: Higher adherence to the MeDi is associated with lower mortality in AD. The gradual reduction in mortality risk for higher MeDi adherence tertiles suggests a possible dose–response effect. PMID:17846408

  12. Observing Mean Annual Mediterranean Maquis Ecosystem Respiration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marras, S.; Bellucco, V.; Mereu, S.; Sirca, C.; Spano, D.

    2014-12-01

    In semi arid ecosystems, extremely low Soil Water Content (SWC) values may limit ecosystem respiration (Reco) to the point of hiding the typical exponential response of respiration to temperature. This work is aimed to understand and model the Reco of an evergreen Mediterranean maquis ecosystem and to estimate the contribution of soil CO2 efflux to Reco. The selected site is located in the center of the Mediterranean sea in Sardinia (Italy). Mean annual precipitation is 588 mm and mean annual temperature is 15.9 °C. Vegetation cover is heterogeneous: 70% covered by shrubs and 30% of bare soil. Net Ecosystem Exchange (NEE) is monitored with an Eddy Covariance (EC) tower since April 2004. Soil collars were placed underneath the dominant species (Juniperus phoenicea and Pistacia lentiscus) and over the bare soil. Soil CO2 efflux was measured once a month since April 2012. Soil temperature and SWC were monitored continuously at 5 cm depth in 4 different positions close to the soil collars. Six years of EC measurements (2005-2010) and two years of soil CO2 efflux (2012-2013) measurements were analysed. Reco was estimated from the measured EC fluxes at night after filtering for adequate turbulence (u* > 1.5). Reco measurements were then binned into 1°C intervals and median values were first fitted using the Locally Estimated Scatterplot Smoothing (LOESS) method (to determine the dominant trend of the experimental curve) Reco shows an exponential increase with air and soil temperature, until SWC measured at 0.2 m depth remains above 19% vol. Secondly, the coefficients of the selected Lloyd and Taylor (1994) were estimated through the nonlinear least square (nls) method: Rref (ecosystem respiration rate at a reference temperature of 10 °C was equal to 1.65 μmol m-2 s-1 and E0 (activation energy parameter that determines the temperature sensitivity) was equal to 322.46. In addition, bare and drier soils show a reduced response of measured CO2 efflux to increasing

  13. MEDARGO: A drifting profiler program in the Mediterranean Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poulain, P.-M.; Barbanti, R.; Font, J.; Cruzado, A.; Millot, C.; Gertman, I.; Griffa, A.; Molcard, A.; Rupolo, V.; Le Bras, S.; Petit de La Villeon, L.

    2006-11-01

    In the framework of the EU-funded MFSTEP project, autonomous drifting profilers were deployed throughout the Mediterranean Sea to collect temperature and salinity profile data and to measure subsurface currents. The realization of this profiler program in the Mediterranean, referred to as MEDARGO, is described and assessed using data collected between June 2004 and March 2006 (including more than 1500 profiles). Recommendations are provided for the permanent future implementation of MEDARGO in support of operational oceanography in the Mediterranean Sea. More than twenty drifting profilers were deployed from research vessels and ships-of-opportunity in most areas of the Mediterranean. They were all programmed to execute 5-day cycles with drift at a neutral parking depth of 350 m and CTD profiles from either 700 or 2000 m up to the surface. They stayed at the sea surface for about 6 h to be localised by, and transmit the data to, the Argos satellite system. The temperature and salinity data obtained with pumped Sea-Bird CTD instruments were processed and made available to the scientific community and to operational users in near-real time using standard ARGO protocols, and were assimilated into Mediterranean numerical forecasting models. In general, the cycling and sampling characteristics chosen for the MEDARGO profilers were found to be adequate for the Mediterranean. However, it is strongly advised to use GPS and global cellular phone telemetry or the future Argos bi-directional satellite system in order to avoid data compression and losses, for the continuation of the Mediterranean drifting profiler program.

  14. Environmental Changes in the pre-Messinian Mediterranean Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mayser, J. P.; Marzocchi, A.; Lunt, D. J.; Pancost, R. D.; Sierro, F. J.; Flecker, R.

    2015-12-01

    The Messinian Salinity Crisis (MSC) is an extreme event which occurred in the Mediterranean Basin at the end of the Miocene (5.97 to 5.33 Ma) resulting in thick evaporite deposits. There is evidence of restriction of the Atlantic-Mediterranean corridor several million years before the first evaporites. These pre-MSC successions are dominated by precession-controlled lithological variations which are putative responses to changing fluvial runoff. Recent climate simulations indicate that runoff into the Eastern Mediterranean is influenced by monsoonal precipitation from the North African continent. The Sorbas Basin in Spain and the Pissouri Section on Cyprus both contain pre-MSC successions from the margins of the Mediterranean Basin. We analysed biomarkers in conjunction with existing faunal records to understand whether simulated runoff changes were manifested in the sedimentological record and organic matter assemblages. This multi-proxy dataset allows us to compare the environmental evolution of the western vs. eastern basins prior to the MSC and allows us to test both climate models for Messinian climate variabitly and conceptual models for sedimentation. In the Sorbas Basin, pronounced orbital changes in faunal assemblages reflect Mediterrannean influences into the local Sorbas system; however, these are not manifested in biomarker assemblages, which are likely governed by more local hydrological processes, which in the Western Mediterranean lacked a strong precessional control. In the Pissouri Basin, however, terrigeous OM inputs sources exhibit strong orbital variations, suggesting a close link to precessionally driven changes in rainfall. Together, these results validate the sapropel formation hypothesis in the Mediterranean and confirm a strong precessional control on the African monsoon during the late Miocene; however, they also reveal the complex controls on the hydrology and sedimentology of marginal Mediterranean basins, such as the Sorbas Basin.

  15. Setting Priorities for Regional Conservation Planning in the Mediterranean Sea

    PubMed Central

    Micheli, Fiorenza; Levin, Noam; Giakoumi, Sylvaine; Katsanevakis, Stelios; Abdulla, Ameer; Coll, Marta; Fraschetti, Simonetta; Kark, Salit; Koutsoubas, Drosos; Mackelworth, Peter; Maiorano, Luigi; Possingham, Hugh P.

    2013-01-01

    Spatial prioritization in conservation is required to direct limited resources to where actions are most urgently needed and most likely to produce effective conservation outcomes. In an effort to advance the protection of a highly threatened hotspot of marine biodiversity, the Mediterranean Sea, multiple spatial conservation plans have been developed in recent years. Here, we review and integrate these different plans with the goal of identifying priority conservation areas that represent the current consensus among the different initiatives. A review of six existing and twelve proposed conservation initiatives highlights gaps in conservation and management planning, particularly within the southern and eastern regions of the Mediterranean and for offshore and deep sea habitats. The eighteen initiatives vary substantially in their extent (covering 0.1–58.5% of the Mediterranean Sea) and in the location of additional proposed conservation and management areas. Differences in the criteria, approaches and data used explain such variation. Despite the diversity among proposals, our analyses identified ten areas, encompassing 10% of the Mediterranean Sea, that are consistently identified among the existing proposals, with an additional 10% selected by at least five proposals. These areas represent top priorities for immediate conservation action. Despite the plethora of initiatives, major challenges face Mediterranean biodiversity and conservation. These include the need for spatial prioritization within a comprehensive framework for regional conservation planning, the acquisition of additional information from data-poor areas, species or habitats, and addressing the challenges of establishing transboundary governance and collaboration in socially, culturally and politically complex conditions. Collective prioritised action, not new conservation plans, is needed for the north, western, and high seas of the Mediterranean, while developing initial information

  16. Setting priorities for regional conservation planning in the Mediterranean Sea.

    PubMed

    Micheli, Fiorenza; Levin, Noam; Giakoumi, Sylvaine; Katsanevakis, Stelios; Abdulla, Ameer; Coll, Marta; Fraschetti, Simonetta; Kark, Salit; Koutsoubas, Drosos; Mackelworth, Peter; Maiorano, Luigi; Possingham, Hugh P

    2013-01-01

    Spatial prioritization in conservation is required to direct limited resources to where actions are most urgently needed and most likely to produce effective conservation outcomes. In an effort to advance the protection of a highly threatened hotspot of marine biodiversity, the Mediterranean Sea, multiple spatial conservation plans have been developed in recent years. Here, we review and integrate these different plans with the goal of identifying priority conservation areas that represent the current consensus among the different initiatives. A review of six existing and twelve proposed conservation initiatives highlights gaps in conservation and management planning, particularly within the southern and eastern regions of the Mediterranean and for offshore and deep sea habitats. The eighteen initiatives vary substantially in their extent (covering 0.1-58.5% of the Mediterranean Sea) and in the location of additional proposed conservation and management areas. Differences in the criteria, approaches and data used explain such variation. Despite the diversity among proposals, our analyses identified ten areas, encompassing 10% of the Mediterranean Sea, that are consistently identified among the existing proposals, with an additional 10% selected by at least five proposals. These areas represent top priorities for immediate conservation action. Despite the plethora of initiatives, major challenges face Mediterranean biodiversity and conservation. These include the need for spatial prioritization within a comprehensive framework for regional conservation planning, the acquisition of additional information from data-poor areas, species or habitats, and addressing the challenges of establishing transboundary governance and collaboration in socially, culturally and politically complex conditions. Collective prioritised action, not new conservation plans, is needed for the north, western, and high seas of the Mediterranean, while developing initial information-based plans

  17. The role of continental margins in the final stages of arc formation: Constraints from teleseismic tomography of the Gibraltar and Calabrian Arc (Western Mediterranean)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Argnani, Andrea; Cimini, Giovanni Battista; Frugoni, Francesco; Monna, Stephen; Montuori, Caterina

    2016-05-01

    The deep seismicity and lateral distribution of seismic velocity in the Central Western Mediterranean, point to the existence under the Alboran and Tyrrhenian Seas of two lithospheric slabs reaching the mantle transition zone. Gibraltar and Calabrian narrow arcs correspond to the slabs. Similarities in the tectonic and mantle structure of the two areas have been explained by a common subduction and roll-back mechanism, in which the two arcs are symmetrical end members. We present a new 3-D tomographic model at mantle scale for the Calabrian Arc and compare it with a recently published model for the Gibraltar Arc by Monna et al. (2013a). The two models, calculated with inversion of teleseismic phase arrivals, have a scale and parametrization that allow for a direct comparison. The inclusion in both inversions of ocean bottom seismometer broadband data improves the resolution of the areas underlying the seafloor networks. This additional information is used to resolve the deep structure and constrain the reconstruction of the Central Western Mediterranean geodynamic evolution. The Gibraltar tomography model suggests that the slab is separated from the Atlantic oceanic domain by a portion of African continental margin, whereas the Calabrian model displays a continuous oceanic slab that is connected, via a narrow passage (~ 350 km), to the Ionian basin oceanic domain. Starting from the comparison of the two models we propose the following interpretation: within the Mediterranean geodynamic regime (dominated by slab rollback) the geometry of the African continental margin, located on the lower plate, represents a critical control on the evolution of subduction. As buoyant continental lithosphere entered the subduction zones, slab pull caused tears in the subducted lithosphere. This tectonic response, which occurred in the final stages of arc evolution and was strongly controlled by the paleogeography of the subducted plates, explains the observed differences between the

  18. Hereditary disorders in the Eastern Mediterranean Region.

    PubMed Central

    Hamamy, H.; Alwan, A.

    1994-01-01

    Hereditary diseases and congenital malformations have been reported to affect 2-5% of all live births. Available evidence suggests that genetic disorders are equally important also in countries of the Eastern Mediterranean Region. Considerable achievements have been made over the last two decades in controlling communicable diseases in the region. Concurrently, there has been a mounting awareness of the increasing importance of hereditary disorders. Certain genetically determined diseases such as the haemoglobinopathies and enzymopathies are extremely common in the region and the need to initiate public health measures for their control is increasingly being recognized. The following factors may contribute to the elevated prevalence of genetically determined disorders: the high consanguinity rates; the high frequency of haemoglobinopathies and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency; the trend of continuing to bear children up to menopause; the general lack of public awareness about genetic diseases; and the dearth of genetic services in the region. These and some other related issues are discussed in detail in this review article. PMID:8131251

  19. Potential vorticity patterns in Mediterranean hurricanes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laviola, Sante; Marcello Miglietta, M.; Cerrai, Diego; Cattani, Elsa; Levizzani, Vincenzo

    2016-04-01

    Two new variables have been introduced to better identify the potential vorticity (PV) anomalies due to the intrusion of dry stratospheric air from those induced by the diabatic latent heating. This new approach has been applied to the analysis of three Mediterranean tropical-like cyclones characterized by heavy precipitation patterns. Model simulations show that the interaction between an upper level PV streamer, located on the left exit of a jet stream and a middle-low level PV anomaly, induced by the convection development around the low level vortex, plays a key role in the intensification of cyclones in all cases. These anomalies, despite their strong mutual interaction, do not form a fully developed PV tower. In the mature stage, the shape of the upper level PV anomaly around the cyclone is different for each case and appears somehow dependent on the lifetime of the vortex. A first comparison with satellite-derived products seems to confirm the initial results from model simulations.

  20. Phenomenology of the Eastern Mediterranean Transient

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roether, W.

    2003-04-01

    The profound deep-water changes now commonly termed the Eastern Mediterranean transient (EMT) were well underway during the POEM-BC 1991 hydrographic survey. They were indicated in T/S obervations in the southern Aegean and in current meter data in the Cretan Arc straits even earlier, and had caused anomalous ocean bottom heat fluxes observed in 1993-94. When METEOR survey M31/1 provided the first coherent description of the EMT, it was fully developed. The classical Adriatic deep water source had stopped, while the Aegean had released about 7 Sverdup* years of highly saline waters, which affected much of the waters outside the Cretan Arc, mostly so below about 1600 m depth. The path and the hydrographic properties of the classical Levantine Intermediate Water had also been altered. The EMT evolution after 1995 has been detailed in various subsequent surveys. While promi- nence of the Aegean source decreased, the Adriatic dense water source recovered only gradually, inducing stagnancy over a good part of the deep waters. The sub- surface waters have continued to be in a highly transient stage, and the prospect is that this situation will remain for many years to come. The eventual outcome, inclu- ding the future role of the Aegean as a source of dense waters, remains open.

  1. Mediterranean Diet and Cardiodiabesity: A Review

    PubMed Central

    García-Fernández, Elena; Rico-Cabanas, Laura; Rosgaard, Nanna; Estruch, Ramón; Bach-Faig, Anna

    2014-01-01

    Cardiodiabesity has been used to define and describe the well-known relationship between type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (T2DM), obesity, the metabolic syndrome (MetS) and cardiovascular disease (CVD). The objective of this study was to perform a scientific literature review with a systematic search to examine all the cardiovascular risk factors combined and their relationship with adherence to the Mediterranean Diet (MedDiet) pattern as primary prevention against cardiodiabesity in a holistic approach. Research was conducted using the PubMed database including clinical trials, cross-sectional and prospective cohort studies. Thirty-seven studies were reviewed: fourteen related to obesity, ten to CVD, nine to MetS, and four to T2DM. Indeed 33 provided strong evidence on the association between adherence to a MedDiet and a reduced incidence of collective cardiodiabesity risk in epidemiological studies. This scientific evidence makes the MedDiet pattern very useful for preventive strategies directed at the general population and also highlights the need to consider all these diet-related risk factors and health outcomes together in daily primary care. PMID:25192027

  2. Recent nutrient dynamics in the Mediterranean Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Kitack; Moon, Ji-Young

    2016-04-01

    The concentrations of nitrate (N) and phosphate (P), and the N:P ratio in the upper water column of the Mediterranean Sea (MED) were examined using observational data (~173,000 data points) collected since 1980s. The observed trends were found to distinctly evolve in the western and eastern MED. In the western MED the N and P concentrations have rapidly increased over time and was broadly consistent with the riverine input history from the populated areas surrounding the western MED. Contrarily, the N and P concentrations in the eastern MED markedly increased up until the mid-1995 and briefly remained high between 1995 and 2000. The N concentration rapidly decreased thereafter. In particular, the three-phase temporal transition of N and P in the eastern MED (increase-constant-decline) was more consistent with the emission history of pollutant nitrogen from the western European continent, in which regulation of emissions of pollutant nitrogen has been in place since 1970s. Our analysis implies that the recent N dynamics in the upper MED appeared to be sensitive to input dynamics of anthropogenic N, via atmospheric deposition and river. This conclusion is further strengthened by good agreement between the integrated rate of increase in the upper-water N inventory and the total anthropogenic N input during the past 30 years.

  3. Architectural plasticity in a Mediterranean winter annual

    PubMed Central

    Shemesh, Hagai; Zaitchik, Benjamin; Acuña, Tania; Novoplansky, Ariel

    2012-01-01

    Size variability in plants may be underlain by overlooked components of architectural plasticity. In annual plants, organ sizes are expected to depend on the availability and reliability of resources and developmental time. Given sufficient resources and developmental time, plants are expected to develop a greater number of large branches, which would maximize fitness in the long run. However, under restrictive growth conditions and environmental reliability, developing large branches might be risky and smaller branches are expected to foster higher final fitness. Growth and architecture of Trifolium purpureum (Papilionaceae) plants from both Mediterranean (MED) and semi-arid (SAR) origins were studied, when plants were subjected to variable water availability, photoperiod cues and germination timing. Although no clear architectural plasticity could be found in response to water availability, plants subjected to photoperiod cuing typical to late spring developed fewer basal branches. Furthermore, plants that germinated late were significantly smaller, with fewer basal branches, compared with plants which grew for the same time, starting at the beginning of the growing season. The results demonstrate an intricate interplay between size and architectural plasticities, whereby size modifications are readily induced by environmental factors related to prevalent resource availability but architectural plasticity is only elicited following the perception of reliable anticipatory cues. PMID:22499177

  4. Study of the impact of cyclogenesis at the Mediterranean Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ribo, M.; Llasat, C.

    2009-09-01

    The Mediterranean Basin is usually affected by high impact weather events, generating high impacts in all Mediterranean countries and causing important damages. This basin is surrounded by mountains and arid regions, and the interaction of the air flow with the orography barriers produces many effects, the most important is the formation of low pressure centers. This is one of the reasons why the Mediterranean Sea is considered to be the most cyclogenetic area in the world (Jansà, 1997). Floods are also one of the most important natural hazards in the Mediterranean Basin. Flood events occur when soil absorption, runoff or drainage cannot adequately disperse intense rainfall from quasi-stationary or stationary weather systems in short time periods. In some occasions these floods produce high social impact in the affected areas. Our work presents the study of the relationship between the flood episodes and the presence of cyclones in the Mediterranean Basin during those episodes, between 1990 and 2004. Information about social impact of each event has also been considered. To do these analyses the MEDEX database (MEDiterranean EXperiment on cyclones that produce high impact weather in the Mediterranean) has been improved in the frame work of the European FLASH project, and information about cyclones and rainfall has been extracted from the MEDEX cyclones database. A total of 217 flood events had been identified. Once the presence of one or more cyclones during each flood episode has been identified, temporal and regional analyses were made to determine the distribution of the cyclonic centers and to study the evolution of the events. Mediterranean cyclogenesis is leaded by influence of external systems (along the African coast, from the Atlantic Ocean, and from the west of Europe), although the majority of the cyclones (87% of the studied cases) are generated in the Mediterranean Basin, under influence of preexistent systems. There are different Mediterranean

  5. Historical colonization and demography of the Mediterranean damselfish, Chromis chromis.

    PubMed

    Domingues, Vera S; Bucciarelli, Giuseppe; Almada, Vitor C; Bernardi, Giacomo

    2005-11-01

    The desiccation of the Mediterranean Sea during the Messinian Salinity Crisis 6.0-5.3 million years ago (Ma), caused a major extinction of the marine ichthyofauna of the Mediterranean. This was followed by an abrupt replenishment of the Mediterranean from the Atlantic after the opening of the Strait of Gibraltar. In this study, we combined demographic and phylogeographic approaches using mitochondrial and nuclear DNA markers to test the alternative hypotheses of where (Atlantic or Mediterranean) and when (before or after the Messinian Salinity Crisis) speciation occurred in the Mediterranean damselfish, Chromis chromis. The closely related geminate transisthmian pair Chromis multilineata and Chromis atrilobata was used as a way of obtaining an internally calibrated molecular clock. We estimated C. chromis speciation timing both by determining the time of divergence between C. chromis and its Atlantic sister species Chromis limbata (0.93-3.26 Ma depending on the molecular marker used, e.g. 1.23-1.39 Ma for the control region), and by determining the time of coalescence for C. chromis based on mitochondrial control region sequences (0.14-0.21 Ma). The time of speciation of C. chromis was always posterior to the replenishment of the Mediterranean basin, after the Messinian Salinity Crisis. Within the Mediterranean, C. chromis population structure and demographic characteristics revealed a genetic break at the Peloponnese, Greece, with directional and eastbound gene flow between western and eastern groups. The eastern group was found to be more recent and with a faster growing population (coalescent time = 0.09-0.13 Ma, growth = 485.3) than the western group (coalescent time = 0.13-0.20 Ma, growth = 325.6). Our data thus suggested a western origin of C. chromis, most likely within the Mediterranean. Low sea water levels during the glacial periods, the hydrographic regime of the Mediterranean and dispersal restriction during the short pelagic larval phase of C. chromis

  6. Soil erosion in a man-made landscape: the Mediterranean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cerdà, A.; Ruiz Sinoga, J. D.; Cammeraat, L. H.

    2012-04-01

    Mediterranean-type ecosystems are characterised by a seasonally contrasted distribution of precipitation, by the coincidence of the driest and hottest season in summer, by an often-mountainous terrain, and by a long history of intense human occupation, especially around the Mediterranean Sea. The history of the Mediterranean lands is the history of human impacts on the soil system, and soil erosion is the most intense and widespread impact on this land where high intensity and uneven rainfall is found. A review of the soil erosion rates measured in the Mediterranean basin will be shown. The measurements done by means of erosion pins, topographical measurements, rainfall simulators, Gerlach collectors in open or close plots, watershed/basin measurements, reservoirs siltation and historical data will be shown. A review of the soil erosion models applied in the Mediterranean will be shown. The tentative approach done until October 2011 show that the soil erosion rates on Mediterranean type ecosystems are not as high as was supposed by the pioneers in the 70's. And this is probably due to the fact that the soils are very shallow and sediments are not available after millennia of high erosion rates. This is related to the large amount of rock fragments are covering the soil, and the rock outcrops that are found in the upper slope trams and the summits. Soil erosion in the Mediterranean is seasonal due to the rainfall concentration in winter, and highly variable within years as the high intensity rainfall events control the sediment production. Natural vegetation is adapted to the Mediterranean environmental conditions, and they are efficient to control the soil losses. An example are the forest fire that increase the soil losses but this is a temporal change as after 2-4 years the soil erosion rates are similar to the pre-fire period. Agriculture lands are the source of sediments although the highest erosion rates are found in badland areas that cover a small part of

  7. Biogeomorphic responses to flow regulation and fine sediment supply in Mediterranean streams (the Guadalete River, southern Spain)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    González del Tánago, M.; Bejarano, M. D.; García de Jalón, D.; Schmidt, J. C.

    2015-09-01

    Geomorphic responses to damming are primarily determined by the magnitude of sediment transport and sediment supply alteration and by the resulting change in the balance between the two. The former change is caused by alterations in the flow regime that are caused by reservoir operations. Flow regime changes also affect the distribution and amount of riparian vegetation that, in turn, also may enhance geomorphic responses. The latter change is caused by sediment trapping in reservoirs and by the magnitude of sediment supply from watersheds that are downstream from the dam. We examined the bio-geomorphic responses to flow regulation along a Mediterranean stream located in an agricultural area of southern Spain where there is significant fine sediment erosion from adjacent hillsides. We measured changes in active channel width and riparian corridor features during the last fifty years, based on field work and aerial photographs surveys from 1956, 1984 and 2004. We assessed the hydrological alteration and sediment delivery trends linked to dam operation and land use changes. Channel narrowing of nearly 75% and 30% reduction in total corridor area, together with average accretion rates of 0.045 m y-1 and vegetation encroachment with a 305% increase of mature forest occurred between 1956 and 2004. Causal linkages were attributed to the strong reduction of peak flows and transport capacity of flows, together with land-use changes that likely promoted increased fine sediment delivery. Vegetation overgrowth favored by increased summer flows could contribute to the narrowing and aggradation processes. Our results differ from channel responses to damming in Mediterranean regions dominated by steep gradient gravel bed rivers, and highlight the relevance of topography and land-use affecting the sediment regime downstream from the dams. We argue for a more holistic approach of water resources and land-use management at the catchment scale in order to understand the synergistic

  8. Evaluation of Rainfall-Runoff Models for Mediterranean Subcatchments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cilek, A.; Berberoglu, S.; Donmez, C.

    2016-06-01

    The development and the application of rainfall-runoff models have been a corner-stone of hydrological research for many decades. The amount of rainfall and its intensity and variability control the generation of runoff and the erosional processes operating at different scales. These interactions can be greatly variable in Mediterranean catchments with marked hydrological fluctuations. The aim of the study was to evaluate the performance of rainfall-runoff model, for rainfall-runoff simulation in a Mediterranean subcatchment. The Pan-European Soil Erosion Risk Assessment (PESERA), a simplified hydrological process-based approach, was used in this study to combine hydrological surface runoff factors. In total 128 input layers derived from data set includes; climate, topography, land use, crop type, planting date, and soil characteristics, are required to run the model. Initial ground cover was estimated from the Landsat ETM data provided by ESA. This hydrological model was evaluated in terms of their performance in Goksu River Watershed, Turkey. It is located at the Central Eastern Mediterranean Basin of Turkey. The area is approximately 2000 km2. The landscape is dominated by bare ground, agricultural and forests. The average annual rainfall is 636.4mm. This study has a significant importance to evaluate different model performances in a complex Mediterranean basin. The results provided comprehensive insight including advantages and limitations of modelling approaches in the Mediterranean environment.

  9. Clastic depositional styles and reservoir potential of Mediterranean basins

    SciTech Connect

    Bouma, A.H. )

    1990-05-01

    A variety of tectonic styles and activities throughout the late Mesozoic and younger epochs influenced sediment transport to the Mediterranean basins and, consequently, the approach needed to finding reservoir-type clastics. The style of the present-day basins varies from west to east, with large basinal depressions and continental rises in the western province, more elongate shapes in the central area, and numerous small basins and trenches in the eastern Mediterranean. In general terms, all these basins contain a similar fill: a deep-water sequence older than late Miocene, overlain by upper Miocene evaporites, and topped by Pliocene-Quaternary clastics. The exact type of fill depends on several factors, including proximity to the sediment source, climatic conditions, subsidence and tectonic activity, and tectono-eustatic or glacio-eustatic oscillations. Investigations on many of the clastic reservoirs in Mediterranean basins should emphasize submarine fans. The modern Mediterranean Sea contains several mid-sized fans (Rhone, Ebro, Valencia, and Nile fans) and many small ones (e.g., Crati Fan). There are several well-studied Tertiary subsurface and outcropping turbidite systems. The concept of deep-water marine sands, and many of the initial studies, began with some of the now classic outcrops in Italy, France, and Spain. A well-integrated study of both modern and ancient turbidite series is needed to construct basic exploration models for the Mediterranean region. 9 figs., 1 tab.

  10. Ozone and carbon monoxide budgets over the Eastern Mediterranean.

    PubMed

    Myriokefalitakis, S; Daskalakis, N; Fanourgakis, G S; Voulgarakis, A; Krol, M C; Aan de Brugh, J M J; Kanakidou, M

    2016-09-01

    The importance of the long-range transport (LRT) on O3 and CO budgets over the Eastern Mediterranean has been investigated using the state-of-the-art 3-dimensional global chemistry-transport model TM4-ECPL. A 3-D budget analysis has been performed separating the Eastern from the Western basins and the boundary layer (BL) from the free troposphere (FT). The FT of the Eastern Mediterranean is shown to be a strong receptor of polluted air masses from the Western Mediterranean, and the most important source of polluted air masses for the Eastern Mediterranean BL, with about 40% of O3 and of CO in the BL to be transported from the FT aloft. Regional anthropogenic sources are found to have relatively small impact on regional air quality in the area, contributing by about 8% and 18% to surface levels of O3 and CO, respectively. Projections using anthropogenic emissions for the year 2050 but neglecting climate change calculate a surface O3 decrease of about 11% together with a surface CO increase of roughly 10% in the Eastern Mediterranean. PMID:27135565

  11. Little Ice Age glaciers in the Mediterranean mountains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hughes, Philip

    2014-05-01

    Only a few small glaciers survive today in the Mountains of the Mediterranean. Notable examples are found in the Pyrenees, Maritime Alps, Italian Apennines, the Dinaric and Albanian Alps and the mountains of Turkey. Many glaciers disappeared during the 20th Century. Glaciers were much larger and more numerous during the Little Ice Age (Hughes, 2014). Small glaciers even existed as far south as the High Atlas of Morocco and the Sierra Nevada of southern Spain. In more northerly areas, such as the western Balkans, glaciers and permanent snow patches occupied hundreds of cirques on relatively low-lying mountains. In the High Atlas and the Sierra Nevada no glaciers exist today, whilst in the Balkans only a few modern glaciers have been reported. A similar situation is apparent throughout the mountains of the Mediterranean region. New evidence for glacier change since the Little Ice Age will be published soon in Hughes (2014) and this paper reviews the extent, timing and climatic significance of Little Ice Age glaciation in the Mediterranean region. Reference: Hughes, P.D. (2014) Little Ice Age glaciers in the Mediterranean mountains. In: Carozza, J.-M., Devillers, B., Morhange, C. (eds) Little Ice Age in the Mediterranean, Méditerranée, volume 123.

  12. Intervention studies on Mediterranean diet and cardiovascular risk.

    PubMed

    Lairon, Denis

    2007-10-01

    The traditional Mediterranean diet, as studied in the 1950s to 1960s in the South of Europe, is characterized by moderate energy intake, low animal fat, high olive oil, high cereals, high legumes, nuts and vegetables, and regular and moderate wine. A Mediterranean-type diet is being developed to mimic the traditional one and fit with present life style. While numerous epidemiological studies have supported the concept that adherence to the traditional Mediterranean diet is beneficial for health and particularly protects against cardiovascular disease, the limited number of intervention studies in this field have not yet provided major support. Nevertheless, the dietary interventions performed until now have demonstrated that adoption of a Mediterranean-type diet reduces several cardiovascular risk factors in subjects at risk (primary prevention) and/or cardiovascular events or mortality in patients after a first cardiac event (secondary prevention). Among numerous foodstuffs characterizing the Mediterranean diet, virgin olive oil has been shown to display beneficial effects on a wide range of risk factors. PMID:17879996

  13. Discrimination of common Mediterranean plant species using field spectroradiometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manevski, Kiril; Manakos, Ioannis; Petropoulos, George P.; Kalaitzidis, Chariton

    2011-12-01

    Field spectroradiometry of land surface objects supports remote sensing analysis, facilitates the discrimination of vegetation species, and enhances the mapping efficiency. Especially in the Mediterranean, spectral discrimination of common vegetation types, such as phrygana and maquis species, remains a challenge. Both phrygana and maquis may be used as a direct indicator for grazing management, fire history and severity, and the state of the wider ecosystem equilibrium. This study aims to investigate the capability of field spectroradiometry supporting remote sensing analysis of the land cover of a characteristic Mediterranean area. Five common Mediterranean maquis and phrygana species were examined. Spectra acquisition was performed during an intensive field campaign deployed in spring 2010, supported by a novel platform MUFSPEM@MED (Mobile Unit for Field SPEctral Measurements at the MEDiterranean) for high canopy measurements. Parametric and non-parametric statistical tests have been applied to the continuum-removed reflectance of the species in the visible to shortwave infrared spectral range. Interpretation of the results indicated distinct discrimination between the studied species at specific spectral regions. Statistically significant wavelengths were principally found in both the visible and the near infrared regions of the electromagnetic spectrum. Spectral bands in the shortwave infrared demonstrated significant discrimination features for the examined species adapted to Mediterranean drought. All in all, results confirmed the prospect for a more accurate mapping of the species spatial distribution using remote sensing imagery coupled with in situ spectral information.

  14. Whispering-Gallery-Mode Tunable Narrow-Band-Pass Filter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Savchenkov, Anatoliy; Iltchenko, Vladimir; Matsko, Andrey; Maleki, Lute

    2004-01-01

    An experimental tunable, narrow-band-pass electro-optical filter is based on a whispering-gallery resonator. This device is a prototype of tunable filters needed for the further development of reconfigurable networking wavelength-division multiplexers and communication systems that utilize radio-frequency (more specifically, microwave) subcarrier signals on optical carrier signals. The characteristics of whispering-gallery resonators that make them attractive for such applications include high tuning speed, compactness, wide tuning range, low power consumption, and compatibility with single-mode optical fibers. In addition, relative to Fabry-Perot resonators, these devices offer advantages of greater robustness and lower cost. As described in several prior NASA Tech Briefs articles, a whispering-gallery resonator is a spheroidal, disk-like, or toroidal body made of a highly transparent material. It is so named because it is designed to exploit whispering-gallery electromagnetic modes, which are waveguide modes that propagate circumferentially and are concentrated in a narrow toroidal region centered on the equatorial plane and located near the outermost edge. The experimental whispering-gallery tunable filter (see figure) is made from a disk of Z-cut LiNbO3 of 4.8-mm diameter and 0.17-mm thickness. The perimeter of the disk is rounded to a radius of curvature of 100 m. Metal coats on the flat faces of the disk serve as electrodes for exploiting the electro-optical effect in LiNbO3 for tuning. There is no metal coat on the rounded perimeter region, where the whispering-gallery modes propagate. Light is coupled from an input optical fiber into the whispering-gallery modes by means of a diamond prism. Another diamond prism is used to couple light from the whispering-gallery modes to an output optical fiber. This device is designed and operated to exploit transverse magnetic (TM) whispering- gallery modes, rather than transverse electric (TE) modes because the

  15. Marsh birds and the North American Breeding Bird Survey: judging the value of a landscape level survey for habitat specialist species with low detection rates

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sauer, J.R.

    1999-01-01

    The North American Breeding Bird Survey was started in 1966, and provides information on population change for >400 species of birds. it covers the continental United States, Canada, and Alaska, and is conducted once each year, in June, by volunteer observers. A 39.4 kIn roadside survey route is driven starting 30 min before sunrise, and a 3 min point count is conducted at each of 50 stops spaced every 0.8 kIn. Existing analyses of the data are internet-based (http://www.mbr-pwrc.usgs.govlbbslbbs.html), and include maps of relative abundance, estimates of population change including trends (%/yr), composite annual indices (pattern in time), and maps of population trend (pattern in space). At least 36 species of marsh birds are encountered on the BBS, and the survey provides estimates with greatly varying levels of efficiency for the species. It is often difficult to understand how well the BBS surveys a species. Often, efficiency is judged by estimating trend and its variance for a species, then by calculating power and needed samples to detect a prespecified trend over some time period (e.g., a 2%/yr trend over 31 yr). Unfortunately, this approach is not always valid, as estimated trends and variances can be of little use if the population is poorly sampled. Lurking concerns with BBS data include (1) incomplete coverage of species range; (2) undersampling of habitats; and (3) low and variable visibility of birds during point counts. It is difficult to evaluate these concerns, because known populations do not exist for comparison with counts, and detection rates are time-consuming and costly to estimate. I evaluated the efficiency of the BBS for selected rails (Rallidae) and snipes (Scolopacidae), presenting estimates of population trend over 1966-1996 (T), power to detect 2%/yr trend over 31 yr, needed samples to achieve power of 0.75 with alpha= 0.1, number of survey routes with data for the species (N), average abundance on survey routes (RA), and maps of relative abundance. Examples include Yellow Rail (Coturnicops noveboracensis) (T=12 %/yr; P= 0.0085; N =28; routes; RA=0.05; Power=0.37; Needed samples=85), Black Rail (Laterallus jamaicensis) (No trend data or power information available, N =8), Clapper Rail (Rallus longirostris) (T=1.9%/yr; P=0.55; N =64; RA=0.31; Power=0.35; Needed samples=590), King Rail (Rallus elegans) (T=-4.2 %/yr; P= 0.03; N =76; Power=0.41; Needed samples=159), Sora (Porzana carolina) (T=0.98 %/yr; P= 0.24; N =720; RA= 0.92; Power=0.69; Needed samples= 377), and Common Snipe (Gallinago gallinago) (T=-0.24 %/yr; P= 0.54; N =1412; RA= 2.19; Power=0.98; Needed samples=205). With regard to quality of BBS data, marsh birds fall into 3 categories: (1) almost never encountered on BBS routes; (2) encountered at extremely low abundances on BBS routes; and (3) probably fairly well sampled by BBS roadside counts. BBS data can provide useful information for many marsh bird species, but users should be aware of the limitations of the BBS sample for monitoring species that have low visibility from point counts and prefer habitats not often encountered on roadsides.

  16. Using High Resolution Remotely Sensed Data to Predict Territory Occupancy and Mircrorefugia for a Habitat Specialist, the American Pika (Ochotona princeps)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beers, A.; Ray, C.

    2015-12-01

    Climate change is likely to affect mountainous areas unevenly due to the complex interactions between topography, vegetation, and the accumulation of snow and ice. This heterogeneity will complicate relationships between species presence and large-scale drivers such as precipitation and make predicting habitat extent and connectivity much more difficult. We studied the potential for fine-scale variation in climate and habitat use throughout the year in the American pika (Ochotona princeps), a talus specialist of mountainous western North America known for strong microhabitat affiliation. Not all areas of talus are likely to be equally hospitable, which may reduce connectivity more than predicted by large-scale occupancy drivers. We used high resolution remotely sensed data to create metrics of the terrain and land cover in the Niwot Ridge (NWT) LTER site in Colorado. We hypothesized that pikas preferentially use heterogeneous terrain, as it might foster greater snow accumulation, and used radio telemetry to test this with radio-collared pikas. Pikas use heterogeneous terrain during snow covered periods and less heterogeneous area during the summer. This suggests that not all areas of talus habitat are equally suitable as shelter from extreme conditions but that pikas need more than just shelter from winter cold. With those results we created a predictive map using the same habitat metrics to model the extent of suitable habitat across the NWT area. These strong effects of terrain on pika habitat use and territory occupancy show the great utility that high resolution remotely sensed data can have in ecological applications. With increasing effects of climate change in mountainous regions, this modeling approach is crucial for quantifying habitat connectivity at both small and large scales and to identify potential refugia for threatened or isolated species.

  17. Associations between Narrow Angle and Adult Anthropometry: The Liwan Eye Study

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Yuzhen; He, Mingguang; Friedman, David S.; Khawaja, Anthony P.; Lee, Pak Sang; Nolan, Winifred P.; Yin, Qiuxia; Foster, Paul J.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To assess the associations between narrow angle and adult anthropometry. Methods Chinese adults aged 50 years and older were recruited from a population-based survey in the Liwan District of Guangzhou, China. Narrow angle was defined as the posterior trabecular meshwork not visible under static gonioscopy in at least three quadrants (i.e. a circumference of at least 270°). Logistic regression models were used to examine the associations between narrow angle and anthropomorphic measures (height, weight and body mass index, BMI). Results Among the 912 participants, lower weight, shorter height, and lower BMI were significantly associated with narrower angle width (tests for trend: mean angle width in degrees vs weight p<0.001; vs height p<0.001; vs BMI p = 0.012). In univariate analyses, shorter height, lower weight and lower BMI were all significantly associated with greater odds of narrow angle. The crude association between height and narrow angle was largely attributable to a stronger association with age and sex. Lower BMI and weight remained significantly associated with narrow angle after adjustment for height, age, sex, axial ocular biometric measures and education. In analyses stratified by sex, the association between BMI and narrow angle was only observed in women. Conclusion Lower BMI and weight were associated with significantly greater odds of narrow angle after adjusting for age, education, axial ocular biometric measures and height. The odds of narrow angle increased 7% per 1 unit decrease in BMI. This association was most evident in women. PMID:24707840

  18. Morphology of turbidite systems within an active continental margin (the Palomares Margin, western Mediterranean)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perez-Hernandez, S.; Comas, M. C.; Escutia, C.

    2014-08-01

    The Palomares Margin, an NNE-SSW segment of the South Iberian Margin located between the Alboran and the Algerian-Balearic basins, is dissected by two major submarine canyon systems: the Gata (in the South) and the Alías-Almanzora (in the North). New swath bathymetry, side-scan sonar images, accompanied by 5 kHz and TOPAS subbottom profiles, allow us to recognize these canyons as Mediterranean examples of medium-sized turbidite systems developed in a tectonically active margin. The Gata Turbidite System is confined between residual basement seamounts and exhibits incised braided channels that feed a discrete deep-sea fan, which points to a dominantly coarse-grained turbiditic system. The Alías-Almanzora Turbidite System, larger and less confined, is a good example of nested turbiditic system within the canyon. Concentric sediment waves characterize the Alías-Almanzora deep-sea fan, and the size and acoustic character of these bedforms suggest a fine-grained turbidite system. Both canyons are deeply entrenched on a narrow continental shelf and terminate at the base of the continental slope as channels that feed deep sea fans. While the Alías-Almanzora Turbidite System is the offshore continuation of seasonal rivers, the Gata Turbidite System is exclusively formed by headward erosion along the continental slope. In both cases, left-lateral transpressive deformation influences their location, longitudinal profiles, incision at the upper sections, and canyon bending associated with specific fault segments.

  19. Ferrets as sentinels of the presence of pathogenic Cryptococcus species in the Mediterranean environment.

    PubMed

    Morera, Neus; Hagen, Ferry; Juan-Sallés, Carles; Artigas, Carlos; Patricio, Rui; Serra, Juan Ignacio; Colom, Ma Francisca

    2014-08-01

    Cryptococcus gattii is a pathogenic environmental yeast that is considered to be emerging in different areas of the world including the Mediterranean Basin. Exposure to infection might be more likely in animals than in human beings, given their closer relationship with the natural habitat of the yeast, vegetation and soil. Thus, animals, and especially pets, can act as indicators of the presence of this yeast in a determined area. Domestic ferrets (Mustela putorius furo) have become common pets in the past 10-20 years. Their natural behavior of sniffing around and going inside narrow spaces makes them prone to contact with decaying organic matter and soil, the substrate for Cryptococcus species. This study describes two cases of cryptococcosis in ferrets in the Iberian Peninsula and Balearic Islands and documents a relationship of ferret cryptococcosis with environmental isolates in the same locations. Here, we emphasize the importance of how an adequate identification and environmental search of the yeast leads to a better understanding of the epidemiology of cryptococcosis and suggests ferrets may act as sentinels for this fungal disease. PMID:24962111

  20. Why is the Ligurian Basin (Mediterranean Sea) seismogenic? Thermomechanical modeling of a reactivated passive margin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    BéThoux, Nicole; Tric, Emmanuel; Chery, Jean; Beslier, Marie-Odile

    2008-10-01

    The seismic activity of the Ligurian Basin, the northeastern termination of the western Mediterranean basin, is larger than in surrounding regions, even though recent geodetic studies attest that this area is subject to very low levels of deformation. This basin is an example of a type of passive margins that cannot be considered solely as inert sites of sedimentation and of progressive subsidence and that are reactivated in a compressive pattern; other examples include the Kwanza basin (Angola) and the Brazil margin. We investigated, by means of 2-D thermomechanical modeling, the structural and rheological heterogeneities that can lead to concentration of strain in this marginal basin. We deduced that the deformation of the basin is due to its particular geometric features, narrow and with a thick surrounding continental crust, related to its position at the southern termination of the Alps. This sharp transition, in terms of both geometry and rheological contrast, is a main factor in explaining the weakness of the margin. We discuss the importance of buoyancy forces versus tectonic forces, as well as thermal effects, on the observed reactivation. Influence of contrast in rheology between an oceanic-type crust and continental crust is also studied. Geodynamical implications are proposed for the region. The good agreement between the predicted localized deformation and the observed seismicity distribution should help improve seismic hazard assessment in the region.

  1. Narrower bottlenecks could be more efficient for concentrating choanoflagellates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sparacino, J.; Miño, G.; Koehl, M. A. R.; King, N.; Stocker, R.; Banchio, A. J.; Marconi, V. I.

    2015-11-01

    In evolutionary biology choanoflagellates are broadly investigated as the closest living relatives of the animal ancestors. Under diverse environmental cues, choanoflagellate Salpingoeca rosetta can differentiate in two types of solitary swimming cells: slow and fast microswimmers. Here we present a first phenomenological 2D-model for the choanoflagellates dynamics confined into a flat device divided by a wall of asymmetric microconstrictions. The model allow us to optimize the geometry of the microchannels for directing and concentrating cell populations under strict control. We solve our set of dynamical equations using Langevin dynamics. Experimental parameters for the motility of the slow and fast cells were measured and used for our numerical estimations of the directed transport efficiency, otherwise we have no adjustable parameters. We find remarkable differences in the rectification results for slow and fast choanoflagellates, which give us a strategy to develop a suitable microfluidic sorting device. For a given population velocity, narrower bottlenecks, of similar size to the cell dimension, show to be more efficient as concentrator of populations. Experiments and simulations are in good agreement.

  2. The Use of Narrow Diameter Implants in the Molar Area.

    PubMed

    Saad, M; Assaf, A; Gerges, E

    2016-01-01

    Implant rehabilitations in the posterior jaw are influenced by many factors such as the condition of the remaining teeth, the force factors related to the patient, the quality of the bone, the maintenance of the hygiene, the limited bone height, the type and extent of edentulism, and the nature of the opposing arch. The gold standard is to place a regular diameter implant (>3.7 mm) or a wide one to replace every missing molar. Unfortunately, due to horizontal bone resorption, this option is not possible without lateral bone augmentation. In this situation, narrow diameter implant (NDI < 3.5 mm) could be the alternative to lateral bone augmentation procedures. This paper presents a clinical study where NDIs were used for the replacement of missing molars. They were followed up to 11 years. Special considerations were observed and many parameters were evaluated. NDI could be used to replace missing molar in case of moderate horizontal bone resorption if strict guidelines are respected. Yet, future controlled prospective clinical trials are required to admit their use as scientific evidence. PMID:27293436

  3. Smooth DNA transport through a narrowed pore geometry.

    PubMed

    Carson, Spencer; Wilson, James; Aksimentiev, Aleksei; Wanunu, Meni

    2014-11-18

    Voltage-driven transport of double-stranded DNA through nanoscale pores holds much potential for applications in quantitative molecular biology and biotechnology, yet the microscopic details of translocation have proven to be challenging to decipher. Earlier experiments showed strong dependence of transport kinetics on pore size: fast regular transport in large pores (> 5 nm diameter), and slower yet heterogeneous transport time distributions in sub-5 nm pores, which imply a large positional uncertainty of the DNA in the pore as a function of the translocation time. In this work, we show that this anomalous transport is a result of DNA self-interaction, a phenomenon that is strictly pore-diameter dependent. We identify a regime in which DNA transport is regular, producing narrow and well-behaved dwell-time distributions that fit a simple drift-diffusion theory. Furthermore, a systematic study of the dependence of dwell time on DNA length reveals a single power-law scaling of 1.37 in the range of 35-20,000 bp. We highlight the resolution of our nanopore device by discriminating via single pulses 100 and 500 bp fragments in a mixture with >98% accuracy. When coupled to an appropriate sequence labeling method, our observation of smooth DNA translocation can pave the way for high-resolution DNA mapping and sizing applications in genomics. PMID:25418307

  4. Propagation modeling results for narrow-beam undersea laser communications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fletcher, Andrew S.; Hardy, Nicholas D.; Hamilton, Scott A.

    2016-03-01

    Communication links through ocean waters are challenging due to undersea propagation physics. Undersea optical communications at blue or green wavelengths can achieve high data rates (megabit- to gigabit-per-second class links) despite the challenging undersea medium. Absorption and scattering in ocean waters attenuate optical signals and distort the waveform through dense multipath. The exponential propagation loss and the temporal spread due to multipath limit the achievable link distance and data rate. In this paper, we describe the Monte Carlo modeling of the undersea scattering and absorption channel. We model photon signal attenuation levels, spatial photon distributions, time of arrival statistics, and angle of arrival statistics for a variety of lasercom scenarios through both clear and turbid water environments. Modeling results inform the design options for an undersea optical communication system, particularly illustrating the advantages of narrow-beam lasers compared to wide beam methods (e.g. LED sources). The modeled pupil plane and focal plane photon arrival distributions enable beam tracking techniques for robust pointing solutions, even in highly scattering harbor waters. Laser communication with collimated beams maximizes the photon transfer through the scattering medium and enables spatial and temporal filters to minimize waveform distortion and background interference.

  5. Modular design of long narrow scintillating cells for ILC detector

    SciTech Connect

    Beznosko, D.; Blazey, G.; Dyshkant, A.; Maloney, J.; Rykalin, V.; Schellpfeffer, J.; /Fermilab

    2005-09-01

    The experimental results for the narrow scintillating elements with effective area about 20 cm{sup 2} are reported. The elements were formed from the single piece of scintillator and were read out via wavelength shifting fibers with the MRS (Metal/Resistor/Semiconductor) photodiodes on both ends of each fiber. The formation of the cells from the piece of scintillator by using grooves is discussed. The cell performance was tested using the radioactive source by measuring the PMT current and a single rate after amplifier and discrimination with threshold at about three photo electrons in each channel and quad coincidences (double coincidences between sensors on each fiber and double coincidences between two neighboring fibers). This result is of high importance for large multi-channel systems, i.e. module may be used as an active element for calorimeter or muon system for the design of the future electron-positron linear collider detector because cell effective area can be smoothly enlarged or reduced (to 4 cm{sup 2} definitely).

  6. NFIRAOS: TMT narrow field near-infrared facility adaptive optics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herriot, Glen; Hickson, Paul; Ellerbroek, B. L.; Andersen, D. A.; Davidge, T.; Erickson, D. A.; Powell, I. P.; Clare, R.; Gilles, L.; Boyer, C.; Smith, M.; Saddlemyer, L.; Véran, J.-P.

    2006-06-01

    Although many of the instruments planned for the TMT (Thirty Meter Telescope) have their own closely-coupled adaptive optics systems, TMT will also have a facility Adaptive Optics (AO) system, NFIRAOS, feeding three instruments on the Nasmyth platform. This Narrow-Field Infrared Adaptive Optics System, employs conventional deformable mirrors with large diameters of about 300 mm. The requirements for NFIRAOS include 1.0-2.5 microns wavelength range, 30 arcsecond diameter science field of view (FOV), excellent sky coverage, and diffraction-limited atmospheric turbulence compensation (specified at 133 nm RMS including residual telescope and science instrument errors.) The reference design for NFIRAOS includes six sodium laser guide stars over a 70 arcsecond FOV, and multiple infrared tip/tilt sensors and a natural guide star focus sensor within instruments. Larger telescopes require greater deformable mirror (DM) stroke. Although initially NFIRAOS will correct a 10 arcsecond science field, it uses two deformable mirrors in series, partly to provide sufficient stroke for atmospheric correction over the 30 m telescope aperture, but mainly to improve sky coverage by sharpening near-IR natural guide stars over a 2 arcminute diameter "technical" field. The planned upgrade to full performance includes replacing the ground-conjugated DM with a higher actuator density, and using a deformable telescope secondary mirror as a "woofer." NFIRAOS feeds three live instruments: a near-Infrared integral field Imaging spectrograph, a near-infrared echelle spectrograph, and after upgrading NFIRAOS to full multi-conjugation, a wide field (30 arcsecond) infrared camera.

  7. Assessing abdominal aorta narrowing using computational fluid dynamics.

    PubMed

    Al-Rawi, Mohammad; Al-Jumaily, Ahmed M

    2016-05-01

    This paper investigates the effect of developing arterial blockage at the abdominal aorta on the blood pressure waves at an externally accessible location suitable for invasive measurements such as the brachial and the femoral arteries. Arterial blockages are created surgically within the abdominal aorta of healthy Wistar rats to create narrowing resemblance conditions. Blood pressure is measured using a catheter inserted into the right femoral artery. Measurements are taken at the baseline healthy condition as well as at four different severities (20, 50, 80 and 100 %) of arterial blockage. In vivo and in vitro measurements of the lumen diameter and wall thickness are taken using magnetic resonance imaging and microscopic techniques, respectively. These data are used to validate a 3D computational fluid dynamics model which is developed to generalize the outcomes of this work and to determine the arterial stress and strain under the blockage conditions. This work indicates that an arterial blockage in excess of 20 % of the lumen diameter significantly influences the pressure wave and reduces the systolic blood pressure at the right femoral artery. High wall shear stresses and low circumferential strains are also generated at the blockage site. PMID:26319006

  8. Grouping behavior of coaxial settling particles in a narrow channel.

    PubMed

    Nie, Deming; Lin, Jianzhong; Chen, Rongqian

    2016-01-01

    Using numerical simulations, we studied the grouping behaviors of particles settling along their line of centers in narrow channels having a Reynolds number range of 5 ≤ Re ≤ 50. The calculations are based on our previously developed lattice Boltzmann direct-forcing-fictitious-domain method. We report the grouping behavior and investigate the dependence on the number of particles n, the initial interparticle separation h_{0}, and the Reynolds number Re. In particular, the mode of grouping is found to be independent of the number of particles when the Reynolds numbers is small. The two lowermost particles always come together first and form a vertical doublet and then the next two lowest particles form another doublet, and so on. Therefore, we observe n/2 doublets or (n-1)/2 doublets when n is even or odd, respectively. The uppermost particle is always left behind when n is odd. Furthermore, the separation between these doublets remains constant, displaying a power-law dependence decreasing from top to bottom. PMID:26871162

  9. Smooth DNA Transport through a Narrowed Pore Geometry

    PubMed Central

    Carson, Spencer; Wilson, James; Aksimentiev, Aleksei; Wanunu, Meni

    2014-01-01

    Voltage-driven transport of double-stranded DNA through nanoscale pores holds much potential for applications in quantitative molecular biology and biotechnology, yet the microscopic details of translocation have proven to be challenging to decipher. Earlier experiments showed strong dependence of transport kinetics on pore size: fast regular transport in large pores (> 5 nm diameter), and slower yet heterogeneous transport time distributions in sub-5 nm pores, which imply a large positional uncertainty of the DNA in the pore as a function of the translocation time. In this work, we show that this anomalous transport is a result of DNA self-interaction, a phenomenon that is strictly pore-diameter dependent. We identify a regime in which DNA transport is regular, producing narrow and well-behaved dwell-time distributions that fit a simple drift-diffusion theory. Furthermore, a systematic study of the dependence of dwell time on DNA length reveals a single power-law scaling of 1.37 in the range of 35–20,000 bp. We highlight the resolution of our nanopore device by discriminating via single pulses 100 and 500 bp fragments in a mixture with >98% accuracy. When coupled to an appropriate sequence labeling method, our observation of smooth DNA translocation can pave the way for high-resolution DNA mapping and sizing applications in genomics. PMID:25418307

  10. The Meteorology of Storms that Produce Narrow Bipolar Events

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lang, Timothy J.; McCaul, Eugene W.; Cummer, Steven A.

    2013-01-01

    Narrow Bipolar Events (NBEs) are compact intracloud discharges that produce the most powerful lightning-related radio frequency signals that have been observed. However, their luminosity is below the threshold for detectability from current and past spaceborne optical sensors. NBEs have been loosely associated with convective intensity, but their occurrence tends to be highly localized in time and space within a thunderstorm, and there remain many questions about whether and to what extent they are significantly related to meteorological processes within thunderstorms. Using the North Alabama Lightning Mapping Array (NALMA), the National Lightning Detection Network, and available Doppler and polarimetric radar data, case studies will be presented for storm events that produced large numbers of NBEs (10s-100s) during their lifetimes. NBEs are documented via a method that identifies high peak power (>40-50 dBW) initial VHF sources within a specific altitude band in the upper levels of thunderstorms. The production of NBEs, including spatial and temporal variability, will be compared to the radar-inferred kinematic and microphysical structure and evolution of thunderstorms, as well as their NALMA- and NLDN-inferred electrical characteristics. The results should provide new insights into the relationships between NBEs and thunderstorm processes.

  11. The Use of Narrow Diameter Implants in the Molar Area

    PubMed Central

    Saad, M.; Assaf, A.; Gerges, E.

    2016-01-01

    Implant rehabilitations in the posterior jaw are influenced by many factors such as the condition of the remaining teeth, the force factors related to the patient, the quality of the bone, the maintenance of the hygiene, the limited bone height, the type and extent of edentulism, and the nature of the opposing arch. The gold standard is to place a regular diameter implant (>3.7 mm) or a wide one to replace every missing molar. Unfortunately, due to horizontal bone resorption, this option is not possible without lateral bone augmentation. In this situation, narrow diameter implant (NDI < 3.5 mm) could be the alternative to lateral bone augmentation procedures. This paper presents a clinical study where NDIs were used for the replacement of missing molars. They were followed up to 11 years. Special considerations were observed and many parameters were evaluated. NDI could be used to replace missing molar in case of moderate horizontal bone resorption if strict guidelines are respected. Yet, future controlled prospective clinical trials are required to admit their use as scientific evidence. PMID:27293436

  12. The HST view of the innermost narrow line region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balmaverde, Barbara; Capetti, Alessandro; Moisio, Daria; Baldi, Ranieri D.; Marconi, Alessandro

    2016-02-01

    We analyze the properties of the innermost narrow line region in a sample of low-luminosity AGN. We select 33 LINERs (bona fide AGN) and Seyfert galaxies from the optical spectroscopic Palomar survey observed by HST/STIS. We find that in LINERs the [ N II ] and [ O I ] lines are broader than the [ S II ] line and that the [ N II ] /[ S II ] flux ratio increases when moving from ground-based to HST spectra. This effect is more pronounced considering the wings of the lines. Our interpretation is that, as a result of superior HST spatial resolution, we isolate a compact region of dense ionized gas in LINERs, located at a typical distance of ~3 pc and with a gas density of ~104-105 cm-3, which we identify with the outer portion of the intermediate line region (ILR). Instead, we do not observe these kinds of effects in Seyferts; this may be the result of a stronger dilution from the NLR emission, since the HST slit maps a larger region in these sources. Alternatively, we argue that the innermost, higher density component of the ILR is only present in Seyferts, while it is truncated at larger radii because of the presence of the circumnuclear torus. The ILR is only visible in its entirety in LINERs because the obscuring torus is not present in these sources.

  13. Morning Transition Tracer Experiments in a Deep Narrow Valley.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Whiteman, C. David

    1989-07-01

    Three sulfur hexafluoride atmospheric tracer experiments were conducted during the post-sunrise temperature inversion breakup period in the deep, narrow Brush Creek Valley of Colorado. Experiments were conducted under clear, undisturbed weather conditions.A continuous elevated tracer plume was produced along the axis of the valley before sunrise and the behavior of the plume during the inversion breakup period was detected down-valley from the release point using an array of radio-controlled sequential bag samplers, a vertical SF6 profiling system carried on a tethered balloon, two portable gas chromatographs operated on a sidewall of the valley, and a continuous real-time SF6 monitor operated from a research aircraft. Supporting meteorological data came primarily from tethered balloon profilers. The nocturnal elevated plume was carried and diffused in down-valley flows. After sunrise, convective boundary layers grew upward from the sunlit valley surfaces, fumigating the elevated plume onto the valley floor and sidewalls. Upslope flow developed in the growing convective boundary layers, carrying fumigated SF6 up the sidewalls and causing a compensating subsidence over the valley center. High post-sunrise SF6 concentrations were experienced on the northeast-facing sidewall of the northwest-southeast oriented valley as a result of cross-valley flow, which developed due to differential solar heating of the sidewalls. Reversal of the down-valley wind system brought air with lower SF6 concentrations into the lower valley.

  14. Detonation propagation in narrow gaps with various configurations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Monwar, M.; Yamamoto, Y.; Ishii, K.; Tsuboi, T.

    2007-08-01

    In general all detonation waves have cellular structure formed by the trajectory of the triple points. This paper aims to investigate experimentally the propagation of detonation in narrow gaps for hydrogen-oxygen-argon mixtures in terms of various gap heights and gap widths. The gap of total length 1500 mm was constructed by three pair of stainless plates, each of them was 500 mm in length, which were inserted in a detonation tube. The gap heights were varied from 1.2 mm to 3.0 mm while the gap widths were varied from 10 mm to 40 mm. Various argon dilution rates were tested in the present experiments to change the size of cellular structure. Attempts have been made by means of reaction front velocity, shock front velocity, and smoked foil to record variations of cellular structure inside the gaps. A combination probe composed of a pressure and an ion probe detected the arrival of the shock and the reaction front individually at one measurement point. Experimental results show that the number of the triple points contained in detonation front decreases with decrease in the gap heights and gap widths, which lead to larger cellular structures. For mixtures with low detonability, cell size is affected by a certain gap width although conversely cell size is almost independent of gap width. From the present result it was found that detonation propagation inside the gaps is strongly governed by the gap height and effects of gap width is dependent on detonability of mixtures.

  15. Source characteristics of Jovian narrow-band kilometric radio emissions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reiner, M. J.; Fainberg, J.; Stone, R. G.; Kaiser, M. L.; Desch, M. D.; Manning, R.; Zarka, P.; Pedersen, B.-M.

    1993-07-01

    New observations of Jovian narrow-band kilometric (nKOM) radio emissions were made by the Unified Radio and Plasma Wave (URAP) experiment on the Ulysses spacecraft during the Ulysses-Jupiter encounter in early February 1992. These observations have demonstrated the unique capability of the URAP instrument for determining both the direction and polarization of nKOM radio sources. An important result is the discovery that nKOM radio emission originates from a number of distinct sources located at different Jovian longitudes and at the inner and outermost regions of the Io plasma torus. These sources have been tracked for several Jovian rotations, yielding their corotational lags, their spatial and temporal evolution, and their radiation characteristics at both low latitudes far from Jupiter and at high latitudes near the planet. Both right-hand and left-hand circularly polarized nKOM sources were observed. The polarizations observed for sources in the outermost regions of the torus seem to favor extraordinary mode emission.

  16. Assembly auxiliary system for narrow cabins of spacecraft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Yi; Li, Shiqi; Wang, Junfeng

    2015-09-01

    Due to the narrow space and complex structure of spacecraft cabin, the existing asssembly systems can not well suit for the assembly process of cabin products. This paper aims to introduce an assembly auxiliary system for cabin products. A hierarchical-classification method is proposed to re-adjust the initial assembly relationship of cabin into a new hierarchical structure for efficient assembly planning. An improved ant colony algorithm based on three assembly principles is established for searching a optimizational assembly sequence of cabin parts. A mixed reality assembly environment is constructed with enhanced information to promote interaction efficiency of assembly training and guidance. Based on the machine vision technology, the inspection of left redundant objects and measurement of parts distance in inner cabin are efficiently performed. The proposed system has been applied to the assembly work of a spacecraft cabin with 107 parts, which includes cabin assembly planning, assembly training and assembly quality inspection. The application result indicates that the proposed system can be an effective assistant tool to cabin assembly works and provide an intuitive and real assembly experience for workers. This paper presents an assembly auxiliary system for spacecraft cabin products, which can provide technical support to the spacecraft cabin assembly industry.

  17. Sedimentation of an oblate ellipsoid in narrow tubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Xin; Huang, Haibo; Lu, Xiyun

    2015-12-01

    Sedimentation behaviors of an oblate ellipsoidal particle inside narrow [R /a ∈(1.2 ,2.0 )] infinitely long circular tubes are studied by the lattice Boltzmann method, where R and a are the radius of the tube and the length of the semimajor axis of the ellipsoid, respectively. The Archimedes numbers (Ar) up to 70 are considered. Four periodic and two steady sedimentation modes are identified. It is the first time that the anomalous mode has been found in a circular tube for an ellipsoidal particle. The phase diagram of the modes as a function of Ar and R /a is obtained. The anomalous mode is observed in the larger R /a and lower-Ar regime. Through comparisons between the anomalous and oscillatory modes, it is found that R/a plays a critical role for the anomalous mode. Some constrained cases with two steady modes are simulated. It is found that the particle settles faster in the unconstrained modes than in the corresponding constrained modes. This might inspire further study on why the particle adopts a specific mode under a certain circumstance.

  18. Sedimentation of an oblate ellipsoid in narrow tubes.

    PubMed

    Yang, Xin; Huang, Haibo; Lu, Xiyun

    2015-12-01

    Sedimentation behaviors of an oblate ellipsoidal particle inside narrow [R/a∈(1.2,2.0)] infinitely long circular tubes are studied by the lattice Boltzmann method, where R and a are the radius of the tube and the length of the semimajor axis of the ellipsoid, respectively. The Archimedes numbers (Ar) up to 70 are considered. Four periodic and two steady sedimentation modes are identified. It is the first time that the anomalous mode has been found in a circular tube for an ellipsoidal particle. The phase diagram of the modes as a function of Ar and R/a is obtained. The anomalous mode is observed in the larger R/a and lower-Ar regime. Through comparisons between the anomalous and oscillatory modes, it is found that R/a plays a critical role for the anomalous mode. Some constrained cases with two steady modes are simulated. It is found that the particle settles faster in the unconstrained modes than in the corresponding constrained modes. This might inspire further study on why the particle adopts a specific mode under a certain circumstance. PMID:26764806

  19. Properties of Aqueous Electrolytes within Narrow Slit-Shaped Pores

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ho, Tuan A.; Argyris, Dimitrios; Striolo, Alberto

    2011-03-01

    We report equilibrium molecular dynamics simulation results for structural and dynamic properties of aqueous electrolyte solutions confined within narrow pores. The slit-shaped pores are carved from cristobalite silica, corundum alumina, magnesium oxide, and other materials. The pore width is in the range 0.8 -- 2.0 nm. The aqueous solutions contain NaCl, CsCl, CaCl 2 , and SrCl 2 electrolytes at 1M concentration or larger. Equilibrium simulations are performed at ambient conditions within the NVT ensemble. The data suggest the formation of layered structures, which are consistent with results obtained for thin films of solution supported on free-standing surfaces. However, confinement enhances the differences in transport properties observed between those ions that are near the solid and those at the pore center. Because the self-diffusion coefficient is faster as the distance from the solid increases, the ions that are at the pore center diffuse more quickly through the pore than those adsorbed closer to the wall. Thus our results could be used to design membranes to separate, e.g., aqueous NaCl from CsCl solutions. Research supported by the Department of Energy and, in part, by the National Science Foundation.

  20. Polymer Chain Reinforcement across Narrow Interfaces: Entanglements Versus Chain Friction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benkoski, Jason J.; Fredrickson, Glenn H.; Kramer, Edward J.

    2002-03-01

    It is widely believed that entangled chains that bridge a glassy polymer/polymer interface solely determine its fracture energy (G_c). However, experiments show that while Gc increases with interfacial width (w), Gc vs. w/d_t, where dt is the tube diameter of the melt, is not universal. For some polymer pairs Gc increases dramatically even when w << d_t, while for others Gc does not increase until w >= d_t. We demonstrate that the friction stress for polymer loop pull-out from the interface is given by f_monoρ_merw/2 where f_mono is the static friction coefficient per mer and ρ_mer is the mer number density. Unlike interfaces with short block copolymers, where the friction stress for block pull-out is limited by a maximum areal density of block copolymer, the polymer/polymer friction stress grows linearly with w. For interfaces as narrow as 3 nm, it can be large enough to induce crazing. A model that includes both loop pull-out and chain entanglement shows that modest changes in f_mono can account for the fact that Gc versus w/dt is non-universal. A high areal density of bridging, entangled chains is therefore sufficient, but not necessary, to reinforce polymer interfaces.

  1. PAU, a fully depleted mosaic imager with narrow band filters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bauer, A.; Casas, R.; Castander, F. J.; Serrano, S.

    2014-03-01

    The PAU Survey studies the existence and properties of dark energy from the observations of redshift space distortions and weak lensing magnification from galaxy cross-correlations as main cosmological probes. The PAU Team is building an instrument, PAUCam, equipped with fully depleted CCD detectors, designed to be mounted at the prime focus of the 4.2 m diameter William Herschel Telescope (WHT) in La Palma. Simulations indicate that PAUCam at the WHT will be able to image about 2 square degrees per night in 40 narrow-band filters plus six wide-band filters to an AB magnitude depth of i ~ 22.5, providing low-resolution (R ~ 50) photometric spectra for around 30,000 galaxies, 5,000 stars and 1,000 quasars per square degree. Accurate photometric calibration of the PAU data is vital to achieve the survey science goals. This calibration is challenging due to the large and unusual filter set. We outline the data management pipelines being developed for the survey, both for nightly data reduction and co-addition of multiple epochs, with emphasis on the photometric calibration strategies. We also describe the main tests and results in the characterization of our Hamamatsu fully depleted detectors.

  2. Flight Calibration of the LROC Narrow Angle Camera

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Humm, D. C.; Tschimmel, M.; Brylow, S. M.; Mahanti, P.; Tran, T. N.; Braden, S. E.; Wiseman, S.; Danton, J.; Eliason, E. M.; Robinson, M. S.

    2016-04-01

    Characterization and calibration are vital for instrument commanding and image interpretation in remote sensing. The Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter Camera Narrow Angle Camera (LROC NAC) takes 500 Mpixel greyscale images of lunar scenes at 0.5 meters/pixel. It uses two nominally identical line scan cameras for a larger crosstrack field of view. Stray light, spatial crosstalk, and nonlinearity were characterized using flight images of the Earth and the lunar limb. These are important for imaging shadowed craters, studying ˜1 meter size objects, and photometry respectively. Background, nonlinearity, and flatfield corrections have been implemented in the calibration pipeline. An eight-column pattern in the background is corrected. The detector is linear for DN = 600--2000 but a signal-dependent additive correction is required and applied for DN<600. A predictive model of detector temperature and dark level was developed to command dark level offset. This avoids images with a cutoff at DN=0 and minimizes quantization error in companding. Absolute radiometric calibration is derived from comparison of NAC images with ground-based images taken with the Robotic Lunar Observatory (ROLO) at much lower spatial resolution but with the same photometric angles.

  3. Broadband Absorbing Exciton-Plasmon Metafluids with Narrow Transparency Windows.

    PubMed

    Yang, Jihua; Kramer, Nicolaas J; Schramke, Katelyn S; Wheeler, Lance M; Besteiro, Lucas V; Hogan, Christopher J; Govorov, Alexander O; Kortshagen, Uwe R

    2016-02-10

    Optical metafluids that consist of colloidal solutions of plasmonic and/or excitonic nanomaterials may play important roles as functional working fluids or as means for producing solid metamaterial coatings. The concept of a metafluid employed here is based on the picture that a single ballistic photon, propagating through the metafluid, interacts with a large collection of specifically designed optically active nanocrystals. We demonstrate water-based metafluids that act as broadband electromagnetic absorbers in a spectral range of 200-3300 nm and feature a tunable narrow (∼100 nm) transparency window in the visible-to-near-infrared region. To define this transparency window, we employ plasmonic gold nanorods. We utilize excitonic boron-doped silicon nanocrystals as opaque optical absorbers ("optical wall") in the UV and blue-green range of the spectrum. Water itself acts as an opaque "wall" in the near-infrared to infrared. We explore the limits of the concept of a "simple" metafluid by computationally testing and validating the effective medium approach based on the Beer-Lambert law. According to our simulations and experiments, particle aggregation and the associated decay of the window effect are one example of the failure of the simple metafluid concept due to strong interparticle interactions. PMID:26808215

  4. The narrow rings of Jupiter, Saturn and Uranus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dermott, S. F.; Murray, C. D.; Sinclair, A. T.

    1980-01-01

    The origin of the newly discovered narrow ring systems around Jupiter, Saturn and Uranus is considered. It is pointed out that both the Uranian and Jovian ring systems have mean orbital radii of 1.8 planetary radii and lie within the Roche zones of their respective planets, and it is suggested that the Jovian ring is the product of the disintegration of a satellite that entered the Roche zone, and that large numbers of small particles are now in horseshoe orbits about the Lagrangian equilibrium points of the remnant chunks. Analysis of the path of a ring particle in a horseshoe orbit is shown to result in ring structures in agreement with those observed for the circular rings of Jupiter and the highly eccentric ring of Uranus. The stability of these ring systems is then considered, and it is suggested that the F ring of Saturn, which lies outside the Roche zone, represents primordial matter not yet accreted by small satellites just inside the Mimas first-order resonances.

  5. Mediterranean circulation perturbations over the last five centuries: Relevance to past Eastern Mediterranean Transient-type events.

    PubMed

    Incarbona, Alessandro; Martrat, Belen; Mortyn, P Graham; Sprovieri, Mario; Ziveri, Patrizia; Gogou, Alexandra; Jordà, Gabriel; Xoplaki, Elena; Luterbacher, Juerg; Langone, Leonardo; Marino, Gianluca; Rodríguez-Sanz, Laura; Triantaphyllou, Maria; Di Stefano, Enrico; Grimalt, Joan O; Tranchida, Giorgio; Sprovieri, Rodolfo; Mazzola, Salvatore

    2016-01-01

    The Eastern Mediterranean Transient (EMT) occurred in the Aegean Sea from 1988 to 1995 and is the most significant intermediate-to-deep Mediterranean overturning perturbation reported by instrumental records. The EMT was likely caused by accumulation of high salinity waters in the Levantine and enhanced heat loss in the Aegean Sea, coupled with surface water freshening in the Sicily Channel. It is still unknown whether similar transients occurred in the past and, if so, what their forcing processes were. In this study, sediments from the Sicily Channel document surface water freshening (SCFR) at 1910 ± 12, 1812 ± 18, 1725 ± 25 and 1580 ± 30 CE. A regional ocean hindcast links SCFR to enhanced deep-water production and in turn to strengthened Mediterranean thermohaline circulation. Independent evidence collected in the Aegean Sea supports this reconstruction, showing that enhanced bottom water ventilation in the Eastern Mediterranean was associated with each SCFR event. Comparison between the records and multi-decadal atmospheric circulation patterns and climatic external forcings indicates that Mediterranean circulation destabilisation occurs during positive North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) and negative Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation (AMO) phases, reduced solar activity and strong tropical volcanic eruptions. They may have recurrently produced favourable deep-water formation conditions, both increasing salinity and reducing temperature on multi-decadal time scales. PMID:27412622

  6. Mediterranean circulation perturbations over the last five centuries: Relevance to past Eastern Mediterranean Transient-type events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Incarbona, Alessandro; Martrat, Belen; Mortyn, P. Graham; Sprovieri, Mario; Ziveri, Patrizia; Gogou, Alexandra; Jordà, Gabriel; Xoplaki, Elena; Luterbacher, Juerg; Langone, Leonardo; Marino, Gianluca; Rodríguez-Sanz, Laura; Triantaphyllou, Maria; di Stefano, Enrico; Grimalt, Joan O.; Tranchida, Giorgio; Sprovieri, Rodolfo; Mazzola, Salvatore

    2016-07-01

    The Eastern Mediterranean Transient (EMT) occurred in the Aegean Sea from 1988 to 1995 and is the most significant intermediate-to-deep Mediterranean overturning perturbation reported by instrumental records. The EMT was likely caused by accumulation of high salinity waters in the Levantine and enhanced heat loss in the Aegean Sea, coupled with surface water freshening in the Sicily Channel. It is still unknown whether similar transients occurred in the past and, if so, what their forcing processes were. In this study, sediments from the Sicily Channel document surface water freshening (SCFR) at 1910 ± 12, 1812 ± 18, 1725 ± 25 and 1580 ± 30 CE. A regional ocean hindcast links SCFR to enhanced deep-water production and in turn to strengthened Mediterranean thermohaline circulation. Independent evidence collected in the Aegean Sea supports this reconstruction, showing that enhanced bottom water ventilation in the Eastern Mediterranean was associated with each SCFR event. Comparison between the records and multi-decadal atmospheric circulation patterns and climatic external forcings indicates that Mediterranean circulation destabilisation occurs during positive North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) and negative Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation (AMO) phases, reduced solar activity and strong tropical volcanic eruptions. They may have recurrently produced favourable deep-water formation conditions, both increasing salinity and reducing temperature on multi-decadal time scales.

  7. Mediterranean circulation perturbations over the last five centuries: Relevance to past Eastern Mediterranean Transient-type events

    PubMed Central

    Incarbona, Alessandro; Martrat, Belen; Mortyn, P. Graham; Sprovieri, Mario; Ziveri, Patrizia; Gogou, Alexandra; Jordà, Gabriel; Xoplaki, Elena; Luterbacher, Juerg; Langone, Leonardo; Marino, Gianluca; Rodríguez-Sanz, Laura; Triantaphyllou, Maria; Di Stefano, Enrico; Grimalt, Joan O.; Tranchida, Giorgio; Sprovieri, Rodolfo; Mazzola, Salvatore

    2016-01-01

    The Eastern Mediterranean Transient (EMT) occurred in the Aegean Sea from 1988 to 1995 and is the most significant intermediate-to-deep Mediterranean overturning perturbation reported by instrumental records. The EMT was likely caused by accumulation of high salinity waters in the Levantine and enhanced heat loss in the Aegean Sea, coupled with surface water freshening in the Sicily Channel. It is still unknown whether similar transients occurred in the past and, if so, what their forcing processes were. In this study, sediments from the Sicily Channel document surface water freshening (SCFR) at 1910 ± 12, 1812 ± 18, 1725 ± 25 and 1580 ± 30 CE. A regional ocean hindcast links SCFR to enhanced deep-water production and in turn to strengthened Mediterranean thermohaline circulation. Independent evidence collected in the Aegean Sea supports this reconstruction, showing that enhanced bottom water ventilation in the Eastern Mediterranean was associated with each SCFR event. Comparison between the records and multi-decadal atmospheric circulation patterns and climatic external forcings indicates that Mediterranean circulation destabilisation occurs during positive North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) and negative Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation (AMO) phases, reduced solar activity and strong tropical volcanic eruptions. They may have recurrently produced favourable deep-water formation conditions, both increasing salinity and reducing temperature on multi-decadal time scales. PMID:27412622

  8. First Analysis Of A Coupled Mediterranean - Atmosphere Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Somot, S.; Sevault, F.; Béranger, K.; Déqué, M.; Crépon, M.

    A regional coupled ocean-atmosphere model has been developed to study the climate of the Mediterranean Region in a joint research between Météo-France-CNRM and CNRS-IPSL. This model is based on a variable resolution version of the global spectral AGCM Arpège-Climat with an horizontal grid mesh of 50 km over the mediterranean area and a limited area version of the OGCM OPA with an horizontal grid mesh of 10 km. The two models are coupled with the OASIS coupler developed by CERFACS. Outside the Mediterranean Sea, the sea surface temperature is prescribed from interannual observed data. A ten year coupled simulation has been done without relaxation nor correction. Sea- sonal averages as well as interannual variability have been compared with available observations and with uncoupled simulations.

  9. Microbial community genomics in eastern Mediterranean Sea surface waters.

    PubMed

    Feingersch, Roi; Suzuki, Marcelino T; Shmoish, Michael; Sharon, Itai; Sabehi, Gazalah; Partensky, Frédéric; Béjà, Oded

    2010-01-01

    Offshore waters of the eastern Mediterranean Sea are one of the most oligotrophic regions on Earth in which the primary productivity is phosphorus limited. To study the unexplored function and physiology of microbes inhabiting this system, we have analyzed a genomic library from the eastern Mediterranean Sea surface waters by sequencing both termini of nearly 5000 clones. Genome recruitment strategies showed that the majority of high-scoring pairs corresponded to genomes from the Alphaproteobacteria (SAR11-like and Rhodobacterales), Cyanobacteria (Synechococcus and high-light adapted Prochlorococcus) and diverse uncultured Gammaproteobacteria. The community structure observed, as evaluated by both protein similarity scores or metabolic potential, was similar to that found in the euphotic zone of the ALOHA station off Hawaii but very different from that of deep aphotic zones in both the Mediterranean Sea and the Pacific Ocean. In addition, a strong enrichment toward phosphate and phosphonate uptake and utilization metabolism was also observed. PMID:19693100

  10. The Messinian evaporites in the Mediterranean: A box model study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Topper, R. P.; Meijer, P. T.; Flecker, R.; Wortel, M. J.

    2012-12-01

    In a landlocked basin like the Mediterranean, a change in the water budget, i.e. exchange at the gateway with the Atlantic, river discharge, precipitation and evaporation, severely impacts the basinal water chemistry. This happened in the Late Miocene, when evaporite-dominated sequences were deposited in marginal and deep basins of the Mediterranean Sea during the Messinian Salinity Crisis (MSC). In the marginal basins, the onset of gypsum deposition, characteristic for the first phase of the MSC, is synchronous and sequences throughout the Mediterranean contain correlatable precession-driven marl-gypsum cycles. In constrast, in the deeper parts of the western (WMed) and eastern Mediterranean (EMed) basins MSC sequences appear to comprise a different number of depositional units and differ greatly in thickness. There exist numerous scenarios to explain evaporite deposition for either the marginal or deep basins, correlations between the two settings are difficult to establish because the deep basinal evaporite sequences have never been completely drilled nor dated. With a range of box models we examine different aspects of the MSC in order to determine the Late Miocene water budget and connectivity between the basins. We explain the differences between the marginal and deep basins and come up with a quantitatively supported scenario for the MSC. Combining Sr-isotope ratios measured in Mediterranean Late Miocene successions with data on past salinity, one can derive quantitative information on the Mediterranean hydrological budget at times before and during the MSC. We extended a 1-box model of Mediterranean salinity with a time-dependent set of equations for the Sr ratio. This model is used to investigate the coeval evolution of salinity and Sr ratios under different water budgets and gateway restrictions. Model results are compared with the salinity and strontium ratio data from the Mediterranean. A model with the Late Miocene water budget from Gladstone et al. (P

  11. Diversity of magnetotactic bacteria from a French pristine Mediterranean area.

    PubMed

    Fuduche, Maxime; Postec, Anne; Davidson, Sylvain; Chauvin, Jean-Paul; Galès, Grégoire; Hirschler-Réa, Agnès; Ollivier, Bernard; Wu, Long-Fei; Pradel, Nathalie

    2015-04-01

    Magnetotactic bacteria synthesize intracellular magnetite and/or greigite magnetosome crystals. They play a significant role in both iron and sulfur cycles in sedimentary aquatic environments. To get insight into the bio-geochemical contribution of MTB, more studies concerning their ecology and their distribution in diverse habitats are necessary. The MTB community of an oil-industry polluted area of the French Mediterranean coast has been previously investigated. Here, we investigate the MTB community from coastal sediments of a Mediterranean pristine area using optical and transmission electron microscopy and phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences. A particularly high diversity of MTB was observed, with cocci phylogenetically distributed across the order Magnetococcales, including a novel cluster with sequences from the Mediterranean Sea designated as "Med group", and novel morphotypes. PMID:25487117

  12. Persistent toxic substances in Mediterranean aquatic species.

    PubMed

    Miniero, Roberto; Abate, Vittorio; Brambilla, Gianfranco; Davoli, Enrico; De Felip, Elena; De Filippis, Stefania P; Dellatte, Elena; De Luca, Silvia; Fanelli, Roberto; Fattore, Elena; Ferri, Fabiola; Fochi, Igor; Rita Fulgenzi, Anna; Iacovella, Nicola; Iamiceli, Anna Laura; Lucchetti, Dario; Melotti, Paolo; Moret, Ivo; Piazza, Rossano; Roncarati, Alessandra; Ubaldi, Alessandro; Zambon, Stefano; di Domenico, Alessandro

    2014-10-01

    Fish and fishery products may represent one of the main sources of dietary exposure to persistent toxic substances (PTSs) such as polychlorinated dibenzodioxins, dibenzofurans, and biphenyls; polybromodiphenyl ethers; organochlorine pesticides; perfluorooctanoic acid and perfluorooctane sulfonate; and inorganic mercury and methyl mercury. In this study, PTS contamination of Mediterranean fish and crustaceans caught in Italian coastal waters was investigated in order to increase the representativeness of the occurrence database for wild species. The objectives were to verify the suitability of regulatory limits for PTSs, identify background concentrations values, if any, and examine the possible sources of variability when assessing the chemical body burdens of aquatic species. Twelve wild species of commercial interest and two farmed fish species were chosen. Excluding methyl mercury, chemical concentrations found in wild species fell generally towards the low ends of the concentration ranges found in Europe according to EFSA database and were quite lower than the tolerable maximum levels established in the European Union; farmed fish always showed contamination levels quite lower than those detected in wild species. The data obtained for wild species seemed to confirm the absence of local sources of contamination in the chosen sampling areas; however, species contamination could exceed regulatory levels even in the absence of specific local sources of contamination as a result of the position in the food web and natural variability in species' lifestyle. A species-specific approach to the management of contamination in aquatic organisms is therefore suggested as an alternative to a general approach based only on contaminant body burden. A chemical-specific analysis performed according to organism position in the food chain strengthened the need to develop this approach. PMID:25020099

  13. Amposta oil field (Spanish Mediterranean offshore)

    SciTech Connect

    Seeman, U. )

    1988-08-01

    The Amposta oil field lies some 20 km off the Mediterranean coast of Spain directly south of the Ebro delta in 70 m of water. The field is operated by Shell in association with Repsol Exploracion (the Spanish national oil company) and Coparex. The field was discovered in 1970 and came on stream in 1972, reaching a maximum production of 40,000 bbl/day. The current cumulative production of 55.7 million bbl is just 300,000 bbl short of the field's expected ultimate primary recovery. Original production was established via a single-buoy mooring system (SBM) with a permanently moored tanker acting as a floating storage vessel. Oil is produced from a fractured, karstified Lower Cretaceous limestone reservoir in a tilted fault-block structure (areal closure is 900 ha), sealed by overlying Miocene clastics. The top of the reservoir is at 1,746 m; the original oil column was 194 m. Designing the optimal production/drainage scheme for a complex reservoir such as the Amposta field with its intricate pore geometry (channels, caves, and fractures) formed an interesting challenge. The field has produced from 7 wells so far. Until recently pressure could be maintained and dry oil produced. Enhanced recovery tests (gas injection) are presently being undertaken. The heavy, undersaturated, high-sulfur crude (17{degree} API, gas-oil ratio of 380 scf/bbl, and 5.5% sulfur) is an early expulsion product generated from a marly/chalky type II source rock sequence of latest Jurassic-earliest Cretaceous age, underlying the field.

  14. Environmental History on a Central Mediterranean Island

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gambin, Belinda; Medail, Frederic; Andrieu-Ponel, Valerie; Djamali, Morteza; Marriner, Nick; Morhange, Christophe; Gambin, Timmy

    2013-04-01

    Through the PaleoMed project a number of cores have been taken from key locations on the Maltese Islands with the aim of establishing various aspects related to the archipelago's historical environment. A multi-disciplinary team have been investigating a number of bodies of evidence including sediments, charcoal and shells. Through this poster I will present the results from pollen samples extracted from a section of one of the cores. The core, taken from Burmarrad, has a section that has been carbon dated to 7200-3200BP. Preliminary results from this site, one of the largest flood plains on Malta, will provide an indication of the local vegetation during this chronological window. Pollen was extracted from sediment deposits following the classical treatment method (eg Moore et al., 1990). Furthermore, identification was undertaken through the use of pollen atlases of Europe and North Africa (Reille, 1992, 1995, 1998) and Beug (2004) along with IMBE's international pollen reference collection. Pollen percentages were calculated in TILIA and the pollen percentage diagram constructed using TGView software (Grimm 2004, 2005). Current results indicate that prior to 7000BP there was a high percentage of aquatic plants, while tree and shrub counts were low. At 6900BP a large increase in Pistacia pollen is recorded, with moderate increase in Plantago (especially lanceolata), Asphodelus, Dinaflagelates and Mirco Foraminifera. At this time there is also a reduction in Cichorioideae & Charcoal in the section. A similar increase in Pistacia at around this time has also been recorded from another core in Burmarrad (Djamali et al., 2012) and in southern Sicily (Tinner et al., 2009). The date of this increase corresponds to the first recorded settlement on the Maltese Islands (circa 5500BC) as well as the climatic optimum of forest cover in the Mediterranean region (Noti et al., 2009).

  15. Fish Assemblages of Mediterranean Marine Caves

    PubMed Central

    Bussotti, Simona; Di Franco, Antonio; Francour, Patrice; Guidetti, Paolo

    2015-01-01

    Fish assemblages associated with 14 marine caves and adjacent external rocky reefs were investigated at four Marine Protected Areas (MPAs) along the coasts of Italy. Within the caves sampling was carried out in different sub-habitats: walls, ceilings, bottoms and ends of caves. On the whole, 38 species were recorded inside the 14 caves investigated. Eighteen species were exclusively found inside the caves: they were mainly represented by speleophilic (i.e. species preferentially or exclusively inhabiting caves) gobids (e.g. Didogobius splechtnai) and nocturnal species (e.g. Conger conger). Forty-one species were censused outside, 20 of which were shared with cave habitats. Apogon imberbis was the most common fish found in all 14 caves investigated, followed by Thorogobius ephippiatus (recorded in 13 caves), and Diplodus vulgaris and Scorpaena notata (both censused in 12 caves). Distinct fish assemblages were found between external rocky reefs and the different cave sub-habitats. New data on the distribution of some speleophilic gobids were collected, showing the existence of a pool of species shared by marine caves on a large scale (i.e. hundreds of km). Considering the uniqueness of cave fishes (18 exclusive species and different assemblage structures), the inclusion of marine caves among the habitats routinely investigated for fish biodiversity monitoring could facilitate the achievement of more comprehensive inventories. Due to their contribution to local species diversity and the shelter they provide to species valuable for conservation, marine caves should be prioritized for their inclusion not only within future MPAs through the Mediterranean Sea, but also into larger management spatial planning. PMID:25875504

  16. Evaluation of TOPLATS on three Mediterranean catchments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loizu, Javier; Álvarez-Mozos, Jesús; Casalí, Javier; Goñi, Mikel

    2016-08-01

    Physically based hydrological models are complex tools that provide a complete description of the different processes occurring on a catchment. The TOPMODEL-based Land-Atmosphere Transfer Scheme (TOPLATS) simulates water and energy balances at different time steps, in both lumped and distributed modes. In order to gain insight on the behavior of TOPLATS and its applicability in different conditions a detailed evaluation needs to be carried out. This study aimed to develop a complete evaluation of TOPLATS including: (1) a detailed review of previous research works using this model; (2) a sensitivity analysis (SA) of the model with two contrasted methods (Morris and Sobol) of different complexity; (3) a 4-step calibration strategy based on a multi-start Powell optimization algorithm; and (4) an analysis of the influence of simulation time step (hourly vs. daily). The model was applied on three catchments of varying size (La Tejeria, Cidacos and Arga), located in Navarre (Northern Spain), and characterized by different levels of Mediterranean climate influence. Both Morris and Sobol methods showed very similar results that identified Brooks-Corey Pore Size distribution Index (B), Bubbling pressure (ψc) and Hydraulic conductivity decay (f) as the three overall most influential parameters in TOPLATS. After calibration and validation, adequate streamflow simulations were obtained in the two wettest catchments, but the driest (Cidacos) gave poor results in validation, due to the large climatic variability between calibration and validation periods. To overcome this issue, an alternative random and discontinuous method of cal/val period selection was implemented, improving model results.

  17. Bioremediation of Southern Mediterranean oil polluted sites comes of age.

    PubMed

    Daffonchio, Daniele; Ferrer, Manuel; Mapelli, Francesca; Cherif, Ameur; Lafraya, Alvaro; Malkawi, Hanan I; Yakimov, Michail M; Abdel-Fattah, Yasser R; Blaghen, Mohamed; Golyshin, Peter N; Kalogerakis, Nicolas; Boon, Nico; Magagnini, Mirko; Fava, Fabio

    2013-09-25

    Mediterranean Sea is facing a very high risk of oil pollution due to the high number of oil extractive and refining sites along the basin coasts, and the intense maritime traffic of oil tankers. All the Mediterranean countries have adopted severe regulations for minimizing pollution events and bioremediation feasibility studies for the most urgent polluted sites are undergoing. However, the analysis of the scientific studies applying modern 'meta-omics' technologies that have been performed on marine oil pollution worldwide showed that the Southern Mediterranean side has been neglected by the international research. Most of the studies in the Mediterranean Sea have been done in polluted sites of the Northern side of the basin. Those of the Southern side are poorly studied, despite many of the Southern countries being major oil producers and exporters. The recently EU-funded research project ULIXES has as a major objective to increase the knowledge of the bioremediation potential of sites from the Southern Mediterranean countries. ULIXES is targeting four major polluted sites on the coastlines of Egypt, Jordan, Morocco and Tunisia, including seashore sands, lagoons, and oil refinery polluted sediments. The research is designed to unravel, categorize, catalogue, exploit and manage the diversity and ecology of microorganisms thriving in these polluted sites. Isolation of novel hydrocarbon degrading microbes and a series of state of the art 'meta-omics' technologies are the baseline tools for improving our knowledge on biodegradation capacities mediated by microbes under different environmental settings and for designing novel site-tailored bioremediation approaches. A network of twelve European and Southern Mediterranean partners is cooperating for plugging the existing gap of knowledge for the development of novel bioremediation processes targeting such poorly investigated polluted sites. PMID:23727339

  18. “The Mediterranean Diet, its Components, and Cardiovascular Disease”

    PubMed Central

    Widmer, R. Jay; Flammer, Andreas J.; Lerman, Lilach O.; Lerman, Amir

    2014-01-01

    One of the best studied diets for cardiovascular health is the Mediterranean diet. This consists of fish, monounsaturated fats from olive oil, fruits, vegetables, whole grains, legumes/nuts, and moderate alcohol consumption. The Mediterranean diet has been shown to reduce the burden, or even prevent the development, of cardiovascular disease, breast cancer, depression, colorectal cancer, diabetes, obesity, asthma, erectile dysfunction, and cognitive decline. This diet is also known to improve surrogates of cardiovascular disease, such as waist-to-hip ratio, lipids, and markers of inflammation, as well as primary cardiovascular disease outcomes such as death and events in both observational and randomized controlled trial data. These enhancements easily rival those seen with more established tools used to fight cardiovascular disease such as aspirin, beta-blockers, ACE-inhibitors, and exercise. However, it is unclear if the Mediterranean diet offers cardiovascular disease benefit from its individual constituents or in aggregate. Furthermore, the potential benefit of the Mediterranean diet or its components is not yet validated by concrete cardiovascular disease endpoints in randomized trials or observational studies. This review will focus on the effects of the whole and parts of the Mediterranean diet with regard to both population-based as well as experimental data highlighting cardiovascular disease morbidity or mortality and cardiovascular disease surrogates when hard outcomes are not available. Our synthesis will highlight the potential for the Mediterranean diet to act as a key player in cardiovascular disease prevention, and attempt to identify certain aspects of the diet which are particularly beneficial for cardio-protection. PMID:25447615

  19. Bed disturbance patterns in two mediterranean impounded rivers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lobera, Gemma; López-Tarazón, José A.; Vericat, Damià; Batalla, Ramon J.; Andrés-Doménech, Ignacio; Millán-Romero, Pedro; Vallés, Francisco

    2015-04-01

    Physical processes in rivers are the result of the interaction between flow regime and hydraulics, morphology, sedimentology and sediment transport. The frequency and magnitude of physical disturbance (i.e. bed stability) control habitat integrity and, consequently, ecological diversity of a particular fluvial system. Mediterranean basins are characterized by marked hydroclimatic fluctuations, from low discharges during long dry seasons to flashy events during wetter periods. Dams alter the river's flow regime (e.g. changes on annual runoff, seasonal patterns, flood magnitude and frequency) and the morphosedimentary dynamics in downstream reaches (e.g. channel incision, bed armouring, vegetation encroachment). Impacts caused by reservoirs in rivers of dryland regions (i.e. Mediterranean) are even more pronounced because their channel form and river ecology are adapted to such highly variable flow regimes. Within this context, this paper analyses intra and inter bed disturbance patterns in two Mediterranean impounded rivers with contrasted characteristics (i.e. high and low Mediterranean character). This research was developed in four river reaches, upstream and downstream of a dam in the Esera and Siurana rivers (Ebro catchment, NE Iberian Peninsula) during two hydrological years. The River Esera is considered a Mediterranean River with a continental character, while the River Siurana has a strong Mediterranean character. As bed disturbance can be assessed in different ways, we have designed a methodological approach that integrates four main components in order to examine the effects of regulation in bed disturbance at different spatial and temporal scales: 1) description of channel morphology (together with changes before and after floods) by means of detailed topographical data and close-range aerial photography; 2) flow discharge and hydraulics by determination of flow parameters from 2D hydraulic modelling that is based on detailed topographical data; 3

  20. Environmental footprints of Mediterranean versus Western dietary patterns: beyond the health benefits of the Mediterranean diet

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Dietary patterns can substantially vary the resource consumption and environmental impact of a given population. Dietary changes such as the increased consumption of vegetables and reduced consumption of animal products reduce the environmental footprint and thus the use of natural resources. The adherence of a given population to the Mediterranean Dietary Pattern (MDP) through the consumption of the food proportions and composition defined in the new Mediterranean Diet pyramid can thus not only influence human health but also the environment. The aim of the study was to analyze the sustainability of the MDP in the context of the Spanish population in terms of greenhouse gas emissions, agricultural land use, energy consumption and water consumption. Furthermore, we aimed to compare the current Spanish diet with the Mediterranean Diet and in comparison with the western dietary pattern, exemplified by the U.S.A. food pattern, in terms of their corresponding environmental footprints. Methods The environmental footprints of the dietary patterns studied were calculated from the dietary make-up of each dietary pattern, and specific environmental footprints of each food group. The dietary compositions were obtained from different sources, including food balance sheets and household consumption surveys. The specific environmental footprints of food groups were obtained from different available life-cycle assessments. Results The adherence of the Spanish population to the MDP has a marked impact on all the environmental footprints studied. Increasing adherence to the MDP pattern in Spain will reduce greenhouse gas emissions (72%), land use (58%) and energy consumption (52%), and to a lower extent water consumption (33%). On the other hand, the adherence to a western dietary pattern implies an increase in all these descriptors of between 12% and 72%. Conclusions The MDP is presented as not only a cultural model but also as a healthy and environmentally

  1. Palaeopolyploidy, Spatial Structure and Conservation Genetics of the Narrow Steppe Plant Vella pseudocytisus subsp. paui (Vellinae, Cruciferae)

    PubMed Central

    PÉREZ-COLLAZOS, ERNESTO; CATALÁN, PILAR

    2006-01-01

    • Background and Aims Vella pseudocytisus subsp. paui (Cruciferae) is a narrow endemic plant to the Teruel province (eastern Spain), which is listed in the National Catalogue of Endangered Species. Two distinct ploidy levels (diploid, 2n = 34, and tetraploid, 2n = 68) have been reported for this taxon that belongs to the core subtribe Vellinae, a western Mediterranean group of shrubby taxa with a chromosome base number of x = 17. Allozyme and AFLP analyses were conducted (a) to test for the ploidy and putative palaeo-allopolyploid origin of this taxon, (b) to explore levels of genetic diversity and spatial structure of its populations, and (c) to address in-situ and ex-situ strategies for its conservation. • Methods Six populations that covered the entire geographical range of this taxon were sampled and examined for 19 allozyme loci and three AFLP primer pair combinations. In addition, the gametic progenies of five individuals were analysed for two allozyme loci that showed fixed heterozygosity. • Key Results Multiple banded allozyme profiles for most of the surveyed loci indicated the polyploidy of this taxon. Co-inherited fixed heterozygous patterns were exhibited by the gametophytic tissues of the mother plants. Both allozyme and AFLP markers detected high levels of genetic diversity, and a strong micro-spatial genetic structure was recovered from AFLP phenetic analyses and Mantel correlograms. • Conclusions Allozyme data support the hypothesis of an allotetraploid origin of Vella pseudocytisus subsp. paui that could be representative of other taxa of the core Vellinae group. AFLP data distinguished three geographically distinct groups with no genetic interaction among them. Allotetraploidy and outcrossing reproduction have probably contributed to maintenance of high levels of genetic variability of the populations, whereas habitat fragmentation may have enhanced the high genetic isolation observed among groups. In-situ microgenetic reserves and a

  2. National health research system mapping in 10 Eastern Mediterranean countries.

    PubMed

    Kennedy, A; Khoja, T A M; Abou-Zeid, A H; Ghannem, H; IJsselmuiden, C

    2008-01-01

    Health research systems in the Eastern Mediterranean Region are not well developed to generate and use knowledge to improve health, reduce inequity and contribute to economic development. This study aimed to provide core data on National Health Research Systems (NHRS) in 10 Eastern Mediterranean countries in order to inform actions to strengthen health research system governance and management. Whilst there were examples of good practice, few countries had a formal NHRS and many basic building blocks needed for an effective system had not been put in place. Although limited in focus, the study provides useful information for countries to initiate action to strengthen their NHRS. PMID:18720615

  3. Mediterranean Cyclones in a changing climate. First statistical results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tous, M.; Genoves, A.; Campins, J.; Picornell, M. A.; Jansa, A.; Mizuta, R.

    2009-09-01

    The Mediterranean storms play an important role in weather and climate. Their influence in determining the local weather is known; heavy precipitation systems and strong wind cases are often related to the presence of a cyclone in the Mediterranean. From a large-scale point of view, the Mediterranean storm track has importance in the vertical and horizontal transfers of heat and water vapour towards the Eastern regions. For all of these reasons, any future change related to the intensity, frequency or tracks of these storms can be important for both the local weather and local climate, at least, in the countries around the basin. The Mediterranean cyclones constitute a study subject of increasing interest. Some climatologies from long series of re-analyses, like ERA15, NCEP/NCAR and ERA40, or from operational and high resolution analysis systems, like HIRLAM_INM and ECMWF, have allowed to define the main characteristics of these storms. Generally speaking, the Mediterranean storms have the characteristics of extratropical storms, showing smaller sizes and shorter life cycles than those ones developed in other maritime areas of the world. Moreover, the influence of the land areas and high mountains around the basin and the large-scale heat releases have been revealed as key factors for understanding their genesis and rates of development. In spite of the fact that probably the existing automatic procedures include some large scale assumptions, which may not the best for the correct detection and tracking the Mediterranean storms, these procedures can provide a first and almost necessary step, from a statistical/climatological point of view, specially taking into account both the current resolution of the existent global re-analysis series and global climatic models and the state-of-the art about Mediterranean cyclones. A cyclone detection and tracking procedure, originally designed for the description of Mediterranean storms, has been applied to the low resolution

  4. Changing coastal oceanography of the Black Sea II: Mediterranean effluent

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tolmazin, D.

    The behavior and physical mechanisms during the Mediterranean flow, entering the Black Sea from the Bosphorus, are described using existing field observations and hydrodynamic models for the vertical and along axis circulation in the strait. Soviet studies in the 1960-1970's showed that a well-defined sill north of the Bosphorus does not prevent the overflow of dense Mediterranean water onto the shelf even during unfavorable conditions (high surface elevation in the Black Sea and strong northerly winds). The stream makes a sharp westward turn after exiting from the strait and then starts its track downward to the shelf slope. Intensive dispersion of the Mediterranean water occurs at a distance of 25-50 km from the strait. Recent laboratory and mathematical models have been reviewed to describe the behavior of the density and current interfaces in the strait and the role of temporary blockage of the dense flow upon the Mediterranean effluent. Two hypothetic physical mechanisms for sill overflow are discussed. One is associated with bifurcation of the coastal flows, approaching the strait orifice, and formation of a diversion zone in the upper layer which facilitates the flow over the sill. Another hypothesis suggests that the sill exercises frictionless rotational hydraulic control in the short, 4 km continuation of the strait channel. Persistent northeasterly or southerly winds can substantially affect the intensity of the Mediterranean effluent by modifying the average flow fields and density structures in the strait. TS-analysis of far-field property distribution shows that the Mediterranean water contributes to the laminated structure of the Black Sea water column. Under average conditions, the Mediterranean waters follow the mainstream of the Black Sea current system along the Turkish coast, reaching the deepest strata in the southeastern corner of the sea. Ongoing Soviet diversions of fresh water from the northern slope of the Black Sea and projected damming

  5. On the occurrence of the fireworm Eurythoe complanata complex (Annelida, Amphinomidae) in the Mediterranean Sea with an updated revision of the alien Mediterranean amphinomids

    PubMed Central

    Arias, Andrés; Barroso, Rômulo; Anadón, Nuria; Paiva, Paulo C.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract The presence of two species within the Eurythoe complanata complex in the Mediterranean Sea is reported, as well as their geographical distributions. One species, Eurythoe laevisetis, occurs in the eastern and central Mediterranean, likely constituting the first historical introduction to the Mediterranean Sea and the other, Eurythoe complanata, in both eastern and Levantine basins. Brief notes on their taxonomy are also provided and their potential pathways for introduction to the Mediterranean are discussed. A simplified key to the Mediterranean amphinomid genera and species of Eurythoe and Linopherus is presented plus an updated revision of the alien amphinomid species reported previously from the Mediterranean Sea. A total of five exotic species have been included; information on their location, habitat, date of introduction and other relevant features is also provided. PMID:24146576

  6. Detection of joint space narrowing in hand radiographs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kauffman, Joost A.; Slump, Cornelis H.; Bernelot Moens, Hein J.

    2006-03-01

    Radiographic assessment of joint space narrowing in hand radiographs is important for determining the progression of rheumatoid arthritis in an early stage. Clinical scoring methods are based on manual measurements that are time consuming and subjected to intra-reader and inter-reader variance. The goal is to design an automated method for measuring the joint space width with a higher sensitivity to change1 than manual methods. The large variability in joint shapes and textures, the possible presence of joint damage, and the interpretation of projection images make it difficult to detect joint margins accurately. We developed a method that uses a modified active shape model to scan for margins within a predetermined region of interest. Possible joint space margin locations are detected using a probability score based on the Mahalanobis distance. To prevent the detection of false edges, we use a dynamic programming approach. The shape model and the Mahalanobis scoring function are trained with a set of 50 hand radiographs, in which the margins have been outlined by an expert. We tested our method on a test set of 50 images. The method was evaluated by calculating the mean absolute difference with manual readings by a trained person. 90% of the joint margins are detected within 0.12 mm. We found that our joint margin detection method has a higher precision considering reproducibility than manual readings. For cases where the joint space has disappeared, the algorithm is unable to estimate the margins. In these cases it would be necessary to use a different method to quantify joint damage.

  7. Recovering physical properties from narrow-band photometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schoenell, W.; Cid Fernandes, R.; Benítez, N.; Vale Asari, N.

    2013-05-01

    Our aim in this work is to answer, using simulated narrow-band photometry data, the following general question: What can we learn about galaxies from these new generation cosmological surveys? For instance, can we estimate stellar age and metallicity distributions? Can we separate star-forming galaxies from AGN? Can we measure emission lines, nebular abundances and extinction? With what precision? To accomplish this, we selected a sample of about 300k galaxies with good S/N from the SDSS and divided them in two groups: 200k objects and a template library of 100k. We corrected the spectra to z = 0 and converted them to filter fluxes. Using a statistical approach, we calculated a Probability Distribution Function (PDF) for each property of each object and the library. Since we have the properties of all the data from the STARLIGHT-SDSS database, we could compare them with the results obtained from summaries of the PDF (mean, median, etc). Our results shows that we retrieve the weighted average of the log of the galaxy age with a good error margin (σ ≈ 0.1 - 0.2 dex), and similarly for the physical properties such as mass-to-light ratio, mean stellar metallicity, etc. Furthermore, our main result is that we can derive emission line intensities and ratios with similar precision. This makes this method unique in comparison to the other methods on the market to analyze photometry data and shows that, from the point of view of galaxy studies, future photometric surveys will be much more useful than anticipated.

  8. Stabilization and dynamics of edge flames in narrow channels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bieri, Joanna A.

    The dynamics of edge flames in narrow channels is studied, first within the context of a reactive diffusive (or constant density) model and then in a variable density model which allows for the consideration of thermal expansion effects. Fuel and oxidizer, separated upstream by a thin plate of finite length, flow into a channel with a prescribed upstream velocity. At the end of the plate, the fuel and oxidizer mix and, when ignited, an edge flame is sustained at some distance from the tip of the plate. Typically, the flame, which is stabilized by heat conduction back to the cold plate, has a tribrachial structure. It consists of a leading edge, made up of lean and rich premixed segments, and an attached diffusion flame trailing behind. The flame can also have a hook-like shape, when one of the premixed branches is missing. This often happens for conditions away from stoichiometry and when the mass diffusivities of the fuel and oxidizer are unequal. Earlier work has determined the behavior of an edge flame in a mixing layer that develops downstream of a splitter plate with no boundaries in the lateral direction. This is relevant to the stabilization and liftoff of jet diffusion flames. The confined case has other possible applications, such as flames in mini-combustor systems, that have been recently tested experimentally. The objective in this work is to determine the effect that confinement has on the edge standoff distance, on the flame shape and on the flame stability. In particular, we examine the influence of channel width, wall temperature, and the effects of differential diffusion. We determine conditions under which the edge flame is stabilized near the tip of the splitter plate, is held near the tip but oscillates back and forth, or is blown-off. We consider a wide range of channel widths and boundary conditions at the walls.

  9. Photovoltaic effect for narrow-gap Mott insulators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manousakis, Efstratios

    2012-02-01

    Solar cells, based on conventional band-semiconductors, have low efficiency for conversion of solar into electrical energy. The main reason is that the excess energy of the photon absorbed by an electron/hole pair beyond the band-gap becomes heat through electron-phonon scattering and phonon emission; through these processes electrons and holes relax to their band edges within a characteristic time scale of the order of 10-12-10-13 secs. We will discuss that a narrow-gap Mott insulator can produce a significant photovoltaic effect and, more importantly, if appropriately chosen it can lead to solar cells of high efficiency. In this case, a single solar photon can produce multiple electron/hole (doublon/hole) pairs, an effect known as impact ionization, faster than other relaxation processes such as relaxation through phonons. It has been proposed previously that this process could lead to an efficient solar cell using band-gap semiconductors; however, the characteristic time-scale for impact ionization is comparable to that for electron-phonon relaxation in band-gap semiconductors. The reason that a Mott insulator can behave differently is that the large Coulomb repulsion present in a Mott insulator leads to a large enhancement of the impact ionization rate. Provided that this enhancement does occur in an appropriately chosen Mott insulator, it can be demonstrated that the efficiency can improve significantly over conventional band-insulators. At present, we are doing calculations on specific transition-metal-oxide based materials believed to be Mott-insulators using extensions of the density functional theory (hybrid functionals) in combination with many-body perturbation theory. Our goal is to determine a promising candidate with suitable band structure and transition matrix elements leading to fast transition rates for impact ionization to occur in a time-scale faster than other relaxation processes.

  10. NARROW-K-BAND OBSERVATIONS OF THE GJ 1214 SYSTEM

    SciTech Connect

    Colón, Knicole D.; Gaidos, Eric

    2013-10-10

    GJ 1214 is a nearby M dwarf star that hosts a transiting super-Earth-size planet, making this system an excellent target for atmospheric studies. Most studies find that the transmission spectrum of GJ 1214b is flat, which favors either a high mean molecular weight or cloudy/hazy hydrogen (H) rich atmosphere model. Photometry at short wavelengths (<0.7 μm) and in the K band can discriminate the most between these different atmosphere models for GJ 1214b, but current observations do not have sufficiently high precision. We present photometry of seven transits of GJ 1214b through a narrow K-band (2.141 μm) filter with the Wide Field Camera on the 3.8 m United Kingdom Infrared Telescope. Our photometric precision is typically 1.7 × 10{sup –3} (for a single transit), comparable with other ground-based observations of GJ 1214b. We measure a planet-star radius ratio of 0.1158 ± 0.0013, which, along with other studies, also supports a flat transmission spectrum for GJ 1214b. Since this does not exclude a scenario where GJ 1214b has an H-rich envelope with heavy elements that are sequestered below a cloud/haze layer, we compare K-band observations with models of H{sub 2} collision-induced absorption in an atmosphere for a range of temperatures. While we find no evidence for deviation from a flat spectrum (slope s = 0.0016 ± 0.0038), an H{sub 2}-dominated upper atmosphere (<60 mbar) cannot be excluded. More precise observations at <0.7 μm and in the K band, as well as a uniform analysis of all published data, would be useful for establishing more robust limits on atmosphere models for GJ 1214b.

  11. A search for narrow states in radiative upsilon decays

    SciTech Connect

    Lowe, S.T.

    1986-12-01

    A search for new states produced in radiative UPSILON(1S) decays is accomplished by observing the inclusive photon energy spectrum. A narrow resonance in the energy spectrum indicates the existence of a new state X produced by the process UPSILON ..-->.. ..gamma..X. The analysis is based on approximately 0.44 x 10/sup 6/ UPSILON(1S) events produced at the DORIS II e/sup +/e/sup -/ storage ring. These data were collected with the Crystal Ball detector between April 1983 and May 1986. This analysis finds no evidence for a new state, so upper limits on the branching ratio BR(UPSILON ..-->.. ..gamma..X) are derived, assuming the state X decays primarily to high-multiplicity hadronic final states. In particular, if the state X were a minimal Higgs particle, its primary decay mode would be to the heaviest fermion-antifermion pair energetically available. For the radiative UPSILON(1S) decays studied here, the heavy fermions would be c anti c or s anti s quark states, over most of the relevant Higgs' mass range. The resulting upper limit for BR(UPSILON(1S) ..-->.. ..gamma..X) is highly energy dependent but for X mass between 1.5 GeV and 8.0 GeV, the 90% confidence level upper limit is better than 8.0 x 10/sup -4/. For a Higgs' mass near 5.0 GeV, the upper limit is about 2.0 x 10/sup -4/ which is approximately equal to the lowest order calculation for the Wilczek mechanism. The Wilczek calculation with QCD radiative corrections predict branching ratios below the limits set here for all Higgs' masses.

  12. Narrow bipolar pulse locations compared to thunderstorm radar echo structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karunarathna, Nadeeka; Marshall, Thomas C.; Stolzenburg, Maribeth; Karunarathne, Sumedhe

    2015-11-01

    The locations of 172 positive narrow bipolar pulses (NBPs) found on one day in Florida are superimposed on radar reflectivity data from that day. All 172 NBPs were found within the reflectivity of a thundercloud or at the edge of the reflectivity. The NBPs were classified into three groups: (I) in or above the high-reflectivity core of the storm, (II) in the convective region but not Group I, or (III) in the anvil region. Groups I, II, and III had, respectively, 79%, 17%, and 4% of the NBPs. Of the 136 NBPs in Group I, 43% occurred within the reflectivity core and 57% occurred above the core. A sequence of 34 positive NBPs during 1 h of one thunderstorm suggests that the majority of NBPs occurred during the rapid growth of two thunderstorm cells. Positive NBPs seem to recur in some storm locations; 67 (39%) of the NBPs were part of a recurrent set. We found 28 cases of NBPs recurring in approximately the same location, including 22 doublets, 3 triplets, 2 quadruplets, and 1 sextuplet. Analyses of one quadruplet and one sextuplet showed that these 10 positive NBPs occurred just above and/or right beside the high-reflectivity core on the downshear side of the core. Our data lead us to a hypothesis that NBPs occurring between the thunderstorm's upper positive charge and upper negative screening charge are initiated by small-scale charge regions with positive charge above negative charge, or opposite the orientation of the large-scale storm charges.

  13. Seismogenic nodes in the Mediterranean orogenic belt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gorshkov, A.; Panza, G.; Soloviev, A.; Aoudia, A.

    2003-04-01

    The central segment of the Mediterranean orogenic belt (the Apennines, Alps, Carpathians, Balkanides, and Dinarides) has been studied to identify seismogenic nodes, specific structures formed at the intersections of fault zones. The nodes have been delineated with the morphostructural zoning (MSZ) based on the concept that the lithosphere is built-up by different-scale blocks, separated by mobile boundaries. With MSZ we compiled the morphostructural map (scale 1:1,000,000) for the study region using the GIS technology. The map shows the hierarchical block-structure of the region, the boundary zones bounding blocks, and the loci of the nodes. Three-level hierarchy has been established for the blocks and their boundaries. All the recorded M >= 6.0 earthquakes nucleate at the nodes delineated by MSZ, i.e. ignoring the seismic record. The nodes capable of M >= 6.5 earthquakes are identified with the criteria of high seismicity nodes, previously derived from pattern recognition in the Pamirs -Tien Shan region. In the study region, with the employed criteria 29 out of the 33 nodes, hosting the observed M >= 6.5 events, have been classified as prone to M >= 6.5 earthquakes. With the exception of the Carpatho-Balkanides system, where the recognition procedure is inapplicable due to the insufficient number of sample nodes for the learning stage, we recognized the seismogenic nodes (D), prone to M >= 6.0 earthquakes, with the pattern recognition algorithm CORA-3. The recognition is performed using geomorphic, morphostructural, and gravity parameters relevant to seismicity. The majority of D nodes is associated with the first and second rank boundaries, i.e. larger earthquakes originate at the boundaries of larger blocks. Characteristic traits of D nodes selected by CORA-3 suggest an increased fragmentation of the crust and high intensity of tectonic movements in the D nodes vicinities. We identify a number of D nodes, where strong earthquakes are not recorded till present

  14. Transitioning to a Narrow Path: The Impact of Fear of Falling in Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Dunlap, Pamela; Perera, Subashan; VanSwearingen, Jessie M.; Wert, David; Brach, Jennifer S.

    2011-01-01

    Background Everyday ambulation requires navigation of variable terrain, transitions from wide to narrow pathways, and avoiding obstacles. While the effect of age on the transition to a narrow path has been examined briefly, little is known about the impact of fear of falling on gait during the transition to a narrow path. The purpose was to examine the effect of age and fear of falling on gait during transition to a narrow path. Methods In 31 young, mean age = 25.3 years, and 30 older adults, mean age = 79.6 years, step length, step time, step width and gait speed were examined during usual and transition to narrow pathway using an instrumented walkway. Findings During the transition to narrow walk condition, fearful older adults compared to young had a wider step width (.06 m vs. .04 m) prior to the narrow path and took shorter steps (.53 m vs .72 m, p<.001). Compared to non-fearful older adults, fearful older adults walked slower and took shorter steps during narrow path walking (gait speed: 1.1 m/s vs .82 m/s, p=.01; step length: .60 m vs .47 m, p=.03). In young and non-fearful older adults narrow path gait was similar to usual gait. Whereas older adults who were fearful, walked slower (.82 m/s vs .91 m/s, p=.001) and took shorter steps (.44 m vs .53 m, p=.004) during narrow path walking compared to usual walking. Interpretation Changes in gait characteristics with transitioning to a narrow pathway were greater for fear of falling than for age. PMID:21944475

  15. Temperature humidity index scenarios in the Mediterranean basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Segnalini, M.; Bernabucci, U.; Vitali, A.; Nardone, A.; Lacetera, N.

    2013-05-01

    The study was undertaken to describe the temperature humidity index (THI) dynamics over the Mediterranean basin for the period 1971-2050. The THI combines temperature and humidity into a single value, and has been widely used to predict the effects of environmental warmth in farm animals. The analysis was based on daily outputs of the temperature and relative humidity from the Max Planck Institute data using the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change Special Report Emission Scenario A1B. Data revealed a gradual increase of both annual and seasonal THI during the period under investigation and a strong heterogeneity of the Mediterranean area. In particular, the analysis indicated that Spain, southern France and Italy should be expected to undergo the highest THI increase, which in the last decade under study (2041-2050) will range between 3 and 4 units. However, only during summer months the area presents characteristics indicating risk of thermal (heat) stress for farm animals. In this regard, scenario maps relative to the summer season suggested an enlargement of the areas in the basin where summer THI values will likely cause thermal discomfort in farm animals. In conclusion, the study indicated that the Mediterranean basin is likely to undergo THI changes, which may aggravate the consequences of hot weather on animal welfare, performances, health and survival and may help farmers, nutritionists, veterinarians, and policy-makers to develop appropriate adaptation strategies to limit consequences of climate change for the livestock sector in the Mediterranean countries.

  16. Management of scorpion stings in Africa and the Mediterranean region.

    PubMed

    Chippaux, J-P

    2016-05-01

    Common in the southern and eastern Mediterranean basin, scorpion stings can develop into a severe medical emergency, especially in young children. Here we review several principles of diagnosis and treatment. The indications for antivenom and symptomatic treatment are detailed according to the symptoms and clinical severity of envenomation. PMID:27412972

  17. Loss of large predatory sharks from the Mediterranean Sea.

    PubMed

    Ferretti, Francesco; Myers, Ransom A; Serena, Fabrizio; Lotze, Heike K

    2008-08-01

    Evidence for severe declines in large predatory fishes is increasing around the world. Because of its long history of intense fishing, the Mediterranean Sea offers a unique perspective on fish population declines over historical timescales. We used a diverse set of records dating back to the early 19th and mid 20th century to reconstruct long-term population trends of large predatory sharks in the northwestern Mediterranean Sea. We compiled 9 time series of abundance indices from commercial and recreational fishery landings, scientific surveys, and sighting records. Generalized linear models were used to extract instantaneous rates of change from each data set, and a meta-analysis was conducted to compare population trends. Only 5 of the 20 species we considered had sufficient records for analysis. Hammerhead (Sphyrna spp.), blue (Prionace glauca), mackerel (Isurus oxyrinchus and Lamna nasus), and thresher sharks (Alopias vulpinus) declined between 96 and 99.99% relative to their former abundance. According to World Conservation Union (IUCN) criteria, these species would be considered critically endangered. So far, the lack of quantitative population assessments has impeded shark conservation in the Mediterranean Sea. Our study fills this critical information gap, suggesting that current levels of exploitation put large sharks at risk of extinction in the Mediterranean Sea. Possible ecosystem effects of these losses involve a disruption of top-down control and a release of midlevel consumers. PMID:18544092

  18. Temperature humidity index scenarios in the Mediterranean basin.

    PubMed

    Segnalini, M; Bernabucci, U; Vitali, A; Nardone, A; Lacetera, N

    2013-05-01

    The study was undertaken to describe the temperature humidity index (THI) dynamics over the Mediterranean basin for the period 1971-2050. The THI combines temperature and humidity into a single value, and has been widely used to predict the effects of environmental warmth in farm animals. The analysis was based on daily outputs of the temperature and relative humidity from the Max Planck Institute data using the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change Special Report Emission Scenario A1B. Data revealed a gradual increase of both annual and seasonal THI during the period under investigation and a strong heterogeneity of the Mediterranean area. In particular, the analysis indicated that Spain, southern France and Italy should be expected to undergo the highest THI increase, which in the last decade under study (2041-2050) will range between 3 and 4 units. However, only during summer months the area presents characteristics indicating risk of thermal (heat) stress for farm animals. In this regard, scenario maps relative to the summer season suggested an enlargement of the areas in the basin where summer THI values will likely cause thermal discomfort in farm animals. In conclusion, the study indicated that the Mediterranean basin is likely to undergo THI changes, which may aggravate the consequences of hot weather on animal welfare, performances, health and survival and may help farmers, nutritionists, veterinarians, and policy-makers to develop appropriate adaptation strategies to limit consequences of climate change for the livestock sector in the Mediterranean countries. PMID:22850789

  19. High Energy Neutrinos with a Mediterranean Neutrino Telescope

    SciTech Connect

    Borriello, E.; Cuoco, A.; Mangano, G.; Miele, G.; Pastor, Sergio; Pisanti, O.; Serpico, Pasquale Dario; /Fermilab

    2007-09-01

    The high energy neutrino detection by a km{sup 3} Neutrino Telescope placed in the Mediterranean sea provides a unique tool to both determine the diffuse astrophysical neutrino flux and the neutrino nucleon cross section in the extreme kinematical region, which could unveil the presence of new physics. Here is performed a brief analysis of possible NEMO site performances.

  20. Truth and consequences: the bioinvasion of the Mediterranean Sea.

    PubMed

    Galil, Bella Sarah

    2012-09-01

    Over 660 alien marine multicellular species have been recorded in the Mediterranean Sea, with many establishing viable populations and subsequently dispersing from their points of entry. A brief overview is presented of the current state of knowledge of bioinvasions in the Mediterranean Sea, with particular attention paid to gelatinous invasive species. A database of alien species records was used to characterize their identity, pattern of expansion and native region, and to discuss the relative importance of different taxa and vectors in the various regions of the sea. The temporal and spatial spread of 4 alien scyphozoans and 2 alien ctenophores is outlined. Although thermophilic species constitute the majority of Mediterranean aliens, Erythrean aliens are predominant in the east, with shipping and mariculture being mainly responsible for introductions in the northwest. The propagule pressure driving the Erythrean invasion is powerful in the establishment and spread of alien species in the eastern Mediterranean. The implications of the enlargement of the Suez Canal, reflecting patterns in global trade and economy, are briefly discussed. Finally, as alien species inventories play a pivotal role in informing regional policy and management decisions and identifying resource priorities, the scientific community is called upon to pay particular attention to their accuracy and veracity. PMID:22938526

  1. Pan-African - Mediterranean Migrations: Implications for Education and Society

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Napier, Diane Brook

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine features of the contemporary migrant and refugee flows across Africa northward to the Mediterranean and then to European countries (sometimes called the "new mass migration" and also migrant flows southward to South Africa. In addition, the purpose was to examine dimensions of response and adaptation in…

  2. Climate Change Threatens Coexistence within Communities of Mediterranean Forested Wetlands

    PubMed Central

    Di Paola, Arianna; Valentini, Riccardo; Paparella, Francesco

    2012-01-01

    The Mediterranean region is one of the hot spots of climate change. This study aims at understanding what are the conditions sustaining tree diversity in Mediterranean wet forests under future scenarios of altered hydrological regimes. The core of the work is a quantitative, dynamic model describing the coexistence of different Mediterranean tree species, typical of arid or semi-arid wetlands. Two kind of species, i.e. Hygrophilous (drought sensitive, flood resistant) and Non-hygrophilous (drought resistant, flood sensitive), are broadly defined according to the distinct adaptive strategies of trees against water stress of summer drought and winter flooding. We argue that at intermediate levels of water supply the dual role of water (resource and stress) results in the coexistence of the two kind of species. A bifurcation analysis allows us to assess the effects of climate change on the coexistence of the two species in order to highlight the impacts of predicted climate scenarios on tree diversity. Specifically, the model has been applied to Mediterranean coastal swamp forests of Central Italy located at Castelporziano Estate and Circeo National Park. Our results show that there are distinct rainfall thresholds beyond which stable coexistence becomes impossible. Regional climatic projections show that the lower rainfall threshold may be approached or crossed during the XXI century, calling for an urgent adaptation and mitigation response to prevent biodiversity losses. PMID:23077484

  3. Thermal history and petroleum systems of the east Mediterranean realm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daher, Samer Bou; Nader, Fadi H.; Littke, Ralf

    2016-04-01

    The eastern Mediterranean Levant basin is a frontier basin that has gained a lot of industrial and academic interest in the last decade due to the huge gas discoveries that have been reported in its southern part. The reported gas in Miocene reservoirs has been assumed to be derived from biogenic sources, although little data has been published so far. The thickness of the sedimentary column and the presence of direct hydrocarbon indicators (DHI) observed in the seismic data suggest the presence of promising prospective thermogenic petroleum systems in deeper intervals in the Levant Basin and along its margins. The east Mediterranean contains several structural elements dividing the area into different realms that reacted differently to the successive tectonic events that have shaped the area and thus resulted in different thermal and burial histories. We will present source rock data collected within the last few years from several organic matter rich intervals in the east Mediterranean and discuss their depositional environment and petroleum generation potential, as well as the potential petroleum systems in each compartment of the study area. This is based on numerical thermal and burial history models of several east Mediterranean realms including the Levant basin, its eastern and western margins, and the Eratosthenes Seamount. Additionally, we will present some results of sensitivity analysis in the poorly calibrated parts of the study area.

  4. Management of Solanum elaeagnifolium in the Mediterranean Basin

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Solanum elaeagnifolium Cav. (silverleaf nightshade, SOLEL) is a prominent invasive alien weed in many countries of the Mediterranean Basin since its introduction in the mid-20th century, originating from the southwestern United States and northern Mexico. It reproduces vegetatively and by seeds that...

  5. The Mediterranean Diet and Nutritional Adequacy: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Castro-Quezada, Itandehui; Román-Viñas, Blanca; Serra-Majem, Lluís

    2014-01-01

    The Mediterranean dietary pattern, through a healthy profile of fat intake, low proportion of carbohydrate, low glycemic index, high content of dietary fiber, antioxidant compounds, and anti-inflammatory effects, reduces the risk of certain pathologies, such as cancer or Cardiovascular Disease (CVD). Nutritional adequacy is the comparison between the nutrient requirement and the intake of a certain individual or population. In population groups, the prevalence of nutrient inadequacy can be assessed by the probability approach or using the Estimated Average Requirement (EAR) cut-point method. However, dietary patterns can also be used as they have moderate to good validity to assess adequate intakes of some nutrients. The objective of this study was to review the available evidence on the Nutritional Adequacy of the Mediterranean Diet. The inclusion of foods typical of the Mediterranean diet and greater adherence to this healthy pattern was related to a better nutrient profile, both in children and adults, with a lower prevalence of individuals showing inadequate intakes of micronutrients. Therefore, the Mediterranean diet could be used in public health nutrition policies in order to prevent micronutrient deficiencies in the most vulnerable population groups. PMID:24394536

  6. Editorial Introduction: Multilingualism and Education around the Mediterranean.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bahous, Rima; Thonhauser, Ingo

    2001-01-01

    Introduces a special issue on the complex relationship between multilingualism and education in the Mediterranean region. Articles examine Maltese bilingual education; teaching English in Algeria; shifts in environmental literacy in Lebanon; multilingual education in Lebanon; cognitive-academic language proficiency and language acquisition in…

  7. Epidemiology of Carbapenem Resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae Infections in Mediterranean Countries

    PubMed Central

    Girmenia, Corrado; Serrao, Alessandra; Canichella, Martina

    2016-01-01

    Infections by Carbapenem-Resistant Enterobacteriaceae (CRE), in particular, carbapenem-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae (CRKp), are a significant public health challenge worldwide. Resistance to carbapenems in enterobacteriaceae is linked to different mechanisms, including the production of the various types of enzymes like KPC, VIM, IMP, NDM, and OXA-48. Despite several attempts to control the spread of these infections at the local and national level, the epidemiological situation for CRKp had worsened in the last years in the Mediterranean area. The rate and types of CRKp isolates greatly differ in the various Mediterranean countries. KPC-producing K. pneumoniae is diffused particularly in the European countries bordering the Mediterranean Sea and is endemic in Greece and Italy. On the contrary, OXA-48-producing K. pneumoniae is endemic in Turkey and Malta and diffused at inter-regional level particularly in some North African and Middle East countries. The spread of these multiresistant pathogens in the world and the Mediterranean countries has been related to various epidemiological factors including the international transfer of patients coming from endemic areas. PMID:27441063

  8. Sustainable management for the eastern Mediterranean coast of Turkey.

    PubMed

    Berberoglu, Süha

    2003-03-01

    The objective of this article is to propose a program for the integrated coastal zone management that is required to stimulate and guide sustainable development of the Mediterranean coastal zone of Turkey. Improved data collection, quality control, analysis, and data management will provide a firm basis for future scientific understanding of the East Mediterranean coast of Turkey and will support long-term management. Various innovative procedures were proposed for a promising ecosystem-based approach to manage coastal wetlands in the Mediterranean: remote data acquisition with new technologies; environmental quality monitoring program that will provide a baseline for monitoring; linking a Geographic Information System (GIS) with natural resource management decision routines in the context of operational wetlands, fisheries, tourism management system; environmental sensitivity analysis to ensure that permitted developments are environmentally sustainable; and use of natural species to restore the wetlands and coastal dunes and sustain the system processes. The proposed management scheme will benefit the scientific community in the Mediterranean and the management/planning community in Eastern Turkey. PMID:12592459

  9. Cretaceous rudist-reefs of the Mediterranean realm

    SciTech Connect

    Philip, J.M. )

    1988-08-01

    Cretaceous rudist-reefs are well represented in the Mediterranean region on outcrops, and several subsurface examples are major hydrocarbon reservoirs. Most rudist reefs are part of large carbonate platforms and show both ecologic and sedimentologic zonation; localized rudist banks are rare and are confined to perideltaic environments. Rudists are the major builders, but rich fauna and flora accompany them. Together, these components produced large amounts of bioclastic debris that accumulated on reef slopes as grain-flow and debris-flow deposits. Much of the primary porosity was occluded by micritic matrix and early cements, but dissolution of the aragonitic rudist skeleton and dolomitization can produce extensive secondary porosity. Reefs appears in the Aptian, reach their acme in the Cenomanian and Senonian, but are missing in the Turonian. The early Turonian disappearance is probably the result of changes in global ocean circulation, and the Maestrichtian demise correlates with a sea level fall. Three reef provinces are recognizable: (1) western Mediterranean corresponding to the passive margins of Sardinia and Aquitain-Pyrenees-Iberia; (2) African including Maghreb and the Middle East; and (3) central Mediterranean composed of the Italian, Dinaric, Hellenic, and Turkish platforms separated from the western Mediterranean by the Alpine geosyncline.

  10. Mycorrhizal Types in the Mediterranean Basin: Safety Teaching and Training

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Azul, Anabela Marisa; Ramos, Vitor; Pato, Anabela; Azenha, Matilde; Freitas, Helena

    2008-01-01

    More than 90% of vascular plants in terrestrial ecosystems form symbiotic root-fungal associations known as mycorrhiza; in Mediterranean biomes all known mycorrhizal types co-exist. However, the understanding of mycorrhizal diversity and structure and their ecophysiological impact in soil productivity and conservation has been shown to be very…

  11. Climate change threatens coexistence within communities of Mediterranean forested wetlands.

    PubMed

    Di Paola, Arianna; Valentini, Riccardo; Paparella, Francesco

    2012-01-01

    The Mediterranean region is one of the hot spots of climate change. This study aims at understanding what are the conditions sustaining tree diversity in Mediterranean wet forests under future scenarios of altered hydrological regimes. The core of the work is a quantitative, dynamic model describing the coexistence of different Mediterranean tree species, typical of arid or semi-arid wetlands. Two kind of species, i.e. Hygrophilous (drought sensitive, flood resistant) and Non-hygrophilous (drought resistant, flood sensitive), are broadly defined according to the distinct adaptive strategies of trees against water stress of summer drought and winter flooding. We argue that at intermediate levels of water supply the dual role of water (resource and stress) results in the coexistence of the two kind of species. A bifurcation analysis allows us to assess the effects of climate change on the coexistence of the two species in order to highlight the impacts of predicted climate scenarios on tree diversity. Specifically, the model has been applied to Mediterranean coastal swamp forests of Central Italy located at Castelporziano Estate and Circeo National Park. Our results show that there are distinct rainfall thresholds beyond which stable coexistence becomes impossible. Regional climatic projections show that the lower rainfall threshold may be approached or crossed during the XXI century, calling for an urgent adaptation and mitigation response to prevent biodiversity losses. PMID:23077484

  12. The Mediterranean surface wave climate inferred from future scenario simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lionello, P.; Cogo, S.; Galati, M. B.; Sanna, A.

    2008-09-01

    This study is based on 30-year long simulations of the wind-wave field in the Mediterranean Sea carried out with the WAM model. Wave fields have been computed for the 2071-2100 period of the A2, B2 emission scenarios and for the 1961-1990 period of the present climate (REF). The wave model has been forced by the wind field computed by a regional climate model with 50 km resolution. The mean SWH (Significant Wave Height) field over large fraction of the Mediterranean sea is lower for the A2 scenario than for the present climate during winter, spring and autumn. During summer the A2 mean SWH field is also lower everywhere, except for two areas, those between Greece and Northern Africa and between Spain and Algeria, where it is significantly higher. All these changes are similar, though smaller and less significant, in the B2 scenario, except during winter in the north-western Mediterranean Sea, when the B2 mean SWH field is higher than in the REF simulation. Also extreme SWH values are smaller in future scenarios than in the present climate and such SWH change is larger for the A2 than for the B2 scenario. The only exception is the presence of higher SWH extremes in the central Mediterranean during summer for the A2 scenario. In general, changes of SWH, wind speed and atmospheric circulation are consistent, and results show milder marine storms in future scenarios than in the present climate.

  13. Narrow band imaging and long slit spectroscopy of UGC 5101

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stanga, R. M.; Mannucci, F.; Rodriguezespinosa, J. M.

    1993-01-01

    UGC 5101 (z = 0.04; D is approximately equal to 240 Mpc) is one of the so called Ultraluminous IRAS sources. Two important properties of the members of this group are their L(sub IR) is greater than or equal to 10(exp 12) solar luminosity, and their space density in the universe up to z is less than 0.1 is equal or even larger than the space density of the quasars. Further noteworthy features of the Ultraluminous IRAS sources are their being morphologically peculiar and the fact that they all seem to host active nuclei in their center. We have observed UGC 5101 in an effort to study the interplay between the gas ionized by the central active nucleus and that gas ionized by other processes which may hold important clues to the understanding of the entire picture of this object. In particular these other ionizing processes could well be massive stars formed recently after the galactic encounter and shocks possibly also related to the galaxy collision. The data that we discuss were obtained between Dec. 1989 and Jan. 1992 with the WHT 4.2 m telescope using the two-arm spectrograph ISIS. Several spectral frames were obtained at three different position angles: PA 84--along the tail of the galaxy; PA 32--along the dust lane; and PA 110. The blue spectra are centered on the H beta line, while the red spectra are centered on the H alpha line. In the configuration we used for the long slit spectra, the spectral scale was 0.74 A per pixel, and the spatial scale was .37 arcsec per pixel; we also observed the H alpha region with a spectral scale of .37 A per pixel, at position angle 84. The narrow band images were obtained at the auxiliary port of ISIS, with a scale of .2 arcsec per pixel, and were centered at the H alpha wavelength, and on the adjacent continuum. The H alpha images and the spectra support the following model. UGC 5101 hosts an active nucleus; the NLR extends up to about 1.5 kpc and shows a complex velocity field, superimposed on the rotation curve of the

  14. Electronic characterization of defects in narrow gap semiconductors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Patterson, James D.

    1994-01-01

    We use a Green's function technique to calculate the position of deep defects in narrow gap semiconductors. We consider substitutional (including antisite), vacancy, and interstitial (self and foreign) deep defects. We also use perturbation theory to look at the effect of nonparabolic bands on shallow defect energies and find nonparabolicity can increase the binding by 10 percent or so. We consider mercury cadmium telluride (MCT), mercury zinc telluride (MZT), and mercury zinc selenide (MZS). For substitutional and interstitial defects we look at the situation with and without relaxation. For substitutional impurities in MCT, MZT, and MZS, we consider x (the concentration of Cd or Zn) in the range 0.1 less than x less than 0.3 and also consider appropriate x so E(sub g) = 0.1 eV for each of the three compounds. We consider several cation site s-like deep levels and anion site p-like levels. For E(sub g) = 0.1 eV, we also consider the effects of relaxation. Similar comments apply to the interstitial deep levels whereas no relaxation is considered for the ideal vacancy model. Relaxation effects can be greater for the interstitial than the substitutional cases. Specific results are given in figures and tables and comparison to experiment is made in a limited number of cases. We find, for example, that I, Se, S, Rn, and N are possible cation site, s-like deep levels in MCT and Zn and Mg are for anion site, p-like levels (both levels for substitutional cases). The corresponding cation and anion site levels for interstitial deep defects are (Au, Ag, Hg, Cd, Cu, Zn) and (N, Ar, O, F). For the substitutional cases we have some examples of relaxation moving the levels into the band gap, whereas for the interstitial case we have examples where relaxation moves it out of the band gap. Future work involves calculating the effects of charge state interaction and seeing the effect of relaxation on vacancy levels.

  15. Climate change and forest fires in a Mediterranean environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turco, Marco; Llasat, Maria-Carmen; von Hardenberg, Jost; Provenzale, Antonello

    2014-05-01

    The Mediterranean region is a "hot-spot" of climate change and wildfires, where about 50000 fires burn 500000 hectares every year. However, in spite of the growing concerns of the climate change impacts on Mediterranean wildfires, there are aspects of this topic that remain largely to be investigated. The main scientific objective of this study is to investigate the climate-driven changes on fires in a typical Mediterranean environment (Catalonia, NE of Spain). To achieve this goal, the following specific aims have been identified: (1) Analysis of the recent evolution of fires; (2) Evaluation of the climate-fire relationship; (3) Estimation of the impacts of observed and future climate change. First, we examine a homogeneous series of forest fires in the period 1970-2010. Our analysis shows that both the burned area and number of fire series display a decreasing trend. After the large fires of 1986 and 1994, the increased effort in fire prevention and suppression could explain part of this decreasing trend. Although it is often stated that fires have increased in Mediterranean regions, the higher efficiency in fire detection could have led to spurious trends and misleading conclusions [1]. Secondly, we show that the interannual variability of summer fires is significantly related to antecedent and concurrent climate conditions, highlighting the importance of climate not only in regulating fuel flammability, but also fuel load. On the basis of these results, we develop a simple regression model that produces reliable out-of-sample predictions of the impact of climate variability on summer forest fires [2]. Finally we apply this model to estimate the impacts of observed climate trends on summer fires and the possible fire response to different regional climate change scenarios. We show that a transition toward warmer conditions has already started to occur and it is possible that they continue by mid-century (under the A1B scenario), and that these changes promote

  16. Climate change and drought risk management in Mediterranean watersheds (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pulwarty, R. S.; Maia, R.; Garrido, A.; Hoerling, M. P.

    2013-12-01

    As a result of major droughts and floods over the past two decades, the European Union has expressed major concerns regarding climate change impacts on the resilience of ecosystems and water resources. The EU Water Framework Directive established a framework for action in the field of water olicy committing European Union member states to achieve develop integrated watershed management plans and improve the quality of water bodies by 2015. Key to meeting these goals are understanding and planning for changes in extreme events, groundwater and surface water changes, and the level of integrated water resources management infrastructure. In the northern European basins, water shortages are mostly offset by irrigation systems. This is not the case for southern basins in the Mediterranean (e.g. Guadiana, Ebro, Po), where water supply systems are already stressed, and where socioeconomic losses due to droughts are more significant. Precipitation variability in the Mediterranean basin is characterized by substantial interdecadal variations and long-term trends. This paper presents an assessment of climate and the socioeconomic impacts of drought in the Mediterranean basin including the factors that determine the vulnerability of different sectors to the risks posed by climate change. The studies are based on two projects in which the authors are involved: the European Commission funded PREEMPT project 'Policy-relevant assessment of the socio-economic effects of droughts and floods' and 'Development of methodologies for integration of climate change on water resources managements for the Guadiana Basin', that analyze drought events, economic losses, risk management efforts and the prospect for adaptation. Studies show that the land area surrounding the Mediterranean Sea has experienced 10 of the 12 driest winters since 1902 in just the last 20 years. A change in wintertime Mediterranean precipitation toward drier conditions has likely occurred over 1902-2010. Anthropogenic

  17. Magnetic Fields Sculpt Narrow Jets From Dying Star

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2006-03-01

    Molecules spewed outward from a dying star are confined into narrow jets by a tightly-wound magnetic field, according to astronomers who used the National Science Foundation's Very Long Baseline Array (VLBA) radio telescope to study an old star about 8,500 light-years from Earth. Magnetic Field Around Jet Artist's Conception Shows Tightly-Wound Magnetic Field Confining Jet CREDIT: NRAO/AUI/NSF (Click on image for larger version) The star, called W43A, in the constellation Aquila, is in the process of forming a planetary nebula, a shell of brightly-glowing gas lit by the hot ember into which the star will collapse. In 2002, astronomers discovered that the aging star was ejecting twin jets of water molecules. That discovery was a breakthrough in understanding how many planetary nebulae are formed into elongated shapes. "The next question was, what is keeping this outpouring of material confined into narrow jets? Theoreticians suspected magnetic fields, and we now have found the first direct evidence that a magnetic field is confining such a jet," said Wouter Vlemmings, a Marie Curie Fellow working at the Jodrell Bank Observatory of the University of Manchester in England. "Magnetic fields previously have been detected in jets emitted by quasars and protostars, but the evidence was not conclusive that the magnetic fields were actually confining the jets. These new VLBA observations now make that direct connection for the very first time," Vlemmings added. By using the VLBA to study the alignment, or polarization, of radio waves emitted by water molecules in the jets, the scientists were able to determine the strength and orientation of the magnetic field surrounding the jets. "Our observations support recent theoretical models in which magnetically-confined jets produce the sometimes-complex shapes we see in planetary nebulae," said Philip Diamond, also of Jodrell Bank Observatory. During their "normal" lives, stars similar to our Sun are powered by the nuclear fusion

  18. Acidification of the Mediterranean Sea from anthropogenic carbon penetration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hassoun, Abed El Rahman; Gemayel, Elissar; Krasakopoulou, Evangelia; Goyet, Catherine; Abboud-Abi Saab, Marie; Guglielmi, Véronique; Touratier, Franck; Falco, Cédric

    2015-08-01

    This study presents an estimation of the anthropogenic CO2 (CANT) concentrations and acidification (ΔpH=pH2013-pHpre-industrial) in the Mediterranean Sea, based upon hydrographic and carbonate chemistry data collected during the May 2013 MedSeA cruise. The concentrations of CANT were calculated using the composite tracer TrOCA. The CANT distribution shows that the most invaded waters (>60 μmol kg-1) are those of the intermediate and deep layers in the Alboran, Liguro- and Algero-Provencal Sub-basins in the Western basin, and in the Adriatic Sub-basin in the Eastern basin. Whereas the areas containing the lowest CANT concentrations are the deep layers of the Eastern basin, especially those of the Ionian Sub-basin, and those of the northern Tyrrhenian Sub-basin in the Western basin. The acidification level in the Mediterranean Sea reflects the excessive increase of atmospheric CO2 and therefore the invasion of the sea by CANT. This acidification varies between -0.055 and -0.156 pH unit and it indicates that all Mediterranean Sea waters are already acidified, especially those of the Western basin where ΔpH is rarely less than -0.1 pH unit. Both CANT concentrations and acidification levels are closely linked to the presence and history of the different water masses in the intermediate and deep layers of the Mediterranean basins. Despite the high acidification levels, both Mediterranean basins are still highly supersaturated in calcium carbonate minerals.

  19. Comparative Patterns of Plant Invasions in the Mediterranean Biome

    PubMed Central

    Arianoutsou, Margarita; Delipetrou, Pinelopi; Vilà, Montserrat; Dimitrakopoulos, Panayiotis G.; Celesti-Grapow, Laura; Wardell-Johnson, Grant; Henderson, Lesley; Fuentes, Nicol; Ugarte-Mendes, Eduardo; Rundel, Philip W.

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this work was to compare and contrast the patterns of alien plant invasions in the world’s five mediterranean-climate regions (MCRs). We expected landscape age and disturbance history to have bearing on levels of invasion. We assembled a database on naturalized alien plant taxa occurring in natural and semi-natural terrestrial habitats of all five regions (specifically Spain, Italy, Greece and Cyprus from the Mediterranean Basin, California, central Chile, the Cape Region of South Africa and Southwestern - SW Australia). We used multivariate (hierarchical clustering and NMDS ordination) trait and habitat analysis to compare characteristics of regions, taxa and habitats across the mediterranean biome. Our database included 1627 naturalized species with an overall low taxonomic similarity among the five MCRs. Herbaceous perennials were the most frequent taxa, with SW Australia exhibiting both the highest numbers of naturalized species and the highest taxonomic similarity (homogenization) among habitats, and the Mediterranean Basin the lowest. Low stress and highly disturbed habitats had the highest frequency of invasion and homogenization in all regions, and high natural stress habitats the lowest, while taxonomic similarity was higher among different habitats in each region than among regions. Our analysis is the first to describe patterns of species characteristics and habitat vulnerability for a single biome. We have shown that a broad niche (i.e. more than one habitat) is typical of naturalized plant species, regardless of their geographical area of origin, leading to potential for high homogenization within each region. Habitats of the Mediterranean Basin are apparently the most resistant to plant invasion, possibly because their landscapes are generally of relatively recent origin, but with a more gradual exposure to human intervention over a longer period. PMID:24244443

  20. Mediterranean dietary pattern and depression: the PREDIMED randomized trial

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background A few observational studies have found an inverse association between adherence to a Mediterranean diet and the risk of depression. Randomized trials with an intervention based on this dietary pattern could provide the most definitive answer to the findings reported by observational studies. The aim of this study was to compare in a randomized trial the effects of two Mediterranean diets versus a low-fat diet on depression risk after at least 3 years of intervention. Methods This was a multicenter, randomized, primary prevention field trial of cardiovascular disease (Prevención con Dieta Mediterránea (PREDIMED Study)) based on community-dwelling men aged 55 to 80 years and women aged 60 to 80 years at high risk of cardiovascular disease (51% of them had type 2 diabetes; DM2) attending primary care centers affiliated with 11 Spanish teaching hospitals. Primary analyses were performed on an intention-to-treat basis. Cox regression models were used to assess the relationship between the nutritional intervention groups and the incidence of depression. Results We identified 224 new cases of depression during follow-up. There was an inverse association with depression for participants assigned to a Mediterranean diet supplemented with nuts (multivariate hazard ratio (HR) 0.78; 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.55 to 1.10) compared with participants assigned to the control group, although this was not significant. However, when the analysis was restricted to participants with DM2, the magnitude of the effect of the intervention with the Mediterranean diet supplemented with nuts did reach statistical significance (multivariate HR = 0.59; 95% CI 0.36 to 0.98). Conclusions The result suggest that a Mediterranean diet supplemented with nuts could exert a beneficial effect on the risk of depression in patients with DM2. Trial registration This trial has been registered in the Current Controlled Trials with the number ISRCTN 35739639 PMID:24229349

  1. Mediterranean Diet and Mobility Decline in Older Persons

    PubMed Central

    Milaneschi, Yuri; Bandinelli, Stefania; Corsi, Anna Maria; Lauretani, Fabrizio; Paolisso, Giuseppe; Dominguez, Ligia J.; Semba, Richard D; Tanaka, Toshiko; Abbatecola, Angela M; Talegawkar, Sameera A; Guralnik, Jack M.; Ferrucci, Luigi

    2010-01-01

    We examined whether adherence to a Mediterranean-style diet has positive effects on mobility assessed over a nine-year follow-up in a representative sample of older adults. This research is part of the InCHIANTI Study, a prospective population-based study of older persons in Tuscany, Italy. The sample for this analysis included 935 women and men aged 65 years and older. Adherence to the Mediterranean diet was assessed at baseline by the standard 10-unit Mediterranean diet score (MDS). Lower extremity function was measured at baseline, and at the 3, 6 and 9-year follow-up visits using the Short Physical Performance Battery (SPPB). At baseline, higher adherence to Mediterranean diet was associated with better lower body performance. Participants with higher adherence experienced less decline in SPPB score, which was of 0.9 points higher (p<.0001) at the 3-year-follow, 1.1 points higher (p= 0.0004) at the 6-year follow-up and 0.9 points higher (p= 0.04) at the 9-year follow-up compared to those with lower adherence. Among participants free of mobility disability at baseline, those with higher adherence had a lower risk (HR=0.71,95%CI=0.51–0.98, p=0.04) of developing new mobility disability. High adherence to a Mediterranean-style diet is associated with a slower decline of mobility over time in community dwelling older persons. If replicated, this observation is highly relevant in terms of public health. PMID:21111801

  2. Travelling in the eastern Mediterranean with landscape character assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abu Jaber, N.; Abunnasr, Y.; Abu Yahya, A.; Boulad, N.; Christou, O.; Dimitropoulos, G.; Dimopoulos, T.; Gkoltsiou, K.; Khreis, N.; Manolaki, P.; Michael, K.; Odeh, T.; Papatheodoulou, A.; Sorotou, A.; Sinno, S.; Suliman, O.; Symons, N.; Terkenli, T.; Trigkas, Vassilis; Trovato, M. G.; Victora, M.; Zomeni, M.; Vogiatzakis, I. N.

    2015-06-01

    Following its application in Northern Europe, Landscape Character Assessment has also been implemented in Euro-Mediterranean countries as a tool for classifying, describing and assessing landscapes. Many landscape classifications employed in the Euro-Mediterranean area are similar in philosophy and application to the ones developed in Northern Europe. However, many aspects of landform, climate, land-use and ecology, as well as socio-economic context are distinctive of Mediterranean landscapes. The paper discusses the conceptual and methodological issues faced during landscape mapping and characterisation in four East-Mediterranean countries (within the MEDSCAPES project): Cyprus, Greece, Jordan and Lebanon. The major hurdles to overcome during the first phase of methodology development include variation in availability, quality, scale and coverage of spatial datasets between countries and also terminology semantics around landscapes. For example, the concept of landscape - a well-defined term in Greek and English - did not exist in Arabic. Another issue is the use of relative terms like 'high mountains,' `uplands' `lowlands' or ' hills'. Such terms, which are regularly used in landscape description, were perceived slightly differently in the four participating countries. In addition differences exist in nomenclature and classification systems used by each country for the dominant landscape-forming factors i.e. geology, soils and land use- but also in the cultural processes shaping the landscapes - compared both to each other and to the Northern-European norms. This paper argues for the development of consistent, regionally adapted, relevant and standardised methodologies if the results and application of LCA in the eastern Mediterranean region are to be transferable and comparable between countries.

  3. Marine storminess in the Mediterranean in future climate scenarios

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lionello, P.

    2009-09-01

    This talk reviews the analysis that is presently available on marine storms, their climatology and change in future climate scenarios. The cyclones that are responsible for the storms are analyzed using a regional climate model simulations of present day (1961-1990) and future (2071-2100, A2 and B2 emission scenarios) and the differences between northern Europe and Mediterranean are discussed. In the A2 and B2 scenarios the annual average storm track intensity increases over the North-East Atlantic and decreases over the Eastern Mediterranean region with respect to present day conditions,. The number of cyclones decreases in future scenarios throughout Europe, except over the central Europe and Mediterranean in summer, where it increases. This overall change pattern is larger in the A2 than in the B2 simulations. Wind-wave field changes are discussed considering a similar analysis. The mean SWH (Significant Wave Height) field over large fraction of the Mediterranean Sea is lower for the A2 scenario than for the present climate during winter, spring and autumn. During summer the A2 mean SWH field is also lower everywhere, except for two areas, those between Greece and Northern Africa and between Spain and Algeria, where it is significantly higher. All these changes are similar, though smaller and less significant, in the B2 scenario, except during winter in the north-western Mediterranean Sea, when the B2 mean SWH field is higher than in the REF simulation. Also extreme SWH values are smaller in future scenarios than in the present climate and such SWH change is larger for the A2 than for the B2 scenario. In general, changes of SWH, wind speed and atmospheric circulation are consistent, and results show milder marine storms in future scenarios than in the present climate.

  4. ARS-NLT-SALT AND ARS-NLT-SALT/B SALINE TOLERANT NARROW LEAF TREFOIL GERMPLASM

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    ARS-NLT-SALT and ARS-NLT-SALT/B are narrow leaf trefoil germplasm that are tolerant of saline germination conditions that were developed from the broad based narrow leaf trefoil germplasm ARS-1207 using two cycles of saline condition selection during seed germination. ARS-NLT-SALT was developed usin...

  5. Sample Size Planning for the Standardized Mean Difference: Accuracy in Parameter Estimation via Narrow Confidence Intervals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelley, Ken; Rausch, Joseph R.

    2006-01-01

    Methods for planning sample size (SS) for the standardized mean difference so that a narrow confidence interval (CI) can be obtained via the accuracy in parameter estimation (AIPE) approach are developed. One method plans SS so that the expected width of the CI is sufficiently narrow. A modification adjusts the SS so that the obtained CI is no…

  6. Narrowing the Gap in Outcomes for Vulnerable Groups: A Review of the Research Evidence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kendall, Sally; Straw, Suzanne; Jones, Megan; Springate, Iain; Grayson, Hilary

    2008-01-01

    This report presents findings from a review of the best evidence on narrowing the gap in outcomes across the five Every Child Matters (ECM) areas for vulnerable groups in the context of improving outcomes for all. The review was commissioned to prepare the ground for work on "Narrowing the Gap" with participating local authorities (LAs). Although…

  7. 47 CFR 80.1159 - Narrow-band direct-printing (NB-DP).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Narrow-band direct-printing (NB-DP). 80.1159... Narrow-band direct-printing (NB-DP). NB-DP is a form of telegraphy for the transmission and receipt of direct printing public correspondence. Ships must use NB-DP techniques only with authorized public...

  8. Brief Daily Exposures to Asian Females Reverses Perceptual Narrowing for Asian Faces in Caucasian Infants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anzures, Gizelle; Wheeler, Andrea; Quinn, Paul C.; Pascalis, Olivier; Slater, Alan M.; Heron-Delaney, Michelle; Tanaka, James W.; Lee, Kang

    2012-01-01

    Perceptual narrowing in the visual, auditory, and multisensory domains has its developmental origins during infancy. The current study shows that experimentally induced experience can reverse the effects of perceptual narrowing on infants' visual recognition memory of other-race faces. Caucasian 8- to 10-month-olds who could not discriminate…

  9. 78 FR 67086 - Safety Zone, Submarine Cable Replacement Operations, Kent Island Narrows; Queen Anne's County, MD

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-08

    ...The Coast Guard proposes to establish a temporary safety zone encompassing certain waters of Kent Island Narrows in Queen Anne's County, MD. This action is necessary to provide for the safety of mariners and their vessels on navigable waters during submarine cable replacement operations at the Kent Island Narrows (MD-18B) Bridge. This action is intended to restrict vessel traffic movement to......

  10. 75 FR 53711 - Narrow Woven Ribbons With Woven Selvedge From China and Taiwan

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-01

    ..., and by publishing the notice in the Federal Register on March 12, 2010 (75 FR 11908). The hearing was... COMMISSION Narrow Woven Ribbons With Woven Selvedge From China and Taiwan Determinations On the basis of the... reason of imports of narrow woven ribbons with woven selvedge from Taiwan, primarily provided for...

  11. Burnout and distribution of liquid between the flow core and wall films in narrow slot channels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boltenko, E. A.; Shpakovskii, A. A.

    2010-03-01

    Previous works on studying distribution of liquid between the flow core and wall films in narrow slot channels are briefly reviewed. Interrelation between mass transfer processes and burnout is shown. A procedure for calculating burnout on convex and concave heat-transfer surfaces in narrow slot channels is presented.

  12. 77 FR 32938 - Narrow Woven Ribbons With Woven Selvedge From Taiwan: Preliminary Results of Antidumping Duty...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-04

    ...The Department of Commerce (Department) is conducting the first administrative review of the antidumping duty order on narrow woven ribbons with woven selvedge (narrow woven ribbons) from Taiwan. The sole mandatory respondent in this administrative review, Hubschercorp, did not respond to the Department's questionnaire. As a result, we have preliminarily assigned Hubschercorp a margin based on......

  13. 47 CFR 80.1159 - Narrow-band direct-printing (NB-DP).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Narrow-band direct-printing (NB-DP). 80.1159... Narrow-band direct-printing (NB-DP). NB-DP is a form of telegraphy for the transmission and receipt of direct printing public correspondence. Ships must use NB-DP techniques only with authorized public...

  14. 47 CFR 80.1159 - Narrow-band direct-printing (NB-DP).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Narrow-band direct-printing (NB-DP). 80.1159... Narrow-band direct-printing (NB-DP). NB-DP is a form of telegraphy for the transmission and receipt of direct printing public correspondence. Ships must use NB-DP techniques only with authorized public...

  15. 47 CFR 80.1159 - Narrow-band direct-printing (NB-DP).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Narrow-band direct-printing (NB-DP). 80.1159... Narrow-band direct-printing (NB-DP). NB-DP is a form of telegraphy for the transmission and receipt of direct printing public correspondence. Ships must use NB-DP techniques only with authorized public...

  16. 47 CFR 80.1159 - Narrow-band direct-printing (NB-DP).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Narrow-band direct-printing (NB-DP). 80.1159... Narrow-band direct-printing (NB-DP). NB-DP is a form of telegraphy for the transmission and receipt of direct printing public correspondence. Ships must use NB-DP techniques only with authorized public...

  17. Narrowing the Gap in Outcomes: Early Years (0-5 Years)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Springate, Ian; Atkinson, Mary; Straw, Suzanne; Lamont, Emily; Grayson, Hilary

    2008-01-01

    This report was commissioned by the Local Government Association (LGA) to inform the Department for Children, Schools and Families (DCSF) and LGA work on "Narrowing the Gap." It focuses on early years' provision and presents findings from a review of the best evidence on narrowing the gap in outcomes across the five Every Child Matters (ECM) areas…

  18. 33 CFR 162.255 - Wrangell Narrows, Alaska; use, administration, and navigation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Buoy 63 and Midway Rock Light. (2) The term “raft section” refers to a standard raft of logs or piling...) Speed restrictions. No vessel shall exceed a speed of seven (7) knots in the vicinity of Petersburg, between Wrangell Narrows Channel Light 58 and Wrangell Narrows Lighted Buoy 60. (c) Tow channel....

  19. 78 FR 23845 - Drawbridge Operation Regulations; Narrow Bay, Smith Point, NY

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-23

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 117 Drawbridge Operation Regulations; Narrow Bay, Smith Point, NY AGENCY... the Smith Point Bridge, mile 6.1, across Narrow Bay, between Smith Point and Fire Island, New York. The deviation is necessary to facilitate the Smith Point Triathlon. This deviation allows the...

  20. A Phenomenological Study of Culturally Proficient School Leadership Resulting in the Narrowing of the Learning Gap

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pfaller, Renee L.

    2010-01-01

    Culturally proficient school leadership and its impact on narrowing the learning gap is both timely, and needed and the focus of discussion for this study. This phenomenological qualitative research study examined culturally proficient school leadership actions that help promote a measurable narrowing of the achievement gap in five southeastern…