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Sample records for habits eating behaviors

  1. Eating habits and eating behaviors by family dinner frequency in the lower-grade elementary school students

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Seo Yeon; Ha, Seong Ah; Seo, Jung Sook; Sohn, Cheong Min; Park, Hae Ryun

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES Recently, there has been an increased interest in the importance of family meals on children's health and nutrition. This study aims to examine if the eating habits and eating behaviors of children are different according to the frequency of family dinners. SUBJECTS/METHODS The subjects were third-grade students from 70 elementary schools in 17 cities nationwide. A two-stage stratified cluster sampling was employed. The survey questionnaire was composed of items that examined the general characteristics, family meals, eating habits, eating behaviors, and environmental influence on children's eating. The subjects responded to a self-reported questionnaire. Excluding the incomplete responses, the data (n = 3,435) were analyzed using ?2-test or t-test. RESULTS The group that had more frequent family dinners (? 5 days/week, 63.4%), compared to those that had less (? 4 days/week, 36.6%), showed better eating habits, such as eating meals regularly, performing desirable behaviors during meals, having breakfast frequently, having breakfast with family members (P < 0.001), and not eating only what he or she likes (P < 0.05). Those who had more frequent family dinners also consumed healthy foods with more frequency, including protein foods, dairy products, grains, vegetables, seaweeds (P < 0.001), and fruits (P < 0.01). However, unhealthy eating behaviors (e.g., eating fatty foods, salty foods, sweets, etc.) were not significantly different by the frequency of family dinners. CONCLUSIONS Having dinner frequently with family members was associated with more desirable eating habits and with healthy eating behaviors in young children. Thus nutrition education might be planned to promote family dinners, by emphasizing the benefits of having family meals on children's health and nutrition and making more opportunities for family meals. PMID:25489408

  2. Assessment of Adherence to Eating Habit and Exercise Components in a Behavioral Weight Control Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zegman, Marilyn A.

    Although the augmental value of exercise to behavioral weight control programs has been suggested, demonstration of this value is dependent upon an assessment of adherence to change in eating habits and activity patterns. Self-report measures of adherence were obtained from overweight college women undergoing treatment that involved either dietary…

  3. Assessment of Adherence to Eating Habit and Exercise Components in a Behavioral Weight Control Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zegman, Marilyn A.

    Although the augmental value of exercise to behavioral weight control programs has been suggested, demonstration of this value is dependent upon an assessment of adherence to change in eating habits and activity patterns. Self-report measures of adherence were obtained from overweight college women undergoing treatment that involved either dietary

  4. A study of dietary habits and eating-out behavior of college students in Cheongju area.

    PubMed

    Lee, Joo-Eun; Yoon, Wan-Young

    2014-01-01

    To find out the effects of the general characteristic on dietary habits and eating out behavior of college students in Cheongju area. The ratios of major were 50.3% (80/159) for food and nutrition and 49.7% (79/159) for the others. The most of respondents missed breakfast and the most reason for skipping meal was no time. Older and younger group were different significantly in skipping meal, reason of meal skip, place of lunch, cost of lunch, and preferred lunch menu (P< 0.05, P< 0.01). Continuous instructions should be made on the problems of dietary habits or eating-out behaviors in the results of this study through education, and by seeking for alternatives from different angles such as various nutrition education and nutrition improvement programs. PMID:24763199

  5. Genetic Influences on Adolescent Eating Habits

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beaver, Kevin M.; Flores, Tori; Boutwell, Brian B.; Gibson, Chris L.

    2012-01-01

    Behavioral genetic research shows that variation in eating habits and food consumption is due to genetic and environmental factors. The current study extends this line of research by examining the genetic contribution to adolescent eating habits. Analysis of sibling pairs drawn from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Add Health)…

  6. Genetic Influences on Adolescent Eating Habits

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beaver, Kevin M.; Flores, Tori; Boutwell, Brian B.; Gibson, Chris L.

    2012-01-01

    Behavioral genetic research shows that variation in eating habits and food consumption is due to genetic and environmental factors. The current study extends this line of research by examining the genetic contribution to adolescent eating habits. Analysis of sibling pairs drawn from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Add Health)

  7. Breastfeeding FAQs: Your Eating and Drinking Habits

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Allergy Emergency Cerebral Palsy: Caring for Your Child Breastfeeding FAQs: Your Eating and Drinking Habits KidsHealth > For Parents > Breastfeeding FAQs: Your Eating and Drinking Habits Print A ...

  8. Habit control expectancy for drinking, smoking, and eating.

    PubMed

    Schneider, H G; Busch, M N

    1998-01-01

    Habit-specific locus of control measures for drinking, smoking, and eating were compared to Rotter's general measure to evaluate the relationship between cognitive expectancy and substance use. For both smoking and eating, individuals who reported being addicted were significantly more external on the habit-specific expectancy measures. Measures of use, tolerance, and risk covaried more closely with the habit-specific scales than with the general scale. For eating behavior, the habit-specific scale and the compulsive eating measure were different only for individuals with a history of being overweight. The habit-specific expectancy measures were more closely related to indices of use and addiction than the general locus of control measure and should have greater utility for research and intervention. PMID:9768297

  9. ERICA: prevalence of healthy eating habits among Brazilian adolescents.

    PubMed

    Barufaldi, Laura Augusta; Abreu, Gabriela de Azevedo; Oliveira, Juliana Souza; Santos, Debora Frana Dos; Fujimori, Elizabeth; Vasconcelos, Sandra Mary Lima; Vasconcelos, Francisco de Assis Guedes de; Tavares, Bruno Mendes

    2016-02-01

    OBJECTIVE To describe the prevalence of eating habits considered healthy in adolescents according to sex, age, education level of the mother, school type, session of study, and geographic region. METHODS The assessed data come from the Study of Cardiovascular Risks in Adolescents (ERICA), a cross-sectional, national and school-based study. Adolescents of 1,247 schools of 124 Brazilian municipalities were evaluated using a self-administered questionnaire with a section on aspects related to eating behaviors. The following eating behaviors were considered healthy: consuming breakfast, drinking water, and having meals accompanied by parents or legal guardians. All prevalence estimates were presented proportionally, with their respective 95% confidence intervals. The Chi-square test was used to evaluate the differences in healthy eating habits prevalences according to other variables. The module survey of the Stata program version 13.0 was used to analyze complex data. RESULTS We evaluated 74,589 adolescents (72.9% of the eligible students). Of these, 55.2% were female, average age being 14.6 years (SD = 1.6). Among Brazilian adolescents, approximately half of them showed healthy eating habits when consuming breakfast, drinking five or more glasses of water a day, and having meals with parents or legal guardians. All analyzed healthy eating habits showed statistically significant differences by sex, age, type of school, session of study, or geographic region . CONCLUSIONS We suggest that specific actions of intersectoral approach are implemented for the dissemination of the benefits of healthy eating habits. Older female adolescents (15 to 17 years old) who studied in public schools, resided in the Southeast region, and whose mothers had lower education levels, should be the focus of these actions since they present lower frequencies concerning the evaluated healthy habits. PMID:26910548

  10. ERICA: prevalence of healthy eating habits among Brazilian adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Barufaldi, Laura Augusta; Abreu, Gabriela de Azevedo; Oliveira, Juliana Souza; dos Santos, Debora França; Fujimori, Elizabeth; Vasconcelos, Sandra Mary Lima; de Vasconcelos, Francisco de Assis Guedes; Tavares, Bruno Mendes

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To describe the prevalence of eating habits considered healthy in adolescents according to sex, age, education level of the mother, school type, session of study, and geographic region. METHODS The assessed data come from the Study of Cardiovascular Risks in Adolescents (ERICA), a cross-sectional, national and school-based study. Adolescents of 1,247 schools of 124 Brazilian municipalities were evaluated using a self-administered questionnaire with a section on aspects related to eating behaviors. The following eating behaviors were considered healthy: consuming breakfast, drinking water, and having meals accompanied by parents or legal guardians. All prevalence estimates were presented proportionally, with their respective 95% confidence intervals. The Chi-square test was used to evaluate the differences in healthy eating habits prevalences according to other variables. The module survey of the Stata program version 13.0 was used to analyze complex data. RESULTS We evaluated 74,589 adolescents (72.9% of the eligible students). Of these, 55.2% were female, average age being 14.6 years (SD = 1.6). Among Brazilian adolescents, approximately half of them showed healthy eating habits when consuming breakfast, drinking five or more glasses of water a day, and having meals with parents or legal guardians. All analyzed healthy eating habits showed statistically significant differences by sex, age, type of school, session of study, or geographic region . CONCLUSIONS We suggest that specific actions of intersectoral approach are implemented for the dissemination of the benefits of healthy eating habits. Older female adolescents (15 to 17 years old) who studied in public schools, resided in the Southeast region, and whose mothers had lower education levels, should be the focus of these actions since they present lower frequencies concerning the evaluated healthy habits. PMID:26910548

  11. Eating habits and behaviors

    MedlinePLUS

    ... bored. So you got a snack from a vending machine down the hall from your desk. At the ... see your favorite snack in the pantry or vending machine When you watch television You feel stressed by ...

  12. Effects of habit on intentional and reactive motivations for unhealthy eating.

    PubMed

    Ohtomo, Shoji

    2013-09-01

    This study examined the effect of unhealthy eating habits on behavior within the dual-process perspective, including intentional and reactive motivation. Previous studies assumed that habits elicit behavior directly. However, this study hypothesized that habits affect behavior through their effect on action control and reactive motivation. Longitudinal data were available from undergraduate students (n=286) who completed the first questionnaire assessing their habits, action control (internal and external), intentional motivation, and reactive motivation, and the second questionnaire accessing their actual eating behavior of high-calorie snacks in the 2 weeks following the first questionnaire. Structural equation modeling was used to examine the predictors of their eating behavior. The results showed that habits inhibited internal control and promoted external control. These two sources of control affected intentional and reactive motivations, respectively, which determine behavior. It is concluded that habitual unhealthy eating behavior results from a decrease in conscious control leading to a switch from an intentional to a reactive route. PMID:23619314

  13. Prevalence and Correlates of Eating Disordered Behaviors among Undergraduate Women.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mintz, Laurie B.; Betz, Nancy E.

    1988-01-01

    Investigated eating disordered behaviors among nonobese, nonanorexic college women (N=643). Classified 3 percent as bulimic, 61 percent as having intermediate form of eating behavior problem, 33 percent as having normal eating habits. Degree of disturbed eating was strongly correlated with lowered self-esteem, negative body image, endorsement of…

  14. Nurturing Healthy Eating Habits from the Start

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kessler, Daniel B.

    2012-01-01

    Daniel B. Kessler, MD, a developmental and behavioral pediatrician, provides guidance on establishing healthy eating patterns in the early years. He emphasizes the importance of the feeding relationship as an important part of a child's social and emotional development. How parents approach feeding and mealtime is about so much more than physical…

  15. Nurturing Healthy Eating Habits from the Start

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kessler, Daniel B.

    2012-01-01

    Daniel B. Kessler, MD, a developmental and behavioral pediatrician, provides guidance on establishing healthy eating patterns in the early years. He emphasizes the importance of the feeding relationship as an important part of a child's social and emotional development. How parents approach feeding and mealtime is about so much more than physical

  16. Habit formation in children: Evidence from incentives for healthy eating.

    PubMed

    Loewenstein, George; Price, Joseph; Volpp, Kevin

    2016-01-01

    We present findings from a field experiment conducted at 40 elementary schools involving 8000 children and 400,000 child-day observations, which tested whether providing short-run incentives can create habit formation in children. Over a 3- or 5-week period, students received an incentive for eating a serving of fruits or vegetables during lunch. Relative to an average baseline rate of 39%, providing small incentives doubled the fraction of children eating at least one serving of fruits or vegetables. Two months after the end of the intervention, the consumption rate at schools remained 21% above baseline for the 3-week treatment and 44% above baseline for the 5-week treatment. These findings indicate that short-run incentives can produce changes in behavior that persist after incentives are removed. PMID:26717440

  17. The Associations of Eating-related Attitudinal Balance with Psychological Well-being and Eating Behaviors

    PubMed Central

    Fuglestad, Paul T.; Bruening, Meg; Graham, Dan J.; Eisenberg, Marla E.; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne R.

    2014-01-01

    This study used balance theory to illuminate the relations of eating-related attitudinal consistency between self and friends to psychological well-being and eating behaviors. It was hypothesized that attitudinal inconsistency, relative to consistency, would predict lower well-being and poorer eating habits. A population-based sample of 2287 young adults participating in Project EAT-III (Eating Among Teens and Young Adults) completed measures of psychological well-being, eating behaviors, and eating-related attitudes from the standpoint of self and friends. Of participants who cared about healthy eating, those who perceived that their friends did not care about healthy eating had lower well-being and less-healthy eating behaviors (fewer fruits and vegetables and more sugary beverages per day) than those who perceived that their friends cared about healthy eating. Conversely, among participants who did not care about healthy eating, those who perceived that their friends cared about healthy eating had lower well-being and less-healthy eating behaviors (more snacks per day) than those who perceived that their friends did not care about healthy eating. In accord with balance theory, young adults who perceived inconsistent eating attitudes between themselves and their friends had lower psychological well-being and generally less-healthy eating behaviors than people who perceived consistent eating attitudes. PMID:24587589

  18. The Associations of Eating-related Attitudinal Balance with Psychological Well-being and Eating Behaviors.

    PubMed

    Fuglestad, Paul T; Bruening, Meg; Graham, Dan J; Eisenberg, Marla E; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne R

    2013-01-01

    This study used balance theory to illuminate the relations of eating-related attitudinal consistency between self and friends to psychological well-being and eating behaviors. It was hypothesized that attitudinal inconsistency, relative to consistency, would predict lower well-being and poorer eating habits. A population-based sample of 2287 young adults participating in Project EAT-III (Eating Among Teens and Young Adults) completed measures of psychological well-being, eating behaviors, and eating-related attitudes from the standpoint of self and friends. Of participants who cared about healthy eating, those who perceived that their friends did not care about healthy eating had lower well-being and less-healthy eating behaviors (fewer fruits and vegetables and more sugary beverages per day) than those who perceived that their friends cared about healthy eating. Conversely, among participants who did not care about healthy eating, those who perceived that their friends cared about healthy eating had lower well-being and less-healthy eating behaviors (more snacks per day) than those who perceived that their friends did not care about healthy eating. In accord with balance theory, young adults who perceived inconsistent eating attitudes between themselves and their friends had lower psychological well-being and generally less-healthy eating behaviors than people who perceived consistent eating attitudes. PMID:24587589

  19. Smoking, Physical Activity, and Eating Habits Among Adolescents.

    PubMed

    Lee, Bokim; Yi, Yunjeong

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare physical activity and eating habits of adolescent smokers with those of adolescent non-smokers in South Korea. This was a secondary analysis of data collected from the 2012 Korean Youth Risk Behavior Web-Based Survey. The sample included 72,229 adolescents aged 12 to 18. A multiple logistic regression analysis was performed to examine the association between smoking status and physical activity and between smoking status and eating habits, while controlling for other factors. Boys and girls were analyzed separately for all analyses. The proportion of self-reporting smokers was 11%. Surprisingly, girl smokers exercised significantly more frequently than non-smokers. Adolescent smokers were significantly less likely to consume fruits, vegetables, and milk/dairy products, and they ate significantly more fast-food than non-smokers. Health care professionals who plan smoking cessation programs should pay attention to South Korean adolescents' specific characteristics and cultural values in terms of health behavior. PMID:25082709

  20. Habit-specific locus of control scales for drinking, smoking, and eating.

    PubMed

    Ludtke, H A; Schneider, H G

    1996-04-01

    The internal consistencies of three habit-specific locus of control scales measuring drinking, smoking, and eating behavior were evaluated using coefficient alpha. The three scales, along with Rotter's 1-E scale, were administered to 202 undergraduate students. Estimates indicated the scales showed reasonably high internal consistency. Scores on the smoking and drinking scales had the lowest correlations with scores on Rotter's generalized measure. Mean drinking scale scores were lower than those for smoking and eating, suggesting that people judge drinking to be under more personal control. The implications of habit-specific expectancies, particularly with regard to habit disorders, are discussed. PMID:9148287

  1. [Eating well, eating poorly and the medicalization of eating behavior].

    PubMed

    Gracia-Arnaiz, Mabel

    2007-01-01

    This article describes how the progressive process of medicalization of food is inscribed within a biomedical logic that attempts to substitute many of the economic, adaptative and symbolic reasons that have ethnographically and historically conditioned eating habits in all cultures, exclusively for reasons of a dietetic nature. According to this logic, most of the population of modern societies does not know how to eat because they are victims of or have been made ill by the current profusion of food. They must, therefore, learn how to eat well, which in terms of eating practices means eating a little of everything, in moderation and in a balanced way. The main aim of current nutritional education is to (re)establish a supposed dietetic normality as far as food consumed, quantities, number of intakes and meal structures are concerned. PMID:17589778

  2. Determining the eating habits of UAPB students

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The UAPB Delta Obesity Research Project is focused on nutritional adherence to the dietary guidelines, prevention of excessive weight, promotion of healthy eating, and maintenance of healthy weight during college years. Adjusting to college life can lead to poor eating and no physical activity for c...

  3. Wearable Eating Habit Sensing System Using Internal Body Sound

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shuzo, Masaki; Komori, Shintaro; Takashima, Tomoko; Lopez, Guillaume; Tatsuta, Seiji; Yanagimoto, Shintaro; Warisawa, Shin'ichi; Delaunay, Jean-Jacques; Yamada, Ichiro

    Continuous monitoring of eating habits could be useful in preventing lifestyle diseases such as metabolic syndrome. Conventional methods consist of self-reporting and calculating mastication frequency based on the myoelectric potential of the masseter muscle. Both these methods are significant burdens for the user. We developed a non-invasive, wearable sensing system that can record eating habits over a long period of time in daily life. Our sensing system is composed of two bone conduction microphones placed in the ears that send internal body sound data to a portable IC recorder. Applying frequency spectrum analysis on the collected sound data, we could not only count the number of mastications during eating, but also accurately differentiate between eating, drinking, and speaking activities. This information can be used to evaluate the regularity of meals. Moreover, we were able to analyze sound features to classify the types of foods eaten by food texture.

  4. When Teens' Eating Habits Become Unhealthy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lucas, Alexander R.

    1984-01-01

    Eating disorders than may beset teenagers and seriously affect their health are discussed. Facts about causes, symptoms, and treatments for anorexia nervosa and bulimia, a disorder which involves overeating, followed by self-induced vomiting or purging, are presented. (PP)

  5. Personality and eating habit variables as predictors of severity of binge eating and weight.

    PubMed

    Wolf, E M; Crowther, J H

    1983-01-01

    The present study investigated several personality and eating habit variables as predictors of the severity of binge eating and weight deviation. Subjects were 120 normal weight and overweight undergraduate women selected to vary along predetermined dimensions of weight and severity of binge eating. After providing relevant demographic and life history data, they completed a series of self-report questionnaires. Results of a canonical analysis support the independence of binge eating and weight. Two stepwise multiple regressions indicated that anorexic-like eating attitudes, dissatisfaction with body image, and poor self-image were significant predictors of the severity of binge eating while none of the measures was a significant predictor of weight deviation. The amount of stress experienced in the past year was found to be the only significant demographic/historical predictor of binge eating. These findings are discussed with respect to their implications for current understanding of the binge eating phenomenon. PMID:6587760

  6. An Analysis of Television Family Nutrition and Eating Habits.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Larson, Mary S.

    To describe the eating habits of the children and adults on several popular prime time television series, this study examined the latent content of television messages concerned with health care and nutrition. A sample of nine episodes of "The Cosby Show,""Growing Pains" and "Family Ties," during the 1986-87 season was studied. Each program was

  7. Fresh Food Program Promotes Healthy Eating Habits among Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kish, Stacy

    2008-01-01

    Communities across the nation are fighting the increased incidence of childhood obesity and Type II diabetes. With funding from USDA's Cooperative State Research, Education, and Extension Service (CSREES), a group in Illinois is promoting environmental sustainability and healthy eating habits in young Americans. Seven Generations Ahead's "Fresh…

  8. Individualized Tailor-Made Dietetic Intervention Program at Schools Enhances Eating Behaviors and Dietary Habits in Obese Hispanic Children of Low Socioeconomic Status

    PubMed Central

    Moreno-Sànchez, Diana; Gutierrez, Norma G.; Lamadrid-Zertuche, Ana C.; Hernandez-Torre, Martin M.

    2014-01-01

    Hispanic children and those from low-socioeconomic status are predisposed to unhealthy eating habits and obesity. Aim. to implement an individualized, face-to-face, parent supported, and school-partnership dietetic intervention to promote healthy eating habits and decrease body mass index. Prospective school year dietetic intervention of 101 obese, Hispanic, low-socioeconomic school-age children representative of Monterrey, Mexico, consisted of anthropometrics, dietetic assessment, energy-restriction tailor-made daily menus, and parental education every three weeks. Student's t-test was used for means comparison. A significant decrease was found in body mass index percentile (96.43 ± 3.32 to 93.42 ± 8.12/P = 0.00) and energy intake/day of −755.7 kcal/day (P = 0.00). Among other energy dense foods with significant decline in servings/day and servings/week were processed meats (3.13 ± 1.43 to 2.19 ± 1.04/P = 0.00 and 5.60 ± 1.75 to 4.37 ± 2.10/P = 0.00, resp.), saturated fat (1.47 ± 1.08 to 0.78 ± 0.79/P = 0.00 and 2.19 ± 2.18 to 1.1 ± 1.36/P = 0.00), sweetened beverages (2.79 ± 1.99 to 1.42 ± 1.21 and 6.21 ± 1.72 to 3.89 ± 2.80/P = 0.00), and desserts and refined-grain bakery (1.99 ± 1.54 to 1.32 ± 1.59 and 2.85 ± 2.54 to 1.57 ± 2.20/P = 0.00). There was a significant increase in servings/day and servings/week of water (2.98 ± 2.02 to 4.91 ± 2.37 and 6.62 ± 2.03 to 6.87 ± 0.91/P = 0.00, resp.) and nutrient dense foods such as fruits (1.31 ± 0.89 to 1.66 ± 0.96 and 3.34 ± 2.24 to 4.28 ± 2.43/P = 0.00) and fish and poultry (3.76 ± 2.15 to 4.54 ± 2.25/P = 0.00). This intervention created healthy eating habits and decreased body mass index in a high risk population. Trial registration number: NCT01925976. PMID:24592170

  9. Weight Concerns, Problem Eating Behaviors, and Problem Drinking Behaviors in Female Collegiate Athletes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gutgesell, Margaret E.; Moreau, Kerrie L.; Thompson, Dixie L.

    2003-01-01

    Compared eating behaviors and alcohol drinking habits between female varsity college athletes and female controls (non-athletes). Data from a student survey indicated that self-reported problem drinking and eating behaviors existed in both groups at similar rates. There did not appear to be a significant relationship between self-reported alcohol

  10. An Examination of Sex Differences in Relation to the Eating Habits and Nutrient Intakes of University Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Li, Kin-Kit; Concepcion, Rebecca Y.; Lee, Hyo; Cardinal, Bradley J.; Ebbeck, Vicki; Woekel, Erica; Readdy, R. Tucker

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: To examine sex differences in eating habits and nutrient intakes and explore whether eating habits mediate the effects of sex on nutrient intakes and whether sex moderates the effects of eating habits on nutrient intakes. Methods: Cross-sectional survey of eating habits and food-intake frequency in a convenience sample of college

  11. An Examination of Sex Differences in Relation to the Eating Habits and Nutrient Intakes of University Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Li, Kin-Kit; Concepcion, Rebecca Y.; Lee, Hyo; Cardinal, Bradley J.; Ebbeck, Vicki; Woekel, Erica; Readdy, R. Tucker

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: To examine sex differences in eating habits and nutrient intakes and explore whether eating habits mediate the effects of sex on nutrient intakes and whether sex moderates the effects of eating habits on nutrient intakes. Methods: Cross-sectional survey of eating habits and food-intake frequency in a convenience sample of college…

  12. Monitoring eating habits using a piezoelectric sensor-based necklace.

    PubMed

    Kalantarian, Haik; Alshurafa, Nabil; Le, Tuan; Sarrafzadeh, Majid

    2015-03-01

    Maintaining appropriate levels of food intake and developing regularity in eating habits is crucial to weight loss and the preservation of a healthy lifestyle. Moreover, awareness of eating habits is an important step towards portion control and weight loss. In this paper, we introduce a novel food-intake monitoring system based around a wearable wireless-enabled necklace. The proposed necklace includes an embedded piezoelectric sensor, small Arduino-compatible microcontroller, Bluetooth LE transceiver, and Lithium-Polymer battery. Motion in the throat is captured and transmitted to a mobile application for processing and user guidance. Results from data collected from 30 subjects indicate that it is possible to detect solid and liquid foods, with an F-measure of 0.837 and 0.864, respectively, using a naive Bayes classifier. Furthermore, identification of extraneous motions such as head turns and walking are shown to significantly reduce the false positive rate of swallow detection. PMID:25616023

  13. Eating habits of east Asian people and transmission of taeniasis.

    PubMed

    Fan, P C; Chung, W C; Soh, C T; Kosman, M L

    1992-04-01

    In order to understand the role of raw meat and viscera eating habits in the transmission of taeniasis in Asian countries, 1502 infected aborigines in ten mountainous districts/towns of six counties in Taiwan, 58 infected persons in two villages on Cheju Island, Korea, and 97 cases in Ambarita District on Samosir Island, North Sumatra, Indonesia were studied during the field surveys. All infected Taiwan aborigines had the habit of eating raw meat and viscera of wild and/or domestic animals. Among these aborigines, 73% ate wild boar, 66% flying squirrel, 65% wild goat, 56% muntjac, 49% wild rats, 46% monkey, 38% hare, 20% civet-cats, 18% weasel, 17% pheasant, 14% squirrel, 4% grouse, 1% deer, 1% snake, less than 1% bamboo partridge, less than 1% frog, less than 1% bear, less than 1% dog, and less than 1% fox. Of the 58 infected persons with Taenia on Cheju Island, Korea, 72% ate raw meat and/or viscera of pig and cattle, 19% raw pork only, and 9% raw beef only. Among 12 infected persons infected with T. saginata-like tapeworms, 7 had eaten raw pork, 2 raw beef and pork and 3 raw pork. Almost all of the 97 cases of taeniasis on Samosir Island of North Sumatra, Indonesia, had eaten only undercooked pork. Eleven of 15 cases were found to be infected with T. saginata-like tapeworms. Eating habits observed suggest an unusual way of transmission of Taenia in East Asia. PMID:1356301

  14. Stress and Eating Behaviors

    PubMed Central

    Yau, Yvonne H. C.; Potenza, Marc N.

    2014-01-01

    Obesity is a heterogeneous construct that, despite multiple and diverse attempts, has been difficult to treat. One conceptualization gaining media and research attention in recent years is that foods, particularly hyperpalatable (e.g., high-fat, high sugar) ones, may possess addictive qualities. Stress is an important factor in the development of addiction and in addiction relapse, and may contribute to an increased risk for obesity and other metabolic diseases. Uncontrollable stress changes eating patterns and the salience and consumption of hyperpalatable foods; over time, this could lead to changes in allostatic load and trigger neurobiological adaptations that promote increasingly compulsively behavior. This association may be mediated by alterations in the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, glucose metabolism, insulin sensitivity, and other appetite-related hormones and hypothalamic neuropeptides. At a neurocircuitry level, chronic stress may affect the mesolimbic dopaminergic system and other brain regions involved in stress/motivation circuits. Together, these may synergistically potentiate reward sensitivity, food preference, and the wanting and seeking of hyperpalatable foods, as well as induce metabolic changes that promote weight and body fat mass. Individual differences in susceptibility to obesity and types of stressors may further moderate this process. Understanding the associations and interactions between stress, neurobiological adaptations, and obesity is important in the development of effective prevention and treatment strategies for obesity and related metabolic diseases. PMID:24126546

  15. Eating behavior of ballet dancers.

    PubMed

    Dotti, A; Fioravanti, M; Balotta, M; Tozzi, F; Cannella, C; Lazzari, R

    2002-03-01

    Ballet dancers are frequently regarded as having a higher risk of developing eating disorders (ED). This paper describes the eating habits and prevalence of ED in a group of female students from a dance academy in Rome, Italy. Participants were assessed with an array of measures conventionally employed (usually singly) in epidemiological studies of ED, namely: an anthropometrical-nutritional evaluation, the EAT, EDI, and BUT questionnaires, and the EDE interview. The 160 students who agreed to participate were evaluated anthropometrically, nutritionally and psychometrically and 83 underwent the EDE structured interview. Their calorie intake was insufficient in all age groups in terms of the nutritional standards required by their daily physical activity. EAT, EDI and BUT enhanced concerns about dieting, food intake control and body image. The significance of the correlations between calorie intake and the EAT Dieting and the EDI Perfectionism and Interceptive Awareness scores increased in function of age. Food, weight and body image concerns increased with age and length of time in the ballet environment The reduced calorie intake was not necessarily linked to the presence of psychopathological signs. PMID:11930986

  16. Food-Related Beliefs, Eating Behavior, and Classroom Food Practices of Middle School Teachers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kubik, Martha Y.; Lytle, Leslie A.; Hannan, Peter J.; Story, Mary; Perry, Cheryl L.

    2002-01-01

    Surveyed middle school teachers regarding their classroom food and eating behaviors. Using food (particularly candy) as student incentives was common. Most foods used did not support development of healthy eating habits. Many teachers did not role model healthy eating at school. Prevalent use of vending machines was reported. Correlates of…

  17. Food-Related Beliefs, Eating Behavior, and Classroom Food Practices of Middle School Teachers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kubik, Martha Y.; Lytle, Leslie A.; Hannan, Peter J.; Story, Mary; Perry, Cheryl L.

    2002-01-01

    Surveyed middle school teachers regarding their classroom food and eating behaviors. Using food (particularly candy) as student incentives was common. Most foods used did not support development of healthy eating habits. Many teachers did not role model healthy eating at school. Prevalent use of vending machines was reported. Correlates of

  18. Recollections of pressure to eat during childhood, but not picky eating, predict young adult eating behavior.

    PubMed

    Ellis, Jordan M; Galloway, Amy T; Webb, Rose Mary; Martz, Denise M; Farrow, Claire V

    2016-02-01

    Picky eating is a childhood behavior that vexes many parents and is a symptom in the newer diagnosis of Avoidant/Restrictive Food Intake Disorder (ARFID) in adults. Pressure to eat, a parental controlling feeding practice aimed at encouraging a child to eat more, is associated with picky eating and a number of other childhood eating concerns. Low intuitive eating, an insensitivity to internal hunger and satiety cues, is also associated with a number of problem eating behaviors in adulthood. Whether picky eating and pressure to eat are predictive of young adult eating behavior is relatively unstudied. Current adult intuitive eating and disordered eating behaviors were self-reported by 170 college students, along with childhood picky eating and pressure through retrospective self- and parent reports. Hierarchical regression analyses revealed that childhood parental pressure to eat, but not picky eating, predicted intuitive eating and disordered eating symptoms in college students. These findings suggest that parental pressure in childhood is associated with problematic eating patterns in young adulthood. Additional research is needed to understand the extent to which parental pressure is a reaction to or perhaps compounds the development of problematic eating behavior. PMID:26593103

  19. School feeding programs' role in forming eating habits

    PubMed Central

    Cervato-Mancuso, Ana Maria; Westphal, Marcia Faria; Araki, Erica Lie; Bógus, Claudia Maria

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To identify teaching managers' perceptions regarding the relationship of school feeding and the promotion of healthy eating habits among students. METHODS A descriptive study with a qualitative approach was developed in the city of Guarulhos (Southeast Brazil). Key informants from municipal public schools were interviewed. Public schools were selected (n=13) and classified as to the level of social exclusion, size and economic activity of the region where the school was located. Pedagogic coordinators and school principals were individually interviewed with semi-structured questions. RESULTS From school principals and pedagogical coordinators' perceptions, three categories were identified: Food in the school context; School feeding program's role and the Concept of food and nutrition security, which indicate that they considered meals as part of school routine in order to attain physiological needs of energy and nutrients. Their answers also indicated that they did not consider school meals as a pedagogical action related to their specific responsibilities. CONCLUSIONS The relationship between the school feeding and the formation of eating habits is not a topic usually discussed between the different professionals involved with health and education. The implementation of health promoting policies will only be possible after a debate about how schools and their pedagogical team adopt the program guidelines and how the professionals decode these strategies in daily activities. PMID:24142314

  20. Eating When There is Not Enough to Eat: Eating Behaviors and Perceptions of Food Among Food-Insecure Youths

    PubMed Central

    Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne; Hannan, Peter J.; Haines, Jess; Story, Mary

    2009-01-01

    Objectives. We explored differences in adolescents' eating habits, perceptions, and dietary intakes by food security status. Methods. As part of Project EAT (Eating Among Teens), we surveyed 4746 multiethnic middle and high school students in 31 primarily urban schools in the Minneapolis–St. Paul, Minnesota, area during the 1998–1999 academic year. Participants completed in-class surveys. We used multiple regression analysis to characterize associations between behaviors, perceptions, nutritional intake, and food security status. Results. Compared with food-secure youths, food-insecure youths were more likely to perceive that eating healthfully was inconvenient and that healthy food did not taste good. Additionally, food-insecure youths reported eating more fast food but fewer family meals and breakfasts per week than did youths who were food secure. Food-insecure and food-secure youths perceived similar benefits from eating healthfully (P = .75). Compared with those who were food secure, food-insecure youths had higher fat intakes (P < .01). Food-insecure youths were more likely to have a body mass index above the 95th percentile. Conclusions. The eating patterns of food-insecure adolescents differ in important ways from the eating patterns of those who are food secure. Policies and interventions focusing on improving the foods that these youths eat deserve further examination. PMID:19299675

  1. Yummy tricks: a serious game for learning healthy eating habits.

    PubMed

    Ingls-Camats, Gerard; Presno-Rivas, Maria Montserrat; Antonijoan, Marc; Garcia-Panella, Oscar; Forrest, Tallulah

    2012-01-01

    Cure4Kids organized the first Global eHealth Challenge in 2010. This contest encouraged the creation of innovative multimedia applications to help educate children or parents about cancer and healthy living. Here, we describe one of the applications submitted to this contest. The presented application was designed to be a serious game containing several mini-games intended to teach healthy eating habits. Each mini-game involves learning a "trick" or a lesson. Two mini-games have been developed so far, but the application can be extended with more. Several design decisions helped make the games enjoyable and appealing to children. This application won the gold award of the Challenge. PMID:22910522

  2. Environmental influences on youth eating habits: insights from parents and teachers in South Korea.

    PubMed

    Park, Sohyun; Kang, Jae-Heon; Lawrence, Robert; Gittelsohn, Joel

    2014-01-01

    Youth obesity has increased over the past two decades in South Korea. Researchers employed in-depth interviews and focus-group discussions with parents and teachers from 26 schools in metropolitan South Korea, to examine environmental factors affecting youth eating habits. Home environment and exposure to healthy foods were the most important factors influencing healthy eating habits. Families with working mothers eat out more than do families with stay-at-home mothers. Poor nutrition education is associated with low vegetable intake in elementary school lunches. A cultural emphasis on academic achievement adversely affects children's eating practices. Findings can guide future studies and inform program development. PMID:24884552

  3. [Eating habits of a group of professional volleyball players].

    PubMed

    Gacek, Maria

    2011-01-01

    The aim of the research was an analysis of the eating habits of professional volleyball players according to their sex and age. The research has been carried out on a group of 210 men players and women players at the age of 13-25, representatives of sports clubs in Ostro?eka, My?lenice, Bydgoszcz and Warszawa. The research has revealed a limited realisation of rational diets by both men and women players. The most common mistakes made by them include a smaller number of meals during the day than recommended (especially among men), taking up training on empty stomach and insufficient frequency of consumption of dairy products, fish, vegetables and fruit. The research has also revealed excessive consumption of sweets, sweet sparkling drinks and fast food (mainly among men). The examined players to some extent only apply regular strategies of rehydration of their organisms. A high percentage of them do not pay attention to supplementation of liquids after an effort or they drink a lot of liquids at one time. The most frequently chosen drinks were mineral water and isotonic drinks. Supplementation was applied by a small percentage of the players, mainly men, who most often chose vitamins, Izostar, creatine, L-carnitine and HMB. PMID:21735984

  4. What are the television viewing and eating habits of children in Peru?

    PubMed

    Busse, Peter; Díaz, Ramón

    2016-03-01

    While there is already consensus in the scientific community about the deleterious effects of TV exposure, especially through TV advertisements, on children's beliefs, preferences, and food intake, the link between TV and children's eating behaviors is under-studied in Peru, a country experiencing a steady economic growth in recent years and currently with a status of upper-middle-income country. Following research about the effects of media exposure on childhood obesity, we report on a qualitative study of TV viewing and the eating habits of children attending elementary schools in Lima, the capital. Data from eight focus groups with 38 boys and girls between 6 and 11 years old, eight focus groups with 36 female caretakers, and in-depth interviews with two fathers provided consistent information about children's eating habits and media viewing patterns. After dual coding the entire corpus of qualitative data, we found that children watch a great deal of TV during the school season: children watch as early as when they wake up in the morning, then during lunchtime (after returning from school), and then again after completing their homework from 5 pm to 9 pm or 10 pm. Survey data from the parents showed that, on average, children watch about 5 hours of TV on weekdays and more during a weekend-day. This large amount of exposure is concerning, especially because the focus groups revealed that children (1) recall a number of TV advertisements involving food items, (2) request food items seen on TV, and (3) are able to buy food for themselves, which usually involves chocolate, candy, or potato chips. Boys and girls reported different favorite TV shows, suggesting differences in exposure to TV content related to food. In addition, some families reported drinking sodas frequently, underlining a behavior that should be discouraged by public health officials. PMID:25316673

  5. Not salt taste perception but self-reported salt eating habit predicts actual salt intake.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hajeong; Cho, Hyun-Jeong; Bae, Eunjin; Kim, Yong Chul; Kim, Suhnggwon; Chin, Ho Jun

    2014-09-01

    Excessive dietary salt intake is related to cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Although dietary salt restriction is essential, it is difficult to achieve because of salt palatability. However, the association between salt perception or salt eating habit and actual salt intake remains uncertain. In this study, we recruited 74 healthy young individuals. We investigated their salt-eating habits by questionnaire and salt taste threshold through a rating scale that used serial dilution of a sodium chloride solution. Predicted 24-hr urinary salt excretions using Kawasaki's and Tanaka's equations estimated dietary salt intake. Participants' mean age was 35 yr, and 59.5% were male. Salt sense threshold did not show any relationship with actual salt intake and a salt-eating habit. However, those eating "salty" foods showed higher blood pressure (P for trend=0.048) and higher body mass index (BMI; P for trend=0.043). Moreover, a salty eating habit was a significant predictor for actual salt intake (regression coefficient [β] for Kawasaki's equation 1.35, 95% confidence interval [CI] 10-2.69, P=0.048; β for Tanaka's equation 0.66, 95% CI 0.01-1.31, P=0.047). In conclusion, a self-reported salt-eating habit, not salt taste threshold predicts actual salt intake. PMID:25317023

  6. Encouraging Healthy Eating Behaviors in Toddlers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brawley, Larra; Henk, Jennifer

    2014-01-01

    Young children's eating behaviors have a direct link to their future health and attitudes regarding food. Similarly, positive nutrition during the toddler years leads to increased brain development and thus children are generally healthier (Weaver, More, & Harris, 2008). This makes eating behaviors extremely important. During the toddler

  7. Encouraging Healthy Eating Behaviors in Toddlers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brawley, Larra; Henk, Jennifer

    2014-01-01

    Young children's eating behaviors have a direct link to their future health and attitudes regarding food. Similarly, positive nutrition during the toddler years leads to increased brain development and thus children are generally healthier (Weaver, More, & Harris, 2008). This makes eating behaviors extremely important. During the toddler…

  8. The effects of Chinese traditional feeding habits on the eating disorders and the psychological analysis.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ruixing; Chang, GuoSheng; Li, Li; Zhang, Zhenxiang

    2015-04-01

    To investigate the impact of Chinese parents' traditional feeding habits on the development of their children's eating disorders, 35 patients suffering eating disorders and a randomly selected 35 normal young people as the control group were studied in this project. A force-feeding score graph was designed, and the 2 groups and their parents were asked to rate their force-feeding scores. The scores of the patients with eating disorders and the scores of their parents are significantly higher than those of the control group (P<0.01; P<0.01). The scores of the children in the two groups are significantly higher than those of the parents' respectively (P<0.01, P<0.01). Our study suggests that the Chinese traditional feeding habits have significant impact on the development of eating disorders. PMID:25659957

  9. Healthy Eating Habits among the Population of Serbia: Gender and Age Differences

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT The purpose of the study is to examine healthy eating habits of the population of Serbia through three dimensions: knowledge, problems, and feelings as well as to determine whether there are any differences between genders and among different age-groups. The research instrument was an Eating Habits Questionnaire (EHQ) which consisted of 35 items. There were 382 respondents involved in the study. The reliability and factor structure of the questionnaire were verified by using factor analysis. The results of MANOVA showed that there is a significant difference in the habits concerning healthy eating between men and women [F (3,378)=4.26, p=0.006; Wilks’ Lambda=0.97]. When the results for the dependent variables (knowledge, problems, and feelings) were considered separately, it was determined that there is no significant difference between men and women, which confirms the results of the t-test. The effect of age on the three dimensions of healthy eating habits was examined within three age-groups, by using ANOVA. The results showed that knowledge about healthy eating increases with age [F (2,379)=6.14, p=0.002] as well as positive feelings which occur as a result of healthy eating [F (2,379)=3.66, p=0.027]. Unlike ANOVA, MANOVA showed difference among the age-groups only when it came to the ‘knowledge’ variable. This study is important as it shows the current state of awareness on healthy eating habits in the researched populace and may be the basis for further research in this field in Serbia. PMID:25995724

  10. Length of migration and eating habits of Portuguese university students living in London, United Kingdom.

    PubMed

    Vilela, Sofia; Santos, Susana; Padro, Patrcia; Caraher, Martin

    2014-01-01

    Several studies have pointed adverse effects of long term migration on eating habits. Research is needed to understand if this effect occurs also with a short length of migration, as is the case of international students. Our aim was to evaluate the effect of short and long term migration on eating habits of Portuguese university students. Participants were 46 English and 55 Portuguese students from universities in London, United Kingdom. The findings from this study highlight the difficulties that Portuguese students faced in maintaining a traditional Mediterranean diet after moving to a Northern European environment. PMID:24884556

  11. Dietary habits and behaviors associated with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease

    PubMed Central

    Yasutake, Kenichiro; Kohjima, Motoyuki; Kotoh, Kazuhiro; Nakashima, Manabu; Nakamuta, Makoto; Enjoji, Munechika

    2014-01-01

    Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is one of the most frequent causes of health problems in Western (industrialized) countries. Moreover, the incidence of infantile NAFLD is increasing, with some of these patients progressing to nonalcoholic steatohepatitis. These trends depend on dietary habits and life-style. In particular, overeating and its associated obesity affect the development of NAFLD. Nutritional problems in patients with NAFLD include excess intake of energy, carbohydrates, and lipids, and shortages of polyunsaturated fatty acids, vitamins, and minerals. Although nutritional therapeutic approaches are required for prophylaxis and treatment of NAFLD, continuous nutrition therapy is difficult for many patients because of their dietary habits and lifestyle, and because the motivation for treatment differs among patients. Thus, it is necessary to assess the nutritional background and to identify nutritional problems in each patient with NAFLD. When assessing dietary habits, it is important to individually evaluate those that are consumed excessively or insufficiently, as well as inappropriate eating behaviors. Successful nutrition therapy requires patient education, based on assessments of individual nutrients, and continuing the treatment. In this article, we update knowledge about NAFLD, review the important aspects of nutritional assessment targeting treatment success, and present some concrete nutritional care plans which can be applied generally. PMID:24587653

  12. Effects of Nutrition Health Intervention on Pupils' Nutrition Knowledge and Eating Habits

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raiha, Teija; Tossavainen, Kerttu; Turunen, Hannele; Enkenberg, Jorma; Kiviniemi, Vesa

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to evaluate the effects of nutrition health intervention on pupils' nutrition knowledge and eating habits from grade seven to grade nine. The study was part of the ENHPS (since 2008, Schools for Health in Europe (SHE)) program in Finland, and more specifically its sub-project titled "From Puijo to the World…

  13. Adolescents' Response to Parental Efforts to Influence Eating Habits: When Parental Warmth Matters

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lessard, Jared; Greenberger, Ellen; Chen, Chuansheng

    2010-01-01

    Previous findings have shown both beneficial and adverse effects of parents' attempts to influence adolescents' eating habits. The current study examined the differential effect of parents' persuasion (e.g., encouragement, giving information) and pressure tactics (e.g., guilt induction, ridicule) and the moderating influence of parental warmth on…

  14. Diet quality and the nighttime eating habits of breakfast skippers: Does stress play a role?

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Background. Previous studies suggest that eating breakfast is associated with better diet quality, but reasons underlying this relationship are not clear. Objective. Our objective was to assess diet quality of women with established breakfast habits and determine if stress or cognitive function cont...

  15. The Breakfast-Eating Habits of Inner City High School Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sweeney, Nancy M.; Horishita, Naomi

    2005-01-01

    This cross-sectional, descriptive correlational research study describes the breakfast-eating habits of 846 inner-city high school students. Fifty-seven percent of students reported skipping breakfast on the day of the survey, despite the free hot-breakfast program at their high school. Significantly more girls than boys skipped breakfast, and…

  16. The Breakfast-Eating Habits of Inner City High School Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sweeney, Nancy M.; Horishita, Naomi

    2005-01-01

    This cross-sectional, descriptive correlational research study describes the breakfast-eating habits of 846 inner-city high school students. Fifty-seven percent of students reported skipping breakfast on the day of the survey, despite the free hot-breakfast program at their high school. Significantly more girls than boys skipped breakfast, and

  17. Childhood obesity: food, nutrient, and eating-habit trends and influences.

    PubMed

    Roblin, Lynn

    2007-08-01

    The need has never been greater to support healthy eating and physical activity in children and youth; the numbers of overweight and obese children have doubled and tripled, respectively, over the past 3 decades. Poor eating habits, including inadequate intake of vegetables, fruit, and milk, and eating too many high-calorie snacks, play a role in childhood obesity. Grain products provide the highest percentage (31%) of daily calories, followed by "other foods," which have limited nutritional value (22% of daily calories). Snacks account for 27% of total daily calories, which is more than the calories consumed at breakfast (18%) and lunch (24%), but not dinner (31%). For Canadians older than 4 years of age, more than 41% of daily snack calories come from other foods, such as chips, chocolate bars, soft drinks, fruit drinks, sugars, syrup, preserves, fats, and oils. Habits that protect against childhood obesity include eating more vegetables and fruit, eating meals with family, and being physically active. Children's food habits and choices are influenced by family, caregivers, friends, schools, marketing, and the media. Successful interventions for preventing childhood obesity combine family- and school-based programs, nutrition education, dietary change, physical activity, family participation, and counseling. PMID:17622277

  18. Socialization of Good Eating Habits through Deixis in a Preschool.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Han, Namhee

    A study was conducted in a Korean language preschool in Koreatown, Los Angeles, California which used student-teacher interactions to examine how a teacher's use of deixis socializes children about what constitutes good eating practices and what cultivates them. The data for this paper came from a larger study of language socialization practices,…

  19. Relationship between Eating Behaviors and Physical Activity among Primary and Secondary School Students: Results of a Cross-Sectional Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morin, Pascale; Turcotte, Sylvain; Perreault, Gino

    2013-01-01

    Background: With a view toward developing concerted efforts in fostering healthy eating habits and a physically active lifestyle among young people, a study was carried out to explore associations between eating behavior and physical activity (PA). Methods: In the school district, questionnaires were completed at home by parents of primary school

  20. Relationship between Eating Behaviors and Physical Activity among Primary and Secondary School Students: Results of a Cross-Sectional Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morin, Pascale; Turcotte, Sylvain; Perreault, Gino

    2013-01-01

    Background: With a view toward developing concerted efforts in fostering healthy eating habits and a physically active lifestyle among young people, a study was carried out to explore associations between eating behavior and physical activity (PA). Methods: In the school district, questionnaires were completed at home by parents of primary school…

  1. Animal Models of Compulsive Eating Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Di Segni, Matteo; Patrono, Enrico; Patella, Loris; Puglisi-Allegra, Stefano; Ventura, Rossella

    2014-01-01

    Eating disorders are multifactorial conditions that can involve a combination of genetic, metabolic, environmental, and behavioral factors. Studies in humans and laboratory animals show that eating can also be regulated by factors unrelated to metabolic control. Several studies suggest a link between stress, access to highly palatable food, and eating disorders. Eating comfort foods in response to a negative emotional state, for example, suggests that some individuals overeat to self-medicate. Clinical data suggest that some individuals may develop addiction-like behaviors from consuming palatable foods. Based on this observation, food addiction has emerged as an area of intense scientific research. A growing body of evidence suggests that some aspects of food addiction, such as compulsive eating behavior, can be modeled in animals. Moreover, several areas of the brain, including various neurotransmitter systems, are involved in the reinforcement effects of both food and drugs, suggesting that natural and pharmacological stimuli activate similar neural systems. In addition, several recent studies have identified a putative connection between neural circuits activated in the seeking and intake of both palatable food and drugs. The development of well-characterized animal models will increase our understanding of the etiological factors of food addiction and will help identify the neural substrates involved in eating disorders such as compulsive overeating. Such models will facilitate the development and validation of targeted pharmacological therapies. PMID:25340369

  2. Animal models of compulsive eating behavior.

    PubMed

    Di Segni, Matteo; Patrono, Enrico; Patella, Loris; Puglisi-Allegra, Stefano; Ventura, Rossella

    2014-10-01

    Eating disorders are multifactorial conditions that can involve a combination of genetic, metabolic, environmental, and behavioral factors. Studies in humans and laboratory animals show that eating can also be regulated by factors unrelated to metabolic control. Several studies suggest a link between stress, access to highly palatable food, and eating disorders. Eating "comfort foods" in response to a negative emotional state, for example, suggests that some individuals overeat to self-medicate. Clinical data suggest that some individuals may develop addiction-like behaviors from consuming palatable foods. Based on this observation, "food addiction" has emerged as an area of intense scientific research. A growing body of evidence suggests that some aspects of food addiction, such as compulsive eating behavior, can be modeled in animals. Moreover, several areas of the brain, including various neurotransmitter systems, are involved in the reinforcement effects of both food and drugs, suggesting that natural and pharmacological stimuli activate similar neural systems. In addition, several recent studies have identified a putative connection between neural circuits activated in the seeking and intake of both palatable food and drugs. The development of well-characterized animal models will increase our understanding of the etiological factors of food addiction and will help identify the neural substrates involved in eating disorders such as compulsive overeating. Such models will facilitate the development and validation of targeted pharmacological therapies. PMID:25340369

  3. Nutrient Intake and Food Habits of Soccer Players: Analyzing the Correlates of Eating Practice

    PubMed Central

    García-Rovés, Pablo M.; García-Zapico, Pedro; Patterson, Ángeles M.; Iglesias-Gutiérrez, Eduardo

    2014-01-01

    Despite the impact and popularity of soccer, and the growing field of soccer-related scientific research, little attention has been devoted to the nutritional intake and eating habits of soccer players. Moreover, the few studies that have addressed this issue suggest that the nutritional intake of soccer players is inadequate, underscoring the need for better adherence to nutritional recommendations and the development and implementation of nutrition education programs. The objective of these programs would be to promote healthy eating habits for male and female soccer players of all ages to optimize performance and provide health benefits that last beyond the end of a player’s career. To date, no well-designed nutrition education program has been implemented for soccer players. The design and implementation of such an intervention requires a priori knowledge of nutritional intake and other correlates of food selection, such as food preferences and the influence of field position on nutrient intake, as well as detailed analysis of nutritional intake on match days, on which little data is available. Our aim is to provide an up-to-date overview of the nutritional intake, eating habits, and correlates of eating practice of soccer players. PMID:25045939

  4. Interventions to promote healthy eating habits: evaluation and recommendations.

    PubMed

    Traill, W B; Shankar, B; Brambila-Macias, J; Bech-Larsen, T; Aschemann-Witzel, J; Strand, M; Mazzocchi, M; Capacci, S; Verbeke, W; Perez-Cueto, F J A; D'Addesa, D; Saba, A; Turrini, A; Nied?wiedzka, B; Kozio?-Kozakowska, A; Kijowska, V; Pirecka, B; Infantes, M; Wills, J; Smillie, L; Chalot, F; Lyle, D

    2010-12-01

    Although in several EU Member States many public interventions have been running for the prevention and/or management of obesity and other nutrition-related health conditions, few have yet been formally evaluated. The multidisciplinary team of the EATWELL project will gather benchmark data on healthy eating interventions in EU Member States and review existing information on the effectiveness of interventions using a three-stage procedure (i) Assessment of the intervention's impact on consumer attitudes, consumer behaviour and diets; (ii) The impact of the change in diets on obesity and health and (iii) The value attached by society to these changes, measured in life years gained, cost savings and quality-adjusted life years. Where evaluations have been inadequate, EATWELL will gather secondary data and analyse them with a multidisciplinary approach incorporating models from the psychology and economics disciplines. Particular attention will be paid to lessons that can be learned from private sector that are transferable to the healthy eating campaigns in the public sector. Through consumer surveys and workshops with other stakeholders, EATWELL will assess the acceptability of the range of potential interventions. Armed with scientific quantitative evaluations of policy interventions and their acceptability to stakeholders, EATWELL expects to recommend more appropriate interventions for Member States and the EU, providing a one-stop guide to methods and measures in interventions evaluation, and outline data collection priorities for the future. PMID:20202134

  5. Early feeding: setting the stage for healthy eating habits.

    PubMed

    Mennella, Julie A; Ventura, Alison K

    2011-01-01

    Food habits, an integral part of all cultures, have their beginnings during early life. This chapter reviews the development of the senses of taste and smell, which provide information on the flavor of foods, and discusses how children's innate predispositions interact with early-life feeding experiences to form dietary preferences and habits. Young children show heightened preferences for foods that taste sweet and salty and rejection of that which tastes bitter. These innate responses are salient during development since they likely evolved to encourage children to ingest that which is beneficial, containing needed calories or minerals, and to reject that which is harmful. Early childhood is also characterized by plasticity, partially evidenced by a sensitive period during early life when infants exhibit heightened acceptance of the flavors experienced in amniotic fluid and breast milk. While learning also occurs with flavors found in formulae, it is likely that this sensitive period formed to facilitate acceptance of and attraction to the flavors of foods eaten by the mother. A basic understanding of the development and functioning of the chemical senses during early childhood may assist in forming evidence-based strategies to improve children's diets. PMID:22044898

  6. Novel methods to help develop healthier eating habits for eating and weight disorders: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Turton, Robert; Bruidegom, Kiki; Cardi, Valentina; Hirsch, Colette R; Treasure, Janet

    2016-02-01

    This paper systematically reviews novel interventions developed and tested in healthy controls that may be able to change the over or under controlled eating behaviours in eating and weight disorders. Electronic databases were searched for interventions targeting habits related to eating behaviours (implementation intentions; food-specific inhibition training and attention bias modification). These were assessed in accordance with the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines. In healthy controls the implementation intention approach produces a small increase in healthy food intake and reduction in unhealthy food intake post-intervention. The size of these effects decreases over time and no change in weight was found. Unhealthy food intake was moderately reduced by food-specific inhibition training and attention bias modification post-intervention. This work may have important implications for the treatment of populations with eating and weight disorders. However, these findings are preliminary as there is a moderate to high level of heterogeneity in implementation intention studies and to date there are few food-specific inhibition training and attention bias modification studies. PMID:26695383

  7. Comparison of eating habits in obese and non-obese Filipinas living in an urban area of Japan.

    PubMed

    Oh, Chu Hyang; Saito, Emiko

    2015-04-01

    This study compares eating habits among obese and non-obese Filipinas living in an urban area of Japan. We used self-report questionnaires to study 635 Filipinos. Body mass index (BMI) and eating/lifestyle habits were noted. Obesity was defined as BMI ≥25 kg/m(2). Seventeen percent (24/140) were obese. Results of the age-adjusted multiple logistic regression analysis show that the following responses were associated with obesity: "frequency of eating high green and yellow vegetables" (every day: 0, not every day: 1) [OR 4.9; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.6-14.8] and "frequency of eating high fruits" (every day: 0, not every day: 1) (OR .2; 95% CI .1-.7). We suggest strategies to prevent obesity and improve eating habits among this Filipina population. PMID:24788362

  8. [Eating habit and metabolic syndrome in a sample of Brazilian adults].

    PubMed

    Martini, Fábio Antonio Neia; Borges, Marcelo Brandão; Guedes, Dartagnan Pinto

    2014-09-01

    The objective was to analyze indicators related to eating habits and their association with metabolic syndrome (MetS) in a representative sample of adults in a community from State of São Paulo, Brazil. The sample was comprised of 1,112 participants aged ≥ 20 years. Data from sociodemographic issues, indicators regarding eating habits, anthropometric measures, resting arterial pressure, blood glucose and plasma lipids were registered. MetS was assessed according to the NCEP-ATP III criteria. The results showed that adequate consumption of fruits and vegetables was reported by less than 10% of the individuals. Regular consumption of fatty foods (5 days/week) was reported by 54.2% and sugar-added products and soft drinks by 3 8.6% of the interviewees. Gender, age, schooling, socioeconomic level and nutritional status influenced significantly the eating habits. Prevalence of MetS was approximately 24%, significantly higher in men (27.8% vs 20.3%; p = 0.005). Risk to identify MetS in individuals who reported not consuming regularly fruits and vegetables was approximately two times higher than their peers who reported adequate intake (women: OR = 1.93; 95% CI 1.51 - 2.38; men: OR = 2.04; 95% CI 1.63 - 2.40). Exposure risk for MetS was progressively higher according to reported higher consumption of fatty foods, sugar-added products and soft drinks. The findings suggest interventions in order to emphasize healthy eating habits, which could help to minimize risk of MetS. PMID:26137792

  9. Eating lizards: a millenary habit evidenced by Paleoparasitology

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Analyses of coprolites have contributed to the knowledge of diet as well as infectious diseases in ancient populations. Results of paleoparasitological studies showed that prehistoric groups were exposed to spurious and zoonotic parasites, especially food-related. Here we report the findings of a paleoparasitological study carried out in remote regions of Brazil’s Northeast. Findings Eggs of Pharyngodonidae (Nematoda, Oxyuroidea), a family of parasites of lizards and amphibians, were found in four human coprolites collected from three archaeological sites. In one of these, lizard scales were also found. Conclusions Through the finding of eggs of Pharyngodonidae in human coprolites and reptile scales in one of these, we have provided evidence that humans have consumed reptiles at least 10,000 years ago. This food habit persists to modern times in remote regions of Brazil’s Northeast. Although Pharyngodonidae species are not known to infect humans, the consumption of raw or undercooked meat from lizards and other reptiles may have led to transmission of a wide range of zoonotic agents to humans in the past. PMID:23098578

  10. Look who's cooking. Investigating the relationship between watching educational and edutainment TV cooking shows, eating habits and everyday cooking practices among men and women in Belgium.

    PubMed

    De Backer, Charlotte J S; Hudders, Liselot

    2016-01-01

    Television (TV) cooking shows have evolved from focusing on educating to focusing on entertaining, as well. At present, educational TV cooking shows focus on the transfer of cooking knowledge and skills, whereas edutainment TV cooking shows focus on entertaining their viewers. Both types of shows are ongoing success stories. However, little is known regarding the shows' links with the cooking and eating habits of their audiences. Therefore, the current study investigates the relationship between watching an educational or edutainment TV cooking show and one's cooking and eating habits. Given public health concerns regarding the decline in cooking behaviors and the simultaneous increase in caloric intake from food outside the home, this study suggests a promising intervention. The results of a cross-sectional survey in Belgium (n=845) demonstrate that the audiences of educational and edutainment TV cooking shows do not overlap. Although there is little connection between watching specific shows and eating behavior, the connection between watching shows and cooking behaviors varies across gender and age lines. Behaviors also differ depending on whether the viewer is watching an educational or edutainment cooking show. For example, men of all ages appear to cook more often if they watch an educational show. However, only older men (above 38 years) seem to cook more often if they watch an edutainment TV show. The results demonstrate that the relationship between watching TV cooking shows and cooking habits warrants further investigation. PMID:26485291

  11. [Italian eating behavior: survey 2011].

    PubMed

    Fatati, Giuseppe

    2012-06-01

    Obesity is one of the most serious public health challenges of the 21st century for the European region. The concept of personal responsibility affected social, legal, and political approaches to obesity. It evokes blame and weakness of the individual, and it is a leading basis for inadequate government efforts, given the importance of environmental conditions in explaining high rates of obesity. It is needed not only to gain a correct understanding of the progress of the epidemic but also to evaluate preventive initiatives that are progressively introduced. As part of the social, health and agri-food production in the country, knowledge of dietary habits and lifestyle of the population in real time is a valuable resource. The data from ADI-Nestl Observatory confirmed that it is unfair to say that poor diet and sedentary behaviour are individually responsible for obesity-related health burden in Italy, but both factors need to be improved and addressed through structural political and social structural measures. PMID:22688375

  12. Eating Disorders in Athletes: Weighing the Risks.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wichmann, Susan; Martin, D. R.

    1993-01-01

    Defines different eating disorders, discusses athlete eating problems, and presents the signs physicians should look for that signal the presence of an eating disorder. The article also discusses the tailoring of treatment programs, questions to ask athletes about eating habits, and society's influence on an athlete's eating behavior. (GLR)

  13. Eating in response to exercise cues: Role of self-control fatigue, exercise habits, and eating restraint.

    PubMed

    Stein, Aliza T; Greathouse, Lee J; Otto, Michael W

    2016-01-01

    Identifying moderators of compensatory eating is important for understanding the failure of many people to lose weight in response to increased exercise levels. A previous study demonstrated that individuals shown action words (e.g., "active" or "go") were primed by these words to increase energy intake. Further studies have demonstrated that individual differences (e.g. differences in body mass) affect susceptibility to relevant priming cues. Based on these findings, this study examined individual differences, including exercise habits, tendencies toward compensatory eating, dietary restraint, and body mass that may serve as moderators of compensatory eating in the context of conceptual priming. A 2 × 2 design was utilized to analyze the effects of both priming and a self-control task on energy intake. Participants were presented with several snack foods under the guise of a taste test, with energy intake (kcal) during this taste test as the primary outcome variable. Results of this study indicate that, among those with higher baseline levels of exercise, lower energy intake was found for those exposed to exercise cues relative to those who did not receive these cues. In addition, the influence of the self-control fatigue condition was dependent on body mass index. PMID:26363420

  14. College Student Stress: A Predictor of Eating Disorder Precursor Behaviors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shelton, Virginia L.; Valkyrie, Karena T.

    2010-01-01

    Eating disorders are compulsive behaviors that can consume a person's life to the point of becoming life threatening. Previous research found stress associated with eating disorders. College can be a stressful time. If stress predicted precursor behaviors to eating disorders, then counselors would have a better chance to help students sooner. This…

  15. Short- and long-term eating habit modification predict weight change in overweight, post-menopausal women: results from the WOMAN Study

    PubMed Central

    Gibbs, Bethany Barone; Kinzel, Laura S.; Gabriel, Kelley Pettee; Chang, Yue-fang; Kuller, Lewis H.

    2012-01-01

    Background Standard behavioral obesity treatment produces poor long-term results. Focusing on healthy eating behaviors, rather than caloric intake, may be an alternative strategy. Furthermore, important behaviors might differ for short- vs. long-term weight control. Objective To describe and compare associations between changes in eating behaviors and weight after 6 and 48 months Design Secondary analysis of data collected during a randomized weight loss intervention trial with 48-month follow-up Participants 465 overweight and obese postmenopausal women enrolled in the Women on the Move through Activity and Nutrition (WOMAN) Study Main outcome measures Changes in weight from baseline to 6 and 48 months. Statistical analyses performed Linear regression models examined the associations between 6- and 48-month changes in eating habits assessed by the Conner Diet Habit Survey and changes in weight. Analyses were conducted in the combined study population and stratified by randomization group. Results At 6 months in the combined population, weight loss was independently associated with decreased desserts (p<0.001), restaurant eating (p=0.042), sugar-sweetened beverages (p=0.009), and fried foods (p<0.001), and increased fish consumption (p=0.003). Results were similar in intervention participants; only reduced desserts and fried foods associated with weight loss in controls. At 48 months in the combined population, weight loss was again associated with decreased desserts (p=0.003) and sugar-sweetened beverages (p=0.011), but also decreased meats/cheeses (p=0.024) and increased fruits/vegetables (p<0.001). Decreased meats/cheeses predicted weight loss in intervention participants; desserts, sugar-sweetened beverages, and fruits/vegetables were independently associated in controls. Conclusions Changes in eating behaviors were associated with weight change, though important behaviors differed for short- and long-term weight change and by randomization group. Future studies should determine whether interventions targeting these behaviors could improve long-term obesity treatment outcomes. PMID:22939439

  16. Environmental influences on children's physical activity and eating habits in a rural Oregon County.

    PubMed

    Findholt, Nancy E; Michael, Yvonne L; Jerofke, Linda J; Brogoitti, Victoria W

    2011-01-01

    PURPOSE. To identify environmental barriers and facilitators of children's physical activity and healthy eating in a rural county. DESIGN. Community-based participatory research using mixed methods, primarily qualitative. SETTING. A rural Oregon county. SUBJECTS. Ninety-five adults, 6 high school students, and 41 fifth-grade students. MEASURES. In-depth interviews, focus groups, Photovoice, and structured observations using the Physical Activity Resource Assessment, System for Observing Play and Leisure Activity, Community Food Security Assessment Toolkit, and School Food and Beverage Marketing Assessment Tool. ANALYSIS. Qualitative data were coded by investigators; observational data were analyzed using descriptive statistics. The findings were triangulated to produce a composite of environmental barriers and assets. RESULTS. Limited recreational resources, street-related hazards, fear of strangers, inadequate physical education, and denial of recess hindered physical activity, whereas popularity of youth sports and proximity to natural areas promoted physical activity. Limited availability and high cost of healthy food, busy lifestyles, convenience stores near schools, few healthy meal choices at school, children's being permitted to bring snacks to school, candy used as incentives, and teachers' modeling unhealthy eating habits hindered healthy eating, whereas the agricultural setting and popularity of gardening promoted healthy eating. CONCLUSIONS. This study provides data on a neglected area of research, namely environmental determinants of rural childhood obesity, and points to the need for multifaceted and multilevel environmental change interventions. PMID:22040399

  17. Occupational burnout, eating behavior, and weight among working women.

    TOXLINE Toxicology Bibliographic Information

    Nevanperä NJ; Hopsu L; Kuosma E; Ukkola O; Uitti J; Laitinen JH

    2012-04-01

    BACKGROUND: Eating behavior affects weight and thus the development of obesity. Studies on the effect of occupational burnout (exhaustive fatigue, cynicism, and lost occupational self-respect caused by chronic work stress) on eating behavior are lacking.OBJECTIVE: The objective was to investigate associations between occupational burnout, eating behavior, and weight among working women.DESIGN: A total of 230 working women participated in a randomized controlled intervention trial (Nuadu) that aimed at changing the health behaviors of those with health risks. We assessed eating behavior using the Three-Factor Eating Behavior Questionnaire 18 and burnout using the Bergen Burnout Indicator 15 at both baseline and 12 mo. Body weight and percentage body fat were also measured at baseline and at 12 mo. The intervention and control groups were combined and divided by burnout and weight-change variables.RESULTS: Women experiencing burnout at baseline had significantly higher scores in emotional eating (EE; P = 0.002) and uncontrolled eating (UE; P = 0.001) than did those without burnout. A significant difference was found between the change in UE from baseline to 12 mo in those with and without burnout (P = 0.05). UE decreased significantly among those without burnout at baseline (P < 0.001).CONCLUSIONS: Those experiencing burnout may be more vulnerable to EE and UE and have a hindered ability to make changes in their eating behavior. We recommend that burnout should be treated first and that burnout and eating behavior should be evaluated in obesity treatment.

  18. Obesity susceptibility loci and uncontrolled eating, emotional eating and cognitive restraint behaviors in men and women

    PubMed Central

    Cornelis, Marilyn C.; Rimm, Eric B.; Curhan, Gary C.; Kraft, Peter; Hunter, David J.; Hu, Frank B.; van Dam, Rob M.

    2013-01-01

    Objective Many confirmed genetic loci for obesity are expressed in regions of the brain that regulate energy intake and reward-seeking behavior. Whether these loci contribute to the development of specific eating behaviors has not been investigated. We examined the relationship between a genetic susceptibility to obesity and cognitive restraint, uncontrolled and emotional eating. Design and Methods Eating behavior and body mass index (BMI) were determined by questionnaires for 1471 men and 2381 women from two U.S cohorts. Genotypes were extracted from genome-wide scans and a genetic-risk score (GRS) derived from 32 obesity-loci was calculated. Results The GRS was positively associated with emotional and uncontrolled eating(P<0.002). In exploratory analysis, BMI-increasing variants of MTCH2, TNNI3K and ZC3H4 were positively associated with emotional eating and those of TNNI3K and ZC3H4 were positively associated with uncontrolled eating. The BMI-increasing variant of FTO was positively and those of LRP1B and TFAP2B were inversely associated with cognitive restraint. These associations for single SNPs were independent of BMI but were not significant after multiple-testing correction. Conclusions An overall genetic susceptibility to obesity may also extend to eating behaviors. The link between specific loci and obesity may be mediated by eating behavior but larger studies are warranted to confirm these results. PMID:23929626

  19. Dietary Intakes and Eating Habits of College Athletes: Are Female College Athletes Following the Current Sports Nutrition Standards?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shriver, Lenka H.; Betts, Nancy M.; Wollenberg, Gena

    2013-01-01

    Objective: The objective of this study was to assess dietary intakes and eating habits of female college athletes and compared them with the minimum sports nutrition standards. Participants: Data were obtained from 52 female college athletes from a National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) Division I university between January 2009 and May…

  20. A Cluster-Analytical Approach towards Physical Activity and Eating Habits among 10-Year-Old Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sabbe, Dieter; De Bourdeaudhuij, I.; Legiest, E.; Maes, L.

    2008-01-01

    The purpose was to investigate whether clusters--based on physical activity (PA) and eating habits--can be found among children, and to explore subgroups' characteristics. A total of 1725 10-year olds completed a self-administered questionnaire. K-means cluster analysis was based on the weekly quantity of vigorous and moderate PA, the excess index

  1. A Cluster-Analytical Approach towards Physical Activity and Eating Habits among 10-Year-Old Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sabbe, Dieter; De Bourdeaudhuij, I.; Legiest, E.; Maes, L.

    2008-01-01

    The purpose was to investigate whether clusters--based on physical activity (PA) and eating habits--can be found among children, and to explore subgroups' characteristics. A total of 1725 10-year olds completed a self-administered questionnaire. K-means cluster analysis was based on the weekly quantity of vigorous and moderate PA, the excess index…

  2. Acculturation, weight status, and eating habits among Chinese-American preschool children and their primary caregivers: A pilot study

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study investigated acculturation, eating habits, and weight status among 53 Chinese-American children and their primary caregivers. Caregivers’ mean acculturation score was 2.1, indicating low acculturation. Caregivers’ mean body mass index (BMI) was 23.3; 21% were overweight (BMI is greater ...

  3. Dietary Intakes and Eating Habits of College Athletes: Are Female College Athletes Following the Current Sports Nutrition Standards?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shriver, Lenka H.; Betts, Nancy M.; Wollenberg, Gena

    2013-01-01

    Objective: The objective of this study was to assess dietary intakes and eating habits of female college athletes and compared them with the minimum sports nutrition standards. Participants: Data were obtained from 52 female college athletes from a National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) Division I university between January 2009 and May

  4. Association between eating behavior scores and obesity in Chilean children

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Inadequate eating behavior and physical inactivity contribute to the current epidemic of childhood obesity. The aim of this study was to assess the association between eating behavior scores and childhood obesity in Chilean children. Design and methods We recruited 126 obese, 44 overweight and 124 normal-weight Chilean children (6-12 years-old; both genders) according to the International Obesity Task Force (IOTF) criteria. Eating behavior scores were calculated using the Child Eating Behavior Questionnaire (CEBQ). Factorial analysis in the culturally-adapted questionnaire for Chilean population was used to confirm the original eight-factor structure of CEBQ. The Cronbach's alpha statistic (>0.7 in most subscales) was used to assess internal consistency. Non-parametric methods were used to assess case-control associations. Results Eating behavior scores were strongly associated with childhood obesity in Chilean children. Childhood obesity was directly associated with high scores in the subscales "enjoyment of food" (P < 0.0001), "emotional overeating" (P < 0.001) and "food responsiveness" (P < 0.0001). Food-avoidant subscales "satiety responsiveness" and "slowness in eating" were inversely associated with childhood obesity (P < 0.001). There was a graded relation between the magnitude of these eating behavior scores across groups of normal-weight, overweight and obesity groups. Conclusion Our study shows a strong and graded association between specific eating behavior scores and childhood obesity in Chile. PMID:21985269

  5. California teachers perceive school gardens as an effective nutritional tool to promote healthful eating habits.

    PubMed

    Graham, Heather; Zidenberg-Cherr, Sheri

    2005-11-01

    This study assessed elementary school teachers' perceived attitudes and barriers associated with school gardens, as well as the purpose and use of gardens in schools, specifically in relation to the link between gardens and nutrition. The questionnaire was mailed to California fourth-grade teachers at schools with gardens (N = 1,665). The response rate was 36% (n = 592). Teachers perceived the garden to be somewhat to very effective at enhancing academic performance, physical activity, language arts, and healthful eating habits. Nutrition was taught with the use of the garden by 47% of responding teachers. This research provides evidence for needed standards-based curricula materials and teacher training in relation to gardening and nutrition. The results from this study will contribute to development of needed resources and methods by which to encourage the use of gardens and nutrition education in schools. PMID:16256767

  6. The nutritional status and eating habits of shift workers: a chronobiological approach.

    PubMed

    Pasqua, I C; Moreno, C R C

    2004-01-01

    The eating habits of workers may vary according to the season of the year and corresponding work schedule. A study aiming at verifying the changes in their diet in summer and winter, as well as the nutritional status of those who work fixed shifts, was conducted. The distribution during the 24h in the quantity of calories and macronutrients ingested and the circadian rhythm of calories consumed were also analyzed. The study was conducted on 28 workers subject to three fixed work (morning, afternoon, and night) shifts at a transport company in the city of So Paulo, Brazil. The mean age of the workers was 32.8 (SD+/-5.3) yrs. Their food intake was ascertained by the use of a 3-day dietary record, and their nutritional status was evaluated by their body mass index (BMI), both in winter and summer. Two-way ANOVA (shift and season) showed food consumption--measured in calories/24 h--was significantly higher in winter than summer (F(1.25)=11.7; p<0.001). No statistically significant differences were found among shifts (F(2.25)=0.85; p<0.44), and the interaction effect between shift and season was also not significant (F(2.25) = 0.15; p < 0.86). No seasonal difference in BMI was detected (Kruskal-Wallis test). Cosinor analyses showed circadian rhythmicity in calories consumed by morning (p < 0.01) as well as afternoon shift workers (p < 0.001), both in the winter and summer. Circadian rhythmicity in calories consumed by night workers was found only in summer (p < 0.01). The changes observed in the workers' eating habits from one season to another and during the 24h period show the need for further studies to help develop educational programs to improve the nutrition of shift employees taking into consideration shift schedule and season of the year when work is performed. PMID:15646241

  7. How French subjects describe well-being from food and eating habits? Development, item reduction and scoring definition of the Well-Being related to Food Questionnaire (Well-BFQ).

    PubMed

    Guillemin, I; Marrel, A; Arnould, B; Capuron, L; Dupuy, A; Ginon, E; Lay, S; Lecerf, J-M; Prost, M; Rogeaux, M; Urdapilleta, I; Allaert, F-A

    2016-01-01

    Providing well-being and maintaining good health are main objectives subjects seek from diet. This manuscript describes the development and preliminary validation of an instrument assessing well-being associated with food and eating habits in a general healthy population. Qualitative data from 12 groups of discussion (102 subjects) conducted with healthy subjects were used to develop the core of the Well-being related to Food Questionnaire (Well-BFQ). Twelve other groups of discussion with subjects with joint (n=34), digestive (n=32) or repetitive infection complaints (n=30) were performed to develop items specific to these complaints. Five main themes emerged from the discussions and formed the modular backbone of the questionnaire: "Grocery shopping", "Cooking", "Dining places", "Commensality", "Eating and drinking". Each module has a common structure: items about subject's food behavior and items about immediate and short-term benefits. An additional theme - "Eating habits and health" - assesses subjects' beliefs about expected benefits of food and eating habits on health, disease prevention and protection, and quality of ageing. A preliminary validation was conducted with 444 subjects with balanced diet; non-balanced diet; and standard diet. The structure of the questionnaire was further determined using principal component analyses exploratory factor analyses, with confirmation of the sub-sections food behaviors, immediate benefits (pleasure, security, relaxation), direct short-term benefits (digestion and satiety, energy and psychology), and deferred long-term benefits (eating habits and health). Thirty-three subscales and 14 single items were further defined. Confirmatory analyses confirmed the structure, with overall moderate to excellent convergent and divergent validity and internal consistency reliability. The Well-BFQ is a unique, modular tool that comprehensively assesses the full picture of well-being related to food and eating habits in the general population. PMID:26407804

  8. On the relationship between emotional and external eating behavior.

    PubMed

    Van Strien, T; Schippers, G M; Cox, W M

    1995-01-01

    Although there is a strong relationship between emotional and external eating, separate subscales for these behaviors have been constructed in the Dutch Eating Behavior Questionnaire. This study tries to establish whether this distinction is justified. We studied relationships among self-reported ( 1) degree of emotional and external eating behavior and (2) problems with (a) emotional distress and relationships, (b) stimulus-boundness (inappropriate amounts of either too much or too little exercise, work, leisure activities, and spending money), and (c) problems with substance use (alcohol, illicit drugs, nicotine, or caffeine) in a sample of female students. No relationships were found between either type of eating behavior and problems with substance use. Furthermore, the significant relationship between emotional and external eating behavior and stimulus-boundness disappeared in the subsample who had problems with overeating. The fact that in all samples emotional eating was significantly related to problems with emotional distress and relationships (anxiety, depression, phobias, suicidal acts or ideations, intimate relations, and sexual contacts) but external eating was not, suggests that the two types of eating behaviors refer to independent constructs. Thus, the use of separate scales to measure these theoretically different aspects of overeating seems warranted. PMID:8712056

  9. Weight loss methods and changes in eating habits among successful weight losers.

    PubMed

    Soini, Sirpa; Mustajoki, Pertti; Eriksson, Johan G

    2016-02-01

    Background Changes in several lifestyle related factors are required for successful long-term weight loss. Identification of these factors is of major importance from a public health point of view. Methods/subjects This study was based upon findings from the Finnish Weight Control Registry (FWCR), a web-based registry. In total, 316 people were recruited and 184 met the study inclusion criteria. The aims of this study were to assess means and typical changes in eating habits associated with successful long-term weight loss. Results Half of the participants (48%) reported that they lost weight slowly primarily with dietary changes. Self-weighing frequency was high, 92% was weighing themselves at least once a week during the weight loss phase, and 75% during the maintenance phase. Dietary aspects associated with successful weight loss and weight maintenance included an increase in intake of vegetables, a reduction in frequency of eating candies and fast food, regular meal frequency and application of the Plate model. Conclusions Both slow and fast weight loss may lead to successful long-term results and weight maintenance. A decrease in energy intake was achieved by reducing intake of energy-dense food, applying the Plate model and by regular meal frequency. Key messages Successful long-term weight loss is associated with a reduction in intake of energy-dense food. A more regular meal frequency and a high frequency of self-weighing seem to be helpful. PMID:26820173

  10. Impact of DSM-5 PTSD and gender on impaired eating behaviors in 512 Italian earthquake survivors.

    PubMed

    Carmassi, Claudia; Antonio Bertelloni, Carlo; Massimetti, Gabriele; Miniati, Mario; Stratta, Paolo; Rossi, Alessandro; Dell'Osso, Liliana

    2015-01-30

    Considerable comorbidity rates between Post-traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) and eating disorders have been recently reported, as well as increased obesity and underweight conditions. The aim of the present study was to investigate the possible associations between DSM-5 PTSD, gender and impaired eating habits in a sample of 512 Italian earthquake survivors evaluated by the Trauma and Loss Spectrum-Self Report (TALS-SR) and the Mood Spectrum-Self Report (MOODS-SR). Alterations in eating behaviors were assessed by means of four MOODS-SR items: n=150 (there was no food that appealed to you or tasted good to you?), n=151 (you constantly craved sweets or carbohydrates?), n=152 (your appetite or weight decreased?), n=153 (your appetite or weight increased?). In a Decision Tree procedure subjects with PTSD with respect to those without and, in the No-PTSD subgroup, females with respect to males, had a significantly higher ratio of at least one MOODS-SR eating behavior item (MOODS-SR EB). In the No-PTSD subgroup only, subjects with at least one MOODS-SR EB presented a significantly higher mean TALS-SR symptomatological domains total score with respect to those without MOODS-SR EB. In conclusion, alterations in eating behaviors were associated with PTSD after the L?Aquila earthquake; among survivors without PTSD significant a correlation emerged between MOODS-SR EB and PTSD symptoms. PMID:25454114

  11. Eating Habits and Food Preferences of Elementary School Students in Urban and Suburban Areas of Daejeon

    PubMed Central

    Park, Eun-Suk; Lee, Je-Hyuk

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the dietary habits and food preferences of elementary school students. The survey was conducted by means of a questionnaire distributed to 4th and 5th grade elementary school students (400 boys and 400 girls) in urban and suburban areas of Daejeon. The results of this study were as follows: male students in urban areas ate breakfast, unbalanced diets, and dairy products more frequently than male students in suburban areas (p < 0.05). Female students in urban areas ate dairy products (p < 0.01) and fruits (p < 0.001) more frequently than female students in suburban areas. Students had the high preferences for boiled rice and noodles with black bean sauce, beef rib soup, steamed beef rib, steamed egg, beef boiled in soy sauce, egg roll, bulgogi, pork cutlet, deep-fried pork covered with sweet and sour starchy sauce, and honeyed juice mixed with fruit as a punch. All students preferred kimchi, although students in the suburban areas preferred kimchi-fried rice (p < 0.05), and those in the urban areas preferred bean-paste soup (p < 0.01). Students in suburban areas showed a greater preference for seasoned bean sprouts and Altari kimchi. All of the students preferred fruits, rice cake made with glutinous rice, and pizza among other foods. Overall, there were distinct differences in the eating habits and food preferences of elementary school students according to the place of residence. PMID:26251838

  12. Eating Habits and Food Preferences of Elementary School Students in Urban and Suburban Areas of Daejeon.

    PubMed

    Park, Eun-Suk; Lee, Je-Hyuk; Kim, Myung-Hee

    2015-07-01

    This study investigated the dietary habits and food preferences of elementary school students. The survey was conducted by means of a questionnaire distributed to 4th and 5th grade elementary school students (400 boys and 400 girls) in urban and suburban areas of Daejeon. The results of this study were as follows: male students in urban areas ate breakfast, unbalanced diets, and dairy products more frequently than male students in suburban areas (p < 0.05). Female students in urban areas ate dairy products (p < 0.01) and fruits (p < 0.001) more frequently than female students in suburban areas. Students had the high preferences for boiled rice and noodles with black bean sauce, beef rib soup, steamed beef rib, steamed egg, beef boiled in soy sauce, egg roll, bulgogi, pork cutlet, deep-fried pork covered with sweet and sour starchy sauce, and honeyed juice mixed with fruit as a punch. All students preferred kimchi, although students in the suburban areas preferred kimchi-fried rice (p < 0.05), and those in the urban areas preferred bean-paste soup (p < 0.01). Students in suburban areas showed a greater preference for seasoned bean sprouts and Altari kimchi. All of the students preferred fruits, rice cake made with glutinous rice, and pizza among other foods. Overall, there were distinct differences in the eating habits and food preferences of elementary school students according to the place of residence. PMID:26251838

  13. Using nutrition labeling as a potential tool for changing eating habits of university dining hall patrons.

    PubMed

    Driskell, Judy A; Schake, Marian C; Detter, Hillary A

    2008-12-01

    The purpose of this cross-sectional study was to examine the influence of the nutritional labeling Nutrition Bytes on the eating habits of adults eating in dining halls at a Midwestern university and to assess differences between sexes. Dining hall patrons (114 men, 91 women) 19 years of age or older voluntarily completed a descriptive 15-item written questionnaire that examined the use and nonuse of Nutrition Bytes, which contains much of the information included in the Nutrition Facts label. A significantly higher percentage of women than men patrons reported currently using Nutrition Bytes labels (P<0.001). Predominant reasons for using Nutrition Bytes labels were: general knowledge, concern about overall health, calorie counting, and concern about a certain nutrient(s). Predominant reasons given for not using Nutrition Bytes labels were: will not change my mind about food items selected and not enough time. Reasons given by men and women for using or not using Nutrition Bytes labels were similar. Significantly higher percentages of women than men using Nutrition Bytes labels indicated being interested in having serving sizes (P<0.005) and ingredients (P<0.0005) listed, whereas higher percentages of men than women indicated being interested in having protein listed (P<0.05). The percentages of users who indicated nearly always and sometimes changing their food choices after reading Nutrition Bytes labels inside the dining halls were 12% and 80%, respectively, whereas 23% and 65%, respectively, indicated changing their food choices after reading the nutrition label when eating outside the dining halls. Nutrition Bytes labeling seemed to positively impact food choices of these adult dining hall patrons, and likely would do so at other dining halls. PMID:19027411

  14. Eating habits and subjective well-being. A typology of students in Chilean state universities.

    PubMed

    Schnettler, Berta; Miranda, Horacio; Lobos, Germán; Orellana, Ligia; Sepúlveda, José; Denegri, Marianela; Etchebarne, Soledad; Mora, Marcos; Grunert, Klaus G

    2015-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to distinguish and characterize university student typologies according to their life satisfaction and satisfaction with their food-related life. An online survey was applied between June and August 2013 in five state universities in Chile, to 369 university students (mean age = 20.9 years, SD = 2.27). The survey included the Health-related Quality of Life Index-4 (HRQOL), Satisfaction with Life Scale (SWLS), Satisfaction with Food-related Life Scale (SWFL), as well as questions about the place of residence, importance of food for well-being, frequency of meals in the place of residence and the frequency of consumption of eight food groups. A cluster analysis was used to determine student typologies. Three typologies of students were distinguished with significant differences in the average scores of the SWLS and SWFL scales, self-perception of health, days with mental health problems, number of days of health-related incapacity, place of residence, socioeconomic status, importance of food for well-being, frequency of breakfast and dinner in the place of residence, frequency of consumption of meat, milk, fruits and vegetables. It was found that most students with higher levels of life satisfaction and satisfaction with food-related life live with their parents, eat at home more frequently, report fewer health problems, have healthful eating habits and consider food very important for their well-being. Although it is necessary to promote or improve the campaigns that foster healthful eating in the entire university population, these campaigns must be specifically targeted to students who do not receive direct support from their families. PMID:25675858

  15. Applying behavior analysis to clinical problems: review and analysis of habit reversal.

    PubMed Central

    Miltenberger, R G; Fuqua, R W; Woods, D W

    1998-01-01

    This article provides a review and analysis of habit reversal, a multicomponent procedure developed by Azrin and Nunn (1973, 1974) for the treatment of nervous habits, tics, and stuttering. The article starts with a discussion of the behaviors treated with habit reversal, behavioral covariation among habits, and functional analysis and assessment of habits. Research on habit reversal and simplified versions of the procedure is then described. Next the article discusses the limitations of habit reversal and the evidence for its generality. The article concludes with an analysis of the behavioral processes involved in habit reversal and suggestions for future research. PMID:9757583

  16. Habitability and Behavioral Issues of Space Flight.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stewart, R. A., Jr.

    1988-01-01

    Reviews group behavioral issues from past space missions and simulations such as the Skylab Medical Experiments Altitude Test, Skylab missions, and Shuttle Spacelab I mission. Makes recommendations for future flights concerning commandership, crew selection, and ground-crew communications. Pre- and in-flight behavioral countermeasures are…

  17. Habitability and Behavioral Issues of Space Flight.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stewart, R. A., Jr.

    1988-01-01

    Reviews group behavioral issues from past space missions and simulations such as the Skylab Medical Experiments Altitude Test, Skylab missions, and Shuttle Spacelab I mission. Makes recommendations for future flights concerning commandership, crew selection, and ground-crew communications. Pre- and in-flight behavioral countermeasures are

  18. Modeling habits as self-sustaining patterns of sensorimotor behavior

    PubMed Central

    Egbert, Matthew D.; Barandiaran, Xabier E.

    2014-01-01

    In the recent history of psychology and cognitive neuroscience, the notion of habit has been reduced to a stimulus-triggered response probability correlation. In this paper we use a computational model to present an alternative theoretical view (with some philosophical implications), where habits are seen as self-maintaining patterns of behavior that share properties in common with self-maintaining biological processes, and that inhabit a complex ecological context, including the presence and influence of other habits. Far from mechanical automatisms, this organismic and self-organizing concept of habit can overcome the dominating atomistic and statistical conceptions, and the high temporal resolution effects of situatedness, embodiment and sensorimotor loops emerge as playing a more central, subtle and complex role in the organization of behavior. The model is based on a novel “iterant deformable sensorimotor medium (IDSM),” designed such that trajectories taken through sensorimotor-space increase the likelihood that in the future, similar trajectories will be taken. We couple the IDSM to sensors and motors of a simulated robot, and show that under certain conditions, the IDSM conditions, the IDSM forms self-maintaining patterns of activity that operate across the IDSM, the robot's body, and the environment. We present various environments and the resulting habits that form in them. The model acts as an abstraction of habits at a much needed sensorimotor “meso-scale” between microscopic neuron-based models and macroscopic descriptions of behavior. Finally, we discuss how this model and extensions of it can help us understand aspects of behavioral self-organization, historicity and autonomy that remain out of the scope of contemporary representationalist frameworks. PMID:25152724

  19. Modeling habits as self-sustaining patterns of sensorimotor behavior.

    PubMed

    Egbert, Matthew D; Barandiaran, Xabier E

    2014-01-01

    In the recent history of psychology and cognitive neuroscience, the notion of habit has been reduced to a stimulus-triggered response probability correlation. In this paper we use a computational model to present an alternative theoretical view (with some philosophical implications), where habits are seen as self-maintaining patterns of behavior that share properties in common with self-maintaining biological processes, and that inhabit a complex ecological context, including the presence and influence of other habits. Far from mechanical automatisms, this organismic and self-organizing concept of habit can overcome the dominating atomistic and statistical conceptions, and the high temporal resolution effects of situatedness, embodiment and sensorimotor loops emerge as playing a more central, subtle and complex role in the organization of behavior. The model is based on a novel "iterant deformable sensorimotor medium (IDSM)," designed such that trajectories taken through sensorimotor-space increase the likelihood that in the future, similar trajectories will be taken. We couple the IDSM to sensors and motors of a simulated robot, and show that under certain conditions, the IDSM conditions, the IDSM forms self-maintaining patterns of activity that operate across the IDSM, the robot's body, and the environment. We present various environments and the resulting habits that form in them. The model acts as an abstraction of habits at a much needed sensorimotor "meso-scale" between microscopic neuron-based models and macroscopic descriptions of behavior. Finally, we discuss how this model and extensions of it can help us understand aspects of behavioral self-organization, historicity and autonomy that remain out of the scope of contemporary representationalist frameworks. PMID:25152724

  20. CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK FOR CATEGORIZING YOUNG CHILDREN'S EATING BEHAVIORS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Recent studies of total dietary ingestion of common indoor contaminants have demonstrated that young children's behaviors while eating can lead to a significant source of food contamination. The difference between children eating their food items with or without their hands wh...

  1. Patterns of Compensatory Behaviors and Disordered Eating in College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schaumberg, Katherine; Anderson, Lisa M.; Reilly, Erin; Anderson, Drew A.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: The current study investigated rates of endorsement of eating-related compensatory behaviors within a college sample. Participants: This sample included male and female students (N = 1,158). Methods: Participants completed the Eating Disorder Examination Questionnaire (EDE-Q). The study defined 3 groups of students: those who did not…

  2. The Effects of Peer Influence on Disordered Eating Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meyer, Tiffany A.; Gast, Julie

    2008-01-01

    Peer influence has been found to be correlated with a host of harmful health behaviors. However, little research has been conducted investigating the relationship between peer influence and disordered eating. The present study surveyed 6th-, 7th-, and 8th-grade girls and boys using the Eating Disorder Inventory (EDI) and Inventory of Peer

  3. Patterns of Compensatory Behaviors and Disordered Eating in College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schaumberg, Katherine; Anderson, Lisa M.; Reilly, Erin; Anderson, Drew A.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: The current study investigated rates of endorsement of eating-related compensatory behaviors within a college sample. Participants: This sample included male and female students (N = 1,158). Methods: Participants completed the Eating Disorder Examination Questionnaire (EDE-Q). The study defined 3 groups of students: those who did not

  4. Tailoring Cognitive Behavioral Treatment for Binge Eating in Adolescent Girls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yarborough, Bobbi Jo; DeBar, Lynn L.; Firemark, Alison; Leung, Sue; Clarke, Gregory N.; Wilson, G. Terence

    2013-01-01

    Whereas effective treatments exist for adults with recurrent binge eating, developmental factors specific to adolescents point to the need for a modified treatment approach for youth. We adapted an existing cognitive behavioral therapy treatment manual for adults with bulimia nervosa and binge eating disorder (Fairburn, 2008) for use with…

  5. Tailoring Cognitive Behavioral Treatment for Binge Eating in Adolescent Girls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yarborough, Bobbi Jo; DeBar, Lynn L.; Firemark, Alison; Leung, Sue; Clarke, Gregory N.; Wilson, G. Terence

    2013-01-01

    Whereas effective treatments exist for adults with recurrent binge eating, developmental factors specific to adolescents point to the need for a modified treatment approach for youth. We adapted an existing cognitive behavioral therapy treatment manual for adults with bulimia nervosa and binge eating disorder (Fairburn, 2008) for use with

  6. Parental Behavior, TV Habits, IQ Predict Aggression.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greenberg, J.

    1983-01-01

    Highlights a longitudinal study on key factors in the metamorphosis of childhood aggression into adult crime in more than 400 males/females. Results (which began with study of 875 third graders in 1960) indicate that aggressive youngsters at age eight have much higher rates of criminal/violent behavior at age 30. (JN)

  7. The Development of Eating Behavior - Biology and Context

    PubMed Central

    Gahagan, Sheila

    2012-01-01

    Eating is necessary for survival, gives great pleasure and can be perturbed leading to undernutrition, overnutrition and eating disorders. The development of feeding in humans relies on complex interplay between homeostatic mechanisms; neural reward systems; and child motor, sensory and socio-emotional capability. Furthermore, parenting, social influences and the food environment influence the development of eating behavior. The rapid expansion of new knowledge in this field, from basic science to clinical and community-based research, is expected to lead to urgently needed research in support of effective, evidence-based prevention and treatment strategies for undernutrition, overnutrition and eating disorders in early childhood. Using a biopsychosocial approach, this review covers current knowledge of the development of eating behavior from the brain to the individual child, taking into account important contextual influences. PMID:22472944

  8. Orthorexia nervosa: a frequent eating disordered behavior in athletes.

    PubMed

    Segura-Garca, C; Papaianni, M C; Caglioti, F; Procopio, L; Nistic, C G; Bombardiere, L; Ammendolia, A; Rizza, P; De Fazio, P; Capranica, L

    2012-12-01

    Striving for enhancing athletic performance, many sportsmen undergo rigid dietary habits, which could lead to eating disorders (EDs) or Orthorexia Nervosa (ON), a psychopathological condition characterized by the obsession for high quality food. The aim of the study was to examine the occurrence of ON in athletes and to verify the relationship between ON and EDs. Five-hundred-seventy-seven athletes and 217 matched controls were administered the following tests: ORTO-15, Eating Attitude Test 26 (EAT-26), Body Uneasiness Test (BUT) and Yale-Brown-Cornell Eating Disorder Scale (YBC-EDS). High positivity to ORTO-15 (28%) and EAT-26 (14%) emerged in athletes, whereas a high rate of BUT positivity was evident among controls (21%). Multivariate logistic regression analysis revealed that independent predictors of ON are previous dieting, age, positivity to YBC-EDS, positivity to EAT-26, competition level, and number of YBC-EDS preoccupations and rituals. Sharing many features with both EDs and Obsessive-Compulsive Spectrum, ON represents a crossroad between these pathologic conditions and might compromise the health state of an athlete. Therefore, coaches should consider important to detect symptoms of EDs and ON in their athletes. PMID:22361450

  9. Eating behavior and stress: a pathway to obesity

    PubMed Central

    Sominsky, Luba; Spencer, Sarah J.

    2014-01-01

    Stress causes or contributes to a huge variety of diseases and disorders. Recent evidence suggests obesity and other eating-related disorders may be among these. Immediately after a stressful event is experienced, there is a corticotropin-releasing-hormone (CRH)-mediated suppression of food intake. This diverts the body’s resources away from the less pressing need to find and consume food, prioritizing fight, flight, or withdrawal behaviors so the stressful event can be dealt with. In the hours following this, however, there is a glucocorticoid-mediated stimulation of hunger and eating behavior. In the case of an acute stress that requires a physical response, such as a predator-prey interaction, this hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis modulation of food intake allows the stressful event to be dealt with and the energy used to be replaced afterward. In the case of ongoing psychological stress, however, chronically elevated glucocorticoids can lead to chronically stimulated eating behavior and excessive weight gain. In particular, stress can enhance the propensity to eat high calorie “palatable” food via its interaction with central reward pathways. Activation of this circuitry can also interact with the HPA axis to suppress its further activation, meaning not only can stress encourage eating behavior, but eating can suppress the HPA axis and the feeling of stress. In this review we will explore the theme of eating behavior and stress and how these can modulate one another. We will address the interactions between the HPA axis and eating, introducing a potential integrative role for the orexigenic hormone, ghrelin. We will also examine early life and epigenetic modulation of the HPA axis and how this can influence eating behavior. Finally, we will investigate the clinical implications of changes to HPA axis function and how this may be contributing to obesity in our society. PMID:24860541

  10. [Orthorexia nervosa. A new eating behavior disorder?].

    PubMed

    Catalina Zamora, M L; Bote Bonaechea, B; Garca Snchez, F; Ros Rial, B

    2005-01-01

    New eating behavior disorders such as bigorexia (muscle dysmorphia) and orthorexia are appearing in developed countries. These disorders have not been officially recognized so that they are not classified as independent entities. The term orthorexia comes from the Greek word orthos (straight, proper) and orexia (appetite). It is characterized by the pathological obsession for biologically pure food, which leads to important dietary restrictions. Orthorexic patients exclude foods from their diets that they consider to be impure because they have herbicides, pesticides or artificial substances and they worry in excess about the techniques and materials used in the food elaboration. This obsession leads to loss of social relationships and affective dissatisfactions which, in turn, favors obsessive concern about food. In orthorexia, that patient initially wants to improve his/her health, treat a disease or lose weight. Finally, the diet becomes the most important part of their lives. We present a clinical case that responds to the characteristics of orthorexia. The differential diagnosis with chronic delusional disorder, anorexia nervosa and obsessive-compulsive disorder is carried out. PMID:15704033

  11. Olfaction in eating disorders and abnormal eating behavior: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Islam, Mohammed A; Fagundo, Ana B; Arcelus, Jon; Agera, Zaida; Jimnez-Murcia, Susana; Fernndez-Real, Jos M; Tinahones, Francisco J; de la Torre, Rafael; Botella, Cristina; Frhbeck, Gema; Casanueva, Felipe F; Menchn, Jos M; Fernandez-Aranda, Fernando

    2015-01-01

    The study provides a systematic review that explores the current literature on olfactory capacity in abnormal eating behavior. The objective is to present a basis for discussion on whether research in olfaction in eating disorders may offer additional insight with regard to the complex etiopathology of eating disorders (ED) and abnormal eating behaviors. Electronic databases (Medline, PsycINFO, PubMed, Science Direct, and Web of Science) were searched using the components in relation to olfaction and combining them with the components related to abnormal eating behavior. Out of 1352 articles, titles were first excluded by title (n = 64) and then by abstract and fulltext resulting in a final selection of 14 articles (820 patients and 385 control participants) for this review. The highest number of existing literature on olfaction in ED were carried out with AN patients (78.6%) followed by BN patients (35.7%) and obese individuals (14.3%). Most studies were only conducted on females. The general findings support that olfaction is altered in AN and in obesity and indicates toward there being little to no difference in olfactory capacity between BN patients and the general population. Due to the limited number of studies and heterogeneity this review stresses on the importance of more research on olfaction and abnormal eating behavior. PMID:26483708

  12. Olfaction in eating disorders and abnormal eating behavior: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Islam, Mohammed A.; Fagundo, Ana B.; Arcelus, Jon; Agüera, Zaida; Jiménez-Murcia, Susana; Fernández-Real, José M.; Tinahones, Francisco J.; de la Torre, Rafael; Botella, Cristina; Frühbeck, Gema; Casanueva, Felipe F.; Menchón, José M.; Fernandez-Aranda, Fernando

    2015-01-01

    The study provides a systematic review that explores the current literature on olfactory capacity in abnormal eating behavior. The objective is to present a basis for discussion on whether research in olfaction in eating disorders may offer additional insight with regard to the complex etiopathology of eating disorders (ED) and abnormal eating behaviors. Electronic databases (Medline, PsycINFO, PubMed, Science Direct, and Web of Science) were searched using the components in relation to olfaction and combining them with the components related to abnormal eating behavior. Out of 1352 articles, titles were first excluded by title (n = 64) and then by abstract and fulltext resulting in a final selection of 14 articles (820 patients and 385 control participants) for this review. The highest number of existing literature on olfaction in ED were carried out with AN patients (78.6%) followed by BN patients (35.7%) and obese individuals (14.3%). Most studies were only conducted on females. The general findings support that olfaction is altered in AN and in obesity and indicates toward there being little to no difference in olfactory capacity between BN patients and the general population. Due to the limited number of studies and heterogeneity this review stresses on the importance of more research on olfaction and abnormal eating behavior. PMID:26483708

  13. Genetics of Eating Behavior: Established and Emerging Concepts

    PubMed Central

    Grimm, Eleanor R.; Steinle, Nanette I.

    2010-01-01

    Understanding why we eat and the motivational factors driving food choices is important to addressing the epidemics of obesity, diabetes and cardiovascular disease. Eating behavior is a complex interplay of physiologic, psychological, social, and genetic factors that influence meal timing, quantity of food intake, and food preference. Here we review the current and emerging knowledge of the genetic influences of eating behavior and how these relate to obesity with particular emphasis on the genetics of taste, meal size and selection, and the emerging use of functional magnetic resonance imaging to study neural reactions in response to food stimuli in normal, overweight and obese individuals. PMID:21198635

  14. Coeliac disease. Following the diet and eating habits of participating individuals in the Federal District, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Arajo, Halina Mayer Chaves; Arajo, Wilma Maria Coelho

    2011-08-01

    The western diet includes several food items based on wheat. Adherence and obedience to a gluten-free diet requires self-determination on the part of the person with Coeliac disease, as well as their family members. The objective of this research is to identify the main difficulties noted by people with Coeliac disease in their eating habits, the frequency of consumption and their satisfaction with gluten-free products. We employed an adapted already validated questionnaire, with open, closed, and multiple choice questions. Of the 105 participants with Coeliac disease, 90.38% of them followed, where possible, a gluten-free diet; 67.12% consumed food with gluten inadvertently or because of a lack of alternatives and/or information in food found in public places. Seventy percent affirmed that their diet provided all the energy and nutrients they need; 77.67% of the Coeliac participants prepared their meals by themselves or this task was assumed by their caregivers; 77.14% read the manufacturers labels on products, and, 74.49% expressed dissatisfaction regarding the price and availability of gluten-free products. The data show an association only between the energy and nutrients needed for good health and gluten-free dietary tracking (p=0.0315). That is, people with Coeliac disease who avoided gluten consumed more calories and were more likely to have adequate nutrients in their diet. PMID:21549168

  15. Nutritional status and eating habits of older Manitobans after relocating to a personal care home.

    PubMed

    Sitter, Melissa; Lengyel, Christina

    2011-01-01

    We explored the effect of relocating to a personal care home (PCH) on older adults' nutritional status and eating habits. Fourteen Caucasian older adults (F=57%) with a mean age of 83 years (standard deviation = 9.79) consented to participate. Anthropometric information (height, weight, bioelectrical impedance analysis), biochemical and clinical information (diagnoses, data from scales measuring risk or function), and dietary information (three-day plate waste analysis) were collected at time points A (two to three months after relocation) and B (six to seven months after relocation) through face-to-face interviews and medical chart reviews, and from nursing staff. At time B, cognitive function declined (z = -2.185, p<0.05) and the number of medications prescribed increased (z = -2.00, p<0.05). Levels of 25-hydroxyvitamin D were insufficient among 83% of participants at both time points. Mean serum albumin was 34.4 7.2 g/L at time B, and the prevalence of potential nutritional risk increased from 57% to 77%. Dietary intake was inadequate at both time points. Nutritional risk became more prevalent at time B. Protein-energy malnutrition and other nutritional inadequacies may result if dietary intakes do not improve. Strategies to improve dietary intakes should be implemented within PCHs to reduce potential malnutrition. PMID:21645429

  16. Discrepancies between implicit and explicit motivation and unhealthy eating behavior.

    PubMed

    Job, Veronika; Oertig, Daniela; Brandsttter, Veronika; Allemand, Mathias

    2010-08-01

    Many people change their eating behavior as a consequence of stress. One source of stress is intrapersonal psychological conflict as caused by discrepancies between implicit and explicit motives. In the present research, we examined whether eating behavior is related to this form of stress. Study 1 (N=53), a quasi-experimental study in the lab, showed that the interaction between the implicit achievement motive disposition and explicit commitment toward an achievement task significantly predicts the number of snacks consumed in a consecutive taste test. In cross-sectional Study 2 (N=100), with a sample of middle-aged women, overall motive discrepancy was significantly related to diverse indices of unsettled eating. Regression analyses revealed interaction effects specifically for power and achievement motivation and not for affiliation. Emotional distress further partially mediated the relationship between the overall motive discrepancy and eating behavior. PMID:20545817

  17. Eating Disorders: A Problem in Athletics?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burckes-Miller, Mardie E.; Black, David R.

    1988-01-01

    A review of research regarding athletes' eating habits suggests that they may practice eating disorder habits and poor weight management behaviors as well as have poor attitudes and knowledge regarding nutrition, indicating their immediate need for appropriate education about the possible detrimental effects of such practices. (CB)

  18. Health habits and coping behaviors among practicing physicians.

    PubMed

    Linn, L S; Yager, J; Cope, D; Leake, B

    1986-04-01

    Practicing physicians on the full-time academic and clinical (volunteer) faculty of an urban university department of medicine (N = 211) completed questionnaires that examined their coping behaviors, health habits, life satisfaction, job stress, conflict between work and home life, health status and moods. Attempts to organize and restructure work activities were more frequently practiced by physicians who were more satisfied with work. Socializing, exercising and discussing feelings with others were not associated with any measures of physician health status, job stress, conflict or satisfaction. Those with higher scores on a health habits index tended to be less anxious, experienced less job stress, less conflict between work and home life and were more satisfied with their lives in general. Full-time academic faculty engaged in fewer positive or negative coping behaviors than clinical faculty. There were few strong intercorrelations among the various positive and negative coping behaviors or health habits; physicians often simultaneously engaged in both positive and negative activities, indicating complex patterns of coping behaviors that were not dramatically associated with life or work satisfaction. PMID:3716413

  19. "Eating addiction", rather than "food addiction", better captures addictive-like eating behavior.

    PubMed

    Hebebrand, Johannes; Albayrak, zgr; Adan, Roger; Antel, Jochen; Dieguez, Carlos; de Jong, Johannes; Leng, Gareth; Menzies, John; Mercer, Julian G; Murphy, Michelle; van der Plasse, Geoffrey; Dickson, Suzanne L

    2014-11-01

    "Food addiction" has become a focus of interest for researchers attempting to explain certain processes and/or behaviors that may contribute to the development of obesity. Although the scientific discussion on "food addiction" is in its nascent stage, it has potentially important implications for treatment and prevention strategies. As such, it is important to critically reflect on the appropriateness of the term "food addiction", which combines the concepts of "substance-based" and behavioral addiction. The currently available evidence for a substance-based food addiction is poor, partly because systematic clinical and translational studies are still at an early stage. We do however view both animal and existing human data as consistent with the existence of addictive eating behavior. Accordingly, we stress that similar to other behaviors eating can become an addiction in thus predisposed individuals under specific environmental circumstances. Here, we introduce current diagnostic and neurobiological concepts of substance-related and non-substance-related addictive disorders, and highlight the similarities and dissimilarities between addiction and overeating. We conclude that "food addiction" is a misnomer because of the ambiguous connotation of a substance-related phenomenon. We instead propose the term "eating addiction" to underscore the behavioral addiction to eating; future research should attempt to define the diagnostic criteria for an eating addiction, for which DSM-5 now offers an umbrella via the introduction on Non-Substance-Related Disorders within the category Substance-Related and Addictive Disorders. PMID:25205078

  20. Mindfulness Moderates the Relationship Between Disordered Eating Cognitions and Disordered Eating Behaviors in a Non-Clinical College Sample

    PubMed Central

    Masuda, Akihiko; Price, Matthew; Latzman, Robert D.

    2012-01-01

    Psychological flexibility and mindfulness are two related, but distinct, regulation processes that have been shown to be at the core of psychological wellbeing. The current study investigated whether these two processes independently moderated the association between disordered eating cognitions and psychological distress as well as the relation between disordered eating cognitions and disordered eating behaviors. Non-clinical, ethnically diverse college undergraduates completed a web-based survey. Of 278 participants (nfemale=208; nmale=70) aged 1824 years old, disordered eating cognitions, mindfulness, and psychological flexibility were related to psychological distress after controlling for gender, ethnicity, and body mass index. Disordered eating cognitions and mindfulness accounted for unique variance in disordered eating behaviors. Finally, mindfulness was found to moderate the association between disordered eating cognitions and disordered eating behaviors. PMID:22888181

  1. The Effect of Eating Behavior on Being Overweight or Obese During Preadolescence

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Hye Ah; Lee, Won Kyung; Kong, Kyoung-Ae; Chang, Namsoo; Ha, Eun-Hee; Hong, Young Sun

    2011-01-01

    Objectives Being overweight or obese is central to metabolic syndrome, and these characteristics constitute dominant risk factors for chronic diseases. Although behavioral factors, including eating habits and sedentary lifestyles, are considered to be determinants of obesity, the specific childhood factors that contribute to this condition have not been clearly defined. Methods The subjects consisted of 261 children aged 7-9 years who were recruited from an elementary school during October 2003. Information was obtained from their parents using a questionnaire focused on eating behaviors and lifestyle factors, additional data were also collected via anthropometric measurements and biochemical examinations, including blood tests. Results A total of 48 (18.4%) of the 261 children were overweight, and 34 (70.8%) had at least one other component of metabolic syndrome. Eating behaviors emerged as significant lifestyle-related risk factors for being overweight or obese. Those who engaged in overeating more than twice per week had three times the risk of being overweight (odds ratio [OR], 3.10, 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.39 to 6.92), and those who ate rapidly had three times the risk of being overweight (OR, 3.28; 95% CI, 1.68 to 6.41). Those who had fewer family meals (fewer than 2-3/month) had a nine times higher risk of being overweight than those who had family meals more frequently (at least 1/day) (OR, 9.51; 95% CI, 1.21 to 74.82). Conclusions This study showed that being overweight or obese during preadolescence is associated with a higher risk of metabolic syndrome and is related to unhealthy eating behaviors. Thus, weight-control strategies and healthy eating behaviors should be developed early in life to reduce the risk for metabolic syndrome. PMID:22020188

  2. A Conceptual Framework for Healthy Eating Behavior in Ecuadorian Adolescents: A Qualitative Study

    PubMed Central

    Verstraeten, Roosmarijn; Van Royen, Kathleen; Ochoa-Avilés, Angélica; Penafiel, Daniela; Holdsworth, Michelle; Donoso, Silvana; Maes, Lea; Kolsteren, Patrick

    2014-01-01

    Objective The objective of this study was to identify factors influencing eating behavior of Ecuadorian adolescents - from the perspective of parents, school staff and adolescents - to develop a conceptual framework for adolescents' eating behavior. Study design Twenty focus groups (N = 144 participants) were conducted separately with adolescents aged 11–15 y (n (focus groups)  = 12, N (participants)  = 80), parents (n = 4, N = 32) and school staff (n = 4, N = 32) in rural and urban Ecuador. A semi-structured questioning route was developed based on the ‘Attitude, Social influences and Self-efficacy’ model and the socio-ecological model to assess the relevance of behavioral and environmental factors in low- and middle-income countries. Two researchers independently analyzed verbatim transcripts for emerging themes, using deductive thematic content analysis. Data were analyzed using NVivo 8. Results All groups recognized the importance of eating healthily and key individual factors in Ecuadorian adolescents' food choices were: financial autonomy, food safety perceptions, lack of self-control, habit strength, taste preferences and perceived peer norms. Environmental factors included the poor nutritional quality of food and its easy access at school. In their home and family environment, time and convenience completed the picture as barriers to eating healthily. Participants acknowledged the impact of the changing socio-cultural environment on adolescents' eating patterns. Availability of healthy food at home and financial constraints differed between settings and socio-economic groups. Conclusion Our findings endorse the importance of investigating behavioral and environmental factors that influence and mediate healthy dietary behavior prior to intervention development. Several culture-specific factors emerged that were incorporated into a conceptual framework for developing health promotion interventions in Ecuador. PMID:24489865

  3. [Association between body mass index and risk feeding behaviors to develop eating disorders in Mexican adolescents].

    PubMed

    Sámano, Reyna; Zelonka, Rosa; Martínez-Rojano, Hugo; Sánchez-Jiménez, Bernarda; Ramírez, Cristina; Ovando, Georgina

    2012-06-01

    The body self-perception and its dissatisfaction are related with the risk for developing abnormal eating behaviors (AEB), especially in eating disorders (ED) in adolescents. The objective of this study was to identify the relationship between dietary habits and the risk for AEB and their association with body mass index (BMI) in a group of adolescents in the metropolitan area of Mexico City. It was a descriptive cross-sectional study conducted with a sample of 671 adolescents, both sex, between 12 and 15 years. A validated questionnaire was used to assess the risk for developing AEB. BMI was obtained, and information from the practice and knowledge of food consumption was available. The prevalence of the risk for developing AEB in this study was 12%. It showed that 48% of participants were overweight or obese, 20% did not eat breakfast, 16% took their food without doing other activity simultaneously (p = 0.012). The variables associated with the risk AEB, for developing of ED were doing any activity simultaneously with food intake (OR: 4.23 p = 0.006), overweight-obesity (OR: 2.59 p = 0001), eating without company (OR: 2.04 p = 0.005), not eating fruit (OR: 1.96 = 0.008) or milk (OR:1.79 p = 0.026), being female (OR: 1.74 p = 0.024) and skipping breakfast (OR: 1.57 p = 0,035). Food intake differed with what themselves recommended being healthy, which was lower in vegetables, fruits, leguminous and higher in sugars, fats and soda. We conclude there is a relationship between BMI and the risk for developing AEB. There was no consistency between what adolescents say they should eat to be healthy and what they eat. PMID:23610901

  4. Relative Contribution of Obesity, Sedentary Behaviors and Dietary Habits to Sleep Duration Among Kuwaiti Adolescents.

    PubMed

    Al-Haifi, Ahmad A; AlMajed, Hana Th; Al-Hazzaa, Hazzaa M; Musaiger, Abdulrahman O; Arab, Mariam A; Hasan, Rasha A

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate whether body mass index (BMI), eating habits and sedentary behaviours were associated with sleep duration among Kuwaiti adolescents. The study is part of the Arab Teens Lifestyle Study (ATLS), which is a school-based cross-sectional multi-center collaborative study. A sample of 906 adolescents (boys and girls) aged 14-19 years was randomly selected from 6 Kuwaiti Governances using a multistage stratified cluster sampling technique. The findings revealed that the prevalence of overweight and obesity was 50.5% in boys and 46.5% in girls. The majority of boys (76%) and of girls (74%) fell into the short sleep duration category (6 hours/day or less). Sleep duration were found to be negatively associated with BMI (girls only). Watching television (boys and girls) and working on computers (boys only) were also negatively associated with sleep duration. While the consumption of breakfast (both genders) and milk (boys only) was positively associated with sleep duration (p<0.05). In contrast, the consumption of fast foods (both genders), sugar-sweetened drinks and sweets (boys only) potatoes (girls only) were negatively associated with sleep duration (p<0.05). It can be concluded that the majority of Kuwaiti adolescents exhibit insufficient sleep duration which was associated with obesity measure, a combination of poor eating habits and more sedentary behaviors. The findings also suggest gender differences in these associations. Therefore, adequate sleep is an important modifiable risk factor to prevent obesity and was positively associated with some unhealthy lifestyle habits. PMID:26234983

  5. The impact of discontinuing methylphenidate on weight and eating behavior.

    PubMed

    Benard, Victoire; Cottencin, Olivier; Guardia, Dewi; Vaiva, Guillaume; Rolland, Benjamin

    2015-04-01

    Chronic administration of the amphetamine-derivative methylphenidate (MPH) may induce appetite reduction and weight loss. By contrast, the effects that stopping chronic MPH may exert on eating behavior and body weight are poorly known. We report the case of a male patient with childhood attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), who discontinued MPH treatment at the age of 11 years and was lost to follow-up until the age of 16. The patient's body mass index increased by five points within 1 year of MPH cessation while the symptoms of ADHD were re-emerging. The patient secondarily developed DSM-5 criteria for eating disorders. Discontinuing chronic MPH can significantly affect weight and eating behavior. Such risks should warrant further studies, as they could be particularly increased in patients with ADHD, who share common vulnerability factors with both obesity and eating disorders. PMID:24849706

  6. Vegetarian Students in Their First Year of College: Are They at Risk for Restrictive or Disordered Eating Behaviors?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trautmann, Julianne; Rau, Stephanie I.; Wilson, Mardell A.; Walters, Connor

    2008-01-01

    This study compared restrictive and disordered eating behaviors in vegetarian versus non-vegetarian first-year college students. The Dutch Eating Behavior Questionnaire (DEBQ) and the abbreviated Eating Attitudes Test (EAT-26) were used to assess eating behaviors (n=330). The mean restrictive DEBQ and the EAT-26 scores of vegetarians were…

  7. Vegetarian Students in Their First Year of College: Are They at Risk for Restrictive or Disordered Eating Behaviors?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trautmann, Julianne; Rau, Stephanie I.; Wilson, Mardell A.; Walters, Connor

    2008-01-01

    This study compared restrictive and disordered eating behaviors in vegetarian versus non-vegetarian first-year college students. The Dutch Eating Behavior Questionnaire (DEBQ) and the abbreviated Eating Attitudes Test (EAT-26) were used to assess eating behaviors (n=330). The mean restrictive DEBQ and the EAT-26 scores of vegetarians were

  8. Association of Oral Fat Sensitivity with Body Mass Index, Taste Preference, and Eating Habits in Healthy Japanese Young Adults.

    PubMed

    Asano, Masanobu; Hong, Guang; Matsuyama, Yusuke; Wang, Weiqi; Izumi, Satoshi; Izumi, Masayuki; Toda, Takashi; Kudo, Tada-Aki

    2016-01-01

    Oral fat sensitivity (OFS, the ability to detect fat) may be related to overeating-induced obesity. However, it is largely unknown whether OFS affects taste preference and eating habits. Therefore, we aimed to evaluate (1) the association between body mass index (BMI) and OFS and (2) the relationship of OFS with four types of taste preference (sweet, sour, salty, and bitter) and eating habits using serial concentrations of oleic acid (OA) homogenized in non-fat milk and a self-reported questionnaire. Participants were 25 healthy Japanese individuals (mean age: 27.0 5.6 years), among whom the OA detection threshold was significantly associated with BMI. Participants were divided into two subgroups based on oral sensitivity to 2.8 mM OA: hypersensitive (able to detect 2.8 mM OA, n = 16) and hyposensitive (unable to detect 2.8 mM OA, n = 9). The degree of sweet taste preference of the hypersensitive group was significantly higher than that of the hyposensitive group. Furthermore, there was significantly higher degree of preference for high-fat sweet foods than low-fat sweet foods in the hypersensitive group. There was also a significant inverse correlation between the OA detection threshold and the degree of both spare eating and postprandial satiety. Thus, OFS is associated not only with BMI, but also with the preference for high-fat sweet foods and eating habits. The present study provides novel insights that measuring OFS may be useful for assessing the risk of obesity associated with overeating in countries, including Japan, where BMI is increasing in the population. PMID:26797054

  9. Risk behaviors for eating disorders in Brazilian dancers.

    PubMed

    Ribeiro, L G; da Veiga, G V

    2010-04-01

    This study investigated the frequency of risk behaviors for eating disorders and their association with anthropometric, demographic, and socioeconomic variables in Brazilian professional dancers. Portuguese-language versions of the Eating Attitudes Test and of the Bulimic Investigatory Test, Edinburgh (BITE) were applied to 39 female and 22 male dancers considered to be some of the best classical ballet performers in Brazil. Prevalence ratios (PR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were estimated. Risk behaviors for eating disorders were observed in 31% of the dancers. Those who had a percentage of body fat above (PR=4.04; 95% CI=1.42-11.47) or below (PR=3.57; 95% CI=1.04-12.24) what is considered normal for the profession, and those who lived alone (PR=3.13; 95% CI=1.16-8.48) presented higher risk for eating disorders. In conclusion, the frequency of risk behaviors for eating disorders among the Brazilian dancers was high, which seems to be associated with the physical requirements of the profession. Those who are outside the BF% expected for dancers and those who live alone are the groups most vulnerable to developing eating disorders, and thus are the ones which are most in need of receiving special attention in regard to the intervention measures. PMID:20148375

  10. Modifying the Eating Behavior of Young Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perry, Cheryl L.; And Others

    1985-01-01

    A nutrition education curriculum, which emphasized the importance of a low-salt, low-fat, and increased complex carbohydrate diet for cardiovascular health, was pilot tested on third and fourth graders. At posttest, participating students reported significant, positive eating pattern changes while students in the control group did not. (Author/MT)

  11. Having your cake and eating it too: a habit of comfort food may link chronic social stress exposure and acute stress-induced cortisol hyporesponsiveness.

    PubMed

    Tryon, M S; DeCant, Rashel; Laugero, K D

    2013-04-10

    Stress has been tied to changes in eating behavior and food choice. Previous studies in rodents have shown that chronic stress increases palatable food intake which, in turn, increases visceral fat and inhibits acute stress-induced hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis activity. The effect of chronic stress on eating behavior in humans is less understood, but it may be linked to HPA responsivity. The purpose of this study was to investigate the influence of chronic social stress and acute stress reactivity on food choice and food intake. Forty-one women (BMI=25.9±5.1 kg/m(2), age range=41 to 52 years) were subjected to the Trier Social Stress Test or a control task (nature movie) to examine HPA responses to an acute laboratory stressor and then invited to eat from a buffet containing low- and high-calorie snacks. Women were also categorized as high chronic stress or low chronic stress based on Wheaton Chronic Stress Inventory scores. Women reporting higher chronic stress and exhibiting low cortisol reactivity to the acute stress task consumed significantly more calories from chocolate cake on both stress and control visits. Chronic stress in the low cortisol reactor group was also positively related to total fat mass, body fat percentage, and stress-induced negative mood. Further, women reporting high chronic stress consumed significantly less vegetables, but only in those aged 45 years and older. Chronic stress in women within the higher age category was positively related to total calories consumed at the buffet, stress-induced negative mood and food craving. Our results suggest an increased risk for stress eating in persons with a specific chronic stress signature and imply that a habit of comfort food may link chronic social stress and acute stress-induced cortisol hyporesponsiveness. PMID:23500173

  12. [Promotion of healthy eating habits by schools: a methodological proposal for training courses for educators and school cafeteria owners].

    PubMed

    Schmitz, Bethsáida de Abreu Soares; Recine, Elisabetta; Cardoso, Gabriela Tavares; da Silva, Juliana Rezende Melo; Amorim, Nina Flávia de Almeida; Bernardon, Renata; Rodrigues, Maria de Lourdes Carlos Ferreirinha

    2008-01-01

    The project entitled Promotion of Health Eating Habits by Schools, operating in the Federal District of Brazil since 2001, encourages good eating habits in the school community within the context of promoting healthy lifestyles and preventing chronic non-communicable diseases. The current article presents and analyzes a methodology to train preschool and elementary educators and school cafeteria owners. The workshops included theoretical classes, practical activities, and educational games and were evaluated on the basis of expansion and applicability of knowledge, in addition to implementation of the 10 steps to a healthy school cafeteria. The proposed pedagogical activities were verified by an analysis of the teachers' workshop folders. The overall evaluation was positive, with expansion of knowledge (p < 0.05) among participants for the three workshop modules. The objectives laid out in the workshop folders were reached by 44% of the teachers. In the implementation of the healthy cafeteria, positive results were observed when comparing the pre and post-training periods. The methodology helped expand knowledge for both teachers and cafeteria owners, highlighting the school community as a prime space for promoting healthy eating. PMID:18670711

  13. Food as Risk: How Eating Habits and Food Knowledge Affect Reactivity to Pictures of Junk and Healthy Foods.

    PubMed

    Yegiyan, Narine S; Bailey, Rachel L

    2016-05-01

    This study explores how people respond to images of junk versus healthy food as a function of their eating habits and food knowledge. The experiment reported here proposed and tested the idea that those with unhealthy eating habits but highly knowledgeable about healthy eating would feel more positive and also more negative toward junk food images compared to images of healthy food because they may perceive them as risky-desirable but potentially harmful. The psychophysiological data collected from participants during their exposure to pictures of junk versus healthy food supported this idea. In addition, unhealthy eaters compared to healthy eaters with the same degree of food knowledge responded more positively to all food items. The findings are critical from a health communication perspective. Because unhealthy eaters produce stronger emotional responses to images of junk food, they are more likely to process information associated with junk food with more cognitive effort and scrutiny. Thus, when targeting this group and using images of junk food, it is important to combine these images with strong message claims and relevant arguments; otherwise, if the arguments are perceived as irrelevant or weak, the motivational activation associated with junk food itself may transfer into an increased desire to consume the unhealthy product. PMID:26503541

  14. Relationships of eating competence, sleep behaviors and quality, and overweight status among college students.

    PubMed

    Quick, Virginia; Shoff, Suzanne; Lohse, Barbara; White, Adrienne; Horacek, Tanya; Greene, Geoffrey

    2015-12-01

    Little is known about the relationships between eating competence (intra-individual approach to eating and food-related attitudes and behaviors that entrain positive bio-psychosocial outcomes) and sleep behaviors and quality in college students, a high-risk group for poor eating habits, weight gain, and inadequate sleep. Thus, data from full-time college students (N=1035; 82% White; 61% female) aged 18-24 years from 5 U.S. universities were obtained from online questionnaires (eating competence (ecSI), Pittsburg Sleep Quality Index (PSQI), physical activity, demographics) and physical assessments (measured height, weight), to explore sleep behavior and quality between eating-competent (EC; ecSI score≥32) and non-EC groups (ecSI<32). Generalized linear models controlling for gender, body mass index, and physical activity were utilized. A higher proportion of those in the EC group reported adequate sleep quality (67% vs. 57% in non-EC, p=0.001), sleep duration of ≥7 h nightly (58% vs. 50% in non-EC, p=0.007), and infrequent daytime dysfunction (72% vs. 65% in non-EC, p=0.02). When ecSI scores were grouped as tertiles, those in the highest tertile reported a higher prevalence of no sleep disturbances (7% vs. 2% in the lowest ecSI tertile, p=0.006) and lower prevalence of sleep medication use (10% vs. 15% in the lowest ecSI tertile, p=0.04). Results suggest that competent eaters are more likely to have better overall sleep quality and fewer sleep-related issuescompared to less competent eaters. These findings may inform future longitudinal studies, and health promotion and weight management interventions for young adults. PMID:26164670

  15. Dieting Behavior and Alcohol Use Behaviors among National Eating Disorders Screening Program Participants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heidelberg, Natalie F.; Correia, Christopher J.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: Research has shown that college students have elevated rates of alcohol use and problematic eating behaviors. The current study focused on the relationships between dieting behaviors and alcohol use among a sample of undergraduates attending National Eating Disorder Screening Program. Method: All participants (n=70, 100% female, average

  16. Self-recognition of eating-disordered behavior in college women: further evidence of poor eating disorders "mental health literacy"?

    PubMed

    Gratwick-Sarll, Kassandra; Mond, Jonathan; Hay, Phillipa

    2013-01-01

    Self-recognition of eating-disordered behavior was examined among female college students (n?=?94) with a high level of bulimic-type eating disorder symptoms. A vignette was presented describing a fictional young woman with bulimia nervosa. Participants were asked whether they might currently have a problem such as the one described, while also completing self-report measures of eating disorder symptoms, general psychological distress, and functional impairment. Less than half (47.9%) of participants believed that they currently had a problem with their eating. In both bivariate and multivariable analysis, the variables most strongly associated with self-recognition were overall levels of eating disorder psychopathology, prior treatment for an eating problem, and the use of self-induced vomiting as a means of controlling weight or shape. No other eating disorder behaviors were independently associated with self-recognition. The findings support the hypothesis that young women with eating disorder symptoms may be unlikely, or at least less likely, to recognize a problem with their eating behavior when that behavior does not entail self-induced vomiting. Health promotion and early intervention programs for eating disorders may need to address the perception that, among young women of normal or above-average body weight, only problems with eating that involve self-induced vomiting are pathological. PMID:23767672

  17. When do we eat? Ingestive behavior, survival, and reproductive success.

    PubMed

    Schneider, Jill E; Wise, Justina D; Benton, Noah A; Brozek, Jeremy M; Keen-Rhinehart, Erin

    2013-09-01

    The neuroendocrinology of ingestive behavior is a topic central to human health, particularly in light of the prevalence of obesity, eating disorders, and diabetes. The study of food intake in laboratory rats and mice has yielded some useful hypotheses, but there are still many gaps in our knowledge. Ingestive behavior is more complex than the consummatory act of eating, and decisions about when and how much to eat usually take place in the context of potential mating partners, competitors, predators, and environmental fluctuations that are not present in the laboratory. We emphasize appetitive behaviors, actions that bring animals in contact with a goal object, precede consummatory behaviors, and provide a window into motivation. Appetitive ingestive behaviors are under the control of neural circuits and neuropeptide systems that control appetitive sex behaviors and differ from those that control consummatory ingestive behaviors. Decreases in the availability of oxidizable metabolic fuels enhance the stimulatory effects of peripheral hormones on appetitive ingestive behavior and the inhibitory effects on appetitive sex behavior, putting a new twist on the notion of leptin, insulin, and ghrelin "resistance." The ratio of hormone concentrations to the availability of oxidizable metabolic fuels may generate a critical signal that schedules conflicting behaviors, e.g., mate searching vs. foraging, food hoarding vs. courtship, and fat accumulation vs. parental care. In species representing every vertebrate taxa and even in some invertebrates, many putative "satiety" or "hunger" hormones function to schedule ingestive behavior in order to optimize reproductive success in environments where energy availability fluctuates. PMID:23911282

  18. Female Collegiate Athletes: Prevalence of Eating Disorders and Disordered Eating Behaviors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greenleaf, Christy; Petrie, Trent A.; Carter, Jennifer; Reel, Justine J.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: The authors assessed the prevalence of pathogenic eating and weight-control behaviors among female college athletes, using a psychometrically valid measure. Participants: Participants were 204 college athletes (M age = 20.16 years, SD = 1.31 years) from 17 sports at 3 universities. On average, they participated in their sport for 10.88

  19. Female Collegiate Athletes: Prevalence of Eating Disorders and Disordered Eating Behaviors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greenleaf, Christy; Petrie, Trent A.; Carter, Jennifer; Reel, Justine J.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: The authors assessed the prevalence of pathogenic eating and weight-control behaviors among female college athletes, using a psychometrically valid measure. Participants: Participants were 204 college athletes (M age = 20.16 years, SD = 1.31 years) from 17 sports at 3 universities. On average, they participated in their sport for 10.88…

  20. Mindfulness-Based Interventions for Obesity-Related Eating Behaviors: A Literature Review

    PubMed Central

    OReilly, Gillian A.; Cook, Lauren; Spruijt-Metz, Donna; Black, David S.

    2014-01-01

    Mindfulness-based interventions (MBIs) targeting eating behaviors have gained popularity in recent years. A literature review was conducted to determine the effectiveness of MBIs for treating obesity-related eating behaviors, such as binge eating, emotional eating, and external eating. A search protocol was conducted using the online databases Google Scholar, PubMed, PsycINFO, and Ovid Healthstar. Articles were required to meet the following criteria to be included in this review: (1) describe a MBI or the use of mindfulness exercises as part of an intervention, (2) include at least one obesity-related eating behavior as an outcome, (3) include quantitative outcomes, and (4) be published in English in a peer-reviewed journal. A total of N=21 articles were included in this review. Interventions used a variety of approaches to implement mindfulness training, including combined mindfulness and cognitive behavioral therapies, mindfulness-based stress reduction, acceptance-based therapies, mindful eating programs, and combinations of mindfulness exercises. Targeted eating behavior outcomes included binge eating, emotional eating, external eating, and dietary intake. Eighteen (86%) of the reviewed studies reported improvements in the targeted eating behaviors. Overall, the results of this first review on the topic support the efficacy of mindfulness-based interventions for changing obesity-related eating behaviors, specifically binge eating, emotional eating, and external eating. PMID:24636206

  1. Eating Behaviors and Negative Affect in College Women’s Everyday Lives

    PubMed Central

    Heron, Kristin E.; Scott, Stacey B.; Sliwinski, Martin J.; Smyth, Joshua M.

    2014-01-01

    Objective A growing body of research seeks to understand the relationship between mood and eating behaviors. Ecological Momentary Assessment (EMA) methods provide a method for assessing these processes in natural settings. We used EMA to examine the relationship between mood and eating behaviors in everyday life among women with subclinical disordered eating behaviors. Method Participants (N=127, age M=19.6, BMI M=25.5) completed 5 daily EMA reports on palmtop computers for 1 week. Assessments included measures of negative affect (NA) and eating-related behavior during eating (eating large amounts of food, loss of control over eating, restricting food intake) and non-eating episodes (skip eating to control weight/shape). Time-lagged multi-level models tested mood-eating behavior relationships. Results Higher NA did not precede any unhealthy eating and weight control behaviors. However, NA was higher when women reported eating large quantities of food, losing control over eating, and restricting food intake during their most recent eating episode, but not after skipping eating to control weight/shape. Discussion These findings elucidate processes in daily life that may influence the development and maintenance of unhealthy eating and weight control behaviors that, in turn, can inform interventions. PMID:24797029

  2. The Neurocognitive Connection between Physical Activity and Eating Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Joseph, Richard J.; Alonso-Alonso, Miguel; Bond, Dale S.; Pascual-Leone, Alvaro

    2012-01-01

    As obesity rates increase worldwide, health care providers require methods to instill the lifestyle behaviors necessary for sustainable weight loss. Designing effective weight loss interventions requires an understanding of how these behaviors are elicited, how they relate to each other, and whether they are supported by common neurocognitive mechanisms. This may provide valuable insights to optimize existing interventions and develop novel approaches to weight control. Researchers have begun to investigate the neurocognitive underpinnings of eating behavior and the impact of physical activity on cognition and the brain. This review attempts to bring these somewhat disparate, yet interrelated lines of literature together in order to examine a hypothesis that eating behavior and physical activity share a common neurocognitive link. The link pertains to executive functions, which rely on brain circuits located in the prefrontal cortex. These advanced cognitive processes are of limited capacity and undergo relentless strain in the current obesogenic environment. The increased demand on these neurocognitive resources as well as their overuse and/or impairment may facilitate impulses to overeat, contributing to weight gain and obesity. This impulsive eating drive may be counteracted by physical activity due to its enhancement of neurocognitive resources for executive functions and goal-oriented behavior. By enhancing the resources that facilitate “top-down” inhibitory control, increased physical activity may help compensate and suppress the hedonic drive to overeat. Understanding how physical activity and eating behaviors interact on a neurocognitive level may help to maintain a healthy lifestyle in an obesogenic environment. PMID:21676151

  3. Problematic Eating and Feeding Behaviors of 36-Month Old Children

    PubMed Central

    Lewinsohn, Peter M.; Denoma, Jill M.; Gau, Jeffrey M.; Joiner, Thomas E.; Striegel-Moore, Ruth; Bear, Patty; Lamoureux, Becky

    2005-01-01

    Objective To incorporate selected items from several existing instruments to create a comprehensive multi-factorial instrument to measure problematic eating behaviors in young children and to examine the prevalences and correlates of these behaviors. Method A community sample of young mothers (n = 93) completed the inventory of problematic eating behaviors for their 36-month old children. Results The most common child problems reported by mothers were the spitting out of food during feedings and becoming upset when food was restricted. A four-factor solution identified Pickiness (e.g., child eats a limited variety of food), Food Refusal (e.g., child refuses to eat specific foods), Struggle for Control (e.g., frequent struggles with child over food), and Positive Parental Behavior (e.g., praising child about their food intake) domains. Internal consistency was moderate to good for all factors. Only the Struggle for Control factor was related with other problematic behaviors as measured by the CBCL. The Food Refusal factor was related to mothers’ lifetime history of any psychopathology. The Pickiness factor was related to mothers’ lifetime history of alcohol dependence. Conclusions Findings suggest that child clinicians be sensitive to the quality of mother-child interactions during feeding. PMID:16211627

  4. Eating behavior and nutrition knowledge among musical theatre students.

    PubMed

    Vitzthum, Karin; Endres, Eva; Koch, Franziska; Groneberg, David A; Quarcoo, David; Wanke, Eileen; Mache, Stefanie

    2013-03-01

    Eating is a central part in human (social) life. Athletic performance and physical attractiveness are linked to appropriate nutritional behavior, especially for performing artists. Eating behavior and nutrition knowledge have not been examined in musical theatre students so far, which this study aims to analyze. We administered a cross-sectional questionnaire study to 37 musical theatre students. Results for the Eating Disorder Examination-Questionnaire (EDE-Q) showed non-pathological values for 92% of all participants, but 81% of participants answered correctly on only 30-59% of questions on the General Nutrition Knowledge Questionnaire (GNKQ). Our study results reveal the need for specific nutritional knowledge transfer programs for this target group. PMID:23462900

  5. Hearty Habits. Don't Eat Your Heart Out. 15-18 Year Olds.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Heart, Lung, and Blood Inst. (DHHS/NIH), Bethesda, MD.

    The purpose of this illustrated guide is to teach 15-18 year old students that all healthy Americans, 2 years of age or older, should eat in a way that is low in saturated fat and cholesterol to help reduce the risk of heart disease. The theme reflected throughout the manual is that changes in eating patterns help lower blood cholesterol levels…

  6. Eating Behaviors of Older African Americans: An Application of the Theory of Planned Behavior

    PubMed Central

    O’Neal, Catherine Walker

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: The study applies the theory of planned behavior to explain the fruit and vegetable eating behaviors, a broad construct consisting of preparing, self-monitoring, and consuming fruits and vegetables, of older African Americans. Design and Methods: Structural equation modeling was used to examine the applicability of the theory of planned behavior with data from 211 older African American women and men (73% women, 26% men; median age range of 57–63 years) participating in a larger intervention study. Results: Attitudes about eating fruit and vegetables, subjective social norms, and perceived behavioral control were related to older African Americans’ intentions to consume fruits and vegetables. Social norms and behavioral intentions were associated with fruit and vegetable eating behaviors. Perceived control did not moderate the influence of behavioral intentions on actual behavior. Implications: Results indicated that the theory of planned behavior can be used to explain variation in older African Americans’ eating behavior. This study also emphasizes the value of considering broader behavioral domains when employing the theory of planned behavior rather than focusing on specific behaviors. Furthermore, social service programs aimed at reducing the incidence of diseases commonly associated with poor eating behaviors among older African Americans must consider promoting not only fruit and vegetable consumption but also related behaviors including preparing and self-monitoring by eliminating structural, cognitive, and normative constraints. PMID:23241919

  7. FAMILY ENVIRONMENTAL INFLUENCES ON CHILDREN’S EATING BEHAVIOR

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Parents can influence children’s dietary behaviors within the home family environment. This presentation will review current research identifying family environmental influences on eating, and how these influences can be used in targeted interventions. For example, the foods available in both home a...

  8. Energy Drinks, Weight Loss, and Disordered Eating Behaviors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jeffers, Amy J.; Vatalaro Hill, Katherine E.; Benotsch, Eric G.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: The present study examined energy drink consumption and relations with weight loss attempts and behaviors, body image, and eating disorders. Participants/Methods: This is a secondary analysis using data from 856 undergraduate students who completed the American College Health Association-National College Health Assessment II…

  9. Assessing the Eating Behaviors of Low-Income, Urban Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fahlman, Mariane; McCaughtry, Nate; Martin, Jeffrey; Garn, Alex C.; Shen, Bo

    2012-01-01

    Background: There is a need for instruments that can accurately determine the effectiveness of nutrition interventions targeting low-income, inner-city adolescents. Purpose: To examine the development of a valid and reliable eating behavior scale (EBS) for use in school-based nutrition interventions in urban, inner-city communities dominated by…

  10. Eating Attitudes and Behaviors among Female College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Veazey Morris, Katherine D.; Parra, Gilbert R.; Stender, Sarah R. S.

    2011-01-01

    The authors assessed the influences of several risk factors--self-esteem, history of unwanted sexual contact (USC), depression, and sorority membership--on eating-related and weight-related attitudes and behaviors. Findings provide support for the roles of self-esteem, depression, and USC on restricting attitudes. According to the authors' model,

  11. A Naturalistic Investigation of Eating Behavior in Bulimia Nervosa.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Ron; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Investigated parameters of eating behavior in subjects with bulimia nervosa (BN). BN and female comparison (FC) subjects monitored hourly over several days their food intake, mood, hunger, social circumstances, and experiences of unpleasant events. BN subjects reported more positive moods prior to consuming a meal, and more negative moods prior to

  12. Energy Drinks, Weight Loss, and Disordered Eating Behaviors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jeffers, Amy J.; Vatalaro Hill, Katherine E.; Benotsch, Eric G.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: The present study examined energy drink consumption and relations with weight loss attempts and behaviors, body image, and eating disorders. Participants/Methods: This is a secondary analysis using data from 856 undergraduate students who completed the American College Health Association-National College Health Assessment II

  13. Eating Attitudes and Behaviors among Female College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Veazey Morris, Katherine D.; Parra, Gilbert R.; Stender, Sarah R. S.

    2011-01-01

    The authors assessed the influences of several risk factors--self-esteem, history of unwanted sexual contact (USC), depression, and sorority membership--on eating-related and weight-related attitudes and behaviors. Findings provide support for the roles of self-esteem, depression, and USC on restricting attitudes. According to the authors' model,…

  14. Walking and Eating Behavior of Toddlers at 12 Months Old

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koda, Naoko; Akimoto, Yuko; Hirose, Toshiya; Hinobayashi, Toshihiko; Minami, Tetsuhiro

    2004-01-01

    Locomotive and eating behavior of 52 toddlers was observed at 12 months old in a nursery school and investigated in relation to the acquisition of independent walking. The toddlers who acquired walking ate more by themselves using the hands than the toddlers who did not start walking. This suggested that acquisition of walking was associated with…

  15. Walking and Eating Behavior of Toddlers at 12 Months Old

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koda, Naoko; Akimoto, Yuko; Hirose, Toshiya; Hinobayashi, Toshihiko; Minami, Tetsuhiro

    2004-01-01

    Locomotive and eating behavior of 52 toddlers was observed at 12 months old in a nursery school and investigated in relation to the acquisition of independent walking. The toddlers who acquired walking ate more by themselves using the hands than the toddlers who did not start walking. This suggested that acquisition of walking was associated with

  16. Assessing the Eating Behaviors of Low-Income, Urban Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fahlman, Mariane; McCaughtry, Nate; Martin, Jeffrey; Garn, Alex C.; Shen, Bo

    2012-01-01

    Background: There is a need for instruments that can accurately determine the effectiveness of nutrition interventions targeting low-income, inner-city adolescents. Purpose: To examine the development of a valid and reliable eating behavior scale (EBS) for use in school-based nutrition interventions in urban, inner-city communities dominated by

  17. Gender-Related Self-Discrepancies and Bulimic Eating Behavior.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klingenspor, Barbara

    2002-01-01

    Explored the link between development of bulimic eating behavior and suppression of masculine traits in adolescence. German high school students completed a sex role inventory. Among girls, higher risk of developing bulimia appeared to be caused by increasing discrepancies between actual and ideal self-concept on masculine-typed personality…

  18. Gender-Related Self-Discrepancies and Bulimic Eating Behavior.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klingenspor, Barbara

    2002-01-01

    Explored the link between development of bulimic eating behavior and suppression of masculine traits in adolescence. German high school students completed a sex role inventory. Among girls, higher risk of developing bulimia appeared to be caused by increasing discrepancies between actual and ideal self-concept on masculine-typed personality

  19. The Role of Work Habits in the Motivation of Food Safety Behaviors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hinsz, Verlin B.; Nickell, Gary S.; Park, Ernest S.

    2007-01-01

    The authors considered work habits within an integrated framework of motivated behavior. A distinction made between automatic and controlled action led to 2 measures of work habits: a habit strength measure reflecting the 4 characteristics of automaticity and a measure of work routines under conscious control. Workers at a turkey processing plant…

  20. The Role of Work Habits in the Motivation of Food Safety Behaviors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hinsz, Verlin B.; Nickell, Gary S.; Park, Ernest S.

    2007-01-01

    The authors considered work habits within an integrated framework of motivated behavior. A distinction made between automatic and controlled action led to 2 measures of work habits: a habit strength measure reflecting the 4 characteristics of automaticity and a measure of work routines under conscious control. Workers at a turkey processing plant

  1. Behavioral and Physiological Factors Associated With Selective Eating in Children With Autism Spectrum Disorder.

    PubMed

    Tanner, Kelly; Case-Smith, Jane; Nahikian-Nelms, Marcia; Ratliff-Schaub, Karen; Spees, Colleen; Darragh, Amy R

    2015-01-01

    Selective eating is common in children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), but it is not yet well understood. The objectives of this study were to examine a new definition of selective eating, compare behavioral measures between children with ASD and selective eating and those without selective eating, and determine relationships among behavioral measures and measures of selective eating. Participants were assigned to groups on the basis of number of foods eaten compared with a population-based sample. Results of one-way multivariate analysis of variance indicated no overall effect of group for challenging behaviors, sensory reactivity, or repetitive behaviors. Between-participant tests indicated that scores for compulsive behaviors were significantly lower (p = .036) for the selective eating group. Correlations were moderately strong among variables relating to food intake and behavioral variables, but were not significant between selective eating and behavioral variables. Further research is needed to validate the definition of selective eating and to identify targets for intervention. PMID:26565096

  2. Behavioral and Physiological Factors Associated With Selective Eating in Children With Autism Spectrum Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Case-Smith, Jane; Nahikian-Nelms, Marcia; Ratliff-Schaub, Karen; Spees, Colleen; Darragh, Amy R.

    2015-01-01

    Selective eating is common in children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), but it is not yet well understood. The objectives of this study were to examine a new definition of selective eating, compare behavioral measures between children with ASD and selective eating and those without selective eating, and determine relationships among behavioral measures and measures of selective eating. Participants were assigned to groups on the basis of number of foods eaten compared with a population-based sample. Results of one-way multivariate analysis of variance indicated no overall effect of group for challenging behaviors, sensory reactivity, or repetitive behaviors. Between-participant tests indicated that scores for compulsive behaviors were significantly lower (p = .036) for the selective eating group. Correlations were moderately strong among variables relating to food intake and behavioral variables, but were not significant between selective eating and behavioral variables. Further research is needed to validate the definition of selective eating and to identify targets for intervention. PMID:26565096

  3. Few differences found in the typical eating and physical activity habits of lower-level and upper-level university students.

    PubMed

    Driskell, Judy A; Kim, Young-Nam; Goebel, Kelly J

    2005-05-01

    Typical eating and exercise habits of a group of lower-level (freshmen/sophomores, n=144) and upper-level (juniors/seniors, n=114) students, 19 to 25 years of age, attending a midwestern university were compared. Both groups reported similar snacking practices, nonalcoholic beverage consumption, places of meal consumption, factors influencing food choices, duration and frequency of various types of physical activity, and places of physical performance, with few exceptions. Significant differences between groups were observed for typical afternoon snack consumption, frequency of eating in university cafeterias, typical time spent walking, typical frequency of performing other aerobic activities, and factors that most influenced their physical activity habits. Few differences existed in typical eating and physical activity habits of lower- and upper-level students. PMID:15883559

  4. Latent Profile Analysis to Determine the Typology of Disinhibited Eating Behaviors in Children and Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vannucci, Anna; Tanofsky-Kraff, Marian; Crosby, Ross D.; Ranzenhofer, Lisa M.; Shomaker, Lauren B.; Field, Sara E.; Mooreville, Mira; Reina, Samantha A.; Kozlosky, Merel; Yanovski, Susan Z.; Yanovski, Jack A.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: We used latent profile analysis (LPA) to classify children and adolescents into subtypes based on the overlap of disinhibited eating behaviors--eating in the absence of hunger, emotional eating, and subjective and objective binge eating. Method: Participants were 411 youths (8-18 years) from the community who reported on their…

  5. Latent Profile Analysis to Determine the Typology of Disinhibited Eating Behaviors in Children and Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vannucci, Anna; Tanofsky-Kraff, Marian; Crosby, Ross D.; Ranzenhofer, Lisa M.; Shomaker, Lauren B.; Field, Sara E.; Mooreville, Mira; Reina, Samantha A.; Kozlosky, Merel; Yanovski, Susan Z.; Yanovski, Jack A.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: We used latent profile analysis (LPA) to classify children and adolescents into subtypes based on the overlap of disinhibited eating behaviors--eating in the absence of hunger, emotional eating, and subjective and objective binge eating. Method: Participants were 411 youths (8-18 years) from the community who reported on their

  6. Effect of glycemic load on eating behavior self-efficacy during weight loss

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    High eating behavior self-efficacy may contribute to successful weight loss. Diet interventions that maximize eating behavior self-efficacy may therefore improve weight loss outcomes. However, data on the effect of diet composition on eating behavior self-efficacy are sparse. To determine the eff...

  7. Eating habits of preschool children and the risk of obesity, insulin resistance and metabolic syndrome in adults

    PubMed Central

    Kostecka, Małgorzata

    2014-01-01

    Background & Objective: Nutrient excess and nutrient deficiency in the diets of preschool children can lead to permanent modification of metabolic pathways and increased risk of diet-dependent diseases in adults. Children are most susceptible to the adverse consequences of bad eating habits.The objective of this study was to evaluate the eating habits and the diets of preschool children as risk factors for excessive weight, obesity, insulin resistance and the metabolic syndrome. Methods: The study was conducted on 350 randomly selected preschool children attending kindergartens in south-eastern Poland. Three-day dietary recalls were processed and evaluated in the Dieta 5 application. Results: The analyzed diets were characterized by low diversity and a high share of processed foods, such as pate, sausages, ketchup, mayonnaise, fried meat, French fries and fast-food. The dietary content of vegetables, raw fruit, dairy products and whole grain products was alarmingly low. Conclusions: Diets characterized by excessive energy value and nutritional deficiency can lead to health problems. In most cases, excessive weight gain in children can be blamed on parents and caretakers who are not aware of the health consequences of high-calorie foods rich in fats and sugar. PMID:25674127

  8. Eating habits of preschool children and the risk of obesity, insulin resistance and metabolic syndrome in adults.

    PubMed

    Kostecka, Małgorzata

    2014-01-01

    Background & Objective : Nutrient excess and nutrient deficiency in the diets of preschool children can lead to permanent modification of metabolic pathways and increased risk of diet-dependent diseases in adults. Children are most susceptible to the adverse consequences of bad eating habits.The objective of this study was to evaluate the eating habits and the diets of preschool children as risk factors for excessive weight, obesity, insulin resistance and the metabolic syndrome. Methods : The study was conducted on 350 randomly selected preschool children attending kindergartens in south-eastern Poland. Three-day dietary recalls were processed and evaluated in the Dieta 5 application. Results : The analyzed diets were characterized by low diversity and a high share of processed foods, such as pate, sausages, ketchup, mayonnaise, fried meat, French fries and fast-food. The dietary content of vegetables, raw fruit, dairy products and whole grain products was alarmingly low. Conclusions : Diets characterized by excessive energy value and nutritional deficiency can lead to health problems. In most cases, excessive weight gain in children can be blamed on parents and caretakers who are not aware of the health consequences of high-calorie foods rich in fats and sugar. PMID:25674127

  9. Media and technology use predicts ill-being among children, preteens and teenagers independent of the negative health impacts of exercise and eating habits

    PubMed Central

    Rosen, L.D.; Lim, A.F.; Felt, J.; Carrier, L.M.; Cheever, N.A.; Lara-Ruiz, J.M.; Mendoza, J.S.; Rokkum, J.

    2015-01-01

    The American Academy of Pediatrics recommends no screen time for children under the age of 2 and limited screen time for all children. However, no such guidelines have been proposed for preteens and teenagers. Further, research shows that children, preteens, and teenagers are using massive amounts of media and those with more screen time have been shown to have increased obesity, reduced physical activity, and decreased health. This study examined the impact of technology on four areas of ill-being–psychological issues, behavior problems, attention problems and physical health–among children (aged 4–8), preteens (9–12), and teenagers (13–18) by having 1030 parents complete an online, anonymous survey about their own and their child's behaviors. Measures included daily technology use, daily food consumption, daily exercise, and health. Hypothesis 1, which posited that unhealthy eating would predict impaired ill-being, was partially supported, particularly for children and preteens. Hypothesis 2, which posited that reduced physical activity would predict diminished health levels, was partially supported for preteens and supported for teenagers. Hypothesis 3, that increased daily technology use would predict ill-being after factoring out eating habits and physical activity, was supported. For children and preteens, total media consumption predicted illbeing while for preteens specific technology uses, including video gaming and electronic communication, predicted ill-being. For teenagers, nearly every type of technological activity predicted poor health. Practical implications were discussed in terms of setting limits and boundaries on technology use and encouraging healthy eating and physical activity at home and at school. PMID:25717216

  10. [Nutritional habits in children and adolescents practicing fencing. Part II. Characteristics of eating between meals].

    PubMed

    Chalcarz, Wojciech; Radzimirska-Graczyk, Monika

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the longest interval between meals, eating until the feeling of satiety and eating between meals in children and adolescents who attended sports schools. The questionnaires on were filled in by 141 children and adolescents who practised fencing and attended sports classes in primary and secondary schools. The days with training and the days free of training were analysed separately. The influence of gender and age on the longest interval between meals, eating until the feeling of satiety and eating between meals on the days with training and the days free of training was analysed by means of the SPSS 12.0 PL for Windows computer programme. Gender and age had statistically significant influence on the longest interval between meals, eating until the feeling of satiety and eating vegetables, cured meat, sweets and energy drinks between meals. Eating between main meals was prevalent in the studied population. Higher percentage of girls ate fruit and vegetables between main meals, while higher percentage of boys ate sandwiches, irrespectively of the type of the day--with training or free of training. PMID:20803903

  11. Occupational Disparities in the Association between Self-Reported Salt-Eating Habit and Hypertension in Older Adults in Xiamen, China.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Manqiong; Chen, Wei; Teng, Bogang; Fang, Ya

    2016-01-01

    Blood pressure responses to sodium intake are heterogeneous among populations. Few studies have assessed occupational disparities in the association between sodium intake and hypertension in older people. We used cross-sectional data from 14,292 participants aged 60 years or older in Xiamen, China, in 2013. Self-reported salt-eating habit was examined with three levels: low, medium, and high. The main lifetime occupation was classified into indoor laborer and outdoor laborer. Multivariable logistic regression was used to examine associations of hypertension with self-reported salt-eating habit, main lifetime occupation, and their interactions by adjusting for some covariates, with further stratification by sex. Overall, 13,738 participants had complete data, of whom 30.22% had hypertension. The prevalence of hypertension was 31.57%, 28.63%, and 31.97% in participants who reported to have low, medium, and high salt-eating habit, respectively. Outdoor laborers presented significantly lower prevalence of hypertension than indoor laborers (26.04% vs. 34.26%, p < 0.001). Indoor laborers with high salt-eating habit had the greatest odds of hypertension (OR = 1.32, 95% CI [1.09-1.59]). An increased trend of odds in eating habit as salt-heavier was presented in indoor laborers (p-trend = 0.048), especially for women (p-trend = 0.001). No clear trend presented in men. Conclusively, sex-specific occupational disparities exist in the association between self-reported salt-eating habit and hypertension in older individuals. Overlooking the potential moderating role of sex and occupation might affect the relationship between sodium intake and hypertension. PMID:26805865

  12. Occupational Disparities in the Association between Self-Reported Salt-Eating Habit and Hypertension in Older Adults in Xiamen, China

    PubMed Central

    Yuan, Manqiong; Chen, Wei; Teng, Bogang; Fang, Ya

    2016-01-01

    Blood pressure responses to sodium intake are heterogeneous among populations. Few studies have assessed occupational disparities in the association between sodium intake and hypertension in older people. We used cross-sectional data from 14,292 participants aged 60 years or older in Xiamen, China, in 2013. Self-reported salt-eating habit was examined with three levels: low, medium, and high. The main lifetime occupation was classified into indoor laborer and outdoor laborer. Multivariable logistic regression was used to examine associations of hypertension with self-reported salt-eating habit, main lifetime occupation, and their interactions by adjusting for some covariates, with further stratification by sex. Overall, 13,738 participants had complete data, of whom 30.22% had hypertension. The prevalence of hypertension was 31.57%, 28.63%, and 31.97% in participants who reported to have low, medium, and high salt-eating habit, respectively. Outdoor laborers presented significantly lower prevalence of hypertension than indoor laborers (26.04% vs. 34.26%, p < 0.001). Indoor laborers with high salt-eating habit had the greatest odds of hypertension (OR = 1.32, 95% CI [1.09–1.59]). An increased trend of odds in eating habit as salt-heavier was presented in indoor laborers (p-trend = 0.048), especially for women (p-trend = 0.001). No clear trend presented in men. Conclusively, sex-specific occupational disparities exist in the association between self-reported salt-eating habit and hypertension in older individuals. Overlooking the potential moderating role of sex and occupation might affect the relationship between sodium intake and hypertension. PMID:26805865

  13. [Studies On The Inducing Possibility Of Human Visceral Larva Migrans Associated With Eating Habit Of Raw Liver Of Domestic Animals

    PubMed

    Lee, Keun Tae; Min, Hong Ki; Chung, Pyung Rim; Chang, Jae Kyung

    1976-06-01

    To observe the possibility of human visceral larva migrans due to eating of raw liver of domestic animals, especially of cattle, and also to serve as a good reference for adequate sanitary measures, the investigation survey was carried out from May 1975 to May 1976. From the subjects of a l,048 inhabitants (male 558, female 490) in five localities including two Provinces and three different cities, food habit was studied by questionnaire mannual. Larvae isolated from liver tissues of cattle, and pig were identified. Experimental observation on the chicken and mice infected with Toxocara canis was undertaken to draw a assumption of possibility inducing human visceral larva migrans. The results obtained from the present study are summarized. 1. A part of Korean people has the habit to eat the livers of cattle, fowl, pig and dog raw. Eating rate of raw beef liver was 37.8% out of l,048 inhabitants, and its rate was higher markedly in male(57.7%) than in female (15. 1%), and the highest rate among the group of 31-40 years old. Eating rate of raw liver of fowl was 5.9%, pig 5.3%, and dog 2.5%. 2. Larva recovery rate from beef liver was 11.8% out of 195 samples and 72.0% of total detected 1arvae were identified as Toxocara(=Neoascaris) vitulorum. From pig liver, larvae of nematoda were found in 6.4% out of 109 samples but no larva was detected from 120 fowl livers. 3. Larvae detected from one-half of tissues and organs of infected chicken with about 2,000 Toxocara canis eggs were 8-245 in number, and 85-100% of recovered larvae were from their 1iver tissues. 4. Toxocara canis larvae, 45, 31, 42 and 23 in number at 3rd, 14th, 25th and 55th day in one-half of the tissues and organs after infection respectively, were demonstrated from the mice infected with 500 larvae collected from infected chicken liver. Most of the larvae were recovered from the carcass of the mouse. It was approved the larvae isolated from chicken possess infectivity to the mice. 5. Typical eosinophilic granulomatous change was not observed in the liver tissue of the infected chicken at 20th day after infection. As it summarized above, the liver of various domestic animals is the favorite tissue for migration of nematodes larvae. Therefore, the possibility of human visceral larva migrans may be induced due to eating of raw liver of domestic animals. PMID:12913451

  14. Physical activity, sedentary behaviors and dietary habits among Saudi adolescents relative to age, gender and region

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Few lifestyle factors have been simultaneously studied and reported for Saudi adolescents. Therefore, the purpose of the present study was to report on the prevalence of physical activity, sedentary behaviors and dietary habits among Saudi adolescents and to examine the interrelationships among these factors using representative samples drawn from three major cities in Saudi Arabia. Methods This school-based cross-sectional study was conducted during the years 2009-2010 in three cities: Al-Khobar, Jeddah and Riyadh. The participants were 2908 secondary-school males (1401) and females (1507) aged 14-19 years, randomly selected using a multistage stratified sampling technique. Measurements included weight, height, sedentary behaviors (TV viewing, playing video games and computer use), physical activity using a validated questionnaire and dietary habits. Results A very high proportion (84% for males and 91.2% for females) of Saudi adolescents spent more than 2 hours on screen time daily and almost half of the males and three-quarters of the females did not meet daily physical activity guidelines. The majority of adolescents did not have a daily intake of breakfast, fruit, vegetables and milk. Females were significantly (p < 0.05) more sedentary, much less physically active, especially with vigorous physical activity, and there were fewer days per week when they consumed breakfast, fruit, milk and diary products, sugar-sweetened drinks, fast foods and energy drinks than did males. However, the females' intake of French fries and potato chips, cakes and donuts, and candy and chocolate was significantly (p < 0.05) higher than the males'. Screen time was significantly (p < 0.05) correlated inversely with the intake of breakfast, vegetables and fruit. Physical activity had a significant (p < 0.05) positive relationship with fruit and vegetable intake but not with sedentary behaviors. Conclusions The high prevalence of sedentary behaviors, physical inactivity and unhealthy dietary habits among Saudi adolescents is a major public health concern. There is an urgent need for national policy promoting active living and healthy eating and reducing sedentary behaviors among children and adolescents in Saudi Arabia. PMID:22188825

  15. Orexin-A controls sympathetic activity and eating behavior

    PubMed Central

    Messina, Giovanni; Dalia, Carmine; Tafuri, Domenico; Monda, Vincenzo; Palmieri, Filomena; Dato, Amelia; Russo, Angelo; De Blasio, Saverio; Messina, Antonietta; De Luca, Vincenzo; Chieffi, Sergio; Monda, Marcellino

    2014-01-01

    It is extremely important for the health to understand the regulatory mechanisms of energy expenditure. These regulatory mechanisms play a central role in the pathogenesis of body weight alteration. The hypothalamus integrates nutritional information derived from all peripheral organs. This region of the brain controls hormonal secretions and neural pathways of the brainstem. Orexin-A is a hypothalamic neuropeptide involved in the regulation of feeding behavior, sleep-wakefulness rhythm, and neuroendocrine homeostasis. This neuropeptide is involved in the control of the sympathetic activation, blood pressure, metabolic status, and blood glucose level. This minireview focuses on relationship between the sympathetic nervous system and orexin-A in the control of eating behavior and energy expenditure. The “thermoregulatory hypothesis” of food intake is analyzed, underlining the role played by orexin-A in the control of food intake related to body temperature. Furthermore, the paradoxical eating behavior induced orexin-A is illustrated in this minireview. PMID:25250003

  16. Loneliness, dysphoria, dietary restraint, and eating behavior.

    PubMed

    Rotenberg, K J; Flood, D

    1999-01-01

    The study was designed to examine Herman and Polivy's restrained eating theory (Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 84, 666-672, 1975) using two different methods: situational-experimental and dispositional-correlational. Fifty-eight female college students were administered the revised UCLA Loneliness Scale, the Beck Depression Inventory (Short Form), and the Restraint scale. Subsequently, the students were subjected to either a neutral, sad, or loneliness mood induction and then ate cookies under the pretext of participating in a taste test. Consistent with expectation, dieters tended to consume more food in the loneliness than neutral mood condition, whereas nondieters displayed the opposite pattern. A comparable pattern was found in the relation between the revised UCLA Loneliness Scale and food consumption with respect to Restraint; the amount of food consumed increased as a function of loneliness for high restrained eaters, whereas the amount of food consumed decreased as a function of loneliness for low restrained eaters. There were no appreciable effects of the sad mood induction, nor prediction by dispositional depression, regarding the amount of food consumed as a function of dietary restraint. The findings were discussed with respect to the motivational role that loneliness may play in inhibiting and disinhibiting food consumption. PMID:9924653

  17. Yoga, bioenergetics and eating behaviors: A conceptual review

    PubMed Central

    Ramos-Jiménez, Arnulfo; Wall-Medrano, Abraham; Corona-Hernández, Rocío I; Hernández-Torres, Rosa P

    2015-01-01

    Yoga is an ancient oriental discipline that emerged from mystical and philosophical concepts. Today it is practiced in the west, partly due to the promotion of its benefits to improve the lifestyle and overall health. As compared to non-Hatha Yoga (HY) practitioners, healthier and better-eating patterns have been observed in those who practice it. Agreement with the brought benefits, HY can be used as a therapeutic method to correct abnormal eating behaviors (AEB), obesity, and some metabolic diseases. However, the energy expenditure during traditional protocols of HY is not high; hence, it is not very effective for reducing or maintaining body weight or to improve cardiovascular conditioning. Even so, several observational studies suggest significant changes in eating behaviors, like a reduction in dietary fat intake and increments in that of fresh vegetables, whole grains and soy-based products, which in turn may reduce the risk for cardiovascular diseases. Given the inconsistency of the results derived from cross-sectional studies, more case–control studies are needed to demonstrate the efficacy of HY as an alternative method in the clinical treatment of disordered eating and metabolic diseases. PMID:26170586

  18. Heritability of eating behavior assessed using the DEBQ (Dutch Eating Behavior Questionnaire) and weight-related traits: the Healthy Twin Study.

    PubMed

    Sung, Joohon; Lee, Kayoung; Song, Yun-Mi; Lee, Mi Kyeong; Lee, Dong-Hun

    2010-05-01

    The heritability of eating behavior and body weight-related traits in Asian populations has not been reported. The purpose of this study was to estimate the heritability of eating behavior and the body weight-related traits of current weight and self-reported past weight among twins and their families. Study subjects were 2,144 Korean, adult, same-sex twins and their families at the ages between 20 and 65 years (443 monozygotic (MZ) and 124 dizygotic (DZ) twin pairs, and 1,010 individuals of their family). The Dutch Eating Behavior Questionnaire (DEBQ) was used to assess three eating behavior subscales measuring restraint, emotional eating, and external eating. A variance component approach was used to estimate heritability. After consideration of shared environmental effects and adjustment for age and sex effects, the heritability estimates +/- s.e. among twins and their family members were 0.31 +/- 0.036 for restraint, 0.25 +/- 0.098 for emotional eating, 0.25 +/- 0.060 for external eating, 0.77 +/- 0.032 for measured current body weight, and 0.70 +/- 0.051 for self-reported weight at 20 years old. The three DEBQ subscales were associated with all weight related traits after adjustment for age and sex. These results suggest eating behaviors and weight-related traits have a genetic influence, and eating behaviors are associated with obesity indexes. Our findings from Korean twin family were similar to those reported in Western populations. PMID:19876000

  19. Effect of glycemic load on eating behavior self-efficacy during weight loss.

    PubMed

    Karl, J Philip; Cheatham, Rachel A; Das, Sai Krupa; Hyatt, Raymond R; Gilhooly, Cheryl H; Pittas, Anastassios G; Lieberman, Harris R; Lerner, Debra; Roberts, Susan B; Saltzman, Edward

    2014-09-01

    High eating behavior self-efficacy may contribute to successful weight loss. Diet interventions that maximize eating behavior self-efficacy may therefore improve weight loss outcomes. However, data on the effect of diet composition on eating behavior self-efficacy are sparse. To determine the effects of dietary glycemic load (GL) on eating behavior self-efficacy during weight loss, body weight and eating behavior self-efficacy were measured every six months in overweight adults participating in a 12-mo randomized trial testing energy-restricted diets differing in GL. All food was provided during the first six months and self-selected thereafter. Total mean weight loss did not differ between groups, and GL-level had no significant effect on eating behavior self-efficacy. In the combined cohort, individuals losing the most weight reported improvements in eating behavior self-efficacy, whereas those achieving less weight loss reported decrements in eating behavior self-efficacy. Decrements in eating behavior self-efficacy were associated with subsequent weight regain when diets were self-selected. While GL does not appear to influence eating behavior self-efficacy, lesser amounts of weight loss on provided-food energy restricted diets may deter successful maintenance of weight loss by attenuating improvements in eating behavior self-efficacy. PMID:24859114

  20. Feeling ‘too fat’ rather than being ‘too fat’ increases unhealthy eating habits among adolescents – even in boys

    PubMed Central

    van Vliet, Jolanda S.; Gustafsson, Per A.; Nelson, Nina

    2016-01-01

    Background Adolescence is a period of gender-specific physical changes, during which eating habits develop. To better understand what factors determine unhealthy eating habits such as dieting to lose weight, skipping meals, and consumption of unhealthy foods, we studied how physical measurements and body perception relate to eating habits in boys and girls, before and during adolescence. Methods For this cross-sectional study, we obtained data from both written questionnaires and physical measurements of height, weight, and waist circumference (WC). Results Dieting to lose weight and skipping breakfast were more common among adolescents than among younger boys and girls (p<0.05). The strongest risk factor for dieting in both boys and girls was perception of overweight, which persisted after adjusting for age and for being overweight (p<0.01). Another independent risk factor for dieting behaviour was overweight, as defined by body mass index (BMI) among boys (p<0.01) and WC among girls (p<0.05). In both boys and girls, skipping breakfast was associated with both a more negative body perception and higher BMI (p<0.05). Skipping breakfast was also associated with age- and gender-specific unhealthy eating habits such as skipping other meals, lower consumption of fruits and vegetables, and higher consumption of sweets and sugary drinks (p<0.05). Conclusion Body perception among adolescents is an important factor relating to unhealthy eating habits, not only in girls, but even in boys. Focus on body perception and eating breakfast daily is crucial for the development of healthy food consumption behaviours during adolescence and tracking into adulthood. PMID:26894992

  1. Evaluating eating behavior treatments by FDA standards

    PubMed Central

    Tomiyama, A. Janet; Ahlstrom, Britt; Mann, Traci

    2014-01-01

    Behavioral treatments for obesity are not evaluated by the same criteria as pharmaceutical drugs, even though treatments such as low-calorie dieting are widely prescribed, require patients time and investment, and may have risks. The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has a procedure for evaluating drugs, in which drugmakers must answer the following questions: (1) Is the treatment safe? (2) How dangerous is the condition the intervention is treating? (3) Is the treatment effective? (4) Is the treatment safe and effective for large numbers of people? We argue that using this framework to evaluate behavioral interventions could help identify unanswered research questions on their efficacy and effectiveness, and we use the example of low-calorie dieting to illustrate how FDA criteria might be applied in the context of behavioral medicine. PMID:24427153

  2. THE DIFFERENTIAL EFFECTS OF AUTHORITATIVE AND AUTHORITARIAN FEEDING STYLES ON EATING BEHAVIORS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Caregiver feeding styles (CFS) represent approaches to maintaining or modifying children's eating behaviors. Authoritarian feeding involves attempts to control children's eating with little regard for their choices and preferences. In contrast, authoritative feeding involves a balance whereby parent...

  3. Lifestyle Habits

    PubMed Central

    Kilani, Hashem; Al-Hazzaa, Hazzaa; Waly, Mostafa I.; Musaiger, Abdulrahman

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: This study aimed to investigate the lifestyle habitsphysical activity (PA), eating habits (EH), and sleep duration (SD)of Omani adolescents, and to examine gender differences in such variables. Methods: 802 Omani adolescents (442 females and 360 males), aged 1518 years were randomly recruited. Anthropometric indices, PA level, and EH and SD were evaluated by the Arab Teenage Lifestyle questionnaire. A semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire for dietary assessment was also administered. Results: The results showed that although the study subjects had a sedentary lifestyle (lack of PA, average of 6.7 hours sleep, and consumption of high calorie foods), they maintained a normal body mass (less than 25 Kg/m2). Males were more than twice as active as females. With respect to EH, there were few gender differences, except in dairy and meat consumption where 62.5% and 55.5% of males consumed more than 3 servings, respectively, compared to 18.78 % and 35.2% of females, respectively. In addition, waist/height ratio, height, reasons for being active, energy drinks, potato consumption, eating sweets, vigorous PA and breakfast EHs were statistically significant independent predictors for BMI, P <0.05 for both males and females. Conclusion: This study revealed a high prevalence of sedentary behaviors and a low level of physical activity, especially among females. Unhealthy dietary habits were also widely found among both genders. There is an urgent need for more research as well as a national policy promoting active living and healthy eating and discouraging sedentary behaviour among Omani adolescents. PMID:24273660

  4. Neuroimaging and neuromodulation approaches to study eating behavior and prevent and treat eating disorders and obesity

    PubMed Central

    Val-Laillet, D.; Aarts, E.; Weber, B.; Ferrari, M.; Quaresima, V.; Stoeckel, L.E.; Alonso-Alonso, M.; Audette, M.; Malbert, C.H.; Stice, E.

    2015-01-01

    Functional, molecular and genetic neuroimaging has highlighted the existence of brain anomalies and neural vulnerability factors related to obesity and eating disorders such as binge eating or anorexia nervosa. In particular, decreased basal metabolism in the prefrontal cortex and striatum as well as dopaminergic alterations have been described in obese subjects, in parallel with increased activation of reward brain areas in response to palatable food cues. Elevated reward region responsivity may trigger food craving and predict future weight gain. This opens the way to prevention studies using functional and molecular neuroimaging to perform early diagnostics and to phenotype subjects at risk by exploring different neurobehavioral dimensions of the food choices and motivation processes. In the first part of this review, advantages and limitations of neuroimaging techniques, such as functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), positron emission tomography (PET), single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT), pharmacogenetic fMRI and functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) will be discussed in the context of recent work dealing with eating behavior, with a particular focus on obesity. In the second part of the review, non-invasive strategies to modulate food-related brain processes and functions will be presented. At the leading edge of non-invasive brain-based technologies is real-time fMRI (rtfMRI) neurofeedback, which is a powerful tool to better understand the complexity of human brain–behavior relationships. rtfMRI, alone or when combined with other techniques and tools such as EEG and cognitive therapy, could be used to alter neural plasticity and learned behavior to optimize and/or restore healthy cognition and eating behavior. Other promising non-invasive neuromodulation approaches being explored are repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) and transcranial direct-current stimulation (tDCS). Converging evidence points at the value of these non-invasive neuromodulation strategies to study basic mechanisms underlying eating behavior and to treat its disorders. Both of these approaches will be compared in light of recent work in this field, while addressing technical and practical questions. The third part of this review will be dedicated to invasive neuromodulation strategies, such as vagus nerve stimulation (VNS) and deep brain stimulation (DBS). In combination with neuroimaging approaches, these techniques are promising experimental tools to unravel the intricate relationships between homeostatic and hedonic brain circuits. Their potential as additional therapeutic tools to combat pharmacorefractory morbid obesity or acute eating disorders will be discussed, in terms of technical challenges, applicability and ethics. In a general discussion, we will put the brain at the core of fundamental research, prevention and therapy in the context of obesity and eating disorders. First, we will discuss the possibility to identify new biological markers of brain functions. Second, we will highlight the potential of neuroimaging and neuromodulation in individualized medicine. Third, we will introduce the ethical questions that are concomitant to the emergence of new neuromodulation therapies. PMID:26110109

  5. Neuroimaging and neuromodulation approaches to study eating behavior and prevent and treat eating disorders and obesity.

    PubMed

    Val-Laillet, D; Aarts, E; Weber, B; Ferrari, M; Quaresima, V; Stoeckel, L E; Alonso-Alonso, M; Audette, M; Malbert, C H; Stice, E

    2015-01-01

    Functional, molecular and genetic neuroimaging has highlighted the existence of brain anomalies and neural vulnerability factors related to obesity and eating disorders such as binge eating or anorexia nervosa. In particular, decreased basal metabolism in the prefrontal cortex and striatum as well as dopaminergic alterations have been described in obese subjects, in parallel with increased activation of reward brain areas in response to palatable food cues. Elevated reward region responsivity may trigger food craving and predict future weight gain. This opens the way to prevention studies using functional and molecular neuroimaging to perform early diagnostics and to phenotype subjects at risk by exploring different neurobehavioral dimensions of the food choices and motivation processes. In the first part of this review, advantages and limitations of neuroimaging techniques, such as functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), positron emission tomography (PET), single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT), pharmacogenetic fMRI and functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) will be discussed in the context of recent work dealing with eating behavior, with a particular focus on obesity. In the second part of the review, non-invasive strategies to modulate food-related brain processes and functions will be presented. At the leading edge of non-invasive brain-based technologies is real-time fMRI (rtfMRI) neurofeedback, which is a powerful tool to better understand the complexity of human brain-behavior relationships. rtfMRI, alone or when combined with other techniques and tools such as EEG and cognitive therapy, could be used to alter neural plasticity and learned behavior to optimize and/or restore healthy cognition and eating behavior. Other promising non-invasive neuromodulation approaches being explored are repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) and transcranial direct-current stimulation (tDCS). Converging evidence points at the value of these non-invasive neuromodulation strategies to study basic mechanisms underlying eating behavior and to treat its disorders. Both of these approaches will be compared in light of recent work in this field, while addressing technical and practical questions. The third part of this review will be dedicated to invasive neuromodulation strategies, such as vagus nerve stimulation (VNS) and deep brain stimulation (DBS). In combination with neuroimaging approaches, these techniques are promising experimental tools to unravel the intricate relationships between homeostatic and hedonic brain circuits. Their potential as additional therapeutic tools to combat pharmacorefractory morbid obesity or acute eating disorders will be discussed, in terms of technical challenges, applicability and ethics. In a general discussion, we will put the brain at the core of fundamental research, prevention and therapy in the context of obesity and eating disorders. First, we will discuss the possibility to identify new biological markers of brain functions. Second, we will highlight the potential of neuroimaging and neuromodulation in individualized medicine. Third, we will introduce the ethical questions that are concomitant to the emergence of new neuromodulation therapies. PMID:26110109

  6. Melanocortin-4 receptor gene variants are not associated with binge-eating behavior in nonobese patients with eating disorders.

    PubMed

    Gamero-Villarroel, Carmen; Rodriguez-Lopez, Raquel; Jimenez, Mercedes; Carrillo, Juan A; Garcia-Herraiz, Angustias; Albuquerque, David; Flores, Isalud; Gervasini, Guillermo

    2015-02-01

    We aimed to determine whether variability in the melanocortin-4 receptor (MC4R) gene, predisposing to hyperphagia and obesity, may also be present in nonobese patients with binge-eating behavior or be related to anthropometric or psychopathological parameters in these patients. The coding region of the MC4R gene was sequenced in nonobese patients with binge-eating behavior diagnosed with bulimia nervosa or binge-eating disorder (n=77); individuals with severe early-onset obesity (n=170); and lean women with anorexia nervosa (n=20). A psychometric evaluation (Eating Disorders Inventory-2 and Symptom Checklist 90 Revised inventories) was carried out for all the patients with eating disorders. In the obesity group, 10 different variants were identified, whereas in the binge-eating patients, only two individuals with bulimia nervosa were found to carry the I251L polymorphism, which did not correlate with weight, BMI, or psychopathological features. We found no evidence that mutations in the MC4R gene are associated with binge-eating behavior in nonobese eating disorder patients. PMID:25419636

  7. Humanizing outer space: architecture, habitability, and behavioral health

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harrison, Albert A.

    2010-03-01

    Space architecture is the theory and practice of designing and building environments for humans in outer space. In our present century professional astronauts and cosmonauts will remain a focus for space architects, but new designs must better accommodate passengers (tourists and industrial workers) and settlers who set forth to establish off-world societies. Psychologists and architects can work together to assure good spaceflight behavioral health, defined by a lack of neuropsychiatric dysfunction, and the presence of high levels of personal adjustment, cordial interpersonal relations, and positive interactions with the physical and social environments. By designing and constructing facilities that are occupant centered and activity oriented, architects increase habitability thereby decreasing environmental challenges to behavioral health. Simulators and spaceflight-analogous environments make it possible to test design solutions prior to their deployment in space. This paper concludes with suggestions for increasing collaboration between architects and psychologists. These include increased sharing of hypotheses and data, articulating complementary research styles, and mutual advocacy for early, potent, and sustained involvement in mission planning and execution.

  8. Comparative Study of Lifestyle: Eating Habits, Sedentary Lifestyle and Anthropometric Development in Spanish 5- To 15-yr-Olds

    PubMed Central

    MORALES-SUÁREZ-VARELA, María; RUSO JULVE, Candelaria; LLOPIS GONZÁLEZ, Agustín

    2015-01-01

    Background: The infant-juvenile period is one of high vulnerability during the lifestyles chosen become determining factors for future health status. This study aimed to evaluate lifestyle, specifically eating habits and physical activity, in 5–15-year-olds in Spain and their health status (anthropometry). Methods: This cross-sectional population study with two time points (2006 and 2013) was conducted by compiling data from the Spanish National Health Survey. We used the minor survey, specifically the data from the Health Determinants module, which included 5–15-year-olds. Compiled information was obtained from parents or guardians. Results: The overall overweight and obesity prevalence in Spain (2013) in 5- to 15-year-olds is 24.3%. A drop of 8.2% in meat consumption was found, while overall intake was high. Daily intake of plant-based food (fruit, vegetables, pulses) was low, especially vegetables (32.9%). Increased sedentary lifestyle was observed, probably because the use of communication technologies has increased in recent years (P<0.001). Moreover, watching TV rose to 19.3% for 1 hour/day watching TV on weekdays and to 23.5% at weekends. Conclusion: When comparing the two time points (2006 and 2013), we observed that lifestyle, eating habits and physical activity strongly associated with the Spanish infant-juvenile population’s anthropometry. Mediterranean diet patterns seem to be abandoned and physical activity is practiced less, which will have a negative impact on future quality of life. PMID:26056667

  9. Gender Perspectives on Adolescent Eating Behaviors: A Study on the Eating Attitudes and Behaviors of Junior Secondary Students in Hong Kong

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lai Yeung, Wai-ling Theresa

    2010-01-01

    Objective: This research aimed to investigate the eating attitudes and behaviors of junior secondary students in Hong Kong, with a specific focus on possible gender differences. Design: A survey was conducted in 2005 to solicit data about participants' food knowledge, eating attitudes and behavior, perceptions of cooking skills and body weight,

  10. Gender Perspectives on Adolescent Eating Behaviors: A Study on the Eating Attitudes and Behaviors of Junior Secondary Students in Hong Kong

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lai Yeung, Wai-ling Theresa

    2010-01-01

    Objective: This research aimed to investigate the eating attitudes and behaviors of junior secondary students in Hong Kong, with a specific focus on possible gender differences. Design: A survey was conducted in 2005 to solicit data about participants' food knowledge, eating attitudes and behavior, perceptions of cooking skills and body weight,…

  11. Food attitudes, eating behavior, and the information underlying food attitudes.

    PubMed

    Aikman, Shelley N; Min, Kate E; Graham, Dan

    2006-07-01

    This research examined healthiness perceptions and how the information underlying food attitudes more generally relate to attitudes and behaviors. Participants completed attitudinal measures and various card-sorting tasks in which they rank ordered foods (pictures and/or nutrition labels) in terms of healthiness. Taste was found to be a stronger predictor of attitudes and past eating behavior than other information underlying attitudes (health, guilt, comfort). Furthermore, participants' healthiness rankings of pictures were not correlated to rankings of the corresponding nutrition labels, suggesting that when determining a food's healthiness, participants do not rely on (or are not aware of) the actual nutritional makeup. PMID:16621134

  12. Predicting active school travel: The role of planned behavior and habit strength

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Despite strong support for predictive validity of the theory of planned behavior (TPB) substantial variance in both intention and behavior is unaccounted for by the model’s predictors. The present study tested the extent to which habit strength augments the predictive validity of the TPB in relation to a currently under-researched behavior that has important health implications, namely children’s active school travel. Method Participants (N = 126 children aged 8–9 years; 59 % males) were sampled from five elementary schools in the west of Scotland and completed questionnaire measures of all TPB constructs in relation to walking to school and both walking and car/bus use habit. Over the subsequent week, commuting steps on school journeys were measured objectively using an accelerometer. Hierarchical multiple regressions were used to test the predictive utility of the TPB and habit strength in relation to both intention and subsequent behavior. Results The TPB accounted for 41 % and 10 % of the variance in intention and objectively measured behavior, respectively. Together, walking habit and car/bus habit significantly increased the proportion of explained variance in both intention and behavior by 6 %. Perceived behavioral control and both walking and car/bus habit independently predicted intention. Intention and car/bus habit independently predicted behavior. Conclusions The TPB significantly predicts children’s active school travel. However, habit strength augments the predictive validity of the model. The results indicate that school travel is controlled by both intentional and habitual processes. In practice, interventions could usefully decrease the habitual use of motorized transport for travel to school and increase children’s intention to walk (via increases in perceived behavioral control and walking habit, and decreases in car/bus habit). Further research is needed to identify effective strategies for changing these antecedents of children’s active school travel. PMID:22647194

  13. Associations of disordered eating behavior with the family diabetes environment in adolescents with type 1 diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Caccavale, Laura J.; Nansel, Tonja R.; Quick, Virginia; Lipsky, Leah M.; Laffel, Lori M.B.; Mehta, Sanjeev N.

    2014-01-01

    Objective To examine associations of disordered eating behaviors with aspects of the family eating and diabetes management environments among adolescents with type 1 diabetes (T1D). Method Data were collected from 151 adolescents (M age = 15.6 years) with T1D and their parents. Adolescents and parents completed self-report measures of the family eating environment (priority, atmosphere and structure/rules surrounding family meals, and presence of restricted and special foods in the household), and diabetes family management environment (diabetes family conflict and responsibility sharing). Adolescents completed measures of parent modeling of healthy eating and disordered eating behaviors. Linear regression models were used to assess the relationship of disordered eating behaviors with aspects of the family eating and diabetes management environments. Results In unadjusted models, adolescent, but not parent, report of aspects of the family eating environment were associated with adolescents' disordered eating behaviors. Both adolescent and parent report of diabetes family conflict were positively associated with disordered eating behaviors. The adjusted adolescent model including all family eating and diabetes management variables accounted for 20.8% of the variance in disordered eating behaviors (p<.001, R2=.208). Factors associated with greater risk of disordered eating included being female (β=.168, p=.029), lower priority placed on family meals (β=-.273, p=.003), less parental modeling of healthy eating (β=-.197, p=.027), more food restrictions in the household β=.223, (p=.005), and greater diabetes family conflict (β=.195, p=.011). Conclusions Findings suggest that aspects of the family eating environment and diabetes family conflict may represent important factors for disordered eating risk in adolescents with T1D. PMID:25493461

  14. Gelatinous bone marrow transformation secondary to unusual eating habits and drastic weight loss.

    PubMed

    Rafiullah; Islam, Rezwan; Mahmood, Ruth; Sitwala, Kajal V

    2013-01-01

    Gelatinous bone marrow transformation (GMT), also known as starvation bone marrow, has been reported in a number of chronic illnesses, eating disorders (anorexia nervosa) and malignancies. We report the case of a 37-year-old man with a history of bipolar disorder and obesity (weighing >300 pounds) who presented due to recently developing a deep yellow colour to his skin. Over the past 2 years, through diet and exercise, he lost over 150 pounds. He reported running 6-8 miles per day and eating 'lots of squash'. We made the diagnosis of starvation hepatitis and bone marrow degeneration, and referred the patient to a dietician and haematologist/oncologist, where improvements were observed at 4 weeks follow-up. PMID:23861277

  15. Dialectical Behavior Therapy Modified for Adolescent Binge Eating Disorder: A Case Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Safer, Debra L.; Couturier, Jennifer L.; Lock, James

    2007-01-01

    Given the lack of empirically supported treatments available for adolescents with eating disorders, it is important to investigate the clinical utility of extending treatments for adults with eating disorders to younger populations. Dialectical behavior therapy for binge eating disorder, based on the affect-regulation model, conceptualizes binge

  16. Dialectical Behavior Therapy Modified for Adolescent Binge Eating Disorder: A Case Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Safer, Debra L.; Couturier, Jennifer L.; Lock, James

    2007-01-01

    Given the lack of empirically supported treatments available for adolescents with eating disorders, it is important to investigate the clinical utility of extending treatments for adults with eating disorders to younger populations. Dialectical behavior therapy for binge eating disorder, based on the affect-regulation model, conceptualizes binge…

  17. Self-Silencing, Emotional Awareness, and Eating Behaviors in College Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shouse, Sarah H.; Nilsson, Johanna

    2011-01-01

    Self-silencing (or the suppression of expressing one's thoughts, feelings, and needs) can have a negative impact on the mental health of women, from depression to disordered eating behaviors. The authors examined the relationship between self-silencing and disordered eating as well as intuitive eating. The authors also explored whether emotional…

  18. Self-Silencing, Emotional Awareness, and Eating Behaviors in College Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shouse, Sarah H.; Nilsson, Johanna

    2011-01-01

    Self-silencing (or the suppression of expressing one's thoughts, feelings, and needs) can have a negative impact on the mental health of women, from depression to disordered eating behaviors. The authors examined the relationship between self-silencing and disordered eating as well as intuitive eating. The authors also explored whether emotional

  19. Eating Disorders and Dieting Behavior among Australian and Swazi University Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stephens, Nicole M.; Schumaker, John F.; Sibiya, Thokozile E.

    1999-01-01

    Examines the eating behaviors of 192 Australian and 129 Swaziland university students using the Eating Attitudes Test. Reports no significant differences between the Australian and Swazi samples in terms of eating disorder symptoms, but indicates that more Australians saw themselves as overweight and were on a weight loss diet. (CMK)

  20. Eating behavior, prenatal and postnatal growth in Angelman syndrome.

    PubMed

    Mertz, Line G B; Christensen, Rikke; Vogel, Ida; Hertz, Jens M; stergaard, John R

    2014-11-01

    The objectives of the present study were to investigate eating behavior and growth parameters in Angelman syndrome. We included 39 patients with Angelman syndrome. Twelve cases had a larger Class I deletion, eighteen had a smaller Class II deletion, whereas paternal uniparental disomy (pUPD) or a verified UBE3A mutation were present in five and four cases, respectively. Eating behavior was assessed by a questionnaire. Anthropometric measures were obtained from medical records and compared to Danish reference data. Children with pUPD had significantly larger birth weight and birth length than children carrying a deletion or a UBE3A mutation. We found no difference in birth weight or length in children with Class I or Class II deletions. When maternal birth weight and/or birth weight of siblings were taken into consideration, children with Class I deletion had a lower weight at birth than expected, and the weight continued to be reduced during the investigated initial five years of life. In contrast, children with pUPD showed hyperphagic behavior and their weight increased significantly after the age of two years. Accordingly, their body mass index was significantly increased as compared to children with a deletion. At birth, one child showed microcephaly. At five years of age, microcephaly was observed in half of the deletion cases, but in none of the cases with a UBE3A mutation or pUPD. The apparently normal cranial growth in the UBE3A and pUPD patients should however be regarded as the result of a generally increased growth. Eating behavior, pre- and postnatal growth in children with Angelman syndrome depends on genotype. PMID:25064682

  1. Predicting fruit consumption: the role of habits, previous behavior and mediation effects

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background This study assessed the role of habits and previous behavior in predicting fruit consumption as well as their additional predictive contribution besides socio-demographic and motivational factors. In the literature, habits are proposed as a stable construct that needs to be controlled for in longitudinal analyses that predict behavior. The aim of this study is to provide empirical evidence for the inclusion of either previous behavior or habits. Methods A random sample of 806 Dutch adults (>18years) was invited by an online survey panel of a private research company to participate in an online study on fruit consumption. A longitudinal design (N?=?574) was used with assessments at baseline and after one (T2) and two months (T3). Multivariate linear regression analysis was used to assess the differential value of habit and previous behavior in the prediction of fruit consumption. Results Eighty percent of habit strength could be explained by habit strength one month earlier, and 64% of fruit consumption could be explained by fruit consumption one month earlier. Regression analyses revealed that the model with motivational constructs explained 41% of the behavioral variance at T2 and 38% at T3. The addition of previous behavior and habit increased the explained variance up to 66% at T2 and to 59% at T3. Inclusion of these factors resulted in non-significant contributions of the motivational constructs. Furthermore, our findings showed that the effect of habit strength on future behavior was to a large extent mediated by previous behavior. Conclusions Both habit and previous behavior are important as predictors of future behavior, and as educational objectives for behavior change programs. Our results revealed less stability for the constructs over time than expected. Habit strength was to a large extent mediated by previous behavior and our results do not strongly suggest a need for the inclusion of both constructs. Future research needs to assess the conditions that determine direct influences of both previous behavior and habit, since these influences may differ per type of health behavior, per context stability in which the behavior is performed, and per time frame used for predicting future behavior. PMID:25037859

  2. Longitudinal Associations between Externalizing Behavior and Dysfunctional Eating Attitudes and Behaviors: A Community-Based Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marmorstein, Naomi R.; von Ranson, Kristin M.; Iacono, William G.; Succop, Paul A.

    2007-01-01

    This study investigated longitudinal associations between externalizing behavior and dysfunctional eating attitudes and behaviors. Participants were girls drawn from the community-based Minnesota Twin Family Study and assessed at ages 11, 14, and 17. Cross-sectional correlations indicated that the strength of the associations between externalizing

  3. [Nutrition-related knowledge scarcely leads to any eating habit changes. The case of working-class mothers in Andalusia, Spain].

    PubMed

    Martín Criado, Enrique

    2007-01-01

    Many prevention-oriented public health policies consist of informative campaigns. These campaigns are based on the idea that information is the key to changing the practices on the part of the population thinking that, once provided with the necessary information, the subjects would change their living habits to more healthy ones. However, many studies have refuted this belief: There is a major gap between what is known about nutrition and actual everyday eating habits. An analysis is provided of this overall dynamic in the case of working-class mothers based on the results of qualitative research done in Andalusia on eating habits and discourses. Here also, we find a major gap between what is known about nutrition and actual everyday eating habits. In this article, an analysis is made of the reasons for this discrepancy as well as of the dynamics leading to continual distortions and reinterpretations of the messages given out by the health authorities. Based on these analyses, recommendations are proposed with a view to public health policy: Instead of general informative campaigns, more localized actions or actions which would have a bearing on the material living conditions would be more effective. PMID:18274355

  4. Inappropriate eating behavior: a longitudinal study with female adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Fortes, Leonardo de Sousa; Almeida, Sebastio de Sousa; Cipriani, Flvia Marcele; Ferreira, Maria Elisa C.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the inappropriate eating behaviors (IEB) of female adolescents over a one-year period. Methods: 290 adolescents aged between 11 and 14 years old participated in the three research stages (T1: first four months, T2: second four months and T3: third four months). The Eating Attitudes Test (EAT-26) was applied to assess the IEB. Weight and height were measured to calculate body mass index (BMI) in the three study periods. Analysis of variance for repeated measures was used to analyze the data, adjusted for the scores of the Body Shape Questionnaire and the Brazil Economic Classification Criteria. Results: Girls at T1 showed a higher frequency of IEB compared to T2 (p=0.001) and T3 (p=0.001). The findings also indicated higher values for BMI in T3 in relation to T1 (p=0.04). The other comparisons did not show statistically significant differences. Conclusions: IEB scores of female adolescents declined over one year. PMID:24676195

  5. Influence of Parenting Practices on Eating Behaviors of Early Adolescents during Independent Eating Occasions: Implications for Obesity Prevention.

    PubMed

    Reicks, Marla; Banna, Jinan; Cluskey, Mary; Gunther, Carolyn; Hongu, Nobuko; Richards, Rickelle; Topham, Glade; Wong, Siew Sun

    2015-10-01

    Among early adolescents (10-14 years), poor diet quality along with physical inactivity can contribute to an increased risk of obesity and associated biomarkers for chronic disease. Approximately one-third of United States (USA) children in this age group are overweight or obese. Therefore, attention to factors affecting dietary intake as one of the primary contributors to obesity is important. Early adolescents consume foods and beverages during eating occasions that occur with and without parental supervision. Parents may influence eating behaviors of early adolescents during eating occasions when they are present or during independent eating occasions by engaging in practices that affect availability of foods and beverages, and through perceived normative beliefs and expectations for intake. Therefore, the purpose of this article was to describe the influence of parenting practices on eating behaviors in general and when specifically applied to independent eating occasions of early adolescents. This information may be helpful to inform parenting interventions targeting obesity prevention among early adolescents focusing on independent eating occasions. PMID:26506384

  6. Influence of Parenting Practices on Eating Behaviors of Early Adolescents during Independent Eating Occasions: Implications for Obesity Prevention

    PubMed Central

    Reicks, Marla; Banna, Jinan; Cluskey, Mary; Gunther, Carolyn; Hongu, Nobuko; Richards, Rickelle; Topham, Glade; Wong, Siew Sun

    2015-01-01

    Among early adolescents (10–14 years), poor diet quality along with physical inactivity can contribute to an increased risk of obesity and associated biomarkers for chronic disease. Approximately one-third of United States (USA) children in this age group are overweight or obese. Therefore, attention to factors affecting dietary intake as one of the primary contributors to obesity is important. Early adolescents consume foods and beverages during eating occasions that occur with and without parental supervision. Parents may influence eating behaviors of early adolescents during eating occasions when they are present or during independent eating occasions by engaging in practices that affect availability of foods and beverages, and through perceived normative beliefs and expectations for intake. Therefore, the purpose of this article was to describe the influence of parenting practices on eating behaviors in general and when specifically applied to independent eating occasions of early adolescents. This information may be helpful to inform parenting interventions targeting obesity prevention among early adolescents focusing on independent eating occasions. PMID:26506384

  7. Eating habits in older people in Greece: the role of age, dental status and chewing difficulties.

    PubMed

    Kossioni, Anastassia; Bellou, Olga

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the role of age-related parameters on the dietary preferences in a Greek community-dwelling sample. 130 participants aged between 18 and 92 years were interviewed and clinically examined. Data were collected on their socio-demographic characteristics, their dental status, the oral complaints, their chewing difficulties and the frequency of eating a variety of food types. The results revealed that increasing age was associated with increased frequency of consumption of fish, grains and vegetables. Impaired dental status and chewing difficulties did not affect the frequency of eating meat and other "difficult to chew" food, but it was related to more frequent consumption of softer food (chicken, fish, grains, and dairy products). The older Greeks did not exclude any food type from their diet, because of dental impairment. To overcome chewing problems they used various preparing methods to consume their favorite food. The dietary patterns of the older participants adhere to the traditional Mediterranean diet greater than those of the younger ones, revealing the various cultural and social parameters which influence food selection. PMID:20399518

  8. Eating and nutrition habits in young competitive athletes: a comparison between soccer players and cyclists.

    PubMed Central

    Galanti, Giorgio; Stefani, Laura; Scacciati, Irene; Mascherini, Gabriele; Buti, Gabriella; Maffulli, Nicola

    2015-01-01

    The study evaluated the dietary habits in two groups of young athletes, practicing two different sports: soccer players and cycling. The dietary habits of 47 athletes were investigated by questionnaire. Body Mass Index, Fat Mass, Free Fat Mass, Total Body, Intracellular, Extracellular Water and Phase Angle were measured by bioimpedance. The t-Student test for unpaired data was used. Significance was set at P < 0.05. Body Mass Index was similar between the groups, while total body water and extracellular water were significantly higher in the soccer player group (soccer players: 63.8±1.96%; cyclists : 59.8 ± 8.7%; and soccer players 43.9±3.1%, cyclists 43.8 ±2.1%, respectively). Fatty mass of the soccer player group (14.5±2.9%) was significantly lower than that of the cyclist group (19.5±3.6%). Daily food intake was similar between the two groups (2844 kCal/die for soccer players /2630 kcal/die for cyclists), and lower than recommended. There was a low intake of Calcium (soccer players 1120±128.9 mg/die, cyclists 718±309 mg/die) for both groups, and a low intake of Potassium for soccer player (2576 mg/die ± 52.4) The caloric intake of adolescent athletes is lower than recommended. Body composition is significantly different between soccer players and cyclists. PMID:25674549

  9. Eating and nutrition habits in young competitive athletes: a comparison between soccer players and cyclists.

    PubMed

    Galanti, Giorgio; Stefani, Laura; Scacciati, Irene; Mascherini, Gabriele; Buti, Gabriella; Maffulli, Nicola

    2015-01-01

    The study evaluated the dietary habits in two groups of young athletes, practicing two different sports: soccer players and cycling. The dietary habits of 47 athletes were investigated by questionnaire. Body Mass Index, Fat Mass, Free Fat Mass, Total Body, Intracellular, Extracellular Water and Phase Angle were measured by bioimpedance. The t-Student test for unpaired data was used. Significance was set at P < 0.05. Body Mass Index was similar between the groups, while total body water and extracellular water were significantly higher in the soccer player group (soccer players: 63.81.96%; cyclists : 59.8 8.7%; and soccer players 43.93.1%, cyclists 43.8 2.1%, respectively). Fatty mass of the soccer player group (14.52.9%) was significantly lower than that of the cyclist group (19.53.6%). Daily food intake was similar between the two groups (2844 kCal/die for soccer players /2630 kcal/die for cyclists), and lower than recommended. There was a low intake of Calcium (soccer players 1120128.9 mg/die, cyclists 718309 mg/die) for both groups, and a low intake of Potassium for soccer player (2576 mg/die 52.4) The caloric intake of adolescent athletes is lower than recommended. Body composition is significantly different between soccer players and cyclists. PMID:25674549

  10. The impact of food branding on children's eating behavior and obesity.

    PubMed

    Keller, Kathleen L; Kuilema, Laura G; Lee, Norman; Yoon, Joyce; Mascaro, Brittany; Combes, Anne-Laure; Deutsch, Bryan; Sorte, Kathryn; Halford, Jason C G

    2012-06-01

    Branding is a technique used by the food industry to create a recognizable image to attract consumers and hopefully boost sales of the product. Children recognize food brands from a young age, but their impact on the development of eating behaviors and obesity is unclear. In addition, the notion that some branding techniques may be used to increase intake of healthful foods, like fruits and vegetables, has not been rigorously investigated. Three laboratory-based intake studies designed to test the impact of common food brands on children's eating habits are presented. In the first study, four to six year-old children (n=43) were exposed to ad libitum test-meals where foods were presented either with or without their associated branding. In the second study, a novel food brand based Stroop task was developed and tested to assess children's cognitive response to food brands, and following this procedure, seven to nine year-old children (n=41) ate ad libitum test-meals consisting of foods packaged with or without a logo from a popular fast food restaurant. Finally, a pilot intervention was conducted with four to five year-old children (n=16) to demonstrate the efficacy of using licensed (spokes) characters to package and promote intake of fruits and vegetables. These studies demonstrate that branding is an important influence on what and how much children eat, but some children may be more susceptible to these influences than others. Future studies are needed to better understand the influence that child age, sex, and obesity has on response to food branding and marketing. PMID:22450261

  11. Nutritional Knowledge and Eating Behaviors of Female, Collegiate Swimmers

    PubMed Central

    Morris, Jennifer; Morris, Chad; Schaefer, Katharine

    2009-01-01

    Background Female athletes often have inadequate diets due to lack of nutritional knowledge and nutritional misconceptions. Poor nutrition may lead to an increased chance of developing the Female Athlete Triad, a trio of low energy availability, menstrual dysfunction, and low bone mass. Physical therapists, as part of a healthcare team, must be prepared to address nutritional issues, recognize signs and symptoms of the female athlete triad, and make the appropriate intervention or referral. Objectives The purpose of this study was to determine the nutritional knowledge of female collegiate swimmers and how effectively they apply their nutritional knowledge to their everyday eating habits. Methods Eighty-five female collegiate swimmers from six Michigan universities completed a nutritional knowledge questionnaire and a 24-hour food recall survey. Demographic, nutritional, and statistical data were analyzed. Results The mean score on nutritional knowledge test was 54.53/76 (71.75% correct). Mean total caloric intake of swimmers was 3229.10 calories per day. Ninety-five point nine percent did not meet the recommended dietary allowance (RDA) for all three macronutrients. No difference in total mean survey score existed between the three collegiate divisions. Conclusion This study suggests that athletes lack knowledge of nutrition, healthy food choices, components of a well-balanced diet, and the implications of nutrition on performance. PMID:21509109

  12. [Changes in eating habits and disease symptoms in the 16th and 17th centuries].

    PubMed

    Van Hee, R

    1996-01-01

    The Renaissance period in Europe saw many dietary changes due to imports of new ingredients from the Far East as well as from newly discovered Central and South America. Maize and potatoes rapidly conquered European markets and because of their easier cultivation and higher calorie content, displaced grains such as wheat and rye. Drinking habits too changed, when tea, coffee and chocolate were introduced, first as strengthening medicines, later as 'delicatessen' in the aristocratic British and French cafs. These new foods and beverages may have helped diminish the periods of famine typical of Medieval and Early Renaissance times. In the 16th and 17th century, new diseases were described that were directly related to dietary intake. Ergotism and scurvy, particularly, sometimes decimated whole populations in rural areas or at sea. It was not until the 18th century that scientific research elucidated the cause of such diseases and helped us to understand the importance of a balanced diet. PMID:8848874

  13. Contextual Influences on Eating Behaviors: Heuristic Processing and Dietary Choices

    PubMed Central

    Cohen, Deborah A.; Babey, Susan H.

    2013-01-01

    This paper reviews some of the evidence that dietary behaviors are, in large part, the consequence of automatic responses to contextual food cues, many of which lead to increased caloric consumption and poor dietary choices. We describe studies that illustrate how these automatic mechanisms underlie eating behaviors, as well as evidence that individuals are subject to inherent cognitive limitations, and mostly lack the capacity to consistently recognize, ignore or resist contextual cues that encourage eating. Restaurants and grocery stores are the primary settings from which people obtain food. These settings are often designed to maximize sales of food by strategically placing and promoting items to encourage impulse purchases. Although a great deal of marketing research is proprietary, this paper describes some of the published studies that indicate that changes in superficial characteristics of food products, including packaging and portion sizes, design, salience, health claims, and labeling strongly influence food choices and consumption in ways for which people generally lack insight. We discuss whether contextual influences might be considered environmental risk factors from which individuals may need the kinds of protections that fall under the mission of public health. PMID:22551473

  14. Understanding Eating and Exercise Behaviors in Post Roux-en-Y Gastric Bypass Patients: A Quantitative and Qualitative Study

    PubMed Central

    Davies, Michael L.; Kattelmann, Kendra

    2013-01-01

    Background Weight regain following gastric bypass (GB) surgery continues to plague many individuals across the United States. However, understanding long-term eating and exercise behaviors to promote and sustain a lower weight following GB surgery is limited. Method The purpose of this study was to explore the perceptions and attitudes of eating and exercise behaviors associated with weight maintenance in post-GB patients (n=24) 2 or more years postsurgery. Demographic, anthropometric, and food record data were collected. Focus groups and personal interviews were used to understand behaviors and support systems associated with weight stabilization. Focus groups were audio-taped, transcribed, and organized into common themes. Results All participants were female, with a mean of 6 years postsurgery, and had a mean age of 51.8±10.5 years. The majority were married (71%) and had a college degree (58%). Although the average weight regain postsurgery was estimated at 16.2±12.7 kg, most of the women (75%) had maintained a significant weight loss of at least 50% of their excess body weight. Themes associated with weight regain emerging from the focus groups included variable family support and a return to “old eating habits.” Conclusion Focus group participants identified lack of long-term emotional support from family members and limited community support for weight loss surgery patients. PMID:24761367

  15. Determinants of Low-Fat Eating Behaviors among Midlife African American Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evans, Gina L.; McNeil, Lorna H.; Laufman, Larry; Bowman, Sharon L.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of this study was to explore midlife African American women's low-fat eating habits in the context of health attitudes, social support, and food preferences. Design: A cross-sectional design was used. Settings: One Midwestern and 1 national African American women's organization were targeted for data collection.…

  16. Determinants of Low-Fat Eating Behaviors among Midlife African American Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evans, Gina L.; McNeil, Lorna H.; Laufman, Larry; Bowman, Sharon L.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of this study was to explore midlife African American women's low-fat eating habits in the context of health attitudes, social support, and food preferences. Design: A cross-sectional design was used. Settings: One Midwestern and 1 national African American women's organization were targeted for data collection.

  17. Sedentary Behavior as a Daily Process Regulated by Habits and Intentions

    PubMed Central

    Conroy, David E.; Maher, Jaclyn P.; Elavsky, Steriani; Hyde, Amanda L.; Doerksen, Shawna E.

    2014-01-01

    Objective Sedentary behavior is a health risk but little is known about the motivational processes that regulate daily sedentary behavior. This study was designed to test a dual-process model of daily sedentary behavior, with an emphasis on the role of intentions and habits in regulating daily sedentary behavior. Methods College students (N = 128) self-reported on their habit strength for sitting and completed a 14-day ecological momentary assessment study that combined daily diaries for reporting motivation and behavior with ambulatory monitoring of sedentary behavior using accelerometers. Results Less than half of the variance in daily sedentary behavior was attributable to between-person differences. People with stronger sedentary habits reported more sedentary behavior on average. People whose intentions for limiting sedentary behavior were stronger, on average, exhibited less self-reported sedentary behavior (and marginally less monitored sedentary behavior). Daily deviations in those intentions were negatively associated with changes in daily sedentary behavior (i.e., stronger than usual intentions to limit sedentary behavior were associated with reduced sedentary behavior). Sedentary behavior also varied within-people as a function of concurrent physical activity, the day of week, and the day in the sequence of the monitoring period. Conclusions Sedentary behavior was regulated by both automatic and controlled motivational processes. Interventions should target both of these motivational processes to facilitate and maintain behavior change. Links between sedentary behavior and daily deviations in intentions also indicate the need for ongoing efforts to support controlled motivational processes on a daily basis. PMID:23477579

  18. Chronic stress exposure may affect the brain's response to high calorie food cues and predispose to obesogenic eating habits.

    PubMed

    Tryon, Matthew S; Carter, Cameron S; Decant, Rashel; Laugero, Kevin D

    2013-08-15

    Exaggerated reactivity to food cues involving calorically-dense foods may significantly contribute to food consumption beyond caloric need. Chronic stress, which can induce palatable "comfort" food consumption, may trigger or reinforce neural pathways leading to stronger reactions to highly rewarding foods. We implemented functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to assess whether chronic stress influences activation in reward, motivation and executive brain regions in response to pictures of high calorie and low calorie foods in thirty women. On separate lab visits, we also assessed food intake from a snack food buffet and circulating cortisol. In women reporting higher chronic stress (HCS), pictures of high calorie foods elicited exaggerated activity in regions of the brain involving reward, motivation, and habitual decision-making. In response to pictures of high calorie food, higher chronic stress was also associated with significant deactivation in frontal regions (BA10; BA46) linked to strategic planning and emotional control. In functional connectivity analysis, HCS strengthened connectivity between amygdala and the putamen, while LCS enhanced connectivity between amygdala and the anterior cingulate and anterior prefrontal cortex (BA10). A hypocortisolemic signature and more consumption of high calorie foods from the snack buffet were observed in the HCS group. These results suggest that persistent stress exposure may alter the brain's response to food in ways that predispose individuals to poor eating habits which, if sustained, may increase risk for obesity. PMID:23954410

  19. Eating Habits and Body-weights of Students of the University of Belgrade, Serbia: A Cross-sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Tepavcevic, Darija B. Kisic; Popovic, Aleksandra; Pekmezovic, Tatjana

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this survey was to quantify the prevalence of overweight and obesity among a sample of students in Belgrade University, Serbia and to describe their main eating habits. A total of 1,624 questionnaire responses were analyzed (response rate 97.3%). The students were recruited during mandatory annual check-ups in April-June 2009. All subjects completed the questionnaire; height (in cm) and weight (in km) were measured by two physicians. Results were assessed statistically. Almost every fourth male student was overweight. Strikingly, 15% of female students were underweight. Highly-significant difference was found between average body mass index (BMI) of male and female students (F=317.8, p=0.001). Students BMI did not correlate with average family income or with the frequency of taking breakfast (p=-0.064, p=0.152 for males and ?=0.034, p=0.282 for females respectively). There is a growing demand for global health strategies which would encourage healthy body-image and figure; thus, these initiatives should mobilize the society on a national and international level. PMID:24288946

  20. GOOD FOODS AND BAD FOODS: THE ROLE OF RESTRICTION IN CHILDREN'S EATING HABITS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The parent-child relationship provides the primary social context in which children develop. This applies not only to social behaviors but to health behaviors as well. Families (n=320) participated as part of a larger study on obesity among Hispanics. Children were served a dinner providing 50% o...

  1. Survey on Dysfunctional Eating Behavior in Adult Persons with Intellectual Disability Living in the Community

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hove, Oddbjorn

    2007-01-01

    Prevalence of dysfunctional eating behavior was investigated in 311 adult persons with mental retardation living in the West Coast of Norway. Reports from a questionnaire filled out by health workers were used as observational data. The main finding was that 64.3% of the clients showed indices of dysfunctional eating behavior. The five most

  2. Body weight status, eating behavior, sensitivity to reward/punishment, and gender: relationships and interdependencies

    PubMed Central

    Dietrich, Anja; Federbusch, Martin; Grellmann, Claudia; Villringer, Arno; Horstmann, Annette

    2014-01-01

    Behavioral and personality characteristics are factors that may jointly regulate body weight. This study explored the relationship between body mass index (BMI) and self-reported behavioral and personality measures. These measures included eating behavior (based on the Three-Factor Eating Questionnaire; Stunkard and Messick, 1985), sensitivity to reward and punishment (based on the Behavioral Inhibition System/Behavioral Activation System (BIS/BAS) scales) (Carver and White, 1994) and self-reported impulsivity (based on the Barratt Impulsiveness Scale-11; Patton et al., 1995). We found an inverted U-shaped relationship between restrained eating and BMI. This relationship was moderated by the level of disinhibited eating. Independent of eating behavior, BIS and BAS responsiveness were associated with BMI in a gender-specific manner with negative relationships for men and positive relationships for women. Together, eating behavior and BIS/BAS responsiveness accounted for a substantial proportion of BMI variance (men: ∼25%, women: ∼32%). A direct relationship between self-reported impulsivity and BMI was not observed. In summary, our results demonstrate a system of linear and non-linear relationships between the investigated factors and BMI. Moreover, body weight status was not only associated with eating behavior (cognitive restraint and disinhibition), but also with personality factors not inherently related to an eating context (BIS/BAS). Importantly, these relationships differ between men and women. PMID:25368586

  3. Reported Childhood Sexual Abuse and Eating-Disordered Cognitions and Behaviors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Gerko, K.; Hughes, M.L.; Hamill, M.; Waller, G.

    2005-01-01

    Objective:: This study assessed links between reported childhood sexual abuse and a range of eating behaviors and attitudes, among a large sample of eating-disordered women. It tested the hypothesis that there will be links to bulimic behaviors and body dissatisfaction, rather than restriction. Method:: The sample consisted of 299 women, meeting

  4. The Impact of Teachers and Families on Young Children's Eating Behaviors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eliassen, Erin K.

    2011-01-01

    Young children depend on their families and teachers to support their well-being and promote positive development, including eating behaviors. Children's food preferences and willingness to try new foods are influenced by the people around them. The eating behaviors children practice early in life affect their health and nutrition--significant

  5. Description of an Intensive Dialectical Behavior Therapy Program for Multidiagnostic Clients with Eating Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Federici, Anita; Wisniewski, Lucene; Ben-Porath, Denise

    2012-01-01

    The authors describe an intensive outpatient dialectical behavior therapy (DBT) program for multidiagnostic clients with eating disorders who had not responded adequately to standard, empirically supported treatments for eating disorders. The program integrates DBT with empirically supported cognitive behavior therapy approaches that are well…

  6. Description of an Intensive Dialectical Behavior Therapy Program for Multidiagnostic Clients with Eating Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Federici, Anita; Wisniewski, Lucene; Ben-Porath, Denise

    2012-01-01

    The authors describe an intensive outpatient dialectical behavior therapy (DBT) program for multidiagnostic clients with eating disorders who had not responded adequately to standard, empirically supported treatments for eating disorders. The program integrates DBT with empirically supported cognitive behavior therapy approaches that are well

  7. The Impact of Teachers and Families on Young Children's Eating Behaviors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eliassen, Erin K.

    2011-01-01

    Young children depend on their families and teachers to support their well-being and promote positive development, including eating behaviors. Children's food preferences and willingness to try new foods are influenced by the people around them. The eating behaviors children practice early in life affect their health and nutrition--significant…

  8. Aspects of eating behaviors disinhibition and restraint are related to weight gain and BMI in women

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Objective: The causes of adult weight gain leading to obesity are uncertain. We examined the association of adult weight gain and obesity with subscales of eating behavior characteristics in older women. Research Methods and Procedures: Current height and weight, eating behavior subscales (Disinh...

  9. Genetic and environmental influences on eating behaviors in 2.5- and 9-year-old children: a longitudinal twin study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Eating behaviors during childhood are related both to children’s diet quality and to their weight status. A better understanding of the determinants of eating behavior during childhood is essential for carrying out effective dietary interventions. Methods We assessed the contribution of genetic and environmental factors to variations in selected eating behaviors in early and late childhood. Information on eating behaviors came from questionnaires administered to parents of children participating in the Quebec Newborn Twin Study when the twins were 2.5 and 9 years old (n = 692 children). Dichotomous variables were derived and analyzed using structural equation modeling, as part of a classic twin study design. We performed univariate and bivariate longitudinal analyses to quantify sources of variation and covariation across ages, for several eating behavior traits. Results We found moderate to strong heritability for traits related to appetite such as eating too much, not eating enough and eating too fast. Univariate analysis estimates varied from 0.71 (95% CI: 0.49, 0.87) to 0.89 (0.75, 0.96) in younger children and from 0.44 (0.18, 0.66) to 0.56 (0.28, 0.78) in older children. Bivariate longitudinal analyses indicated modest to moderate genetic correlations across ages (rA varying from 0.34 to 0.58). Common genetic influences explained 17% to 43% of the phenotypic correlation between 2.5 and 9 years for these appetite-related behaviors. In 9-year-old children, food acceptance traits, such as refusing to eat and being fussy about food, had high heritability estimates, 0.84 (0.63, 0.94) and 0.85 (0.59, 0.96) respectively, while in younger children, the shared environment (i.e., common to both twins) contributed most to phenotypic variance. Variances in meal-pattern-related behaviors were mostly explained by shared environmental influences. Conclusions Genetic predispositions explain a large part of the variations in traits related to appetite during childhood, though our results suggest that as children get older, appetite-related behaviors become more sensitive to environmental influences outside the home. Still, for several traits environmental influences shared by twins appear to have the largest relative importance. This finding supports the notion that familial context has considerable potential to influence the development of healthy eating habits throughout childhood. PMID:24313977

  10. Nutritional status and eating habits of bus drivers during the day and night.

    PubMed

    Balieiro, Laura Cristina Tibiletti; Rossato, Luana Thomazetto; Waterhouse, Jim; Paim, Samantha Lemos; Mota, Maria Carliana; Crispim, Cibele Aparecida

    2014-12-01

    The aim of this study was to compare anthropometry and food intake patterns in bus drivers working during the day and night. One hundred and fifty males (81 night workers and 69 day workers) participated in the study. Dietary intake was assessed using a validated semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire. Measurements of height, weight, waist circumference (WC), systolic and diastolic blood pressure, blood glucose, and lipid profile were obtained. A significant difference between groups was observed for mean WC (98.5??10.7?cm in day workers versus 103.2??9.7?cm in night workers; p?=?0.005). Night workers had higher prevalence of being overweight and obese (BMI???25?kg/m(2)) than day workers (78.2% day workers versus 90.2% night workers; p?=?0.004) and increased WC (>94?cm) (72.4% day workers versus 86.4% night workers; p?=?0.03). Significant differences were found for meat consumption (2.3 servings 0.9 for night workers versus 2.0 servings 0.7 day workers, p?=?0.04) and fruit intake (0.9 servings 0.4 for night workers versus 0.7 servings for day workers 0.5; p?=?0.006). Night workers had a lower intake of vegetables than recommended compared to day workers (100 versus 92.7%, respectively, p?=?0.01) and higher intake of oil (40.7 versus 24.6%, p?=?0.03). Multivariate logistic regression analysis indicated that night work was associated with being overweight (OR?=?2.94, 95% IC: 1.14-7.66, p?=?0.03) and abnormal values of WC (OR?=?2.82, 95% IC: 1.20-6.69, p?=?0.009) after adjusting for potential confounders. It is concluded that night workers had a higher prevalence and risk of being overweight/obese and increased WC compared with day workers. Night workers also presented a higher proportion of inappropriate intakes of food groups when compared to day workers, even though both groups were eating poor diets. These results demonstrate the need of lifestyle-intervention programs in these workers. PMID:25231504

  11. Environmental influences on small eating behavior change to promote weight loss among Black and Hispanic populations.

    PubMed

    Eldridge, Johanna D; Devine, Carol M; Wethington, Elaine; Aceves, Luz; Phillips-Caesar, Erica; Wansink, Brian; Charlson, Mary E

    2016-01-01

    Small eating behavior changes are proposed as more feasible to achieve and maintain than larger changes used in traditional behavioral weight loss studies. However, it is unclear whether overweight Black and Hispanic adults in a low-income urban setting experience small changes as feasible and what might influence feasibility. Participants' experiences in a 12-week pilot weight loss intervention were explored qualitatively to determine the feasibility of making small eating behavior changes in this population. After the intervention (69% retention), semi-structured interviews with 46 men and women (mean age 51, 50% Non-Hispanic Black, 43% Hispanic) revealed that making small eating changes was a process shaped by participants' intrapersonal and interpersonal eating environments. Participants responded to intrapersonal and interpersonal eating environmental challenges by adapting small change strategies, navigating eating environments, and negotiating household eating practices. Findings highlight how even small eating behavior changes called for adaptation, navigation, and negotiation of complex eating environments in daily life. These findings were used to improve the trial that followed and underline the importance of feasibility studies to inform community trials. Findings also add to understanding of contextual challenges and the skills needed to implement small changes in a low income, ethnic minority population. PMID:26368577

  12. The endocannabinoid system: directing eating behavior and macronutrient metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Watkins, Bruce A.; Kim, Jeffrey

    2015-01-01

    For many years, the brain has been the primary focus for research on eating behavior. More recently, the discovery of the endocannabinoids (EC) and the endocannabinoid system (ECS), as well as the characterization of its actions on appetite and metabolism, has provided greater insight on the brain and food intake. The purpose of this review is to explain the actions of EC in the brain and other organs as well as their precursor polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) that are converted to these endogenous ligands. The binding of the EC to the cannabinoid receptors in the brain stimulates food intake, and the ECS participates in systemic macronutrient metabolism where the gastrointestinal system, liver, muscle, and adipose are involved. The EC are biosynthesized from two distinct families of dietary PUFA, namely the n-6 and n-3. Based on their biochemistry, these PUFA are well known to exert considerable physiological and health-promoting actions. However, little is known about how these different families of PUFA compete as precursor ligands of cannabinoid receptors to stimulate appetite or perhaps down-regulate the ECS to amend food intake and prevent or control obesity. The goal of this review is to assess the current available research on ECS and food intake, suggest research that may improve the complications associated with obesity and diabetes by dietary PUFA intervention, and further reveal mechanisms to elucidate the relationships between substrate for EC synthesis, ligand actions on receptors, and the physiological consequences of the ECS. Dietary PUFA are lifestyle factors that could potentially curb eating behavior, which may translate to changes in macronutrient metabolism, systemically and in muscle, benefiting health overall. PMID:25610411

  13. Promoting Lifelong Healthy Eating: An Overview. CDC's Guidelines for School Health Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (DHHS/CDC), Atlanta, GA. Adolescent and School Health Div.

    This publication describes the importance of promoting healthy eating habits among school-age children, discussing the benefits of healthy eating (e.g., prevents child and adolescent health problems and health problems later in life) and noting the consequences of unhealthy eating (e.g., hungry childen are more likely to have behavioral,…

  14. Interoceptive sensitivity, body weight and eating behavior in children: a prospective study

    PubMed Central

    Koch, Anne; Pollatos, Olga

    2014-01-01

    Previous research indicates that interindividual differences in the ability to perceive one's own bodily signals (interoceptive sensitivity, IS) are associated with disordered eating behavior and weight problems. But representative and prospective data in children are lacking and therefore, the exact nature of these observed associations remains unclear. Data on IS measured by heartbeat perception ability in 1657 children between 6 and 11 years of age were collected on the basis of two measurement points with a year distance in time. Stability of the construct and its prospective association with different food approach behaviors [assessed via parent questionnaires (Children's Eating Behavior Questionnaire and Dutch Eating Behavior Questionnaire)] as well as with weight status were analyzed via structural equation modeling. Main results were that only in overweight children external and emotional eating behavior were predictive for later IS, whereas no such relation was found in normal weight children. There was no direct relation between IS and body mass index. For the first time, we could show that eating behavior and IS in middle childhood are prospectively related to each other. But surprisingly, our data indicate that altered interoceptive processes rather follow than precede non-adaptive eating behavior patterns in overweight children. This suggests a possible crucial role of faulty learning mechanisms in eating behavior early in life, undermining the later confidence in one's body. PMID:25250006

  15. Your Child's Habits

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Cerebral Palsy: Caring for Your Child Your Child's Habits KidsHealth > For Parents > Your Child's Habits Print A ... and is not cause for alarm. What's a Habit? A habit is a pattern of behavior that's ...

  16. How do mothers manage their preschool children's eating habits and does this change as children grow older? A longitudinal analysis.

    PubMed

    Jarman, Megan; Ogden, Jane; Inskip, Hazel; Lawrence, Wendy; Baird, Janis; Cooper, Cyrus; Robinson, Sian; Barker, Mary

    2015-12-01

    The practices mothers adopt in relation to feeding their children have been identified as important predictors of children's quality of diet. However, most studies of the impact of these practices on quality of children's diets have been cross-sectional in design, limiting conclusions about change and causality. Previous research has called for qualitative exploration of the way these practices are used in a real-life setting. This study set out to address these gaps in knowledge. At baseline, mothers recruited to a community-based intervention study and who had a preschool child, completed a questionnaire about their use of covert and overt control practices, child food neophobia and demographics. The quality of children's diets was assessed using a validated food frequency questionnaire. Both questionnaires were repeated with the mothers two years later. Complete data at both time points were available for 228 mother-child pairs. Four focus group discussions were conducted with 29 mothers of preschool children to explore their experiences of feeding young children. Mothers who increased their use of overt control had children whose level of food neophobia also increased (P = 0.02). Mothers who used more covert control had children with better quality diets at both time points (P = <0.01) and mothers who increased their use of covert control over the two year follow-up had children whose diet quality improved (P = 0.003). These associations were independent of confounders such as mother's level of education. In the focus groups, mothers suggested that feeding young children was stressful and that control was often relinquished in order to reduce conflict at mealtimes. Supporting parents to adopt more covert techniques to control their children's eating habits may be an effective way of improving the quality of young children's diets. PMID:26271222

  17. Eating Behavior Dimensions: Associations With Energy Intake And Body Weight: A Review

    PubMed Central

    French, Simone A.; Epstein, Leonard H; Jeffery, Robert W.; Blundell, John E.; Wardle, Jane

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this review is to spark integrative thinking in the area of eating behaviors by critically examining research on exemplary constructs in this area. The eating behaviors food responsiveness, enjoyment of eating, satiety responsiveness, eating in the absence of hunger, reinforcing value of food, eating disinhibition and impulsivity/self-control are reviewed in relation to energy intake, body mass index and weight gain over time. Each of these constructs has been developed independently, and little research has explored the extent to which they overlap or whether they differentially predict food choices, energy intake and weight gain in the naturalistic environment. Most available data show positive cross-sectional associations with body mass index, but fewer studies report associations with energy intake or food choices. Little prospective data are available to link measures of eating behaviors with weight gain. Disinhibition has the largest and most consistent body of empirical data that link it prospectively with weight gain. An overarching conceptual model to integrate the conceptual and empirical research base for the role of eating behavior dimensions in the field of obesity research would highlight potential patterns of interaction between individual differences in eating behaviors, specific aspects of the individual’s food environment and individual variation in state levels of hunger and satiety. PMID:22796186

  18. Seemingly irrational driving behavior model: The effect of habit strength and anticipated affective reactions.

    PubMed

    Chung, Yi-Shih

    2015-09-01

    An increasing amount of evidence suggests that aberrant driving behaviors are not entirely rational. On the basis of the dual-process theory, this study postulates that drivers may learn to perform irrational aberrant driving behaviors, and these behaviors could be derived either from a deliberate or an intuitive decision-making approach. Accordingly, a seemingly irrational driving behavior model is proposed; in this model, the theory of planned behavior (TPB) was adopted to represent the deliberate decision-making mechanism, and habit strength was incorporated to reflect the intuitive decision process. A multiple trivariate mediation structure was designed to reflect the process through which driving behaviors are learned. Anticipated affective reactions (AARs) were further included to examine the effect of affect on aberrant driving behaviors. Considering the example of speeding behaviors, this study developed scales and conducted a two-wave survey of students in two departments at a university in Northern Taiwan. The analysis results show that habit strength consists of multiple aspects, and frequency of past behavior cannot be a complete repository for accumulating habit strength. Habit strength appeared to be a crucial mediator between intention antecedents (e.g., attitude) and the intention itself. Including habit strength in the TPB model enhanced the explained variance of speeding intention by 26.7%. In addition, AARs were different from attitudes; particularly, young drivers tended to perform speeding behaviors to reduce negative feelings such as regret. The proposed model provides an effective alternative approach for investigating aberrant driving behaviors; corresponding countermeasures are discussed. PMID:26056969

  19. Clothing interests, body satisfaction, and eating behavior of adolescent females: related or independent dimensions?

    PubMed

    Littrell, M A; Damhorst, M L; Littrell, J M

    1990-01-01

    Adolescents' clothing interests, body satisfaction, and eating behaviors were examined for conceptual dimensions and possible interrelationships. Generation of hypotheses was the goal of this exploratory research. Instruments measuring adolescents' dress concerns, body satisfaction, and eating behaviors were administered to 751 females. Principal component analysis was used to identify five clothing dimensions (experimentation, self-enhancement, conformity, economics and practicality, and modesty), two body satisfaction dimensions (face and extremities, midsection and weight), and two eating dimensions (drive for thinness and binging). Items measuring clothing interests, body satisfaction, and eating behaviors were conceptually independent; clothing factors showed little or no correlation with either body satisfaction or eating factors. Hypotheses were generated related to concepts identified in the factors. PMID:2333804

  20. Is eating behavior manipulated by the gastrointestinal microbiota? Evolutionary pressures and potential mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Alcock, Joe; Maley, Carlo C; Aktipis, C Athena

    2014-10-01

    Microbes in the gastrointestinal tract are under selective pressure to manipulate host eating behavior to increase their fitness, sometimes at the expense of host fitness. Microbes may do this through two potential strategies: (i) generating cravings for foods that they specialize on or foods that suppress their competitors, or (ii) inducing dysphoria until we eat foods that enhance their fitness. We review several potential mechanisms for microbial control over eating behavior including microbial influence on reward and satiety pathways, production of toxins that alter mood, changes to receptors including taste receptors, and hijacking of the vagus nerve, the neural axis between the gut and the brain. We also review the evidence for alternative explanations for cravings and unhealthy eating behavior. Because microbiota are easily manipulatable by prebiotics, probiotics, antibiotics, fecal transplants, and dietary changes, altering our microbiota offers a tractable approach to otherwise intractable problems of obesity and unhealthy eating. PMID:25103109

  1. Is eating behavior manipulated by the gastrointestinal microbiota? Evolutionary pressures and potential mechanisms

    PubMed Central

    Alcock, Joe; Maley, Carlo C; Aktipis, C Athena

    2014-01-01

    Microbes in the gastrointestinal tract are under selective pressure to manipulate host eating behavior to increase their fitness, sometimes at the expense of host fitness. Microbes may do this through two potential strategies: (i) generating cravings for foods that they specialize on or foods that suppress their competitors, or (ii) inducing dysphoria until we eat foods that enhance their fitness. We review several potential mechanisms for microbial control over eating behavior including microbial influence on reward and satiety pathways, production of toxins that alter mood, changes to receptors including taste receptors, and hijacking of the vagus nerve, the neural axis between the gut and the brain. We also review the evidence for alternative explanations for cravings and unhealthy eating behavior. Because microbiota are easily manipulatable by prebiotics, probiotics, antibiotics, fecal transplants, and dietary changes, altering our microbiota offers a tractable approach to otherwise intractable problems of obesity and unhealthy eating. PMID:25103109

  2. Relationship between needs driving eating occasions and eating behavior in midlife women

    PubMed Central

    Sudo, Noriko; Degeneffe, Dennis; Vue, Houa; Ghosh, Koel; Reicks, Marla

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this cross-sectional study was to determine the relationship between type of eating occasion based on need state segments experienced by 200 midlife women (46 6 years) and food group, nutrient, and energy intake. Women completed an Eating Occasion Questionnaire for 3 eating occasions over a 3-day period for which they maintained diet records. Cluster analysis segmented 559 eating occasions into six need states. Energy, total fat, and cholesterol consumption per occasion were highest in routine family meal occasions of which more than 60% were dinner and eaten at home with their children. The percentage of eating occasions in which fruits/vegetables were eaten was also highest in routine family meal, followed by healthy regimen. More than half of indulgent escape eating occasions occurred away from home and about one-third were experienced as a snack. Saturated fat and sweets intakes were the highest in the indulgent escapes occasions. Eating occasions experienced by women according to needs surrounding the occasion should be considered when developing tailored interventions to improve intake. PMID:18835412

  3. [What you need to know about eating and drinking behavior in school-aged children].

    PubMed

    Laimbacher, J

    2012-08-01

    "Eating and drinking" are key elements in and for the life of our children. They supply the child with sufficient energy and essential nutrients, they constitute the basis for an optimal growth and they initiate a good life style with sufficient physical activity, pleasure and other sensory inputs. This article provides important information on the optimal combination of food groups and presents recommendations regarding daily routine of children and families using the food pyramid and the nutrition disc of the Swiss society of nutrition. A short discussion covers the subjects of problematic eating habits (over, underweight), allergies as well as pseudoallergies and lactose intolerance. PMID:22851465

  4. Effects of Behavioral Weight Control Intervention on Binge Eating Symptoms among Overweight Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mehlenbeck, Robyn S.; Jelalian, Elissa; Lloyd-Richardson, Elizabeth E.; Hart, Chantelle N.

    2009-01-01

    This study examined change in binge eating symptoms reported by moderately overweight adolescents following participation in a behavioral weight control intervention. A total of 194 adolescents across two randomized controlled trials participated. Adolescents in both study samples endorsed a mild level of binge eating symptoms at baseline. Results

  5. Counseling College Women Experiencing Eating Disorder Not Otherwise Specified: A Cognitive Behavior Therapy Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Choate, Laura H.

    2010-01-01

    Eating disorder not otherwise specified (EDNOS; American Psychiatric Association, 2000) is, by far, the most common eating disorder that college counseling professionals encounter among their female clients. Empirical evidence and best practice guidelines support use of cognitive behavior therapy (CBT) with women experiencing EDNOS. This article

  6. Cognitive Behavioral Guided Self-Help for the Treatment of Recurrent Binge Eating

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Striegel-Moore, Ruth H.; Wilson, G. Terence; DeBar, Lynn; Perrin, Nancy; Lynch, Frances; Rosselli, Francine; Kraemer, Helena C.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: Despite proven efficacy of cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) for treating eating disorders with binge eating as the core symptom, few patients receive CBT in clinical practice. Our blended efficacy-effectiveness study sought to evaluate whether a manual-based guided self-help form of CBT (CBT-GSH), delivered in 8 sessions in a health…

  7. Counseling College Women Experiencing Eating Disorder Not Otherwise Specified: A Cognitive Behavior Therapy Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Choate, Laura H.

    2010-01-01

    Eating disorder not otherwise specified (EDNOS; American Psychiatric Association, 2000) is, by far, the most common eating disorder that college counseling professionals encounter among their female clients. Empirical evidence and best practice guidelines support use of cognitive behavior therapy (CBT) with women experiencing EDNOS. This article…

  8. A Comparison of Eating Behaviors between Children with and without Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schreck, Kimberly A.; Williams, Keith; Smith, Angela F.

    2004-01-01

    Although clinicians typically assume that feeding problems co-exist with a diagnosis of autism, no previous research has compared the eating behavior of children with autism to typically developing children. This study compared caregiver report of eating problems of children with and without autism on a standardized questionnaire. The

  9. Sports Participation and Disordered Eating Behaviors and Beliefs of Middle School Girls.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burckes-Miller, Mardie; Burak, Lydia J.

    2002-01-01

    Examined the disordered eating behaviors and beliefs of female middle school athletes, investigating the relationship between number and type of sports played and disordered eating. Student surveys indicated that girls participated in a mean of 4.6 sports and reported an average of 2.1 weight dissatisfied beliefs and restrictive or disordered

  10. Eating Disorder Behaviors of Ethnically Diverse Urban Female Adolescent Athletes and Non-Athletes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rhea, Deborah J.

    1999-01-01

    Compares Caucasian, Hispanic, and African-American urban adolescent non-athlete females for frequency of behavioral and psychological indices of eating disorders. Study suggests that Hispanic and Caucasian urban adolescent females are comparably more at-risk for eating disorders than African-American urban adolescent females. Athletes were no more

  11. Eating Behavior of Overweight and Nonoverweight Persons in the Natural Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LeBow, Michael D.; And Others

    1977-01-01

    Eating behaviors of 34 overweight and 37 nonoverweight male and female customers of a quick-service diner were observed for differences in speed of eating as a function of weight, sex, and type of meal selected. Overweight take fewer bites and chews. (Author)

  12. Cognitive Behavioral Guided Self-Help for the Treatment of Recurrent Binge Eating

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Striegel-Moore, Ruth H.; Wilson, G. Terence; DeBar, Lynn; Perrin, Nancy; Lynch, Frances; Rosselli, Francine; Kraemer, Helena C.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: Despite proven efficacy of cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) for treating eating disorders with binge eating as the core symptom, few patients receive CBT in clinical practice. Our blended efficacy-effectiveness study sought to evaluate whether a manual-based guided self-help form of CBT (CBT-GSH), delivered in 8 sessions in a health

  13. Consumer behaviors towards ready-to-eat foods based on food-related lifestyles in Korea.

    PubMed

    Bae, Hyun-Joo; Chae, Mi-Jin; Ryu, Kisang

    2010-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine consumers' behaviors toward ready-to-eat foods and to develop ready-to-eat food market segmentation in Korea. The food-related lifestyle and purchase behaviors of ready-to-eat foods were evaluated using 410 ready-to-eat food consumers in the Republic of Korea. Four factors were extracted by exploratory factor analysis (health-orientation, taste-orientation, convenience-orientation, and tradition-orientation) to explain the ready-to eat food consumers' food-related lifestyles. The results of cluster analysis indicated that "tradition seekers" and "convenience seekers" should be regarded as the target segments. Chi-square tests and t-tests of the subdivided groups showed there were significant differences across marital status, education level, family type, eating-out expenditure, place of purchase, and reason for purchase. In conclusion, the tradition seekers consumed more ready-to-eat foods from discount marts or specialty stores and ate them between meals more often than the convenience seekers. In contrast, the convenience seekers purchased more ready-to-eat foods at convenience stores and ate them as meals more often than the tradition seekers. These findings suggest that ready-to-eat food market segmentation based on food-related lifestyles can be applied to develop proper marketing strategies. PMID:20827350

  14. Facilitating behavioral learning and habit change in voice therapy--theoretic premises and practical strategies.

    PubMed

    Iwarsson, Jenny

    2015-12-01

    A typical goal of voice therapy is a behavioral change in the patient's everyday speech. The SLP's plan for voice therapy should therefore optimally include strategies for automatization. The aim of the present study was to identify and describe factors that promote behavioral learning and habit change in voice behavior and have the potential to affect patient compliance and thus therapy outcome. Research literature from the areas of motor and behavioral learning, habit formation, and habit change was consulted. Also, specific elements from personal experience of clinical voice therapy are described and discussed from a learning theory perspective. Nine factors that seem to be relevant to facilitate behavioral learning and habit change in voice therapy are presented, together with related practical strategies and theoretical underpinnings. These are: 1) Cue-altering; 2) Attention exercises; 3) Repetition; 4) Cognitive activation; 5) Negative practice; 6) Inhibition through interruption; 7) Decomposing complex behavior; 8) The 'each time-every time' principle; and 9) Successive implementation of automaticity. PMID:25054888

  15. Effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of lifestyle interventions on physical activity and eating habits in persons with severe mental disorders: A systematic review

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background There is a high prevalence of overweight and obesity in persons with severe mental disorders and this has serious implications on the short and long term health outcomes of these patients. The aim of this review was to evaluate the effectiveness of lifestyle interventions targeting physical activity and eating habits in persons with severe mental disorders. Special attention was given if any of the included studies in the review also examined the cost-effectiveness of these health promotion interventions. Methods A systematic search through the electronic databases Medline, Web of Science, CINAHL and Cohrane Library was conducted, and by hand-searching the reference lists of the retrieved articles from the electronic databases. Studies were included if they examined effectiveness and/or cost-effectiveness of lifestyle interventions targeting physical activity and eating habits in persons with severe mental disorders, with primary outcome changes in Body Mass Index and body weight. Results Fourteen studies met the inclusion criteria. Weight loss and Body Mass Index decrease were observed in intervention groups in 11 studies. The difference in weight change between intervention and control groups was statistically significant in nine studies. Differences in mean Body Mass Index between intervention and control groups were statistically significant in eight studies. Five studies reported improvements in quality of life and general health. In none of the studies cost-effectiveness of lifestyle interventions was examined. Conclusion Further research on both effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of lifestyle interventions targeting physical activity and eating habits in persons with severe mental disorders is required to assist in the development of new health promotion interventions in this population. PMID:21481247

  16. Sexual orientation and disordered eating behaviors among self-identified male and female college students.

    PubMed

    Matthews-Ewald, Molly R; Zullig, Keith J; Ward, Rose Marie

    2014-08-01

    This study compared the risk of a) clinically diagnosed eating disorders, and b) disordered eating behaviors, separately among three groups of United States college students, controlling for known covariates. These groups included college students self-identifying as: 1) gay/lesbian; 2) bisexual; and, 3) unsure, with self-identified heterosexuals as the reference. Data from the American College Health Association's National College Health Assessment II (2008-2009) were utilized (N=110,412). Adjusted logistic regression analyses, stratified by self-reported gender, examined the effect of self-identified sexual identity on clinical eating disorder diagnosis and disordered eating behaviors. Covariates included self-reported binge drinking (past 2 weeks), stress (last 12 months), smoking (past 30 days), depression (past 12 months), fraternity/sorority membership, college athletics participations, and race. Additional logistic regression sub-analyses examined sexual minorities only, with gay/lesbian as the referent. Gay, unsure, or bisexual men were at significantly increased odds to report both clinical eating disorders and disordered eating behaviors when compared to heterosexual men in both the unadjusted and adjusted models (p<.002). All sexual minority men and women were significantly more likely to report dieting to lose weight compared to heterosexual men and women (p<.002). Targeted disordered eating and eating disorder prevention efforts are needed for those who are sexual minorities, particularly for sexual minority men. PMID:25064296

  17. Risk eating behaviors in male and female students: a longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    González-González, Alejandro; Betancourt-Ocampo, Diana; Tavel-Gelrud, Daniela; Martínez-Lanz, Patricia

    2014-04-01

    The purpose of this research was to analyze changes in body mass index and risk eating behaviors in a group of students through a longitudinal study and determine the differences in risk eating behaviors between men and women with different rates of body mass. 5780 students participated, 37.5% were male and 62.5% female, mean age for each measurement times were: 15.1 years first measurement, 18.0 yearssecond measurement, 22.1 years last measurement. For purposes of this study indicators were used from automated medical examination, which serves to collect information on the physical and mental health, family and environment of students at a public university in Mexico. The measurements were made for weight and height of each student to then calculate the body mass index based on the proposal of the World Health Organization. Risk eating behaviors were evaluated with seven indicators that measure the presence or absence of such things as: the use of laxatives, vomiting after eating, exercising 2 h a day, stop eating for a day or moreover, use of pills or diuretics, being on more than two. Significant differences were found in the risk eating behavior with respect to different categories of body mass index only in the first measurement, where young people were of less underweight risk eating behavior than those who are overweight. PMID:24854813

  18. Binge Eating Behavior and Weight Loss Maintenance over a 2-Year Period

    PubMed Central

    Pacanowski, Carly R.; Senso, Meghan M.; Crain, A. Lauren; Sherwood, Nancy E.

    2014-01-01

    Objective. To investigate the relationship between binge eating behavior and weight loss maintenance over a two-year period in adults. Design. Secondary data analysis using the Keep It Off study, a randomized trial evaluating an intervention to promote weight loss maintenance. Participants. 419 men and women (ages: 20 to 70?y; BMI: 2044?kg/m2) who had intentionally lost ?10% of their weight during the previous year. Measurements. Body weight was measured and binge eating behavior over the past 6 months was reported at baseline, 12 months and 24 months. Height was measured at baseline. Results. Prevalence of binge eating at baseline was 19.4% (n = 76). Prevalence of binge eating at any time point was 30.1% (n = 126). Although rate of weight regain did not differ significantly between those who did or did not report binge eating at baseline, binge eating behavior across the study period (additive value of presence or absence at each time point) was significantly associated with different rates of weight regain. Conclusion. Tailoring weight loss maintenance interventions to address binge eating behavior is warranted given the prevalence and the different rates of weight regain experienced by those reporting this behavior. PMID:24891946

  19. Perceptions of emotional eating behavior. A qualitative study of college students.

    PubMed

    Bennett, Jessica; Greene, Geoffrey; Schwartz-Barcott, Donna

    2013-01-01

    Approximately one-third of college students are overweight or obese and the average student gains 5 kg during college. Previous research has identified a relationship between emotional eating and weight gain in young adults, but outside the realm of eating disorders, few studies qualitatively capture why individuals cope with emotions by eating. Exploratory qualitative research was conducted, including 3-day food journals and indepth interviews, with proportionate quota sampling of eight male and eight female undergraduate students to gain an understanding of students' perceptions of their emotional eating behaviors. Participants were purposively selected based on their emotional eating scores on the Weight Related Eating Questionnaire from a larger survey assessing student eating behaviors. Participants' (n=16) mean age was 19.6 1.0 years and all self-reported their race to be white. Mean Body Mass Index (BMI) for females and males was 24.1 1.2 kg/m(2) and 24.8 1.7 kg/m(2), respectively. Findings from the qualitative analyses indicated gender differences and similarities. Females identified stress as the primary trigger for emotional eating, frequently followed by guilt. Males were primarily triggered by unpleasant feelings such as boredom or anxiety turning to food as a distraction; however, males were less likely to experience guilt after an emotional eating episode than females. During emotional eating episodes, both genders chose what they defined as unhealthful foods. These findings indicate a multidisciplinary intervention focusing on emotion and stress management in addition to dietary behavior change should be developed to reduce the potential for weight gain associated with emotional eating in the college-aged population. PMID:23046706

  20. A Description of Disordered Eating Behaviors in Latino Males

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reyes-Rodriguez, Mae Lynn; Sala, Margarita; Von Holle, Ann; Unikel, Claudia; Bulik, Cynthia M.; Camara-Fuentes, Luis; Suarez-Torres, Alba

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To explore disordered eating and eating disorders (EDs) in Latino males. Participants: Participants are 722 male college students from a larger prevalence study conducted in the University of Puerto Rico system. Methods: Participants were selected from a list of sections of required courses for first-year students on each campus.

  1. A Description of Disordered Eating Behaviors in Latino Males

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reyes-Rodriguez, Mae Lynn; Sala, Margarita; Von Holle, Ann; Unikel, Claudia; Bulik, Cynthia M.; Camara-Fuentes, Luis; Suarez-Torres, Alba

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To explore disordered eating and eating disorders (EDs) in Latino males. Participants: Participants are 722 male college students from a larger prevalence study conducted in the University of Puerto Rico system. Methods: Participants were selected from a list of sections of required courses for first-year students on each campus.…

  2. Priming Effects of Television Food Advertising on Eating Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Harris, Jennifer L.; Bargh, John A.; Brownell, Kelly D.

    2009-01-01

    Objective Health advocates have focused on the prevalence of advertising for calorie-dense low-nutrient foods as a significant contributor to the obesity epidemic. This research tests the hypothesis that exposure to food advertising during television viewing may also contribute to obesity by triggering automatic snacking of available food. Design In Experiments 1a and 1b, elementary-school-aged children watched a cartoon that contained either food advertising or advertising for other products and received a snack while watching. In Experiment 2, adults watched a television program that included food advertising that promoted snacking and/or fun product benefits, food advertising that promoted nutrition benefits or no food advertising. The adults then tasted and evaluated a range of healthy to unhealthy snack foods in an apparently separate experiment. Main Outcome Measures Amount of snack foods consumed during and after advertising exposure. Results Children consumed 45% more when exposed to food advertising. Adults consumed more of both healthy and unhealthy snack foods following exposure to snack food advertising compared to the other conditions. In both experiments, food advertising increased consumption of products not in the presented advertisements, and these effects were not related to reported hunger or other conscious influences. Conclusion These experiments demonstrate the power of food advertising to prime automatic eating behaviors and thus influence far more than brand preference alone. PMID:19594263

  3. Explaining nutritional habits and behaviors of low socioeconomic status women in Sanandaj: a qualitative content analysis

    PubMed Central

    Abdi, Nasrin; Sadeghi, Roya; Zamani-alavijeh, Fereshteh; Taghdisi, Mohammad Hossein; Shojaeezadeh, Davoud

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Health and behavior are closely related subjects because disease is typically rooted in individuals’ unhealthy behaviors and habits. This study aims to identify women’s nutritional habits and behaviors in order to design interventions to promote nutritional literacy. Methods This qualitative research is part of a mixed method (quantitative-qualitative) study, conducted based on content analysis. Data were collected using semistructured interviews, group discussions, and in-depth interviews with married women, aged 18–50 years, who were referred to four health care centers in Sanandaj in 2013–2014. Results Nutritional habits and behaviors of participants were classified into two categories: representation of nutritional behavior based on consumption pattern and representation of nutritional behavior based on consumption method. For the former, eight consumption pattern subcategories were formed: meat, dairy, fast food, local foods, fruits and vegetables, soft drinks, and oils. The latter (representation of nutritional behavior based on consumption method), included two subcategories: consumption method in line with health and consumption method inconsistent with health. Conclusion Results of this qualitative study provide a solid foundation for development and designing interventions to nutritional literacy promotion based on needs. The designed intervention to healthy nutritional behavior should be based on empowering women and providing facilitator factors of a healthy diet. While designing this study, with a holistic perspective, individual and social aspects of a healthy diet should be taken into account. PMID:26955443

  4. The Galaxy's Eating Habits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Putman, M. E.; Thom, C.; Gibson, B. K.; Staveley-Smith, L.

    2004-06-01

    The possibility of a gaseous halo stream which was stripped from the Sagittarius dwarf galaxy is presented. The total mass of the neutral hydrogen along the orbit of the Sgr dwarf in the direction of the Galactic Anti-Center is 4 - 10 × 106 M⊙ (at 36 kpc, the distance to the stellar debris in this region). Both the stellar and gaseous components have negative velocities in this part of the sky, but the gaseous component extends to higher negative velocities. We suggest this gaseous stream was stripped from the main body of the dwarf 0.2 - 0.3 Gyr ago during its current orbit after a passage through a diffuse edge of the Galactic disk with a density > 10-4 cm-3. The gas would then represent the dwarf's last source of star formation fuel and explains how the galaxy was forming stars 0.5-2 Gyr ago.

  5. Prevalence of disordered eating and pathogenic weight control behaviors among male collegiate athletes.

    PubMed

    Chatterton, Justine M; Petrie, Trent A

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of disordered eating and pathogenic weight control behaviors in male collegiate athletes. Male collegiate athletes (N?=?732) from the across the U.S. completed questionnaires online. Results suggested that (a) most eating disturbances occur at the subclinical level, (b) exercising and dieting were the most commonly used weight control practices, and (c) athletes who participate in weight class sports are more likely to be classified as symptomatic and engage in pathogenic eating and weight control behaviors compared to endurance sport or ball game athletes. Implications for professionals working with athletes and recommendations for future research are discussed. PMID:23767673

  6. Disordered eating behaviors among Italian men: objectifying media and sexual orientation differences.

    PubMed

    Dakanalis, Antonios; Di Mattei, Valentina E; Bagliacca, Elena Pagani; Prunas, Antonio; Sarno, Lucio; Riva, Giuseppe; Zanetti, M Assunta

    2012-01-01

    Objectification theory was tested as a suitable framework for explaining sexual orientation differences in disordered eating behaviors in college-aged Italian men. The theory's applicability to 125 homosexual and 130 heterosexual men was investigated using self-report questionnaires. Gay men scored significantly higher on exposure to sexually objectifying media, body surveillance, body shame, disordered eating behaviors, and depression than heterosexual men. Although path analyses support the theory's applicability to both groups, for gay men the path model demonstrated a better fit to the objectification theory for disordered eating and depression. Practical implications are discussed. PMID:22985233

  7. Behavioral, psychological, and physical characteristics of female athletes with subclinical eating disorders.

    PubMed

    Beals, K A; Manore, M M

    2000-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to delineate and further define the behavioral, psychological, and physical characteristics of female athletes with subclinical eating disorders. Subjects consisted of 24 athletes with subclinical eating disorders (SCED) and 24 control athletes. Group classification was determined by scores on the Eating Disorder Inventory (EDI), the Body Shape Questionnaire (BSQ), and a symptom checklist for eating disorders (EDI-SC). Characteristics representative of the female athletes with subclinical eating disorders were derived from an extensive health and dieting history questionnaire and an in-depth interview (the Eating Disorder Examination). Energy intake and expenditure (kcal/d) were estimated using 7-day weighed food records and activity logs. The characteristics most common in the female athletes with subclinical eating disorders included: (a) preoccupation with food, energy intake, and body weight; (b) distorted body image and body weight dissatisfaction; (c) undue influence of body weight on self-evaluation; (d) intense fear of gaining weight even though at or slightly below ( approximately 5%) normal weight; (e) attempts to lose weight using one or more pathogenic weight control methods; (g) food intake governed by self-hatred upon breaking a rule; (h) absence of medical disorder to explain energy restriction, weight loss, or maintenance of low body weight; and (i) menstrual dysfunction. Awareness of these characteristics may aid in more timely identification and treatment of female athletes with disordered eating patterns and, perhaps, prevent the development of more serious, clinical eating disorders. PMID:10861334

  8. [Food habits and consumption of French adolescents. Synthesis of recent surveys].

    PubMed

    Michaud, C; Baudier, F

    1991-01-01

    Studies concerning French adolescents' eating habits have been published during the past four years. The review of such studies shows that nutrient intakes and food consumption are close to those of the adult population. Only the amount of nutrients especially with respect to lipids seems to be more satisfactory than in adults. This observation emphasizes the importance of familial environmental as the main factor of eating habits. French adolescents eat as the preceding generation even if some behaviors (snacks, fastfood) may appear very different from those in adults. However, this similitude does not imply that such habits are satisfactory. PMID:1929747

  9. INDICATION OF INSENSITIVITY OF PLANETARY WEATHERING BEHAVIOR AND HABITABLE ZONE TO SURFACE LAND FRACTION

    SciTech Connect

    Abbot, Dorian S.; Ciesla, Fred J.; Cowan, Nicolas B.

    2012-09-10

    It is likely that unambiguous habitable zone terrestrial planets of unknown water content will soon be discovered. Water content helps determine surface land fraction, which influences planetary weathering behavior. This is important because the silicate-weathering feedback determines the width of the habitable zone in space and time. Here a low-order model of weathering and climate, useful for gaining qualitative understanding, is developed to examine climate evolution for planets of various land-ocean fractions. It is pointed out that, if seafloor weathering does not depend directly on surface temperature, there can be no weathering-climate feedback on a waterworld. This would dramatically narrow the habitable zone of a waterworld. Results from our model indicate that weathering behavior does not depend strongly on land fraction for partially ocean-covered planets. This is powerful because it suggests that previous habitable zone theory is robust to changes in land fraction, as long as there is some land. Finally, a mechanism is proposed for a waterworld to prevent complete water loss during a moist greenhouse through rapid weathering of exposed continents. This process is named a 'waterworld self-arrest', and it implies that waterworlds can go through a moist greenhouse stage and end up as planets like Earth with partial ocean coverage. This work stresses the importance of surface and geologic effects, in addition to the usual incident stellar flux, for habitability.

  10. A Fine-Grained Analysis of Eating Behavior in Women with Bulimia Nervosa

    PubMed Central

    Mitchell, James E.; Karr, Trisha M.; Peat, Christina; Wonderlich, Stephen; Crosby, Ross D.; Engel, Scott; Simonich, Heather

    2014-01-01

    Objective In the current study we were interested in developing a typology of eating in patients with bulimia nervosa based on the size of the eating episode, whether the episode was followed by self-induced vomiting, and the degree of loss of control self-reported by participants. Method Twenty-one adult women with bulimia nervosa, purging type, were evaluated using the Nutritional Data System for Research, the Eating Disorders Examination, and the Matrix. Results The most common type of episode resembled what might be termed normal eating which involved the consumption of less than 1000 kcal with no sense of loss of control and no vomiting. There was an increase in severity of self-assessed loss of control in objectively large eating episodes with vomiting. Self-reported hunger prior to eating episodes did not seem to be predictive of subsequent behavior. Most people were engaged in other behaviors while eating. Discussion The results of this study suggest a typology that included primarily four types of eating episodes. The results also suggest that when loss of control is assessed on a Likert-scale rather than as a dichotomous variable there is considerable variability in self-assessed degree of loss of control. PMID:21956763

  11. Growth of Cognitive Skills in Preschoolers: Impact of Sleep Habits and Learning-Related Behaviors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jung, Eunjoo; Molfese, Victoria J.; Beswick, Jennifer; Jacobi-Vessels, Jill; Molnar, Andrew

    2009-01-01

    Research Findings: The present study used a longitudinal design to identify how sleep habits and learning-related behaviors impact the development of cognitive skills in preschoolers (ages 3-5). Sixty- seven children with parental report and cognitive skill assessment data were included. Scores on the Differential Ability Scales (C. Elliott, 1990)

  12. The Effects of Violent Video Game Habits on Adolescent Hostility, Aggressive Behaviors, and School Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gentile, Douglas, A.; Lynch, Paul, J.; Linder, Jennifer Ruh; Walsh, David, A.

    2004-01-01

    Video games have become one of the favorite activities of American children. A growing body of research is linking violent video game play to aggressive cognitions, attitudes, and behaviors. The first goal of this study was to document the video games habits of adolescents and the level of parental monitoring of adolescent video game use. The…

  13. The Effects of Violent Video Game Habits on Adolescent Hostility, Aggressive Behaviors, and School Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gentile, Douglas, A.; Lynch, Paul, J.; Linder, Jennifer Ruh; Walsh, David, A.

    2004-01-01

    Video games have become one of the favorite activities of American children. A growing body of research is linking violent video game play to aggressive cognitions, attitudes, and behaviors. The first goal of this study was to document the video games habits of adolescents and the level of parental monitoring of adolescent video game use. The

  14. Time Trends in Population Prevalence of Eating Disorder Behaviors and Their Relationship to Quality of Life

    PubMed Central

    Mitchison, Deborah; Hay, Phillipa; Slewa-Younan, Shameran; Mond, Jonathan

    2012-01-01

    Objective To examine temporal trends in the burden of eating disorder (ED) features, as estimated by the composite of their prevalence and impact upon quality of life (QoL) over a period of 10 years. Methodology Representative samples of 3010 participants in 1998 and 3034 participants in 2008 from the South Australian adult population were assessed for endorsement of ED features (objective binge eating, extreme dieting, and purging were assessed in both years; subjective binge eating and extreme weight/shape concerns were also assessed in 2008) and QoL using the Medical Outcomes Study Short Form (SF-36). Principal Findings From 1998 to 2008 significant increases in the prevalence of objective binge eating (2.7% to 4.9%, p<0.01) and extreme dieting (1.5% to 3.3%, p<0.01), but not purging, were observed. Lower scores on the SF-36 were significantly associated with endorsement of any of these behaviors in both 1998 and 2008 (all p<0.001). No significant difference was observed in the effect of the endorsement of these ED behaviors on QoL between 1998 and 2008 (all p>0.05). Multiple linear regressions found that in 1998 only objective binge eating significantly predicted scores on the mental health summary scale of the SF-36; however, in 2008 extreme weight/shape concerns, extreme dieting, and subjective binge eating were also significant predictors. Objective binge eating and extreme dieting were significant predictors of scores on the physical health summary scale of the SF-36 in both 1998 and 2008. Conclusions and Significance The prevalence of ED behaviors increased between 1998 and 2008, while their impact on QoL remained stable. This suggests an overall increase in the burden of disordered eating from 1998 to 2008. Given that binge eating and extreme dieting predict impairment in QoL, the necessity of interventions to prevent both under- and over-eating is reinforced. PMID:23144886

  15. Communicating about eating behaviors. A qualitative study of Chilean women and their health-care providers

    PubMed Central

    Gálvez, Patricia; Valencia, Alejandra; Palomino, Ana M.; Cataldo, Marjorie; Schwingel, Andiara

    2015-01-01

    Good communication between health care providers (HCPs) and patients is critical in achieving positive health outcomes. The purpose of this article was to compare the perceptions of Chilean woman and their HCPs with respect to determinants of eating behaviors. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with women (n=15) visiting a public health care center in Chile and with their HCPs (n=8) who were in charge of promoting healthy eating behaviors among women. Data from the interviews indicated similarities and inconsistencies in determinants of eating behaviors between the groups. Both mentioned many important factors that influence women's eating behaviors, including food preferences, dietary knowledge, self-control and self-efficacy, family, food cost, and food availability. HCPs appeared to be less aware of the role that personality traits and past experiences play as potential determinants which women mentioned. In contrast, women were less aware of the influence of anxiety and low self-esteem on eating choices, which HCPs noted as key factors. Although it was encouraging to see agreement between women and their HCPs in some areas, it is important to work on increasing understanding among the groups with respect to the important role psychological factors play in influencing eating behavior. We suggest that HCPs should focus on the importance of women's personality traits and past eating behaviors, as well as work on improving women's self-esteem and helping to decrease their anxiety levels. HCPs should be encouraged to develop good communication with each person in order to help them understand the roles that external and internal factors play in eating behaviors. PMID:25661846

  16. Understanding gardening and dietary habits among youth garden program participants using the Theory of Planned Behavior.

    PubMed

    Lautenschlager, Lauren; Smith, Chery

    2007-07-01

    Sedentary lifestyles, along with diets low in fruits, vegetables, and complex carbohydrates, and high in fat and total energy are increasing among youth. These unhealthy behaviors contribute to an increase in childhood overweight, which is associated with type 2 diabetes, hypertension, and heart disease. Healthful dietary behaviors, such as eating a balanced and varied diet may be addressed in garden-based programs for youth. Therefore, this project assessed the influence of a garden program, with a newly developed nutrition curriculum, on youth's eating and gardening behavior using the Theory of Planned Behavior. The model included the constructs of attitude, subjective norm, and perceived behavioral control (PBC). Youth (age 8-15 years) involved in a garden program in Minneapolis/St. Paul, Minnesota completed a pre- (n=96) and a post-survey (n=66) assessing the theory's constructs with regard to eating and gardening behaviors. Fruit and vegetable consumption were assessed using survey questions and a 24-h recall. In addition to finding gender differences regarding associations between intention and behavior and the constructs correlated with behavior, results indicated that attitude was most predictive of intention at both pre- and post-survey for both boys and girls with behavior associated to PBC in girls, but not for boys. A high level of intention for boys pre-survey marginally predicted some behavioral change post-survey, but girls with high levels of intention at pre-survey did not show positive behavioral changes at post-survey. Additionally, the garden program positively impacted youth fruit and vegetable consumption, as determined from a mean computed from the responses to the fruit and vegetable behavior survey questions and the 24-h recall food group data. Because youth in the garden program consumed more fruit and vegetables at post-survey compared to pre-survey, we conclude that garden programs may be a viable way to assist youth in making healthy lifestyle changes. PMID:17336424

  17. The Relationship between Eating and Lifestyle Habits and Cancer in Van Lake Region: Another Endemic Region for Esophageal and Gastric Cancers

    PubMed Central

    Celik, Sebahattin; Y?lmaz, E. Murat; zden, Ferhat; Kotan, Cetin

    2015-01-01

    Purpose. To examine the relationship between esophageal and gastric cancers commonly seen in Van Lake region and the traditional eating habits of the geography. Materials and Methods. Esophageal and gastric cancer cases, who underwent surgery between January 1, 2012, and December 31, 2013, were examined. Pathology reports of the patients and presence of Helicobacter pylori (HP) were recorded. Surveys were filled by face to face meeting or telephone call. Control group was created with randomly selected individuals without any cancer diagnosis having age, gender, and socioeconomic characteristics similar to patient group. All data were analyzed using SAS.9.3 statistical programme. Results. Compared with the control group, herby cheese consumption (a component of eating habits) and smoking were significantly higher in the patient group (P < 0.001). Tandoor exposure is compared in terms of female gender, and significant difference was found between the groups (P = 0.0013). As a result of the analysis with logistic regression more than 150 gr of herby cheese consumption per day was found to increase the cancer risk (odds ratio 1.017; 95% CI: 1.0121.022). Conclusion. A high consumption of herby cheese, cooking bread on tandoor, and heavy smoking were seen to be important risk factors for esophageal and gastric cancers. PMID:25648523

  18. Using Theory of Planned Behavior to Predict Healthy Eating among Danish Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gronhoj, Alice; Bech-Larsen, Tino; Chan, Kara; Tsang, Lennon

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of the study was to apply the theory of planned behavior to predict Danish adolescents' behavioral intention for healthy eating. Design/methodology/approach: A cluster sample survey of 410 students aged 11 to 16 years studying in Grade 6 to Grade 10 was conducted in Denmark. Findings: Perceived behavioral control followed by…

  19. Using Theory of Planned Behavior to Predict Healthy Eating among Danish Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gronhoj, Alice; Bech-Larsen, Tino; Chan, Kara; Tsang, Lennon

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of the study was to apply the theory of planned behavior to predict Danish adolescents' behavioral intention for healthy eating. Design/methodology/approach: A cluster sample survey of 410 students aged 11 to 16 years studying in Grade 6 to Grade 10 was conducted in Denmark. Findings: Perceived behavioral control followed by

  20. Having your cake and eating it too: A habit of comfort food may link chronic social stress exposure and acute stress-induced cortisol hyporesponsiveness.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Stress has been tied to changes in eating behavior and food choice. Previous studies in rodents have shown that chronic stress increases palatable food intake which, in turn, increases mesenteric fat and inhibits acute stress-induced hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis activity. The effect of...

  1. Insensitivity of weathering behavior to planetary land fraction and effect on habitability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abbot, D. S.; Archer, D.; Pierrehumbert, R. T.; Ciesla, F. J.; Bean, J. L.

    2012-04-01

    It is likely that an increasing number of terrestrial planets of unknown water content will soon be discovered in the habitable zone of their stars. Planetary surface land fraction may, however, influence the functioning of the silicate weathering feedback, which buffers planetary surface climate against changes in stellar luminosity over a star's lifetime. It is therefore worthwhile to consider the effect of land fraction on the planetary carbon cycle and weathering behavior in a general sense. Here a low-order model of weathering and climate is developed that includes both continental silicate weathering and seafloor weathering. This model can be used to gain an intuitive sense of the behavior of terrestrial planets with different land fractions in the habitable zone of main-sequence stars as their star's insolation changes with time. It is found that, as long as seafloor weathering is independent of surface temperature, there can be no weathering feedback on a waterworld. This means that the tenure of a waterworld in the habitable zone (before it undergoes a moist greenhouse) is likely to be much shorter than that of a planet with some land fraction. The silicate weathering feedback, however, is effective even at very low land fractions. A planet with a land fraction of 0.01 should remain in the habitable zone nearly as long as a planet with a land fraction of 0.3. Finally, by comparing the timescale for water loss to space to the weathering timescale, it is found that it is possible for a waterworld to draw down atmospheric CO2 quickly enough as a moist greenhouse is in progress to prevent complete loss of all water. This would imply that waterworlds in the habitable zone of main sequence stars can go through a moist greenhouse stage and end up as planets like Earth with only partial ocean coverage and a habitable climate.

  2. Measuring eating disorder attitudes and behaviors: a reliability generalization study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Although score reliability is a sample-dependent characteristic, researchers often only report reliability estimates from previous studies as justification for employing particular questionnaires in their research. The present study followed reliability generalization procedures to determine the mean score reliability of the Eating Disorder Inventory and its most commonly employed subscales (Drive for Thinness, Bulimia, and Body Dissatisfaction) and the Eating Attitudes Test as a way to better identify those characteristics that might impact score reliability. Methods Published studies that used these measures were coded based on their reporting of reliability information and additional study characteristics that might influence score reliability. Results Score reliability estimates were included in 26.15% of studies using the EDI and 36.28% of studies using the EAT. Mean Cronbachs alphas for the EDI (total score?=?.91; subscales?=?.75 to .89), EAT-40 (total score?=?.81) and EAT-26 (total score?=?.86; subscales?=?.56 to .80) suggested variability in estimated internal consistency. Whereas some EDI subscales exhibited higher score reliability in clinical eating disorder samples than in nonclinical samples, other subscales did not exhibit these differences. Score reliability information for the EAT was primarily reported for nonclinical samples, making it difficult to characterize the effect of type of sample on these measures. However, there was a tendency for mean score reliability to be higher in the adult (vs. adolescent) samples and in female (vs. male) samples. Conclusions Overall, this study highlights the importance of assessing and reporting internal consistency during every test administration because reliability is affected by characteristics of the participants being examined. PMID:24764530

  3. Mindfulness and Eating Behavior in Adolescent Girls at Risk for Type 2 Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Pivarunas, Bernadette; Kelly, Nichole R.; Pickworth, Courtney K.; Cassidy, Omni; Radin, Rachel M.; Shank, Lisa M.; Vannucci, Anna; Courville, Amber B.; Chen, Kong Y.; Tanofsky-Kraff, Marian; Yanovski, Jack A.; Shomaker, Lauren B.

    2015-01-01

    Objective The purpose of this investigation was to examine the relationship of dispositional mindfulness to binge eating and associated eating attitudes and behaviors among adolescent girls at risk for type 2 diabetes (T2D). Methods Participants were 114 overweight or obese adolescents enrolled in a study of girls with a family history of T2D and mild depressive symptoms. Adolescent self-reports of mindfulness, eating in the absence of hunger, and depressive symptoms were collected. An interview was administered to determine presence of binge eating episodes and a behavioral task was used to assess the reinforcing value of food relative to other non-snack food rewards. Body composition was assessed using dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry. Results In analyses accounting for race, percent body fat, lean mass, height, age, and depressive symptoms, dispositional mindfulness was associated with a lower odds of binge eating (p = .002). Controlling for the same potential confounds, mindfulness was also inversely associated with eating concern, eating in the absence of hunger in response to fatigue/boredom, and higher food reinforcement relative to physical activity (all p < .05). Conclusions In girls with a family history of T2D, independent of body composition and depressive symptoms, intra-individual differences in mindfulness are related to binge eating and associated attitudes and behaviors that may confer risk for obesity and metabolic problems. Further research is needed to determine the extent to which mindfulness plays a role in the etiology and/or maintenance of disinhibited eating in adolescents at risk for T2D. PMID:26172157

  4. The Unique and Additive Associations of Family Functioning and Parenting Practices with Disordered Eating Behaviors in Diverse Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Berge, Jerica M.; Wall, Melanie; Larson, Nicole; Eisenberg, Marla E.; Loth, Katie A.; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne

    2012-01-01

    Objective To examine the unique and additive associations of family functioning and parenting practices with adolescent disordered eating behaviors (i.e., dieting, unhealthy weight control behaviors, binge eating). Methods Data from EAT (Eating and Activity in Teens) 2010, a population-based study assessing eating and activity among racially/ethnically and socio-economically diverse adolescents (n = 2,793; mean age = 14.4, SD = 2.0; age range = 11–19) was used. Logistic regression models were used to examine associations between adolescent dieting and disordered eating behaviors and family functioning and parenting variables, including interactions. All analyses controlled for demographics and body mass index. Results Higher family functioning, parent connection, and parental knowledge about child’s whereabouts (e.g. who child is with, what they are doing, where they are at) were significantly associated with lower odds of engaging in dieting and disordered eating behaviors in adolescents, while parent psychological control was associated with greater odds of engaging in dieting and disordered eating behaviors. Although the majority of interactions were non-significant, parental psychological control moderated the protective relationship between family functioning and disordered eating behaviors in adolescent girls. Conclusions Clinicians and health care providers may want to discuss the importance of balancing specific parenting behaviors, such as increasing parent knowledge about child whereabouts while decreasing psychological control in order to enhance the protective relationship between family functioning and disordered eating behaviors in adolescents. PMID:23196919

  5. Control of Body Weight by Eating Behavior in Children

    PubMed Central

    Zandian, Modjtaba; Bergh, Cecilia; Ioakimidis, Ioannis; Esfandiari, Maryam; Shield, Julian; Lightman, Stafford; Leon, Michael; Södersten, Per

    2015-01-01

    Diet, exercise, and pharmacological interventions have limited effects in counteracting the worldwide increase in pediatric body weight. Moreover, the promise that individualized drug design will work to induce weight loss appears to be exaggerated. We suggest that the reason for this limited success is that the cause of obesity has been misunderstood. Body weight is mainly under external control; our brain permits us to eat under most circumstances, and unless the financial or physical cost of food is high, eating and body weight increase by default. When energy-rich, inexpensive foods are continually available, people need external support to maintain a healthy body weight. Weight loss can thereby be achieved by continuous feedback on how much and how fast to eat on a computer screen. PMID:26539422

  6. Control of Body Weight by Eating Behavior in Children.

    PubMed

    Zandian, Modjtaba; Bergh, Cecilia; Ioakimidis, Ioannis; Esfandiari, Maryam; Shield, Julian; Lightman, Stafford; Leon, Michael; Sdersten, Per

    2015-01-01

    Diet, exercise, and pharmacological interventions have limited effects in counteracting the worldwide increase in pediatric body weight. Moreover, the promise that individualized drug design will work to induce weight loss appears to be exaggerated. We suggest that the reason for this limited success is that the cause of obesity has been misunderstood. Body weight is mainly under external control; our brain permits us to eat under most circumstances, and unless the financial or physical cost of food is high, eating and body weight increase by default. When energy-rich, inexpensive foods are continually available, people need external support to maintain a healthy body weight. Weight loss can thereby be achieved by continuous feedback on how much and how fast to eat on a computer screen. PMID:26539422

  7. Consumption of sweetened beverages as a risk factor of colonization of oral cavity by fungi - eating habits of university students.

    PubMed

    Lll, Katarzyna Gralska; Klimczak, Alina; Rachubi?ski, Pawe?; Jag?owska, Aleksandra; Kwapiszewska, Aleksandra

    2015-01-01

    Foods rich in sugar are an excellent substrate for the microorganisms that inhabit the initial sections of the gastrointestinal tract, and one of the most commonly available sources of sugar is the sweetened drink. Students represent an interesting sub-population; the large number of classes and associated stress levels promote fixing of unhealthy behaviors, e.g. tendency to consume a lot of sweetened drinks, for example cola-type or energetic drinks. Aim of this study was to determine the relationship between the amount of sugar consumed in beverages and the prevalence of fungi in the oral cavity. The investigated material consisted of oral washings. Participants completed original questionnaire regarding beverages consumed. The relationship between the consumption of sweetened beverages and risk of the presence of fungi in the oral cavity was determined. Fungi were isolated from 68.1% of examined subjects. Seven species of the genus Candida were observed. Higher prevalence of fungi was seen in the oral cavity of subjects who declared consumption of beverages containing sugar. 37.8% of respondents were found to consume with beverages doses of sugar exceeding the recommended daily requirement. Significantly greater prevalence of oral cavity fungi was noted in those exceeding the recommended GDA (76.3%), compared to of those who were not (68.7%). There were positive correlations between occurrence of fungi and consumption of sweetened carbonated drinks or adding sugar to coffee and tea. The addition of sugar to coffee/tea and sugar consumption above the recommended daily amount significantly increases the risk of colonization of the oral cavity by fungi. Students, due to invalid nutritional habits especially excessive consumption of beverages containing large amounts of sugar, belong to a group with a predisposition to the occurrence of fungi in the oral cavity. PMID:26568990

  8. Health Habits of Nursing versus Non-nursing Students: A Longitudinal Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shriver, Cathy B.; Scott-Stiles, Anne

    2000-01-01

    The Health Habits Inventory was completed at two time intervals by 71 nursing and 83 other students. Nursing students scored higher in health habits and improved significantly over 2 years, especially in such behaviors as eating breakfast, performing self-exams, reading food labels, wearing seatbelts, and exercising. (SK)

  9. Eating Disorders

    MedlinePLUS

    Eating disorders are serious behavior problems. They can include severe overeating or not consuming enough food to stay ... concern about your shape or weight. Types of eating disorders include Anorexia nervosa, in which you become too ...

  10. Changes in taste perception and eating behavior after bariatric surgery-induced weight loss in women

    PubMed Central

    Pepino, Marta Yanina; Bradley, David; Eagon, J. Christopher; Sullivan, Shelby; Abumrad, Nada A.; Klein, Samuel

    2013-01-01

    Objective Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) surgery causes greater weight loss than laparoscopic adjustable gastric banding (LAGB). We tested the hypothesis that RYGB has weight loss-independent effects on taste perception which influence eating behavior and contribute to the greater weight loss. Design and Methods Subjects were studied before and after ~20% weight loss induced by RYGB (n=17) or LAGB (n=10). We evaluated: taste sensitivity for sweet, salty and savory stimuli; sucrose and monosodium glutamate (MSG) preferences; sweetness palatability; eating behavior; and expression of taste-related genes in biopsies of fungiform papillae. Results Weight loss induced by both procedures caused the same decrease in: preferred sucrose concentration (−12±10%), perceived sweetness of sucrose (−7±5%), cravings for sweets and fast-foods (−22 ±5%), influence of emotions (−27±5%) and external food cues (−30±4%) on eating behavior, and expression of α-gustducin in fungiform papillae (all P-values <0.05). RYGB, but not LAGB, shifted sweetness palatability from pleasant to unpleasant when repetitively tasting sucrose (P=0.05). Neither procedure affected taste detection thresholds or MSG preferences. Conclusions LAGB and RYGB cause similar alterations in eating behaviors, when weight loss is matched. These changes in eating behavior were not associated with changes in taste sensitivity, suggesting other, as yet unknown, mechanisms are involved. PMID:24167016

  11. Parental influence on eating behavior: Conception to adolescence

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The first years of life mark a time of rapid development and dietary change, as children transition from an exclusive milk diet to a modified adult diet. During these early years, children's learning about food and eating plays a central role in shaping subsequent food choices, diet quality, and wei...

  12. Relationship of Physical Activity to Eating Behaviors and Weight Loss in Women.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jakicic, John M.; Wing, Rena R.; Winters-Hart, Carena

    2002-01-01

    Examined whether change in physical activity would relate to compliance with changes in dietary intake and eating behaviors in an 18-month behavioral weight loss program, also noting the contribution of exercise to weight loss. Data on 104 women indicated that physical activity related to long-term weight loss and was part of a constellation of

  13. Family Support Is Associated with Behavioral Strategies for Healthy Eating among Latinas

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schmied, Emily A.; Parada, Humberto; Horton, Lucy A.; Madanat, Hala; Ayala, Guadalupe X.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Healthy eating is important for obesity control. Dietary interventions target the adoption of behavioral strategies to increase fiber and decrease fat consumption. However, little is known about the contributions of psychosocial factors to the use of these strategies. Purpose: This study examined psychosocial correlates of behavioral

  14. Relationship of Physical Activity to Eating Behaviors and Weight Loss in Women.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jakicic, John M.; Wing, Rena R.; Winters-Hart, Carena

    2002-01-01

    Examined whether change in physical activity would relate to compliance with changes in dietary intake and eating behaviors in an 18-month behavioral weight loss program, also noting the contribution of exercise to weight loss. Data on 104 women indicated that physical activity related to long-term weight loss and was part of a constellation of…

  15. Self-Reported Weight Perceptions, Dieting Behavior, and Breakfast Eating among High School Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zullig, Keith; Ubbes, Valerie A.; Pyle, Jennifer; Valois, Robert F.

    2006-01-01

    This study explored the relationships among weight perceptions, dieting behavior, and breakfast eating in 4597 public high school adolescents using the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Youth Risk Behavior Survey. Adjusted multiple logistic regression models were constructed separately for race and gender groups via SUDAAN (Survey Data

  16. Self-Reported Weight Perceptions, Dieting Behavior, and Breakfast Eating among High School Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zullig, Keith; Ubbes, Valerie A.; Pyle, Jennifer; Valois, Robert F.

    2006-01-01

    This study explored the relationships among weight perceptions, dieting behavior, and breakfast eating in 4597 public high school adolescents using the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Youth Risk Behavior Survey. Adjusted multiple logistic regression models were constructed separately for race and gender groups via SUDAAN (Survey Data…

  17. Effect of a prescriptive dietary intervention on psychological dimensions of eating behavior in obese adolescents

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Overweight adolescents are more likely to have dysfunctional eating behaviours compared to normal weight adolescents. Little is known about the effects of obesity treatment on the psychological dimensions of eating behavior in this population. Objective To examine the effects of a prescriptive dietary intervention on external eating (eating in response to food cues, regardless of hunger and satiety), emotional eating and dietary restraint and their relation to weight loss. Parental acceptability was also examined. Method This is a secondary study of a 12-month randomized trial, the RESIST study, which examined the effects of two diets on insulin sensitivity. Participants were 109 obese 10- to 17-year-olds with clinical features of insulin resistance. The program commenced with a 3-month dietary intervention using a structured meal plan, with the addition of an exercise intervention in the next 3 months and followed by a 6 month maintenance period.This paper presents changes in eating behaviors measured by the Eating Pattern Inventory for Children and parent rated diet acceptability during the first 6 months of the trial. As there was no difference between the diets on outcome of interest, both diet groups were combined for analyses. Results After 6 months, the proportion of participants who reported consuming more in response to external eating cues decreased from 17% to 5% (P = 0.003), whereas non- emotional eating increased from 48% to 65% (p = 0.014). Dietary restraint and parental pressure to eat remained unchanged. A reduction in external eating (rho = 0.36, P < 0.001) and a reduction in dietary restraint (r = 0.26, P = 0.013) were associated with greater weight loss at 3 and 6 months, respectively. Overall this approach was well accepted by parents with 72% of parents considered that their child would be able to follow the meal plan for the longer term. Conclusions In the short to medium term, a prescriptive dietary intervention approach is a well-accepted and suitable option for obese adolescents with clinical features of insulin resistance. It may reduce external and emotional eating, led to modest weight loss and did not cause any adverse effect on dietary restraint. Trial registration Australian New Zealand Clinical Trial Registration Number (ACTRN) 12608000416392 https://www.anzctr.org.au/Trial/Registration/TrialReview.aspx?id=83071 PMID:24156290

  18. Guide to Your Child's Nutrition: Making Peace at the Table and Building Healthy Eating Habits for Life.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dietz, William H., Ed.; Stern, Loraine, Ed.

    Noting that the real challenge for parents is not being aware of what to feed their children, but rather getting children to actually eat those foods, this guide provides advice for parents of infants through adolescents regarding children's dietary needs while recognizing the role of children's emotions, tastes, and preferences. Following the…

  19. Guide to Your Child's Nutrition: Making Peace at the Table and Building Healthy Eating Habits for Life.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dietz, William H., Ed.; Stern, Loraine, Ed.

    Noting that the real challenge for parents is not being aware of what to feed their children, but rather getting children to actually eat those foods, this guide provides advice for parents of infants through adolescents regarding children's dietary needs while recognizing the role of children's emotions, tastes, and preferences. Following the

  20. The prevalence of eating behaviors among Canadian youth using cross-sectional school-based surveys

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Obesity is a growing public health concern in Canada. Excess weight is particularly a concern among youth given that obesity in youth predicts obesity in adulthood. Eating behaviors, both inside and outside the home have been associated with increased risk of obesity; however, there is little data among Canadian youth to monitor trends. Methods The School Health Action, Planning and Evaluation Surveys (SHAPES) were administered in schools. Our study examined 20, 923 students (grades 5-12) from four regions in Canada. The regions were Hamilton and Thunder Bay (both in Ontario), the Province of Prince Edward Island, and the Province of Quebec. Results Consuming breakfast daily was reported by 70% of grade 5-8 students, and 51% of grade 9-12’s. Among students in grade 9-12, 52% reported eating with family members daily, compared with 68% in grade 5-8. Just over half of students in grade 5-8, and 70% in grade 9-12 reported eating at a fast-food place once a week or more. Among grade 5-8 students 68% reported eating in front of the television at least once per week, compared to 76% in grade 9-12. Obese students were more likely to watch TV while eating, and less likely to eat with a family member and eat breakfast. Conclusions The findings suggest that only a modest proportion of youth report dietary patterns that have previously been associated with healthy eating and reduced risk of obesity. Later adolescence may be a critical time for intervention in health-related behaviors. PMID:24708863

  1. Association of the duration of residence with obesity-related eating habits and dietary patterns among Latin-American immigrants in Spain.

    PubMed

    Marn-Guerrero, A C; Rodrguez-Artalejo, Fernando; Guallar-Castilln, P; Lpez-Garca, Esther; Gutirrez-Fisac, Juan L

    2014-11-24

    The dietary patterns of immigrants usually change with the duration of residence and progressively resemble those of the host country. However, very few studies have investigated individuals migrating to countries with a high-quality diet, such as the Mediterranean diet (MD), and none has yet focused on Latin-American immigrants. The present study examined the association of the duration of residence with obesity-related eating habits and dietary patterns among Latin-American immigrants residing in Spain. A cross-sectional study was conducted in 2008-10 in a representative sample of the adult population residing in Spain. Adherence to the MD was defined as a MD Adherence Screener score ?9. Analyses were conducted by including 419 individuals aged 18-64 years born in Latin-American countries. Compared with immigrants residing in Spain for <5 years, those residing for ?10 years accounted for a lower percentage of individuals who habitually ate at fast-food restaurants and never trimmed visible fat from meat. Moreover, these immigrants were found to have a lower intake of sugary beverages and a higher intake of Na, saturated fat, fibre, olive oil, vegetables and fish and to more frequently strictly adhere to the MD. A longer duration of residence in Spain was found to be associated with both healthy and unhealthy changes in some eating habits and dietary patterns among Latin-American immigrants. Some of the healthy changes observed contrasted the 'Westernisation' of the diet reported in studies conducted in other Western countries. The results of the present study support the role of the food environment of the host country in the modification of the dietary patterns of immigrants. PMID:25418887

  2. Basic Concepts in the Taxonomy of Health-Related Behaviors, Habits and Lifestyle

    PubMed Central

    Salvador-Carulla, Luis; Alonso, Federico; Gomez, Rafael; Walsh, Carolyn O.; Almenara, José; Ruiz, Mencía; Abellán, María José

    2013-01-01

    Background: Health-related Habits (HrH) are a major priority in healthcare. However there is little agreement on whether exercise, diet, smoking or dental hygiene are better described as lifestyles, habits or behaviors, and on what is their hierarchical relationship. This research is aimed at representing the basic concepts which are assumed to constitute the conceptual framework enabling us to interpret and organize the field of HrH. Methods: A group of 29 experts with different backgrounds agreed on the definition and hierarchy of HrH following an iterative process which involved framing analysis and nominal group techniques. Results: Formal definitions of health-related behavior, habit, life-style and life-style profile were produced. In addition a series of basic descriptors were identified: health reserve, capital, risk and load. Six main categories of HrH were chosen based on relevance to longevity: diet/exercise, vitality/stress, sleep, cognition, substance use and other risk. Attributes of HrH are clinical meaningfulness, quantifiability, temporal stability, associated morbidity, and unitarity (non-redundancy). Two qualifiers (polarity and stages of change) have also been described. Conclusions: The concepts represented here lay the groundwork for the development of clinical and policy tools related to HrH and lifestyle. An adaptation of this system to define targets of health interventions and to develop the classification of person factors in ICF may be needed in the future. PMID:23670578

  3. Eating Behaviors, Mental Health, and Food Intake are Associated with Obesity in Older Congregate Meal Participants

    PubMed Central

    Porter Starr, Kathryn N.; Fischer, Joan G.; Johnson, Mary Ann

    2015-01-01

    The relationship between eating behaviors, food intake, and mental health and the occurrence of obesity in older adults has rarely been investigated. Therefore, the objective of this study was to establish the associative links of these factors with two measures of obesity: class I obesity as indicated by body mass index (OB-BMI; BMI ≥ 30kg/m2) and class I obesity as indicated by waist circumference (OB-WC; WC ≥ 43 inches for men and ≥ 42 inches for women). Older adults participating in the Older American’s Act (OAA) congregate meal program (N = 113, mean age = 74 years, 74% female, 45% African American) were assessed. Eating behaviors (cognitive restraint, uncontrolled eating, and emotional eating), food groups group choices (sweets, salty snacks, and fruits), and mental health indices (depression, anxiety, and stress) were recorded by questionnaire and related to measured occurrence of OB-BMI and OB-WC. In a series of multivariate logistical regression models, we found cognitive restraint to be consistently and robustly associated with both measures of obesity. In the fully adjusted model, cognitive restraint, consumption of sweets, anxiety, and lack of depression were associated with OB-WC. In summary, we found an association of obesity with abnormal eating behaviors, certain food group intakes, and mental health symptoms in this population. These findings may guide the development of future weight management interventions in a congregate meal setting. PMID:25424510

  4. Family Meals: Associations with Weight and Eating Behaviors Among Mothers and Fathers

    PubMed Central

    Berge, Jerica M.; MacLehose, Richard F.; Loth, Katie A.; Eisenberg, Marla E.; Fulkerson, Jayne A.; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne

    2012-01-01

    Few studies have looked at the relationship between family meals and adult weight and health behaviors. The current study investigates the association between frequency of family meals and mothers’ and fathers’ body mass index (BMI), dietary intake, dieting behaviors and binge eating. Data from Project F-EAT (Families and Eating and Activity in Teens) were used for the current analysis. Socio-economically and racially/ethnically diverse mothers and fathers (n = 3,488) of adolescents participating in a multi-level population-based study (EAT 2010) completed surveys mailed to their homes. Predicted means or probabilities were calculated for each outcome variable at each level of family meal frequency. Interactions between race/ethnicity and marital status with family meals were evaluated in all models. Overall, results indicated that having more frequent family meals was associated with increased consumption of fruits and vegetables for mothers and fathers, after adjusting for age, educational attainment, marital status and race/ethnicity. Other findings including less fast food intake for fathers and fewer dieting and binge eating behaviors for mothers were significantly associated with family meal frequency, but not consistently across all family meal categories or with BMI. Interactions by race/ethnicity and marital status were non-significant, indicating that family meals may be important for more healthful dietary intake across race and marital status. Future research should confirm findings in longitudinal analyses to identify temporality and strength of associations. PMID:22425759

  5. After-School Physical Activity and Eating Behaviors of Middle School Students in Relation to Adult Supervision

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Wayne C.; Hering, Michelle; Cothran, Carrie; Croteau, Kim; Dunlap, Rebecca

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Examine after-school activity patterns, eating behaviors, and social environment of overweight and normal weight middle school students. Design: Eating and physical activity behaviors of 141 students, ages 10-14, were monitored. Students completed a diary documenting type of activity, location, adult supervision, accompanying…

  6. CLOCK 3111 T/C SNP interacts with emotional eating behavior for weight-loss in a Mediterranean population

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The goals of this research was (1) to analyze the role of emotional eating behavior on weight-loss progression during a 30-week weight-loss program in 1,272 individuals from a large Mediterranean population and (2) to test for interaction between CLOCK 3111 T/C SNP and emotional eating behavior on t...

  7. After-School Physical Activity and Eating Behaviors of Middle School Students in Relation to Adult Supervision

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Wayne C.; Hering, Michelle; Cothran, Carrie; Croteau, Kim; Dunlap, Rebecca

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Examine after-school activity patterns, eating behaviors, and social environment of overweight and normal weight middle school students. Design: Eating and physical activity behaviors of 141 students, ages 10-14, were monitored. Students completed a diary documenting type of activity, location, adult supervision, accompanying

  8. Lateralized Kinematics of Predation Behavior in a Lake Tanganyika Scale-Eating Cichlid Fish

    PubMed Central

    Takeuchi, Yuichi; Hori, Michio; Oda, Yoichi

    2012-01-01

    Behavioral lateralization has been documented in many vertebrates. The scale-eating cichlid fish Perissodus microlepis is well known for exhibiting lateral dimorphism in its mouth morphology and lateralized behavior in robbing scales from prey fish. A previous field study indicated that this mouth asymmetry closely correlates with the side on which prey is attacked, but details of this species' predation behavior have not been previously analyzed because of the rapidity of the movements. Here, we studied scale-eating behavior in cichlids in a tank through high-speed video monitoring and quantitative assessment of behavioral laterality and kinematics. The fish observed showed a clear bias toward striking on one side, which closely correlated with their asymmetric mouth morphologies. Furthermore, the maximum angular velocity and amplitude of body flexion were significantly larger during attacks on the preferred side compared to those on the nonpreferred side, permitting increased predation success. In contrast, no such lateral difference in movement elements was observed in acoustically evoked flexion during the escape response, which is similar to flexion during scale eating and suggests that they share a common motor control pathway. Thus the neuronal circuits controlling body flexion during scale eating may be functionally lateralized upstream of this common motor pathway. PMID:22238598

  9. Misuse of prescription stimulants for weight loss, psychosocial variables, and eating disordered behaviors.

    PubMed

    Jeffers, Amy; Benotsch, Eric G; Koester, Stephen

    2013-06-01

    In recent years there has been a dramatic increase in the non-medical use of prescription drugs among young adults including an increase in the use of prescription stimulants normally used to treat ADHD. Reported motivations for the non-medical use of prescription stimulants (NPS) include enhancing academic performance and to get high. Although a common side effect of these medications is appetite suppression, research examining weight loss as a motivation for NPS among young adults is sparse. In the present study, undergraduate students (n=705) completed an online survey assessing weight loss behaviors, motivations for weight loss, and eating behaviors. Nearly 12% of respondents reported using prescription stimulants to lose weight. Participants who reported using prescription stimulants for weight loss had greater appearance-related motivations for weight loss, greater emotion and stress-related eating, a more compromised appraisal of their ability to cope, lower self-esteem, and were more likely to report engaging in other unhealthy weight loss and eating disordered behaviors. Results suggest some young adults are misusing prescription stimulants for weight loss and that this behavior is associated with other problematic weight loss strategies. Interventions designed to reduce problematic eating behaviors in young adults may wish to assess the misuse of prescription stimulants. PMID:23376413

  10. Designing the user interfaces of a behavior modification intervention for obesity & eating disorders prevention.

    PubMed

    Moulos, Ioannis; Maramis, Christos; Mourouzis, Alexandros; Maglaveras, Nicos

    2015-01-01

    The recent immense diffusion of smartphones has significantly upgraded the role of mobile user interfaces in interventions that build and/or maintain healthier lifestyles. Indeed, high-quality, user-centered smartphone applications are able to serve as advanced front-ends to such interventions. These smartphone applications, coupled with portable or wearable sensors, are being employed for monitoring day to day health-related behaviors, including eating and physical activity. Some of them take one step forward by identifying unhealthy behaviors and contributing towards their modification. This work presents the design as well as the preliminary implementation of the mobile user interface of SPLENDID, a novel, sensor-oriented intervention for preventing obesity and eating disorders in young populations. This is implemented by means of an Android application, which is able to monitor the eating and physical activity behaviors of young individuals at risk for obesity and/or eating disorders, subsequently guiding them towards the modification of those behaviors that put them at risk. Behavior monitoring is based on multiple data provided by a set of communicating sensors and self-reported information, while guidance is facilitated through a feedback/encouragement provision and goal setting mechanism. PMID:25991228

  11. Associations between Parental Feeding Styles and Childhood Eating Habits: A Survey of Hong Kong Pre-School Children

    PubMed Central

    Lo, Kenneth; Cheung, Calvin; Lee, Albert; Tam, Wilson W. S.; Keung, Vera

    2015-01-01

    Childhood obesity is a global public health issue, including in the Chinese setting, and its prevalence has increased dramatically throughout the last decade. Since the origins of childhood obesity may lie in the pre-school period, factors relating to very young childrens food consumption should be investigated. Parental influence, including feeding style, is the major determinant of childhood dietary behaviour through altering food provision and social environment. However, the applicability of previous research on parental feeding styles was limited by small sample size. To evaluate the influence of parental feeding styles on children's dietary patterns, a cross-sectional study was conducted among 4553 pre-schoolers in Hong Kong. Information was obtained about dietary intake and how regularly they had breakfast, using previous health surveillance surveys taken among primary school students. Parental feeding styles were assessed by a validated Parental Feeding Style Questionnaire and categorized into instrumental feeding, emotional feeding, prompting and encouragement to eat and control over eating. Multivariable analysis was performed, adjusted for demographic information. Instrumental and/or emotional feeding was found to relate to inadequate consumption of fruit, vegetables and breakfast, and positively correlated with intake of high-energy-density food. Encouragement on eating was associated with more frequent consumption of fruits, vegetables, dairy products and breakfast. Control over eating correlated with more frequent consumption of fruits, vegetables and breakfast, and less consumption of dairy products and high-energy-density food. The present study has provided evidence on the associations between parental feeding styles and dietary patterns of Hong Kong pre-school children from a reasonably large population. Parents should avoid instrumental and emotional feeding, and implement control and encouragement to promote healthy food intake. Longitudinal studies and interventions on parental feeding style are required to confirm the research findings. PMID:25927836

  12. Surgency and Negative Affectivity, but not Effortful Control, are Uniquely Associated with Obesogenic Eating Behaviors among Low-Income Preschoolers

    PubMed Central

    Leung, Christy Y.Y.; Lumeng, Julie C.; Kaciroti, Niko A.; Chen, Yu Pu; Rosenblum, Katherine; Miller, Alison L.

    2014-01-01

    Despite increased attention to the role of temperament in children’s obesogenic eating behaviors, there is a paucity of research examining whether different dimensions of temperament may be differentially associated with specific eating behaviors among preschool-age children. The purpose of the current study was to examine whether three temperament dimensions (surgency, negative affectivity, and effortful control) were uniquely associated with six obesogenic eating behaviors (caregiver-reported food responsiveness, enjoyment of food, emotional overeating, satiety responsiveness, and tantrums over food; and observed eating in the absence of hunger) among low-income preschool-age children, covarying home environment quality. Results showed that temperament dimensions were differentially associated with different eating behaviors. Specifically, preschoolers with higher surgency were more likely to overeat in response to external cues, have frequent desire to eat, derive pleasure from food, and eat in the absence of hunger. In contrast, preschoolers with higher negative affectivity were more likely to have tantrums over being denied food and less likely to eat in the absence of hunger. Effortful control was not uniquely associated with obesogenic eating behavior. Findings remained significant even when home chaos was accounted for, suggesting that child surgency and negative affectivity are important to consider, independent of home environment. Results are discussed with regard to theoretical implications for the study of childhood obesity and for applied prevention implications. PMID:24685763

  13. Food Insecurity and Eating Behavior Relationships Among Congregate Meal Participants in Georgia.

    PubMed

    Myles, TaMara; Porter Starr, Kathryn N; Johnson, Kristen B; Sun Lee, Jung; Fischer, Joan G; Ann Johnson, Mary

    2016-01-01

    This study explored relationships of food insecurity with cognitive restraint, uncontrolled eating, and emotional eating behaviors among congregate meal participants in northeast Georgia [n = 118 years, age 60 years and older, mean (SD) age = 75 ( 8 ) years, 75% female, 43% Black, 53% obese (Body Mass Index ≥ 30)]. Food insecurity was assessed with a 6-item questionnaire. Scores ranged from 0 to 6 and were defined as high or marginal food security, FS, 0-1 (70%); low food security, LFS, 2-4 (20%); very low food security, VLFS, 5-6 (10%); and low and very low food security, LVLFS, 2-6 (30%). Eating behavior was assessed with an 18-item Three-Factor Eating Questionnaire R-18. In bivariate analyses food insecurity was consistently associated with cognitive restraint scores above the median split and to a lesser extent with uncontrolled eating scores (p ≤ 0.05). No association was found between emotional eating and food insecurity. In multivariate linear and logistic regression analyses, food insecurity was consistently associated with cognitive restraint (p ≤ 0.05) even when controlled for potential confounders (demographics, Body Mass Index, and chronic diseases). Food insecurity was also associated with uncontrolled eating (p ≤ 0.05), but the relationship was attenuated when controlled for potential confounding variables. Although cognitive restraint is defined as the conscious restriction of food intake to control body weight or promote weight loss, these findings suggest there may be other dimensions of cognitive restraint to consider in nutritional assessment and interventions among food-insecure older adults. PMID:26885944

  14. Differences between nonsuicidal self-injury and suicidal behavior in patients with eating disorders.

    PubMed

    Noma, Shun'ichi; Uwatoko, Teruhisa; Ono, Miki; Miyagi, Takashi; Murai, Toshiya

    2015-05-01

    Although it has been reported that 25% to 50% of patients with eating disorders engage in self-harming behaviors (SHBs), including nonsuicidal self-injury (NSSI) and suicidal behavior (SB), no study has investigated the psychological mechanisms underlying these SHBs or any differences that may exist between NSSI and SB. This study involved 76 female patients with eating disorders who were treated at the Kyoto University Hospital between July and August, 2010, who answered questionnaires about SHBs, eating attitudes, tendency to dissociate, and attachment style. Some of the participants (22.4%) had other psychiatric disorders in addition to eating disorders, including borderline personality disorder, dissociative disorder, and posttraumatic stress disorder. Of the participants without comorbidity, 23.7% had engaged in SHBs in the past 3 months. Participants with comorbidity tended to dissociate significantly more than participants without comorbidity. Logistic regression indicated that, in all participants, NSSI in the past 3 months was related to the tendency to dissociate and having a higher body mass index, whereas preoccupied attachment style was potentially related to recent SB. Specifically, among the participants without comorbidity, a sense of ineffectiveness and poor interoceptive awareness were related to recent NSSI, and severity of binge-eating was related to SB. In contrast, a history of NSSI in the patients with eating disorders without comorbidity was related to a sense of ineffectiveness. The results of our study suggest that it may be important to help patients with eating disorders recover their own sense of effectiveness as a possible way to reduce SHBs. PMID:25955262

  15. Web-Based Cognitive Behavioral Therapy for Female Patients With Eating Disorders: Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    de Haan, Hein A; Postel, Marloes G; van der Palen, Job; VanDerNagel, Joanne EL; DeJong, Cornelis AJ

    2015-01-01

    Background Many patients with eating disorders do not receive help for their symptoms, even though these disorders have severe morbidity. The Internet may offer alternative low-threshold treatment interventions. Objective This study evaluated the effects of a Web-based cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) intervention using intensive asynchronous therapeutic support to improve eating disorder psychopathology, and to reduce body dissatisfaction and related health problems among patients with eating disorders. Methods A two-arm open randomized controlled trial comparing a Web-based CBT intervention to a waiting list control condition (WL) was carried out among female patients with bulimia nervosa (BN), binge eating disorder (BED), and eating disorders not otherwise specified (EDNOS). The eating disorder diagnosis was in accordance with the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th edition, and was established based on participants self-report. Participants were recruited from an open-access website, and the intervention consisted of a structured two-part program within a secure Web-based application. The aim of the first part was to analyze participants eating attitudes and behaviors, while the second part focused on behavioral change. Participants had asynchronous contact with a personal therapist twice a week, solely via the Internet. Self-report measures of eating disorder psychopathology (primary outcome), body dissatisfaction, physical health, mental health, self-esteem, quality of life, and social functioning were completed at baseline and posttest. Results A total of 214 participants were randomized to either the Web-based CBT group (n=108) or to the WL group (n=106) stratified by type of eating disorder (BN: n=44; BED: n=85; EDNOS: n=85). Study attrition was low with 94% of the participants completing the posttest assignment. Overall, Web-based CBT showed a significant improvement over time for eating disorder psychopathology (F 97=63.07, P<.001, d=.82) and all secondary outcome measures (effect sizes between d=.34 to d=.49), except for Body Mass Index. WL participants also improved on most outcomes; however, effects were smaller in this group with significant between-group effects for eating disorder psychopathology (F 201=9.42, P=.002, d=.44), body dissatisfaction (F 201=13.16, P<.001, d=.42), physical health (F 200=12.55, P<.001, d=.28), mental health (F 203=4.88, P=.028, d=.24), self-esteem (F 202=5.06, P=.026, d=.20), and social functioning (F 205=7.93, P=.005, d=.29). Analyses for the individual subgroups BN, BED, and EDNOS showed that eating disorder psychopathology improved significantly over time among Web-based CBT participants in all three subgroups; however, the between-group effect was significant only for participants with BED (F 78=4.25, P=.043, d=.61). Conclusions Web-based CBT proved to be effective in improving eating disorder psychopathology and related health among female patients with eating disorders. Trial Registration Nederlands Trial Register (NTR): NTR2415; http://www.trialregister.nl/trialreg/admin/rctview.asp?TC=2415 (Archived by WebCite at http://www.webcitation.org/6T2io3DnJ). PMID:26088580

  16. Drunkorexia: Understanding the Co-Occurrence of Alcohol Consumption and Eating/Exercise Weight Management Behaviors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barry, Adam E.; Piazza-Gardner, Anna K.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Examine the co-occurrence of alcohol consumption, physical activity, and disordered eating behaviors via a drunkorexia perspective. Participants: Nationally representative sample (n = 22,488) of college students completing the Fall 2008 National College Health Assessment. Methods: Hierarchical logistic regression was employed to

  17. Observed Family Interactions among Subtypes of Eating Disorders Using Structural Analysis of Social Behavior.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Humphrey, Laura Lynn

    1989-01-01

    Compared observations of family interactions among anorexic, bulimic-anorexic, bulimic, and normal families (N=74 families) consisting of father, mother, and teenage daughter. Benjamin's structural analysis of social behavior methodology differentiated clinical from normal families. Found unique patterns among subtypes of eating disorders which

  18. Screening High School Students for Eating Disorders: Validity of Brief Behavioral and Attitudinal Measures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haines, Jess; Ziyadeh, Najat J.; Franko, Debra L.; McDonald, Julia; Mond, Jonathan M.; Austin, S. Bryn

    2011-01-01

    Background: Early identification can greatly impact the trajectory of eating disorders, and school-based screening is 1 avenue for identifying those at risk. To be feasible in a school setting, a screening program must use a brief, valid screening tool. The aim of this study was to assess how well brief attitudinal and behavioral survey items

  19. Irregular Breakfast Eating and Associated Health Behaviors: A Pilot Study among College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thiagarajah, Krisha; Torabi, Mohammad R.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine prevalence of eating breakfast and associated health compromising behaviors. This study utilized a cross-sectional survey methodology. A purposive cluster sampling technique was utilized to collect data from a representative sample of college students in a Midwestern university in the U.S. A total of 1,257…

  20. Date Violence and Date Rape among Adolescents: Associations with Disordered Eating Behaviors and Psychological Health.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ackard, Diann M.; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne

    2002-01-01

    A study assessed prevalence of date violence and rape in 81,247 adolescents. Approximately 9% of girls and 6% of boys had experienced date violence or rape. Date violence and rape was associated with higher rates of disordered eating behaviors and suicidal thoughts and attempts, and lower emotional well-being and self-esteem. (Contains…

  1. Relationship between Eating Behavior, Breakfast Consumption, and Obesity among Finnish and Greek Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Veltsista, Alexandra; Laitinen, Jaana; Sovio, Ulla; Roma, Eleftheria; Jarvelin, Marjo-Ritta; Bakoula, Chryssa

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the relationship between eating-related behaviors, particularly breakfast consumption, and weight status in Finnish and Greek adolescents. Methods: A total of 6,468 16-year-old Finnish adolescents and 2,842 17- and 18-year-old Greek adolescents, based on the latest follow-up of 2 population-based cohorts, were studied.

  2. Pretreatment and Process Predictors of Outcome in Interpersonal and Cognitive Behavioral Psychotherapy for Binge Eating Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hilbert, Anja; Saelens, Brian E.; Stein, Richard I.; Mockus, Danyte S.; Welch, R. Robinson; Matt, Georg E.; Wilfley, Denise E.

    2007-01-01

    The present study examined pretreatment and process predictors of individual nonresponse to psychological group treatment of binge eating disorder (BED). In a randomized trial, 162 overweight patients with BED were treated with either group cognitive-behavioral therapy or group interpersonal psychotherapy. Treatment nonresponse, which was defined

  3. 12-Month Follow-Up of Fluoxetine and Cognitive Behavioral Therapy for Binge Eating Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grilo, Carlos M.; Crosby, Ross D.; Wilson, G. Terence; Masheb, Robin M.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: The longer term efficacy of medication treatments for binge-eating disorder (BED) remains unknown. This study examined the longer term effects of fluoxetine and cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) either with fluoxetine (CBT + fluoxetine) or with placebo (CBT + placebo) for BED through 12-month follow-up after completing treatments.

  4. The Relation of Sociocultural Factors to Eating Attitudes and Behaviors among Middle School Girls.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levine, Michael P.; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Investigated young girls' eating behavior, body satisfaction, weight management, and the cues taken from family, peers, and magazines. Found that a majority received a message from fashion magazines and peers or family that being slender is important and attainable through dieting, indicating that some young girls live under intense weight and

  5. 12-Month Follow-Up of Fluoxetine and Cognitive Behavioral Therapy for Binge Eating Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grilo, Carlos M.; Crosby, Ross D.; Wilson, G. Terence; Masheb, Robin M.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: The longer term efficacy of medication treatments for binge-eating disorder (BED) remains unknown. This study examined the longer term effects of fluoxetine and cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) either with fluoxetine (CBT + fluoxetine) or with placebo (CBT + placebo) for BED through 12-month follow-up after completing treatments.…

  6. Screening High School Students for Eating Disorders: Validity of Brief Behavioral and Attitudinal Measures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haines, Jess; Ziyadeh, Najat J.; Franko, Debra L.; McDonald, Julia; Mond, Jonathan M.; Austin, S. Bryn

    2011-01-01

    Background: Early identification can greatly impact the trajectory of eating disorders, and school-based screening is 1 avenue for identifying those at risk. To be feasible in a school setting, a screening program must use a brief, valid screening tool. The aim of this study was to assess how well brief attitudinal and behavioral survey items…

  7. Autonomy at Mealtime: Building Healthy Food Preferences and Eating Behaviors in Young Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mogharreban, Catherine; Nahikian-Nelms, Marcia

    1996-01-01

    Explores family-style meal service as a means to building autonomy and healthy eating behaviors in young children. Discusses the development of food preferences, age-related developmental responses to food, and the importance of socially mediated exposure to food as a way to increased food acceptance. Presents guidelines for implementing

  8. Prevalence of Bulimic Behaviors and Trends in Eating Attitudes among Turkish Late Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kiziltan, Gul; Karabudak, Efsun; Unver, Sibel; Sezgin, Emine; Unal, Ayse

    2006-01-01

    The eating attitudes and the prevalence of bulimic behaviors in a group of 300 late adolescents were investigated using the key questions from the Bulimia Investigatory Test, Edinburgh (BITE), and additional questions. Only four subjects (1.3%) scored above the cut-off point on the BITE, and prevalence rates of males and females were the same.

  9. Family Support Is Associated with Behavioral Strategies for Healthy Eating among Latinas

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schmied, Emily A.; Parada, Humberto; Horton, Lucy A.; Madanat, Hala; Ayala, Guadalupe X.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Healthy eating is important for obesity control. Dietary interventions target the adoption of behavioral strategies to increase fiber and decrease fat consumption. However, little is known about the contributions of psychosocial factors to the use of these strategies. Purpose: This study examined psychosocial correlates of behavioral…

  10. Feeding and Eating Behaviors in Children with Autism and Typically Developing Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martins, Yolanda; Young, Robyn L.; Robson, Danielle C.

    2008-01-01

    Mothers of children aged 2-12 years completed an exhaustive questionnaire assessing feeding and eating behaviors for both themselves and their children with autism, and typically developing siblings of children with Autism Spectrum Disorder (where available), or typically developing children with no sibling with a disability. Results indicate that

  11. Eating behaviors as predictors of weight loss in a 6 month worksite weight loss intervention

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The eating behaviors restraint and disinhibition have been suggested to predict weight loss (WL) but there is no information on whether these predictors are valid in worksite WL programs, which are increasingly being recommended for reducing the obesity epidemic. This study examined associations bet...

  12. Children's Eating Behavior: The Importance of Nutrition Standards for Foods in Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bevans, Katherine B.; Sanchez, Betty; Teneralli, Rachel; Forrest, Christopher B.

    2011-01-01

    Background: To enhance the impact of school nutrition programs on children's health, more information is needed on the associations between healthy and unhealthy food offerings during school lunch periods and children's eating behavior. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the contributions of food offerings and participation in school lunch

  13. Body Satisfaction and Eating Disorder Behaviors among Immigrant Adolescents in North America

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Magtoto, Joanne; Cox, David; Saewyc, Elizabeth

    2013-01-01

    Using a province-wide school-based health survey, this article investigated body satisfaction as a mediator of the association between eating disorder behaviors and immigrant status. Participants were a sample of adolescent girls (n=15,066) and boys (n=14,200) who completed the 2008 McCreary Centre Society Adolescent Health Survey IV.

  14. Autonomy at Mealtime: Building Healthy Food Preferences and Eating Behaviors in Young Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mogharreban, Catherine; Nahikian-Nelms, Marcia

    1996-01-01

    Explores family-style meal service as a means to building autonomy and healthy eating behaviors in young children. Discusses the development of food preferences, age-related developmental responses to food, and the importance of socially mediated exposure to food as a way to increased food acceptance. Presents guidelines for implementing…

  15. Parental Loss and Eating-Related Cognitions and Behaviors in College-Age Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beam, Minna R.; Servaty-Seib, Heather L.; Mathews, Laura

    2004-01-01

    To examine the eating-related cognitions and behaviors of college-age women who had experienced parental death, parental divorce, or neither loss condition, we recruited 48 women from science and social science departments at a state university in the Southeast. All participants completed the Mizes Anorectic Cognitions Scale (MAC) and the Bulimia…

  16. Prevalence of Bulimic Behaviors and Trends in Eating Attitudes among Turkish Late Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kiziltan, Gul; Karabudak, Efsun; Unver, Sibel; Sezgin, Emine; Unal, Ayse

    2006-01-01

    The eating attitudes and the prevalence of bulimic behaviors in a group of 300 late adolescents were investigated using the key questions from the Bulimia Investigatory Test, Edinburgh (BITE), and additional questions. Only four subjects (1.3%) scored above the cut-off point on the BITE, and prevalence rates of males and females were the same.…

  17. Relationship between Eating Behavior, Breakfast Consumption, and Obesity among Finnish and Greek Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Veltsista, Alexandra; Laitinen, Jaana; Sovio, Ulla; Roma, Eleftheria; Jarvelin, Marjo-Ritta; Bakoula, Chryssa

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the relationship between eating-related behaviors, particularly breakfast consumption, and weight status in Finnish and Greek adolescents. Methods: A total of 6,468 16-year-old Finnish adolescents and 2,842 17- and 18-year-old Greek adolescents, based on the latest follow-up of 2 population-based cohorts, were studied.…

  18. Date Violence and Date Rape among Adolescents: Associations with Disordered Eating Behaviors and Psychological Health.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ackard, Diann M.; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne

    2002-01-01

    A study assessed prevalence of date violence and rape in 81,247 adolescents. Approximately 9% of girls and 6% of boys had experienced date violence or rape. Date violence and rape was associated with higher rates of disordered eating behaviors and suicidal thoughts and attempts, and lower emotional well-being and self-esteem. (Contains

  19. Parental Loss and Eating-Related Cognitions and Behaviors in College-Age Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beam, Minna R.; Servaty-Seib, Heather L.; Mathews, Laura

    2004-01-01

    To examine the eating-related cognitions and behaviors of college-age women who had experienced parental death, parental divorce, or neither loss condition, we recruited 48 women from science and social science departments at a state university in the Southeast. All participants completed the Mizes Anorectic Cognitions Scale (MAC) and the Bulimia

  20. Eating on the run. A qualitative study of health agency and eating behaviors among fast food employees.

    PubMed

    Mulvaney-Day, Norah E; Womack, Catherine A; Oddo, Vanessa M

    2012-10-01

    Understanding the relationship between obesity and fast food consumption encompasses a broad range of individual level and environmental factors. One theoretical approach, the health capability framework, focuses on the complex set of conditions allowing individuals to be healthy. This qualitative study aimed to identify factors that influence individual level health agency with respect to healthy eating choices in uniformly constrained environments (e.g., fast food restaurants). We used an inductive qualitative research design to develop an interview guide, conduct open-ended interviews with a purposive sample of 14 student fast food workers (aged 18-25), and analyze the data. Data analysis was conducted iteratively during the study with multiple coders to identify themes. Emergent themes included environmental influences on eating behaviors (time, cost, restaurant policies, social networks) and internal psychological factors (feelings associated with hunger, food knowledge versus food preparation know-how, reaction to physical experiences, perceptions of food options, delayed gratification, and radical subjectivity). A localized, embedded approach to analyzing the factors driving the obesity epidemic is needed. Addressing contextual interactions between internal psychological and external environmental factors responds to social justice and public health concerns, and may yield more relevant and effective interventions for vulnerable communities. PMID:22634194

  1. What Cognitive Behavioral Techniques Do Therapists Report Using when Delivering Cognitive Behavioral Therapy for the Eating Disorders?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waller, Glenn; Stringer, Hannah; Meyer, Caroline

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Clinicians commonly "drift" away from using proven therapeutic techniques. This study examined the degree to which such drift occurs among cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) clinicians working with a specific clinical population--adults with eating disorders. Method: The study used a correlational design. The participants were 80

  2. What Cognitive Behavioral Techniques Do Therapists Report Using when Delivering Cognitive Behavioral Therapy for the Eating Disorders?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waller, Glenn; Stringer, Hannah; Meyer, Caroline

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Clinicians commonly "drift" away from using proven therapeutic techniques. This study examined the degree to which such drift occurs among cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) clinicians working with a specific clinical population--adults with eating disorders. Method: The study used a correlational design. The participants were 80…

  3. Tinnitus among Serbian secondary school students in relation to their behavior and habits.

    PubMed

    Marmut, Zoran; Belojevic, Goran; Backovic, Dusan; Zivojinovic, Jelena Ilic; Tomanic, Milena; Hadzic, Ema

    2014-01-01

    Although tinnitus is a very common symptom, risk factors related to behavior and habits have not been sufficiently investigated. As no investigation on this problem has been performed in Serbia, the aim of our study was to establish the prevalence of tinnitus among Serbian adolescents and to investigate the relationship between their behavior and habits and tinnitus. This investigation was designed as a cross-sectional interview study among secondary school students in Belgrade, Serbia (277 boys and 494 girls). An anonymous questionnaire was self-administered at classes. The investigated variables were: The presence of tinnitus, sources of noise, night outs at noisy places, use of personal music players, smoking, second hand smoke (SHS), substance abuse, coffee and alcohol consumption. Spearman's rank-order correlations and multiple logistic regressions were performed with variables related to behavior and habits as independent ones and tinnitus as a dichotomized dependent variable. Tinnitus was reported by 99 students (12.8%), more frequently among girls compared with boys (P = 0.009). Multivariate logistic regression analysis in boys revealed a significant independent effect of a regular drug abuse on the onset of tinnitus. The chances of tinnitus were 13 times higher among drug addicts compared with non-drug users (odds ratio [OR] and 95% confidence interval [CI] for tinnitus = 13.072; 1.335-127.946). In girls, the significant independent effect on tinnitus was found for daily duration of exposure to SHS (OR and 95% CI for tinnitus = 1.328; 1.073-1.644 /per 2 hours of exposure/). PMID:24804710

  4. Food advertising and television exposure: influence on eating behavior and nutritional status of children and adolescents.

    PubMed

    Costa, Suzane Mota Marques; Horta, Paula Martins; dos Santos, Luana Caroline

    2012-03-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the influence of food advertising and television exposure on eating behaviour and nutritional status of children and adolescents. It was a cross sectional study developed among 116 students from a private school in Brazil. Socio-demographic and health conditions were evaluated. Anthropometric data, food consumption, physical activity, television viewing habits and behaviour in relation to food advertising were also investigated. Among the results, a 1:2 relationship was identified between the number of televisions and residents per household. Excessive weight was present in 25.8% of subjects and 66.4% of children watched television while eating. Children were exposed to television for a median of 3.0 hours daily (95% CI: 2.9 to 3.6). There was a direct association between attraction to foods advertised and purchasing the product (p < 0.001) and a positive relationship between the number of televisions per household and body weight (r = 0.246, p = 0.015) and the amount of liquid consumed during meals (r = 0.277, p = 0.013). Findings also highlighted the association between watching television while eating and the reduced probability of fruit consumption (p = 0.032), contrasted with a greater likelihood of daily artificial juice intake (p = 0.039). In conclusion, watching television is associated with lower probability of daily consumption of fruits and the number of television at household is positively related to BMI in children and adolescents. PMID:23477208

  5. Development of eating behaviors among children and adolescents.

    PubMed

    Birch, L L; Fisher, J O

    1998-03-01

    The prevalence of obesity among children is high and is increasing. We know that obesity runs in families, with children of obese parents at greater risk of developing obesity than children of thin parents. Research on genetic factors in obesity has provided us with estimates of the proportion of the variance in a population accounted for by genetic factors. However, this research does not provide information regarding individual development. To design effective preventive interventions, research is needed to delineate how genetics and environmental factors interact in the etiology of childhood obesity. Addressing this question is especially challenging because parents provide both genes and environment for children. An enormous amount of learning about food and eating occurs during the transition from the exclusive milk diet of infancy to the omnivore's diet consumed by early childhood. This early learning is constrained by children's genetic predispositions, which include the unlearned preference for sweet tastes, salty tastes, and the rejection of sour and bitter tastes. Children also are predisposed to reject new foods and to learn associations between foods' flavors and the postingestive consequences of eating. Evidence suggests that children can respond to the energy density of the diet and that although intake at individual meals is erratic, 24-hour energy intake is relatively well regulated. There are individual differences in the regulation of energy intake as early as the preschool period. These individual differences in self-regulation are associated with differences in child-feeding practices and with children's adiposity. This suggests that child-feeding practices have the potential to affect children's energy balance via altering patterns of intake. Initial evidence indicates that imposition of stringent parental controls can potentiate preferences for high-fat, energy-dense foods, limit children's acceptance of a variety of foods, and disrupt children's regulation of energy intake by altering children's responsiveness to internal cues of hunger and satiety. This can occur when well-intended but concerned parents assume that children need help in determining what, when, and how much to eat and when parents impose child-feeding practices that provide children with few opportunities for self-control. Implications of these findings for preventive interventions are discussed. PMID:12224660

  6. Eating behaviors, diet quality, and gastrointestinal symptoms in children with autism spectrum disorders: a brief review.

    PubMed

    Kral, Tanja V E; Eriksen, Whitney T; Souders, Margaret C; Pinto-Martin, Jennifer A

    2013-01-01

    Children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) and their caregivers face unique challenges in the children's daily eating routines and food intake patterns. The aim of this brief review is to describe eating behaviors of children with ASD, including increased food neophobia and food selectivity, and review findings on children's diet quality, and gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms. Advancing knowledge about the interrelationships between these nutrition-related domains in children with ASD is expected to have important implications for clinical nursing practice and caregiver care. PMID:23531467

  7. Lifestyle habits of 12,800 IVF patients: Prevalence of negative lifestyle behaviors, and impact of region and insurance coverage.

    PubMed

    Domar, Alice D; Rooney, Kristin L; Milstein, Melissa; Conboy, Lisa

    2015-12-01

    Lifestyle habits of women undergoing in vitro fertilization (IVF) treatment are largely unknown. Therefore, this prospective study aimed to determine the prevalence of negative lifestyle habits in women undergoing IVF and determine if habits are related to the region in the United States and/or by mandated insurance coverage. A total of 12,811 ART patients were surveyed in infertility clinics throughout the US. They took an online questionnaire added to the patient portal of electronic medical record eIVF, a fertility-specific electronic health record. Of the women surveyed, 17-23% of patients drank alcohol, 2-7% smoked, 62-68% drank caffeine, < 1% used recreational drugs, and 47-62% exercised during their IVF treatment. There were a few statistically significant regional differences in health habits (p < 0.001) but there were no differences in health habits between women who resided in a state with mandated insurance coverage versus those without insurance coverage. This is the first prospective assessment of lifestyle habits across regions in the USA and by insurance coverage. The study concluded that women undergoing IVF engage in behaviors which may negatively impact their cycle. Women in certain parts of the US had significantly worse habits than other regions, but the availability of mandated insurance coverage did not impact health habits. PMID:26414657

  8. Dieting tendency and eating behavior problems in eating disorder correlate with right frontotemporal and left orbitofrontal cortex: a near-infrared spectroscopy study.

    PubMed

    Suda, Masashi; Uehara, Toru; Fukuda, Masato; Sato, Toshimasa; Kameyama, Masaki; Mikuni, Masahiko

    2010-06-01

    Frontal lobe dysfunctions have been implicated as one of the pathophysiological bases in eating disorder (ED). Neural substrates of ED have been examined in neuroimaging studies employing symptom-related stimuli, such as food and body-image distortion, but with inconsistent results because of differences in study design, task, and stimulus used. In order to elucidate frontal lobe dysfunction correlates of clinical symptoms in ED, we examined the frontal lobe function during a cognitive task, not a symptom-related task, using near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS), which is suitable for the functional neuroimaging study of ED because of its complete noninvasiveness and natural measurement setting. Regional hemodynamic changes were monitored during a verbal fluency task (letter version) using a 52-channel NIRS apparatus in 27 female ED patients and 27 matched healthy controls, and their correlations with clinical symptoms assessed using the Eating Attitude Scale (EAT-26) were examined. Regional hemodynamic changes were significantly smaller in the ED group than in the control group in the bilateral orbitofrontal and right frontotemporal regions, and negatively correlated with dieting tendency scores in EAT-26 in the right frontotemporal regions and with the eating restriction and binge eating scores in the left orbitofrontal regions. The clinical symptoms of ED are considered to consist of two components: dieting tendency that correlates with the right frontotemporal cortex and eating behavior problems that correlate with left the orbitofrontal cortex. PMID:19962158

  9. Eating extra calories when sick - children

    MedlinePLUS

    Getting more calories - children ... your child needs to get enough protein and calories to grow and develop. Eating well can help ... children's eating habits to help them get more calories. Let your child eat when hungry, not just ...

  10. Effects of ozone and nitrogen dioxide on drinking and eating behaviors in mice

    SciTech Connect

    Umezu, T.; Suzuki, A.K.; Miura, T.; Koizumi, A. )

    1993-04-01

    Male ICR mice were exposed continuously to ozone (O3) and nitrogen dioxide (NO2) for 7 days to examine the effects on drinking and eating behaviors. Ozone at 0.1 ppm did not affect drinking and eating activities, whereas drinking activity decreased in a concentration-dependent manner to 47.7, 12.8, and 3.0% of the control value with 2-day exposures to 0.2, 0.4, and 0.8 ppm O3, respectively, and eating activity decreased to 35.2 and 8.7% of the control value at 0.4 and 0.8 ppm O3, respectively. Body weight also decreased markedly by 2.0, 4.6, and 7.5 g at 0.2, 0.4, and 0.8 ppm O3, respectively. These decrements reached a maximum on the second day of exposure. However, alterations in drinking and eating activities and body weight were transient, leading to recovery during the continuous O3 exposures. The recovery processes were dependent on the concentrations of O3. Nitrogen dioxide at 4 ppm did not affect drinking and eating activities, whereas drinking activity decreased in a concentration-dependent manner to 56.8, 8.3, and 18.7% of the control value with 2-day exposures to 6, 8, and 12 ppm NO2, respectively, and eating activity decreased markedly to 21.8 and 16.4% at 8 and 12 ppm NO2, respectively. Body weight also decreased by 2.5, 5.5, and 6.1 g at 6, 8, and 12 ppm NO2, respectively. These decrements reached a maximum on the second day of exposure. As in the O3 exposures, the decrements in drinking and eating activities and body weight were transient and recovered during the continuous exposures to NO2 depending on the concentrations of NO2. Drinking and eating activities and body weights of mice that had been previously exposed to 12 ppm NO2 for 7 days did not show changes when the mice were exposed to 0.4 ppm O3 9 days after NO2 exposure. The present study demonstrates that photochemical oxidants suppress drinking and eating behaviors in mice and that they recover thereafter under the continuous exposure conditions.

  11. Eating attitudes and behavior throughout the menstrual cycle in obese women: a case-control study.

    PubMed

    Zucchi, T; Mannucci, E; Ricca, V; Giardinelli, L; Di Bernardo, M; Pieroni, V; Susini, T; Cabras, P; Rotella, C M

    2000-03-01

    Premenstrual variations of eating behavior are reported in several studies, but their relationship with mood is unclear. Eating behavior and physical and psychological complaints during the menstrual cycle were studied in 107 obese patients and 93 matched controls using retrospective (Weekly Bulimic Test Edinburgh, W-BITE and Premenstrual Assessment Form, PAF) and prospective (Daily Rating Form, DR) questionnaires. Eating disorder symptoms increased in the premenstrual phase, as shown by the W-BITE scores both in patients (6.2 +/- 5.3 premenstrual week vs 4.9 +/- 4.4 postmenstrual week, p < 0.05) and in control subjects (4.9 +/- 4.1 premenstrual week vs 4.2 +/- 3.0 postmenstrual week, p < 0.05) and were correlated to premenstrual complaints in control subjects (r = 0.5; p < 0.05) but not in obese women (r = 0.2; p = NS). A close relationship between physical and psychological premenstrual disturbances was observed in obese patients only. Premenstrual variation of eating behavior could be the target of specific treatment. PMID:10840654

  12. The prevalence of subclinical eating disorders among male cyclists.

    PubMed

    Riebl, Shaun K; Subudhi, Andrew W; Broker, Jeffery P; Schenck, Kim; Berning, Jacqueline R

    2007-07-01

    Disordered eating behaviors are typically seen as a problem in females and there are little data assessing their prevalence in males. The objective of the present cross-sectional investigation was to identify subclinical disordered eating patterns and dietary characteristics among competitive male cyclists. A nutritional questionnaire, the Eating Attitudes Test-26 (EAT-26), and Survey of Eating Disorders Among Cyclists, were completed by male cyclists (n=61) and noncyclists (n=63). Male cyclists scored significantly higher on the EAT-26 compared to the male control group (P<0.001). Of the 12 cyclists who showed the greatest tendency toward disordered eating (EAT-26 >20), only five self-reported having an eating disorder. Approximately half the cyclists believed eating disorders were somewhat common in the sport (28 of 60). The nutritional questionnaire revealed that male cyclists may not consume adequate nutrients to sustain their metabolic needs. Thus, the results of this study suggest that male cyclists may not know how to identify disordered eating habits and may be at an amplified risk for eating disorders and nutritional deficits. Further research should utilize various measures to address the prevalence of disordered eating in a larger sample size and quantify energy balance. PMID:17604754

  13. Dialectical Behavior Therapy and Eating Disorders: The Use of Contingency Management Procedures to Manage Dialectical Dilemmas.

    PubMed

    Wisniewski, Lucene; Ben-Porath, Denise D

    2015-01-01

    Several researchers have adapted and/or applied dialectical behavior therapy (DBT) for populations with eating disorders. There is a growing body of research that indicates that DBT is an effective treatment option for this population, including those who have co-occurring Axis II disorders. The goal of the current paper is to summarize the research conducted in the area of DBT with those individuals who present with eating disorders only as well as those who present with both eating disorders and Axis II disorders. We also describe a dialectical dilemma, apparent compliance vs. active defiance, which is commonly observed in the group with comorbidities A DBT change strategy, contingency management, is discussed as an intervention to target apparent compliance and active defiance. PMID:26160619

  14. Influence of Peers and Friends on Children’s and Adolescents’ Eating and Activity Behaviors

    PubMed Central

    Salvy, Sarah-Jeanne; de la Haye, Kayla; Bowker, Julie C.; Hermans, Roel C.J.

    2012-01-01

    Obesity during childhood and adolescence is a growing problem in the United States, Canada, and around the world that leads to significant physical, psychological, and social consequences. Peer experiences have been theoretically and empirically related to the “Big Two” contributors to the obesity epidemic, unhealthy eating and physical inactivity [1]. In this article, we synthesize the empirical literature on the influence of peers and friends on youth’s eating and physical activity. Limitations and issues in the theoretical and empirical literatures are also discussed, along with future research directions. In conclusion, we argue that the involvement of children’s and adolescents’ peer networks in prevention and intervention efforts may be critical for promoting and maintaining positive behavioral health trajectories. However, further theoretical and empirical work is needed to better understand the specific mechanisms underlying the effects of peers on youth’s eating and physical activity. PMID:22480733

  15. Family dinner and disordered eating behaviors in a large cohort of adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Haines, Jess; Gillman, Matthew W.; Rifas-Shiman, Sheryl; Field, Alison E.; Austin, S. Bryn

    2009-01-01

    We aimed to examine longitudinal associations between family dinner and disordered eating behaviors among adolescents. We studied 7535 females and 5913 males, 9 to 14 years of age in 1996. We performed multivariable logistic regression to assess the associations of previous year family dinner with 1-year incidence of each of 3 outcomes: purging, binge eating, and frequent dieting. Compared to those who ate family dinner “never or some days,” female adolescents who ate family dinner at least most days were less likely to initiate purging, binge eating, and frequent dieting. Estimates of association among males were similar in direction and magnitude, although lower frequency of the outcomes resulted in less precise estimates and fewer statistically significant results. PMID:20390605

  16. A model of binge-like eating behavior in mice that does not require food deprivation or stress.

    PubMed

    Czyzyk, Traci A; Sahr, Allison E; Statnick, Michael A

    2010-09-01

    Binge eating disorder (BED) is characterized by excessive food intake during a short period of time and is often associated with obesity. Mouse models of binge-like eating behavior are lacking making it difficult to employ genetic models in the identification of mechanisms regulating excessive eating. We report a rapid and simple model to induce binge-like eating behavior in mice that does not require food deprivation or exogenous stressors. Weekly 24 h access to a nutritionally complete high energy diet (HED), along with continuous access to standard chow, resulted in a significant increase in HED intake following its presentation compared to mice that had continuous access to both diets. Mice exhibiting binge-like eating consumed one-third of their normal total daily caloric intake within 2.5 h of HED presentation. Moreover, total 24-h caloric intakes were increased by 50% in mice exhibiting binge-like eating. Following repeated cycles, binge-like eating of the HED was maintained over several weeks with no evidence of habituation or significant alterations in body weight and adiposity. Pharmacological evaluation of binge-like eating behavior was performed using clinically employed compounds. Interestingly, binge-like eating was dose-dependently decreased by fluoxetine, but not baclofen or topiramate. These data support clinical validation of this mouse model of binge-like eating behavior, as fluoxetine has been shown to reduce binge frequency in human subjects with BED. The availability of transgenic and knockout mice will allow for the determination of genes that are involved in the initiation and maintenance of binge-like eating behavior. PMID:20300082

  17. [The influence of mourning on feeding habits and its implications for nutritional behavior].

    PubMed

    Campos, Maria Teresa Fialho de Sousa

    2013-09-01

    The lack of preparation for dealing with death and the absence of the loved one may lead to organic and psychological reactions that, due to the adaptive capacity of the individual to the period of mourning, may result in interference in feeding habits and consequently on the person's nutritional status. This article addresses the effects of recent mourning on feeding behavior, followed by the analysis of the dietary interview from various standpoints. This includes the postmortem nutrition and feeding habits of the bereaved and the implications of this process on hunger, on thirst and on family cooking, with a focus on nutritional behavior and on the decisions that surround it. This is a review of the literature on the theme of death and mourning, which seeks to contextualize this theme around reflections based on this experience. It emphasizes the interaction of nutrition with the science of thanatology, which is an area still not properly examined and lacking study. The identification of this influence and its implications enables better planning of food strategies, contributing greatly to actions for coping and support during mourning. PMID:23989584

  18. Purchasing habits of senior farmers' market shoppers: utilizing the theory of planned behavior.

    PubMed

    Middleton, Crystal; Smith, Sylvia

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to understand fresh fruit and vegetable purchasing habits among senior farmers' market shoppers using the theory of planned behavior. A survey instrument was developed to collect information on seniors' fruit and vegetable purchasing habits. A convenience sample of seniors shopping at farmers' markets was employed. A total of 184 surveys were collected. Respondents were divided into two groups based on response to a question of whether they received Senior Farmers' Market Nutritional Program (SFMNP) checks: 35 were on the SFMNP and 149 were not. Results indicated attitudes, subjective norms (SN), and perceived behavioral control (PBC) were all significantly correlated with intentions at the p<0.01 level. Attitude had the strongest association with intentions (0.730), followed by PBC (0.666) and SN (0.587). Regression analysis was significant and explained 66% of the variance (F=86.151, p<0.001, adjusted R square=0.656). Results indicated attitude to be the strongest predictor of seniors' intentions to purchase more fresh fruits and vegetables at farmers' markets. Senior programs may find this information useful when promoting fresh fruits and vegetables for senior citizens. These findings may also benefit farmers' markets while promoting fresh fruits and vegetables. PMID:21846241

  19. Prevalence of Disordered Eating and Pathogenic Weight Control Behaviors among NCAA Division I Female Collegiate Gymnasts and Swimmers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Carlin; Petrie, Trent A.

    2012-01-01

    Eating disorders and related weight control behaviors, such as excessive exercising and restrictive eating, represent serious health problems for girls and women in the United States and other industrialized nations. Female athletes, in particular, have been identified as a subgroup to study because of the unique weight, performance, and body…

  20. Genetic and environmental influences on eating behavior - a study of twin pairs reared apart or reared together

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study examined the relative influence of genetic versus environmental factors on specific aspects of eating behavior. Adult monozygotic twins (22 pairs and 3 singleton reared apart, 38 pairs and 9 singleton reared together, age 18-76 years, BMI 17-43 kg/m2) completed the Three Factor Eating Que...

  1. Sociocultural Differences in Eating Disordered Behaviors and Body Image Perception: A Comparison between Puerto Rican and American College Women.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Encarnacion-Garcia, Haydee

    This study investigated whether differences attributable to sociocultural factors existed in the eating-disorder behaviors and body image perception of Puerto Rican and U.S. college women. Participants (n=440) completed the Eating Disorder Inventory-2 and provided demographic information. Results indicated significant differences between the

  2. Prevalence of Disordered Eating Behaviors and Bulimia Nervosa in a Sample of Mexican American Female College Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lester, Regan; Petrie, Trent A.

    1998-01-01

    Disordered eating behaviors and bulimia nervosa were examined in a sample of female Mexican Americans. Results showed that 1.45% to 4.3% could be classified with bulimia. Just over 11% indicated regular binge eating. Dieting and exercising were the primary techniques used for weight control. Implications for intervention are briefly discussed.…

  3. Brief Report: Direct and Indirect Relations of Risk Factors with Eating Behavior Problems in Late Adolescent Females

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mayer, Birgit; Muris, Peter; Meesters, Cor; Zimmermann-van Beuningen, Ritine

    2009-01-01

    This study explored correlations between risk factors and eating behavior problems in late adolescent, non-clinical females (N = 301). Participants completed questionnaires for assessing eating problems, the closely associated factors of Body Mass Index (BMI) and body dissatisfaction, and a number of other risk variables that are thought to be

  4. A Cognitive-Behavioral Mindfulness Group Therapy Intervention for the Treatment of Binge Eating in Bariatric Surgery Patients

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leahey, Tricia M.; Crowther, Janis H.; Irwin, Sharon R.

    2008-01-01

    Binge eating is a negative indicator of post-surgical weight loss and health outcome in bariatric surgery patients (Hsu, Bentancourt, Sullivan, 1996). Cognitive-behavioral techniques and mindfulness-based practices have been shown to successfully treat binge eating (Agras, Telch, Arnow, Eldredge, & Marnell, 1997; Kristeller & Hallett, 1999). This

  5. Prevalence of Disordered Eating and Pathogenic Weight Control Behaviors among NCAA Division I Female Collegiate Gymnasts and Swimmers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Carlin; Petrie, Trent A.

    2012-01-01

    Eating disorders and related weight control behaviors, such as excessive exercising and restrictive eating, represent serious health problems for girls and women in the United States and other industrialized nations. Female athletes, in particular, have been identified as a subgroup to study because of the unique weight, performance, and body

  6. Brief Report: Direct and Indirect Relations of Risk Factors with Eating Behavior Problems in Late Adolescent Females

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mayer, Birgit; Muris, Peter; Meesters, Cor; Zimmermann-van Beuningen, Ritine

    2009-01-01

    This study explored correlations between risk factors and eating behavior problems in late adolescent, non-clinical females (N = 301). Participants completed questionnaires for assessing eating problems, the closely associated factors of Body Mass Index (BMI) and body dissatisfaction, and a number of other risk variables that are thought to be…

  7. Prevalence of Disordered Eating Behaviors and Bulimia Nervosa in a Sample of Mexican American Female College Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lester, Regan; Petrie, Trent A.

    1998-01-01

    Disordered eating behaviors and bulimia nervosa were examined in a sample of female Mexican Americans. Results showed that 1.45% to 4.3% could be classified with bulimia. Just over 11% indicated regular binge eating. Dieting and exercising were the primary techniques used for weight control. Implications for intervention are briefly discussed.

  8. Behavioral and Neural Substrates of Habit Formation in Rats Intravenously Self-Administering Nicotine

    PubMed Central

    Clemens, Kelly J; Castino, Matthew R; Cornish, Jennifer L; Goodchild, Ann K; Holmes, Nathan M

    2014-01-01

    Tobacco addiction involves a transition from occasional, voluntary smoking towards habitual behavior that becomes increasingly resistant to quitting. The development of smoking habits may reflect a loss of behavioral control that can be modeled in rats. This study investigated the behavioral and neural substrates of habit formation in rats exposed to either brief (10 days) or extended (47 days) intravenous (IV) nicotine self-administration training. Following training, the first cohort of rats were exposed to a nicotine devaluation treatment, which involved repeated pairings of IV nicotine with lithium injection. They were then tested for sensitivity of responding to nicotine devaluation under extinction and reinstatement conditions. The second cohort of rats received equivalent self-administration training followed by processing of brain tissue for c-Fos immunohistochemistry. After brief training, devaluation suppressed nicotine-seeking during tests of extinction and reinstatement, confirming that responding is initially sensitive to current nicotine value, and therefore, goal directed. In contrast, after extended training, devaluation had no effect on extinction or reinstatement of responding, indicating that responding had become habitual. Complementary neuroanalysis revealed that extended nicotine self-administration was associated with increased c-Fos expression in brain regions implicated in habitual control of reward seeking, including activation of the dorsolateral striatum and substantia nigra pars compacta. These findings provide evidence of direct devaluation of an IV drug reward, that nicotine self-administration is initially goal-directed but becomes habitual with extended training, and that this behavioral transition involves activation of brain areas associated with the nigrostriatal system. PMID:24823947

  9. Heart healthy eating and exercise: introducing and maintaining changes in health behaviors.

    PubMed Central

    Coates, T J; Jeffery, R W; Slinkard, L A

    1981-01-01

    The Heart Program is a health education project developed for elementary school students. It was designed to 1) increase their consumption of complex carbohydrates, and decrease their consumption of saturated fat, cholesterol, sodium, and sugar; 2) increase their level of habitual physical activity; and 3) generalize these changes to other family members. The overall program and 12 class lessons were designed using informative instruction, participatory classroom activities, personal goal setting, parent handouts, feedback, and reinforcement. The program was evaluated using a time-series experimental design with all students in three 4th grade classes at School 1 and three 5th grade classes at School 2. Evaluation was conducted using direct observations of eating and activity, as well as paper-and-pencil assessments of knowledge and attitude. Results indicated substantial changes in eating behavior at school, knowledge about heart health, food preferences, and family eating patterns are reported by parents. Observed changes in exercise were minimal during treatment, and were related to seasonal sports activities at follow-up. Eating which spanned summer vacation. These outcomes suggest that school programs developed using specific techniques can be effective in facilitating important behavior changes at school and at home. PMID:7258426

  10. Body image disturbance in binge eating disorder: a comparison of obese patients with and without binge eating disorder regarding the cognitive, behavioral and perceptual component of body image.

    PubMed

    Lewer, Merle; Nasrawi, Nadia; Schroeder, Dorothea; Vocks, Silja

    2016-03-01

    Whereas the manifestation of body image disturbance in binge eating disorder (BED) has been intensively investigated concerning the cognitive-affective component, with regard to the behavioral and the perceptual components of body image disturbance in BED, research is limited and results are inconsistent. Therefore, the present study assessed body image disturbance in BED with respect to the different components of body image in a sample of obese females (n = 31) with BED compared to obese females without an eating disorder (n = 28). The Eating Disorder Inventory-2, the Eating Disorder Examination-Questionnaire, the Body Image Avoidance Questionnaire and the Body Checking Questionnaire as well as a Digital Photo Distortion Technique based on a picture of each participant taken under standardized conditions were employed. Using two-sample t tests, we found that the participants with BED displayed significantly greater impairments concerning the cognitive-affective component of body image than the control group. Concerning the behavioral component, participants with BED reported more body checking and avoidance behavior than the controls, but group differences failed to reach significance after the Bonferroni corrections. Regarding the perceptual component, a significant group difference was found for the perceived "ideal" figure, with the individuals suffering from BED displaying a greater wish for a slimmer ideal figure than the control group. These results support the assumption that body image disturbance is a relevant factor in BED, similar to other eating disorders. PMID:26178486

  11. Simple interventions to improve healthy eating behaviors in the school cafeteria.

    PubMed

    Kessler, Holly S

    2016-03-01

    The National School Lunch Program in the United States provides an important opportunity to improve nutrition for the 30 million children who participate every school day. The purpose of this narrative review is to present and evaluate simple, evidence-based strategies to improve healthy eating behaviors at school. Healthy eating behaviors are defined as increased selection/consumption of fruits and/or vegetables, increased selection of nutrient-dense foods, or decreased selection of low-nutrient, energy-dense foods. Data were collected from sales records, 24-hour food recalls, direct observation, and estimation of plate waste. The review is limited to simple, discrete interventions that are easy to implement. Sixteen original, peer-reviewed articles are included. Interventions are divided into 5 categories: modification of choice, behavior modification, marketing strategies, time-efficiency strategies, and fruit slicing. All interventions resulted in improved eating behaviors, but not all interventions are applicable or feasible in all settings. Because these studies were performed prior to the implementation of the new federally mandated school meal standards, it is unknown if these interventions would yield similar results if repeated now. PMID:26874753

  12. A Multisite Investigation of Binge Eating Behaviors in Children and Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tanofsky-Kraff, Marian; Goossens, Lien; Eddy, Kamryn T.; Ringham, Rebecca; Goldschmidt, Andrea; Yanovski, Susan Z.; Braet, Caroline; Marcus, Marsha D.; Wilfley, Denise E.; Olsen, Cara; Yanovski, Jack A.

    2007-01-01

    The phenomenology of childhood and adolescent loss of control (LOC) eating is unknown. The authors interviewed 445 youths to assess aspects of aberrant eating. LOC was associated with eating forbidden food before the episode; eating when not hungry; eating alone; and experiencing secrecy, negative emotions, and a sense of "numbing" while eating

  13. Disordered Eating Behaviors in Youth with Type 1 Diabetes: Prospective Pilot Assessment Following Initiation of Insulin Pump Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Markowitz, Jessica T.; Alleyn, Cielo A.; Phillips, Roxanne; Muir, Andrew; Young-Hyman, Deborah

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Background There is risk for disordered eating behaviors in type 1 diabetes, especially related to insulin manipulation. Implementation of insulin pump therapy may encourage either normalization of eating behaviors or a greater focus on food intake due to renewed emphasis on carbohydrate counting. There is need for prospective studies to assess disordered eating behaviors upon implementation of pump therapy using diabetes-specific measurement tools. Subjects and Methods In a multicenter pilot study, 43 youth with type 1 diabetes, 10–17 years old, were assessed prior to pump initiation and after 1 and 6 months of pump therapy. Youth completed the Diabetes-specific Eating Problems Survey-Revised (DEPS-R), a validated measure of risk for both diabetes-specific and general disordered eating behaviors. Results Youth (45% female), 13.3 years old with diabetes for 2.1 years, had a mean hemoglobin A1c of 8.3±1.3% (68±14.5 mmol/mol) at baseline. DEPS-R scores decreased over time (P=0.01). Overall rate of high risk for eating disorders was low. Overweight/obese youth endorsed more disordered eating behaviors than normal-weight participants. DEPS-R scores were correlated with z-score for body mass index at all three time points and with hemoglobin A1c after 1 and 6 months. Hemoglobin A1c did not change significantly over the 6 months and was higher in overweight/obese compared with normal-weight participants. Conclusions Initiation of insulin pump therapy was associated with diminished endorsement of disordered eating behaviors in youth with type 1 diabetes. Longer follow-up studies are needed to assess the impact of insulin pump therapy on glycemic control, weight status, and disordered eating behaviors in this vulnerable population. PMID:23550556

  14. The Association between Short Sleep Duration and Weight Gain Is Dependent on Disinhibited Eating Behavior in Adults

    PubMed Central

    Desprs, Jean-Pierre; Bouchard, Claude; Tremblay, Angelo

    2011-01-01

    Study Objective: To investigate whether the relationship between short sleep duration and subsequent body weight gain is influenced by disinhibited eating behavior. Design: Six-year longitudinal study. Setting: Community setting. Participants: Two hundred seventy-six adults aged 21 to 64 years from the Quebec Family Study. Measurements and Results: Body composition measurements, self-reported sleep duration, and disinhibition eating behavior trait (Three-Factor Eating Questionnaire) were determined at both baseline and after 6 years. For each sleep-duration group (short- [ ? 6 h] average, [7-8 h], and long- [ ? 9 h] duration sleepers), differences in weight gain and waist circumference were tested by comparing the lowest (score ? 3) versus the highest (score ? 6) disinhibition eating behavior tertiles using analysis of covariance, with adjustment for potential confounding factors. Individuals having both short sleep duration and high disinhibition eating behavior were more likely to gain weight and increase their abdominal circumference over time (P < 0.05); however, short-duration sleepers having a low disinhibition eating behavior trait were not more likely to increase their adiposity indicators than were average-duration sleepers. Over the 6-year follow-up period, the incidence of overweight/obesity for short-duration sleepers with a high disinhibition eating behavior trait was 2.5 times more frequent than for short-duration sleepers with a low disinhibition eating behavior trait. Energy intake was significantly higher in short-duration sleepers with a high disinhibition eating behavior trait (P < 0.05 versus all other groups). Conclusions: We observed that having a high disinhibition eating behavior trait significantly increased the risk of overeating and gaining weight in adults characterized by short sleep duration. This observation is novel and might explain the interindividual differences in weight gain associated with short sleep duration. Keywords: Adiposity, appetite, body weight, eating traits, sleep deprivation Citation: Chaput JP; Despres JP; Bouchard C; Tremblay A. The association between short sleep duration and weight gain is dependent on disinhibited eating behavior in adults. SLEEP 2011;34(10):1291-1297. PMID:21966060

  15. Healthy eating behaviors and the cognitive environment are positively associated in low-income households with young children.

    PubMed

    Pieper, Joy Rickman; Whaley, Shannon E

    2011-08-01

    The purpose of this research was to examine relationships between eating behaviors and the cognitive environment in primarily Hispanic low-income households with young children receiving WIC benefits in Los Angeles County. Survey data were collected from 3645 low-income families with children age 12-65 mo in Los Angeles County. Eating behaviors were measured through questions about fruit, vegetable, milk, soft drink, and fast food intake. The cognitive environment was evaluated through questions on the home literacy environment (HLE), reading frequency, and preschool enrollment. All healthy eating behaviors measured were significantly and positively associated with reading frequency and HLE scores after adjustment for confounders. HLE and reading frequency scores were 18% and 14% higher, respectively, in children eating two or more servings of fruit per day and 12% and 9% higher, respectively, in children eating three or more servings of vegetables per day. Preschool enrollment was not significantly associated with any eating behavior. Outcomes varied by language-ethnic groups and child sex. Results suggest that healthy eating behaviors are positively associated with stronger cognitive environments in low-income Hispanic families with young children. Interventions to prevent childhood obesity in this group may therefore benefit from including a home literacy component. PMID:21497626

  16. "BodyWorks": A Parent-Focused Program to Promote Healthful Eating and Physical Activity for Children and Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Borden, Valerie Melino; Labiner-Wolfe, Judith; Blake, Susan M.; Marr, Amanda; Rowe, Jonelle; Wasserman, Jill

    2012-01-01

    The "BodyWorks" program was designed to help parents improve family eating and activity behaviors. "BodyWorks" was associated with significant gains in parents' knowledge about nutrition and activity, and greater self-efficacy to set family nutrition goals, plan physical activities, and change eating habits. (Contains 1 table.)

  17. An economic framework for understanding physical activity and eating behaviors.

    PubMed

    Cawley, John

    2004-10-01

    This paper offers an economic framework of human behavior with respect to physical activity and nutrition. Economics offers useful insights into these behaviors because it is the study of how people allocate their scarce resources of time and money to maximize their lifetime happiness. This paper outlines the criteria for policy interventions from an economic perspective and also considers arguments for policy intervention that are not based on economic considerations. The implications of the economic framework are summarized and its limitations are described. PMID:15450622

  18. Gamblers' habits: empirical evidence on the behavior of regulars, newcomers and dropouts.

    PubMed

    Fiedler, Ingo

    2013-06-01

    Electronic gambling offers the opportunity to analyze huge and unbiased data sets of automatically recorded actual gambling behavior. This study refers to data on 2,127,887 poker playing identities from the Online Poker Database of the University of Hamburg (OPD-UHH) to analyze three subgroups of gamblers: regulars, newcomers, and dropouts. Their gambling habits over 6 months are analyzed in total, as well as over time. Regulars show a much higher involvement than non-regulars and increase their playing volume slightly over the observation period. Newcomers have a lower involvement than non-newcomers and most of them decrease their playing volume over time. Still, there is a small group of newcomers which increases their playing volume sharply and is, hence, very interesting for the industry as well as for the early prevention of pathological gambling. Dropouts have a higher gambling involvement than newcomers but play less than players who have not stopped stop gambling. Most dropouts also show a decreasing playing volume before dropping out. An analysis of the correlations between different variables of gambling habits shows that most of them reinforce each other, for example: gamblers with a higher total playing time tend to play at more tables simultaneously. Only playing frequency is a moderating variable of gambling involvement. PMID:22562549

  19. Don't take another bite: how sociocultural norms for appearance affect women's eating behavior.

    PubMed

    Strahan, Erin J; Spencer, Steven J; Zanna, Mark P

    2007-12-01

    Four studies tested the impact of exposure to thin images on women's eating behavior. In Study 1, women who were exposed to commercials containing thin models ate less in a taste test than women exposed to neutral commercials. The next two studies revealed that the impact of the thin images could be reduced by challenging the sociocultural norms for appearance. In Study 2, including images of relatively heavier women who have been successful in life (an indirect challenge to the norm) attenuated the impact of the thin images on women's eating behavior. Study 3 demonstrated that convincing women that their peers do not endorse the sociocultural norms also reduced the impact of the thin images. In Study 4, we found that exposure to thin images led to activation of an association between heaviness and rejection and that the more this association was activated, the less participants ate. PMID:18089279

  20. Evaluating the relationship of eating behaviors of university students with body mass index and self-esteem.

    PubMed

    Sanlier, Nevin; Biyikli, Ali Emrah; Biyikli, Ezgi Toptas

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the relationship between eating behaviors (Dutch Eating Behavior Questionnaire-DEBQ), self-esteem (Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale-RSES), and body mass index (BMI) in university students. A total of 503 students (129 men and 374 women), 18-23 years of age were included in the study. According to BMI, 8.3% of students were underweight; 47.3% were overweight; and 74.4% were of healthy weight. The level of self-esteem of 86.5% of young people was high, 13.5% moderate. The mean score (33.3 ± 11.8) of emotional-eating behavior was higher for women than for men (27.9 ± 10.1) . Recommendations include assessing eating behaviors via longitudinal studies with large samples, and identifying at-risk groups, as useful approaches for informing prevention. PMID:25551638

  1. Body Satisfaction and Eating Disorder Behaviors among Immigrant Adolescents in North America

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Magtoto, Joanne; Cox, David; Saewyc, Elizabeth

    2013-01-01

    Using a province-wide school-based health survey, this article investigated body satisfaction as a mediator of the association between eating disorder behaviors and immigrant status. Participants were a sample of adolescent girls (n = 15,066) and boys (n = 14,200) who completed the 2008 McCreary Centre Society Adolescent Health Survey IV.…

  2. The Change in Eating Behaviors in a Web-Based Weight Loss Program: A Longitudinal Analysis of Study Completers

    PubMed Central

    Hult, Mari; van der Mark, Marianne; Grotta, Alessandra; Jonasson, Josefine; von Hausswolff-Juhlin, Yvonne; Rssner, Stephan; Trolle Lagerros, Ylva

    2014-01-01

    Background Eating behaviors are essential components in weight loss programs, but limited research has explored eating behaviors in Web-based weight loss programs. Objectives The aim was to evaluate an interactive Web-based weight loss program on eating behaviors using the 18-item Three-Factor Eating Questionnaire Revised (TFEQ-R18) which measures uncontrolled eating, emotional eating, and cognitive restrained eating. Our Web-based weight loss program is comprised of information about healthy lifestyle choices, weekly chats with experts, social networking features, databases for recipe searches, and features allowing members to self-report and track their weight, physical activity, and dietary intake on the website. Methods On registering for the weight loss program, 23,333 members agreed to take part in the research study. The participants were then asked to complete the TFEQ-R18 questionnaire at baseline and after 3 and 6 months of participation. All data collection was conducted online, with no face-to-face contact. To study changes in TFEQ-R18 eating behaviors we restricted our study to those members who completed all 3 TFEQ-R18 questionnaires. These participants were defined as completers and the remaining as noncompleters. The relationships between sex, change in eating behaviors, and total weight loss were studied using repeated measures ANOVA and Pearson correlation coefficient. Results In total, 22,800 individuals participated (females: 19,065/22,800, 83.62%; mean age 39.6, SD 11.4 years; BMI 29.0 kg/m2; males: 3735/22,800, 16.38%; mean age 43.2, SD 11.7 years; BMI 30.8 kg/m2). Noncompleters (n=22,180) were younger and reported a lower score of uncontrolled eating and a higher score of cognitive restrained eating. Over time, completers (n=620) decreased their uncontrolled eating score (from 56.3 to 32.0; P<.001) and increased their cognitive restrained eating (from 50.6 to 62.9; P<.001). Males decreased their emotional eating (from 57.2 to 35.9; P<.001), but no significant change was found among females. The baseline cognitive restrained eating score was significantly and positively associated with weight loss for completers in both men (P=.02) and women (P=.002). Conclusions To our knowledge, this is the largest TFEQ sample that has been documented. This Web-based weight loss intervention suggests that eating behaviors (cognitive restrained eating, uncontrolled eating, and emotional eating) measured by TFEQ-R18 were significantly changed during 6 months of participation. Our findings indicate differences in eating behaviors with respect to sex, but should be interpreted with caution because attrition was high. PMID:25367316

  3. [Eating behavior and life styles: research and action on nutrition in a rural area].

    PubMed

    Grand-Filaire, A; Monnier, E; Grand, A; Pous, J; Douste-Blazy, P; Palustran, N

    1986-12-01

    Nutrition education has sometimes been portrayed as a normative discourse, forgetting that nutrition is at the heart of basic lifestyle habits. In fact, eating not only satisfies a basic need, it is a social and communication action that develops an interaction with a person's socio-economic and cultural framework. This article describes an educational programme that involved all 2,200 inhabitants of a small rural town in the south of France. The purpose of the study was to better define what was involved in the development of eating behaviours in order to adapt information for the population. Two hundred families, 28% of the town, were provided with a survey questionnaire. Questions about socio-economic and cultural data of the families, types of food provisions, cooking initiation, perceived knowledge of dietetics, and ways of sociability were included. This research permitted the identification of different profiles of eaters: working class families, the elderly, families without children, etc... The subsequent information campaign attempted to adapt its message to each category identified, taking into consideration economic and psychosocial factors, the attachment of the population to its culinary patrimony, and the pejorative vision of dietetics perceived by part of the population. The entire community collaborated at each stage of the programme. Conceived as a research project, it contributed to motivating the population to take an active role in the management of its health problems. PMID:3804344

  4. Predicting group cognitive-behavioral therapy outcome of binge eating disorder using empirical classification

    PubMed Central

    Carol B., Peterson; Crosby, Ross D.; Wonderlich, Stephen A.; Mitchell, James E.; Crow, Scott J.; Engel, Scott

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to use empirical classification based on Latent Profile Analysis to identify subgroups of binge eating disorder (BED) and to evaluate the extent to which these subgroups were predictive of treatment outcome in group cognitivebehavioral therapy (CBT). The Eating Disorder Examination (EDE), Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV, and Inventory of Depressive Symptomatology-Self-Report were administered to 259 participants at baseline in a 15-session CBT trial (190 of whom received active treatment). The best fitting model included three profiles: dietary restraint only (DRO; n = 96; 51%); low dietary restraint (LDR; n = 52; 27%); and dietary restraint plus psychopathology (DRP; n = 42; 22%). Regression analyses revealed that after controlling for baseline score and treatment condition, EDE Global scores were lower for the DRO compared to the LDR profile at one year follow-up (p = .047). Class assignment was not predictive of EDE binge eating frequency or abstinence at end of treatment or follow-up. These results suggest that meaningful empirical classes based on eating disorder symptoms, psychopathology, dietary restraint, and BMI can be identified in BED and that these classes may be useful in predicting long-term group CBT outcome. PMID:23820157

  5. Association of distorted eating behaviors with cardiometabolic risk indices in preadolescents. The Healthy Growth Study.

    PubMed

    Moschonis, George; Georgiou, Alexandra; Sarapi, Katerina; Manios, Yannis

    2015-08-01

    The association between distorted eating behavior (DEB) with cardiometabolic risk (CMR) in children has been poorly investigated. The aim of the study was to examine the association between DEB with certain CMR indices in 9- to 13-year-old children in Greece. A cross-sectional epidemiological study was conducted among 1803 schoolchildren from 77 primary schools in 4 counties of Greece with full data on DEBQ and ChEAT questionnaires and CMR indices. Children underwent anthropometric measurements and Tanner stage, serum lipid, glucose, insulin and HOMA-IR levels assessments. Univariate and multivariate linear regression analyses were performed to test for the association between components of DEBQ and ChEAT with CMR indices. Several significant associations between components of DEBQ and ChEAT with CMR indices were observed when tested at univariate regression models in both boys and girls. However, after adjusting for several possible confounders, including Tanner stage, all significant associations were lost in girls while only a few remained in boys. Thus, DEB might have an unfavorable effect also in certain CMR indices, besides nourishment status. This is more pronounced in preadolescent boys for whom hormonal changes due to the transition to adolescence have not yet been established compared to girls. Still further research is needed to shed more light on these associations. PMID:25819605

  6. Diurnal cortisol pattern, eating behaviors and overweight in low-income preschool-aged children.

    PubMed

    Lumeng, Julie C; Miller, Alison; Peterson, Karen E; Kaciroti, Niko; Sturza, Julie; Rosenblum, Katherine; Vazquez, Delia M

    2014-02-01

    This study examined, among children, the associations among chaos in the home, diurnal cortisol patterns, eating behaviors and being overweight. Participants included 331 low-income children aged 3-4years. Mean salivary cortisol-intercept (representing morning peak, 60min since waking) and cortisol-slope (representing diurnal decline after peak) were calculated using mixed models from samples obtained across 3days. Parents reported chaos in the home by questionnaire and responded to the Children's Eating Behavior Questionnaire, generating subscales Food Responsiveness (FR), Emotional Overeating (EO), Enjoyment of Food (EF), and Satiety Responsiveness (SR). Body mass index was categorized as overweight vs. not. Path analysis evaluated associations among chaos, cortisol patterns, eating behaviors, and weight status. Children living in more chaotic homes had lower morning cortisol levels, consistent with "hypocortisolism" reported among individuals who have experienced significant allostatic load as a result of substantial early life chronic stress. Among girls, the hypocortisolism pattern predicted a higher likelihood of being overweight both directly and mediated through reduced Satiety Responsiveness; in boys, the association of the hypocortisolism pattern with being overweight was mediated entirely through Emotional Overeating. In summary, our results provide support for the conceptual model that psychosocial stress contributes to hypocortisolism, which contributes directly to a higher likelihood of being overweight in girls, and indirectly through reduced Satiety Responsiveness in girls and through increased Emotional Overeating in boys. PMID:24177439

  7. Military experience strongly influences post-service eating behavior and BMI status in American veterans.

    PubMed

    Smith, Chery; Klosterbuer, Abby; Levine, Allen S

    2009-04-01

    In-depth interviews were conducted with veterans (n=64) with an average age of 57 years to investigate eating behavior and food insecurity during military service and examine if it affects post-war eating behavior, and if this contributes to the high incidence of obesity found in veterans. About half of the subjects served during the Vietnam War, while smaller numbers served in WWII, the Korean War, Desert Storm, or other conflicts. The mean BMI was 30.5+/-6.7 kg/m(2). Only 12.5% of participants were classified as normal weight, while 37.5% were overweight, 46.9% were obese, and 3.1% were classified as excessively obese. Five major themes were identified including, (a) military service impacts soldier's food environment, (b) food insecurity influences eating behavior and food choices, (c) military impacts weight status during and post-service, (d) military service has health consequences, and (e) post-service re-adjustment solutions are needed to ease re-entry into civilian life. PMID:19013204

  8. Diurnal Cortisol Pattern, Eating Behaviors and Overweight in Low-Income Preschool-Aged Children

    PubMed Central

    Lumeng, Julie C.; Miller, Alison L.; Peterson, Karen E.; Kaciroti, Niko; Sturza, Julie; Rosenblum, Katherine; Vazquez, Delia M.

    2014-01-01

    This study examined, among children, the associations among chaos in the home, diurnal cortisol patterns, eating behaviors and being overweight. Participants included 331 low-income children aged 3–4 years. Mean salivary cortisol-intercept (representing morning peak, 60 minutes since waking) and cortisol-slope (representing diurnal decline after peak) were calculated using mixed models from samples obtained across 3 days. Parents reported chaos in the home by questionnaire and responded to the Children’s Eating Behavior Questionnaire, generating subscales Food Responsiveness (FR), Emotional Overeating (EO), Enjoyment of Food (EF), and Satiety Responsiveness (SR). Body mass index was categorized as overweight versus not. Path analysis evaluated associations among chaos, cortisol patterns, eating behaviors, and weight status. Children living in more chaotic homes had lower morning cortisol levels, consistent with “hypocortisolism” reported among individuals who have experienced significant allostatic load as a result of substantial early life chronic stress. Among girls, the hypocortisolism pattern predicted a higher likelihood of being overweight both directly and mediated through reduced Satiety Responsiveness; in boys, the association of the hypocortisolism pattern with being overweight was mediated entirely through Emotional Overeating. In summary, our results provide support for the conceptual model that psychosocial stress contributes to hypocortisolism, which contributes directly to a higher likelihood of being overweight in girls, and indirectly through reduced Satiety Responsiveness in girls and through increased Emotional Overeating in boys. PMID:24177439

  9. Binge Eating and Weight Loss Behaviors of Overweight and Obese College Students

    PubMed Central

    Kelly-Weeder, Susan; Phillips, Kathryn; Leonard, Kelly; Veroneau, Margaret

    2013-01-01

    Purpose To investigate binge eating (BE) and weight related behaviors in overweight and obese college students. Data Sources This was a secondary analysis of data from 487 overweight and obese college age students from a private university in the northeastern US. Conclusions BE was reported by 34.9% of students. Only 6.2% of participants reported the use of compensatory behaviors (i.e., self-induced vomiting, laxative, or diuretic use) to prevent weight gain. BE was associated with smoking and exercising to lose weight. Gender differences emerged from the data as women were more likely to report being obese, the use of compensatory behaviors, and to perceive themselves as moderately or extremely overweight. Implications for Practice Binge eating is a significant problem on college campuses and is associated with the development of obesity and eating disorders. Nurse practitioners (NPs) are in an excellent position to effect change in this population through their frequent contact with young adults in community and school-based venues. Nurse practitioners are well-prepared to identify at-risk college students and provide them with individualized care, education, and support. PMID:24170676

  10. Common Genetic Variation near MC4R Has a Sex-Specific Impact on Human Brain Structure and Eating Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Horstmann, Annette; Kovacs, Peter; Kabisch, Stefan; Boettcher, Yvonne; Schloegl, Haiko; Tnjes, Anke; Stumvoll, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Obesity is associated with genetic and environmental factors but the underlying mechanisms remain poorly understood. Recent genome-wide association studies (GWAS) identified obesity- and type 2 diabetes-associated genetic variants located within or near genes that modulate brain activity and development. Among the top hits is rs17782313 near MC4R, encoding for the melanocortin-4-receptor, which is expressed in brain regions that regulate eating. Here, we hypothesized rs17782313-associated changes in human brain regions that regulate eating behavior. Therefore, we examined effects of common variants at rs17782313 near MC4R on brain structure and eating behavior. Only in female homozygous carriers of the risk allele we found significant increases of gray matter volume (GMV) in the right amygdala, a region known to influence eating behavior, and the right hippocampus, a structure crucial for memory formation and learning. Further, we found bilateral increases in medial orbitofrontal cortex, a multimodal brain structure encoding the subjective value of reinforcers, and bilateral prefrontal cortex, a higher order regulation area. There was no association between rs17782313 and brain structure in men. Moreover, among female subjects only, we observed a significant increase of disinhibition, and, more specifically, on emotional eating scores of the Three Factor Eating Questionnaire in carriers of the variant rs17782313s risk allele. These findings suggest that rs17782313s effect on eating behavior is mediated by central mechanisms and that these effects are sex-specific. PMID:24066140

  11. Eating habits in relations to anxiety symptoms among apparently healthy adults. A pattern analysis from the ATTICA Study.

    PubMed

    Yannakoulia, Mary; Panagiotakos, Demosthenes B; Pitsavos, Christos; Tsetsekou, Efi; Fappa, Evaggelia; Papageorgiou, Charalabos; Stefanadis, Christodoulos

    2008-11-01

    The effect of anxiety on dietary intake of humans has been investigated through a number of laboratory, clinical and cross-sectional studies; no prior study, however, has examined potential associations between anxiety and overall dietary patterns. Aim of the present work was to describe dietary patterns in relation to anxiety trait in a nationally representative sample of Greek adults from the ATTICA Study. A sample of 453 men and 400 women were randomly selected from various areas of Attica region, Greece. Anxiety levels were assessed through Spielberger State-Trait Anxiety Inventory. Dietary habits, socio-demographic and lifestyle characteristics were recorded for all participants. Principal component analysis was used for the extraction of dietary patterns. More anxious, compared to less anxious, men and women exhibited different dietary patterns. In particular, the "light" dietary patterns that were emerged in the less anxious men and women did not appear as distinct patterns among men and women in the upper anxiety tertile. In women, a "Western-type" diet explained two times greater variance of food intake of those in the upper-anxiety tertile, compared to their counterparts in the low tertile. A vegetarian pattern was found only among the less anxious women, who also exhibited the lowest consumption of red meat and sweets. Regression analysis supported and further elucidated previous results: after adjusting for potential confounders, sweets intake, as well as meat and products intake, were positively associated with anxiety score in females; in males a negative association was found with legumes/cereals intake. From a public health point of view, given the increased prevalence of anxiety and other mental disorders, these findings should be taken into account when designing and evaluating interventions for the general population. PMID:18495296

  12. Eat or heat? The effects of poverty on children's behavior.

    PubMed

    da Fonseca, Marcio A

    2014-01-01

    In 2011, there were 46.2 million people in the US in poverty (15 percent of the population). The rate for children under 18 years of age was 22 percent, the highest of all age groups. Poverty is strongly linked to adverse socio-emotional outcomes and poor health in children, which influence adult socioeconomic advancement. It affects specific neurocognitive processes disproportionately such as working memory, cognitive control, and especially language and memory. Poor children are frequently exposed to household chaos, maternal depression, neighborhood violence, food insecurity and housing instability. They also experience little social support and have parents who are less responsive, more authoritarian and less involved in school activities than those of higher socioeconomic levels. Their diet is rich in sugar, which may contribute to behavioral disturbances. Children from a disadvantaged background have a poor ability to cope with stress and tend to show aggressive, withdrawn and anxious/depressive behaviors as well as poor academic outcomes. Dental professionals who care for poor children must understand they live under stressful physical and emotional conditions, which will impact their behavior in the dental office. PMID:24717751

  13. The uncompetitive N-methyl-D-aspartate antagonist memantine reduces binge-like eating, food-seeking behavior, and compulsive eating: role of the nucleus accumbens shell.

    PubMed

    Smith, Karen L; Rao, Rahul R; Velázquez-Sánchez, Clara; Valenza, Marta; Giuliano, Chiara; Everitt, Barry J; Sabino, Valentina; Cottone, Pietro

    2015-04-01

    Binge-eating disorder is characterized by excessive, uncontrollable consumption of palatable food within brief periods of time. The role of the glutamatergic N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor system in hedonic feeding is poorly understood. The aim of this study was to characterize the effects of the uncompetitive NMDA receptor antagonist memantine on palatable food-induced behavioral adaptations using a rat model, which mimics the characteristic symptomatology observed in binge-eating disorder. For this purpose, we allowed male Wistar rats to respond to obtain a highly palatable, sugary diet (Palatable group) or a regular chow diet (Chow control group), for 1 h a day, under a fixed-ratio 1 (FR1) schedule of reinforcement. Upon stabilization of food responding, we tested the effects of memantine on the Chow and Palatable food groups' intake. Then, we tested the effects of memantine on food-seeking behavior, under a second-order schedule of reinforcement. Furthermore, we investigated the effects of memantine on the intake of food when it was offered in an aversive, bright compartment of a light/dark conflict test. Finally, we evaluated the effects of memantine on FR1 responding for food, when microinfused into the nucleus accumbens (NAcc) shell or core. Memantine dose-dependently decreased binge-like eating and fully blocked food-seeking behavior and compulsive eating, selectively in the Palatable food group. The drug treatment did not affect performance of the control Chow food group. Finally, intra-NAcc shell, but not core, microinfusion of memantine decreased binge-like eating. Together, these findings substantiate a role of memantine as a potential pharmacological treatment for binge-eating disorder. PMID:25381776

  14. Eating competence of Hispanic parents is associated with attitudes and behaviors that may mediate fruit and vegetable-related behaviors of 4th grade youth.

    PubMed

    Lohse, Barbara; Cunningham-Sabo, Leslie

    2012-10-01

    Parent self-efficacy, outcome expectancies, and behaviors toward cooking and fruits and vegetables mediate children's eating. Eating competence, an intra-individual approach to food-related attitudes and behaviors, is associated with healthful outcomes but has not been studied as a moderator of parent food-related behaviors that mediate healthful eating in 4th grade children. Parents (n = 339; 78% Hispanic, 89% female) of 4th graders who participated in an impact study of the Cooking with Kids curriculum in Santa Fe, NM schools eligible for Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program Education completed the following surveys: Satter eating competence inventory for low-income (ecSI/LI) (16 items, Likert scale, possible score 0-48); modeling behaviors related to food preparation and fruits/vegetables (11 items, Likert scale, possible score 0-33); self-efficacy/outcome expectancies (SE/OE) (12 items, Likert scale, possible score 12-60); and availability of fruits/vegetables (20 items, possible score 0-20). Higher scores indicate more desired behaviors. The mean ecSI/LI score was 33.6 8.5; 59% were eating competent, i.e., ecSI/LI ? 32. Eating-competent parents demonstrated more modeling (16.3 5.0 vs. 14.0 4.3; P < 0.001), greater SE/OE (53.7 10.1 vs. 51.2 8.5; P = 0.03), and greater in-home fruit/vegetable availability (12.7 3.0 vs. 11.9 3.2; P = 0.02). Two clusters of modeling behavior were defined: achievers and strivers. Modeling achievers (34.9 6.9) were more eating competent (P < 0.001) than strivers (30.3 8.9). Eating competence moderated parent food-related behaviors. Measuring eating competence may contribute to understanding parent behavior as a mediator in school-based nutrition interventions. PMID:22933747

  15. Which adaptive maternal eating behaviors predict child feeding practices? An examination with mothers of 2- to 5-year-old children

    PubMed Central

    Tylka, Tracy L.; Eneli, Ihuoma U.; Kroon Van Diest, Ashley M.; Lumeng, Julie C.

    2013-01-01

    Researchers have started to explore the detrimental impact of maladaptive maternal eating behaviors on child feeding practices. However, identifying which adaptive maternal eating behaviors contribute to lower use of negative and higher use of positive child feeding practices remains unexamined. The present study explored this link with 180 mothers of 2- to 5-year-old children. Hierarchical regression analyses (controlling for recruitment venue and maternal demographic characteristics, i.e., age, education, ethnicity, and body mass index) examined mothers intuitive eating and eating competence as predictors of four feeding practices (restriction, monitoring, pressure to eat, and dividing feeding responsibilities with their child). Mothers who gave themselves unconditional permission to eat were less likely to restrict their childs food intake. Mothers who ate for physical (rather than emotional) reasons and had eating-related contextual skills (e.g., mindfulness when eating, planning regular and nutritious eating opportunities for themselves) were more likely to monitor their childs food intake. Mothers who had eating-related contextual skills were more likely to divide feeding responsibilities with their child. No maternal eating behavior predicted pressure to eat. Interventions to help mothers develop their eating-related contextual skills and eat intuitively, in particular, may translate into a more positive feeding environment for their young children. PMID:23265403

  16. Behavioral and Neurodevelopmental Precursors to Binge-Type Eating Disorders: Support for the Role of Negative Valence Systems

    PubMed Central

    Vannucci, Anna; Nelson, Eric E.; Bongiorno, Diana M.; Pine, Daniel S.; Yanovski, Jack A.; Tanofsky-Kraff, Marian

    2015-01-01

    Background Pediatric loss-of-control eating is a robust behavioral precursor to binge-type eating disorders. Elucidating precursors to loss-of-control eating and binge-type eating disorders may refine developmental risk models of eating disorders and inform interventions. Method We review evidence within constructs of the Negative Valence Systems (NVS)-domain, as specified by the Research Domain Criteria framework. Based on published studies, we propose an integrated NVS model of binge-type eating disorder risk. Results Data implicate altered corticolimbic functioning, neuroendocrine dysregulation, and self-reported negative affect as possible risk-factors. However, neuroimaging and physiological data in children and adolescents are sparse, and most prospective studies are limited to self-report measures. Conclusions We discuss a broad NVS framework for conceptualizing early risk for binge-type eating disorders. Future neural and behavioral research on the developmental trajectory of loss-of-control and binge-type eating disorders is required. PMID:26040923

  17. Genetic and Environmental Influences on Eating Behavior - A Study of Twin Pairs Reared Apart or Reared Together

    PubMed Central

    Elder, Sonya J.; Neale, Michael C.; Fuss, Paul J.; Lichtenstein, Alice H.; Greenberg, Andrew S.; McCrory, Megan A.; Bouchard, Thomas J.; Saltzman, Edward; Roberts, Susan B.

    2014-01-01

    This study examined the relative influence of genetic versus environmental factors on specific aspects of eating behavior. Adult monozygotic twins (22 pairs and 3 singleton reared apart, 38 pairs and 9 singleton reared together, age 18–76 years, BMI 17–43 kg/m2) completed the Three Factor Eating Questionnaire. Genetic and environmental variance components were determined for the three eating behavior constructs and their subscales using model-fitting univariate and multivariate analyses. Unique environmental factors had a substantial influence on all eating behavior variables (explaining 45–71% of variance), and most strongly influenced external locus for hunger and strategic dieting behavior of restraint (explaining 71% and 69% of variance, respectively). Genetic factors had a statistically significant influence on only 4 variables: restraint, emotional susceptibility to disinhibition, situational susceptibility to disinhibition, and internal locus for hunger (heritabilities were 52%, 55%, 38% and 50%, respectively). Common environmental factors did not statistically significantly influence any variable assessed in this study. In addition, multivariate analyses showed that disinhibition and hunger share a common influence, while restraint appears to be a distinct construct. These findings suggest that the majority of variation in eating behavior variables is associated with unique environmental factors, and highlights the importance of the environment in facilitating specific eating behaviors that may promote excess weight gain. PMID:25067963

  18. Cognitive mappers to creatures of habit: differential engagement of place and response learning mechanisms predicts human navigational behavior.

    PubMed

    Marchette, Steven A; Bakker, Arnold; Shelton, Amy L

    2011-10-26

    Learning to navigate plays an integral role in the survival of humans and other animals. Research on human navigation has largely focused on how we deliberately map out our world. However, many of us also have experiences of navigating on "autopilot" or out of habit. Animal models have identified this cognitive mapping versus habit learning as two dissociable systems for learning a space--a hippocampal place-learning system and a striatal response-learning system. Here, we use this dichotomy in humans to understand variability in navigational style by demonstrating that brain activation during spatial encoding can predict where a person's behavior falls on a continuum from a more flexible cognitive map-like strategy to a more rigid creature-of-habit approach. These findings bridge the wealth of knowledge gained from animal models and the study of human behavior, opening the door to a more comprehensive understanding of variability in human spatial learning and navigation. PMID:22031872

  19. Unplanned pregnancy in adolescents: association with family structure, employed mother, and female friends with health-risk habits and behaviors.

    PubMed

    Vzquez-Nava, Francisco; Vzquez-Rodriguez, Carlos F; Saldvar-Gonzlez, Atengenes H; Vzquez-Rodrguez, Eliza M; Crdova-Fernndez, Jos A; Felizardo-valos, Jorge; Snchez-Mrquez, Wilberto

    2014-02-01

    Previous publications have suggested that living in a nonintact family household and socializing with girlfriends who smoke or who consume alcoholic beverages favor the development of health-risk habits and customs in adolescents. However, their relationship with unplanned pregnancy in adolescents has not been determined. We investigated the association between family structure, employed mother, and female friends with health-risk habits and behaviors with unplanned pregnancy in adolescents (n = 3,130). After adjusting for low maternal educational level and low family income, logistic regression analyses showed that having an employed mother and socializing with girlfriends who have health-risk habits or behaviors, rather than living in a nonintact family household, appear to be the most important health-risk factors for unplanned pregnancy in adolescents. It is important for health-care programs for adolescents to be revised and for their strategies be strengthened in order to reach the objectives for which they were created. PMID:23949273

  20. The impact of a mental work on food preferences, eating behavior traits and satiety efficiency.

    PubMed

    Salama, Miram; Drapeau, Vicky; Tremblay, Angelo; Pérusse-Lachance, Émilie

    2016-02-01

    Sedentary lifestyles, which are partly due to the type of labor being performed, have contributed to the increased prevalence of obesity. In general, labor in a modern context solicits mental work, which has been shown to promote overeating and altered satiety efficiency. The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of knowledge-based work on food preferences, eating behaviors traits and appetite sensations. The relationship between these effects and the morphological profile was also assessed. A cross-over experimental design was used in this study for which 35 healthy adults (22 men and 13 women (mean age: 24±3years)), were recruited. The participants were randomly assigned the one of the two following conditions: mental work (reading a document and writing a summary of 350 words with the use of a computer) or control (rest in seated position). Each condition lasted 45min, and was followed by a standardized ad libitum buffet-type meal. Measurements included anthropometric variables, ad libitum food intake, appetite sensations before and after each condition, and satiety quotient, a marker of satiety efficiency in response to the meal. Eating behavior traits were also evaluated using the Three-Factor Eating Questionnaire (TFEQ). Eating behaviors (restriction, disinhibition) were not associated with the energy intake in both conditions and in both genders. Women appeared to have a higher energy intake after the mental work condition (p<0.05), which was accompanied by an increased carbohydrate intake (p<0.05). Moreover, participants with the highest waist circumference had lower satiety efficiency (r=0.43, p<0.05) in response to mental work. These results suggest that increased energy intake in response to knowledge-based work is associated with food preference and an altered satiety efficiency in women and individuals with higher waist circumference. PMID:26607234

  1. Predicting adolescent eating and activity behaviors: the role of social norms and personal agency.

    PubMed

    Baker, Christina Wood; Little, Todd D; Brownell, Kelly D

    2003-03-01

    Guided by the theory of planned behavior, this 2-week longitudinal study examined health behaviors in a sample of 279 adolescents. Social norms and perceived behavioral control (PBC) were tested as predictors of self-reported intentions and behaviors in 2 domains, eating and physical activity. Differentiating, as opposed to aggregating, parent and peer norms provided unique information. For PBC, the authors distinguished global causality beliefs from self-related agency beliefs and intraself (effort, ability) from extraself (parents, teachers) means. Intraself agency beliefs strongly predicted healthy intentions, whereas intraself causality beliefs had a negative influence. Patterns differed somewhat across behaviors and gender. Results highlight theoretical issues and provide potential targets for research on health promotion programs for youth. PMID:12683739

  2. Can merely learning about obesity genes affect eating behavior?

    PubMed

    Dar-Nimrod, Ilan; Cheung, Benjamin Y; Ruby, Matthew B; Heine, Steven J

    2014-10-01

    Public discourse on genetic predispositions for obesity has flourished in recent decades. In three studies, we investigated behaviorally-relevant correlates and consequences of a perceived genetic etiology for obesity. In Study 1, beliefs about etiological explanations for obesity were assessed. Stronger endorsement of genetic etiology was predictive of a belief that obese people have no control over their weight. In Study 2, beliefs about weight and its causes were assessed following a manipulation of the perceived underlying cause. Compared with a genetic attribution, a non-genetic physiological attribution led to increased perception of control over one's weight. In Study 3, participants read a fictional media report presenting either a genetic explanation, a psychosocial explanation, or no explanation (control) for obesity. Results indicated that participants who read the genetic explanation ate significantly more on a follow-up task. Taken together, these studies demonstrate potential effects of genetic attributions for obesity. PMID:24997408

  3. Fat Preference: a novel model of eating behavior in rats.

    PubMed

    Kasper, James M; Johnson, Sarah B; Hommel, Jonathan D

    2014-01-01

    Obesity is a growing problem in the United States of America, with more than a third of the population classified as obese. One factor contributing to this multifactorial disorder is the consumption of a high fat diet, a behavior that has been shown to increase both caloric intake and body fat content. However, the elements regulating preference for high fat food over other foods remain understudied. To overcome this deficit, a model to quickly and easily test changes in the preference for dietary fat was developed. The Fat Preference model presents rats with a series of choices between foods with differing fat content. Like humans, rats have a natural bias toward consuming high fat food, making the rat model ideal for translational studies. Changes in preference can be ascribed to the effect of either genetic differences or pharmacological interventions. This model allows for the exploration of determinates of fat preference and screening pharmacotherapeutic agents that influence acquisition of obesity. PMID:24998978

  4. A Multisite Investigation of Binge Eating Behaviors in Children and Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tanofsky-Kraff, Marian; Goossens, Lien; Eddy, Kamryn T.; Ringham, Rebecca; Goldschmidt, Andrea; Yanovski, Susan Z.; Braet, Caroline; Marcus, Marsha D.; Wilfley, Denise E.; Olsen, Cara; Yanovski, Jack A.

    2007-01-01

    The phenomenology of childhood and adolescent loss of control (LOC) eating is unknown. The authors interviewed 445 youths to assess aspects of aberrant eating. LOC was associated with eating forbidden food before the episode; eating when not hungry; eating alone; and experiencing secrecy, negative emotions, and a sense of "numbing" while eating…

  5. Changing Behavior by Memory Aids: A Social Psychological Model of Prospective Memory and Habit Development Tested with Dynamic Field Data

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tobias, Robert

    2009-01-01

    This article presents a social psychological model of prospective memory and habit development. The model is based on relevant research literature, and its dynamics were investigated by computer simulations. Time-series data from a behavior-change campaign in Cuba were used for calibration and validation of the model. The model scored well in…

  6. Changing Behavior by Memory Aids: A Social Psychological Model of Prospective Memory and Habit Development Tested with Dynamic Field Data

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tobias, Robert

    2009-01-01

    This article presents a social psychological model of prospective memory and habit development. The model is based on relevant research literature, and its dynamics were investigated by computer simulations. Time-series data from a behavior-change campaign in Cuba were used for calibration and validation of the model. The model scored well in

  7. The Significance of Repetitive Hair-Pulling Behaviors in Eating Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Zucker, Nancy; Von Holle, Ann; Thornton, Laura M.; Strober, Michael; Plotnicov, Kathy; Klump, Kelly L.; Brandt, Harry; Crawford, Steve; Crow, Scott; Fichter, Manfred M.; Halmi, Katherine A.; Johnson, Craig; Kaplan, Allan S.; Keel, Pamela; LaVia, Maria; Mitchell, James E.; Rotondo, Alessandro; Woodside, D. Blake; Berrettini, Wade H.; Kaye, Walter H.; Bulik, Cynthia M.

    2013-01-01

    We studied the relation between intrusive and repetitive hair-pulling, the defining feature of trichotillomania, and compulsive and impulsive features in 1453 individuals with anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa. We conducted a series of regression models examining the relative influence of compulsive features associated with obsessive compulsive disorder; compulsive features associated with eating disorders; trait features related to harm avoidance, perfectionism and novelty seeking; and self harm. A final model with a reduced sample (n=928) examined the additional contribution of impulsive attributes. One out of 20 individuals endorsed hair-pulling. Evidence of a positive association with endorsement of compulsive behavior of the obsessive compulsive spectrum emerged. Hair-pulling may be more consonant with ritualistic compulsions than impulsive urges in those with eating disorders. PMID:21365638

  8. Ghrelin and eating behavior: evidence and insights from genetically-modified mouse models

    PubMed Central

    Uchida, Aki; Zigman, Jeffrey M.; Perelló, Mario

    2013-01-01

    Ghrelin is an octanoylated peptide hormone, produced by endocrine cells of the stomach, which acts in the brain to increase food intake and body weight. Our understanding of the mechanisms underlying ghrelin's effects on eating behaviors has been greatly improved by the generation and study of several genetically manipulated mouse models. These models include mice overexpressing ghrelin and also mice with genetic deletion of ghrelin, the ghrelin receptor [the growth hormone secretagogue receptor (GHSR)] or the enzyme that post-translationally modifies ghrelin [ghrelin O-acyltransferase (GOAT)]. In addition, a GHSR-null mouse model in which GHSR transcription is globally blocked but can be cell-specifically reactivated in a Cre recombinase-mediated fashion has been generated. Here, we summarize findings obtained with these genetically manipulated mice, with the aim to highlight the significance of the ghrelin system in the regulation of both homeostatic and hedonic eating, including that occurring in the setting of chronic psychosocial stress. PMID:23882175

  9. Nutritional knowledge and dietary habits survey in high school population.

    PubMed

    Milosavljevi?, Dragana; Mandi?, Milena L; Banjari, Ines

    2015-03-01

    During adolescence, young people are in a sensitive transition period when they gradually take over the responsibility for their own eating habits, health attitudes and behaviours and create lifelong habits so it is essential that they adopt healthy habits according to dietary recommendations. Knowledge is one of the factors necessary for the changes in dietary habits. The'objective of this study was to gain insight in nutritional knowledge and dietary habits of adolescents. The sample included 117 adolescents aged 17-19 years. Self-administered, anonymous questionnaire, representing modified version of General Nutrition Knowledge Questionnaire was used to assess general characteristics, nutritional knowledge about nutrients, dietary recommendations, sources of nutrients, diet-disease relationship, and dietary habits. Less than one third of adolescents showed satisfactory knowledge, but boys, adolescents from rural environment and overweight adolescents showed significantly lower knowledge unlike others. Meal skipping was present habit, especially for breakfast consumption. Especially high consumption of meat and meat products was noted for boys, while fruit and vegetables for girls. Fad dieting was quite practiced habit, especially in girls and overweight adolescents. Among girls, high consumption of sweets was confirmed, while boys showed high consumption of soft drinks. Television presents the main source of infor- mation about nutrition for adolescents. Collected data shows similarity with other research in Europe and North America that confirm strong influence of globalization and fast spread of unhealthy habits. The results pointed out weak spots in nutritional knowledge and revealed unhealthy eating habits. This information is necessary for the development of new approaches to modulate their knowledge and consequently act on their behaviour. Behavioral changes would include higher number of meals per day, regular breakfast consumption, higher intake of fish, lower consumption of meat and meat products, sweetened foods and drinks etc. The final outcome would result in longterm positive impact on dietary habits. PMID:26040077

  10. Cocaine addiction: from habits to stereotypical-repetitive behaviors and punding.

    PubMed

    Fasano, Alfonso; Barra, Andrea; Nicosia, Paola; Rinaldi, Federica; Bria, Pietro; Bentivoglio, Anna Rita; Tonioni, Federico

    2008-07-01

    "Punding" is a stereotypical motor behavior characterized by an intense fascination with repetitive handling and examining of objects. Since its first description in amphetamine and cocaine addicts, data on punding has only derived from studies performed in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD). Punding is classifiable as the most severe form of Repetitive Reward-Seeking Behaviours (RRSB) syndromes. The aim of this study was to investigate the occurrence and phenomelogy of RRSB acutely induced by cocaine in order to determine the prevalence, severity and distinctive features discriminating "punders" from "non-punders". A consecutive sample of 50 cocaine addicts received a clinical psychiatric interview. RRSB diagnosis and severity were assessed using a modified version of a previous published questionnaire designed to identify punding in patients with PD. In the present series, 38% of the cocaine addicts met the proposed diagnostic criteria for a RRSB and 8% were considered punders. Subjects with vs. without RRSB did not differ in terms of sex ratio, age, education, occupation, predisposing habits, duration of cocaine use, hours of sleep, comorbid psychiatric disorders, and concomitant use of other drugs. These results and the observation that in the majority of cases RRSB started soon after first drug intake, strongly suggest that an underlying unknown predisposition led to the development of these behaviors. In conclusion, RRSB and punding is much more common than has been described previously and the resultant social disability is often overlooked. PMID:18378407

  11. Psychology of Habit.

    PubMed

    Wood, Wendy; Rünger, Dennis

    2016-01-01

    As the proverbial creatures of habit, people tend to repeat the same behaviors in recurring contexts. This review characterizes habits in terms of their cognitive, motivational, and neurobiological properties. In so doing, we identify three ways that habits interface with deliberate goal pursuit: First, habits form as people pursue goals by repeating the same responses in a given context. Second, as outlined in computational models, habits and deliberate goal pursuit guide actions synergistically, although habits are the efficient, default mode of response. Third, people tend to infer from the frequency of habit performance that the behavior must have been intended. We conclude by applying insights from habit research to understand stress and addiction as well as the design of effective interventions to change health and consumer behaviors. PMID:26361052

  12. Association of self-reported sleep duration with eating behaviors of American adults: NHANES 200520101234

    PubMed Central

    Graubard, Barry I

    2014-01-01

    Background: Published evidence suggests an inverse association between sleep duration and body weight status. Objective: We examined the association of sleep duration with eating behaviors reported by adult Americans to understand the relation between sleep duration and body weight status. Design: This cross-sectional study used sleep duration and dietary data from the continuous NHANES conducted from 2005 to 2010 (n = 15,199, age ?20 y). Eating behaviors examined included the following: reporting of and energy from main meals (breakfast, lunch, and dinner) and snacks (before breakfast, after dinner, and after 2000 h), intermeal intervals, time of day of main meal reporting, and intakes of macronutrients and beverages. Multiple regression methods were used to examine the independent association of hours of sleep duration grouped as short (?6 h), average (78 h), and long (?9 h) with eating behavior outcomes. Results: Relative to average-duration sleepers, a smaller percentage of short-duration sleepers mentioned breakfast, lunch (women only), and dinner in the recall (P ? 0.04). They also reported a lower mean percentage of energy from main meals but higher energy from all snacks (P ? 0.0004) and after 2000 h (P = 0.03). Short-duration sleepers reported the earliest eating time of the first episode and the latest time of the last eating episode. Absolute amounts of sugar and caffeine and percentage of energy from beverages (women only) were higher in short-duration sleepers. However, the total number of eating episodes and energy intake were not related with sleep duration. Conclusions: Short-duration sleepers began eating earlier and ended their eating later in the day, but despite the longer eating period, they did not report more eating events. Profiles of the relative contribution of main meals and snacks, at or after 2000 h eating, and beverages in short-duration sleepers were suggestive of eating behaviors that may increase energy intake, but 24-h energy intake did not differ among categories of sleep duration. PMID:25057157

  13. Dietary intake, eating behaviors, and quality of life in women with polycystic ovary syndrome who are trying to conceive.

    PubMed

    Turner-McGrievy, Gabrielle; Davidson, Charis R; Billings, Deborah L

    2015-03-01

    The Healthy Eating for Reproductive Health study was conducted among 18 (45% non-white) mostly obese (BMI 39.9 ± 6.1) women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) who were experiencing infertility and interested in losing weight. A variety of markers were measured at baseline: body mass index (BMI), diet, physical activity, eating behaviors (using an Eating Behavior Inventory, a questionnaire which assesses both positive and negative eating behaviors associated with weight status, with a higher score indicating adoption of eating behaviors which have been shown in prior weight-loss research to promote a healthy weight (EBI) and the Three-Factor Eating Questionnaire, which assesses cognitive and behavioral components of eating among overweight adults), and a quality of life (PCOS Health-Related Quality of Life (PCOSQ)) index, which assesses satisfaction around five 'domains': emotional health, presence of body hair, infertility, weight, and menstrual problems). A comparison group of overweight women without PCOS (n = 28) was used to examine differences in measured outcomes between women with and without PCOS. Participants' habitual diets were high in fat and saturated fat and low in fiber, folate, and iron and contained significantly lower amounts of carbohydrate, iron, and whole grains compared with women without PCOS who had enrolled in a behavioral weight loss programme. Participants had a low EBI (indicating that most were not adopting eating behaviors associated with achieving a healthy weight), disinhibition (indicating participants had a tendency to overeat in the presence of highly palatable foods or were susceptible to emotional cues for eating, such as stress), and hunger scores (indicating participants did not report being susceptible to hunger, prompting overeating) and moderate dietary restraint (indicating they were not consistently attempting to restrict food intake consciously). PCOSQ scores were lowest for infertility and weight domains (indicating low satisfaction with current infertility and weight status); however all domains received low scores (emotional health, body hair, and menstrual problems). Higher energy intakes (kcal/day) were associated with a lower EBI score (r = - 0.60, P = 0.02), lower dietary restraint (r =- 0.50, P = 0.04), and higher disinhibition (r = 0.63, P = 0.01). Greater energy expenditure (kcal/day) was associated with lower PCOSQ scores for body weight (r =-0.54, P = 002) and infertility (r =- 0.51, P = 0.003) domains. Results suggest that overweight women with PCOS-related infertility have poor dietary intake, particularly in terms of whole grains, fiber, and iron, and eating behaviors inconsistent with achieving a healthy body weight, as well as low scores for PCOS-related quality of life. PMID:24921163

  14. Associations between Parental Concerns about Preschoolers’ Weight and Eating and Parental Feeding Practices: Results from Analyses of the Child Eating Behavior Questionnaire, the Child Feeding Questionnaire, and the Lifestyle Behavior Checklist

    PubMed Central

    Ek, Anna; Sorjonen, Kimmo; Eli, Karin; Lindberg, Louise; Nyman, Jonna; Marcus, Claude; Nowicka, Paulina

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Insight into parents’ perceptions of their children’s eating behaviors is crucial for the development of successful childhood obesity programs. However, links between children’s eating behaviors and parental feeding practices and concerns have yet to be established. This study aims to examine associations between parental perceptions of preschoolers’ eating behaviors and parental feeding practices. First, it tests the original 8-factor structure of the Child Eating Behavior Questionnaire (CEBQ). Second, it examines the associations with parental feeding practices, measured with the Child Feeding Questionnaire (CFQ). Materials and Methods Questionnaires were sent to parents from 25 schools/preschools in Stockholm, Sweden and to parents starting a childhood obesity intervention. The CEBQ factor structure was tested with confirmatory factor analysis (CFA). Associations between CEBQ subscales Food approach and Food avoidance and CFQ factors Restriction, Pressure to eat and Monitoring were examined with structural equation modelling (SEM), adjusting for child and parental characteristics, and parental confidence, measured with the Lifestyle Behavior Checklist (LBC). CFQ Concern for child weight and Perceived responsibility for child eating were used as mediators. Results 478 parents completed the questionnaires (children: 52% girls, mean age 5.5 years, 20% overweight/obese). A modified 8-factor structure showed an acceptable fit (TLI = 0.91, CFI = 0.92, RMSEA = 0.05 and SRMR = 0.06) after dropping one item and allowing three pairs of error terms to correlate. The SEM model demonstrated that Food approach had a weak direct effect on Restriction, but a moderate (β = 0.30) indirect effect via Concern, resulting in a substantial total effect (β = 0.37). Food avoidance had a strong positive effect on Pressure to eat (β = 0.71). Discussion The CEBQ is a valid instrument for assessing parental perceptions of preschoolers’ eating behaviors. Parental pressure to eat was strongly associated with children’s food avoidance. Parental restriction, however, was more strongly associated with parents’ concerns about their children’s weights than with children’s food approach. This suggests that childhood obesity interventions should address parents’ perceptions of healthy weight alongside perceptions of healthy eating. PMID:26799397

  15. Identifying Barriers, Perceptions and Motivations Related to Healthy Eating and Physical Activity among 6th to 8th Grade, Rural, Limited-Resource Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kumar, Janavi; Adhikari, Koushik; Li, Yijing; Lindshield, Erika; Muturi, Nancy; Kidd, Tandalayo

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to enable community members to discuss their perceptions of eating habits and physical activity in relation to sixth, seventh, and eighth graders, and reveal facilitators and barriers to healthy eating behavior and physical activity engagement. Design/methodology/approach: Nine focus groups, which included six

  16. Identifying Barriers, Perceptions and Motivations Related to Healthy Eating and Physical Activity among 6th to 8th Grade, Rural, Limited-Resource Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kumar, Janavi; Adhikari, Koushik; Li, Yijing; Lindshield, Erika; Muturi, Nancy; Kidd, Tandalayo

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to enable community members to discuss their perceptions of eating habits and physical activity in relation to sixth, seventh, and eighth graders, and reveal facilitators and barriers to healthy eating behavior and physical activity engagement. Design/methodology/approach: Nine focus groups, which included six…

  17. Time orientation and eating behavior: Unhealthy eaters consider immediate consequences, while healthy eaters focus on future health.

    PubMed

    Dassen, Fania C M; Houben, Katrijn; Jansen, Anita

    2015-08-01

    Time orientation could play an important role in eating behavior. The current study investigated whether eating behavior is associated with the Consideration of Future Consequences scale (CFC). Specifically, it was examined whether unhealthy eaters consider the future less and are more concerned with immediate gratification. A related measure of time orientation is delay discounting, a process by which a reinforcer becomes less valuable when considered later in time. Recent research argues that the relation between time orientation and health behaviors is measured best at a behavior-specific level. In the current study, we explored the relationships between CFC and discount rate - both general and food-specific - and their influence on healthy eating. Participants with ages 18 to 60 (N = 152; final sample N = 146) filled in an online questionnaire consisting of the CFC, a food-specific version of the CFC (CFC-food), the Monetary Choice Questionnaire (MCQ) and an adapted MCQ version with snack food as a reinforcer. Self-reported healthy eating was positively related to the future subscale (r = .48, p < .001) and negatively to the immediate subscale of the CFC-food (r = -.43, p < .001). The general CFC and discount rate (MCQ and MCQ-snack) were not related to healthy eating (all p > .05). In order to predict behavior, measurements of time orientation should thus be tailored to the behavior of interest. Based on current results, shifting one's concern from the immediate consequences of eating to a more future-oriented perspective may present an interesting target for future interventions aimed at promoting healthy eating and reducing overweight. PMID:25814191

  18. Combating Obesity through Healthy Eating Behavior: A Call for System Dynamics Optimization

    PubMed Central

    Zainal Abidin, Norhaslinda; Mamat, Mustafa; Dangerfield, Brian; Zulkepli, Jafri Haji; Baten, Md. Azizul; Wibowo, Antoni

    2014-01-01

    Poor eating behavior has been identified as one of the core contributory factors of the childhood obesity epidemic. The consequences of obesity on numerous aspects of life are thoroughly explored in the existing literature. For instance, evidence shows that obesity is linked to incidences of diseases such as heart disease, type-2 diabetes, and some cancers, as well as psychosocial problems. To respond to the increasing trends in the UK, in 2008 the government set a target to reverse the prevalence of obesity (POB) back to 2000 levels by 2020. This paper will outline the application of system dynamics (SD) optimization to simulate the effect of changes in the eating behavior of British children (aged 2 to 15 years) on weight and obesity. This study also will identify how long it will take to achieve the government’s target. This paper proposed a simulation model called Intervention Childhood Obesity Dynamics (ICOD) by focusing the interrelations between various strands of knowledge in one complex human weight regulation system. The model offers distinct insights into the dynamics by capturing the complex interdependencies from the causal loop and feedback structure, with the intention to better understand how eating behaviors influence children’s weight, body mass index (BMI), and POB measurement. This study proposed a set of equations that are revised from the original (baseline) equations. The new functions are constructed using a RAMP function of linear decrement in portion size and number of meal variables from 2013 until 2020 in order to achieve the 2020 desired target. Findings from the optimization analysis revealed that the 2020 target won’t be achieved until 2026 at the earliest, six years late. Thus, the model suggested that a longer period may be needed to significantly reduce obesity in this population. PMID:25502170

  19. Targeting impulsive processes of eating behavior via the internet. Effects on body weight.

    PubMed

    Veling, Harm; van Koningsbruggen, Guido M; Aarts, Henk; Stroebe, Wolfgang

    2014-07-01

    Because eating behavior can take on an impulsive nature many people experience difficulty with dieting to lose weight. Therefore, an experiment was conducted to test the effectiveness of two interventions targeting impulsive processes of eating behavior to facilitate weight loss: Implementation intentions to remind people about dieting versus a go/no-go task to change impulses toward palatable foods. Dieters performed an online training program (four times in 4 weeks) in which they were randomly assigned to a 2 (implementation intention condition: dieting versus control) × 2 (go/no-go task condition: food versus control) design. They formed either dieting implementation intentions (e.g., If I open the fridge I will think of dieting!) or control implementation intentions. Furthermore, they received either a go/no-go task in which behavioral stop signals were presented upon presentation of palatable foods (food go/no-go task), or upon control stimuli. Participants' weight was measured in the laboratory before and after the intervention. Strength of participants' dieting goal and their Body Mass Index (BMI; as a proxy for impulsiveness toward food) were examined as moderators. Results showed that both dieting implementation intentions and the food go/no-go task facilitated weight loss. Moreover, dieting implementation intentions facilitated weight loss particularly among people with a strong current dieting goal, whereas the food go/no-go task facilitated weight loss independent of this factor. Instead, the food go/no-go task, but not formation of dieting implementation intentions, was primarily effective among dieters with a relatively high BMI. These results provide the first preliminary evidence that interventions aimed at targeting impulsive eating-related processes via the internet can facilitate weight loss. PMID:24675683

  20. Combating obesity through healthy eating behavior: a call for system dynamics optimization.

    PubMed

    Abidin, Norhaslinda Zainal; Mamat, Mustafa; Dangerfield, Brian; Zulkepli, Jafri Haji; Baten, Md Azizul; Wibowo, Antoni

    2014-01-01

    Poor eating behavior has been identified as one of the core contributory factors of the childhood obesity epidemic. The consequences of obesity on numerous aspects of life are thoroughly explored in the existing literature. For instance, evidence shows that obesity is linked to incidences of diseases such as heart disease, type-2 diabetes, and some cancers, as well as psychosocial problems. To respond to the increasing trends in the UK, in 2008 the government set a target to reverse the prevalence of obesity (POB) back to 2000 levels by 2020. This paper will outline the application of system dynamics (SD) optimization to simulate the effect of changes in the eating behavior of British children (aged 2 to 15 years) on weight and obesity. This study also will identify how long it will take to achieve the government's target. This paper proposed a simulation model called Intervention Childhood Obesity Dynamics (ICOD) by focusing the interrelations between various strands of knowledge in one complex human weight regulation system. The model offers distinct insights into the dynamics by capturing the complex interdependencies from the causal loop and feedback structure, with the intention to better understand how eating behaviors influence children's weight, body mass index (BMI), and POB measurement. This study proposed a set of equations that are revised from the original (baseline) equations. The new functions are constructed using a RAMP function of linear decrement in portion size and number of meal variables from 2013 until 2020 in order to achieve the 2020 desired target. Findings from the optimization analysis revealed that the 2020 target won't be achieved until 2026 at the earliest, six years late. Thus, the model suggested that a longer period may be needed to significantly reduce obesity in this population. PMID:25502170

  1. Specific common variants of the obesity-associated FTO gene are not associated with psychological and behavioral eating disorder phenotypes

    PubMed Central

    Jonassaint, Charles R.; Szatkiewicz, Jin Peng; Bulik, Cynthia M.; Thornton, Laura M.; Bloss, Cinnamon; Berrettini, Wade; Kaye, Walter H.; Bergen, Andrew W.; Magistretti, Pierre; Strober, Michael; Keel, Pamela K.; Brandt, Harry; Crawford, Steve; Crow, Scott; Fichter, Manfred M.; Goldman, David; Halmi, Katherine A.; Johnson, Craig; Kaplan, Allan S.; Klump, Kelly L.; La Via, Maria; Mitchell, James; Rotondo, Alessandro; Treasure, Janet; Woodside, D. Blake

    2011-01-01

    Extensive population-based genome-wide association studies have identified an association between the FTO gene and BMI; however, the mechanism of action is still unknown. To determine whether FTO may influence weight regulation through psychological and behavioral factors, seven single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of the FTO gene were genotyped in 1085 individuals with anorexia nervosa (AN) and 677 healthy weight controls from the international Price Foundation Genetic Studies of Eating Disorders. Each SNP was tested in association with eating disorder phenotypes and measures that have previously been associated with eating behavior pathology: trait anxiety, harm-avoidance, novelty seeking, impulsivity, obsessionality, compulsivity, and concern over mistakes. After appropriate correction for multiple comparisons, no significant associations between individual FTO gene SNPs and eating disorder phenotypes or related eating behavior pathology were identified in cases or controls. Thus, this study found no evidence that FTO gene variants associated with weight regulation in the general population are associated with eating disorder phenotypes in AN participants or matched controls. PMID:21438147

  2. Behavioral and Psychophysiological Responsiveness During Child Feeding in Mothers with Histories of Eating Disorders: A Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Hoffman, Elizabeth R.; Hodges, Eric A.; Propper, Cathi; Postage, Pamela L.; Zipkin, Elana C.; Bentley, Margaret E.; Ward, Dianne S.; Hamer, Robert M.; Bulik, Cynthia M.

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this pilot project was to describe maternal responsiveness during child feeding in mothers with eating disorder histories through the combined use of observational, self-report, and physiologic methods. For this non-randomized cohort pilot study, 25 mothers with histories of eating disorders and 25 mothers with no history of an eating disorder with children ages 6–36 months were selected such that the groups were similar based on child age group (within 6 months) and child sex. Maternal behavioral responsiveness to child cues was assessed by video-recording and behavioral coding of both a free-play and feeding episode. Physiologic engagement was assessed through measurement of respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA) reactivity during free-play and feeding episodes. No differences were detected in observed behavioral responsiveness during feeding or free-play in mothers with eating disorder histories compared with controls. Mothers with eating disorder histories did report more parenting stress, increased anxiety, and exhibited a blunted physiologic stress response (less RSA reactivity) during both feeding and free-play interactions with their children. These results support future larger-scale investigations of RSA reactivity in mothers with eating disorders. PMID:24511180

  3. Behavioral and Psychophysiological Responsiveness During Child Feeding in Mothers with Histories of Eating Disorders: A Pilot Study.

    PubMed

    Hoffman, Elizabeth R; Hodges, Eric A; Propper, Cathi; Postage, Pamela L; Zipkin, Elana C; Bentley, Margaret E; Ward, Dianne S; Hamer, Robert M; Bulik, Cynthia M

    2013-12-01

    The aim of this pilot project was to describe maternal responsiveness during child feeding in mothers with eating disorder histories through the combined use of observational, self-report, and physiologic methods. For this non-randomized cohort pilot study, 25 mothers with histories of eating disorders and 25 mothers with no history of an eating disorder with children ages 6-36 months were selected such that the groups were similar based on child age group (within 6 months) and child sex. Maternal behavioral responsiveness to child cues was assessed by video-recording and behavioral coding of both a free-play and feeding episode. Physiologic engagement was assessed through measurement of respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA) reactivity during free-play and feeding episodes. No differences were detected in observed behavioral responsiveness during feeding or free-play in mothers with eating disorder histories compared with controls. Mothers with eating disorder histories did report more parenting stress, increased anxiety, and exhibited a blunted physiologic stress response (less RSA reactivity) during both feeding and free-play interactions with their children. These results support future larger-scale investigations of RSA reactivity in mothers with eating disorders. PMID:24511180

  4. Perception and Sense of Control Over Eating Behaviors Among a Diverse Sample of Adults at Risk for Type 2 Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Fukuoka, Yoshimi; Lindgren, Teri G.; Bonnet, Kemberlee; Kamitani, Emiko

    2014-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of the study was to explore and understand knowledge and attitudes about food, diet, and weight control, focusing on barriers and motivators to reduce risk of developing type 2 diabetes. Methods Six focus groups were conducted in May and June 2010. The groups were stratified by sex. A total of 35 ethnically diverse samples with a high risk for type 2 diabetes participated. The average age was 51 10.6 years, and 57% of the sample represented women. Results Four themes emerged from the focus groups: (1) demonstrated knowledge and source of knowledge, including participants basic understanding of good and bad food and what constitutes a healthy diet and trusted sources of information; (2) perceptions of food and diet, encompassing how participants expressed their perception of and interaction with food and diet; (3) sense of control over dietary intake, reflecting participants discussion of their perceived ability to control their eating patterns and food choices; and (4) eating behaviors, describing participants patterns of eating and perceived barriers to eating a healthy diet. Conclusions Study findings demonstrate that eating healthy requires a complex interaction between individual perceptions of food and sense of control over eating patterns and socio-political and economic structural factors that restrict healthy eating options while promoting unhealthy ones. Programs for long-term eating behavioral change necessary to reduce type 2 diabetes and obesity need to incorporate strategies that address individual-level factors of perception of food and sense of control over eating patterns, as well as structural level factors such as poverty and food insecurity. PMID:24525569

  5. Use of a Tool to Determine Perceived Barriers to Children's Healthy Eating and Physical Activity and Relationships to Health Behaviors

    PubMed Central

    Jacobson Vann, Julie C.; Finkle, Joanne; Ammerman, Alice; Wegner, Steven; Skinner, Asheley Cockrell; Benjamin, John T.; Perrin, Eliana M.

    2012-01-01

    This pilot investigation assesses whether barriers to childrens healthy eating and physical activity reported by parents on a newly developed brief pediatric obesity screening and counseling tool are related to healthy eating and physical activity behaviors. The sample included parents of 115 Medicaid-enrolled children in a general pediatric clinic. Of 10 barriers, 7 were statistically associated with parent-reported behaviors with odds ratios (ORs) ranging from 0.6 to 9.4. Relationships remained significant when child characteristics were controlled in the analysis. Although additional testing is needed, the tool provides clinicians with an approach to identify barriers and behaviors for targeted counseling. PMID:21930027

  6. Some like it hot: testosterone predicts laboratory eating behavior of spicy food.

    PubMed

    Bgue, Laurent; Bricout, Vronique; Boudesseul, Jordane; Shankland, Rbecca; Duke, Aaron A

    2015-02-01

    In the present study, we analyzed the relationship between eating behavior of spicy food and endogenous testosterone. Participants included 114 males between the ages of 18 and 44 recruited from the community. They were asked to indicate their preferences regarding spicy food and were then asked to season a sample of mashed potatoes with pepper sauce and salt (control substance) prior to evaluating the spiciness of the meal. A positive correlation was observed between endogenous salivary testosterone and the quantity of hot sauce individuals voluntarily and spontaneously consumed with a meal served as part of a laboratory task. In contrast, significant correlations were not observed between testosterone and behavioral preference for salty foods. This study suggests that behavioral preference for spicy food among men is related to endogenous testosterone levels. PMID:25462592

  7. Weight perception, substance use, and disordered eating behaviors: comparing normal weight and overweight high-school students.

    PubMed

    Eichen, Dawn M; Conner, Bradley T; Daly, Brian P; Fauber, Robert L

    2012-01-01

    Disordered eating behaviors and substance use are two risk factors for the development of serious psychopathology and health concerns in adulthood. Despite the negative outcomes associated with these risky behaviors, few studies have examined potential associations between these risk factors as they occur during adolescence. The importance of accurate or inaccurate weight perception among adolescents has received increased interest given documented associations with nutritional beliefs and weight management strategies. This study examined the associations among the perceptions of weight and substance use with disordered eating behaviors among a diverse sample of normal weight and overweight adolescent males and females. Data came from the 2007 National Youth Risk Behavior Survey (YRBS). The sample consisted of 11,103 adolescents (53.4% female; 44% Caucasian, 21% African American; 13% Hispanic; age responses ranged from 12 and under to 18 and over), with 31.5% meeting criteria for being either at-risk for obesity or already obese (i.e., overweight). As hypothesized, overestimation of weight among normal weight adolescents and accurate perceptions of weight among overweight adolescents were associated with higher rates of disordered eating behaviors. In normal weight adolescents, use of all three substances (tobacco, binge drinking, and cocaine) was associated with each disordered eating behavior. In contrast, findings revealed differences for overweight adolescents between the type of substance use and disordered eating behavior. Post hoc analyses revealed that gender moderated some of these relationships among overweight individuals. Implications for the development and implementation of secondary prevention programs aimed at reducing disordered eating behaviors, substance use, and obesity risk among normal and overweight adolescents are considered. PMID:21113735

  8. Adolescents' Perceptions of Healthy Eating and Communication about Healthy Eating

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chan, Kara; Prendergast, Gerard; Gronhoj, Alice; Bech-Larsen, Tino

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to explore Chinese adolescents' perceptions of healthy eating, their perceptions of various socializing agents shaping their eating habits, and their opinions about various regulatory measures which might be imposed to encourage healthy eating. Design/methodology/approach: Four focus group interview sessions…

  9. Adolescents' Perceptions of Healthy Eating and Communication about Healthy Eating

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chan, Kara; Prendergast, Gerard; Gronhoj, Alice; Bech-Larsen, Tino

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to explore Chinese adolescents' perceptions of healthy eating, their perceptions of various socializing agents shaping their eating habits, and their opinions about various regulatory measures which might be imposed to encourage healthy eating. Design/methodology/approach: Four focus group interview sessions

  10. Chronic Subordination Stress Induces Hyperphagia and Disrupts Eating Behavior in Mice Modeling Binge-Eating-Like Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Razzoli, Maria; Sanghez, Valentina; Bartolomucci, Alessandro

    2015-01-01

    Background: Eating disorders are associated with physical morbidity and appear to have causal factors like stressful life events and negative affect. Binge-eating disorder (BED) is characterized by eating in a discrete period of time a larger than normal amount of food, a sense of lack of control over eating, and marked distress. There are still unmet needs for the identification of mechanisms regulating excessive eating, which is in part due to the lack of appropriate animal models. We developed a naturalistic murine model of subordination stress-induced hyperphagia associated with the development of obesity. Here, we tested the hypotheses that the eating responses of subordinate mice recapitulate the BED and that limiting hyperphagia could prevent stress-associated metabolic changes. Methods: Adult male mice were exposed to a model of chronic subordination stress (CSS) associated with the automated acquisition of food intake and we performed a detailed meal pattern analysis. Additionally, using a pair-feeding protocol we tested the hypothesis that the manifestation of obesity and the metabolic syndrome could be prevented by limiting hyperphagia. Results: The architecture of feeding of subordinate mice was disrupted during the stress protocol due to disproportionate amount of food ingested at higher rate and with shorter satiety ratio than control mice. Subordinate mice hyperphagia was further exacerbated in response to either hunger or to the acute application of a social defeat. Notably, the obese phenotype but not the fasting hyperglycemia of subordinate mice was abrogated by preventing hyperphagia in a pair-feeding paradigm. Conclusion: Overall, these results support the validity of our CSS to model BED allowing for the determination of the underlying molecular mechanisms and the generation of testable predictions for innovative therapies, based on the understanding of the regulation and the control of food intake. PMID:25621284

  11. Chewing and spitting: a marker of psychopathology and behavioral severity in inpatients with an eating disorder.

    PubMed

    Makhzoumi, Saniha H; Guarda, Angela S; Schreyer, Colleen C; Reinblatt, Shauna P; Redgrave, Graham W; Coughlin, Janelle W

    2015-04-01

    Chewing and spitting out food is a frequent behavior in hospitalized patients with eating disorders (ED). Personality characteristics of those who frequently chew-spit (CHSP), the amount of food consumed during CHSP episodes, associated sense of loss of control overeating (LOC), and clinical response to hospital-based treatment have not been examined and were the focus of this study. Participants (N=324) were inpatients on a behavioral ED specialty unit. A third of the sample (n=107) reported engaging in CHSP in the 8weeks prior to admission with 21% (n=69) reporting CHSP at least once per week. Those who engaged in the behavior at least weekly (CHSP+) were compared to those with less frequent or no CHSP (CHSP-) on demographic and clinical indices and on the EDI, BDI, and the NEO-FFI. Participants were also asked if their CHSP behavior involved a binge-like amount of food (≥1000kcal) or was associated with LOC. The CHSP+ group was more likely to have purging diagnoses. After controlling for purging diagnosis, CHSP+ were found to engage in more restricting, diet pill and laxative use, and excessive exercise, and endorsed greater drive for thinness, body dissatisfaction, depression, and neuroticism than CHSP-. Among all CHSP+ participants, LOC was present in 70% and a minority (n=10, 18%) endorsed recent CHSP on binge-like amounts of food. This behavior should be assessed routinely in all patients, as it appears associated with increased eating behavior severity and increased psychiatric comorbidity at hospital admission. PMID:25580013

  12. Wilderness Eating Association

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rhea, Jessica

    2006-01-01

    Proper nutrition and eating habits are critical components when facilitating safe, enjoyable expeditions. The author asserts that outdoor leaders must be diligent in overseeing the health of their participants through proper nutrition. Leaders in training with a history of eating issues face a special challenge. The author discusses how these…

  13. Wilderness Eating Association

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rhea, Jessica

    2006-01-01

    Proper nutrition and eating habits are critical components when facilitating safe, enjoyable expeditions. The author asserts that outdoor leaders must be diligent in overseeing the health of their participants through proper nutrition. Leaders in training with a history of eating issues face a special challenge. The author discusses how these

  14. Predicting Intentions to Eat a Healthful Diet by College Baseball Players: Applying the Theory of Planned Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pawlak, Roman; Malinauskas, Brenda; Rivera, David

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To assess factors important to college baseball players regarding intention to eat a healthful diet within the Theory of Planned Behavior. Design: A survey based on the Theory of Planned Behavior was administered during the 2006 summer league season from 5 of the Northern Division teams of the Coastal Plain League. Participants: Male

  15. Weight Perception, Substance Use, and Disordered Eating Behaviors: Comparing Normal Weight and Overweight High-School Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eichen, Dawn M.; Conner, Bradley T.; Daly, Brian P.; Fauber, Robert L.

    2012-01-01

    Disordered eating behaviors and substance use are two risk factors for the development of serious psychopathology and health concerns in adulthood. Despite the negative outcomes associated with these risky behaviors, few studies have examined potential associations between these risk factors as they occur during adolescence. The importance of

  16. Predicting Intentions to Eat a Healthful Diet by College Baseball Players: Applying the Theory of Planned Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pawlak, Roman; Malinauskas, Brenda; Rivera, David

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To assess factors important to college baseball players regarding intention to eat a healthful diet within the Theory of Planned Behavior. Design: A survey based on the Theory of Planned Behavior was administered during the 2006 summer league season from 5 of the Northern Division teams of the Coastal Plain League. Participants: Male…

  17. Culturally Adapted Cognitive Behavioral Guided Self-Help for Binge Eating: A Feasibility Study with Mexican Americans

    PubMed Central

    Cachelin, Fary M.; Shea, Munyi; Phimphasone, Phoutdavone; Wilson, G. Terence; Thompson, Douglas R.; Striegel, Ruth H.

    2014-01-01

    Objective was to test feasibility and preliminary efficacy of a culturally adapted cognitive-behavioral self-help program to treat binge eating and related problems in Mexican Americans. Participants were 31 women recruited from the Los Angeles area and diagnosed with binge eating disorder, recurrent binge eating or bulimia nervosa. Participants completed a culturally adapted version of a CBT-based self-help program with 8 guidance sessions over a 3-month period. Treatment efficacy was evaluated in terms of binge eating, psychological functioning, and weight loss. Intent-to-treat analyses revealed 35.5% abstinence from binge eating at post-treatment and 38.7% diagnostic remission. Results indicated significant pre-treatment to post-treatment improvement on distress level, BMI, eating disorder psychopathology, and self-esteem. Satisfaction with the program was high. Findings demonstrate that the program is acceptable, feasible, and efficacious in reducing binge eating and associated symptoms for Mexican American women. Study provides “proof of concept” for implementation of culturally adapted forms of evidence-based programs. PMID:25045955

  18. Impact of Caregiver Type for 3-Year-Old Children on Subsequent Between-Meal Eating Habits and Being Overweight From Childhood to Adulthood: A 20-Year Follow-up of the Ibaraki Children’s Cohort (IBACHIL) Study

    PubMed Central

    Sata, Mizuki; Yamagishi, Kazumasa; Sairenchi, Toshimi; Ikeda, Ai; Irie, Fujiko; Watanabe, Hiroshi; Iso, Hiroyasu; Ota, Hitoshi

    2015-01-01

    Background Because of the increasing number of mothers who continue to work after childbirth, participation in childcare has diversified. However, the impact of the main caregiver on children’s habits has not been determined. We sought to examine the effect of caregiver differences on childhood habituation of between-meal eating and body mass index (BMI). Methods The Ibaraki Children’s Cohort Study involved 4592 Japanese children whose parents answered health questionnaires at age 3. Follow-up questionnaires were distributed to parents when children were 6 and 12 years old and to study subjects directly when they were 22 years old. We compared prevalence of between-meal eating and overweight as well as mean BMI at ages 6, 12, and 22 years, by their main daytime caregiver at age 3. Results Compared to children cared for by mothers, those cared for by grandparents had a higher prevalence of between-meal eating before dinner for boys and girls at ages 6 and 12 years. At age 22 years, boys cared for by grandparents had a higher prevalence of overweight than those cared for by mothers (18.5% versus 11.2%, P = 0.037), but no such difference was noted in girls. However, both boys and girls cared for by grandparents had higher mean BMI over time than those cared for by mothers (coefficient = 0.47 kg/m2 for boys and coefficient = 0.35 kg/m2 for girls). Conclusions Being cared for by grandparents at age 3 was associated with subsequent between-meal eating habits, being overweight, and increased mean BMI from childhood to adulthood. PMID:26310570

  19. Nesting habits shape feeding preferences and predatory behavior in an ant genus.

    PubMed

    Dejean, Alain; Labrire, Nicolas; Touchard, Axel; Petitclerc, Frdric; Roux, Olivier

    2014-04-01

    We tested if nesting habits influence ant feeding preferences and predatory behavior in the monophyletic genus Pseudomyrmex (Pseudomyrmecinae) which comprises terrestrial and arboreal species, and, among the latter, plant-ants which are obligate inhabitants of myrmecophytes (i.e., plants sheltering so-called plant-ants in hollow structures). A cafeteria experiment revealed that the diet of ground-nesting Pseudomyrmex consists mostly of prey and that of arboreal species consists mostly of sugary substances, whereas the plant-ants discarded all the food we provided. Workers forage solitarily, detecting prey from a distance thanks to their hypertrophied eyes. Approach is followed by antennal contact, seizure, and the manipulation of the prey to sting it under its thorax (next to the ventral nerve cord). Arboreal species were not more efficient at capturing prey than were ground-nesting species. A large worker size favors prey capture. Workers from ground- and arboreal-nesting species show several uncommon behavioral traits, each known in different ant genera from different subfamilies: leaping abilities, the use of surface tension strengths to transport liquids, short-range recruitment followed by conflicts between nestmates, the consumption of the prey's hemolymph, and the retrieval of entire prey or pieces of prey after having cut it up. Yet, we never noted group ambushing. We also confirmed that Pseudomyrmex plant-ants live in a kind of food autarky as they feed only on rewards produced by their host myrmecophyte, or on honeydew produced by the hemipterans they attend and possibly on the fungi they cultivate. PMID:24566996

  20. Nesting habits shape feeding preferences and predatory behavior in an ant genus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dejean, Alain; Labrière, Nicolas; Touchard, Axel; Petitclerc, Frédéric; Roux, Olivier

    2014-04-01

    We tested if nesting habits influence ant feeding preferences and predatory behavior in the monophyletic genus Pseudomyrmex (Pseudomyrmecinae) which comprises terrestrial and arboreal species, and, among the latter, plant-ants which are obligate inhabitants of myrmecophytes (i.e., plants sheltering so-called plant-ants in hollow structures). A cafeteria experiment revealed that the diet of ground-nesting Pseudomyrmex consists mostly of prey and that of arboreal species consists mostly of sugary substances, whereas the plant-ants discarded all the food we provided. Workers forage solitarily, detecting prey from a distance thanks to their hypertrophied eyes. Approach is followed by antennal contact, seizure, and the manipulation of the prey to sting it under its thorax (next to the ventral nerve cord). Arboreal species were not more efficient at capturing prey than were ground-nesting species. A large worker size favors prey capture. Workers from ground- and arboreal-nesting species show several uncommon behavioral traits, each known in different ant genera from different subfamilies: leaping abilities, the use of surface tension strengths to transport liquids, short-range recruitment followed by conflicts between nestmates, the consumption of the prey's hemolymph, and the retrieval of entire prey or pieces of prey after having cut it up. Yet, we never noted group ambushing. We also confirmed that Pseudomyrmex plant-ants live in a kind of food autarky as they feed only on rewards produced by their host myrmecophyte, or on honeydew produced by the hemipterans they attend and possibly on the fungi they cultivate.

  1. A multisite investigation of binge eating behaviors in children and adolescents.

    PubMed

    Tanofsky-Kraff, Marian; Goossens, Lien; Eddy, Kamryn T; Ringham, Rebecca; Goldschmidt, Andrea; Yanovski, Susan Z; Braet, Caroline; Marcus, Marsha D; Wilfley, Denise E; Olsen, Cara; Yanovski, Jack A

    2007-12-01

    The phenomenology of childhood and adolescent loss of control (LOC) eating is unknown. The authors interviewed 445 youths to assess aspects of aberrant eating. LOC was associated with eating forbidden food before the episode; eating when not hungry; eating alone; and experiencing secrecy, negative emotions, and a sense of "numbing" while eating (ps<.01). Hierarchical cluster analysis revealed a subgroup, most of whom reported LOC eating. Cluster members reported having a trigger initiate episodes, eating while watching television, and having decreased awareness regarding the amount consumed. The authors conclude that aspects of LOC eating during youth are similar to aspects of adult episodes, but a youth-specific presentation may exist. Findings may provide an intervening point to prevent excessive weight gain and eating disorders. PMID:18085907

  2. Epigenetic and Proteomic Expression Changes Promoted by Eating Addictive-Like Behavior.

    PubMed

    Mancino, Samantha; Burokas, Aurelijus; Gutiérrez-Cuesta, Javier; Gutiérrez-Martos, Miriam; Martín-García, Elena; Pucci, Mariangela; Falconi, Anastasia; D'Addario, Claudio; Maccarrone, Mauro; Maldonado, Rafael

    2015-11-01

    An increasing perspective conceptualizes obesity and overeating as disorders related to addictive-like processes that could share common neurobiological mechanisms. In the present study, we aimed at validating an animal model of eating addictive-like behavior in mice, based on the DSM-5 substance use disorder criteria, using operant conditioning maintained by highly palatable chocolate-flavored pellets. For this purpose, we evaluated persistence of food-seeking during a period of non-availability of food, motivation for food, and perseverance of responding when the reward was associated with a punishment. This model has allowed identifying extreme subpopulations of mice related to addictive-like behavior. We investigated in these subpopulations the epigenetic and proteomic changes. A significant decrease in DNA methylation of CNR1 gene promoter was revealed in the prefrontal cortex of addict-like mice, which was associated with an upregulation of CB1 protein expression in the same brain area. The pharmacological blockade (rimonabant 3 mg/kg; i.p.) of CB1 receptor during the late training period reduced the percentage of mice that accomplished addiction criteria, which is in agreement with the reduced performance of CB1 knockout mice in this operant training. Proteomic studies have identified proteins differentially expressed in mice vulnerable or not to addictive-like behavior in the hippocampus, striatum, and prefrontal cortex. These changes included proteins involved in impulsivity-like behavior, synaptic plasticity, and cannabinoid signaling modulation, such as alpha-synuclein, phosphatase 1-alpha, doublecortin-like kinase 2, and diacylglycerol kinase zeta, and were validated by immunoblotting. This model provides an excellent tool to investigate the neurobiological substrate underlying the vulnerability to develop eating addictive-like behavior. PMID:25944409

  3. Eating Behaviors and Weight Development in Obesity-Prone Children and the Importance of the Research of Albert J. Stunkard.

    PubMed

    Kral, Tanja V E

    2016-03-01

    Albert J. Stunkard, MD, was an internationally recognized leader and pioneer in the field of obesity and eating disorders research. He was also among the first scientists to study eating phenotypes and early life risk factors for childhood obesity at a time when childhood obesity prevalence rates were still comparatively low. The aim of this review is to highlight select findings from the work of Albert J. Stunkard which significantly advanced our understanding of eating traits of children with a different familial predisposition to obesity and genetic and environmental influences on weight outcomes. Collectively, Stunkard's early work on childhood obesity had a significant impact on the field of ingestive behavior and obesity research in that he was one of the first investigators who pointed to genetic influences underlying behavioral eating traits and child weight status. His work also inspired numerous subsequent investigations on the relative contributions of specific genes (e.g., polymorphisms in the fat mass and obesity-associated (FTO) gene) on individual differences in child eating traits (e.g., satiety responsiveness, eating in the absence of hunger) and body weight. PMID:26811004

  4. The Effects of Behavioral and Cognitive-Behavioral Treatments on Eating Self-Efficacy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kalodner, Cynthia R.; And Others

    Self-efficacy theory proposes that beliefs about behavior are important variables to consider in the study of behavior change. The belief that an individual is capable of executing behavior and that the execution of such behavior will result in the desired outcome must be present for behavioral and psychological change to occur. This theory may

  5. Dialectical behavior therapy for adolescent binge eating, purging, suicidal behavior, and non-suicidal self-injury: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Fischer, Sarah; Peterson, Claire

    2015-03-01

    There are few published randomized controlled trials examining treatment for symptoms of bulimia nervosa (BN) in adolescents. Additionally, many adolescents presenting for treatment for BN symptoms endorse co-occurring mood disturbances, suicidality, and nonsuicidal self-injury (NSSI), and may not meet full Diagnostic and Statistical Manual-IV-Text Revision (DSM-IV-TR) diagnostic criteria for BN. In addition to the limited number of randomized controlled trials, published treatment studies of BN symptoms in adolescence do not specifically address the multiple comorbid symptoms that these adolescents often report. The purpose of this pilot study was to examine the feasibility and effectiveness of an outpatient dialectical behavior therapy (DBT) program for adolescents with symptoms of BN, suicide attempts, and NSSI. Ten eligible participants enrolled in the study; 3 dropped within 4 weeks of initiating treatment. In addition to binge eating and suicidal behavior, participants also endorsed a number of other comorbid mood disorders and substance abuse. Seven participants completed 6 months of treatment and 6-month follow-up assessments. Treatment included access to a crisis management system, individual therapy, skills training, and a therapist consultation team. At posttreatment, participants had significantly reduced self-harm; (Cohen's d = 1.35), frequency of objective binge episodes (Cohen's d = .46), frequency of purging (Cohen's d = .66), and Global Eating Disorder Examination scores (Cohen's d = .64). At follow-up, 6 participants were abstinent of NSSI; 3 participants were abstinent from binge eating. At follow-up, treatment gains were maintained and enhanced. Results indicate that it is feasible to address multiple forms of psychopathology during the treatment of BN symptoms in this age-group. PMID:24773094

  6. Startling Sweet Temptations: Hedonic Chocolate Deprivation Modulates Experience, Eating Behavior, and Eyeblink Startle

    PubMed Central

    Blechert, Jens; Naumann, Eva; Schmitz, Julian; Herbert, Beate M.; Tuschen-Caffier, Brunna

    2014-01-01

    Many individuals restrict their food intake to prevent weight gain. This restriction has both homeostatic and hedonic effects but their relative contribution is currently unclear. To isolate hedonic effects of food restriction, we exposed regular chocolate eaters to one week of chocolate deprivation but otherwise regular eating. Before and after this hedonic deprivation, participants viewed images of chocolate and images of high-calorie but non-chocolate containing foods, while experiential, behavioral and eyeblink startle responses were measured. Compared to satiety, hedonic deprivation triggered increased chocolate wanting, liking, and chocolate consumption but also feelings of frustration and startle potentiation during the intertrial intervals. Deprivation was further characterized by startle inhibition during both chocolate and food images relative to the intertrial intervals. Individuals who responded with frustration to the manipulation and those who scored high on a questionnaire of impulsivity showed more relative startle inhibition. The results reveal the profound effects of hedonic deprivation on experiential, behavioral and attentional/appetitive response systems and underscore the role of individual differences and state variables for startle modulation. Implications for dieting research and practice as well as for eating and weight disorders are discussed. PMID:24416437

  7. Association between food marketing exposure and adolescents' food choices and eating behaviors.

    PubMed

    Scully, Maree; Wakefield, Melanie; Niven, Philippa; Chapman, Kathy; Crawford, David; Pratt, Iain S; Baur, Louise A; Flood, Victoria; Morley, Belinda

    2012-02-01

    The present study examined associations between food marketing exposure and adolescents' food choices and reported consumption of energy-dense and nutrient-poor (EDNP) foods. A cross-sectional survey of 12,188 Australian secondary students aged 12-17 years was conducted, using a web-based self-report questionnaire. Measures included students' level of exposure to commercial television and non-broadcast types of food marketing, whether they had tried a new product or requested a product they had seen advertised, and their reported consumption of fast food, sugary drinks and sweet and salty snacks. Results indicated greater exposure to commercial television, print/transport/school food marketing and digital food marketing were all independently associated with students' food choices. High commercial television viewers (>2h/day) were more likely to report higher consumption of EDNP foods (ORs ranged from 1.31 for fast food to 1.91 for sweet snacks). Some associations between digital food marketing exposure and students' eating behaviors were found; however, print/transport/school food marketing was only related to sweet snack consumption. These study results suggest that cumulative exposure to television food advertising and other food marketing sources are positively linked to adolescents' food choices and eating behaviors. Policy changes to restrict food marketing to young people should include both television and non-broadcast media. PMID:22001023

  8. Stress, cues, and eating behavior. Using drug addiction paradigms to understand motivation for food.

    PubMed

    Stojek, Monika Kardacz; Fischer, Sarah; MacKillop, James

    2015-09-01

    Eating patterns that lead to overconsumption of high fat, high sugar (HFHS) foods share similar features with addictive behaviors. Application of addiction paradigms, such as stress inductions, cue reactivity and behavioral economic assessments, to the study of motivation for HFHS food consumption may be a promising means of understanding food consumption. To date, few studies have investigated the interaction of stress and environmental cues on craving, and no study leveraged the state relative reinforcing value of foods (RRVfood) under varying conditions of affective states, the foci of the current study. This study used a mixed factorial design (Mood Induction: Neutral, Stress; Cues: Neutral, Food) with repeated measures on time (Baseline, Post-Mood Induction, Post-Cue Exposure). Participants (N = 133) were community adults who endorsed liking of HFHS snacks but denied eating pathology. The primary DVs were subjective craving and RRVfood. Negative and positive affect (NA, PA), the amount of food consumed, and latency to first bite were also examined. Participants in the Stress condition reported no change in craving or RRVfood. Exposure to food cues significantly increased participants' craving and RRVfood, but an interaction of stress and cues was not present. Participants did not differ on how many calories they consumed based on exposure to stress or food cues, but participants in the food cues condition had a shorter latency to the first bite of food. This study highlights the importance of environmental cues in food motivation. It also demonstrates the utility of using RRVfood to further characterize food motivation. PMID:26022802

  9. Validity, Reliability and Feasibility of the Eating Behavior Pattern Questionnaire (EBPQ) among Iranian Female Students

    PubMed Central

    Dehghan, Parvin; Asghari-Jafarabadi, Mohammad; Salekzamani, Shabnam

    2015-01-01

    Background: The aim of this study was to assess the validity, reliability and feasibility of eating behavior pattern questionnaire (EBPQ) in female university students. Methods: In this study, after forward-backward translation, the questionnaire was reviewed by a panel of nutritionists and a psychologist and further thirty participants for the content validity measurement. The translated and modified questionnaire was completed by 225 female students of Tabriz University in 2013. Principle axis factoring, confirmatory factor analysis and known group analysis were conducted for construct, convergent and discriminant validity. Internal consistency and test–retest reliability were assessed by Cronbach’s α coefficient and intra-class correlation coefficient (ICC). Ceiling and floor effects were also performed for evaluating the feasibility of the instrument. Results: By using exploratory factor analysis, nine factors were extracted. Confirmatory factor analysis confirmed the convergent validity. Cronbach ’s αand ICC were ranged between 0.55 to 0.78 and 0.67 to 0.89, respectively. The significant difference for some three subscales between diabetes and healthy subjects determined the discriminant validity. No ceiling and floor effects were found. Conclusion: Our findings demonstrate the initial validity, reliability and feasibility of the Iranian version of EBPQ as a useful tool for eating behavior studies in young females. PMID:26290828

  10. Defining Features of Unhealthy Exercise Associated with Disordered Eating and Eating Disorder Diagnoses

    PubMed Central

    Holland, Lauren A.; Brown, Tiffany A.; Keel, Pamela K.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives The current study sought to compare different features of unhealthy exercise on associations with disordered eating and their ability to identify individuals with eating disorders. A secondary aim of the study was to compare prevalence and overlap of different aspects of unhealthy exercise and potential differences in their gender distribution. Design Cross-sectional epidemiological study. Methods A community-based sample of men (n=592) and women (n=1468) completed surveys of health and eating patterns, including questions regarding exercise habits and eating disorder symptoms. Results Compulsive and compensatory features of exercise were the best predictors of disordered eating and eating disorder diagnoses compared to exercise that was excessive in quantity. Further, compulsive and compensatory aspects of unhealthy exercise represented overlapping, yet distinct qualities in both men and women. Conclusions Including the compulsive quality among the defining features of unhealthy exercise may improve identification of eating disorders, particularly in men. Results suggest that the compensatory aspect of unhealthy exercise is not adequately captured by the compulsive aspect of unhealthy exercise. Thus, interventions that target unhealthy exercise behaviors among high-risk individuals, such as athletes, may benefit from addressing both the compulsive and compensatory aspects of unhealthy exercise. Future prospective longitudinal studies will aid in determining the direction of the association between these features of unhealthy exercise and the onset of eating pathology. PMID:24391457

  11. Determinants of Dieting Behavior and Eating Disorders in High School Students.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Emmons, Lillian Miller

    This study examines the prevalence and intensity of dieting behavior and the development of eating disorders in a sample of 1269 high school students from ten schools in the Greater Cleveland area. The sample includes four race-sex groups: black and white male and female students. Differences in dieting behavior between these groups are examined and, within each race-sex group, dieters and non-dieters are compared to see whether they differ in such factors as current weight and personal weight history, parental weights, socioeconomic class, religion, birth order, exercise and personality factors such as self-esteem and eating disorder measures. Data were collected using both self-administered questionnaires and in-depth interviews with a subsample of students. The study documents a higher prevalence of dieting and purging behavior than has been reported in other research. Forty-one percent of both black and white males, 61 percent of black females, and 77 percent of white females dieted and many purged, particularly black females who tended to use laxatives and diuretics and white females and males who tended to use vomiting. Dieters and non -dieters differed significantly in past experience with being overweight and in their current weights. At the time of the study 20 to 30 percent of the dieters were classifiable as overweight. While black and white male dieters and non-dieters were in agreement about ideal body weight, white female dieters and non-dieters wanted considerably lower weights than black female dieters and non-dieters. Ethnicity, as determined by socioeconomic class and religion, was not significantly related to dieting behavior, nor was birth order, a familial factor. It appeared that pervasive cultural pressures to attain an ideal figure affected all race-sex groups and led large percentages of the students to diet, even many who were already underweight.

  12. Children's eating behavior: comparison between normal and overweight children from a school in Pelotas, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    dos Passos, Darlise Rodrigues; Gigante, Denise Petrucci; Maciel, Francine Villela; Matijasevich, Alicia

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate differences in children's eating behavior in relation to their nutritional status, gender and age. METHODS: Male and female children aged six to ten years were included. They were recruited from a private school in the city of Pelotas, Rio Grande do Sul, southern Brazil, in 2012. Children´s Eating Behaviour Questionnaire (CEBQ) subscales were used to assess eating behaviors: Food Responsiveness (FR), Enjoyment of Food (EF), Desire to Drink (DD), Emotional Overeating (EOE), Emotional Undereating (EUE), Satiety Responsiveness (SR), Food Fussiness (FF) and Slowness in Eating (SE). Age-adjusted body mass index (BMI) z-scores were calculated according to the WHO recommendations to assess nutritional status. RESULTS: The study sample comprised 335 children aged 87.9±10.4 months and 49.3% had normal weight (n=163), 26% were overweight (n=86), 15% were obese (n=50) and 9.7% were severely obese (n=32). Children with excess weight showed higher scores at the CEBQ subscales associated with "food approach" (FR, EF, DD, EOE, p<0.001) and lower scores on two "food avoidance" subscales (SR and SE, p<0.001 and p=0.003, respectively) compared to normal weight children. Differences in the eating behavior related to gender and age were not found. CONCLUSIONS: "Food approach" subscales were positively associated to excess weight in children, but no associations with gender and age were found. PMID:25662562

  13. Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy, Behavioral Weight Loss, and Sequential Treatment for Obese Patients with Binge-Eating Disorder: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grilo, Carlos M.; Masheb, Robin M.; Wilson, G. Terence; Gueorguieva, Ralitza; White, Marney A.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: Cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) is the best established treatment for binge-eating disorder (BED) but does not produce weight loss. The efficacy of behavioral weight loss (BWL) in obese patients with BED is uncertain. This study compared CBT, BWL, and a sequential approach in which CBT is delivered first, followed by BWL (CBT + BWL).

  14. Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy, Behavioral Weight Loss, and Sequential Treatment for Obese Patients with Binge-Eating Disorder: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grilo, Carlos M.; Masheb, Robin M.; Wilson, G. Terence; Gueorguieva, Ralitza; White, Marney A.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: Cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) is the best established treatment for binge-eating disorder (BED) but does not produce weight loss. The efficacy of behavioral weight loss (BWL) in obese patients with BED is uncertain. This study compared CBT, BWL, and a sequential approach in which CBT is delivered first, followed by BWL (CBT + BWL).…

  15. Association of fathers' feeding practices and feeding style on preschool age children's diet quality, eating behavior and body mass index.

    PubMed

    Vollmer, Rachel L; Adamsons, Kari; Foster, Jaime S; Mobley, Amy R

    2015-06-01

    The associations of parental feeding practices and feeding style with childhood obesity have gained more attention in the literature recently; however, fathers are rarely included within these studies. The aim of this research was to determine the relationship of paternal feeding practices on child diet quality, weight status, and eating behavior, and the moderating effect of paternal feeding style on these relationships in preschool age children. This study included a one-time, one-on-one interview with biological fathers of preschoolers (n?=?150) to assess feeding practices (Child Feeding Questionnaire), feeding style (Caregiver Feeding Style Questionnaire), child eating behaviors (Child Eating Behavior Questionnaire), and diet quality (24 hour recall, Healthy Eating Index). Height and weight for each father and child were also measured and Body Mass Index (BMI) or BMI z-score calculated. Linear regression was used to test the relationship between paternal feeding practices, style and child diet quality and/or body weight. Overall, the findings revealed that a father's feeding practices and feeding style are not associated with children's diet quality or weight status. However, child eating behaviors are associated with child BMI z-score and these relationships are moderated by paternal feeding practices. For example, child satiety responsiveness is inversely (??=?-.421, p?=?0.031) associated with child BMI z-score only if paternal restriction scores are high. This relationship is not significant when paternal restriction scores are low (??=?-.200, p?=?0.448). These results suggest that some child appetitive traits may be related to child weight status when exposed to certain paternal feeding practices. Future studies should consider the inclusion of fathers as their feeding practices and feeding style may be related to a child's eating behavior. PMID:25700629

  16. Participation in mindfulness-based stress reduction is not associated with reductions in emotional eating or uncontrolled eating.

    PubMed

    Kearney, David J; Milton, Meredith L; Malte, Carol A; McDermott, Kelly A; Martinez, Michelle; Simpson, Tracy L

    2012-06-01

    The adverse health effects and increasing prevalence of obesity in the United States make interventions for obesity a priority in health research. Diet-focused interventions generally do not result in lasting reductions in weight. Behavioral interventions that increase awareness of eating cues and satiety have been postulated to result in healthier eating habits. We hypothesized that participation in a program called mindfulness-based stress reduction (MBSR) would positively influence the eating behaviors and nutritional intake of participants through changes in emotional eating (EE), uncontrolled eating (UE), and type and quantity of food consumed. Forty-eight veterans at a large urban Veterans Administration medical center were assessed before MBSR, after MBSR, and 4 months later. For all participants (N = 48), MBSR participation was not associated with significant changes in EE or UE. In addition, there were no significant differences in the intake of energy, fat, sugar, fruit, or vegetables at either follow-up time point as compared with baseline. Enhanced mindfulness skills and reduced depressive symptoms were seen over time with medium to large effect sizes. Changes in mindfulness skills were significantly and negatively correlated with changes in EE and UE over time. Overall, there was no evidence that participation in MBSR was associated with beneficial changes in eating through reductions in disinhibited eating or significant changes in dietary intake. Randomized studies are needed to further define the relationship between mindfulness program participation and eating behaviors. PMID:22749177

  17. Concurrent and Convergent Validity of the Eating in the Absence of Hunger Questionnaire and Behavioral Paradigm in Overweight Children

    PubMed Central

    Madowitz, Jennifer; Liang, June; Peterson, Carol B.; Rydell, Sarah; Zucker, Nancy L.; Tanofsky-Kraff, Marian; Harnack, Lisa; Boutelle, Kerri N.

    2014-01-01

    Objective This study aimed to assess the concurrent and convergent validity of the Eating in the Absence of Hunger (EAH) questionnaire parent report of child (EAH-PC) and child self-report (EAH-C) with the EAH behavioral paradigm (EAH%) and usual dietary intake. Method Data were obtained at baseline assessment for 117 treatment-seeking overweight and obese (BMI > 85th percentile) 8- to 12-year old children (53% female, 54% white) and their parents. Children participated in the EAH free access paradigm after a standardized ad libitum meal. Parents and children completed EAH questionnaires, and the children completed three 24 h recalls. EAH External Eating subscale and total scores were assessed. Results EAH% was inversely associated with the EAH-PC total score (p < .04), however, it was not associated with the EAH-PC External Eating scale, EAH-C total score or EAH-C External Eating scale. Daily caloric intake was positively related to both the EAH-C total score (p < .02) and External Eating subscale (p < .007). Daily caloric intake was inversely related to EAH-PC total score (p < .05), but was not related to EAH-PC External Eating subscale or EAH%. Discussion Concurrent validity was not supported for EAH questionnaires, but convergent validity was supported for EAH-C and child daily caloric intake. Further research is warranted to assess whether EAH questionnaires and paradigm are measuring different aspects of EAH in treatment-seeking children. PMID:24186043

  18. Acquisition of Lateralized Predation Behavior Associated with Development of Mouth Asymmetry in a Lake Tanganyika Scale-Eating Cichlid Fish

    PubMed Central

    Takeuchi, Yuichi; Hori, Michio; Tada, Shinya; Oda, Yoichi

    2016-01-01

    The scale-eating cichlid Perissodus microlepis with asymmetric mouth is an attractive model of behavioral laterality: each adult tears off scales from prey fishes’ left or right flanks according to the direction in which its mouth is skewed. To investigate the development of behavioral laterality and mouth asymmetry, we analyzed stomach contents and lower jaw-bone asymmetry of various-sized P. microlepis (22≤SL<115mm) sampled in Lake Tanganyika. The shapes of the pored scales found in each specimen’s stomach indicated its attack side preference. Early-juvenile specimens (SL<45mm) feeding mainly on zooplankton exhibited slight but significant mouth asymmetry. As the fish acquired scale-eating (45mm≤SL), attack side preference was gradually strengthened, as was mouth asymmetry. Among size-matched individuals, those with more skewed mouths ate more scales. These findings show that behavioral laterality in scale-eating P. microlepis is established in association with development of mouth asymmetry which precedes the behavioral acquisition, and that this synergistic interaction between physical and behavioral literalities may contribute to efficient scale-eating. PMID:26808293

  19. Acquisition of Lateralized Predation Behavior Associated with Development of Mouth Asymmetry in a Lake Tanganyika Scale-Eating Cichlid Fish.

    PubMed

    Takeuchi, Yuichi; Hori, Michio; Tada, Shinya; Oda, Yoichi

    2016-01-01

    The scale-eating cichlid Perissodus microlepis with asymmetric mouth is an attractive model of behavioral laterality: each adult tears off scales from prey fishes' left or right flanks according to the direction in which its mouth is skewed. To investigate the development of behavioral laterality and mouth asymmetry, we analyzed stomach contents and lower jaw-bone asymmetry of various-sized P. microlepis (22≤SL<115mm) sampled in Lake Tanganyika. The shapes of the pored scales found in each specimen's stomach indicated its attack side preference. Early-juvenile specimens (SL<45mm) feeding mainly on zooplankton exhibited slight but significant mouth asymmetry. As the fish acquired scale-eating (45mm≤SL), attack side preference was gradually strengthened, as was mouth asymmetry. Among size-matched individuals, those with more skewed mouths ate more scales. These findings show that behavioral laterality in scale-eating P. microlepis is established in association with development of mouth asymmetry which precedes the behavioral acquisition, and that this synergistic interaction between physical and behavioral literalities may contribute to efficient scale-eating. PMID:26808293

  20. Reported eating behavior and attitudes improvement after a nutrition intervention program in a group of young female dancers.

    PubMed

    Yannakoulia, Mary; Sitara, Marietta; Matalas, Antonia-Leda

    2002-03-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the effectiveness of an intervention program that combined nutrition education and prevention of disordered eating in a group of female professional dance students. Thirty-two dancers, aged 19-25 years, took part in the program. Evaluation was done by a series of questionnaires that participants were asked to complete on 3 occasions. Assessments of body composition and dietary intake were also performed. Significant improvements in nutrition knowledge as well as a decrease in abnormal eating behavior and dietary restraint were observed at post intervention. At 6-month follow-up, the positive effects were maintained and further benefits were recorded; only nutrition knowledge showed a minor decline. Participants who were at higher risk for adopting abnormal eating behavior benefited the most from the program. These findings encourage the implementation of intervention programs in groups of young women that experience particular pressures for controlling body weight. PMID:11993620

  1. Healthy Habits for Children: Leveraging Existing Evidence to Demonstrate Value.

    PubMed

    Persch, Andrew C; Lamb, Amy J; Metzler, Christina A; Fristad, Mary A

    2015-01-01

    Healthy habits is a psychoeducational construct that refers to the preventive practice of analyzing and then adapting the sleep, physical, and eating routines of children in ways that enhance health and well-being. This approach is based on evidence that demonstrates the positive therapeutic value of engaging in proactive, healthful behaviors. In addressing healthy habits, occupational therapy practitioners have an opportunity to contribute to the Triple Aim of health care reform while demonstrating the value of occupational therapy in educational, medical, community, and other settings. PMID:26114454

  2. The skinny on cocaine: Insights into eating behavior and body weight in cocaine-dependent men????

    PubMed Central

    Ersche, Karen D.; Stochl, Jan; Woodward, Jeremy M.; Fletcher, Paul C.

    2013-01-01

    There is a general assumption that weight loss associated with cocaine use reflects its appetite suppressing properties. We sought to determine whether this was justified by characterizing, in detail, alterations in dietary food intake and body composition in actively using cocaine-dependent individuals. We conducted a cross-sectional case-control comparison of 65 male volunteers from the local community, half of whom satisfied the DSM-IV-TR criteria for cocaine dependence (n=35) while the other half had no personal or family history of a psychiatric disorder, including substance abuse (n=30). Assessments were made of eating behavior and dietary food intake, estimation of body composition, and measurement of plasma leptin. Although cocaine users reported significantly higher levels of dietary fat and carbohydrates as well as patterns of uncontrolled eating, their fat mass was significantly reduced compared with their non-drug using peers. Levels of leptin were associated with fat mass, and with the duration of stimulant use. Tobacco smoking status or concomitant use of medication did not affect the significance of the results. Weight changes in cocaine users reflect fundamental perturbations in fat regulation. These are likely to be overlooked in clinical practice but may produce significant health problems when cocaine use is discontinued during recovery. PMID:23920064

  3. Are we really delivering evidence-based treatments for eating disorders? How eating-disordered patients describe their experience of cognitive behavioral therapy.

    PubMed

    Cowdrey, Natasha D; Waller, Glenn

    2015-12-01

    Psychotherapists report routinely not practising evidence-based treatments. However, there is little research examining the content of therapy from the patient perspective. This study examined the self-reported treatment experiences of individuals who had been told that they had received cognitive-behavior therapy (CBT) for their eating disorder. One hundred and fifty-seven such sufferers (mean age=25.69 years) were recruited from self-help organisations. Participants completed an online survey assessing demographics, clinical characteristics, and therapy components. The use of evidence-based CBT techniques varied widely, with core elements for the eating disorders (e.g., weighing and food monitoring) used at well below the optimum level, while a number of unevidenced techniques were reported as being used commonly. Cluster analysis showed that participants received different patterns of intervention under the therapist label of 'CBT', with evidence-based CBT being the least common. Therapist age and patient diagnosis were related to the pattern of intervention delivered. It appears that clinicians are not subscribing to a transdiagnostic approach to the treatment of eating disorders. Patient recollections in this study support the conclusion that evidence-based practice is not routinely undertaken with this client group, even when the therapy offered is described as such. PMID:26580080

  4. Enhanced Cognitive Behavior Therapy: A Single Treatment for All Eating Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fursland, Anthea; Byrne, Sharon; Watson, Hunna; La Puma, Michelle; Allen, Karina; Byrne, Susan

    2012-01-01

    Eating disorders are serious mental illnesses affecting a significant proportion of women and a smaller number of men. Approximately half of those with an eating disorder (ED) will not meet the criteria for anorexia or bulimia nervosa, and will be diagnosed with an eating disorder not otherwise specified (EDNOS). Until recently, there were no…

  5. The Relationship between Maladaptive Eating Behaviors and Racial Identity among African American Women in College

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flowers, Kelci C.; Levesque, Maurice J.; Fischer, Sarah

    2012-01-01

    Research on eating disorders has shown that European American women suffer from eating disorders and body image dissatisfaction more than African American women. However, recent meta-analyses suggest these differences may be decreasing and that some African American women may be particularly susceptible to body dissatisfaction and eating disorder…

  6. Enhanced Cognitive Behavior Therapy: A Single Treatment for All Eating Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fursland, Anthea; Byrne, Sharon; Watson, Hunna; La Puma, Michelle; Allen, Karina; Byrne, Susan

    2012-01-01

    Eating disorders are serious mental illnesses affecting a significant proportion of women and a smaller number of men. Approximately half of those with an eating disorder (ED) will not meet the criteria for anorexia or bulimia nervosa, and will be diagnosed with an eating disorder not otherwise specified (EDNOS). Until recently, there were no

  7. The Relationship between Maladaptive Eating Behaviors and Racial Identity among African American Women in College

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flowers, Kelci C.; Levesque, Maurice J.; Fischer, Sarah

    2012-01-01

    Research on eating disorders has shown that European American women suffer from eating disorders and body image dissatisfaction more than African American women. However, recent meta-analyses suggest these differences may be decreasing and that some African American women may be particularly susceptible to body dissatisfaction and eating disorder

  8. Eating Disorders among Athletes: Public Policy To Promote Social and Individual Behavioral Change.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moriarty, Dick; Moriarty, Mary

    Eating disorders are a complex physiological, psychological, and social illness. Since teachers and coaches should know the signs of eating disorders, some of the ways in which educators can recognize or prevent eating disorders are presented in this paper. Emphasis is placed on teachers and coaches familiarizing themselves with the five "Ps"

  9. Family meal traditions. Comparing reported childhood food habits to current food habits among university students.

    PubMed

    De Backer, Charlotte J S

    2013-10-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate if reported childhood food habits predict the food habits of students at present. Questions addressed are: does the memory of childhood family meals promote commensality among students? Does the memory of (grand)parents' cooking influence students' cooking? And, is there still a gender difference in passing on everyday cooking skills? Using a cross-sectional survey, 104 students were asked about their current eating and cooking habits, and their eating habits and the cooking behavior of their (grand)parents during their childhood. Results show that frequencies in reported childhood family meals predict frequencies of students' commensality at present. The effects appear for breakfast and dinner, and stay within the same meal: recalled childhood family breakfasts predict current breakfast commensality, recalled childhood family dinners predict current dinner commensality. In terms of recalled cookery of (grand)parents and the use of family recipes a matrilineal dominance can be observed. Mothers are most influential, and maternal grandmothers outscore paternal grandmothers. Yet, fathers' childhood cooking did not pass unnoticed either. They seem to influence male students' cookery. Overall, in a life-stage of transgression students appear to maintain recalled childhood food rituals. Suggestions are discussed to further validate these results. PMID:23707416

  10. Nutrition knowledge, outcome expectations, self-efficacy, and eating behaviors by calcium intake level in Korean female college students

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Min Ju

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES Calcium is important but deficient in diets of young adult women. This study aimed to examine if cognitive factors and eating behaviors differ according to calcium intake based on the Social Cognitive Theory. SUBJECTS/METHODS Subjects were female college students in Seoul, Korea. Three hundred students completed the questionnaire regarding calcium intake, nutrition knowledge, outcome expectations, self-efficacy and eating behaviors. Data on 240 students were analyzed using t-test or χ2-test. Subjects were categorized into two groups, high calcium intake (HC, ≥ 650 mg/day) and low calcium intake (LC, < 650 mg/day), according to recommended intakes of calcium for women aged 19-29 years. RESULTS The LC group constituted 77.9% of total subjects. Nutrition knowledge was not different according to calcium intake. Three out of 12 outcome expectations items were significantly different between the HC and LC groups. Subjects in the HC group agreed more strongly with the practical benefits of consuming calcium-rich foods, including 'taste' (P < 0.01) and 'going well with other snacks' (P < 0.05), compared to those in the LC group. Negative expectations of 'indigestion' were stronger in the LC group than HC group (P < 0.001). Among self-efficacy items, perceived ability of 'eating dairy foods for snacks' (P < 0.001), 'eating dairy foods every day' (P < 0.01), and 'eating calcium-rich side dishes at meals' (P < 0.05) differed significantly between the HC and LC groups. Eating behaviors including more frequent consumption of dairy foods, fruits or fruit juice (P < 0.001), anchovy, seaweeds, green vegetables, protein-rich foods (P < 0.05), and less frequent consumption of sweets or soft drinks (P < 0.01) were significantly related to calcium intake. CONCLUSIONS This study found that outcome expectations, self-efficacy in consuming calcium-rich foods, and eating behaviors are important in explaining calcium intake. Nutrition education needs to address practical benefits, reduce negative expectations of calcium-rich foods, increase self-efficacy, and modify eating behaviors contributing to calcium intake. PMID:26425284

  11. Self-Reported Eating Disorders of Black, Low-Income Adolescents: Behavior, Body Weight Perceptions, and Methods of Dieting.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Balentine, Margaret; And Others

    1991-01-01

    Study identified African-American low-income adolescents who thought they had bulimia or anorexia nervosa, identified common behaviors, and compared actual and perceived body weight and dieting methods. About 12 percent suspected an eating disorder and perceived themselves as heavier more often than their peers. Fasting was the most common dieting

  12. Cultural Adaptation of a Cognitive Behavior Therapy Guided Self-Help Program for Mexican American Women with Binge Eating Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shea, Munyi; Cachelin, Fary; Uribe, Luz; Striegel, Ruth H.; Thompson, Douglas; Wilson, G. Terence

    2012-01-01

    Data on the compatibility of evidence-based treatment in ethnic minority groups are limited. This study utilized focus group interviews to elicit Mexican American women's (N = 12) feedback on a cognitive behavior therapy guided self-help program for binge eating disorders. Findings revealed 6 themes to be considered during the cultural adaptation

  13. Protective Behavioral Strategies and Alcohol Use Outcomes among College Women Drinkers: Does Disordered Eating and Race Moderate This Association?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Landry, Alicia S.; Moorer, Kayla D.; Madson, Michael B.; Zeigler-Hill, Virgil

    2014-01-01

    The current study examined the degree to which associations that protective behavioral strategy use had with alcohol consumption and alcohol-related negative consequences were moderated by disordered eating and race. Participants were 382 female undergraduates (ages 18-25) who had consumed alcohol at least once within the previous month.

  14. Self-Reported Eating Disorders of Black, Low-Income Adolescents: Behavior, Body Weight Perceptions, and Methods of Dieting.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Balentine, Margaret; And Others

    1991-01-01

    Study identified African-American low-income adolescents who thought they had bulimia or anorexia nervosa, identified common behaviors, and compared actual and perceived body weight and dieting methods. About 12 percent suspected an eating disorder and perceived themselves as heavier more often than their peers. Fasting was the most common dieting…

  15. Are Body Dissatisfaction, Eating Disturbance, and Body Mass Index Predictors of Suicidal Behavior in Adolescents? A Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crow, Scott; Eisenberg, Marla E.; Story, Mary; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne

    2008-01-01

    Disordered eating, body dissatisfaction, and obesity have been associated cross sectionally with suicidal behavior in adolescents. To determine the extent to which these variables predicted suicidal ideation and attempts, the authors examined these relationships in a longitudinal design. The study population included 2,516 older adolescents and

  16. Cultural Adaptation of a Cognitive Behavior Therapy Guided Self-Help Program for Mexican American Women with Binge Eating Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shea, Munyi; Cachelin, Fary; Uribe, Luz; Striegel, Ruth H.; Thompson, Douglas; Wilson, G. Terence

    2012-01-01

    Data on the compatibility of evidence-based treatment in ethnic minority groups are limited. This study utilized focus group interviews to elicit Mexican American women's (N = 12) feedback on a cognitive behavior therapy guided self-help program for binge eating disorders. Findings revealed 6 themes to be considered during the cultural adaptation…

  17. Predictors and Moderators of Response to Cognitive Behavioral Therapy and Medication for the Treatment of Binge Eating Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grilo, Carlos M.; Masheb, Robin M.; Crosby, Ross D.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To examine predictors and moderators of response to cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) and medication treatments for binge-eating disorder (BED). Method: 108 BED patients in a randomized double-blind placebo-controlled trial testing CBT and fluoxetine treatments were assessed prior, throughout, and posttreatment. Demographic factors,…

  18. The Effects of Gender and Family, Friend, and Media Influences on Eating Behaviors and Body Image during Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ata, Rheanna N.; Ludden, Alison Bryant; Lally, Megan M.

    2007-01-01

    The current study expands upon body image research to examine how gender, self-esteem, social support, teasing, and family, friend, and media pressures relate to body image and eating-related attitudes and behaviors among male and female adolescents (N = 177). Results indicated that adolescents were dissatisfied with their current bodies: males

  19. Protective Behavioral Strategies and Alcohol Use Outcomes among College Women Drinkers: Does Disordered Eating and Race Moderate This Association?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Landry, Alicia S.; Moorer, Kayla D.; Madson, Michael B.; Zeigler-Hill, Virgil

    2014-01-01

    The current study examined the degree to which associations that protective behavioral strategy use had with alcohol consumption and alcohol-related negative consequences were moderated by disordered eating and race. Participants were 382 female undergraduates (ages 18-25) who had consumed alcohol at least once within the previous month.…

  20. Integrating Motivational Interviewing and Cognitive Behavioral Therapy in the Treatment of Eating Disorders: Tailoring Interventions to Patient Readiness for Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Geller, Josie; Dunn, Erin C.

    2011-01-01

    This paper focuses on the integration of Motivational Interviewing (MI) and cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) in the treatment of eating disorders. Although CBT is regarded as the treatment of choice in this population, it nevertheless has limitations: some patients fail to engage, drop out from treatment prematurely, or simply do not improve.…

  1. Predictors and Moderators of Response to Cognitive Behavioral Therapy and Medication for the Treatment of Binge Eating Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grilo, Carlos M.; Masheb, Robin M.; Crosby, Ross D.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To examine predictors and moderators of response to cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) and medication treatments for binge-eating disorder (BED). Method: 108 BED patients in a randomized double-blind placebo-controlled trial testing CBT and fluoxetine treatments were assessed prior, throughout, and posttreatment. Demographic factors,

  2. Integrating Motivational Interviewing and Cognitive Behavioral Therapy in the Treatment of Eating Disorders: Tailoring Interventions to Patient Readiness for Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Geller, Josie; Dunn, Erin C.

    2011-01-01

    This paper focuses on the integration of Motivational Interviewing (MI) and cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) in the treatment of eating disorders. Although CBT is regarded as the treatment of choice in this population, it nevertheless has limitations: some patients fail to engage, drop out from treatment prematurely, or simply do not improve.

  3. Association of Enjoyable Childhood Mealtimes with Adult Eating Behaviors and Subjective Diet-Related Quality of Life

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ainuki, Tomomi; Akamatsu, Rie; Hayashi, Fumi; Takemi, Yukari

    2013-01-01

    Objective: This study examined whether the experience of enjoyable mealtimes at home during childhood was related to eating behaviors and subjective diet-related quality of life in adulthood. Methods: The study used data (n = 2,936) obtained from a research program about "Shokuiku" (food and nutrition education) conducted by the Cabinet Office in…

  4. The Effects of Gender and Family, Friend, and Media Influences on Eating Behaviors and Body Image during Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ata, Rheanna N.; Ludden, Alison Bryant; Lally, Megan M.

    2007-01-01

    The current study expands upon body image research to examine how gender, self-esteem, social support, teasing, and family, friend, and media pressures relate to body image and eating-related attitudes and behaviors among male and female adolescents (N = 177). Results indicated that adolescents were dissatisfied with their current bodies: males…

  5. Association of Enjoyable Childhood Mealtimes with Adult Eating Behaviors and Subjective Diet-Related Quality of Life

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ainuki, Tomomi; Akamatsu, Rie; Hayashi, Fumi; Takemi, Yukari

    2013-01-01

    Objective: This study examined whether the experience of enjoyable mealtimes at home during childhood was related to eating behaviors and subjective diet-related quality of life in adulthood. Methods: The study used data (n = 2,936) obtained from a research program about "Shokuiku" (food and nutrition education) conducted by the Cabinet Office in

  6. Episodic future thinking reduces eating in a food court.

    PubMed

    O'Neill, Jessica; Daniel, Tinuke Oluyomi; Epstein, Leonard H

    2016-01-01

    Episodic future thinking (EFT) is the psychological process of vividly imagining a future event, and this process has been shown to reduce overeating in the laboratory. To assess the efficacy of EFT in the natural environment, twenty-nine overweight or obese women who wanted to improve their eating habits were randomly assigned to one of two smartphone-implemented interventions - EFT or control episodic recent thinking (ERT) - while they ate dinner in a public food court. Results showed a reduction in consumption of total calories, a reduction in percent calories from fat, and an increase in percent calories from protein for EFT versus ERT. These data suggest EFT may be used to modify eating habits in natural eating environments, and may show potential as a component of behavioral obesity interventions. PMID:26562686

  7. The role of anxiety sensitivity in daily physical activity and eating behavior.

    PubMed

    Hearon, Bridget A; Quatromoni, Paula A; Mascoop, Joshua L; Otto, Michael W

    2014-04-01

    Anxiety sensitivity (AS), or the fear of somatic arousal, has been linked to both maladaptive eating behavior as well as exercise avoidance in both self-report and laboratory-based experiments. The current pilot study sought to extend these finding to the naturalistic setting. A sample of 32 adults completed affect and dietary monitoring and wore actigraphs across a three-day monitoring period. Results indicated that high AS was associated with greater calorie consumption overall in women and less consumption in men, and high AS predicted an increase in calories consumed following participants' greatest increase in negative affect in both sexes. For physical activity, results indicated an AS by BMI interaction such that obese individuals with high AS engaged in less moderate-intensity physical activity, whereas the opposite was true for normal weight individuals. These results indicate that AS may represent a double-edged risk factor for obesity contributing to both exercise avoidance and calorie consumption. PMID:24854814

  8. Teledietetics Improves Weight Reduction by Modifying Eating Behavior: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Law, Queenie Pui Sze; Fong, Shirley Siu Ming; Chung, Joanne Wai Yee

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Background: Weight reduction without behavioral modification is not sustainable. However, with a technology application such as teledietetics, the recording process could be a cognitive cue for individuals to change their eating behavior. This study tested obese participants to determine whether teledietetics shows better results in weight reduction. Study Design and Methods: We conducted a double-blinded randomized controlled trial. The participants in the food diary (FD) and electronic diary (ED) groups recorded their dietary intakes in logbooks and on an electronic diary system, respectively. The participants in the control group (CG) did nothing. Subjects were adults 20–60 years of age with a body mass index (BMI) of ≥25 kg/m2. The ED and FD groups were the intervention groups and were compared with the CG group. The participants' body weights, BMIs, fat percentages, waist-to-hip ratios (WHRs), and mean arterial pressures (MAPs) were measured before the study, at Week 6, and at Week 12. Demographic data were collected using self-administered questionnaires. A chi-squared test and descriptive statistics were used to describe the demographic and biomeasurement data. Repeated-measures analysis of variance was used to evaluate the effectiveness of the three groups over time. Results: Significant decreases in body weight (F1.705,86.950=20.508, p<0.001) and BMI (F1.657, 84.486=21.256, p<0.001) and insignificant decreases in fat percentage (F2,94=0.547, p=0.581), WHR (F1.785,91.052=2.888, p=0.067), and MAP (F2,94=7.542, p=0.0001) were observed among the three measurement times. Conclusions: Electronic dietary records were better than food diaries in terms of fat percentage reduction in our trials, indicating that teledietetics increases healthy-eating awareness. PMID:24205807

  9. Genome-Wide Association Analysis of Eating Disorder-Related Symptoms, Behaviors, and Personality Traits

    PubMed Central

    Boraska, Vesna; Davis, Oliver SP; Cherkas, Lynn F; Helder, Sietske G; Harris, Juliette; Krug, Isabel; Pei-Chi Liao, Thomas; Treasure, Janet; Ntalla, Ioanna; Karhunen, Leila; Keski-Rahkonen, Anna; Christakopoulou, Danai; Raevuori, Anu; Shin, So-Youn; Dedoussis, George V; Kaprio, Jaakko; Soranzo, Nicole; Spector, Tim D; Collier, David A; Zeggini, Eleftheria

    2012-01-01

    Eating disorders (EDs) are common, complex psychiatric disorders thought to be caused by both genetic and environmental factors. They share many symptoms, behaviors, and personality traits, which may have overlapping heritability. The aim of the present study is to perform a genome-wide association scan (GWAS) of six ED phenotypes comprising three symptom traits from the Eating Disorders Inventory 2 [Drive for Thinness (DT), Body Dissatisfaction (BD), and Bulimia], Weight Fluctuation symptom, Breakfast Skipping behavior and Childhood Obsessive-Compulsive Personality Disorder trait (CHIRP). Investigated traits were derived from standardized self-report questionnaires completed by the TwinsUK population-based cohort. We tested 283,744 directly typed SNPs across six phenotypes of interest in the TwinsUK discovery dataset and followed-up signals from various strata using a two-stage replication strategy in two independent cohorts of European ancestry. We meta-analyzed a total of 2,698 individuals for DT, 2,680 for BD, 2,789 (821 cases/1,968 controls) for Bulimia, 1,360 (633 cases/727 controls) for Childhood Obsessive-Compulsive Personality Disorder trait, 2,773 (761 cases/2,012 controls) for Breakfast Skipping, and 2,967 (798 cases/2,169 controls) for Weight Fluctuation symptom. In this GWAS analysis of six ED-related phenotypes, we detected association of eight genetic variants with P < 10?5. Genetic variants that showed suggestive evidence of association were previously associated with several psychiatric disorders and ED-related phenotypes. Our study indicates that larger-scale collaborative studies will be needed to achieve the necessary power to detect loci underlying ED-related traits. 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:22911880

  10. The Habitability Framework: Linking Human Behavior and Physical Environment in Special Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Preiser, Wolfgang F. E.; Taylor, Anne

    1983-01-01

    The concept of environmental design cybernetics is explained, and its use by special educators and architects in creating learning environments is discussed. A proposed habitability framework is defined, and its applications to buildings and building occupants/users are offered. Research on architectural design applied to special education

  11. The Perceived Onset of Dieting and Loss of Control Eating Behaviors in Overweight Children

    PubMed Central

    Tanofsky-Kraff, Marian; Faden, Dara; Yanovski, Susan Z.; Wilfley, Denise E.; Yanovski, Jack A.

    2008-01-01

    Objective The current study investigated the self-reported temporal relationships of dieting, binge eating, and overweight in childhood. Method One hundred five non–treatment-seeking overweight children ages 6–13 years were interviewed with the children’s Eating Disorder Examination (ChEDE) and queried regarding dieting, loss of control (LOC) eating, and overweight history. Questionnaires of depressive symptoms, trait anxiety, and parent-reported problems were completed. Results Sixty percent of the children reported having attempted at least one diet. These children had higher ChEDE scores (global, p < .001), greater body mass index (BMI) and body fat mass (p ≤ .001), and a trend towards an earlier reported age of overweight onset (p = .06) compared with children who had never dieted. The 29.5% of children who reported LOC eating had significantly higher ChEDE scores (global, p < .001), ineffectiveness, negative self-esteem, and externalizing scores (all ps < .05) compared with those who had never experienced LOC eating. Most children reported becoming overweight before either dieting (79.4%) or experiencing LOC eating (63.6%). Among the 25.7% reporting both dieting and LOC eating, two thirds reported LOC eating before dieting. Participants who reported dieting before overweight had higher negative mood scores (p < .01). Children reporting dieting before LOC eating had higher ChEDE Weight Concern (p < .01) and global (p < .05) scores. Discussion For overweight, non–treatment-seeking children, both dieting and LOC eating are common. Dieting precedes the development of LOC eating only one third of the time, but is associated with greater disordered eating cognitions. The relationship between childhood-onset dieting and LOC eating in overweight children requires further investigation to determine the causal pathways for the subsequent development of eating disorders. PMID:16134103

  12. Using path analysis to understand parents perceptions of their childrens weight, physical activity and eating habits in the Champlain region of Ontario

    PubMed Central

    Adamo, Kristi B; Papadakis, Sophia; Dojeiji, Laurie; Turnau, Micheline; Simmons, Louise; Parameswaran, Meena; Cunningham, John; Pipe, Andrew L; Reid, Robert D

    2010-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Parents have a fundamental role in promoting the healthy weight of their children. OBJECTIVES: To determine parental perceptions of their childs body weight, eating and physical activity (PA) behaviours, and to test a predictive model of parental perceptions regarding their childs PA and healthy eating behaviours. METHODS: A random-digit telephone survey was conducted among parents of children four to 12 years of age living in the Champlain region of Ontario. Descriptive statistics were used to summarize the responses. Path analysis was used to identify predictors of parental perceptions of PA and healthy eating. RESULTS: The study sample consisted of 1940 parents/caregivers. Only 0.2% of parents reported their child as being obese; 8.6% reported their child as being overweight. Most parents perceived their child to be physically active and eating healthily. Approximately 25% of parents reported that their child spent 2 h/day or more in front of a screen, and that their child consumed less than three servings of fruits and vegetables daily, and regularly consumed fast food. Variables that correlated with PA perceptions included time spent reading/doing homework, interest in PA, perceived importance of PA, frequency of PA, level of parental PA, participation in organized sport, child weight and parental concern for weight. Variables that predicted perceptions regarding healthy eating were parental education, household income, preparation of home-cooked meals, fruit and vegetable intake, and concern for and influence on the childs weight. CONCLUSIONS: Parents in the present study sample did not appear to understand, or had little knowledge of the recommendations for PA and healthy eating in children. Parents appeared to base their judgment of healthy levels of PA or healthy eating behaviours using minimal criteria; these criteria are inconsistent with those used by health professionals to define adequate PA and healthy eating. The present survey highlights an important knowledge gap between scientific opinion and parental perceptions of the criteria for healthy PA and eating behaviours. PMID:22043145

  13. Multiple sexual victimizations among adolescent boys and girls: prevalence and associations with eating behaviors and psychological health.

    PubMed

    Ackard, Diann M; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the prevalence of sexual abuse, including multiple victimizations, among adolescents and to examine associations among history of sexual abuse, disordered eating behaviors and psychological health. The sample included 81,247 students (40,946 girls and 40,301 boys) in 9th and 12th grade in Minnesota public schools. Sexual abuse was reported by 14.7% of girls and 6.2% of boys. Sexual abuse was associated with unhealthy eating behaviors, suicidal thoughts and attempts, and lower emotional well-being and self-esteem. Students who reported a single or multiple forms of sexual abuse were more likely than their non-abused peers to binge-eat (Odds Ratio: girls = 1.93-2.32; boys = 2.26-5.61), fast (OR: girls = 1.68-2.34; boys = 1.33-2.32), use diet pills (OR: girls = 1.50-4.30; boys = 2.99-17.29) or laxatives (OR: girls = 1.87-5.11; boys = 3.89-29.22), vomit (OR: girls = 1.75-4.06; boys = 2.82-24.16), and have suicidal thoughts/attempts (OR: girls = 3.01-6.12; boys = 3.35-9.46). Boys and girls reporting multiple sexual victimizations and had the highest odds ratios for disordered eating behaviors. Future research should explore strategies for primary prevention of revictimization and secondary prevention of detrimental effects of abuse. PMID:16221658

  14. Modifying Eating Behavior: Novel Approaches for Reducing Body Weight, Preventing Weight Regain, and Reducing Chronic Disease Risk123

    PubMed Central

    Gletsu-Miller, Nana; McCrory, Megan A

    2014-01-01

    This article is a summary of the symposium “Modifying Eating Behavior: Novel Approaches for Reducing Body Weight, Preventing Weight Regain, and Reducing Chronic Disease Risk” held 29 April 2014 at the ASN Scientific Sessions and Annual Meeting at Experimental Biology 2014 in San Diego, CA. In this symposium, novel approaches to modifying eating behavior were highlighted, including 1) alteration of meal timing and macronutrient composition and 2) retraining and provision of feedback about eating behavior. Dr. Ciampolini discussed a method for teaching individuals to recognize a decrease in blood glucose concentration, and therefore the need for energy, by learning the associated physical sensations (signifying hunger). Dr. Madar and Sigal Sofer presented their work on reducing hunger during energy reduction by feeding carbohydrate only in the evening. Dr. Hamilton-Shield reviewed studies on the Mandometer (Mikrodidakt), a device for training individuals to slow eating rate. Finally, Dr. Sazonov presented information on a wearable device, the Automatic Ingestion Monitor, which senses jaw motion and/or hand-to-mouth gestures to detect and characterize food intake. His goal is to use the instrument to prevent overeating by providing feedback to the user to stop ingestion at a predetermined limit. PMID:25398742

  15. Modifying eating behavior: novel approaches for reducing body weight, preventing weight regain, and reducing chronic disease risk.

    PubMed

    Gletsu-Miller, Nana; McCrory, Megan A

    2014-11-01

    This article is a summary of the symposium "Modifying Eating Behavior: Novel Approaches for Reducing Body Weight, Preventing Weight Regain, and Reducing Chronic Disease Risk" held 29 April 2014 at the ASN Scientific Sessions and Annual Meeting at Experimental Biology 2014 in San Diego, CA. In this symposium, novel approaches to modifying eating behavior were highlighted, including 1) alteration of meal timing and macronutrient composition and 2) retraining and provision of feedback about eating behavior. Dr. Ciampolini discussed a method for teaching individuals to recognize a decrease in blood glucose concentration, and therefore the need for energy, by learning the associated physical sensations (signifying hunger). Dr. Madar and Sigal Sofer presented their work on reducing hunger during energy reduction by feeding carbohydrate only in the evening. Dr. Hamilton-Shield reviewed studies on the Mandometer (Mikrodidakt), a device for training individuals to slow eating rate. Finally, Dr. Sazonov presented information on a wearable device, the Automatic Ingestion Monitor, which senses jaw motion and/or hand-to-mouth gestures to detect and characterize food intake. His goal is to use the instrument to prevent overeating by providing feedback to the user to stop ingestion at a predetermined limit. PMID:25398742

  16. Mexican American women's perspectives on a culturally adapted cognitive-behavioral therapy guided self-help program for binge eating.

    PubMed

    Shea, Munyi; Cachelin, Fary M; Gutierrez, Guadalupe; Wang, Sherry; Phimphasone, Phoutdavone

    2016-02-01

    The prevalence of bulimia nervosa (BN) and binge eating disorder (BED) among Latinas is comparable to those of the general population; however, few interventions and treatment trial research have focused on this group. Cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) is the treatment of choice for binge eating related disorders. CBT-based guided self-help (CBTgsh)-a low-cost minimal intervention-has also been shown effective in improving binge eating related symptom, but the effectiveness of the CBTgsh among ethnic minority women is not well understood. Cultural adaptation of evidence-based treatments can be an important step for promoting treatment accessibility and engagement among underserved groups. This qualitative study was part of a larger investigation that examined the feasibility and efficacy of a culturally adapted CBTgsh program among Mexican American women with binge eating disorders. Posttreatment focus groups were conducted with 12 Mexican American women with BN or BED who participated in the intervention. Data were analyzed with the grounded theory methodology (Corbin & Strauss, 2008). Three themes emerged from the data: (a) eating behavior and body ideals are socially and culturally constructed, (b) multifaceted support system is crucial to Mexican American women's treatment engagement and success, and (c) the culturally adapted CBTgsh program is feasible and relevant to Mexican American women's experience, but it can be strengthened with increased family and peer involvement. The findings provide suggestions for further adaptation and refinement of the CBTgsh, and implications for future research as well as early intervention for disordered eating in organized care settings. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:26462112

  17. Effects of Partners Together in Health (PaTH) Intervention on Physical Activity and Healthy Eating Behaviors: A Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Yates, Bernice C.; Norman, Joseph; Meza, Jane; Krogstrand, Kaye Stanek; Harrington, Susana; Shurmur, Scott; Johnson, Matthew; Schumacher, Karen

    2014-01-01

    Background Despite proven efficacy of cardiac rehabilitation (CR) in helping patients initiate physical activity and healthy eating changes, less than 50% of CR participants maintain changes 6 months later. Objective The objective of this feasibility study was to test the Partners Together in Health (PaTH) Intervention versus usual care (UC) in improving physical activity and healthy eating behaviors in coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) surgery patients and spouses. Methods An experimental, two-group (n = 17 couples/group), repeated measures design was used. CABG patients in both groups participated in Phase II outpatient CR. Spouses in the PaTH group attended CR with the patient and were asked to make the same physical activity and healthy eating changes as patients. Spouses in the control group attended educational classes with patients. It was theorized that “two persons would be better than one” at making changes and sticking with them long-term. Physical activity behavior was measured using the Actiheart accelerometer; the activity biomarker was an exercise tolerance test. Eating behavior was measured using 3-day food records; the biomarker was the lipid profile. Data were collected at baseline (entrance in CR), 3-months (post-CR), and 6-months. Changes over time were examined using Mann-Whitney U statistics and effect sizes. Results The PaTH intervention was successful primarily in demonstrating improved trends in healthy eating behavior for patients and spouses. No differences were found between the PaTH and UC patients or spouses at 3 or 6 months in the number of minutes/week of physical activity. By 6 months, patients in both groups were, on average, below the national guidelines for PA recommendations (≥ 150 min/week at > 3 METs). Conclusions The couple-focused PaTH intervention demonstrated promise in offsetting the decline in dietary adherence typically seen 6 months after CR. PMID:24434826

  18. Risk for exercise dependence, eating disorder pathology, alcohol use disorder and addictive behaviors among clients of fitness centers.

    PubMed

    Mller, Astrid; Loeber, Sabine; Schtig, Johanna; Te Wildt, Bert; De Zwaan, Martina

    2015-12-01

    Background and Aims Exercise dependence (EXD) is considered a behavioral addiction that is often associated with eating disorders. To date, only few studies examined the potential overlap between EXD and other addictive behaviors. Therefore, the present study aimed at investigating the relationship of EXD with pathological buying, pathological video gaming (offline and online), hypersexual behavior, and alcohol use disorder in a sample of clients of fitness centers. Methods The following questionnaires were answered by 128 individuals (age M?=?26.5, SD?=?6.7 years; 71.7% men, 74.2% university students): Exercise Dependence Scale, Eating Disorder Examination-Questionnaire, Compulsive Buying Scale, Pathological Computer-Gaming Scale, Hypersexual Behavior Inventory, and Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT). Results 7.8% of the sample were at-risk for EXD, 10.9% reported eating disorder pathology, 2.3% pathological buying, 3.1% hypersexual behavior, and none of the participants suffered from pathological video gaming. The criteria for severe alcohol disorder pathology (AUDIT???16) were fulfilled by 10.2%. With regard to continuous symptom scores, EXD symptoms were positively correlated with both eating disorder pathology and pathological buying but not with pathological video gaming, hypersexuality or alcohol use disorder. It is noteworthy that more symptoms of pathological buying corresponded with more symptoms of hypersexual behavior. The correlation pattern did not differ by gender. Discussion The co-occurrence of EXD, pathological buying and hypersexual behavior on a subclinical level or in the early stage of the disorders should be taken into account when assessing and treating patients. More research is warranted in order to investigate possible interactions between these conditions. PMID:26690622

  19. Risk for exercise dependence, eating disorder pathology, alcohol use disorder and addictive behaviors among clients of fitness centers

    PubMed Central

    Mller, Astrid; Loeber, Sabine; Schtig, Johanna; Te Wildt, Bert; De Zwaan, Martina

    2015-01-01

    Background and Aims Exercise dependence (EXD) is considered a behavioral addiction that is often associated with eating disorders. To date, only few studies examined the potential overlap between EXD and other addictive behaviors. Therefore, the present study aimed at investigating the relationship of EXD with pathological buying, pathological video gaming (offline and online), hypersexual behavior, and alcohol use disorder in a sample of clients of fitness centers. Methods The following questionnaires were answered by 128 individuals (age M?=?26.5, SD?=?6.7 years; 71.7% men, 74.2% university students): Exercise Dependence Scale, Eating Disorder Examination-Questionnaire, Compulsive Buying Scale, Pathological Computer-Gaming Scale, Hypersexual Behavior Inventory, and Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT). Results 7.8% of the sample were at-risk for EXD, 10.9% reported eating disorder pathology, 2.3% pathological buying, 3.1% hypersexual behavior, and none of the participants suffered from pathological video gaming. The criteria for severe alcohol disorder pathology (AUDIT???16) were fulfilled by 10.2%. With regard to continuous symptom scores, EXD symptoms were positively correlated with both eating disorder pathology and pathological buying but not with pathological video gaming, hypersexuality or alcohol use disorder. It is noteworthy that more symptoms of pathological buying corresponded with more symptoms of hypersexual behavior. The correlation pattern did not differ by gender. Discussion The co-occurrence of EXD, pathological buying and hypersexual behavior on a subclinical level or in the early stage of the disorders should be taken into account when assessing and treating patients. More research is warranted in order to investigate possible interactions between these conditions. PMID:26690622

  20. Thin-ideal internalization, body dissatisfaction and symptoms of eating disorders in Croatian adolescent girls.

    PubMed

    Rukavina, T; Pokrajac-Bulian, A

    2006-03-01

    The aim of this investigation was to study the relationship between unhealthy eating habits and behaviors, perception and acceptance of societal standards regarding thinness, body dissatisfaction, and family and peer pressure to be thin. One hundred and twentythree high school girls from Rijeka (Croatia) were surveyed using Eating Attitudes Test (EAT- 26), Sociocultural Attitudes Towards Appearance Questionnaire (SATAQ), Body Esteem Questionnaire for Adolescents and Adults (BES), and Scale of perceived pressure to be thin from family and peers. The results of path analyses showed that social pressure from family and peers, experience of weight-related teasing and criticism by family members, contributed to development of eating disturbance. The acceptance of social standards related to appearance, contributed to onset of disturbed eating habits. Weight satisfaction alone influences the development of some eating disorder symptoms, but it is also a mediator of higher body mass index (BMI) and internalization of societal appearance standards. Girls with higher BMI, who accepted societal standards of thin-ideal, perceived major social pressure to be thin through direct and persuasive comments designed to establish the importance of dieting, and probably develop eating disturbed habits, or some symptoms of anorexia (AN) or bulimia nervosa (BN). PMID:16801743