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1

Calibration and monitoring systems of the ATLAS tile hadron calorimeter  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The TileCal is the hadronic calorimeter covering the most central region of the ATLAS experiment at LHC. It is a sampling calorimeter with iron plates as absorber and plastic scintillating tiles as the active material. The scintillation light produced by the passage of charged particles is transmitted by wavelength shifting fibers to about 10,000 photomultiplier tubes (PMTs). Integrated to the calorimeter, there is a composite device that allows to monitor and/or equalize the signals at various stages of their formation. This device is based on signal generation from different sources: radioactive, LASER, charge injection and minimum bias events produced in proton-proton collisions. Recent performances of these systems are presented.

Boumediene, D.

2013-08-01

2

Results from a new combined test of an electromagnetic liquid argon calorimeter with a hadronic scintillating-tile calorimeter  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new combined test of an electromagnetic liquid argon accordion calorimeter and a hadronic scintillating-tile calorimeter was carried out at the CERN SPS. These devices are prototypes of the barrel calorimeter of the future ATLAS experiment at the LHC. The energy resolution of pions in the energy range from 10 to 300 GeV at an incident angle ? of about

S. Akhmadaliev; F. Albiol; P. Amaral; G. Ambrosini; A. Amorim; K. Anderson; M. L. Andrieux; B. Aubert; E. Augé; F. Badaud; L. Baisin; F. Barreiro; G. Battistoni; A. Bazan; K. Bazizi; C. Bee; J. Belorgey; A. Belymam; D. Benchekroun; S. Berglund; J. C. Berset; G. Blanchot; A. Bogush; C. Bohm; V. Boldea; W. Bonivento; P. Borgeaud; O. Borisov; M. Bosman; N. Bouhemaid; D. Breton; P. Brette; C. Bromberg; J. Budagov; S. Burdin; L. Caloba; F. Camarena; D. V. Camin; B. Canton; M. Caprini; J. Carvalho; P. Casado; R. Cases; M. V. Castillo; D. Cavalli; M. Cavalli-Sforza; V. Cavasinni; R. Chadelas; M. Chalifour; L. Chekhtman; J. L. Chevalley; I. Chirikov-Zorin; G. Chlachidze; J. C. Chollet; M. Citterio; W. E. Cleland; C. Clement; M. Cobal; F. Cogswell; J. Colas; J. Collot; S. Cologna; S. Constantinescu; G. Costa; D. Costanzo; J.-P. Coulon; M. Crouau; P. Dargent; F. Daudon; M. David; T. Davidek; J. Dawson; K. De; E. Delagnes; C. de la Taille; J. Del Peso; T. Del Prete; P. de Saintignon; B. Di Girolamo; B. Dinkespiller; S. Dita; F. Djama; J. Dodd; J. Dolejsi; Z. Dolezal; R. Downing; J.-J. Dugne; P.-Y. Duval; D. Dzahini; I. Efthymiopoulos; D. Errede; S. Errede; F. Etienne; H. Evans; G. Eynard; F. Farida; P. Fassnacht; N. Fedyakin; J. Fernandez De Troconiz; A. Ferrari; A. Ferrer; V. Flaminio; D. Fournier; G. Fumagalli; E. Gallas; G. Garcia; M. Gaspar; F. Gianotti; O. Gildemeister; V. Glagolev; V. Glebov; A. Gomes; V. Gonzalez; S. Gonzalez De La Hoz; A. Gordeev; H. A. Gordon; V. Grabsky; E. Grauges; Ph. Grenier; H. Hakopian; M. Haney; C. Hebrard; A. Henriques; F. Henry-Couannier; L. Hervas; E. Higon; S. Holmgren; J. Y. Hostachy; A. Hoummada; M. Huet; J. Huston; D. Imbault; Yu. Ivanyushenkov; Y. Jacquier; S. Jezequel; E. Johansson; R. Jones; A. Juste; S. Kakurin; P. Karst; A. Karyukhin; Yu. Khokhlov; J. Khubua; V. Klyukhin; G. Kolachev; V. Kolomoets; S. Kopikov; M. Kostrikov; V. Kovtun; V. Kozlov; P. Krivkova; V. Kukhtin; M. Kulagin; Y. Kulchitsky; M. Kuzmin; L. Labarga; G. Laborie; D. Lacour; S. Lami; V. Lapin; O. Le Dortz; M. Lefebvre; T. Leflour; R. Leitner; M. Leltchouk; A. Le Van Suu; J. Li; C. Liapis; O. Linossier; D. Lissauer; F. Lobkowicz; M. Lokajicek; Yu. Lomakin; O. Lomakina; J. M. Lopez Amengual; J.-P. Lottin; B. Lund-Jensen; J. Lundquist; A. Maio; D. Makowiecki; S. Malyukov; L. Mandelli; B. Mansoulié; L. Mapelli; C. P. Marin; P. Marrocchesi; F. Marroquin; L. Martin; O. Martin; Ph. Martin; A. Maslennikov; N. Massol; M. Mazzanti; E. Mazzoni; F. Merritt; B. Michel; R. Miller; I. Minashvili; L. Miralles; A. Mirea; E. Mnatsakanian; E. Monnier; G. Montarou; G. Mornacchi; M. Mosidze; M. Moynot; G. S. Muanza; E. Nagy; P. Nayman; S. Nemecek; M. Nessi; D. Nicod; S. Nicoleau; M. Niculescu; J. M. Noppe; A. Onofre; D. Pallin; D. Pantea; R. Paoletti; I. C. Park; G. Parrour; J. Parsons; J. Pascual; A. Pereira; L. Perini; J. A. Perlas; P. Perrodo; P. Pétroff; J. Pilcher; J. Pinhao; H. Plothow-Besch; L. Poggioli; S. Poirot; L. Price; Y. Protopopov; J. Proudfoot; O. Pukhov; P. Puzo; V. Radeka; D. Rahm; G. Reinmuth; J. F. Renardy; G. Renzoni; S. Rescia; S. Resconi; R. Richards; J.-P. Richer; I. Riu; C. Roda; J. Roldan; J. Romance; V. Romanov; P. Romero; N. Russakovich; P. Sala; E. Sanchis; H. Sanders; C. Santoni; J. Santos; D. Sauvage; G. Sauvage; A. Savoy-Navarro; L. Sawyer; L.-P. Says; A. Schaffer; P. Schwemling; J. Schwindling; N. Seguin-Moreau; W. Seidl; J. M. Seixas; B. Sellden; M. Seman; A. Semenov; V. Senchishin; L. Serin; E. Shaldaev; A. Shchelchkov; M. Shochet; V. Sidorov; J. Silva; V. Simaitis; S. Simion; A. Sissakian; I. Soloviev; R. Snopkov; J. Soderqvist; A. Solodkov; P. Sonderegger; K. Soustruznik; F. Spano; R. Spiwoks; R. Stanek; E. Starchenko; P. Stavina; R. Stephens; S. Studenov; M. Suk; A. Surkov; I. Sykora; J. P. Taguet; H. Takai; F. Tang; S. Tardell; P. Tas; J. Teiger; F. Teubert; J. Thaler; J. Thion; Y. Tikhonov; V. Tisserand; S. Tisserant; S. Tokar; N. Topilin; Z. Trka; M. Turcotte; S. Valkar; M. J. Varanda; A. Vartapetian; F. Vazeille; I. Vichou; P. Vincent; V. Vinogradov; S. Vorozhtsov; V. Vuillemin; C. Walter; A. White; M. Wielers; I. Wingerter-Seez; H. Wolters; N. Yamdagni; G. Yarygin; C. Yosef; A. Zaitsev; R. Zitoun; Y. P. Zolnierowski

2000-01-01

3

Results from a combined test of an electromagnetic liquid argon calorimeter with a hadronic scintillating-tile calorimeter  

Microsoft Academic Search

The first combined test of an electromagnetic liquid argon accordion calorimeter and a hadronic scintillating-tile calorimeter was carried out at the CERN SPS. These devices are prototypes of the barrel calorimeter of the future ATLAS experiment at the LHC. The energy resolution of pions in the energy range from 20 to 300 GeV at an incident angle ? of about

Z. Ajaltouni; F. Albiol; A. Alifanov; P. Amaral; G. Ambrosini; A. Amorim; K. Anderson; A. Astvatsaturov; B. Aubert; E. Augé; D. Autiero; G. Azuelos; F. Badaud; L. Baisin; G. Battistoni; A. Bazan; C. Bee; G. Bellettini; S. Berglund; J. C. Berset; C. Blaj; G. Blanchot; E. Blucher; A. Bogush; C. Bohm; V. Boldea; O. Borisov; M. Bosman; N. Bouhemaid; P. Brette; C. Bromberg; M. Brossard; J. Budagov; S. Buono; L. Caloba; D. V. Camin; B. Canton; P. Casado; D. Cavalli; M. Cavalli-Sforza; V. Cavasinni; R. Chadelas; R. Chase; A. Chekhtman; J.-C. Chevaleyre; J. L. Chevalley; I. Chirikov-Zorin; G. Chlachidze; J. C. Chollet; M. Cobal; F. Cogswell; J. Colas; J. Collot; S. Cologna; S. Constantinescu; G. Costa; D. Costanzo; L. Cozzi; M. Crouau; P. Dargent; F. Daudon; M. David; T. Davidek; J. Dawson; K. de; C. de la Taille; T. Del Prete; P. Depommier; P. de Saintignon; A. De Santo; B. Dinkespiller; B. Di Girolamo; S. Dita; J. Dolejsi; Z. Dolezal; R. Downing; J.-J. Dugne; P.-Y. Duval; D. Dzahini; I. Efthymiopoulos; D. Errede; S. Errede; F. Etienne; H. Evans; P. Fassnacht; N. Fedyakin; A. Ferrari; P. Ferreira; A. Ferrer; V. Flaminio; D. Fouchez; D. Fournier; G. Fumagalli; E. Gallas; M. Gaspar; F. Gianotti; O. Gildemeister; D. M. Gingrich; V. Glagolev; V. Golubev; A. Gomes; J. Gonzalez; H. A. Gordon; V. Grabsky; H. Hakopian; M. Haney; S. Hellman; A. Henriques; S. Holmgren; P. F. Honoré; J. Y. Hostachy; J. Huston; Yu. Ivanyushenkov; S. Jezequel; E. Johansson; R. Jones; A. Juste; S. Kakurin; G. Karapetian; A. Karyukhin; Yu. Khokhlov; V. Klyukhin; V. Kolomoets; S. Kopikov; M. Kostrikov; V. Kovtun; V. Kukhtin; M. Kulagin; Y. Kulchitsky; G. Laborie; S. Lami; V. Lapin; A. Lebedev; M. Lefebvre; T. Leflour; R. Leitner; E. León-Florián; C. Leroy; A. Le Van Suu; J. Li; I. Liba; O. Linossier; M. Lokajicek; Yu. Lomakin; O. Lomakina; B. Lund-Jensen; G. Mahout; A. Maio; S. Malyukov; L. Mandelli; B. Mansoulié; L. Mapelli; C. P. Marin; F. Marroquin; L. Martin; M. Mazzanti; E. Mazzoni; F. Merritt; B. Michel; R. Miller; I. Minashvili; A. Miotto; L. Miralles; E. Mnatsakanian; E. Monnier; G. Montarou; G. Mornacchi; G. S. Muanza; E. Nagy; S. Nemecek; M. Nessi; S. Nicoleau; J. M. Noppe; C. Olivetto; S. Orteu; C. Padilla; D. Pallin; D. Pantea; G. Parrour; A. Pereira; L. Perini; J. A. Perlas; P. Pétroff; J. Pilcher; J. L. Pinfold; H. Plothow-Besch; L. Poggioli; S. Poirot; G. Polesello; L. Price; Y. Protopopov; J. Proudfoot; O. Pukhov; V. Radeka; D. Rahm; G. Reinmuth; J. F. Renardy; G. Renzoni; S. Resconi; R. Richards; I. Riu; V. Romanov; B. Ronceux; V. Rumyantsev; N. Russakovich; P. Sala; H. Sanders; G. Sauvage; P. Savard; A. Savoy-Navarro; L. Sawyer; L.-P. Says; A. Schaffer; C. Scheel; P. Schwemling; J. Schwindling; N. Seguin-Moreau; J. M. Seixas; B. Sellden; M. Seman; A. Semenov; V. Senchishin; L. Serin; A. Shchelchkov; V. Shevtsov; M. Shochet; V. Sidorov; V. Simaitis; S. Simion; A. Sissakian; A. Solodkov; P. Sonderegger; K. Soustruznik; R. Stanek; E. Starchenko; D. Stephani; R. Stephens; S. Studenov; M. Suk; A. Surkov; F. Tang; S. Tardell; P. Tas; J. Teiger; F. Teubert; J. Thaler; V. Tisserand; S. Tisserant; S. Tokar; N. Topilin; Z. Trka; A. Turcot; M. Turcotte; S. Valkar; A. Vartapetian; F. Vazeille; I. Vichou; V. Vinogradov; S. Vorozhtsov; V. Vuillemin; D. Wagner; A. White; I. Wingerter-Seez; N. Yamdagni; G. Yarygin; C. Yosef; A. Zaitsev; M. Zdrazil; R. Zitoun; Y. P. Zolnierowski

1997-01-01

4

Results from a combined test of an electromagnetic liquid argon calorimeter with a hadronic scintillating-tile calorimeter  

Microsoft Academic Search

The first combined test of an electromagnetic liquid argon accordion calorimeter and a hadronic scintillating-tile calorimeter was carried out at the CERN SPS. These devices are prototypes of the barrel calorimeter of the future ATLAS experiment at the LHC. The energy resolution of pions in the energy range from 20 to 300~GeV at an incident angle $\\\\theta$ of about 11$^\\\\circ$

Ziad J Ajaltouni; F Albiol; A Alifanov; P Amaral; G Ambrosini; A Amorim; K J Anderson; A R Astvatsaturov; Bernard Aubert; E Augé; D Autiero; Georges Azuelos; F Badaud; L Baisin; G Battistoni; A Bazan; C P Bee; Giorgio Bellettini; S R Berglund; J C Berset; C Blaj; G Blanchot; E Blucher; A A Bogush; C Bohm; V Boldea; O N Borisov; M Bosman; N Bouhemaid; P Brette; C Bromberg; M Brossard; Yu A Budagov; S Buono; L P Calôba; D V Camin; B Canton; M P Casado; D Cavalli; M Cavalli-Sforza; V Cavasinni; R Chadelas; Robert L Chase; A Chekhtman; J C Chevaleyre; J L Chevalley; I E Chirikov-Zorin; G Chlachidze; J C Chollet; M Cobal; F Cogswell; Jacques Colas; J Collot; S Cologna; S Constantinescu; G Costa; D Costanzo; L Cozzi; M Crouau; P Dargent; F Daudon; M David; T Davidek; J Dawson; K De; C de La Taille; T Del Prete; P Depommier; P de Saintignon; A De Santo; B Dinkespiler; B Di Girolamo; S Dita; J Dolejsi; Z Dolezal; R Downing; J J Dugne; P Y Duval; D Dzahini; I Efthymiopoulos; D Errede; S Errede; F Etienne; H Evans; P Fassnacht; N N Fedyakin; A Ferrari; P Ferreira; A Ferrer; Vincenzo Flaminio; D Fouchez; D Fournier; G Fumagalli; E J Gallas; M Gaspar; F Gianotti; O Gildemeister; D M Gingrich; V V Glagolev; V B Golubev; A Gómez; J González; H A Gordon; V Grabskii; H H Hakopian; M Haney; S Hellman; A Henriques; S O Holmgren; P F Honoré; J Y Hostachy; J Huston; Yu M Ivanyushenkov; S Jézéquel; E K Johansson; R Jones; A Juste; S Kakurin; G V Karapetian; A N Karyukhin; Yu A Khokhlov; V I Klioukhine; V Kolomoets; S V Kopikov; M E Kostrikov; V E Kovtun; V V Kukhtin; M Kulagin; Yu A Kulchitskii; G Laborie; S Lami; V Lapin; A Lebedev; M Lefebvre; T Le Flour; R Leitner; E León-Florián; C Leroy; A Le Van-Suu; J Li; I Liba; O Linossier; M Lokajícek; Yu F Lomakin; O V Lomakina; B Lund-Jensen; G Mahout; A Maio; S N Malyukov; L Mandelli; B Mansoulié; Livio P Mapelli; C P Marin; F Marroquin; L Martin; M Mazzanti; E Mazzoni; F S Merritt; B Michel; R Miller; I A Minashvili; A Miotto; L Miralles; E A Mnatzakanian; E Monnier; G Montarou; Giuseppe Mornacchi; G S Muanza; E Nagy; S Némécek; Marzio Nessi; S Nicoleau; J M Noppe; C Olivetto; S Orteu; C Padilla; D Pallin; D Pantea; G Parrour; A Pereira; L Perini; J A Perlas; P Pétroff; J E Pilcher; James L Pinfold; Luc Poggioli; S Poirot; G Polesello; L Price; Yu Protopopov; J Proudfoot; O Pukhov; V Radeka; David Charles Rahm; G Reinmuth; J F Renardy; G Renzoni; S Resconi; R Richards; I Riu; V Romanov; B Ronceux; V Rumyantsev; N A Rusakovitch; P R Sala; H Sanders; G Sauvage; P Savard; Aurore Savoy-Navarro; L Sawyer; L P Says; A C Schaffer; C V Scheel; P Schwemling; J Schindling; N Seguin-Moreau; J M Seixas; B Selldén; M Seman; A A Semenov; V G Senchyshyn; L Serin; A S Shchelchkov; V P Shevtsov; M J Shochet; V Sidorov; V J Simaitis; S Simion; A N Sissakian; A A Solodkov; P Sonderegger; K Soustruznik; R Stanek; E A Starchenko; D Stephani; R Stephens; S Studenov; M Suk; A Surkov; F Tang; S Tardell; P Tas; J Teiger; F Teubert; J J Thaler; S Tisserant; S Tokár; N D Topilin; Z Trka; A S Turcot; M Turcotte; S Valkár; A H Vartapetian; F Vazeille; I Vichou; V Vinogradov; S B Vorozhtsov; V Vuillemin; D Wagner; Alan R White; I Wingerter-Seez; N Yamdagni; G Yarygin; C Yosef; A Zaitsev; M Zdrazil; R Zitoun; Y Zolnierowski

1996-01-01

5

Geant4 hadronic physics validation with ATLAS Tile Calorimeter test-beam data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present comparison studies between Geant4 shower packages and ATLAS Tile Calorimeter test-beam data collected at CERN in H8 beam line at the SPS. Emphasis is put on hadronic physics lists and data concerning differences between Tilecal response to pions and protons of same energy. The ratio between the pure hadronic fraction of pion and the pure hadronic fraction of proton Fh?/Fhp was estimated with Tilecal test-beam data and compared with Geant4 simulations.

Alexa, C.; Constantinescu, S.; Di??, S.

2006-10-01

6

Signal Reconstruction of the ATLAS Hadronic Tile Calorimeter: implementation and performance  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

TileCal, the central hadronic section of the ATLAS Calorimeter, is a sampling calorimeter made of steel and scintillating tiles. The TileCal front-end electronics reads out about 10,000 photo-multipliers at 40 Msps measuring energies ranging from simeq 30 MeV to simeq 2 TeV. The read-out system is designed to provide the ATLAS High Level Trigger with reconstructed PMT signals within the time budget allowed by the First Level Trigger (LVL1) running at a maximum trigger rate of 75 KHz. The signal amplitude, time and a reconstruction quality factor are obtained for each PMT using optimal filtering techniques implemented in the Digital Signal Processors (DSP).

Usai, G.; ATLAS Tile Calorimeter Group

2011-04-01

7

Radioactive sources for ATLAS hadron tile calorimeter calibration.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The main requirements for radioactive sources applied in the TileCal calibration systems are formulated; technology of the sources production developed in the Laboratory of Nuclear Problems, JINR is described. Design and characteristics of the prototype s...

Y. Budagov M. Cavalli-Sforza Y. Ivanyushenkov

1997-01-01

8

Performances of the signal reconstruction in the ATLAS Hadronic Tile Calorimeter  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Tile Calorimeter (TileCal) is the central section of the hadronic calorimeter of ATLAS. It is a key detector for the reconstruction of hadrons, jets, tau leptons and missing transverse energy. TileCal is a sampling calorimeter using steel as an absorber and plastic scintillators as an active medium. The scintillators are read-out by wavelength shifting fibers coupled to photomultiplier tubes (PMTs). The analogue signals from the PMTs are amplified, shaped and digitized by sampling the signal every 25 ns. The read-out system is designed to reconstruct the data in real time fulfilling the tight time constraint imposed by the ATLAS first level trigger rate (100 kHz). The signal amplitude and phases for each channel are measured using Optimal Filtering algorithms both at online and offline level. We present the performances of these techniques on the data collected in the proton-proton collisions at center-of-mass energy of 7 TeV. We show in particular the measurements of low amplitudes, close to the pedestal value, using as probe high transverse momenta muons produced in the proton-proton collisions.

Meoni, E.

2013-08-01

9

Technical specification for plate fabrication for the ATLAS Tile Hadron Calorimeter  

SciTech Connect

The Atlas Collaboration, at the European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN), proposes to build a general purpose proton-proton detector for the Large Hadron Collider (LHC), located in Geneva, Switzerland. The ATLAS collaboration consists of approximately 100 international institutions (universities and research laboratories) with a worldwide distribution. The ATLAS detector includes a large scintillating tile calorimeter using iron as the absorber material. This detector will be used to identify and measure the by-products of proton-proton collisions that occur at the symmetric center. The design of this detector is unique in that the absorber plates are oriented perpendicular to the colliding beam axis, rather than parallel, as is done in most other similar detectors to date. A simplified view of the detector is shown in the figure below.

Hill, N.F.

1995-06-13

10

The ATLAS Tile Calorimeter performance at LHC  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Tile Calorimeter (TileCal), the central section of the hadronic calorimeter of the ATLAS experiment, is a key detector component to detect hadrons, jets, taus and muons and to measure the missing transverse energy. TileCal is built of steel and scintillating tiles coupled to optical fibers and read out by photomultipliers. The calorimeter is equipped with systems that allow to monitor and to calibrate each stage of the read-out system exploiting different signal sources: laser light, charge injection and a radioactive source. The performance of the calorimeter has been measured and monitored using calibration data, random triggered data, cosmic muons, splash events and most importantly the large sample of pp collision events acquired in 2011. Results on the absolute energy scale calibration precision, on the energy and timing uniformity and on the synchronization precision are presented. These results demonstrate that the Tile Calorimeter is performing well within the design requirements and is giving essential input to the physics results.

Hernandez, Y.

2013-08-01

11

Response of the ATLAS Tile calorimeter prototype to muons  

Microsoft Academic Search

A study of high energy muons traversing the ATLAS hadron Tile calorimeter in the barrel region in the energy range between 10 and 300 GeV is presented. Both test beam experimental data and Monte Carlo simulations are given and show good agreement. The Tile calorimeter capability of detecting isolated muons over the above energy range is demonstrated. A signal to

Z. Ajaltouni; F. Albiol; A. Alifanov; P. Amaral; A. Amorim; K. Anderson; C. Angelini; A. Astvatsaturov; D. Autiero; F. Badaud; G. Barreira; S. Berglund; G. Blanchot; E. Blucher; C. Blaj; A. Bogush; C. Bohm; V. Boldea; O. Borisov; M. Bosman; N. Bouhemaid; P. Brette; C. Bromberg; M. Brossard; J. Budagov; L. Caloba; J. Carvalho; P. Casado; M. Cavalli-Sforza; V. Cavasinni; R. Chadelas; J.-C Chevaleyre; I. Chirikov-Zorin; G. Chlachidze; M. Cobal; F. Cogswell; F. Colaço; S. Constantinescu; D. Costanzo; M. Crouau; F. Daudon; M. David; T. Davidek; J. Dawson; J.-J. Dugne; K. de; T Del Prete; A De Santo; B Di Girolamo; S. Dita; J. Dolejsi; Z. Dolezal; R. Downing; I. Efthymiopoulos; D. Errede; S. Errede; H. Evans; A. Ferrer; V. Flaminio; E. Gallas; M. Gaspar; O. Gildemeister; V. Glagolev; V. Golubev; A. Gomes; V. Grabsky; M. Haney; H. Hakopian; S. Hellman; A. Henriques; S. Holmgren; P. F Honoré; J. Huston; Yu. Ivanyushenkov; E. Johansson; A. Juste; S. Kakurin; G. Karapetian; A. Karyukhin; Yu. Khokhlov; V. Klyukhin; V. Kolomoets; S. Kopikov; M. Kostrikov; V. Kovtun; V. Kukhtin; M. Kulagin; Y. Kulchitsky; S. Lami; V. Lapin; C. Lazzeroni; A. Lebedev; R. Leitner; J. Li; I. Liba; Yu. Lomakin; O. Lomakina; M. Lokajicek; A. Maio; S. Malyukov; F. Marroquin; J. P Martins; E. Mazzoni; F. Merritt; B. Michel; R. Miller; I. Minashvili; Ll. Miralles; E. Mnatsakanian; G. Montarou; G. S Muanza; S. Nemecek; M. Nessi; A. Onofre; S. Orteu; C. Padilla; D. Pallin; D. Pantea; J. Patriarca; A. Pereira; J. A Perlas; J. Pilcher; J. Pinhão; L. Poggioli; S. Poirot; L. Price; Y. Protopopov; J. Proudfoot; O. Pukhov; G. Reinmuth; G. Renzoni; R. Richards; I. Riu; V. Romanov; B. Ronceux; V. Rumyantsev; N. Russakovich; H. Sanders; J. Santos; L. Sawyer; L.-P Says; J. M Seixas; B. Sellden; A. Semenov; V. Senchishin; A. Shchelchkov; V. Shevtsov; M. Schochet; V. Sidorov; V. Simaitis; A. Sissakian; A. Solodkov; P. Sonderegger; K. Soustruznik; R. Stanek; E. Starchenko; R. Stephens; S. Studenov; M. Suk; A. Surkov; F. Tang; S. Tardell; P. Tas; F. Teubert; J. Thaler; S. Tokar; N. Topilin; Z. Trka; A. Turcot; M. Turcotte; S. Valkar; M. J Varandas; A. Vartapetian; F. Vazeille; V. Vinogradov; S. Vorozhtsov; D. Wagner; A. White; H. Wolters; N. Yamdagni; G. Yarygin; C. Yosef; A. Zaitsev; M. Zdrazil

1997-01-01

12

The optical instrumentation of the ATLAS Tile Calorimeter  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Tile Calorimeter, covering the central region of the ATLAS experiment up to pseudorapidities of ±1.7, is a sampling device built with scintillating tiles that alternate with iron plates. The light is collected in wave-length shifting (WLS) fibers and is read out with photomultipliers. In the characteristic geometry of this calorimeter the tiles lie in planes perpendicular to the beams, resulting in a very simple and modular mechanical and optical layout. This paper focuses on the procedures applied in the optical instrumentation of the calorimeter, which involved the assembly of about 460,000 scintillator tiles and 550,000 WLS fibers. The outcome is a hadronic calorimeter that meets the ATLAS performance requirements, as shown in this paper.

Abdallah, J.; Adragna, P.; Alexa, C.; Alves, R.; Amaral, P.; Ananiev, A.; Anderson, K.; Andresen, X.; Antonaki, A.; Batusov, V.; Bednar, P.; Bergeaas, E.; Biscarat, C.; Blanch, O.; Blanchot, G.; Bohm, C.; Boldea, V.; Bosi, F.; Bosman, M.; Bromberg, C.; Budagov, J.; Calvet, D.; Cardeira, C.; Carli, T.; Carvalho, J.; Cascella, M.; Castillo, M. V.; Costelo, J.; Cavalli-Sforza, M.; Cavasinni, V.; Cerqueira, A. S.; Clement, C.; Cobal, M.; Cogswell, F.; Constantinescu, S.; Costanzo, D.; Da Silva, P.; David, M.; Davidek, T.; Dawson, J.; De, K.; Del Prete, T.; Diakov, E.; Di Girolamo, B.; Dita, S.; Dolejsi, J.; Dolezal, Z.; Dotti, A.; Downing, R.; Drake, G.; Efthymiopoulos, I.; Errede, D.; Errede, S.; Farbin, A.; Fassouliotis, D.; Feng, E.; Fenyuk, A.; Ferdi, C.; Ferreira, B. C.; Ferrer, A.; Flaminio, V.; Flix, J.; Francavilla, P.; Fullana, E.; Garde, V.; Gellerstedt, K.; Giakoumopoulou, V.; Giangiobbe, V.; Gildemeister, O.; Gilewsky, V.; Giokaris, N.; Gollub, N.; Gomes, A.; Gonzalez, V.; Gouveia, J.; Grenier, P.; Gris, P.; Guarino, V.; Guicheney, C.; Gupta, A.; Hakobyan, H.; Haney, M.; Hellman, S.; Henriques, A.; Higon, E.; Hill, N.; Holmgren, S.; Hruska, I.; Hurwitz, M.; Huston, J.; Jen-La Plante, I.; Jon-And, K.; Junk, T.; Karyukhin, A.; Khubua, J.; Klereborn, J.; Konstantinov, V.; Kopikov, S.; Korolkov, I.; Krivkova, P.; Kulchitsky, Y.; Kurochkin, Yu; Kuzhir, P.; Lapin, V.; LeCompte, T.; Lefevre, R.; Leitner, R.; Li, J.; Liablin, M.; Lokajicek, M.; Lomakin, Y.; Lourtie, P.; Lovas, L.; Lupi, A.; Maidantchik, C.; Maio, A.; Maliukov, S.; Manousakis, A.; Marques, C.; Marroquim, F.; Martin, F.; Mazzoni, E.; Merritt, F.; Miagkov, A.; Miller, R.; Minashvili, I.; Miralles, L.; Montarou, G.; Nemecek, S.; Nessi, M.; Nikitine, I.; Nodulman, L.; Norniella, O.; Onofre, A.; Oreglia, M.; Palan, B.; Pallin, D.; Pantea, D.; Pereira, A.; Pilcher, J.; Pina, J.; Pinhao, J.; Pod, E.; Podlyski, F.; Portell, X.; Poveda, J.; Pribyl, L.; Price, L. E.; Proudfoot, J.; Ramalho, M.; Ramstedt, M.; Raposeiro, L.; Reis, J.; Richards, R.; Roda, C.; Romanov, V.; Rosnet, P.; Roy, P.; Ruiz, A.; Rumiantsau, V.; Russakovich, N.; da Costa, J. Sa; Saltó, O.; Salvachua, B.; Sanchis, E.; Sanders, H.; Santoni, C.; Santos, J.; Saraiva, J. G.; Sarri, F.; Says, L.-P.; Schlager, G.; Schlereth, J.; Seixas, J. M.; Sellden, B.; Shalanda, N.; Shevtsov, P.; Shochet, M.; Silva, J.; Simaitis, V.; Simonyan, M.; Sissakian, A.; Sjoelin, J.; Solans, C.; Solodkov, A.; Solovianov, O.; Sosebee, M.; Spanò, F.; Speckmeyer, P.; Stanek, R.; Starchenko, E.; Starovoitov, P.; Suk, M.; Sykora, I.; Tang, F.; Tas, P.; Teuscher, R.; Tischenko, M.; Tokar, S.; Topilin, N.; Torres, J.; Underwood, D.; Usai, G.; Valero, A.; Valkar, S.; Valls, J. A.; Vartapetian, A.; Vazeille, F.; Vellidis, C.; Ventura, F.; Vichou, I.; Vivarelli, I.; Volpi, M.; White, A.; Zaitsev, A.; Zaytsev, Yu; Zenin, A.; Zenis, T.; Zenonos, Z.; Zenz, S.; Zilka, B.

2013-01-01

13

Hadron calorimeters for future hadron colliders  

SciTech Connect

Hadron calorimeters are essential for jet and neutrino physics at collider experiments. Current hadron calorimeters for the ATLAS and CMS detectors are described. Increased energy and luminosity of future hadron colliders place constraints on detector technology. Difficulties for operation of the current detectors in future hadron collider environments are discussed. New experiments for future colliders should take notice of physics processes during jet evolution that place fundamental limits on performance of the calorimeter to reconstruct jets. A technique of incorporating tracking information to improve jet resolution is described. Future detectors should be designed with these constraints in mind. Possible avenues of exploration for future technology are described.

Jim Freeman

2004-01-27

14

Readiness of the ATLAS Tile Calorimeter for LHC collisions  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Tile hadronic calorimeter of the ATLAS detector has undergone extensive testing in the experimental hall since its installation\\u000a in late 2005. The readout, control and calibration systems have been fully operational since 2007 and the detector has successfully\\u000a collected data from the LHC single beams in 2008 and first collisions in 2009. This paper gives an overview of the

G. Aad; B. Abbott; J. Abdallah; A. A. Abdelalim; A. Abdesselam; O. Abdinov; B. Abi; M. Abolins; H. Abramowicz; H. Abreu; B. S. Acharya; D. L. Adams; T. N. Addy; J. Adelman; C. Adorisio; P. Adragna; T. Adye; S. Aefsky; J. A. Aguilar-Saavedra; M. Aharrouche; S. P. Ahlen; F. Ahles; A. Ahmad; M. Ahsan; G. Aielli; T. Akdogan; T. P. A. Åkesson; G. Akimoto; A. V. Akimov; A. Aktas; M. S. Alam; M. A. Alam; S. Albrand; M. Aleksa; I. N. Aleksandrov; C. Alexa; G. Alexander; G. Alexandre; T. Alexopoulos; M. Alhroob; M. Aliev; G. Alimonti; J. Alison; M. Aliyev; P. P. Allport; S. E. Allwood-Spiers; J. Almond; A. Aloisio; R. Alon; A. Alonso; M. G. Alviggi; K. Amako; C. Amelung; A. Amorim; G. Amorós; N. Amram; C. Anastopoulos; T. Andeen; C. F. Anders; K. J. Anderson; A. Andreazza; V. Andrei; X. S. Anduaga; A. Angerami; F. Anghinolfi; N. Anjos; A. Annovi; A. Antonaki; M. Antonelli; S. Antonelli; J. Antos; B. Antunovic; F. Anulli; S. Aoun; G. Arabidze; I. Aracena; Y. Arai; A. T. H. Arce; J. P. Archambault; S. Arfaoui; J.-F. Arguin; T. Argyropoulos; M. Arik; A. J. Armbruster; O. Arnaez; C. Arnault; A. Artamonov; D. Arutinov; M. Asai; S. Asai; R. Asfandiyarov; S. Ask; B. Åsman; D. Asner; L. Asquith; K. Assamagan; A. Astvatsatourov; G. Atoian; B. Auerbach; K. Augsten; M. Aurousseau; N. Austin; G. Avolio; R. Avramidou; C. Ay; G. Azuelos; Y. Azuma; M. A. Baak; A. M. Bach; H. Bachacou; K. Bachas; M. Backes; E. Badescu; P. Bagnaia; Y. Bai; T. Bain; J. T. Baines; O. K. Baker; M. D. Baker; S. Baker; F. Baltasar Dos Santos Pedrosa; E. Banas; P. Banerjee; S. Banerjee; D. Banfi; A. Bangert; V. Bansal; S. P. Baranov; A. Barashkou; T. Barber; E. L. Barberio; D. Barberis; M. Barbero; D. Y. Bardin; T. Barillari; M. Barisonzi; T. Barklow; N. Barlow; B. M. Barnett; R. M. Barnett; A. Baroncelli; A. J. Barr; F. Barreiro; P. Barrillon; R. Bartoldus; D. Bartsch; R. L. Bates; L. Batkova; J. R. Batley; A. Battaglia; M. Battistin; F. Bauer; H. S. Bawa; M. Bazalova; B. Beare; T. Beau; P. H. Beauchemin; R. Beccherle; P. Bechtle; G. A. Beck; H. P. Beck; M. Beckingham; K. H. Becks; A. J. Beddall; V. A. Bednyakov; C. Bee; M. Begel; S. Behar Harpaz; P. K. Behera; M. Beimforde; C. Belanger-Champagne; P. J. Bell; W. H. Bell; G. Bella; L. Bellagamba; F. Bellina; M. Bellomo; A. Belloni; K. Belotskiy; O. Beltramello; S. Ben Ami; O. Benary; D. Benchekroun; M. Bendel; B. H. Benedict; N. Benekos; Y. Benhammou; D. P. Benjamin; M. Benoit; J. R. Bensinger; K. Benslama; S. Bentvelsen; M. Beretta; D. Berge; E. Bergeaas Kuutmann; N. Berger; F. Berghaus; E. Berglund; J. Beringer; P. Bernat; R. Bernhard; C. Bernius; T. Berry; A. Bertin; M. I. Besana; N. Besson; S. Bethke; R. M. Bianchi; M. Bianco; O. Biebel; J. Biesiada; M. Biglietti; H. Bilokon; M. Bindi; A. Bingul; C. Bini; C. Biscarat; U. Bitenc; K. M. Black; R. E. Blair; J.-B. Blanchard; G. Blanchot; C. Blocker; A. Blondel; W. Blum; U. Blumenschein; G. J. Bobbink; A. Bocci; M. Boehler; J. Boek; N. Boelaert; S. Böser; J. A. Bogaerts; A. Bogouch; C. Bohm; J. Bohm; V. Boisvert; T. Bold; V. Boldea; V. G. Bondarenko; M. Bondioli; M. Boonekamp; S. Bordoni; C. Borer; A. Borisov; G. Borissov; I. Borjanovic; S. Borroni; K. Bos; D. Boscherini; M. Bosman; H. Boterenbrood; J. Bouchami; J. Boudreau; E. V. Bouhova-Thacker; C. Boulahouache; C. Bourdarios; A. Boveia; J. Boyd; I. R. Boyko; I. Bozovic-Jelisavcic; J. Bracinik; A. Braem; P. Branchini; A. Brandt; G. Brandt; O. Brandt; U. Bratzler; B. Brau; J. E. Brau; H. M. Braun; B. Brelier; J. Bremer; R. Brenner; S. Bressler; D. Britton; F. M. Brochu; I. Brock; R. Brock; E. Brodet; C. Bromberg; G. Brooijmans; W. K. Brooks; G. Brown; D. Bruncko; R. Bruneliere; S. Brunet; A. Bruni; G. Bruni; M. Bruschi; F. Bucci; J. Buchanan; P. Buchholz; A. G. Buckley; I. A. Budagov; B. Budick; V. Büscher; L. Bugge; O. Bulekov; M. Bunse; T. Buran; H. Burckhart; S. Burdin; T. Burgess; S. Burke; E. Busato; P. Bussey; C. P. Buszello; F. Butin; B. Butler; J. M. Butler; C. M. Buttar; J. M. Butterworth; T. Byatt; J. Caballero; S. Cabrera Urbán; D. Caforio; O. Cakir; P. Calafiura; G. Calderini; P. Calfayan; R. Calkins; L. P. Caloba; D. Calvet; P. Camarri; D. Cameron; S. Campana; M. Campanelli; V. Canale; F. Canelli; A. Canepa; J. Cantero; L. Capasso; M. D. M. Capeans Garrido; I. Caprini; M. Caprini; M. Capua; R. Caputo; C. Caramarcu; R. Cardarelli; T. Carli; G. Carlino; L. Carminati; B. Caron; S. Caron; G. D. Carrillo Montoya; S. Carron Montero; A. A. Carter; J. R. Carter; J. Carvalho; D. Casadei; M. P. Casado; M. Cascella; A. M. Castaneda Hernandez; E. Castaneda-Miranda; V. Castillo Gimenez; N. F. Castro; G. Cataldi; A. Catinaccio; J. R. Catmore; A. Cattai; G. Cattani; S. Caughron; P. Cavalleri; D. Cavalli; M. Cavalli-Sforza; V. Cavasinni; F. Ceradini; A. S. Cerqueira; A. Cerri; L. Cerrito; F. Cerutti; S. A. Cetin; A. Chafaq; D. Chakraborty; K. Chan

2010-01-01

15

Pulse shapes for signal reconstruction in the ATLAS Tile Calorimeter  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The ATLAS detector will record proton-proton collisions produced in the Large Hadron Collider at center of mass energies of up to 14 TeV. Its design allows for precision measurements as well as searches for new physics. Energy measurement using the calorimeters is crucial to these efforts. Studies of the pulse shapes used for signal reconstruction in the Tile Calorimeter are presented. The shapes were measured using test beam data and found to vary slightly with signal size. The impact of this variation on the reconstructed energy has been determined using a toy Monte Carlo.

Jen-La Plante, Imai; Tylmad, Maja

2010-05-01

16

LED Calibration Systems for CALICE Hadron Calorimeter  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper presents several versions of the calibration and monitoring system for the scintillator tile hadron calorimeter for the ILC. The first Calibration and Monitoring Board (CMB) is used to calibrate all 7608 SiPMs of a 1 m3 hadron calorimeter prototype. Each CMB has 12 LEDs and each LED illuminates 18 tiles with SiPMs through 18 optical fibers. The pulse is 10 ns wide and delivers a signal equivalent to 70 MIPs to each SiPM. The new AHCAL engineering prototype offers both embedded LED driver (1 LED per 1 tile) and an external calibration board (1 LED per many tiles, up to 72). The embedded LED driver circuit was tuned for shorter pulses and produce nice single photo-electron spectrum and can also saturate the SiPM. A newer version of external calibrating system uses sinusoidal signal generated by a Quasi-Resonant LED driver. The system generates ?3.5 ns optical pulse with high intensity (0.4 nJ) and low EM noise. The QRLED driver with a special notched optical fibre can saturate 12 SiPMs at once with a signal up to 200 MIPs per tile. Next version will be improved to generate longer pulses (?5 ns), therefore a higher light intensity. Our development includes an optical distribution through a notched fibre, which shines equally from 12, 24 or 72 points. The light in the final AHCAL prototype will be routed from single LED by 3 fibers having 24 notches each, illuminating row of 72 tiles at once.

Kvasnicka, Jiri; Polak, Ivo; On Behalf Of The Calice Collaboration

17

The CMS central hadron calorimeter  

SciTech Connect

The CMS central hadron calorimeter is a copper absorber/ scintillator sampling structure. We describe design choices that led us to this concept, details of the mechanical and optical structure, and test beam results. We discuss calibration techniques, and finally the anticipated construction schedule.

Freeman, J.; E892 Collaboration

1996-12-31

18

Upgrading the ATLAS Tile Calorimeter Electronics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This work summarizes the status of the on-detector and off-detector electronics developments for the Phase 2 Upgrade of the ATLAS Tile Calorimeter at the LHC scheduled around 2022. A demonstrator prototype for a slice of the calorimeter including most of the new electronics is planned to be installed in ATLAS in the middle of 2014 during the first Long Shutdown. For the on-detector readout, three different front-end boards (FEB) alternatives are being studied: a new version of the 3-in-1 card, the QIE chip and a dedicated ASIC called FATALIC. The Main Board will provide communication and control to the FEBs and the Daughter Board will transmit the digitized data to the off-detector electronics in the counting room, where the super Read-Out Driver (sROD) will perform processing tasks on them and will be the interface to the trigger levels 0, 1 and 2.

Carrió, Fernando

2013-11-01

19

On the Challenge of Keeping ATLAS Tile Calorimeter Raw Data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Tile Calorimeter (TileCal) for the ATLAS experiment at the CERN Large Hadron Collider (LHC) is currently taking data with proton-proton collisions. The TileCal read-out system was initially designed to reconstruct the data in real-time and to store for each channel the signal amplitude, time and quality factor at the required high rate. This approach implied discarding 80% of the raw data that correspond to noise or small signals. Practical experience operating in this scheme with increasing rate have led to several modifications and understanding that some kind of data compression is helpful during data processing and storing. An alternate approach is to use online reconstruction for Level 2 triggering only and to implement a data flow lossless compression scheme for further offiine analysis. A new version of the lossless compression algorithm is proposed which allows to both save the complete raw data and to feed the trigger with the reconstructed signal amplitude and time. It does not increase the data flow as compared to the existing approach and the size of the data fragments transmitted is more stable. We will describe the lossless compression algorithm as a possible upgrade of the Tile data acquisition and highlight some details of the implementation. We will report on its testing and validation and on the overall performance measured on high rate tests, calibration and ? {s} = 7 TeV proton-proton collisions runs.

Tsiskaridze, V. K.

2012-08-01

20

Construction and commissioning of the CALICE analog hadron calorimeter prototype  

Microsoft Academic Search

An analog hadron calorimeter (AHCAL) prototype of 5.3 nuclear interaction lengths thickness has been constructed by members of the CALICE Collaboration. The AHCAL prototype consists of a 38-layer sandwich structure of steel plates and highly-segmented scintillator tiles that are read out by wavelength-shifting fibers coupled to SiPMs. The signal is amplified and shaped with a custom-designed ASIC. A calibration\\/monitoring system

C. Adloff; Y. Karyotakis; J. Repond; A. Brandt; H. Brown; K. De; C. Medina; J. Smith; J. Li; M. Sosebee; A. White; J. Yu; T. Buanes; G. Eigen; Y. Mikami; O. Miller; N. K. Watson; J. A. Wilson; T. Goto; G. Mavromanolakis; M. A. Thomson; D. R. Ward; W. Yan; D. Benchekroun; A. Hoummada; Y. Khoulaki; M. Oreglia; M. Benyamna; C. Cârloganu; P. Gay; J. Ha; G. C. Blazey; D. Chakraborty; A. Dyshkant; K. Francis; D. Hedin; G. Lima; V. Zutshi; V. A. Babkin; S. N. Bazylev; Yu I. Fedotov; V. M. Slepnev; I. A. Tiapkin; S. V. Volgin; J.-Y. Hostachy; L. Morin; N. D'Ascenzo; U. Cornett; D. David; R. Fabbri; G. Falley; N. Feege; K. Gadow; E. Garutti; P. Göttlicher; T. Jung; S. Karstensen; V. Korbel; A.-I. Lucaci-Timoce; B. Lutz; N. Meyer; V. Morgunov; M. Reinecke; S. Schätzel; S. Schmidt; F. Sefkow; P. Smirnov; A. Vargas-Trevino; N. Wattimena; O. Wendt; M. Groll; R.-D. Heuer; S. Richter; J. Samson; A. Kaplan; H.-Ch Schultz-Coulon; W. Shen; A. Tadday; B. Bilki; E. Norbeck; Y. Onel; E. J. Kim; G. Kim; D.-W. Kim; K. Lee; S. C. Lee; K. Kawagoe; Y. Tamura; J. A. Ballin; P. D. Dauncey; A.-M. Magnan; H. Yilmaz; O. Zorba; V. Bartsch; M. Postranecky; M. Warren; M. Wing; M. Faucci Giannelli; M. G. Green; F. Salvatore; R. Kieffer; I. Laktineh; M. C. Fouz; D. S. Bailey; R. J. Barlow; R. J. Thompson; M. Batouritski; O. Dvornikov; Yu Shulhevich; N. Shumeiko; A. Solin; P. Starovoitov; V. Tchekhovski; A. Terletski; B. Bobchenko; M. Chadeeva; M. Danilov; O. Markin; R. Mizuk; E. Novikov; V. Rusinov; E. Tarkovsky; V. Andreev; N. Kirikova; A. Komar; V. Kozlov; Y. Soloviev; A. Terkulov; P. Buzhan; B. Dolgoshein; A. Ilyin; V. Kantserov; V. Kaplin; A. Karakash; E. Popova; S. Smirnov; N. Baranova; E. Boos; L. Gladilin; D. Karmanov; M. Korolev; M. Merkin; A. Savin; A. Voronin; A. Topkar; A. Frey; C. Kiesling; S. Lu; K. Prothmann; K. Seidel; F. Simon; C. Soldner; L. Weuste; B. Bouquet; S. Callier; P. Cornebise; F. Dulucq; J. Fleury; H. Li; G. Martin-Chassard; F. Richard; Ch de la Taille; R. Poeschl; L. Raux; M. Ruan; N. Seguin-Moreau; F. Wicek; M. Anduze; V. Boudry; J.-C. Brient; G. Gaycken; R. Cornat; D. Jeans; P. Mora de Freitas; G. Musat; M. Reinhard; A. Rougé; J.-Ch Vanel; H. Videau; K.-H. Park; J. Zacek; J. Cvach; P. Gallus; M. Havranek; M. Janata; J. Kvasnicka; M. Marcisovsky; I. Polak; J. Popule; L. Tomasek; M. Tomasek; P. Ruzicka; P. Sicho; J. Smolik; V. Vrba; J. Zalesak; Yu Arestov; V. Ammosov; B. Chuiko; V. Gapienko; Y. Gilitski; V. Koreshev; A. Semak; Yu Sviridov; V. Zaets; B. Belhorma; M. Belmir; A. Baird; R. N. Halsall; S. W. Nam; I. H. Park; J. Yang; J.-S. Chai; J.-T. Kim; Y. Kim; J. Kang; Y.-J. Kwon; I. Kim; T. Lee; J. Sung; S. Itoh; K. Kotera; M. Nishiyama; T. Takeshita; S. Weber; C. Zeitnitz

2010-01-01

21

The CDF forward\\/backward hadron calorimeter  

Microsoft Academic Search

The forward\\/backward hadron calorimeter of the Collider Detector at Fermilab (CDF) is composed of proportional tube chambers and steel plates. It is designed to cover a pseudorapidity region of 2.2 <= | eta | <= 4.2. The readout of this calorimeter is accomplished through sensing the induced charge pulses produced on the chamber's cathode in response to a hadronic cascade

S. Cihangir; F. Marchetto; P. McIntyre; T. Meyer; R. Webb

1988-01-01

22

Sources of compensation in hadronic calorimeters  

Microsoft Academic Search

Monte Carlo simulations are presented using the CALOR code system to study the design of a large hybrid hadron calorimeter system employing a warm liquid active medium (tetramethylsilane, Si(CHâ)â) and uranium plates in addition to a conventional Fe\\/plastic system. In the system described here, the uranium provides partial compensation by suppressing the electromagnetic cascade produced by incident electrons due to

M. S. Goodman; T. A. Gabriel; A. Di Ciaccio; R. Wilsont

1988-01-01

23

Bakelite RPCs for Digital Hadron Calorimeter  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper presents the test results of Bakelite RPCs using readout pads with an area of 1 cm×1 cm and 1-bit resolution per pad (binary readout). The results include noise rate, detection efficiency and pad multiplicity as well as comparisons of different surface treatments for Bakelite plates. Pad multiplicity's dependence on surface resistivity at the readout side is also reported. This study shows Bakelite RPCs can be used as the active elements of digital hadron calorimeter.

Zhang, Qingmin; Wang, Yifang; Zhang, Jiawen; Ning, Zhe; Chen, Jin; Niu, Weiping

2011-10-01

24

Upgrade fo the CMS Hadron Outer Calorimeter with SIPMs  

SciTech Connect

The CMS Hadron Outer Calorimeter (HO) is undergoing an upgrade to replace the existing photodetectors (HPDs) with SIPMs. The chosen device is the Hamamatsu 3 x 3mm 50 {mu}m pitch MPPC. The system has been developed to be a 'drop-in' replacement of the HPDs. A complete control system of bias voltage generation, leakage current monitoring, temperature monitoring, and temperature control using solid state Peltier coolers has been developed and tested. 108 channels of the system have been installed into CMS and operated for more than 2 years. The complete system of about 2200 channels is in production and will be installed in the next LHC long shutdown scheduled for 2013. The CMS central calorimeter consists of a detector inside the solenoidal magnet, HB, and a component outside the magnet, the Outer Hadron Calorimeter, HO [1]. The HO is installed inside the magnet flux return yoke and provides for typically 3{lambda} of additional absorber to the calorimetric measurement. The outer calorimeter is composed of one or more layers of scintillator with wavelength shifting fiber readout into photodetectors. Figure 1 (a) shows the schematic layout of the calorimeters in CMS and shows the location of the HO scintillator layers. The front end electronics are placed inside the CMS detector, close to the scintillators. Figure 1(b) shows a photograph of the scintillators. Note the four wavelength shifting fibers per tile. The tile size creates a projective tower with the HB. Currently the photodetector used is the HPD but for performance and operational reasons it is desired to upgrade these with SIPMs. The CMS HCAL group has developed a drop-in replacement for the HPD using SIPMs. SIPMs are very suitable for this application because of several factors: The radiation levels are modest with a lifetime expected fluence of less than 5*10{sup 11} neutrons (E > 100 KeV) per cm{sup 2}. The energy flux into HO is small, the rate of larger energy depositions is low, and the required dynamic range is modest. The HO is in the return magnetic field of up to 2KG and the photodetector needs to operate in that environment. Finally, the available physical volume for the photodetectors is small.

Anderson, Jacob; Freeman, James; Los, Sergey; Whitmore, Juliana; /Fermilab

2011-09-14

25

The Monitoring and Calibration Web Systems for the ATLAS Tile Calorimeter Data Quality Analysis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Tile Calorimeter (TileCal) is one of the ATLAS sub-detectors. The read-out is performed by about 10,000 PhotoMultiplier Tubes (PMTs). The signal of each PMT is digitized by an electronic channel. The Monitoring and Calibration Web System (MCWS) supports the data quality analysis of the electronic channels. This application was developed to assess the detector status and verify its performance. It can provide to the user the list of TileCal known problematic channels, that is stored in the ATLAS condition database (COOL DB). The bad channels list guides the data quality validator in identifying new problematic channels and is used in data reconstruction and the system allows to update the channels list directly in the COOL database. MCWS can generate summary results, such as eta-phi plots and comparative tables of the masked channels percentage. Regularly, during the LHC (Large Hadron Collider) shutdown a maintenance of the detector equipments is performed. When a channel is repaired, its calibration constants stored in the COOL database have to be updated. Additionally MCWS system manages the update of these calibration constants values in the COOL database. The MCWS has been used by the Tile community since 2008, during the commissioning phase, and was upgraded to comply with ATLAS operation specifications. Among its future developments, it is foreseen an integration of MCWS with the TileCal control Web system (DCS) in order to identify high voltage problems automatically.

Sivolella, A.; Maidantchik, C.; Ferreira, F.

2012-12-01

26

Neutron induced pulses in CDF forward hadron calorimeter  

Microsoft Academic Search

The use of calorimeters with very small energy sampling fractions (of the order of a few percent or less) can result in small energy fluctuations in the showers which are interpreted as large equivalent energy depositions in the calorimeter. The authors have studied the nature of such fluctuations in the forward hadron calorimeter (FHA) system of the Collider Detector at

S. Cihangir; M. Atac; H. Cao; D. Dibitonto; H. Franke; T. Hessing; T. Kamon; P. McIntyre; T. Meyer; W. M. Sampson; J. M. Thane; R. C. Webb; F. Zamble; Y. Fukui; Y. Funayama

1989-01-01

27

Calorimeter Simulation with Hadrons in CMS  

SciTech Connect

CMS is using Geant4 to simulate the detector setup for the forthcoming data from the LHC. Validation of physics processes inside Geant4 is a major concern in view of getting a proper description of jets and missing energy for signal and background events. This is done by carrying out an extensive studies with test beam using the prototypes or real detector modules of the CMS calorimeter. These data are matched with Geant4 predictions using the same framework that is used for the entire CMS detector. Tuning of the Geant4 models is carried out and steps to be used in reproducing detector signals are defined in view of measurements of energy response, energy resolution, transverse and longitudinal shower profiles for a variety of hadron beams over a broad energy spectrum between 2 to 300 GeV/c. The tuned Monte Carlo predictions match many of these measurements within systematic uncertainties.

Piperov, Stefan; /Sofiya, Inst. Nucl. Res. /Fermilab

2008-11-01

28

A Scintillator tile-fiber preshower detector for the CDF Central Calorimeter  

SciTech Connect

The front face of the CDF central calorimeter is being equipped with a new Preshower detector, based on scintillator tiles read out by WLS fibers. A light yield of about 40 pe/MIP at the tile exit was obtained, exceeding the design requirements.

S. Lami

2004-08-12

29

The compensation condition in hadron calorimeters by the filtering effect  

SciTech Connect

The equalization between the electromagnetic and the hadronic signals is the condition for obtaining the linear response of a calorimeter to hadronic showers and an energy resolution that improves as the incident energy increases. In a calorimeter with silicon readout, the use of a combination of low-Z and high-Z materials as absorbers allows the transformation of the electron energy distribution of the incidence showers in two media with different critical energies. As a result, the response of the calorimeter to incoming showers is modified to achieve the compensation condition (e/h = 1).

Lemilleur, F. (CERN (CH)); Burchi, E.; Macii, R. (INFN-Florence (IT)); Lamarche, F.; Leroy, C. (Montreal Univ., PQ (Canada)); Bruzzi, M.; Furetta, C.; Paludetto, R.; Pensotti, S.; Rancoita, P.G.; Vismara, L. (INFN, Milan (IT)); Seidman, A. (Tel Aviv Univ. (Israel)); Giubellino, P.; Ramello, L.; Riccati, L. (INFN, Turin (IT)); Penzo, A. (INFN, Trieste (IT))

1990-06-01

30

Design of an FPGA-based embedded system for the ATLAS Tile Calorimeter front-end electronics test-bench  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The portable test-bench for the certification of the ATLAS tile hadronic calorimeter front-end electronics has been redesigned for the present Long Shutdown (LS1) of LHC, improving its portability and expanding its functionalities. This paper presents a new test-bench based on a Xilinx Virtex-5 FPGA that implements an embedded system using a PowerPC 440 microprocessor hard core and custom IP cores. A light Linux version runs on the PowerPC microprocessor and handles the IP cores which implement the different functionalities needed to perform the desired tests such as TTCvi emulation, G-Link decoding, ADC control and data reception.

Carrió, F.; Kim, H. Y.; Moreno, P.; Reed, R.; Sandrock, C.; Schettino, V.; Shalyugin, A.; Solans, C.; Souza, J.; Usai, G.; Valero, A.

2014-03-01

31

Tile-in-ONE An integrated framework for the data quality assessment and database management for the ATLAS Tile Calorimeter  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In order to ensure the proper operation of the ATLAS Tile Calorimeter and assess the quality of data, many tasks are performed by means of several tools which have been developed independently. The features are displayed into standard dashboards, dedicated to each working group, covering different areas, such as Data Quality and Calibration.

Cunha, R.; Solans, C.; Sivolella, A.; Ferreira, F.; Maidantchik, C.

2014-06-01

32

The effect of passive material on the detection of hadrons in calorimeter configurations for the SDC detector  

SciTech Connect

We have used a flexible geometry model of a calorimeter design for SDC to study the effect of passive material in front of the calorimeter and between the barrel and endcap modules on the apparent response to hadrons. The thicknesses of the passive materials have been chosen to closely resemble the currently projected wall thicknesses of the scintillating tile-fiber and liquid-argon calorimeter designs. The liquid-argon model contains about three times the amount of material in its shells compared to the tile-fiber model. The solenoid coil reduces the relative difference somewhat in the barrel region but constitutes only a minor correction in the transition region from barrel to endcap. Correspondingly, we find a significantly worse response for the liquid-argon case which we demonstrate using beams of single {pi}{sup minus} particles of 10 GeV/c momentum. 13 refs., 6 figs.

Kirk, T.B.W.; Trost, H.J.

1991-08-14

33

Some fiber-tile optical studies for SDC electromagnetic calorimeter  

SciTech Connect

A number of different issues have been studied at Argonne for development of the fiber-tile optical system for SDC EM. Results on uniformity, masking and wrapping, beveled tiles, timing, fiber damage, and pressure on the scintillator are presented. The instrumentation and techniques are also briefly discussed.

Underwood, D.G.

1992-11-01

34

Some fiber-tile optical studies for SDC electromagnetic calorimeter  

SciTech Connect

A number of different issues have been studied at Argonne for development of the fiber-tile optical system for SDC EM. Results on uniformity, masking and wrapping, beveled tiles, timing, fiber damage, and pressure on the scintillator are presented. The instrumentation and techniques are also briefly discussed.

Underwood, D.G.

1992-01-01

35

Electron-Hadron Separator for Digital Sampling Calorimeters.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A fast and effective algorithm for electromagnetic and hadronic shower separation has been developed for the digital sampling calorimeter of the CHARM II experiment. It is based on a generalization of the Minimal Spanning Tree concept and can be easily ap...

K. De Winter D. Geiregat P. Vilain G. Wilquet F. Bergsma

1988-01-01

36

Web System for Data Quality Assessment of Tile Calorimeter During the ATLAS Operation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

TileCal, the barrel hadronic calorimeter of the ATLAS experiment, gathers almost about 10,000 electronic channels. The supervision of the detector behavior is very important in order to ensure proper operation. Collaborators perform analysis over reconstructed data of calibration runs for giving detailed considerations about the equipment status. During the commissioning period, our group has developed seven web systems to support the data quality (DQ) assessment task. Each system covers a part of the process by providing information on the latest runs, displaying the DQ status from the monitoring framework, giving details about power supplies operation, presenting the generated plots and storing the validation outcomes, assisting to write logbook entries, creating and submitting the bad channels list to the conditions database and publishing the equipment performance history. The ATLAS operation increases amount of data that are retrieved, processed and stored by the web systems. In order to accomplish the new requirements, an optimized data model was designed to reduce the number of needed queries. The web systems were reassembled in a unique system in order to provide an integrated view of the validating process. The server load was minimized by using asynchronous requests from the browser.

Maidantchik, C.; Ferreira, F.; Grael, F.; Sivolella, A.; Balabram, L.; ATLAS TILE Calorimeter Community

2011-12-01

37

Upgrade plans for hadron calorimeter in the CMS detector  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Large Hadron Collider (LHC) is expected to undergo upgrades in two phases in next decade. Luminosity at the completion of the second phase is expected to increase by an order of magnitude to 10 35/cm 2 s. The upgrade of the CMS Hadron Calorimeter (HCAL) is being planned to sustain an increased dose of radiation and challenges arising from occupancy rate due to higher luminosity. Replacement of existing photo readout device by silicon photomultipliers is being planned for the HCAL. Detailed studies performed on this device are presented. Plans on the upgrade of the front-end electronics, DAQ, trigger, and the active elements in some part of the detector will be discussed in detail.

Dugad, Shashikant R.

2010-11-01

38

A Novel Digital Hadron Calorimeter: Analysis and Calibration with Muons  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This thesis is a report on the design, construction and data analysis of the Digital Hadron Calorimeter (DHCAL). The DHCAL was constructed as part of the CALICE collaboration efforts in the SiD detector design for the proposed International Linear Collider (ILC). The SiD detector design is one of two detector designs for the ILC. The DHCAL is but one of the detector sub-systems that are to make up the entire detector. The CALICE collaboration is involved in the development of calorimeters for the ILC. The DHCAL utilizes Resistive Plate Chamber technology to detect the physics events and is the world's first digital imaging calorimeter. The prototype construction was performed at Argonne National Laboratory and the detector studied locally in a cosmic ray test stand. In addition, the DHCAL was also put into multiple test beam runs at Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory. This work will be completed with the analysis of the DHCAL data with muons. The calibration with muons will be discussed, as well as its purpose to the overall viability of this technology in a full scale detector.

Trojand, Daniel

39

Study of the performance of a semi-digital hadronic calorimeter using Monte Carlo techniques  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Particle Flow Algorithm is one of the main concepts that will be used to measure the energies of hadronic jets at a future International Linear Collider. This method requires a highly granular hadronic calorimeter to measure the energy of jets with a good precision. The Semi-Digital Hadronic Calorimeter using glass resistive plate chambers as sensitive medium is one of the hadronic calorimeters which is used in conjunction with the particle flow method. In this paper, the performance of Semi-Digital Hadronic Calorimeter using glass resistive plate chambers as active elements has been studied by using the GEANT4 simulations. Its main operational characteristics such as mean response and energy resolution have been examined.

Elmahroug, Y.; Tellili, B.; Souga, C.

2014-04-01

40

Upgrade of the CMS hadron calorimeter for an upgraded LHC  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The CMS barrel and endcap hadron calorimeters (Hcal) upgrading the current photo-sensors are hybrid photodiodes (HPDs) to meet the demands of the upgraded luminosity of the LHC. A key aspect of the Hcal upgrade is to add longitudinal segmentation to improve background rejection, energy resolution, and electron isolation at L1 trigger. The increased segmentation can be achieved by replacing the HPD's with multi-pixel Geiger-mode avalanche photodiodes. The upgraded electronics are required to operate in a harsh environment and are constrained by the existing infrastructure. The proposed solutions span from chip level to system level. They include the development of a new ADC ASIC, the design and testing of higher speed transmitters to handle the increased data volume, the evaluation and use of circuits from other developments, evaluation of commercial FPGAs, better thermal design and improvements in the overall architecture.

Anderson, Jacob; the CMS Hcal Collaboration

2012-12-01

41

Test Results of the AFS Hadron Calorimeter at the CERN ISR.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The AFS hadron calorimeter has been designed to permit unbiased selection and study of events characterized by large transverse energy. Half of the calorimeter is now installed at the Intersecting Storage Rings at CERN; in its final form it will cover the...

O. Botner V. Burkert A. Di Ciaccio

1981-01-01

42

Upgrade for the ATLAS Tile Calorimeter Readout Electronics at the High Luminosity LHC  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This work presents an overview of the on-detector and off-detector electronics for the Phase II Upgrade of the ATLAS Tile Calorimeter at the LHC scheduled around 2022. Three options are being studied for the implementation of the new front-end readout: an improved version of the 3-in-1 card, a new version of the QIE chip and a dedicated ASIC called FATALIC. Moreover, the MainBoard will manage incoming signals from the FEBs and the DaughterBoard will send the digitized data to the off-detector electronics where the sROD will perform processing tasks on them. This work summarizes the status of the project.

Carrió, F.

2013-08-01

43

Front end readout electronics for the CMS hadron calorimeter  

SciTech Connect

The front-end electronics for the CMS Hadron Calorimeter provides digitized data at the beam interaction rate of 40 MHz. Analog signals provided by hybrid photodiodes (HPDs) or photomultiplier tubes (PMTs) are digitized and the data is sent off board through serialized fiber optic links running at 1600 Mbps. In order to maximize the input signal, the front-end electronics are housed on the detector in close proximity to the scintillating fibers or phototubes. To fit the electronics into available space, custom crates, backplanes and cooling methods have had to be developed. During the expected ten-year lifetime, the front-end readout electronics will exist in an environment where radiation levels approach 330 rads and the neutron fluence will be 1.3E11 n/cm{sup 2}. For this reason, the design approach relies heavily upon custom radiation tolerant ASICs. This paper will present the system architecture of the front-end readout crates and describe their results with early prototypes.

Terri M. Shaw et al.

2002-11-20

44

A New scintillator tile / fiber preshower detector for the CDF central calorimeter  

SciTech Connect

A detector designed to measure early particle showers has been installed in front of the central CDF calorimeter at the Tevatron. This new preshower detector is based on scintillator tiles coupled to wavelength-shifting fibers read out by multianode photomultipliers and has a total of 3,072 readout channels. The replacement of the old gas detector was required due to an expected increase in instantaneous luminosity of the Tevatron collider in the next few years. Calorimeter coverage, jet energy resolution, and electron and photon identification are among the expected improvements. The final detector design, together with the R&D studies that led to the choice of scintillator and fiber, mechanical assembly, and quality control are presented. The detector was installed in the fall 2004 Tevatron shutdown and is expected to start collecting colliding beam data by the end of 2004. First measurements indicate a light yield of 12 photoelectrons/MIP, a more than two-fold increase over the design goals.

Gallinaro, Michele; /Rockefeller U.; Artikov, A.; Bromberg, C.; Budagov, J.; Byrum, K.; Chang, S.; Chlachidze, G.; Goulianos, K.; Huston, J.; Iori, M.; Kim, M.; Kuhlmann, S.; Lami, S.; Lindgren, M.; Lytken, E.; Miller, R.; Nodulman, L.; Pauletta, G.; Penzo, A.; Proudfoot, J.; Roser, R.; /Argonne /Dubna, JINR /Fermilab /Kyungpook Natl. U. /Michigan State U. /INFN, Siena /Rockefeller U. /INFN, Rome /INFN, Trieste /INFN, Udine /Tsukuba U.

2004-11-01

45

Design, performance, and calibration of the CMS hadron-outer calorimeter  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Outer Hadron Calorimeter (HCAL HO) of the CMS detector is designed to measure the energy that is not contained by the barrel (HCAL HB) and electromagnetic (ECAL EB) calorimeters. Due to space limitation the barrel calorimeters do not contain completely the hadronic shower and an outer calorimeter (HO) was designed, constructed and inserted in the muon system of CMS to measure the energy leakage. Testing and calibration of the HO was carried out in a 300 GeV/c test beam that improved the linearity and resolution. HO will provide a net improvement in missing E T measurements at LHC energies. Information from HO will also be used for the muon trigger in CMS.

Abdullin, S.; Abramov, V.; Acharya, B.; Adam, N.; Adams, M.; Akchurin, N.; Akgun, U.; Albayrak, E.; Anderson, E. W.; Antchev, G.; Arcidy, M.; Ayan, S.; Aydin, S.; Aziz, T.; Baarmand, M.; Babich, K.; Baden, D.; Bakirci, M. N.; Banerjee, Sudeshna; Banerjee, Sunanda; Bard, R.; Barnes, V.; Bawa, H.; Baiatian, G.; Bencze, G.; Beri, S.; Berntzon, L.; Bhandari, V.; Bhatnagar, V.; Bhatti, A.; Bodek, A.; Bose, S.; Bose, T.; Budd, H.; Burchesky, K.; Camporesi, T.; Cankoçak, K.; Carrell, K.; Cerci, S.; Chendvankar, S.; Chung, Y.; Clarida, W.; Cremaldi, L.; Cushman, P.; Damgov, J.; de Barbaro, P.; Debbins, P.; Deliomeroglu, M.; Demianov, A.; de Visser, T.; Deshpande, P. V.; Diaz, J.; Dimitrov, L.; Dugad, S.; Dumanoglu, I.; Duru, F.; Efthymiopoulos, I.; Elias, J.; Elvira, D.; Emeliantchik, I.; Eno, S.; Ershov, A.; Erturk, S.; Esen, S.; Eskut, E.; Fenyvesi, A.; Fisher, W.; Freeman, J.; Ganguli, S. N.; Gaultney, V.; Gamsizkan, H.; Gavrilov, V.; Genchev, V.; Gleyzer, S.; Golutvin, I.; Goncharov, P.; Grassi, T.; Green, D.; Gribushin, A.; Grinev, B.; Guchait, M.; Gurtu, A.; Murat Güler, A.; Gülmez, E.; Gümü?, K.; Haelen, T.; Hagopian, S.; Hagopian, V.; Halyo, V.; Hashemi, M.; Hauptman, J.; Hazen, E.; Heering, A.; Heister, A.; Hunt, A.; Ilyina, N.; Ingram, D.; Isiksal, E.; Jarvis, C.; Jeong, C.; Johnson, K.; Jones, J.; Kaftanov, V.; Kalagin, V.; Kalinin, A.; Kalmani, S.; Karmgard, D.; Kaur, M.; Kaya, M.; Kaya, O.; Kayis-Topaksu, A.; Kellogg, R.; Khmelnikov, A.; Kim, H.; Kisselevich, I.; Kodolova, O.; Kohli, J.; Kolossov, V.; Korablev, A.; Korneev, Y.; Kosarev, I.; Kramer, L.; Krinitsyn, A.; Krishnaswamy, M. R.; Krokhotin, A.; Kryshkin, V.; Kuleshov, S.; Kumar, A.; Kunori, S.; Laasanen, A.; Ladygin, V.; Laird, E.; Landsberg, G.; Laszlo, A.; Lawlor, C.; Lazic, D.; Lee, S. W.; Levchuk, L.; Linn, S.; Litvintsev, D.; Lobolo, L.; Los, S.; Lubinsky, V.; Lukanin, V.; Ma, Y.; Machado, E.; Maity, M.; Majumder, G.; Mans, J.; Marlow, D.; Markowitz, P.; Martinez, G.; Mazumdar, K.; Merlo, J. P.; Mermerkaya, H.; Mescheryakov, G.; Mestvirishvili, A.; Miller, M.; Moeller, A.; Mohammadi-Najafabadi, M.; Moissenz, P.; Mondal, N.; Mossolov, V.; Nagaraj, P.; Narasimham, V. S.; Norbeck, E.; Olson, J.; Onel, Y.; Onengut, G.; Ozkan, C.; Ozkurt, H.; Ozkorucuklu, S.; Ozok, F.; Paktinat, S.; Pal, A.; Patil, M.; Penzo, A.; Petrushanko, S.; Petrosyan, A.; Pikalov, V.; Piperov, S.; Podrasky, V.; Polatoz, A.; Pompos, A.; Popescu, S.; Posch, C.; Pozdnyakov, A.; Qian, W.; Ralich, R. M.; Reddy, L.; Reidy, J.; Rogalev, E.; Roh, Y.; Rohlf, J.; Ronzhin, A.; Ruchti, R.; Ryazanov, A.; Safronov, G.; Sanders, D. A.; Sanzeni, C.; Sarycheva, L.; Satyanarayana, B.; Schmidt, I.; Sekmen, S.; Semenov, S.; Senchishin, V.; Sergeyev, S.; Serin, M.; Sever, R.; Singh, B.; Singh, J. B.; Sirunyan, A.; Skuja, A.; Sharma, S.; Sherwood, B.; Shumeiko, N.; Smirnov, V.; Sogut, K.; Sonmez, N.; Sorokin, P.; Spezziga, M.; Stefanovich, R.; Stolin, V.; Sudhakar, K.; Sulak, L.; Suzuki, I.; Talov, V.; Teplov, K.; Thomas, R.; Tonwar, S.; Topakli, H.; Tully, C.; Turchanovich, L.; Ulyanov, A.; Vanini, A.; Vankov, I.; Vardanyan, I.; Varela, F.; Vergili, M.; Verma, P.; Vesztergombi, G.; Vidal, R.; Vishnevskiy, A.; Vlassov, E.; Vodopiyanov, I.; Volobouev, I.; Volkov, A.; Volodko, A.; Wang, L.; Werner, J.; Wetstein, M.; Winn, D.; Wigmans, R.; Whitmore, J.; Wu, S. X.; Yazgan, E.; Yetkin, T.; Zalan, P.; Zarubin, A.; Zeyrek, M.

2008-10-01

46

Evidence for compensation and study of lateral shower developments in Si/U hadron calorimeters  

SciTech Connect

In a Si/U hadron calorimeter, a combination of low-Z and high-Z materials used as absorber enables the reduction of the calorimeter response to the electromagnetic component of the incoming hadronic showers (the local hardening effect). This paper reports that as a result, a ratio varying from e/{pi} {gt} 1 to e/{pi} {lt} 1 is obtained as a function of the low-Z material thickness, demonstrating the possibility of achieving the compensation condition (e/{pi} = 1).

Borchi, E.; Macii, R. (Florence Univ. (Italy)); Furetta, C.; Paludetto, R.; Pensotti, S.; Rancoita, P.G.; Salvato, G.; Seidman, A.; Vismara, L. (INFN, I-20133 Milan (IT)); Lamarche, F.; Leroy, C.; Manoukian-Bertrand, C. (Montreal Univ., PQ (Canada)); Penzo, A.; Villari, A. (INFN, I-34127 Trieste (IT)); Giubellino, P.; Ramello, L.; Riccati, L. (INFN, I-10125 Turin (IT))

1991-04-01

47

Simulation of a hadron calorimeter for Jefferson Lab Hall-A Super Bigbite Spectrometer  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A ``shashlik'' hadron calorimeter is being designed for the new Super Bigbite Spectrometer in Jefferson Lab Hall-A. The calorimeter will be used in nucleon-coincidence form-factor experiments after Jefferson Lab's 12 GeV upgrade. A Geant4 simulation has been developed to optimize hadron-detection efficiency, time and spatial resolution in a momentum range of 2-10 GeV/c. Significant efforts were made to implement the simulation as realistically as possible. Simulation has been validated by measuring detector-response time resolution for cosmic ray muons in hadron calorimeter blocks of a similar design, used in the COMPASS experiment. Tests with a short decay-time combination, ELJEN 232 scintillator and ELJEN 299-27 wavelength shifter (WLS), were also conducted to study their suitability. The results of these tests indicate that the simulation is able to predict time resolution with better than 5% precision and the ELJEN scintillator WLS combination is suitable for the hadron calorimeter. Simulation indicates ˜1.5 ns FWHM time resolution, 5-3 cm spatial resolution and more than 90% hadron detection efficiency in the momentum range of 2-10 GeV/c.

Mamyan, Vahe

2013-04-01

48

First level calorimeter trigger system for the Large Hadron Collider  

SciTech Connect

As part of an R and D project to study first-level calorimeter triggers for LHC, the authors have designed an Application Specific integrated Circuit (ASIC) which will search for candidate electromagnetic (EM) clusters associated with a particular cell from a 4 x 4 area of the calorimeter. The ASIC takes in sixteen (4 x 4) 8-bit digitized signals from the calorimeter and will provide two results: (1) a flag to indicate the presence of an EM cluster.;(2) a sum over the 4 x 4 area which will be used in the subsequent logic in the trigger system to search for jets and to calculate missing transverse energy. In LHC the bunch-crossing period is 15 ns, and therefore the logic is implemented on the ASIC using a pipelined architecture, with pipeline steps of 15 ns. The algorithm has been implemented on a 0.8 micron CMOS gate array, and is packaged in a 179 pin ceramic Pin Grid Array. The ASIC has been tested above the full operating frequency of 67 MHz.

Eisenhandler, E. (Univ. of London (United Kingdom). Queen Mary and Westfield Coll.); Gee, N.; Gillman, A.; Perera, V.; Quinton, S. (Rutherford Appleton Lab. (United Kingdom)); Ellis, N.; Fensome, I.; Garvey, J.; Jovanovic, P.; Staley, R.; Watson, A. (Univ. of Birmingham (United Kingdom))

1993-08-01

49

Hadron energy response of the Iron Calorimeter detector at the India-based Neutrino Observatory  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The results of a Monte Carlo simulation study of the hadron energy response for the magnetized Iron CALorimeter detector, ICAL, proposed to be located at the India-based Neutrino Observatory (INO) is presented. Using a GEANT4 modeling of the detector ICAL, interactions of atmospheric neutrinos with target nuclei are simulated. The detector response to hadrons propagating through it is investigated using the hadron hit multiplicity in the active detector elements. The detector response to charged pions of fixed energy is studied first, followed by the average response to the hadrons produced in atmospheric neutrino interactions using events simulated with the NUANCE event generator. The shape of the hit distribution is observed to fit the Vavilov distribution, which reduces to a Gaussian at high energies. In terms of the parameters of this distribution, we present the hadron energy resolution as a function of hadron energy, and the calibration of hadron energy as a function of the hit multiplicity. The energy resolution for hadrons is found to be in the range 85% (for 1 GeV) - 36% (for 15 GeV).

Devi, M. M.; Ghosh, A.; Kaur, D.; Lakshmi, S. M.; Choubey, S.; Dighe, A.; Indumathi, D.; Kumar, S.; Murthy, M. V. N.; Naimuddin, Md

2013-11-01

50

Hadronic response and e ? separation with the H1 lead\\/fibre calorimeter  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hadronic response and electron identification performance of the new H1 lead-scintillating fibre calorimeter are investigated in the 1 to 7 GeV energy range using data taken at the CERN Proton Synchrotron. The energy response to minimum ionizing particles and interacting pions are studied and compared to Monte Carlo simulations. The measured energy of pions interacting either in the electromagnetic or

R.-D. Appuhn; C. Arndt; E. Barrelet; R. Barschke; U. Bassler; R. Buchholz; D. Bruncko; S. Chechelnitski; B. Claxton; G. Cozzika; J. Cvach; S. Dagoret-Campagne; W. D. Dau; H. Deckers; T. Deckers; F. Descamps; M. Dirkmann; J. Dowdell; V. Efremenko; E. Eisenhandler; A. N. Eliseev; J. Ferencei; B. Fominykh; U. Goerlach; L. A. Gorbov; I. Gorelov; L. Hajduk; I. Herynek; J. Hladký; M. Hütte; H. Hutter; W. Janczur; J. Janoth; L. Jönsson; H. Kolanoski; V. Korbel; F. Krivan; D. Lacour; F. Lamarche; M. P. J. Landon; B. Laforge; J.-F. Laporte; F. Lehner; K. Meier; A. Meyer; A. Migliori; F. Moreau; G. Müller; P. Murín; V. Nagovizin; T. C. Nicholls; D. Ozerov; E. Perez; J. P. Pharabod; R. Pöschl; K. Rybicki; A. Rostovtsev; C. Royon; S. Schleif; A. Schuhmacher; A. Semenov; V. Shekelyan; Y. Sirois; P. A. Smirnov; V. Solochenko; S. Spielmann; H. Steiner; J. Stiewe; V. Tchernyshov; S. Valkár; D. Vandenplas; G. Villet; K. Wacker; A. Walther; M. Weber; D. Wegener; T. Wenk; A. Zhokin; K. Zuber

1996-01-01

51

The SDC central calorimeter  

SciTech Connect

An overview of the calorimeter being designed and constructed by Solenoidal Detector Collaboration (SDC) for use at the Superconducting SuperCollider is presented. The collaboration have chosen to build a sampling calorimeter using scintillating tile with wavelength-shifter fiber readout as the detector medium, and absorber media of lead and iron for the electromagnetic and hadronic compartments. This choice was based on a substantial amount of R D and Monte Carlo simulation calculations, which showed that it both met the necessary experimental specifications in addition to being a cost effect design.

Proudfoot, J.

1992-01-01

52

The SDC central calorimeter  

SciTech Connect

An overview of the calorimeter being designed and constructed by Solenoidal Detector Collaboration (SDC) for use at the Superconducting SuperCollider is presented. The collaboration have chosen to build a sampling calorimeter using scintillating tile with wavelength-shifter fiber readout as the detector medium, and absorber media of lead and iron for the electromagnetic and hadronic compartments. This choice was based on a substantial amount of R&D and Monte Carlo simulation calculations, which showed that it both met the necessary experimental specifications in addition to being a cost effect design.

Proudfoot, J.; The SDC Collaboration

1992-11-01

53

Calorimeter based detectors for high energy hadron colliders. [Progress report  

SciTech Connect

The work was directed in two complementary directions, the D0 experiment at Fermilab, and the GEM detector for the SSC. Efforts have been towards the data taking and analysis with the newly commissioned D0 detector at Fermilab in the {bar p}p Collider run that started in May 1992 and ended on June 1, 1993. We involved running and calibration of the calorimeter and tracking chambers, the second level trigger development, and various parts of the data analysis, as well as studies for the D0 upgrade planned in the second half of this decade. Another major accomplishment was the ``delivery`` of the Technical Design Report for the GEM SSC detector. Efforts to the overall detector and magnet design, design of the facilities, installation studies, muon system coordination, muon chamber design and tests, muon system simulation studies, and physics simulation studies. In this document we describe these activities separately.

Not Available

1993-06-23

54

Calorimeter based detectors for high energy hadron colliders  

SciTech Connect

The work was directed in two complementary directions, the D0 experiment at Fermilab, and the GEM detector for the SSC. Efforts have been towards the data taking and analysis with the newly commissioned D0 detector at Fermilab in the [bar p]p Collider run that started in May 1992 and ended on June 1, 1993. We involved running and calibration of the calorimeter and tracking chambers, the second level trigger development, and various parts of the data analysis, as well as studies for the D0 upgrade planned in the second half of this decade. Another major accomplishment was the delivery'' of the Technical Design Report for the GEM SSC detector. Efforts to the overall detector and magnet design, design of the facilities, installation studies, muon system coordination, muon chamber design and tests, muon system simulation studies, and physics simulation studies. In this document we describe these activities separately.

Not Available

1993-06-23

55

Single hadron response measurement and calorimeter jet energy scale uncertainty with the ATLAS detector at the LHC  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The uncertainty on the calorimeter energy response to jets of particles is derived for the ATLAS experiment at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). First, the calorimeter response to single isolated charged hadrons is measured and compared to the Monte Carlo simulation using proton-proton collisions at centre-of-mass energies of sqrt{s} = 900 {GeV} and 7 TeV collected during 2009 and 2010. Then, using the decay of K s and ? particles, the calorimeter response to specific types of particles (positively and negatively charged pions, protons, and anti-protons) is measured and compared to the Monte Carlo predictions. Finally, the jet energy scale uncertainty is determined by propagating the response uncertainty for single charged and neutral particles to jets. The response uncertainty is 2-5 % for central isolated hadrons and 1-3 % for the final calorimeter jet energy scale.

Aad, G.; Abbott, B.; Abdallah, J.; Abdelalim, A. A.; Abdesselam, A.; Abdinov, O.; Abi, B.; Abolins, M.; AbouZeid, O. S.; Abramowicz, H.; Abreu, H.; Acerbi, E.; Acharya, B. S.; Adamczyk, L.; Adams, D. L.; Addy, T. N.; Adelman, J.; Aderholz, M.; Adomeit, S.; Adragna, P.; Adye, T.; Aefsky, S.; Aguilar-Saavedra, J. A.; Aharrouche, M.; Ahlen, S. P.; Ahles, F.; Ahmad, A.; Ahsan, M.; Aielli, G.; Akdogan, T.; Åkesson, T. P. A.; Akimoto, G.; Akimov, A. V.; Akiyama, A.; Alam, M. S.; Alam, M. A.; Albert, J.; Albrand, S.; Aleksa, M.; Aleksandrov, I. N.; Alessandria, F.; Alexa, C.; Alexander, G.; Alexandre, G.; Alexopoulos, T.; Alhroob, M.; Aliev, M.; Alimonti, G.; Alison, J.; Aliyev, M.; Allbrooke, B. M. M.; Allport, P. P.; Allwood-Spiers, S. E.; Almond, J.; Aloisio, A.; Alon, R.; Alonso, A.; Alvarez Gonzalez, B.; Alviggi, M. G.; Amako, K.; Amaral, P.; Amelung, C.; Ammosov, V. V.; Amorim, A.; Amorós, G.; Amram, N.; Anastopoulos, C.; Ancu, L. S.; Andari, N.; Andeen, T.; Anders, C. F.; Anders, G.; Anderson, K. J.; Andreazza, A.; Andrei, V.; Andrieux, M.-L.; Anduaga, X. S.; Angerami, A.; Anghinolfi, F.; Anisenkov, A.; Anjos, N.; Annovi, A.; Antonaki, A.; Antonelli, M.; Antonov, A.; Antos, J.; Anulli, F.; Aoun, S.; Aperio Bella, L.; Apolle, R.; Arabidze, G.; Aracena, I.; Arai, Y.; Arce, A. T. H.; Arfaoui, S.; Arguin, J.-F.; Arik, E.; Arik, M.; Armbruster, A. J.; Arnaez, O.; Arnault, C.; Artamonov, A.; Artoni, G.; Arutinov, D.; Asai, S.; Asfandiyarov, R.; Ask, S.; Åsman, B.; Asquith, L.; Assamagan, K.; Astbury, A.; Astvatsatourov, A.; Aubert, B.; Auge, E.; Augsten, K.; Aurousseau, M.; Avolio, G.; Avramidou, R.; Axen, D.; Ay, C.; Azuelos, G.; Azuma, Y.; Baak, M. A.; Baccaglioni, G.; Bacci, C.; Bach, A. M.; Bachacou, H.; Bachas, K.; Backes, M.; Backhaus, M.; Badescu, E.; Bagnaia, P.; Bahinipati, S.; Bai, Y.; Bailey, D. C.; Bain, T.; Baines, J. T.; Baker, O. K.; Baker, M. D.; Baker, S.; Banas, E.; Banerjee, P.; Banerjee, Sw.; Banfi, D.; Bangert, A.; Bansal, V.; Bansil, H. S.; Barak, L.; Baranov, S. P.; Barashkou, A.; Barbaro Galtieri, A.; Barber, T.; Barberio, E. L.; Barberis, D.; Barbero, M.; Bardin, D. Y.; Barillari, T.; Barisonzi, M.; Barklow, T.; Barlow, N.; Barnett, B. M.; Barnett, R. M.; Baroncelli, A.; Barone, G.; Barr, A. J.; Barreiro, F.; Barreiro Guimarães da Costa, J.; Barrillon, P.; Bartoldus, R.; Barton, A. E.; Bartsch, V.; Bates, R. L.; Batkova, L.; Batley, J. R.; Battaglia, A.; Battistin, M.; Bauer, F.; Bawa, H. S.; Beale, S.; Beau, T.; Beauchemin, P. H.; Beccherle, R.; Bechtle, P.; Beck, H. P.; Becker, S.; Beckingham, M.; Becks, K. H.; Beddall, A. J.; Beddall, A.; Bedikian, S.; Bednyakov, V. A.; Bee, C. P.; Begel, M.; Behar Harpaz, S.; Behera, P. K.; Beimforde, M.; Belanger-Champagne, C.; Bell, P. J.; Bell, W. H.; Bella, G.; Bellagamba, L.; Bellina, F.; Bellomo, M.; Belloni, A.; Beloborodova, O.; Belotskiy, K.; Beltramello, O.; Ben Ami, S.; Benary, O.; Benchekroun, D.; Benchouk, C.; Bendel, M.; Benekos, N.; Benhammou, Y.; Benhar Noccioli, E.; Benitez Garcia, J. A.; Benjamin, D. P.; Benoit, M.; Bensinger, J. R.; Benslama, K.; Bentvelsen, S.; Berge, D.; Bergeaas Kuutmann, E.; Berger, N.; Berghaus, F.; Berglund, E.; Beringer, J.; Bernat, P.; Bernhard, R.; Bernius, C.; Berry, T.; Bertella, C.; Bertin, A.; Bertinelli, F.; Bertolucci, F.; Besana, M. I.; Besson, N.; Bethke, S.; Bhimji, W.; Bianchi, R. M.; Bianco, M.; Biebel, O.; Bieniek, S. P.; Bierwagen, K.; Biesiada, J.; Biglietti, M.; Bilokon, H.; Bindi, M.; Binet, S.; Bingul, A.; Bini, C.; Biscarat, C.; Bitenc, U.; Black, K. M.; Blair, R. E.; Blanchard, J.-B.; Blanchot, G.; Blazek, T.; Blocker, C.; Blocki, J.; Blondel, A.; Blum, W.; Blumenschein, U.; Bobbink, G. J.; Bobrovnikov, V. B.; Bocchetta, S. S.; Bocci, A.; Boddy, C. R.; Boehler, M.; Boek, J.; Boelaert, N.; Bogaerts, J. A.; Bogdanchikov, A.; Bogouch, A.; Bohm, C.; Boisvert, V.; Bold, T.; Boldea, V.; Bolnet, N. M.; Bona, M.; Bondarenko, V. G.; Bondioli, M.; Boonekamp, M.; Booth, C. N.; Bordoni, S.; Borer, C.; Borisov, A.; Borissov, G.; Borjanovic, I.; Borri, M.; Borroni, S.; Bortolotto, V.; Bos, K.; Boscherini, D.; Bosman, M.; Boterenbrood, H.; Botterill, D.; Bouchami, J.; Boudreau, J.; Bouhova-Thacker, E. V.; Boumediene, D.; Bourdarios, C.; Bousson, N.; Boveia, A.; Boyd, J.; Boyko, I. R.; Bozhko, N. I.; Bozovic-Jelisavcic, I.; Bracinik, J.; Braem, A.; Branchini, P.; Brandenburg, G. W.; Brandt, A.; Brandt, G.; Brandt, O.; Bratzler, U.; Brau, B.; Brau, J. E.; Braun, H. M.; Brelier, B.; Bremer, J.; Brenner, R.; Bressler, S.; Britton, D.; Brochu, F. M.; Brock, I.; Brock, R.; Brodbeck, T. J.; Brodet, E.; Broggi, F.; Bromberg, C.; Bronner, J.; Brooijmans, G.; Brooks, W. K.; Brown, G.; Brown, H.; Bruckman de Renstrom, P. A.; Bruncko, D.; Bruneliere, R.; Brunet, S.; Bruni, A.; Bruni, G.

2013-03-01

56

High-pT hadronic trigger using electromagnetic calorimeter with the STAR detector  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We derive a new method to improve the statistics of identified particles at high transverse momentum (pT) using online-triggered events by the STAR Barrel electro-magnetic-calorimeter (BEMC) detector. The BEMC is used to select charged hadrons (?±,K±, and p(p¯)) via hadronic shower energy deposited in the BEMC. With this trigger, the statistics of the high pT particles are significantly enhanced (by a factor of up to ˜100 for STAR) with trigger efficiency up to 20%. In addition, weak-decay V0s (KS0 and ?(?¯)) can be reconstructed by selecting the BEMC-trigger hadron as one of the decay daughters. We also show that the trigger efficiency can be obtained reliably in simulation and data-driven approaches, and final results from new method are compared with previous published results.

Da, Hongyu; Cui, Xiangli; Xu, Yichun; Dong, Xin; Dunlop, James C.; Ruan, Lijuan; Tang, Zebo; Timmins, Anthony; Van Buren, Gene; Wang, Xiaolian; Xu, Zhangbu

2013-01-01

57

Channel control ASIC for the CMS hadron calorimeter front end readout module  

SciTech Connect

The Channel Control ASIC (CCA) is used along with a custom Charge Integrator and Encoder (QIE) ASIC to digitize signals from the hybrid photo diodes (HPDs) and photomultiplier tubes (PMTs) in the CMS hadron calorimeter. The CCA sits between the QIE and the data acquisition system. All digital signals to and from the QIE pass through the CCA chip. One CCA chip interfaces with two QIE channels. The CCA provides individually delayed clocks to each of the QIE chips in addition to various control signals. The QIE sends digitized PMT or HPD signals and time slice information to the CCA, which sends the data to the data acquisition system through an optical link.

Ray Yarema et al.

2002-09-26

58

The hadron calorimeter of EAS-TOP: operation, calibration and resolution.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The authors describe and discuss the operation, calibration and stability of the EAS-TOP calorimeter (Campo Imperatore, National Gran Sasso Laboratories), a large area hadron and muon detector devoted to cosmic-ray physics. It consists of iron slabs (for a total thickness of 818 g cm-2) and Iarocci tubes as sensitive layers, operating in the streamer mode and the "quasi proportional" regime. Using a model describing the operation of the "quasi proportional" chambers, the authors derive a calibration curve in the energy range 50 - 5000 GeV, whose reliability has been indirectly checked through on-site measurements, by means of an accelerator beam run (up to ?600 - 700 GeV) and by comparing the model predictions on hadron shower transition curves with the data.

Falcone, R. A.; Aglietta, M.; Alessandro, B.; Antonioli, P.; Arneodo, F.; Bergamasco, L.; Bertaina, M.; Bertoni, R.; Fauth, A. C.; Castagnoli, C.; Castellina, A.; Chiavassa, A.; Castagnoli, G. C.; D'Ettorre Piazzoli, B.; di Sciascio, G.; Fulgione, W.; Galeotti, P.; Ghia, P. L.; Giuliano, A.; Iacovacci, M.; Mannocchi, G.; Morello, C.; Navarra, G.; Nogima, H.; Riccati, L.; Saavedra, O.; Tatananni, E.; Trinchero, G. C.; Vallania, P.; Vernetto, S.; Vigorito, C.

1999-01-01

59

Conceptual Design Calculations for the Neutral Pion Hadron Calorimeter (JLab Hall C 12 GeV)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The neutral pion's properties and the additional strange quark in the kaon are opportune to study the proton's substructure through General Parton Distributions (GPDs), which describe the movements, placements, and momenta of the quarks inside the proton. In pion or kaon electroproduction a neutral pion or kaon is produced. The neutral pion has a short mean lifetime and decays into two real photons. To study the structure of the proton, we have to analyze the neutral pion and the kaon and their decay products, and thus need dedicated detectors. For the neutral pion, a hadronic calorimeter can be placed in the decay photons' trajectory. For the kaon reaction, the most efficient detection method is an aerogel Cerenkov detector. Both cases rely on detector performance, and thus it is important to evaluate the conceptual design and all components of the detector carefully. In this presentation I will present results of conceptual design studies for the p^o hadron calorimeter and of a new method based on biological techniques to evaluate the aerogel material index of refraction for the kaon detector.

Gilbo, Yekaterina

2011-10-01

60

Avalanche photodiodes and vacuum phototriodes for the electromagnetic calorimeter of the CMS experiment at the Large Hadron Collider  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The homogeneous lead tungstate electromagnetic calorimeter for the Compact Muon Solenoid (CMS) detector at the Large Hadron Collider operates in a challenging radiation environment. The central region of the calorimeter uses large-area avalanche photodiodes to detect the fast blue-violet scintillation light from the crystals. The high hadron fluence in the forward region precludes the use of these photodiodes and vacuum phototriodes are used in this region. The constructional complexity of the calorimeter, which comprises 75848 individual crystals, plus the activation of material make repair during the lifetime of the detector virtually impossible. We describe here the key features and performance of the photodetectors and the quality assurance procedures that were used to ensure that the proportion of photodetectors that fail over the lifetime of CMS will be limited to a fraction of a percent.

Hobson, Peter R.

2009-06-01

61

Charge integrator and encoder ASIC for readout of the CMS hadron calorimeter photodetectors  

SciTech Connect

A charge integrator and encoder ASIC is being developed at Fermilab for readout of the CMS hadron calorimeter photodetectors. The chip provides eight nonoverlapping ranges and is pipelined for deadtimeless operation. It is intended to be used with an FADC to digitize hybrid photodiode current pulses at 40 MHz. For each clock period, one range is selected depending on the signal magnitude, and the output of that range is fed to the FADC to form the mantissa. The selected range is encoded and output as a 3-bit digital exponent. Previous versions of this device have been designed for use with photomultipliers which can have high gain. Hybrid photodiodes have gains of only a few thousand so that a new version of the chip is needed which includes a current-mode preamplifier. The principle of the device is described and early results from a demonstrator project are presented.

A. Baumbaugh et al.

1998-11-01

62

CDF End Plug calorimeter Upgrade Project  

SciTech Connect

We report on the status of the CDF End Plug Upgrade Project. In this project, the CDF calorimeters in the end plug and the forward regions will be replaced by a single scintillator based calorimeter. After an extensive R&D effort on the tile/fiber calorimetry, we have now advanced to a construction phase. We review the results of the R&D leading to the final design of the calorimeters and the development of tooling devised for this project. The quality control program of the production of the electromagnetic and hadronic calorimeters is described. A shower maximum detector for the measurement of the shower centroid and the shower profile of electrons, {gamma} and {pi}{sup 0} has been designed. Its performance requirements, R&D results and mechanical design are discussed.

Apollinari, G. [Rockefeller Univ., New York, NY (United States); de Barbaro, P. [Rochester Univ., NY (United States); Mishina, M. [National Lab. for High Energy Physics, Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan)

1994-01-01

63

Status of the CALICE analog calorimeter technological prototypes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The CALICE collaboration is currently developing engineering prototypes of electromagnetic and hadronic calorimeters for a future linear collider detector. This detector is designed to be used in particle-flow based event reconstruction. In particular, the calorimeters are optimized for the individual reconstruction and separation of electromagnetic and hadronic showers. They are conceived as sampling calorimeters with tungsten and steel absorbers, respectively. Two electromagnetic calorimeters are being developed, one with silicon-based active layers and one based on scintillator strips that are read out by MPPCs, allowing highly granular readout. The analog hadron calorimeter is based on scintillating tiles that are also read out individually by silicon photomultipliers. The multi-channel, auto-triggered front-end chips are integrated into the active layers of the calorimeters and are designed for minimal power consumption (power pulsing). The goal of the construction of these prototypes is to demonstrate the feasibility of building and operating detectors with fully integrated front-end electronics. The concept and engineering status of these prototypes are reported here.

Terwort, Mark; CALICE Collaboration

2012-12-01

64

a Study of Electromagnetic and Hadronic Shower Shapes and Position Resolution, and the Jet Energy Response of the D-Zero Calorimeter  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The D-Zero experiment at Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory examines proton-antiproton collisions at a center of mass energy of 1.8 TeV. An analysis of the response of the D-Zero calorimeter to single electrons and pions has been performed. The data were obtained from beam tests performed on end calorimeter modules between May and August of 1990. The shapes of electromagnetic and hadronic energy showers were as expected, and agreed with Monte Carlo simulations of the detector. Many methods were investigated to determine the transverse position of the centroid of a particle shower. A corrected-center-of-gravity method gave good results for electromagnetic showers. For hadronic showers, the best algorithm for determining shower centroid position was a center-of-gravity type of calculation with specific weights using all the longitudinal layers of the calorimeter. In both the electromagnetic and hadronic case, the magnitudes of optimized readout tower thresholds indicated that the tails of the transverse energy distributions could be ignored in calculations of position. The energy dependence of the electromagnetic position resolution was found to be sigma(rcdot phi ) = 17.9 +/- 0.4)E ^{-0.685+/- 0.005} mm and of the hadronic position resolution was sigma (rcdot phi) = (54.9 +/- 1.3)E^{-0.551 +/- 0.005 } mm. The energy dependence of the hadronic position resolution in the current D-Zero Monte Carlo does not follow the idealized E^{-1/2} behavior. The angular dependence of the position resolution was as expected. The energy response for jets in the D-Zero calorimeter can be estimated from the energy response of the calorimeter to single particles, convoluted with the particle content of jets. The transverse energy of jets calculated by summing simulated single particles reproduced the energy dependence for jets produced in the calorimeter using the event generator ISAJET. To use test-beam data as input for calculating the jet energy expected in the collider environment, the Monte Carlo will have to be tuned to match the test beam data, a reliable simulation of jet fragmentation must be found, and effects due to energy leakage in and out of the jet cone must be measured in each event.

Durston, Sarah Joy

1993-01-01

65

CMS hadron calorimeter front-end upgrade for SLHC phase I  

SciTech Connect

We present an upgrade plan for the CMS HCAL detector. The HCAL upgrade is required for the increased luminosity (3 * 10E34) of SLHC Phase I which is targeted for 2014. A key aspect of the HCAL upgrade is to add longitudinal segmentation to improve background rejection, energy resolution, and electron isolation at the L1 trigger. The increased segmentation is achieved by replacing the hybrid photodiodes (HPDs) with silicon PMTs (SIPMs). We plan to instrument each fiber of the calorimeter with an SIPM (103,000 total). We will then electrically sum outputs from selected SIPMs to form the longitudinal readout segments. In addition to having more longitudinal information, the upgrade plans include a new custom ADC with matched sensitivity and timing information. The increased data volume requires higher speed transmitters and the additional power dissipation for the readout electronics requires better thermal design, since much of the on-detector infrastructure (front-end electronics crates, cooling pipes, optical fiber plant, etc.) will remain the same. We will report on the preliminary designs for these upgraded systems, along with performance requirements and initial design studies.

Whitmore, Juliana; /Fermilab

2009-09-01

66

A New Calibration Technique for the ALICE Electromagnetic Calorimeter at the Large Hadron Collider  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Large Hadron Collider at CERN is the world's largest and highest energy, particle and heavy ion collider. The LHC will explore the frontiers of particle physics using high energy proton+proton collisions and the properties of the Quark-Gluon Plasma through the collision of heavy nuclei at high energy. ALICE is one of the four LHC experiments, specialized for the study of heavy ion collisions. This study presents a new technique for the calibration of an essential detector of ALICE - the EMCal. We utilize various computational techniques and analyze proton-proton collision data recorded at 900 GeV. The ALICE TPC is used to isolate the tracks of e+e- pairs that originate from the decay of j/psi particle and that fall within the EMCal's acceptance. The TPC measures the momentum of these electron tracks, which is compared to the energy deposited by them in the EMCal. We therefore use the precise measurement of TPC momentum as the reference to calibrate the EMCal energy measurement. In this presentation we will show the steps taken to analyze the data from the TPC, how we performed the matching of electron tracks from the j/psi decay with the energy deposited in the EMCal, and some preliminary results of this calibration technique. Research funded by NSF and DoE.

Watkins, E.; Perales, M.; Cervantes, M.; Garcia-Solis, E.; Sakai, S.; Ploskon, M.; Jacobs, P.

2010-11-01

67

Study of energy response and resolution of the ATLAS barrel calorimeter to hadrons of energies from 20 to 350 GeV  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A fully instrumented slice of the ATLAS detector was exposed to test beams from the SPS (Super Proton Synchrotron) at CERN in 2004. In this paper, the results of the measurements of the response of the barrel calorimeter to hadrons with energies in the range 20-350 GeV and beam impact points and angles corresponding to pseudo-rapidity values in the range 0.2-0.65 are reported. The results are compared to the predictions of a simulation program using the Geant 4 toolkit.

Atlas Secretariat; Abat, E.; Abdallah, J. M.; Addy, T. N.; Adragna, P.; Aharrouche, M.; Ahmad, A.; Akesson, T. P. A.; Aleksa, M.; Alexa, C.; Anderson, K.; Anghinolfi, F.; Antonaki, A.; Arabidze, G.; Arik, E.; Baker, O. K.; Banfi, D.; Baron, S.; Beck, H. P.; Belhorma, B.; Benchekroun, D.; Benjamin, D. P.; Benslama, K.; Bergeaas Kuutmann, E.; Bertelsen, H.; Binet, S.; Biscarat, C.; Boldea, V.; Bondarenko, V. G.; Boonekamp, M.; Bosman, M.; Bourdarios, C.; Burckhart Chromek, D.; Bychkov, V.; Callahan, J.; Calvet, D.; Canneri, M.; Capeáns Garrido, M.; Caprini, M.; Cardiel Sas, L.; Carli, T.; Carminati, L.; Carvalho, J.; Cascella, M.; Castillo, M. V.; Catinaccio, A.; Cavalli Sforza, M.; Cavalli, D.; Cavasinni, V.; Cetin, S. A.; Chen, H.; Cherkaoui, R.; Chevallier, F.; Ciobotaru, M.; Citterio, M.; Cleland, B.; Cogneras, E.; Conde Muino, P.; Consonni, M.; Constantinescu, S.; Cornelissen, T.; Corso Radu, A.; Costa, G.; Cwetanski, P.; da Silva, D.; Dam, M.; Danielsson, H. O.; Dannheim, D.; Davidek, T.; de, K.; Defay, P. O.; Dekhissi, B.; Del Peso, J.; Delmastro, M.; Del Prete, T.; Derue, F.; di Ciaccio, L.; di Girolamo, B.; Dita, S.; Dittus, F.; Djama, F.; Djobava, T.; Dobson, M.; Dolgoshein, B. A.; Dotti, A.; Drake, G.; Dressnandt, N.; Driouchi, C.; Ebenstein, W. L.; Eerola, P.; Efthymiopoulos, I.; Egorov, K.; Eifert, T. F.; El Kacimi, M.; Etienvre, A. I.; Fabich, A.; Fakhr-Edine, A. I.; Fanti, M.; Farbin, A.; Farthouat, P.; Fassouliotis, D.; Fayard, L.; Febbraro, R.; Fedin, O. L.; Fenyuk, A.; Ferrari, R.; Ferreira, B. C.; Ferrer, A.; Filippini, G.; Fournier, D.; Francavilla, P.; Francis, D.; Froeschl, R.; Froidevaux, D.; Fullana, E.; Gadomski, S.; Gagnon, P.; Gameiro, S.; Garcia, R.; Ghodbane, N.; Giakoumopoulou, V.; Giangiobbe, V.; Giokaris, N.; Glonti, G.; Gollub, N.; Gomes, A.; Gomez, M. D.; González, V.; Gorini, B.; Goujdami, D.; Grahn, K. J.; Grenier, P.; Grigalashvili, N.; Grishkevich, Y.; Gruwe, M.; Guicheney, C.; Gupta, A.; Haeberli, C.; Hajduk, Z.; Hakobyan, H.; Hance, M.; Hansen, P. H.; Harvey, A.; Henriques Correia, A.; Hervas, L.; Higon, E.; Hoffman, J.; Hostachy, J. Y.; Hruska, I.; Hubaut, F.; Hulsbergen, W.; Hurwitz, M.; Iconomidou-Fayard, L.; Jen-La Plante, I.; Johansson, P. D. C.; Jon-And, K.; Joos, M.; Jorgensen, S.; Kaczmarska, A.; Kado, M.; Karyukhin, A.; Kataoka, M.; Kayumov, F.; Kazarov, A.; Keener, P. T.; Kekelidze, G. D.; Kerschen, N.; Khoriauli, G.; Khramov, E.; Khristachev, A.; Khubua, J.; Kittelmann, T. H.; Klinkby, E.; Koffas, T.; Kolos, S.; Konovalov, S. P.; Kopikov, S.; Korolkov, I.; Kovalenko, S.; Kowalski, T. Z.; Krüger, K.; Kramarenko, V.; Kudin, L. G.; Kulchitsky, Y.; Lafaye, R.; Laforge, B.; Lampl, W.; Lanni, F.; Laplace, S.; Le Bihan, A. C.; Lechowski, M.; Ledroit-Guillon, F.; Lehmann, G.; Leitner, R.; Lelas, D.; Liang, Z.; Liang, Z.; Lichard, P.; Lokajicek, M.; Louchard, L.; Loureiro, K.; Lucotte, A.; Luehring, F.; Lundberg, B.; Lund-Jensen, B.; Ma, H.; Mackeprang, R.; Maio, A.; Maleev, V. P.; Malek, F.; Maneira, J.; Mandelli, L.; Mazzanti, M.; Manousakis, A.; Mapelli, L.; Marques, C.; Martin, F.; Mazzanti, M.; McFarlane, K. W.; McHedlidze, G.; McPherson, R.; Meirosu, C.; Meng, Z.; Miagkov, A.; Mialkovski, V.; Milstead, D.; Minashvili, I.; Mindur, B.; Mitsou, V. A.; Monnier, E.; Morozov, S. V.; Mosidze, M.; Mouraviev, S. V.; Munar, A.; Nadtochi, A. V.; Negri, A.; Nemecek, S.; Nessi, M.; Nesterov, S. Y.; Newcomer, F. M.; Nikitine, I.; Nikolic-Audit, I.; Ogren, H.; Oh, S. H.; Oleshko, S. B.; Olszowska, J.; Onofre, A.; Padilla Aranda, C.; Paganis, S.; Pallin, D.; Pantea, D.; Paolone, V.; Parsons, J.; Pasqualucci, E.; Passmore, M. S.; Patrichev, S.; Peez, M.; Perez Reale, V.; Perini, L.; Peshekhonov, V. D.; Petersen, J.; Petersen, T. C.; Petti, R.; Pilcher, J.; Pina, J.; Pinto, B.; Podlyski, F.; Poggioli, L.; Poveda, J.; Pralavorio, P.; Pribyl, L.; Price, M. J.; Prieur, D.; Puigdengoles, C.; Puzo, P.; Rajagopalan, S.; Rembser, C.; Ridel, M.; Riu, I.; Roda, C.; Rohne, O.; Romaniouk, A.; Rousseau, D.; Ruiz, A.; Rusakovich, N.; Rust, D.; Ryabov, Y. F.; Ryjov, V.; Salto, O.; Salvachua, B.; Sanchis, E.; Santamarina Rios, C.; Santoni, C.; Saraiva, J. G.; Sarri, F.; Sauvage, G.; Says, L. P.; Schaefer, M.; Schegelsky, V. A.; Schlager, G.; Schlereth, J.; Schmitt, C.; Schwemling, P.; Schwindling, J.; Seixas, J. M.; Seliverstov, D. M.; Serin, L.; Shalanda, N.; Shin, T.; Shmeleva, A.; Silva, J.; Simion, S.; Simonyan, M.; Sloper, J. E.; Smirnov, S. Yu.; Smirnova, L.; Solans, C.; Solodkov, A.; Solovianov, O.; Soloviev, I.; Sosnovtsev, V. V.; Spanò, F.; Speckmeyer, P.; Stancu, S.; Stanek, R.; Starchenko, E.; Straessner, A.; Suchkov, S. I.; Suk, M.; Szczygiel, R. R.; Tarrade, F.; Tartarelli, F.; Tas, P.; Tayalati, Y.; Teuscher, R.; Thioye, M.; Tikhomirov, V. O.

2010-09-01

68

Hadron Calorimetry  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Hadron calorimetry has been a rapidly developing field in the past few decades. Perhaps not too far in the future, a realistic calorimeter will be capable of measuring the energies of all the fundamental particles with ˜1% precision. Currently, calorimeters with unprecedented complexity attest to the knowledge and experience that have been accumulated in high energy physics. In this review, we touch on fundamental concepts and explain new developments that we expect to be important in the future. In addition to describing applications in accelerator-based high energy physics, we briefly mention the use of hadron calorimeters in other fields.

Akchurin, Nural; Wigmans, Richard

2012-02-01

69

Dependence of Cerenkov-radiation intensity on energy of hadron showers caused by positive pions in an electromagnetic calorimeter  

SciTech Connect

A general form of functions describing the intensity distribution of Cerenkov light from hadron showers caused by positive pions with momenta of 4-11 GeV/c in a lead-glass radiator with a length of 14 radiation units is obtained by analysis of experimental material. 9 refs., 4 figs.

Velev, G.V.; Glagolev, V.V.; Malyukov, S.N.; Rusakovich, N.A.; Rusakovich, N.L. [Joint Institute of Nuclear Research, Dubna (Russian Federation); Chlachidze, G.A.; Minashvili, I.A. [Institute of High-Energy Physics of Tbilisi State Univ. (Russian Federation)

1992-03-01

70

High density fluoride glass calorimeter  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The unprecedented radiation levels in current Large Hadron Collider runs, and plans to even increase the luminosity creates a need for new detector technologies to be investigated. Quartz plates to replace the plastic scintillators in current LHC calorimeters have been proposed in recent reports. Quartz based Cherenkov calorimeters can solve the radiation damage problem, however light production and transfer have proven to be challenging. This report summarizes the results from a computational study on the performance of a high-density glass calorimeter. High-density, scintillating, fluoride glass, CHG3, was used as the active material. This glass has been developed specifically for hadron collider experiments, and is known for fast response time, in addition to high light yield. Here, the details of a Geant4 model for a sampling calorimeter prototype with 20 layers, and its hadronic as well as electromagnetic performances are reported.

Xie, Q.; Scheltzbaum, J.; Akgun, U.

2014-04-01

71

Tiling slideshow  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a new medium, called tiling slideshow, to display photos in a tile-like manner, coordinating with the pace of background music. In contrast to the conventional photo slideshow, multiple photos that have similar characteristics are well arranged and displayed at the same layout. Motivated by the concepts of technical writing, each displaying layout is composed of a larger

Jun-cheng Chen; Wei-ta Chu; Jin-hau Kuo; Chung-yi Weng; Ja-ling Wu

2006-01-01

72

Light yield from a scintillator tile with embedded readout fibers.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

We have studied the light yield in two straight fibers embedded in a square scintillator tile by means of computer simulation. The tile and fiber dimensions are taken in the ballpark of interest for the SDC main calorimeter. A fairly flat total response a...

H. J. Trost J. I. Tonnison V. E. Barnes

1991-01-01

73

ALICE electromagnetic calorimeter prototype test  

SciTech Connect

This Memorandum of Understanding between the Test Beam collaborators and Fermilab is for the use of beam time at Fermilab during the Fall, 2005 Meson Test Beam Run. The experimenters plan to measure the energy, position, and time resolution of prototype modules of a large electromagnetic calorimeter proposed to be installed in the ALICE experiment at the LHC. The ALICE experiment is one of the three large approved LHC experiments, with ALICE placing special emphasis on the LHC heavy-ion program. The large electromagnetic calorimeter (EMCal) is a US initiative that is endorsed by the ALICE collaboration and is currently in the early stages of review by the Nuclear Physics Division of the DOE. The installation in the test beam at FNAL and test beam measurements will be carried out by the US members of the ALICE collaboration (ALICE-USA). The overall design of the ALICE EMCal is heavily influenced by its location within the ALICE L3 magnet. The EMCal is to be located inside the large room temperature magnet within a cylindrical integration volume approximately l12cm deep, by 5.6m in length, sandwiched between the ALICE TPC space frame and the L3 magnet coils. The chosen technology is a layered Pb-scintillator sampling calorimeter with a longitudinal pitch of 1.6mm Pb and 1.6mm scintillator. The full detector spans {eta} = -0.7 to {eta} = 0.7 with an azimuthal acceptance of {Delta}{phi} = 120{sup o}. The EMCal readout is of a ''Shish-Kabob'' type similar to the PHENIX Pb-scintillator sampling calorimeter in which the scintillation light is collected via wavelength shifting fibers running through the Pb-scintillator tiles perpendicular to the front surface. The detector is segmented into {approx}14000 towers. The basic structural units of the calorimeter are supermodules, each subtending approximately {approx}20{sup o} in {Delta}{phi} and 0.7 units in {Delta}{eta}. Supermodules are assembled from individual modules. The modules are further segmented into 2 x 2 individually read out towers. The fibers from an individual tower are grouped together to form readout tower bundles. These are each optically coupled to an avalanche photodiode (APO) via a short light guide to provide some spatial optical mixing and to match the fiber bundle to the APO. The module assembly is indicated in Figure l. The supermodules weigh about 9.6 tons and are the basic units handled during installation. Each supermodule is roughly I45cm wide at the front surface by 350cm long with an active depth of 24.5cm (at {eta} = 0) plus an additional 6.6 cm of depth in structural plates. The physical characteristics of the ALICE EMCal are summarized in Table 1. The EMCal test beam measurements at FNAL will utilize a stacked 4 x 4 array of prototype EMCal modules (8 x 8 towers). All towers will be instrumented with the same model APO and preamplifier as will be used in the ALICE experiment and all channels will be readout with existing prototype front end electronics intended for use in ALICE. The goals of the test beam measurements are: To investigate the energy resolution, linearity, uniformity, and position resolution, using electron beams; To study the energy dependence of the response to electrons and hadrons to determine the particle identification capabilities of the EMCal by shower shape; And to investigate the timing characteristics of the energy signal for crude time-of-flight measurement ({approx} 1ns) for use for anti-neutron rejection. Measurements will be made for comparison with different signal shaping times in the front end electronics.

Awes, Terry; /Oak Ridge

2005-09-01

74

Fiber-tile optical studies at Argonne  

SciTech Connect

In support of a fiber-tile calorimeter for SDC, we have done studies on a number of topics. The most basic problems were light output and uniformity of response. Using a small electron beam, we have studied fiber placement, tile preparation, wrapping and masking, fiber splicing, fiber routing, phototube response, and some degradation factors. We found two configurations which produced more light output than the others and reasonably uniform response. We have chosen one of these to go into production for the EM test module on the basis of fiber routing for ease of assembly of the calorimeter. We have also applied some of the tools we developed to CDF end plug tile uniformity, shower max testing and development for a couple of detectors, and development of better techniques for radiation damage studies. 18 figs.

Underwood, D.G.; Morgan, D.J.; Proudfoot, J.

1991-07-23

75

Experimental Study of Uranium Plastic Scintillator Calorimeters,  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

As preparation for the ZEUS high resolution calorimeter, sampling calorimeters made from 3.2 mm plates of depleted uranium read out by plastic scintillator of 3 mm and 5 mm thickness have been built. The response of hadrons, electrons and muons has been m...

G. d'Agostini A. Bamberger F. Barreiro E. Bernardi K. Dierks

1988-01-01

76

The EAS-TOP calorimeter  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The muon-hadron detector of EAS-TOP is a 270 sq m calorimeter constructed inside the air shower array on the top of the underground Gran Sasso Laboratory (Italy). The general layout of the detector and the performances of the active part (streamer and proportional chambers) are presented.

Aglietta, M.; Alessandro, B.; Arneodo, F.; Bergamasco, L.; Campos Fauth, A.; Castagnoli, C.; Castellina, A.; Cattadori, C.; Chiavassa, A.; Cini, G.

1992-10-01

77

Identification of leptons by ZEUS calorimeter  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The ZEUS detector has a high-resolution uranium calorimeter which can be used to identify leptons. The segmentation of the calorimeter is sensitive to the longitudinal and transverse particle energy deposition within the calorimeter. The phase space probability method is used to identify muons. It is based on Monte Carlo simulations, with the help of which we construct the muon probability function in the multi-dimensional phase-space of the calorimeter signals. A feed-forward neural network is used to identify electromagnetic showers. Both methods separate leptons with high efficiency and a low level of hadron contamination.

Kuzmin, Valentin A.

2000-10-01

78

Razdelenie ehlektronov i adronov v yacheistom ehlektromagnitnom kalorimetre tipa sehdwich svinets-stsintillyator. (Electron and hadron discrimination in cell electromagnetic calorimeter of lead-scintillator sandwich type).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Additional light-guide-shifter which collects light only from scintillation plates arranged in maximum of electromagnetic shower is suggested to use to improve efficiency of electron and hadron separation in the module of hodoscopic detector GEPARD. Using...

Y. Ivanyushkin E. Kistenev V. M. Kubik Y. Pishchal'nikov A. G. Kholodenko

1988-01-01

79

Sampling calorimeters in high energy physics  

SciTech Connect

Attention is given to sampling calorimeters - those instruments in which part of the shower is sampled in an active medium sandwiched between absorbing layers. A very cursory overview is presented of some fundamental aspects of sampling calorimeters. First the properties of shower development are described for both the electromagnetic and hadronic cases. Then examples of various readout schemes are discussed. Finally, some currently promising new ideas in calorimetry are described.

Gordon, H A; Smith, S D

1980-01-01

80

The new RD52 (DREAM) fiber calorimeter  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Simultaneous detection of the Cerenkov light and scintillation light produced in hadron showers makes it possible to measure the electromagnetic shower fraction event by event and thus eliminate the detrimental effects of fluctuations in this fraction on the performance of calorimeters. In the RD52 (DREAM) project, the possibilities of this dual-readout calorimetry are investigated and optimized. In this talk, the first test results of prototype modules for the new full-scale fiber calorimeter are presented.

Wigmans, Richard

2012-12-01

81

Photon calorimeter  

DOEpatents

A photon calorimeter is provided that comprises a laminar substrate that is uniform in density and homogeneous in atomic composition. A plasma-sprayed coating, that is generally uniform in density and homogeneous in atomic composition within the proximity of planes that are parallel to the surfaces of the substrate, is applied to either one or both sides of the laminar substrate. The plasma-sprayed coatings may be very efficiently spectrally tailored in atomic number. Thermocouple measuring junctions, are positioned within the plasma-sprayed coatings. The calorimeter is rugged, inexpensive, and equilibrates in temperature very rapidly. 4 figs.

Chow, Tze-Show

1988-04-22

82

Barrel calorimeter of the CMD-3 detector  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Since 2010 the CMD-3 detector has been collecting data at the e+e- collider VEPP-2000 at Budker Institute of Nuclear Physics. CMD-3 is a general purpose detector designed to study e+e- annihilation into hadrons in the wide energy range s=0.3-2GeV. The CMD-3 barrel electromagnetic calorimeter consists of two subsystems: closest to the beam pipe is the Liquid Xenon calorimeter and the outer one is based on CsI scintillation crystals. The design of the calorimeter and its current performance are presented.

Anisenkov, A. V.; Aulchenko, V. M.; Barkov, L. M.; Bashtovoy, N. S.; Bondar, A. E.; Epifanov, D. A.; Epshteyn, L. B.; Erofeev, A. L.; Grebenuk, A. A.; Ignatov, F. V.; Karpov, S. V.; Khazin, B. I.; Kovalenko, O. A.; Kozyrev, A. N.; Kuzmin, A. S.; Logashenko, I. B.; Mikhailov, K. Yu.; Pestov, Yu. N.; Pivovarov, S. G.; Popov, A. S.; Razuvaev, G. P.; Ruban, A. A.; Ryzhenenkov, A. E.; Shebalin, V. E.; Shemyakin, D. N.; Shwartz, B. A.; Solodov, E. P.; Titov, V. M.; Talyshev, A. A.; Yudin, Yu. V.

2013-12-01

83

Sarcophagus of the CMS Zero Degree Calorimeters  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Zero Degree Calorimeters of the CMS experiment at the Large Hadron Collidor will become significantly radioactive after the first few proton-proton runs. The detectors sit within large copper blocks, called TANS, that also include the two beam pipes. The calorimeters must be removed during bake out of the beam pipes. To minimize the radiation received by the personal a remotely controlled crane will place the calorimeters into a sarcophagus that will shield workers from the induced radioactivity. Both the mass and size of the sarcophagus are limited by constraints of the LHC tunnel. We will describe the design, construction and use of the sarcophagus.

Axton, Kyle; Murray, Michael

2009-10-01

84

Zero Degree Calorimeters Radiation Containment Sarcophagus  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Zero Degree Calorimeters of the CMS experiment at the Large Hadron Collidor will become significantly radioactive after the first few proton-proton runs. The detectors sit within large copper blocks, called TANS, that also include the two beam pipes. The calorimeters must be removed during bake out of the beam pipes. To minimize the radiation received by the personal a remotely controlled crane will place the calorimeters into a sarcophagus that will shield workers from the induced radioactivity. Both the mass and size of the sarcophagus are limited by constraints of the LHC tunnel. We will describe the design, construction and use of the sarcophagus.

Axton, Kyle

2009-05-01

85

Calorimeter trigger synchronization in the CMS experiment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The calorimeter trigger synchronization of the Compact Muon Solenoid experiment at the large hadron collider (LHC) is presented. The synchronization method is implemented in the synchronization and link board (SLB). The board allows the synchronization of electromagnetic and hadronic trigger primitives at the LHC frequency (40.08 MHz) and its transmission to the Regional Calorimeter Trigger using electrical links at a rate of 1.2 Gb s -1. The system developed for the SLB tests and the commissioning of the full production (1210 boards) is also presented.

Almeida, N.; Da Silva, J. C.; Alemany, R.; Almeida, C.; Santos, M.; Teixeira, I.; Teixeira, J. P.; Varela, J.

2006-12-01

86

Performance of CDF calorimeter simulation for Tevatron Run II  

SciTech Connect

The upgraded CDF II detector has collected first data during the initial operation of the Tevatron accelerator in Run II. The simulation of the CDF electromagnetic and hadronic central and upgraded plug (forward) calorimeter is based on the Gflash calorimeter parameterization package used within the GEANT based detector simulation of the Run II CDF detector. We present the results of tuning the central and plug calorimeter response to test beam data.

C. Currat

2002-09-19

87

A study of light collection in “Shashlik” calorimeters  

Microsoft Academic Search

The spatial nonuniformities of the response and the absolute light yield in calorimeter modules with interleaved absorber\\u000a and scintillator layers were investigated on high-energy muon and electron beams. A program for detailed simulation of light\\u000a collection in scintillator tiles of the calorimeter using the Monte Carlo method was developed to describe the whole set of\\u000a experimental results. The experimental data

A. V. Aref’ev; I. M. Belyaev; B. M. Bobchenko; K. I. Voronchev; A. I. Golutvin; O. B. Gushchin; V. Yu. Egorychev; I. E. Korol’ko; T. G. Kvaratskheliya; I. V. Machikhil’yan; M. S. Prukudin; V. Yu. Rusinov; D. V. Rusinov; E. I. Tarkovskii; Yu. V. Gilitskii; S. Ya. Barsuk; S. V. Shuvalov

2008-01-01

88

The electromagnetic performance of the RD52 fiber calorimeter  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The RD52 calorimeter is an instrument intended to detect both electromagnetic and hadronic showers, as well as muons, using the dual-readout principle. Scintillation and Cherenkov light provide the two signals which, in combination, allow for superior hadronic performance. In this paper, we report on the electromagnetic performance of this instrument, and compare this performance with that of other calorimeters that were constructed with similar goals in mind.

Akchurin, N.; Bedeschi, F.; Cardini, A.; Cascella, M.; Cei, F.; De Pedis, D.; Ferrari, R.; Fracchia, S.; Franchino, S.; Fraternali, M.; Gaudio, G.; Genova, P.; Hauptman, J.; La Rotonda, L.; Lee, S.; Livan, M.; Meoni, E.; Moggi, A.; Pinci, D.; Policicchio, A.; Saraiva, J. G.; Scuri, F.; Sill, A.; Venturelli, T.; Wigmans, R.

2014-01-01

89

Symmetry and Tilings: An Exploration  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students are directed to read through a Web-based tutorial on Symmetry and Tilings in the form of an short and colorful article entitled Tilings and Tesselations; afterwards, they answer several questions on tilings (tessellations), tiling terminology, types of symmetry (isometries), periodic tilings and Penrose tilings.

Rutledge, James

90

Handmade Tile Mosaics  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Just like the classroom, children's outdoor environments should be filled with artistic creations that add sparkle and imagination to the space. One of the author's favorite ways to add art to the outdoors is by installing a mosaic mural of child-made tiles. The process of making the tiles is fun for all; each tile is a charming work of art in…

Keeler, Rusty

2007-01-01

91

Light, Strong Insulating Tiles  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Improved lightweight insulating silica/aluminum borosilicate/silicon carbide tiles combine increased tensile strength with low thermal conductivity. Changes in composition substantially improve heat-insulating properties of silica-based refractory tile. Silicon carbide particles act as high-emissivity radiation scatterers in tile material.

Cordia, E.; Schirle, J.

1987-01-01

92

The electromagnetic calorimeter for the STAR experiment at RHIC  

SciTech Connect

The STAR detector at RHIC can be used both for searches for quark-gluon plasma and for high energy pp spin physics. An electromagnetic calorimeter is being planned which will be used for triggering on High pt direct gammas, e{sup {plus_minus}}, and the electromagnetic component of jets. Jets will be measured for both kinds of physics by using the electro-magnetic calorimeter and central TPC tracking. We describe some features of the fiber-tile calorimeter as it is presently being designed.

Underwood, D.G.

1992-11-01

93

Proposal for the completion of outstanding work on the mechanical absorber structure of SDC barrel electromagnetic calorimeter.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The High Energy Physics Division at Argonne National Laboratory and Westinghouse Science and Technology Center, Pittsburgh Pennsylvania have worked jointly on a scintillating tile/fiber calorimeter with the SDC collaboration since it's inception in 1989. ...

V. Guarino N. Hill T. Kicmal J. Nasiatka E. Petereit

1993-01-01

94

The STAR EM calorimeter design and small prototype test results  

SciTech Connect

The basis for several design features of The STAR Electromagnetic Calorimeter and Shower Maximum Detector is presented. This includes some of the tile-fiber optical design. The authors describe both the barrel and the end cap. Some preliminary analysis of electron acceptance vs pion rejection in test beam data is also discussed.

Underwood, D.G.

1995-01-01

95

Tiling the Plaza  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this math lesson, learners arrange pattern blocks to create tessellations and to explore geometric patterns. Learners first explore making patterns with a variety of pattern blocks. They next engage in experiments of making tile designs using only one shape by rotating that shape around a point. Finally, they are faced with the situation of entering a contest for creating the best tile design for the new plaza using these geometric shapes. Learners are placed into groups and are told to use only the blocks with equal sides and equal angles to create a patterned tile design. Each group makes a tile design and learners vote for the best design.

Pbs

2012-01-01

96

Triangular spiral tilings  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The topology of spiral tilings is intimately related to phyllotaxis theory and continued fractions. A quadrilateral spiral tiling is determined by a suitable chosen triple (?, m, n), where \\zeta \\in { D}\\setminus { R}, and m?and?n are relatively prime integers. We give a simple characterization when (?, m, n) produce a triangular spiral tiling. When m?and?n are fixed, the admissible generators ? form a curve in the unit disk. The family of triangular spiral tilings with opposed parastichy pairs (m, n) is parameterized by the divergence angle arg (?), while triangular spiral tilings with non-opposed parastichy pairs are parameterized by the plastochrone ratio 1/|?|. The generators for triangular spiral tilings with opposed parastichy pairs are not dense in the complex parameter space, while those with non-opposed parastichy pairs are dense. The proofs will be given in a general setting of spiral multiple tilings. We present paper-folding (origami) sheets that build spiral towers whose top-down views are triangular tilings.

Sushida, Takamichi; Hizume, Akio; Yamagishi, Yoshikazu

2012-06-01

97

Random-tiling quasicrystal  

SciTech Connect

The quasicrystalline phase in the two-dimensional model explored by Widom, Strandburg, and Swendsen is shown by analysis of size dependence to be very well described by a random-tiling model in which a class of configurations corresponding to tilings of the plane with rhombuses are assumed to occur with equal weight. The existence of the quasicrystalline phase in this system is thus due to entropic effects. Despite the inherent phason disorder, the system is shown to possess quasi-long-range translational order. The phason elastic constant is obtained from the simulation and is temperature independent to within our statistical errors within the quasicrystalline phase. The value is in good agreement with transfer-matrix calculations for the appropriate random tilings and with Monte Carlo simulations for random tilings. The behavior of the system for temperatures above and below the random-tiling phase is briefly discussed.

Strandburg, K.J. (Materials Science Division, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, Illinois 60439-4843 (US))

1989-09-15

98

Clustering of Hadronic Showers with a Structural Algorithm  

SciTech Connect

The internal structure of hadronic showers can be resolved in a high-granularity calorimeter. This structure is described in terms of simple components and an algorithm for reconstruction of hadronic clusters using these components is presented. Results from applying this algorithm to simulated hadronic Z-pole events in the SiD concept are discussed.

Charles, M.J.; /SLAC

2005-12-13

99

Bakelite RPCs for Digital Hadron Calorimeter  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents the test results of Bakelite RPCs using readout pads with an area of 1cm×1cm and 1-bit resolution per pad (binary readout). The results include noise rate, detection efficiency and pad multiplicity as well as comparisons of different surface treatments for Bakelite plates. Pad multiplicity’s dependence on surface resistivity at the readout side is also reported. This study

Qingmin Zhang; Yifang Wang; Jiawen Zhang; Zhe Ning; Jin Chen; Weiping Niu

2011-01-01

100

"Densified" tiles form stronger bonds  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Application of colloidal silica more than doubles bond strength of ceramic tile/substrate attachments. "Densification" process strengthens surface where tile attaches to felt strain-isolator pad, redistributing stresses and preventing failures at that point. First, isopropyl alcohol is applied to bottom tile surface. Second, aqueous mixture of cementing colloidal silica and reinforcing ball-milled silica particles is painted on tile. Finally, after drying, tile is rewaterproofed by exposure to vapors or methyltrimethoxysilane and acetic acid.

Dotts, R. L.; Holt, J. W.

1981-01-01

101

Repairing Thermal Tiles  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Small chips and depression in surfaces of surface insulation tiles repaired using Ludox colloidal silica solution and silica powder. No waiting time necessary between mixing filler and using it. Patch cures quickly without heat being applied.

Mccain, C. R., Jr.; Feiler, C. W.

1984-01-01

102

Performance of the combined zero degree calorimeter for CMS  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The combined zero degree calorimeter (ZDC) is a combination of sampling quartz/tungsten electromagnetic and hadronic calorimeters. Two identical combined calorimeters are located in the LHC tunnel at CERN at the straight section ~140 m on each side of the CMS interaction vertex and between the two beam pipes. They will detect very forward |?| >= 8.5 photons and neutrons. ZDC information can be used for a variety of physics measurements as well as improving the collision centrality determination in heavy-ion collisions. Results are presented for ZDC performance studies with the CERN SPS H2 test beam.

Grachov, O. A.; Murray, M.; Snyder, J.; Wood, J.; Zhukova, V.; Ayan, A. S.; Debbins, P.; Ingram, D. F.; Norbeck, E.; Onel, Y.; Garcia, E.; Stephans, G.; CMS Collaboration

2009-04-01

103

The ALICE Electromagnetic Calorimeters  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

ALICE is the general purpose experiment at the LHC dedicated to the study of heavy ion collisions. ALICE includes two different electromagnetic calorimeters: a high resolution, modest acceptance PHoton Spectrometer (PHOS) and a large acceptance, moderate resolution electromagnetic calorimeter (EMCal). The electromagnetic calorimeters are designed to trigger on high energy gamma-rays and jets, and to enhance the capabilities of ALICE for these measurements. The PHOS is a PbWo4 crystal calorimeter while the EMCal is a Ph/Scintillator sampling shish-kebab type calorimeter. The PHOS and EMCal construction, readout, and performance are described.

Awes, Terry C.

2012-08-01

104

Study of the interactions of pions in the CALICE silicon-tungsten calorimeter prototype  

Microsoft Academic Search

A prototype silicon-tungsten electromagnetic calorimeter for an ILC detector was tested in 2007 at the CERN SPS test beam. Data were collected with electron and hadron beams in the energy range 8 to 80 GeV. The analysis described here focuses on the interactions of pions in the calorimeter. One of the main objectives of the CALICE program is to validate

C. Adloff; Y. Karyotakis; J. Repond; J. Yu; G. Eigen; Y. Mikami; N. K. Watson; J. A. Wilson; T. Goto; G. Mavromanolakis; M. A. Thomson; D. R. Ward; W. Yan; D. Benchekroun; A. Hoummada; Y. Khoulaki; J. Apostolakis; A. Ribon; V. Uzhinskiy; M. Benyamna; C. Cârloganu; F. Fehr; P. Gay; G. C. Blazey; D. Chakraborty; A. Dyshkant; K. Francis; D. Hedin; J. G. Lima; V. Zutshi; J.-Y. Hostachy; K. Krastev; L. Morin; N. D'Ascenzo; U. Cornett; D. David; R. Fabbri; G. Falley; K. Gadow; E. Garutti; P. Göttlicher; T. Jung; S. Karstensen; A.-I. Lucaci-Timoce; B. Lutz; N. Meyer; V. Morgunov; M. Reinecke; F. Sefkow; P. Smirnov; A. Vargas-Trevino; N. Wattimena; O. Wendt; N. Feege; M. Groll; J. Haller; R.-D. Heuer; S. Morozov; S. Richter; J. Samson; A. Kaplan; H.-Ch Schultz-Coulon; W. Shen; A. Tadday; B. Bilki; E. Norbeck; Y. Onel; E. J. Kim; G. Kim; D.-W. Kim; K. Lee; S. C. Lee; K. Kawagoe; Y. Tamura; P. D. Dauncey; A.-M. Magnan; H. Yilmaz; O. Zorba; V. Bartsch; M. Postranecky; M. Warren; M. G. Green; F. Salvatore; M. Bedjidian; R. Kieffer; I. Laktineh; M.-C. Fouz; D. S. Bailey; R. J. Barlow; M. Kelly; R. J. Thompson; M. Danilov; E. Tarkovsky; N. Baranova; D. Karmanov; M. Korolev; M. Merkin; A. Voronin; A. Frey; S. Lu; K. Seidel; F. Simon; C. Soldner; L. Weuste; J. Bonis; B. Bouquet; S. Callier; P. Cornebise; Ph Doublet; M. Faucci Giannelli; J. Fleury; H. Li; G. Martin-Chassard; F. Richard; Ch de la Taille; R. Poeschl; L. Raux; N. Seguin-Moreau; F. Wicek; M. Anduze; V. Boudry; J.-C. Brient; G. Gaycken; D. Jeans; P. Mora de Freitas; G. Musat; M. Reinhard; A. Rougé; M. Ruan; J.-Ch Vanel; H. Videau; K.-H. Park; J. Zacek; J. Cvach; P. Gallus; M. Havranek; M. Janata; M. Marcisovsky; I. Polak; J. Popule; L. Tomasek; M. Tomasek; P. Ruzicka; P. Sicho; J. Smolik; V. Vrba; J. Zalesak; B. Belhorma; M. Belmir; S. W. Nam; I. H. Park; J. Yang; J.-S. Chai; J.-T. Kim; J. Kang; Y.-J. Kwon

2010-01-01

105

Performance of the uranium\\/plastic scintillator calorimeter for the HELIOS experiment at CERN  

Microsoft Academic Search

We describe the calorimeter system serving the HELIOS experiment at CERN, its calibration, and its performances measured in test experiments. The calorimeter signal for hadrons was found to be proportional to the energy to within 2% over the energy range 8-200 GeV. Over the same energy range the energy resolution sigma\\/E scales as 1\\/sqrt(E) for both electromagnetic and hadronic showers.

T. Åkesson; Aris L S Angelis; F. Corriveau; R. C. E. Devenish; G. di Tore; Christian Wolfgang Fabjan; F. Lamarche; C. Leroy; M. L. McCubbin; N. A. McCubbin; L. H. Olsen; M. Seman; Y. Sirois; R. Wigmans; W. J. Willis

1987-01-01

106

Tiling motion patches.  

PubMed

Simulating multiple character interaction is challenging because character actions must be carefully coordinated to align their spatial locations and synchronized with each other. We present an algorithm to create a dense crowd of virtual characters interacting with each other. The interaction may involve physical contacts, such as hand shaking, hugging, and carrying a heavy object collaboratively. We address the problem by collecting deformable motion patches, each of which describes an episode of multiple interacting characters, and tiling them spatially and temporally. The tiling of motion patches generates a seamless simulation of virtual characters interacting with each other in a nontrivial manner. Our tiling algorithm uses a combination of stochastic sampling and deterministic search to address the discrete and continuous aspects of the tiling problem. Our tiling algorithm made it possible to automatically generate highly complex animation of multiple interacting characters. We achieve the level of interaction complexity far beyond the current state of the art that animation techniques could generate, in terms of the diversity of human behaviors and the spatial/temporal density of interpersonal interactions. PMID:24029911

Hyun, Kyunglyul; Kim, Manmyung; Hwang, Youngseok; Lee, Jehee

2013-11-01

107

Hadron-hadron colliders  

SciTech Connect

A comparison between electron-positron and proton-antiproton colliders is used to initiate a discussion of current trends in hadron-hadron colliders. Specific accelerators (SSC, FFAG, ISR, SPS, and TeV I) are discussed. Also, current detection technology is discussed. (AIP)

Tollestrup, A.V.

1985-11-20

108

Seamless tiled display system  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A modular and scalable seamless tiled display apparatus includes multiple display devices, a screen, and multiple lens assemblies. Each display device is subdivided into multiple sections, and each section is configured to display a sectional image. One of the lens assemblies is optically coupled to each of the sections of each of the display devices to project the sectional image displayed on that section onto the screen. The multiple lens assemblies are configured to merge the projected sectional images to form a single tiled image. The projected sectional images may be merged on the screen by magnifying and shifting the images in an appropriate manner. The magnification and shifting of these images eliminates any visual effect on the tiled display that may result from dead-band regions defined between each pair of adjacent sections on each display device, and due to gaps between multiple display devices.

Dubin, Matthew B. (Inventor); Larson, Brent D. (Inventor); Kolosowsky, Aleksandra (Inventor)

2006-01-01

109

Nutrients from Tile Drainage Systems.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Tile drainage systems of the San Joaquin Valley were monitored for nutrients (nitrogen and phosphorus). The objectives were to determine: (1) the average nutrient concentrations in tile drainage, (2) the magnitudes of annual, areal and seasonal variabilit...

W. R. Gianelli

1971-01-01

110

Waterproofing Agents for Silica Tiles  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Waterproofing agent methyltrimethoxysilane applied to silica thermal insulation tiles in simple vapor-deposition process. Other waterproofing agents in same series include methylsiloxane and hexamethyldisilazane. Originally developed for insulating tiles for spacecraft, agents also find uses in roofing tiles, insulation for buildings or solar-energy systems, or solar reflectors.

Nakano, H. N.; Izu, Y. D.; Yoshioka, E. N.

1985-01-01

111

The KLOE electromagnetic calorimeter  

Microsoft Academic Search

The KLOE calorimeter is a fine lead-scintillating fiber sampling calorimeter. We describe in the following the calibration procedures and the calorimeter performances obtained after 3 years of data taking. We get an energy resolution for electromagnetic showers of 5.4%\\/E(GeV) and a time resolution of 56 ps\\/E(GeV). We also present a measurement of efficiency for low-energy photons.

M. Adinolfi; F. Ambrosino; A. Antonelli; M. Antonelli; F. Anulli; G. Barbiellini; G. Bencivenni; S. Bertolucci; C. Bini; C. Bloise; V. Bocci; F. Bossi; P. Branchini; G. Cabibbo; R. Caloi; P. Campana; M. Casarsa; G. Cataldi; F. Ceradini; F. Cervelli; P. Ciambrone; E. De Lucia; P. De Simone; G. De Zorzi; S. Dell'Agnello; A. Denig; A. di Domenico; C. di Donato; S. Di Falco; A. Doria; O. Erriquez; A. Farilla; A. Ferrari; M. L. Ferrer; G. Finocchiaro; C. Forti; A. Franceschi; P. Franzini; M. L. Gao; C. Gatti; P. Gauzzi; A. Giannasi; S. Giovannella; E. Graziani; H. G. Han; S. W. Han; X. Huang; M. Incagli; L. Ingrosso; L. Keeble; W. Kim; C. Kuo; G. Lanfranchi; J. Lee-Franzini; T. Lomtadze; C. S. Mao; M. Martemianov; W. Mei; R. Messi; S. Miscetti; S. Moccia; M. Moulson; S. Müller; F. Murtas; L. Pacciani; M. Palomba; M. Palutan; E. Pasqualucci; L. Passalacqua; A. Passeri; D. Picca; G. Pirozzi; L. Pontecorvo; M. Primavera; P. Santangelo; E. Santovetti; G. Saracino; R. D. Schamberger; B. Sciascia; F. Scuri; I. Sfiligoi; P. Silano; T. Spadaro; E. Spiriti; L. Tortora; P. Valente; B. Valeriani; G. Venanzoni; A. Ventura; S. Wölfle; Y. Wu; Y. G. Xie; P. F. Zema; C. D. Zhang; J. Q. Zhang; P. P. Zhao

2002-01-01

112

Avalanche photodiodes for electromagnetic calorimeters  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Hamamatsu S8148 silicon avalanche photodiode (APD) working in proportional mode has been chosen as readout device for the PbWO 4 crystals in the barrel of the CMS electromagnetic calorimeter (ECAL). High hadron fluences strongly affect the main parameters of both the scintillation crystals and the silicon detectors. In this work, we offer a new zinc sulfide-silicon (ZnS-Si) isotype heterojunction APD structure that is able to operate in high-radiation levels. A Monte Carlo simulation code has been performed in order to compare the Hamamatsu S8148 and the ZnS-Si APD structures for the photons emitting from PbWO 4 crystal during 10 years of CMS operation. Based on this work, the performance of these two APD structures has been investigated.

Pilicer, Ercan; Kocak, Fatma; Tapan, Ilhan; Ahmetoglu (Afrailov), Muhitdin

2007-03-01

113

Latin-Square Tiling  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The author presents a variation of a tiling problem where each row or column contains a complete set of elements, each diagonal is free of contiguous like elements, and at least one partition exists. These restrictions limit the number of solutions considerably, and methods of solution are subsequently discussed. (CT)

Gridgeman, N. T.

1971-01-01

114

Percolation in Voronoi tilings  

Microsoft Academic Search

We consider a percolation process on a random tiling of Rd into Voronoi cells based on points of a realization of a Poisson process. We prove the existence of a phase transition as the proportion p of open cells is varied and provide relatively close upper and lower bounds for the critical probability pc.

Paul N. Balister; Béla Bollobás; Anthony Quas

2005-01-01

115

Summary talk on fiber tower calorimeter for the scintillation calorimeter subgroups  

SciTech Connect

We present here a new calorimeter design based on small scintillator tiles, lead absorber and wavelength shifting fiber readout. We have addressed all the major issues in SSC calorimetry and have developed a design with many advantageous features. It has been well demonstrated that the best resolution is obtained for a 'compensated' calorimeter. It is also well known how such compensation may be achieved by a suitable choice of active and passive materials and their relative thickness. One such choice is that of lead and scintillator for which the best thickness ratio is 4:1. This selection has been used in the development of the so-called spaghetti calorimeter (SPACAL) discussed at this workshop. The relative merits of this and many other designs have been the subject of much discussion at SSC workshops from which a number of critical issues have emerged for each design. In the present paper, we have addressed the issues raised in the SPACAL design and proposed an alternative, improved design. The SPACAL represents a significant step forward in calorimeter design, but there are always areas which can be improved in any design when it is subjected to detailed study. Specifically we have considered the areas of energy resolution, channeling, projective towers/calibration, longitudinal segmentation, and radiation sensitivity. We will now discuss each of these areas in turn. 5 refs., 9 figs.

White, A.P.; Walker, J.K.; Johnson, C.; Wahl, H.; Gabriel, T.

1989-01-01

116

The lead-glass electromagnetic calorimeter for the SELEX experiment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A large-acceptance, highly segmented electromagnetic lead-glass calorimeter for Experiment E781 (SELEX) at Fermi National Acceleration Laboratory was designed and built. This detector has been used to reconstruct photons and electrons with energies ranging from a few GeV up to 500 GeV in the collisions of the 600 GeV ?- hyperons, ? mesons and protons with the target nucleons. The design, calibration and performance of the calorimeter are described. Energy resolution and position resolution are assessed using both calibration electron beams and ?0 mesons reconstructed in 600 GeV hadron-hadron interactions. The performance of the calorimeter in selecting resonant states that involve photons is demonstrated.

Balatz, M. Y.; Cooper, P. S.; Davidenko, G. V.; Dolgolenko, A. G.; Dzyubenko, G. B.; Evdokimov, A. V.; Giller, I.; Goncharenko, Y. M.; Kamenskii, A. D.; Kubantsev, M. A.; Kurshetsov, V. F.; Lach, J.; Landsberg, L. G.; Larin, I. F.; Matveev, V. A.; Moinester, M. A.; Nurushev, S. B.; Ocherashvili, A.; Russ, J.; Semyatchkin, V. K.; Sitnikov, A. I.; Steiner, V.; Tsukerman, I. I.; Vasiliev, A. N.; Vavilov, D. V.; Verebryusov, V. S.; Victorov, V. A.; Vishnyakov, V. E.

2005-06-01

117

Calorimeter Performance for Tau Reconstruction and Identification at ATLAS  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The ATLAS physics program involving tau final states ranges from Standard Model measurements involving W, Z, and top pair production, to searches for the Higgs, Supersymmetry and other beyond the Standard Model signatures. The ATLAS calorimeter plays a crucial role in the reconstruction and identification of hadronically decaying tau leptons in ATLAS. This proceeding discusses the role of the calorimeter in reconstructing the tau energy, as well as methods to measure the systematic uncertainties on the tau energy scale. The calorimeter is further a key component in building identification variables used to differentiate tau candidates from hadronic jets. The role of these variables is presented, and the use of variables in high luminosity environments is also discussed. A brief overview of the impact of the tau energy scale and identification efficiency uncertainties in searches for new physics with tau-based signatures is also given.

Volpi, Matteo; ATLAS Collaboration

2012-12-01

118

Results on damage induced by high-energy protons in LYSO calorimeter crystals  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Lutetium-Yttrium Orthosilicate doped with Cerium (LYSO), as a bright scintillating crystal, is a candidate for calorimetry applications in strong ionising-radiation fields and large high-energy hadron fluences are expected at the CERN Large Hadron Collider after the planned High-Luminosity upgrade. There, proton–proton collisions will produce fast hadron fluences up to ~5×1014cm?2 in the large-rapidity regions of the calorimeters.

Dissertori, G.; Luckey, D.; Nessi-Tedaldi, F.; Pauss, F.; Quittnat, M.; Wallny, R.; Glaser, M.

2014-05-01

119

The PHENIX electromagnetic calorimeter  

SciTech Connect

The main features of the Phenix EM calorimeter are presented. This a Pb/scintillator calorimeter with ``shish-kebab`` fiber readout, designed for low energy electron and photon measurements. Prototype calorimeters have been built with longitudinal segmentation, {approximately} 100 psec time of flight resolution and 8% energy resolution at 1GeV/c. The laser based monitoring system which has been incorporated into large scale prototypes is described. The dependence of light yield on fiber choice and scintillator surface preparation has been studied.

Kistenev, E.; White, S. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States); Belikov, S.; Kochetkov, V. [Institut Fiziki Vysokikh Ehnergij, Protvino (Russian Federation)

1993-12-31

120

CDF calorimeter and its upgrade  

SciTech Connect

The CDF calorimeter systems are briefly reviewed with an emphasis on the calibration and the performance of the central electromagnetic calorimeter. Several physics analyses where the calorimetry plays an important role are discussed. The present gas calorimeter will be upgraded in accord with the collider upgrade. The new system is a scintillator-based calorimeter with optical fiber readout. A status of the CDF calorimeter upgrade project is also described.

Seiya, Y. [Univ. of Tsukuba, Ibaraki-ken (Japan). Institute of Physics

1995-01-01

121

Covering the Plane with Rep-Tiles.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents an activity in which students use geometric figures, rep-tiles, to design a tile floor. Rep-tiles are geometric figures of which copies can fit together to form a larger similar figure. Includes reproducible student worksheet. (MKR)

Fosnaugh, Linda S.; Harrell, Marvin E.

1996-01-01

122

Floating data acquisition system for microwave calorimeter measurements on MTX  

SciTech Connect

A microwave calorimeter has been designed for making 140-GHz absorption measurements on the MTX. Measurement of the intensity and spatial distribution of the FEL-generated microwave beam on the inner wall will indicate the absorption characteristics of the plasma when heated with a 140 GHz FEL pulse. The calorimeter works by monitoring changes of temperature in silicon carbide tiles located on the inner wall of the tokamak. Thermistors are used to measure the temperature of each tile. The tiles are located inside the tokamak about 1 cm outside of the limiter radius at machine potential. The success of this measurement depends on our ability to float the data acquisition system near machine potential and isolate it from the rest of the vault ground system. Our data acquisition system has 48 channels of thermistor signal conditioning, a multiplexer and digitizer section, a serial data formatter, and a fiber-optic transmitter to send the data out. Additionally, we bring timing signals to the interface through optical fibers to tell it when to begin measurement, while maintaining isolation. The receiver is an HP 200 series computer with a serial data interface; the computer provides storage and local display for the shot temperature profile. Additionally, the computer provides temporary storage of the data until it can be passed to a shared resource management system for archiving. 2 refs., 6 figs.

Sewall, N.R.; Meassick, S. (Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (USA))

1989-09-13

123

Kinetics of DNA tile dimerization.  

PubMed

Investigating how individual molecular components interact with one another within DNA nanoarchitectures, both in terms of their spatial and temporal interactions, is fundamentally important for a better understanding of their physical behaviors. This will provide researchers with valuable insight for designing more complex higher-order structures that can be assembled more efficiently. In this report, we examined several spatial factors that affect the kinetics of bivalent, double-helical (DH) tile dimerization, including the orientation and number of sticky ends (SEs), the flexibility of the double helical domains, and the size of the tiles. The rate constants we obtained confirm our hypothesis that increased nucleation opportunities and well-aligned SEs accelerate tile-tile dimerization. Increased flexibility in the tiles causes slower dimerization rates, an effect that can be reversed by introducing restrictions to the tile flexibility. The higher dimerization rates of more rigid tiles results from the opposing effects of higher activation energies and higher pre-exponential factors from the Arrhenius equation, where the pre-exponential factor dominates. We believe that the results presented here will assist in improved implementation of DNA tile based algorithmic self-assembly, DNA based molecular robotics, and other specific nucleic acid systems, and will provide guidance to design and assembly processes to improve overall yield and efficiency. PMID:24794259

Jiang, Shuoxing; Yan, Hao; Liu, Yan

2014-06-24

124

Fiber optic calorimeter  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A twin-bridge fiber optic calorimeter has been built and is currently being tested at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). The intrinsic optical phase shift in single mode optical fiber induced by changes in temperature is measured in both a measurement chamber and an identical reference chamber. The walls of each canister are surrounded by optical fiber configured in a Michelson interferometer arrangement driven by a 1319 nm diode pumped YAG laser. The interferometers have an optical path mismatch of 1.6 km and a temperature sensitivity of 471,000 radians/C. A digital demodulation scheme is used which produces a 32 bit phase word and tracks up to 3 X 106 radians with a resolution of 10-3 radians, giving the system a dynamic range greater than 109. This dynamic range was used to match the 1.6 km optical path mismatch of the sample and reference Michelson interferometers to within 1 mm in order to minimize phase errors produced by frequency drifts of the optical source. Both interferometers are demodulated simultaneously at a rate of 83 kHz. The phase difference between the reference and sample interferometers is proportional to the temperature difference between the chambers and therefore measures the power produced by a sample placed in the measurement chamber. The calorimeter sensitivity was initially measured to be 151 radians/mW, however, the calorimeter sensitivity has subsequently been increased to 383 radians/mW by the addition of foam insulation around the thermals. With this sensitivity, the theoretical calorimeter resolution should be less than 20 nW, however, the observed long term optical phase drift of 18 radians limits the calorimeter resolution to 47 (mu) W. Nevertheless, the fiber optic calorimeter performance has been observed to exceed that of a state-of-the-art wire wound calorimeter of similar dimensions by a factor of 2. The optical system performance will be described along with calorimetric measurement results.

Davis, Pepe G.; Bayliss, Stephen; Rudy, Clifford R.

1999-12-01

125

Performance of a uranium/tetramethylpentane calorimeter backed by an iron/scintillator calorimeter  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present results from the barrel depleted uranium/TMP calorimeter modules constructed by the UA1 Collaboration. Electromagnetic and hadronic energy resolutions have been measured using electron and pion beams with momenta in the range 7 to 70 GeV/ c. Results on the energy linearity and the spatial uniformity of response are reported. The electromagnetic shower position resolution has been measured as a function of energy using a fine grained position detector placed at a depth of - 3.5? 0. The noise arising both from the electronics chain and from the uranium radioactivity is compared with 70 GeV/ c muon signals. The ratio of the electron to pion response has been measured both as a function of the energy and of the electric field. The high lateral and longitudinal granularity of the calorimeter and the presence of a position detector have been used to determine the electron pion separation as a function of energy.

Apsimon, R.; Bacci, C.; Bauer, G.; Bezaguet, A.; Bloess, D.; Bodenes, J. M.; Bonino, R.; Buchanan, C.; Busetto, G.; Caner, A.; Casoli, L.; Castilla-Valdez, H.; Cavanna, F.; Cennini, P.; Centro, S.; Ceradini, F.; Conte, R.; Della Negra, M.; DiCiaccio, A.; De Giorgi, M.; Diez-Hedo, F. J.; Drijard, D.; Dumps, L.; Evans, H.; Ferrando, A.; Fuess, T.; Givernaud, A.; Gonidec, A.; Gronberg, J.; Josa, M. I.; Kienzle, W.; Krammer, M.; Lacava, F.; Lindgren, M.; Marchand, D.; Martinelli, R.; Maurin, G.; Meneguzzo, A.; Mohammadi, M.; Morgan, K.; Muñoz, R. C.; Naumann, L.; Nedelec, P.; Otwinowski, S.; Petrolo, E.; Piano-Mortari, G.; Placci, A.; Pontecorvo, L.; Radermacher, E.; Revol, J. P.; Robinson, D.; Rodrigo, T.; Rubbia, C.; Schinzel, D.; Schmidt, W. F.; Seez, C.; Seidl, W.; Stork, D.; Stubenrauch, C.; Sumorok, K.; Tan, Q. H.; Tether, S.; Teykal, H.; Torrente-Lujan, E.; Ullaland, O.; van de Guchte, M. W.; Veneziano, S.; Virdee, T. S.; Vuillemin, V.; Walzel, G.; Wingerter, I.; Wu, X.; Zotto, P. L.; UA1 Collaboration

1991-07-01

126

Low energy response of the D0 calorimeter and jet energy measurement  

SciTech Connect

Previous studies of the D{O} calorimeter with electron and hadron beams above 10 GeV/c have shown excellent linearity of response and e/{pi} ratio close to one. Here we report on our measurements of the response of the DO central calorimeter modules down to 2 GeV/c. The measured low energy response for electrons and pions are fragmentation from the PYTHIA Monte Carlo to obtain the corrections for jet energy.

Bhat, P.C.; D0 Collaboration

1992-11-01

127

Optimized tile-based texture synthesis  

Microsoft Academic Search

One significant problem in tile-based texture synthesis is the pres- ence of conspicuous seams in the tiles. The reason is that the sam- ple patches employed as primary patterns of the tile set may not be well stitched if carelessly picked. In this paper, we introduce an optimized approach that can stably generate an !-tile set of high pattern diversity

Weiming Dong; Ning Zhou; Jean-claude Paul

2007-01-01

128

Performance of Glast Calorimeter  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The GLAST Large Area Telescope to be launched in 2006 is dedicated to gamma-ray astronomy from 20 MeV to 300 GeV. Its calorimeter consists of 16 modules of 8 layers of 12 CsI(Tl) crystals arranged in an hodoscopic array. Each module is placed under a silicon tracker using tungsten converters. The calorimeter is only 8.5X0 thick. Therefore, depending on the energy regime, the shower containment is rather poor and corrections need to be applied. We present here the correction algorithms as well as the performances of GLAST calorimeter in terms of energy, position and direction, based on detailed simulations of the instrument and beam tests results.

Terrier, R.; John, M.; Djannati-Atai, A.; Chekhtman, A.; Grove, J. E.; Johnson, W. N.

2002-01-01

129

NEUTRON-ENHANCED CALORIMETRY FOR HADRONS (NECH): FINAL REPORT  

SciTech Connect

We present the results of a project to apply scintillator technology recently developed at Louisiana Tech University to hadronic calorimetry. In particular, we developed a prototype calorimeter module incorporating scintillator embedded with metal oxide nanoparticles as the active layers. These metal oxide nanoparticles of gadolinium oxide, have high cross-sections for interactions with slow neutrons. As a part fo this research project, we have developed a novel method for producing plastic scintillators with metal oxide nanoparticles evenly distributed through the plastic without aggregation.We will test the performance of the calorimeter module in test beam and with a neutron source, in order to measure the response to the neutron component of hadronic showers. We will supplement our detector prototyping activities with detailed studies of the effect of neutron component on the resolution of hadronic energy measurements, particular in the next generation of particle flow calorimeters.

Andrew Stroud, Lee Sawyer

2012-08-31

130

Parallel transpose of matrix multiplication based on the tiling algorithms  

Microsoft Academic Search

matrix multiplication with the tiling method. Firstly, we exploit the effect of the matrix transpose for the tiling algorithm compared to the standard tiling algorithm. The experimental results show that the transpose tiling algorithm is more efficient than the standard tiling algorithm in most usable tile sizes. Moreover, we propose a parallel transpose tiling algorithm which is further developed from

Minwoo Kim; Yong J. Jang; Won W. Ro

2011-01-01

131

Toward Meaningful Simulations of Hadronic Showers  

SciTech Connect

The physics processes that are crucial for the description of hadronic shower development in calorimeters are {pi}0 production, the release of protons in nuclear reactions and (in calorimeters with hydrogenous active material) elastic scattering of soft neutrons. In this paper, I discuss how we know that these elements are crucial, and I describe experimental data that are sensitive to a correct implementation of these elements in simulation codes. Therefore, these data should serve as benchmarks for (generic) validation of these codes. I also illustrate the practical importance of reliable shower simulations with some recent real-life examples.

Wigmans, Richard [Department of Physics, Texas Tech University, Lubbock TX79409-1051 (United States)

2007-03-19

132

Shell tile thermal protection system  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A reusable, externally applied thermal protection system for use on aerospace vehicles subject to high thermal and mechanical stresses utilizes a shell tile structure which effectively separates its primary functions as an insulator and load absorber. The tile consists of structurally strong upper and lower metallic shells manufactured from materials meeting the thermal and structural requirements incident to tile placement on the spacecraft. A lightweight, high temperature package of insulation is utilized in the upper shell while a lightweight, low temperature insulation is utilized in the lower shell. Assembly of the tile which is facilitated by a self-locking mechanism, may occur subsequent to installation of the lower shell on the spacecraft structural skin.

Macconochie, I. O.; Lawson, A. G.; Kelly, H. N. (inventors)

1984-01-01

133

Parallel Vector Tile Optimizing Library.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

PVTOL is a C++ library that allows cross-platform software portability without sacrificing high performance. Researchers at MIT Lincoln Laboratory developed the Parallel Vector Tile Optimizing Library (PVTOL) to address a primary challenge faced by develo...

E. M. Rutledge

2011-01-01

134

Absorbed dose water calorimeter  

Microsoft Academic Search

An absorbed dose water calorimeter that takes advantage of the low thermal diffusivity of water and the water-imperviousness of polyethylene film. An ultra-small bead thermistor is sandwiched between two thin polyethylene films stretched between insulative supports in a water bath. The polyethylene films insulate the thermistor and its leads, the leads being run out from between the films in insulated

Domen

1982-01-01

135

Why a homogeneous dual readout calorimeter won't work  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

If the response to a hadronic shower in a semi-infinite uniform calorimeter structure is S relative to the electronic response, then S/E = [fem + (1 - fem)(h/e)], where E is the incident hadron energy, fem is the electronic shower fraction, and h/e is the hadron/electron response ratio. In conventional calorimeters the resolution is dominated by the stochastic variable fem, whose broad, skewed pdf has an energy-dependent mean. The slow increase of the mean with E is responsible for response nonlinearity and the skewness results in a non-Gaussian response. If the cascade is observed in two channels with different values of h/e (typically scintillator(S) and Cherenkov (C)), fem can be eliminated. An energy estimator, linear in C and S, is obtained which is proportional to the incident hadron's energy. The resolution depends upon the contrast in h/e between the two channels. The Cherenkov h/e will be 0.20-0.25. In sampling calorimeters, h/e can be increased to about 0.7 by arranging for preferential absorption of the electromagnetic (EM) shower energy in the absorber (decreasing e) and using a hydrogenous detector (organic scintillator) to enhance h through the contribution of recoil protons in n-p scattering. Neither mechanism is available in a homogeneous crystal or glass scintillator, where h/e is expected to be in the vicinity of 0.4 because of invisible hadronic energy loss and other effects. The h/e contrast is very likely too small to provide the needed energy resolution. We support this conclusion with simple Monte Carlo simulations.

Groom, Don

2012-12-01

136

Hadronic Atoms  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We review the theory of hadronic atoms in the framework of quantum chromodynamics, with photons and electrons included (QCD+QED). We illustrate the method by means of ?+?- atoms and briefly consider the application of the same approach to several other hadronic atoms.

Gasser, J.; Lyubovitskij, V. E.; Rusetsky, A.

2009-11-01

137

Radionuclide calorimeter system  

DOEpatents

A circuit for measuring temperature differentials in a calorimeter is disclosed. The temperature differential between the reference element and sample element containing a radioactive material is measured via a wheatstone bridge arrangement of thermistors. The bridge is driven with an alternating current on a pulsed basis to maintain the thermal floor of the calorimeter at a low reference value. A lock-in amplifier connected to the bridge phase locks a signal from the bridge to the input pulsed AC signal to provide a DC voltage. The DC voltage is sampled over time and provided to a digital computer. The digital computer, using curve fitting algorithms, will derive a function for the sample data. From the function, an equilibrium value for the temperature may be calculated.

Donohoue, Thomas P. (Denver, CO); Oertel, Christopher P. (Arvada, CO); Tyree, William H. (Boulder, CO); Valdez, Joe L. (Denver, CO)

1991-11-26

138

Radionuclide calorimeter system  

DOEpatents

A circuit for measuring temperature differentials in a calorimeter is disclosed. The temperature differential between the reference element and sample element containing a radioactive material is measured via a Wheatstone bridge arrangement of thermistors. The bridge is driven with an alternating current on a pulsed basis to maintain the thermal floor of the calorimeter at a low reference value. A lock-in amplifier connected to the bridge phase locks a signal from the bridge to the input pulsed AC signal to provide a DC voltage. The DC voltage is sampled over time and provided to a digital computer. The digital computer, using curve fitting algorithms, will derive a function for the sample data. From the function, an equilibrium value for the temperature may be calculated. 7 figures.

Donohoue, T.P.; Oertel, C.P.; Tyree, W.H.; Valdez, J.L.

1991-11-26

139

DSWA calorimeter bomb experiments  

SciTech Connect

Two experiments were performed in which 25 grams of TNT were detonated inside an expended detonation calorimeter bomb. The bomb had a contained volume of approximately 5.28 liters. In the first experiment, the bomb was charged with 3 atmospheres of nitrogen. In the second, it was charged with 2.58 atmospheres (23.1 psi gage) of oxygen. In each experiment pressure was monitored over a period of approximately 1200 microseconds after the pulse to the CDU. Monitoring was performed via two 10,000 psi 102AO3 PCB high frequency pressure transducers mounted symmetrically in the lid of the calorimeter bomb. Conditioners used were PCB 482As. The signals from the transducers were recorded in digital format on a multi channel Tektronix scope. The sampling frequency was 10 Mhz (10 samples per microsecond). After a period of cooling following detonation, gas samples were taken and were subsequently submitted for analysis using gas mass spectrometry. Due to a late request for post shot measurement, it was only possible to make a rough estimate of the weight of debris (carbon) remaining in the calorimeter bomb following the second experiment.

Cunningham, B

1998-10-01

140

Shell-Tile Thermal-Protection System  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Durable shell-tile thermal-protection system consists of interlocking upper and lower hard caps, incorporating appropriate stiffeners and enclosing lightweight fibrous insulation. New shell tile more durable than reusable surface insulation (RSI) currently used on Space Shuttle orbiter.

Macconochie, I. O.; Lowson, A. G.; Kelly, H. N.

1983-01-01

141

Symbolic Dynamics and Tilings of Rd  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aperiodic tilings of Euclidean space can profitably be studied from the point of view of dynamical systems theory. This study takes place via a kind of dynamical system called a tiling dynamical system.

E. Arthur Robinson

142

Mini-bomb combustion calorimeter  

Microsoft Academic Search

Three mini-bomb calorimeters of different types have been built with the common characteristics: 5cm3 of bomb volume, 10mg of sample, ?420JK?1 of energy equivalent. These calorimeters can be calibrated by the electric method with the standard deviation of the mean of 0.02%. The results of burning reference material — benzoic acid (BA39i) by using the calorimeters 2 and 3 are

An Xu-wu; He Jun

2000-01-01

143

Estimation of the Primary Mass with Hadronic Observables in EAS Cores  

Microsoft Academic Search

The primary cosmic-ray mass composition is estimated using the hadronic component of EAS measured by the large hadron calorimeter of the KASCADE experiment. Methods for evaluating the mean mass are described, model dependences are discussed and results are presented. The data indicate an increase of the mean mass with rising primary energy, especially beyond the knee. 1 Proem The experiment

Joachim Engler; T. Antoni; W. D. Apel; F. Badea; K. Bekk; E. Bollmann; H. Bozdog; I. M. Brancus; A. Chilingarian; K. Daumiller; P. Doll; H. J. Gils; R. Glasstetter; R. Haeusler; W. Hafemann; A. Haungs; D. Heck; T. Holst; K.-H. Kampert; H. Keim; J. Kempa; H. O. Klages; J. Knapp; H. J. Mathes; H. J. Mayer; J. Milke; M. Petcu; H. Rebel; M. Risse; M. Roth; G. Schatz; F. K. Schmidt; T. Thouw; H. Ulrich; A. Vardanyan; B. Vulpescu; J. H. Weber; J. Wentz; T. Wibig; T. Wiegert; D. Wochele; J. Wochele; J. Zabierowski

1999-01-01

144

On the electronics for Experiment E687's trigger on hadron momenta  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this paper is to describe the electronic modules designed to process the E687 hadron calorimeter's 552 readout channels and generate a trigger signal based upon the total momentum and the total transverse momentum of the detected hadrons.

Ramusino, A.C.; Hansen, S. (Fermi National Accelerator Lab., Batavia, IL (USA)); Buchholz, D. (Northwestern Univ., Evanston, IL (USA))

1990-07-01

145

Composite treatment of ceramic tile armor  

DOEpatents

An improved ceramic tile armor has a core of boron nitride and a polymer matrix composite (PMC) facing of carbon fibers fused directly to the impact face of the tile. A polyethylene fiber composite backing and spall cover are preferred. The carbon fiber layers are cured directly onto the tile, not adhered using a separate adhesive so that they are integral with the tile, not a separate layer.

Hansen, James G. R. (Oak Ridge, TN) [Oak Ridge, TN; Frame, Barbara J. (Oak Ridge, TN) [Oak Ridge, TN

2010-12-14

146

Composite treatment of ceramic tile armor  

DOEpatents

An improved ceramic tile armor has a core of boron nitride and a polymer matrix composite (PMC) facing of carbon fibers fused directly to the impact face of the tile. A polyethylene fiber composite backing and spall cover are preferred. The carbon fiber layers are cured directly onto the tile, not adhered using a separate adhesive so that they are integral with the tile, not a separate layer.

Hansen, James G. R. (Oak Ridge, TN); Frame, Barbara J. (Oak Ridge, TN)

2012-01-02

147

Localized Densification of Tile for Impact Resistance  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Densification process increases impact resistance of lightweight, porous silica tile without appreciably raising weight. Colloidal suspension of silica used to increase density of small portion of tile to be strengthened. Process controls penetration of suspension laterally and vertically so densification limited to volume where needed. Insures weight increased only minimally. See also "Attaching Metal Fasteners to Silica Tiles" (MSC-20537).

Smiser, Laurence W.; Holt, Jack W.

1987-01-01

148

Mixing Times of Plane Random Rhombus Tilings  

Microsoft Academic Search

We address the question of single flip discrete dynamics in sets of two-dimensional random rhombus tilings with fixed polygonal boundaries. Single flips are local rearrangements of tiles which enable to sample the configuration sets of tilings via Markov chains. We determine the convergence rates of these dynamical processes towards the statistical equilibrium distributions and we demonstrate that the dynamics are

Nicolas Destainville

2001-01-01

149

Production Process for Strong, Light Ceramic Tiles  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Proportions of ingredients and sintering time/temperature schedule changed. Production process for lightweight, high-strength ceramic insulating tiles for Space Shuttle more than just scaled-up version of laboratory process for making small tiles. Boron in aluminum borosilicate fibers allows fusion at points where fibers contact each other during sintering, thereby greatly strengthening tiles structure.

Holmquist, G. R.; Cordia, E. R.; Tomer, R. S.

1985-01-01

150

Results from pion calibration runs for the H 1 liquid argon calorimeter and comparisons with simulations  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present results on calibration runs performed with pions at the CERN SPS for different modules of the H 1 liquid argon calorimeter which consists of an electromagnetic section with lead absorbers and a hadronic section with steel absorbers. The data cover an energy range from 3.7 to 205 GeV. Detailed comparisons of the data and simulation with GHEISHA 8

B. Andrieu; J. Bán; E. Barrelet; H. Bergstein; G. Bernardi; M. Besançon; E. Binder; H. Blume; K. Borras; V. Boudry; F. Brasse; W. Braunschweig; V. Brisson; A. J. Campbell; T. Carli; M. Colombo; Ch. Coutures; G. Cozzika; M. David; B. Delcourt; L. Delbuono; M. Devel; P. Dingus; A. Drescher; J. Duboc; O. Dünger; R. Ebbinghaus; S. Egli; N. N. Ellis; J. Feltesse; Y. Feng; F. Ferrarotto; W. Flauger; M. Flieser; K. Gamerdinger; J. Gayler; L. Godfrey; L. Goerlich; M. Goldberg; R. Grässler; T. Greenshaw; H. Greif; M. Haguenauer; L. Hajduk; O. Hamon; P. Hartz; V. Haustein; R. Haydar; W. Hildesheim; N. Huot; M.-A. Jabiol; A. Jacholkowska; M. Jaffre; H. Jung; F. Just; C. Kiesling; Th. Kirchhoff; F. Kole; V. Korbel; M. Korn; W. Krasny; J. P. Kubenka; H. Küster; J. Kurzhöfer; B. Kuznik; R. Lander; J.-F. Laporte; U. Lenhardt; P. Loch; D. Lüers; J. Marks; J. Martyniak; T. Merz; B. Naroska; A. Nau; H. K. Nguyen; F. Niebergall; H. Oberlack; U. Obrock; F. Ould-Saada; C. Pascaud; H. B. Pyo; K. Rauschnabel; P. Ribarics; M. Rietz; Ch. Royon; V. Rusinov; N. Sahlmann; E. Sánchez; P. Schacht; P. Schleper; W. von Schlippe; C. Schmidt; D. Schmidt; V. Shekelyan; H. Shooshtari; Y. Sirois; P. Staroba; M. Steenbock; H. Steiner; B. Stella; U. Straumann; J. Turnau; J. Tutas; L. Urban; C. Vallee; M. Vecko; P. Verrecchia; G. Villet; E. Vogel; A. Wagener; D. Wegener; A. Wegner; H.-P. Wellisch; T. P. Yiou; J. Ácek; Ch. Zeitnitz; F. Zomer

1993-01-01

151

Hadron interactions  

SciTech Connect

In this talk I am reviewing recent calculations of properties of multi-hadron systems in lattice QCD. In particular, I am reviewing results of elastic scattering phase shifts in meson-meson, meson-baryon and baryon-baryon systems, as well as discussing results indicating possible existence of bound states in two baryon systems. Finally, calculations of properties of systems with more than two hadrons are presented.

K. Orginos

2011-12-01

152

Study of the response of the ATLAS central calorimeter to pions of energies from 3 to 9 GeV  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A fully instrumented slice of the ATLAS central detector was exposed to test beams from the SPS (Super Proton Synchrotron) at CERN in 2004. In this paper, the response of the central calorimeters to pions with energies in the range between 3 and 9 GeV is presented. The linearity and the resolution of the combined calorimetry (electromagnetic and hadronic calorimeters) was measured and compared to the prediction of a detector simulation program using the toolkit Geant 4.

Abat, E.; Abdallah, J. M.; Addy, T. N.; Adragna, P.; Aharrouche, M.; Ahmad, A.; Akesson, T. P. A.; Aleksa, M.; Alexa, C.; Anderson, K.; Anghinolfi, F.; Antonaki, A.; Arabidze, G.; Arik, E.; Baker, O. K.; Banfi, D.; Baron, S.; Beck, H. P.; Belhorma, B.; Benchekroun, D.; Benjamin, D. P.; Benslama, K.; Bergeaas Kuutmann, E.; Bertelsen, H.; Binet, S.; Biscarat, C.; Boldea, V.; Bondarenko, V. G.; Boonekamp, M.; Bosman, M.; Bourdarios, C.; Burckhart Chromek, D.; Bychkov, V.; Callahan, J.; Calvet, D.; Canneri, M.; Capeáns Garrido, M.; Caprini, M.; Cardiel Sas, L.; Carli, T.; Carminati, L.; Carvalho, J.; Cascella, M.; Castillo, M. V.; Catinaccio, A.; Cavalli Sforza, M.; Cavalli, D.; Cavasinni, V.; Cetin, S. A.; Chen, H.; Cherkaoui, R.; Chevallier, F.; Ciobotaru, M.; Citterio, M.; Cleland, B.; Cogneras, E.; Conde Muino, P.; Consonni, M.; Constantinescu, S.; Cornelissen, T.; Corso Radu, A.; Costa, G.; Cwetanski, P.; Da Silva, D.; Dam, M.; Danielsson, H. O.; Dannheim, D.; Davidek, T.; De, K.; Defay, P. O.; Dekhissi, B.; Del Peso, J.; Delmastro, M.; Del Prete, T.; Derue, F.; Di Ciaccio, L.; Di Girolamo, B.; Dita, S.; Dittus, F.; Djama, F.; Djobava, T.; Dobson, M.; Dolgoshein, B. A.; Dotti, A.; Drake, G.; Dressnandt, N.; Driouchi, C.; Ebenstein, W. L.; Eerola, P.; Efthymiopoulos, I.; Egorov, K.; Eifert, T. F.; El Kacimi, M.; Etienvre, A. I.; Fabich, A.; Fakhr-Edine, A. I.; Fanti, M.; Farbin, A.; Farthouat, P.; Fassouliotis, D.; Fayard, L.; Febbraro, R.; Fedin, O. L.; Fenyuk, A.; Ferrari, R.; Ferreira, B. C.; Ferrer, A.; Filippini, G.; Fournier, D.; Francavilla, P.; Francis, D.; Froeschl, R.; Froidevaux, D.; Fullana, E.; Gadomski, S.; Gagnon, P.; Gameiro, S.; Garcia, R.; Ghodbane, N.; Giakoumopoulou, V.; Giangiobbe, V.; Giokaris, N.; Glonti, G.; Gollub, N.; Gomes, A.; Gomez, M. D.; Gorini, B.; Goujdami, D.; Grahn, K. J.; Grenier, P.; Grigalashvili, N.; Grishkevich, Y.; Gruwe, M.; Guicheney, C.; Gupta, A.; Haeberli, C.; Hajduk, Z.; Hakobyan, H.; Hance, M.; Hansen, P. H.; Harvey, A.; Henriques Correia, A.; Hervas, L.; Higon, E.; Hoffman, J.; Hostachy, J. Y.; Hruska, I.; Hubaut, F.; Hulsbergen, W.; Hurwitz, M.; Iconomidou-Fayard, L.; Jen-La Plante, I.; Johansson, P. D. C.; Jon-And, K.; Joos, M.; Jorgensen, S.; Kaczmarska, A.; Kado, M.; Karyukhin, A.; Kataoka, M.; Kayumov, F.; Kazarov, A.; Keener, P. T.; Kekelidze, G. D.; Kerschen, N.; Khoriauli, G.; Khramov, E.; Khristachev, A.; Khubua, J.; Kittelmann, T. H.; Klinkby, E.; Koffas, T.; Kolos, S.; Konovalov, S. P.; Kopikov, S.; Korolkov, I.; Kovalenko, S.; Kowalski, T. Z.; Krüger, K.; Kramarenko, V.; Kudin, L. G.; Kulchitsky, Y.; Lafaye, R.; Laforge, B.; Lampl, W.; Lanni, F.; Laplace, S.; Le Bihan, A. C.; Lechowski, M.; Ledroit-Guillon, F.; Lehmann, G.; Leitner, R.; Lelas, D.; Liang, Z.; Liang, Z.; Lichard, P.; Lokajicek, M.; Louchard, L.; Loureiro, K.; Lucotte, A.; Luehring, F.; Lundberg, B.; Lund-Jensen, B.; Ma, H.; Mackeprang, R.; Maio, A.; Maleev, V. P.; Malek, F.; Maneira, J.; Mandelli, L.; Mazzanti, M.; Manousakis, A.; Mapelli, L.; Marques, C.; Martin, F.; Mazzanti, M.; McFarlane, K. W.; Mchedlidze, G.; McPherson, R.; Meirosu, C.; Meng, Z.; Miagkov, A.; Mialkovski, V.; Milstead, D.; Minashvili, I.; Mindur, B.; Mitsou, V. A.; Monnier, E.; Morozov, S. V.; Mosidze, M.; Mouraviev, S. V.; Munar, A.; Nadtochi, A. V.; Negri, A.; Nemecek, S.; Nessi, M.; Nesterov, S. Y.; Newcomer, F. M.; Nikitine, I.; Nikolic-Audit, I.; Ogren, H.; Oh, S. H.; Oleshko, S. B.; Olszowska, J.; Onofre, A.; Padilla Aranda, C.; Paganis, S.; Pallin, D.; Pantea, D.; Paolone, V.; Parsons, J.; Pasqualucci, E.; Passmore, M. S.; Patrichev, S.; Peez, M.; Perez Reale, V.; Perini, L.; Peshekhonov, V. D.; Petersen, J.; Petersen, T. C.; Petti, R.; Pilcher, J.; Pina, J.; Pinto, B.; Podlyski, F.; Poggioli, L.; Poveda, J.; Pralavorio, P.; Pribyl, L.; Price, M. J.; Prieur, D.; Puigdengoles, C.; Puzo, P.; Rajagopalan, S.; Rembser, C.; Ridel, M.; Riu, I.; Roda, C.; Rohne, O.; Romaniouk, A.; Rousseau, D.; Ruiz, A.; Rusakovich, N.; Rust, D.; Ryabov, Y. F.; Ryjov, V.; Salto, O.; Salvachua, B.; Santamarina Rios, C.; Santoni, C.; Saraiva, J. G.; Sarri, F.; Sauvage, G.; Says, L. P.; Schaefer, M.; Schegelsky, V. A.; Schlager, G.; Schlereth, J.; Schmitt, C.; Schwemling, P.; Schwindling, J.; Seixas, J. M.; Seliverstov, D. M.; Serin, L.; Shalanda, N.; Shin, T.; Shmeleva, A.; Silva, J.; Simion, S.; Simonyan, M.; Sloper, J. E.; Smirnov, S. Yu.; Smirnova, L.; Solans, C.; Solodkov, A.; Solovianov, O.; Soloviev, I.; Sosnovtsev, V. V.; Spanò, F.; Speckmeyer, P.; Stancu, S.; Stanek, R.; Starchenko, E.; Straessner, A.; Suchkov, S. I.; Suk, M.; Szczygiel, R. R.; Tarrade, F.; Tartarelli, F.; Tas, P.; Tayalati, Y.; Teuscher, R.; Thioye, M.; Tikhomirov, V. O.; Tisserant, S.; Tremblet, L.; Tsiareshka, P.; Unal, G.

2009-08-01

153

An Electrically Calibrated Bomb Calorimeter  

Microsoft Academic Search

After a review of the physical foundations of bomb calorimetry, a bomb calorimeter is described which can be heated electrically or by combustion. The evaporation of water is prevented by sealing the vessel completely. Other modifications in the normal technique are introduced after consideration of (a) the difference in temperature between the outer surface of the calorimeter and the thermometer

A. R. Challoner; H. A. Gundry; A. R. Meetham

1955-01-01

154

Soft-x-ray calorimeter  

SciTech Connect

A calorimeter for measurement of the total energy of single x-ray pulses at {le} 50 keV is described. A KD103A silicon diode is used as the heat sensor. The sensitivity of the calorimeter is 4.16 {sm_bullet} 10{sup -2} J/m{sup V}. 5 refs., 1 figs.

Pak, V.S.; Chistyakov, S.A. [Tomsk Polytechnic Institute (Russian Federation)

1992-02-01

155

Electromagnetic calorimeter for the HADES@FAIR experiment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An electromagnetic calorimeter (ECAL) is being developed to complement the dilepton spectrometer HADES currently operating on the beam of the SIS18 heavy-ion synchrotron at GSI Helmholtzzentrum für Schwerionenforschung, Darmstadt, Germany. The ECAL will allow the HADES@FAIR experiment to measure data on neutral meson production in heavy ion collisions in the energy range of 2–10 AGeV with the beam of the future accelerator SIS100@FAIR. The calorimeter will also improve the electron-hadron separation of the spectrometer, and will be used for the detection of photons from strange resonances in elementary and heavy ion reactions as well. The calorimeter will consist of 978 modules divided into 6 sectors, and it will cover forward angles of 16° < ? < 45° and almost full azimuthal angle. Each module consists of a lead glass Cherenkov counter, photomultiplier, HV divider and an optical fiber. A dedicated LED based system being developed to monitor the stability of the calorimeter is discussed. Various prototypes of front-end electronics are presented and the achieved energy and time resolution determined using pulses from a pulse generator and a real detector signal induced by LED pulses and cosmic muons is shown as well.

Svoboda, O.; Blume, C.; Czyžycki, W.; Epple, E.; Fabbietti, L.; Galatyuk, T.; Golubeva, M.; Guber, F.; Hlavá?, S.; Ivashkin, A.; Kajetanowic, M.; Kardan, B.; Koenig, W.; Kugler, A.; Lapidus, K.; Lisowski, E.; Pietraszko, J.; Reshetin, A.; Rost, A.; Salabura, P.; Sobolev, Y. G.; Tlusty, P.; Traxler, M.

2014-05-01

156

Optimizing the layout of rectangular hull tiles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Rectangular tiles can be laid on a ship’s hull for protection, but the sides of the tiles must be adjusted so adjacent tiles will conform to the curvature of the hull. A method for laying tiles along a reference line was proposed, and an allowable range of displacement for the four vertices of the tile was determined. Deformations of each tile on a specific reference line were then obtained. It was found that the least deformation was required when the tiles were laid parallel to a line with the least curvature. After calculating the mean curvature on the surface, the surface was divided into three layout areas. A set of discrete points following the least deformation of the principal curvatures was obtained. A NURBS interpolation curve was then plotted as the reference line for laying tiles. The optimum size of the tiles was obtained, given the allowable maximum deformation condition. This minimized the number of bolts and the amount of stuffing. A typical aft hull section was selected and divided into three layout areas based on the distribution of curvature. The optimum sizes of rectangular tiles were obtained for every layout area and they were then laid on the surface. In this way the layout of the rectangular tiles could be plotted.

Wu, Nian-Qing; Zhao, Yao; Yuan, Hua

2010-09-01

157

Impacts of Space Shuttle thermal protection system tile on F-15 aircraft vertical tile  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Impacts of the space shuttle thermal protection system (TPS) tile on the leading edge and the side of the vertical tail of the F-15 aircraft were analyzed under different TPS tile orientations. The TPS tile-breaking tests were conducted to simulate the TPS tile impacts. It was found that the predicted tile impact forces compare fairly well with the tile-breaking forces, and the impact forces exerted on the F-15 aircraft vertical tail were relatively low because a very small fraction of the tile kinetic energy was dissipated in the impact, penetration, and fracture of the tile. It was also found that the oblique impact of the tile on the side of the F-15 aircraft vertical tail was unlikely to dent the tail surface.

Ko, W. L.

1985-01-01

158

Programmable DNA tile self-assembly using a hierarchical sub-tile strategy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

DNA tile based self-assembly provides a bottom-up approach to construct desired nanostructures. DNA tiles have been directly constructed from ssDNA and readily self-assembled into 2D lattices and 3D superstructures. However, for more complex lattice designs including algorithmic assemblies requiring larger tile sets, a more modular approach could prove useful. This paper reports a new DNA ‘sub-tile’ strategy to easily create whole families of programmable tiles. Here, we demonstrate the stability and flexibility of our sub-tile structures by constructing 3-, 4- and 6-arm DNA tiles that are subsequently assembled into 2D lattices and 3D nanotubes according to a hierarchical design. Assembly of sub-tiles, tiles, and superstructures was analyzed using polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and atomic force microscopy. DNA tile self-assembly methods provide a bottom-up approach to create desired nanostructures; the sub-tile strategy adds a useful new layer to this technique. Complex units can be made from simple parts. The sub-tile approach enables the rapid redesign and prototyping of complex DNA tile sets and tiles with asymmetric designs.

Shi, Xiaolong; Lu, Wei; Wang, Zhiyu; Pan, Linqiang; Cui, Guangzhao; Xu, Jin; LaBean, Thomas H.

2014-02-01

159

Evolution of the dual-readout calorimeter  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Measuring the energy of hadronic jets with high precision is essential at present and future colliders, in particular at ILC. The 4th concept design is built upon calorimetry criteria that result in the DREAM prototype, read-out via two different types of longitudinal fibers, scintillator and quartz respectively, and therefore capable of determining for each shower the corresponding electromagnetic fraction, thus eliminating the strong effect of fluctuations in this fraction on the overall energy resolution. In this respect, 4th is orthogonal to the other three concepts, which rely on particle flow analysis (PFA). The DREAM test-beam results hold promises for excellent performances, coupled with relatively simple construction and moderate costs, making such a solution an interesting alternative to the PFA paradigm. The next foreseen steps are to extend the dual-readout principle to homogeneous calorimeters (with the potential of achieving even better performances) and to tackle another source of fluctuation in hadronic showers, originating from binding energy losses in nuclear break-up (measuring neutrons of few MeV energy).

Penzo, Aldo

2007-12-01

160

Review of high energy hadron-nucleus data  

SciTech Connect

New data on hadron-nucleus interactions are summarized, focusing on: estimation of the rate of energy loss of the incident hadron as it propagates through the target, and determining where the energy is depositied in central hadron-nucleus collisions. The present status of pA ..-->.. p + X inclusive measurements is discussed. Measurements from visual detectors which allow investigation of global event properties are presented. Data taken from calorimeters, where one can trigger and measure transverse energy and energy flow over a given rapidity region, are discussed. 22 refs., 20 figs. (LEW)

Lissauer, D.

1986-01-01

161

Electromagnetic shower properties in a lead-scintillator sampling calorimeter  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Collider Detector at Fermilab (CDF) is a general-purpose experimental apparatus with an inner tracking detector for measuring charged particles, surrounded by a calorimeter for measurements of electromagnetic and hadronic showers. We describe a GEANT4 simulation and parameterization of the response of the CDF central electromagnetic calorimeter (CEM) to incident electrons and photons. The detector model consists of a detailed description of the CEM geometry and material in the direction of the incident particle's trajectory, and of the passive material between the tracker and the CEM. We use GEANT4 to calculate the distributions of: the energy that leaks from the back of the CEM, the energy fraction sampled by the scintillators, and the energy dependence of the response. We parameterize these distributions to accurately model electron and photon response and resolution in a custom simulation for the measurement of the W boson mass.

Kotwal, Ashutosh V.; Hays, Christopher

2013-11-01

162

Upgrades to the ATLAS Level-1 Calorimeter Trigger  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In 2015 the Large Hadron Collider will run with increased center-of-mass energy and luminosity. To maintain a high efficiency in selecting interesting collisions for the physics analyses in the next data-taking period, event topology information will be added to the ATLAS Level-1 real time data path and processed by a new Topology Processor (L1Topo). To cope with the luminosity levels foreseen after the 2018 LHC upgrade, a new digital trigger path for the Liquid Argon calorimeters will provide finer granularity and depth segmentation in the electromagnetic layer to new Level-1 feature extractors (FEX) for an improved electron, photon, tau and jet selection. We present the ongoing and future calorimeter trigger upgrades to the ATLAS Level-1 trigger.

Plucinski, P.

2014-01-01

163

Geometrical Tile Design for Complex Neighborhoods  

PubMed Central

Recent research has showed that tile systems are one of the most suitable theoretical frameworks for the spatial study and modeling of self-assembly processes, such as the formation of DNA and protein oligomeric structures. A Wang tile is a unit square, with glues on its edges, attaching to other tiles and forming larger and larger structures. Although quite intuitive, the idea of glues placed on the edges of a tile is not always natural for simulating the interactions occurring in some real systems. For example, when considering protein self-assembly, the shape of a protein is the main determinant of its functions and its interactions with other proteins. Our goal is to use geometric tiles, i.e., square tiles with geometrical protrusions on their edges, for simulating tiled paths (zippers) with complex neighborhoods, by ribbons of geometric tiles with simple, local neighborhoods. This paper is a step toward solving the general case of an arbitrary neighborhood, by proposing geometric tile designs that solve the case of a “tall” von Neumann neighborhood, the case of the f-shaped neighborhood, and the case of a 3?×?5 “filled” rectangular neighborhood. The techniques can be combined and generalized to solve the problem in the case of any neighborhood, centered at the tile of reference, and included in a 3 × (2k?+?1) rectangle.

Czeizler, Eugen; Kari, Lila

2009-01-01

164

An FPGA based backup version of the TileCal digitizer.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The ATLAS Tile Calorimeter front end digitization and readout system comprises about 1800 digitizer boards with two TileDMU ASICs on each board. The TileDMUs are responsible for storing, derandomising and reading out digitized data from twelve ADCs. An ample number of board spares are available. However, a backup solution is desirable in the event of unexpected failure modes. The original version contains both outdated and custom made circuits that are difficult or impossible to find in sufficient numbers. We have developed a new version using inexpensive off the shelf FPGAs (Spartan 6). The FPGAs have all the necessary functionality to emulate the TileDMU and will be readily available for a considerable time. The new board is functionally compatible with the current version and to a large extent uses the same code. The design goal was to leave the digitizer design as intact as possible since it is well tested and performs well. As radiation tolerance is an issue we have implemented triple mode redundancy in the FPGA. To further improve the system we added in system programmability via TTCrx for both the FPGA and the configuration memory using one way JTAG. This provides a way to recover from radiation damage to the configuration PROM or to remotely upgrade system firmware.

Eriksson, D.; Muschter, S.; Bohm, C.

2010-11-01

165

Developing tiled projection display systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tiled displays are an emerging technology for constructing high-resolution semi-immersive visualization environments capable of presenting high-resolution images from scientific simulation [EVL, PowerWall]. In this way, they complement other technologies such as the CAVE [Cruz-Niera92] or ImmersaDesk, [Czernuszenko97], which by design give up pure resolution in favor of width of view and stereo. However, the largest impact may well be in

Mark Hereld; Ivan R. Judson; Joseph Paris; Rick L. Stevens

2000-01-01

166

Hierarchical self assembly of patterns from the Robinson tilings: DNA tile design in an enhanced Tile Assembly Model  

Microsoft Academic Search

We introduce a hierarchical self assembly algorithm that produces the quasiperiodic patterns found in the Robinson tilings\\u000a and suggest a practical implementation of this algorithm using DNA origami tiles. We modify the abstract Tile Assembly Model\\u000a (aTAM), to include active signaling and glue activation in response to signals to coordinate the hierarchical assembly of\\u000a Robinson patterns of arbitrary size from

Jennifer E. Padilla; Wenyan Liu; Nadrian C. Seeman

167

Shuttle Upgrade Program: Tile TPS  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

One of the areas where the thermal protection system on the Space Shuttle Orbiter could be improved is the RSI (Reusable Surface Insulation) tile. The improvement would be in damage resistance that would reduce the resultant maintenance and inspection required. It has performed very well in every other aspect. Improving the system's damage resistance has been the subject of much research over the past several years. One of the results of that research was a new system developed for damage prone areas on the orbiter (i.e., base heat shield). That system, designated as TUFI, Toughened Uni-Piece Fibrous Insulation, was successfully demonstrated as an experiment on the Orbiter and is now baselined for the base heat shield. This paper describes the results of a current research program to further improve the TUFI tile system, thus making it applicable to more areas on the orbiter. The way to remove the current limitations of the TUFI system (i.e., weight or thermal conductivity differences between it and the baseline tile (LI-900)) is to improve the characteristics of LI-900 or AETB-8. Specifically this paper describes the results of two efforts. The first shows performance data of an improved LI-900 system involving the application of TUFI and the second describes data that shows a reduced difference in thermal conductivity between the advanced TUFI substrate (AETB-8) now used on the orbiter and LI-900.

Leiser, Daniel B.; Stewart, David A.; DiFiore, Robert; Irby, Ed; Arnold, James (Technical Monitor)

2001-01-01

168

Liquid-krypton scintillation calorimeter  

SciTech Connect

An electromagnetic scintillation calorimeter using liquid krypton or xenon as the working medium has been built. The calorimeter consists of 45 tapered light-collecting cells with dimensions of (2.1 X 2.1) X 40 X (4.15 X 4.15) cm made from aluminum-coated mylar film 50 {mu}m thick. The light from each cell is detected by photomultipliers. The calorimeter filled with liquid krypton was exposed to a beam of secondary particles with a momentum of 400 MeV/c from the ITEP accelerator. The results of the first test are given.

Akimov, D.Yu.; Afonas`ev, V.N.; Bolozdynya, A.I. [Institute of Experimental and Theoretical Physics, Moscow (Russian Federation)

1995-01-01

169

Electron Calorimeter Experiment  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Boron loaded scintillators are suitable for measuring secondary neutrons produced by high-energy particles: protons & electrons Neutron flux can be used to discriminate hadron and electro-magnetic particles Combined effectiveness of all e/p discriminators techniques employedTBD Only moderate improvement in detection efficiency for B-10 concentrations >few% in thick moderators Bottom scintillator might serve as cascade penetration counter (TBC)

Adams, James H.

2008-01-01

170

Status of the ATLAS Liquid Argon Calorimeter; Performance after 2 years of LHC operation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The ATLAS experiment is designed to study the proton-proton collisions produced at the Large Hadron Collider(LHC) at CERN. Liquid argon sampling calorimeters are used for all electromagnetic calorimetry covering the pseudo-rapidity region up to 3.2, as well as for hadronic calorimetry in the range 1.4-4.9. The electromagnetic calorimeters use lead as passive material and are characterized by an accordion geometry that allows a fast and uniform azimuthal response without any gap. Copper and tungsten were chosen as passive material for the hadronic calorimetry; whereas a classic plate geometry was adopted at large polar angles, an innovative one based on cylindrical electrodes with thin argon gaps was designed for the coverage at low angles, where the particle flow is higher. All detectors are housed in three cryostats kept at about 88 K. After installation in 2004-2006, the calorimeters were extensively commissioned over the three years period prior to first collisions in 2009, using cosmic rays and single LHC beams. Since then, around 9 fb-1 (as of June, 2012) of data have been collected at a center of mass energy of 7 and 8 TeV. During all these stages, the calorimeter and its electronics have been operating almost optimally, with performances very close to the specifications.

AbouZeid, Hass; ATLAS Collaboration

2012-12-01

171

Template-mediated catalysis of DNA tiles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present a novel mechanism for the selective creation of irreversible bonds between DNA nanotiles in the presence of a DNA template of complementary joined DNA tiles. The hybridisation transition of DNA sticky ends is highly concentration dependent. While immobilised on a template, adjacent DNA tiles are subject to a greatly increased local concentration (10^12), as compared to free tiles in solution. This reduces the entropy penalty for sticky end hybridisation and shifts the hybridisation transition to higher temperatures. We have developed a tile-template model consisting of two DNA tiles with sticky ends that will, at room temperature, only react when attached to template tiles and which can be bound irreversibly via an UV crosslinkable nucleobase substitute. The selectivity is high and the irreversible crosslinking is enhanced by a factor of roughly 100.

Maass, Corinna; He, Xiaojin; Sha, Ruojie; Ohayon, Yoel; Seeman, Nadrian; Chaikin, Paul

2013-03-01

172

Acoustic emission monitoring of Space Shuttle tiles  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Late in the development of the Space Shuttle thermal protection system (TPS), a major problem was encountered with the attachment of the tiles to the spacecraft's exterior skin. To insure an adequate margin, each tile had to be proof tested. The risk of damaging a tile during proof test was quite high. For this reason, an acoustic emission system was developed and used in conjunction with the proof test to insure no significant damage occurred.

Castner, W. L.; Crockett, L. K.; Sugg, F. E.

1985-01-01

173

Simulation of the ZEUS calorimeter.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The simulation of the ZEUS uranium-scintillator calorimeter is presented. It is based on the GEANT and GHEISHA Monte Carlo packages. To simulate the high resolution calorimater with adequate precision and feasible execution time, two fast, tunable shower ...

Y. Iga

1995-01-01

174

Global Swath and Gridded Data Tiling  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This software generates cylindrically projected tiles of swath-based or gridded satellite data for the purpose of dynamically generating high-resolution global images covering various time periods, scaling ranges, and colors called "tiles." It reconstructs a global image given a set of tiles covering a particular time range, scaling values, and a color table. The program is configurable in terms of tile size, spatial resolution, format of input data, location of input data (local or distributed), number of processes run in parallel, and data conditioning.

Thompson, Charles K.

2012-01-01

175

Geant4 validation with CMS calorimeters test-beam data  

SciTech Connect

CMS experiment is using Geant4 for Monte-Carlo simulation of the detector setup. Validation of physics processes describing hadronic showers is a major concern in view of getting a proper description of jets and missing energy for signal and background events. This is done by carrying out an extensive studies with test beam using the prototypes or real detector modules of the CMS calorimeter. These data are matched with Geant4 predictions. Tuning of the Geant4 models is carried out and steps to be used in reproducing detector signals are defined in view of measurements of energy response, energy resolution, transverse and longitudinal shower profiles for a variety of hadron beams over a broad energy spectrum between 2 to 300 GeV/c.

Piperov, Stefan; /Sofiya, Inst. Nucl. Res. /Fermilab

2008-08-01

176

Test beam results on the Proton Zero Degree Calorimeter for the ALICE experiment  

SciTech Connect

The proton Zero Degree Calorimeter (ZP) for the ALICE experiment will measure the energy of the spectator protons in heavy ion collisions at the CERN LHC. Since all the spectator protons have the same energy, the calorimeter's response is proportional to their number, providing a direct information on the centrality of the collision. The ZP is a spaghetti calorimeter, which collects and measures the Cherenkov light produced by the shower particles in silica optical fibers embedded in a brass absorber. The details of its construction will be shown. The calorimeter was tested at the CERN SPS using pion and electron beams with momenta ranging from 50 to 200 GeV/c. The response of the calorimeter and its energy resolution have been studied as a function of the beam energy. Also, the signal uniformity and a comparison between the transverse profile of the hadronic and electromagnetic shower are presented. Moreover, the differences between the calorimeter's responses to protons and pions of the same energy have been investigated, exploiting the proton contamination in the positive pion beams.

Arnaldi, R.; Chiavassa, E.; De Marco, N.; Ferretti, A.; Gagliardi, M.; Gallio, M.; Gemme, R.; Mereu, P.; Musso, A.; Oppedisano, C.; Piccotti, A.; Poggio, F.; Scomparin, E.; Stocco, D.; Vercellin, E.; Yermia, F. [Universita di Torino, Turin (Italy); INFN, Turin (Italy); Cicalo, C.; De Falco, A.; Floris, M.; Masoni, A. [Universita di Cagliari, Cagliari (Italy); INFN, Cagliari (Italy)] (and others)

2006-10-27

177

Simultaneous observation of families and accompanied air showers at Mt. Chacaltaya. II. Study of the hadronic component in air showers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An experimental setup of an air shower array, hadron calorimeter, and emulsion chamber is being carried out at Mt. Chacaltaya (5200 m, Bolivia), in order to study the hadron interaction and the primary cosmic rays in the energy region exceeding 1015 eV. The number of hadrons in the air shower, detected by the hadron calorimeter, is discussed mainly in this paper. A comparison with the simulation shows that the number of hadrons in the air shower is not compatible with that of the simulation, indicating that the Feynman scaling law is violated more strongly than the one assumed in the simulation at 1016 eV. The average mass number of the primary cosmic rays, estimated from the distribution of the number of hadrons, is =2.8+/-0.5 at 1016 eV.

Aguirre, C.; Aoki, H.; Hashimoto, K.; Honda, K.; Inoue, N.; Kawasumi, N.; Maeda, Y.; Martinic, N.; Matano, T.; Ohmori, N.; Ohsawa, A.; Shinozaki, K.; Tamada, M.; Ticona, R.; Tsushima, I.

2000-08-01

178

The design and performance of the electromagnetic calorimeters in Hall C at Jefferson Lab  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The design and performance of the electromagnetic calorimeters in the magnetic spectrometers in Hall C at Jefferson Lab are presented. For the existing HMS and SOS spectrometers, construction information and comparisons of simulated and experimental results are presented. The design and simulated performance for a new calorimeter to be used in the new SHMS spectrometer is also presented. We have developed and constructed electromagnetic calorimeters from TF-1 type lead-glass blocks for the HMS and SOS magnetic spectrometers at JLab Hall C. The HMS/SOS calorimeters are of identical design and construction except for their total size. Blocks of dimension 10 cm × 10 cm × 70 cm are arranged in four planes and stacked 13 and 11 blocks high in the HMS and SOS respectively. The energy resolution of these calorimeters is better than 6%/?E, and pion/electron (?/e) separation of about 100:1 has been achieved in energy range 1-5 GeV. Good agreement has been observed between the experimental and GEANT4 simulated energy resolutions. The HMS/SOS calorimeters have been used nearly in all Hall C experiments, providing good energy resolution and a high pion suppression factor. No significant deterioration in their performance has been observed in the course of use since 1994. For the SHMS spectrometer, presently under construction, details on the calorimeter design and accompanying GEANT4 simulation efforts are given. A Preshower+Shower design was selected as the most cost-effective among several design choices. The preshower will consist of a layer of 28 modules with TF-1 type lead glass radiators, stacked in two columns. The shower part will consist of 224 modules with F-101 type lead glass radiators, stacked in a “fly's eye” configuration of 14 columns and 16 rows. The active area of 120 × 130 cm2 will encompass the beam envelope at the calorimeter. The anticipated performance of the new calorimeter is simulated over the full momentum range of the SHMS, predicting resolution and yields similar to the HMS calorimeter. Good electron/hadron separation can be achieved by using energy deposition in the Preshower along with total energy deposition in the calorimeter. In this case the PID capability is similar to or better than that attainable with HMS calorimeter, with a pion suppression factor of a few hundreds predicted for 99% electron detection efficiency.

Tadevosyan, V.; Mkrtchyan, H.; Asaturyan, A.; Mkrtchyan, A.; Zhamkochyan, S.; the Hall C Collaboration

2012-12-01

179

Multipixel readout of TES calorimeters  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We are developing a superconducting Transition-Edge Sensor (TES) calorimeter array. We adopt calorimeter multiplex in frequency domain to read signals from the calorimeter array with a small number of front-end electronics and wirings. We further utilize Calorimeter Bridge Biased by an AC Generator (CABBAGE) approach to eliminate the AC carrier in the output. We tested the method using a TES calorimeter, which has a transition temperature of 390 mK. Because of the high operating temperature, energy resolution of the calorimeter is limited to 200 eV at 5.9 keV even when it is biased with a DC current. We operated the calorimeter in CABBAGE circuit with 30 kHz sinusoidal bias and obtained an energy resolution of 250 eV. We found that there remains a small-amplitude residual in the output even at the bridge balance point. The residual contains not only 30 kHz component but also odd-order harmonics. We consider that this is due to the variation of the TES resistance with bias current. The 50 eV degradation of the energy resolution from DC to AC biases can be explained by the fact that some of signal power is carried in the odd-order harmonics, which we did not utilize in the data reduction process. We also succeeded to operate the CABBAGE by 100 kHz, although the energy resolution was degraded to 380 eV probably due to low response of the signal readout circuit at the frequency.

Iyomoto, Naoko; Ichitsubo, Taro; Oshima, Tai; Mitsuda, Kazuhisa; Fujimoto, Ryuichi; Futamoto, Kazuo; Takei, Yoh; Fujimori, Tamayuki; Miyazaki, Toshiyuki; Ishisaki, Yoshitaka; Hiroike, Teppei; Morita, Umeyo; Yamasaki, Noriko Y.; Koga, Takeo; Sato, Kosuke; Ohashi, Takaya; Shoji, Shuichi; Kudo, Hiroyuki; Nakamura, Tomoaki; Arakawa, Takahiro; Sato, Hirotaka; Kobayashi, Hideomi; Homma, Takayuki; Osaka, Tetsuya; Nakayama, Satoshi; Morooka, Toshimitsu; Chinone, Kazuo; Tanaka, Keiichi; Kuroda, Yoshikatsu; Onishi, Mitsunobu; Goto, Masaya

2003-03-01

180

The Sad Case of the Columbine Tiles.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Analyzes free-speech challenge to school district's guidelines for acceptable expressions on ceramic tiles painted by Columbine High School students to express their feelings about the massacre. Tenth Circuit found that tile painting constituted school-sponsored speech and thus district had the constitutional authority under "Hazelwood School…

Dowling-Sendor, Benjamin

2003-01-01

181

Covering the Plane with Rep-Tiles  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this lesson, "students discover and explore a special kind of tiling of the plane. Rep-tiles are geometric figures such that n copies can fit together to form a larger, similar figure. Students experiment with various shapes and values of n. Spatial sense is encouraged by the need to visualize and perform transformations with the shapes involved." (from NCTM's Illuminations)

Mathematics, Illuminations N.

2009-07-20

182

Hadron spectroscopy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

I am indebted to the organizing committee of PANIC to talk here on hadron spectroscopy; the name of the conference does describe well my feelings. I thought it was best to give a general discussion of issues in this field without getting involved with too many details. The written version is based on a review with Nathan Isgur I where more details and references may be found. The only topic which will contain some details is on gluonia, where I shall commit the usual disgrace of discussing my own work.

Karl, G.

1985-02-01

183

A study of the energy dependence of the mean, truncated mean, and most probable energy deposition of high-energy muons in sampling calorimeters  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have extracted the momentum dependence of the mean, the truncated mean and the most probable value of the energy deposited in a segmented, iron-scintillator, hadron calorimeter by high-energy muons. Data were drawn from a sample of momentum-analyzed, high-energy muons produced in charged-current neutrino interactions. The truncated mean energy deposition of high-energy muons traversing 20 calorimeter segments increases by approximately

P. S. Auchincloss; P. de Barbaro; A. Bodek; H. Budd; M. Pillai; F. Qun; W. K. Sakumoto; F. S. Merritt; M. J. Oreglia; B. Schumm; T. Bolton; C. Arroyo; K. T. Bachmann; A. O. Bazarko; R. E. Blair; C. Foudas; B. J. King; W. C. Lefmann; W. C. Leung; S. R. Mishra; E. Oltman; P. Z. Quintas; S. A. Rabinowitz; F. Sciulli; W. G. Seligman; M. H. Shaevitz; R. H. Bernstein; F. Borcherding; H. E. Fisk; M. Lamm; W. Marsh; K. W. B. Merritt; H. Schellman; D. Yovanovitch; T. S. Kinnel; P. Sandler; W. H. Smith

1994-01-01

184

Several versions of forward gas ionization calorimeter.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The properties of several versions of a gas ionization calorimeter are analyzed by means of the simulation with the GEANT code. The jet energy and coordinate resolutions are evaluated. Some calorimeter versions meet the ATLAS requirements. 13 refs., 15 fi...

V. V. Babintsev A. G. Kholodenko Y. Rodnov

1994-01-01

185

Response of the D0 calorimeter to cosmic ray muons  

SciTech Connect

The D0 Detector at the Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory is a large multipurpose detector facility designed for the study of proton-antiproton collision products at the center-of-mass energy of 2 TeV. It consists of an inner tracking volume, hermetic uranium/liquid argon sampling calorimetry, and an outer 47{pi} muon detector. In preparation for our first collider run, the collaboration organized a Cosmic Ray Commissioning Run, which took place from February--May of 1991. This thesis is a detailed study of the response of the central calorimeter to cosmic ray muons as extracted from data collected during this run. We have compared the shapes of the experimentally-obtained pulse height spectra to the Landau prediction for the ionization loss in a continuous thin absorber in the four electromagnetic and four hadronic layers of the calorimeter, and find good agreement after experimental effects are folded in. We have also determined an absolute energy calibration using two independent methods: one which measures the response of the electronics to a known amount of charge injected at the preamplifiers, and one which uses a carry-over of the calibration from a beam test of central calorimeter modules. Both absolute energy conversion factors agree with one another, within their errors. The calibration determined from the test beam carryover, relevant for use with collider physics data, has an error of 2.3%. We believe that, with further study, a final error of {approx}1% will be achieved. The theory-to-experiment comparison of the peaks (or most probable values) of the muon spectra was used to determine the layer-to-layer consistency of the muon signal. We find that the mean response in the 3 fine hadronic layers is (12 {plus_minus} 2%) higher than that in the 4 electromagnetic layers. These same comparisons have been used to verify the absolute energy conversion factors. The conversion factors work well for the electromagnetic sections.

Kotcher, J.

1992-10-01

186

CMS HF calorimeter PMTS and Xi baryon(+)(C) lifetime measurement  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This thesis consists of two parts: In the first part we describe the Photomultiplier Tube (PMT) selection and testing processes for the Hadronic Forward (HF) calorimeter of the CMS, a Large Hadron Collier (LHC) experiment at CERN. We report the evaluation process of the candidate PMTs from three different manufacturers, the complete tests performed on the 2300 Hamamatsu PMTs which will be used in the HF calorimeter, and the details of the PMT Test Station that is in University of Iowa CMS Laboratories. In the second part we report the X+c lifetime measurement from SELEX, the charm hadro-production experiment at Fermilab. Based upon 301 +/- 31 events from three different decay channels, by using the binned maximum likelihood technique, we observe the lifetime of X+c as 427 +/- 31 +/- 13 fs.

Akgun, Ugur

187

Relaxation calorimeter for hydrogen thermoporometry  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A relaxation calorimeter for measuring the heat capacity of hydrogen isotopes in nanoporous solids is described. Apparatus' features include (i) cooling by a pulse tube refrigerator, (ii) a modular design, allowing for rapid reconfiguration and sample turn around, (iii) a thermal stability of <~1 mK, and (iv) a bottom temperature of ~5 K. The calorimeter is tested on effective heat capacity measurements of H2 in Vycor (silica) nanoporous glass, yielding a very detailed pore size distribution analysis with an effectively sub-Angstrom resolution.

Van Cleve, E.; Worsley, M. A.; Kucheyev, S. O.

2013-05-01

188

Relaxation calorimeter for hydrogen thermoporometry.  

PubMed

A relaxation calorimeter for measuring the heat capacity of hydrogen isotopes in nanoporous solids is described. Apparatus' features include (i) cooling by a pulse tube refrigerator, (ii) a modular design, allowing for rapid reconfiguration and sample turn around, (iii) a thermal stability of ?1 mK, and (iv) a bottom temperature of ~5 K. The calorimeter is tested on effective heat capacity measurements of H2 in Vycor (silica) nanoporous glass, yielding a very detailed pore size distribution analysis with an effectively sub-Angstrom resolution. PMID:23742560

Van Cleve, E; Worsley, M A; Kucheyev, S O

2013-05-01

189

Hadronic interactions in the MINOS detectors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

MINOS, the Main Injector Neutrino Oscillation Search, will study neutrino flavor transformations using a Near detector at the Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory and a Far detector located in the Soudan Underground Laboratory in northern Minnesota. The MINOS collaboration also constructed the Ca1Det (calibration detector), a smaller version of the Near and Far detectors, to determine the topological and signal response to hadrons, electrons and muons. The detector was exposed to test-beams in the CERN Proton Synchrotron East Hall during 2001--2003, where it collected events at momentum settings between 200 MeV/c and 10 GeV/c. In this dissertation we present results of the Ca1Det experiment, focusing on the topological and signal response to hadrons. We briefly describe the MINOS experiment and its vi iron-scintillator tracking-sampling calorimeters as a motivation for the CalDet experiment. We discuss the operation of the CalDet in the beamlines as well as the trigger and particle identification systems used to isolate the hadron sample. The method used to calibrate the MINOS detectors is described and validated with test-beam data. The test-beams were simulated to model the muon flux, energy loss upstream of the detector and the kaon background. We describe the procedure used to discriminate between pions and muons on the basis of the event topology. The hadron samples were used to benchmark the existing GEANT3 based hadronic shower codes and determine the detector response and resolution for pions and protons. We conclude with comments on the response to single hadrons and to neutrino induced hadronic showers.

Kordosky, Michael Alan

190

Fibrous-Ceramic/Aerogel Composite Insulating Tiles  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Fibrous-ceramic/aerogel composite tiles have been invented to afford combinations of thermal-insulation and mechanical properties superior to those attainable by making tiles of fibrous ceramics alone or aerogels alone. These lightweight tiles can be tailored to a variety of applications that range from insulating cryogenic tanks to protecting spacecraft against re-entry heating. The advantages and disadvantages of fibrous ceramics and aerogels can be summarized as follows: Tiles made of ceramic fibers are known for mechanical strength, toughness, and machinability. Fibrous ceramic tiles are highly effective as thermal insulators in a vacuum. However, undesirably, the porosity of these materials makes them permeable by gases, so that in the presence of air or other gases, convection and gas-phase conduction contribute to the effective thermal conductivity of the tiles. Other disadvantages of the porosity and permeability of fibrous ceramic tiles arise because gases (e.g., water vapor or cryogenic gases) can condense in pores. This condensation contributes to weight, and in the case of cryogenic systems, the heat of condensation undesirably adds to the heat flowing to the objects that one seeks to keep cold. Moreover, there is a risk of explosion associated with vaporization of previously condensed gas upon reheating. Aerogels offer low permeability, low density, and low thermal conductivity, but are mechanically fragile. The basic idea of the present invention is to exploit the best features of fibrous ceramic tiles and aerogels. In a composite tile according to the invention, the fibrous ceramic serves as a matrix that mechanically supports the aerogel, while the aerogel serves as a low-conductivity, low-permeability filling that closes what would otherwise be the open pores of the fibrous ceramic. Because the aerogel eliminates or at least suppresses permeation by gas, gas-phase conduction, and convection, the thermal conductivity of such a composite even at normal atmospheric pressure is not much greater than that of the fibrous ceramic alone in a vacuum.

White, Susan M.; Rasky, Daniel J.

2004-01-01

191

Distributed graph visualization on tiled displays  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, we propose a distributed force-directed layout algorithm in order to handle large graph data on tiled display that consists of multiple computing machines and multiple displays connected to each computing machine through Ethernet. The distributed tiled display makes one big screen using multiple displays in order to discern data obviously. Besides, multiple computing devices on tiled displays share the parts of an entire dataset. Therefore, it can dramatically reduce the processing time to visualize data on screen compared with the processing time on a single machine.

Chae, Sangwon

2013-03-01

192

Remotely replaceable tokamak plasma limiter tiles  

DOEpatents

U-shaped tiles placed end-to-end over a pair of parallel runners have two rods which engage L-shaped slots. A sliding bar between the runners has grooves with clips to retain the rods pressed into receiving legs of the L-shaped slots in the runners. Sliding the bar in the direction of retaining legs of the L-shaped slots latches the tiles in place over the wall. Resilient contact strips under the parallel sides of the U-shaped tile assure thermal and electrical contact with the wall. 6 figs.

Gallix, R.

1987-12-09

193

High-Strength, Low-Shrinkage Ceramic Tiles  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Addition of refractory fibers and whiskers to insulating tiles composed primarily of fibrous silica, such as those used on the skin of Space Shuttle orbiter, greatly improves properties. New composition suitable for lightweight, thermally-stable mirror blanks and as furnace and kiln insulation. Improved tiles made with current tile-fabrication processes. For given density, tiles containing silicon carbide and boron additives stronger in flexure than tiles made from silica alone. In addition, tiles with additives nearly immune to heat distortion, whereas pure-silica tiles shrink and become severely distorted.

Wheeler, W. H.; Creedon, J. F.

1986-01-01

194

Progress in Hadronic Physics Modelling in Geant4  

SciTech Connect

Geant4 offers a set of models to simulate hadronic showers in calorimeters. Recent improvements to several models relevant to the modelling of hadronic showers are discussed. These include improved cross sections, a revision of the FTF model, the addition of quasi-elastic scattering to the QGS model, and enhancements in the nuclear precompound and de-excitation models. The validation of physics models against thin target experiments has been extended especially in the energy region 10 GeV and below. Examples of new validation results are shown.

Apostolakis, John; /CERN; Folger, Gunter; /CERN; Grichine, Vladimir; /CERN; Heikkinen, Aatos; /Helsinki Inst. of Phys.; Howard, Alexander; /CERN; Ivanchenko, Vladimir; /CERN; Kaitaniemi, Pekka; /Helsinki Inst. of Phys.; Koi, Tatsumi; /SLAC; Kosov, Mikhail; /CERN /Moscow, ITEP; Quesada, Jose Manuel; /Seville U.; Ribon, Alberto; /CERN; Uzhinsky, Vladimir; /CERN; Wright, Dennis; /SLAC

2011-11-28

195

ELECTRONICS FOR CALORIMETERS AT LHC.  

SciTech Connect

Some principal design features of front-end electronics for calorimeters in experiments at the LHC will be highlighted. Some concerns arising in the transition from the research and development and design phase to the construction will be discussed. Future challenges will be indicated.

RADEKA,V.

2001-09-11

196

Commissioning and calibration of the Zero Degree Calorimeters for the ALICE experiment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The ALICE experiment at the CERN LHC will study the properties of matter at the extreme temperature and energy density conditions produced in heavy ion collisions. The impact parameter of the collision will be estimated by means of the Zero Degree Calorimeters (ZDC), that measure the energy carried away by the non-interacting (spectator) nucleons. All the spectator nucleons have the same energy, therefore the calorimeter response is proportional to their number, providing a direct information on the centrality of the collision. Two identical sets of hadronic calorimeters are located at opposite sides with respect to the interaction point, 116 m away from it, where the two LHC beams circulate in two different pipes. Each set of detectors consists of a neutron (ZN) calorimeter, placed between the two beam pipes and a proton (ZP) calorimeter, positioned externally to the outgoing beam pipe. The ZDC are spaghetti calorimeters, which detect the Cherenkov light produced by the charged particles of the shower in the quartz fibers, acting as the active material embedded in a dense absorber matrix. In summer 2007 the ZN and ZP calorimeters have been placed on a movable platform and then installed in the LHC tunnel. The results of the commissioning studies are shown. The monitoring systems adopted to control the stability of the PMT responses, i.e. light injection with a laser diode and cosmic rays, are described in detail. The foreseen calibration with e.m. dissociation events in Pb-Pb collisions will also be discussed. Finally the first measurements carried out during the commissioning in the LHC tunnel will be presented.

Gemme, R.; Arnaldi, R.; Chiavassa, E.; Cicalò, C.; Cortese, P.; De Falco, A.; Dellacasa, G.; De Marco, N.; Ferretti, A.; Floris, M.; Gagliardi, M.; Gallio, M.; Luparello, G.; Masoni, A.; Mereu, P.; Musso, A.; Oppedisano, C.; Piccotti, A.; Poggio, F.; Puddu, G.; Scomparin, E.; Serci, S.; Siddi, E.; Stocco, D.; Usai, G.; Vercellin, E.

2009-12-01

197

Tile Classification Using the CIELAB Color Model  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a An image processing algorithm was developed for tile shade classification on the basis of quantitative measurements in CIELAB\\u000a color space. A total of 50 tile images of 10 types were recorded, and evaluated with the proposed algorithm in comparison\\u000a with the conventional classification method. The objectivity of the method is based on the fact that it is not subject to

Christos-nikolaos Anagnostopoulos; Athanassios Koutsonas; Ioannis Anagnostopoulos; Vassilis Loumos; Eleftherios Kayafas

2005-01-01

198

The Tile Complexity of Linear Assemblies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Self-assembly is fundamental to both biological processes and nanoscience. Key features of self-assembly are its probabilistic nature and local programmability. These features can be leveraged to design better self-assembled systems. The conventional Tile Assembly Model (TAM) developed by Winfree using Wang tiles is a powerful, Turing-universal theoretical framework which models varied self-assembly processes. A particular challenge in DNA nanoscience is

Harish Chandran; Nikhil Gopalkrishnan; John H. Reif

2009-01-01

199

Manufacture of ceramic tiles from fly ash  

DOEpatents

The present invention relates to a process for forming glass-ceramic tiles. Fly ash containing organic material, metal contaminants, and glass forming materials is oxidized under conditions effective to combust the organic material and partially oxidize the metallic contaminants and the glass forming materials. The oxidized glass forming materials are vitrified to form a glass melt. This glass melt is then formed into tiles containing metallic contaminants. 6 figs.

Hnat, J.G.; Mathur, A.; Simpson, J.C.

1999-08-10

200

Cutting Symmetrical Recesses In Soft Ceramic Tiles  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Simple tool cuts hemispherical recesses in soft ceramic tiles. Designed to expose wires of thermocouples embedded in tiles without damaging leads. Creates neat, precise holes around wires. End mill includes axial hole to accommodate thermocouple wires embedded in material to be cut. Wires pass into hole without being bent or broken. Dimensions in inches. Used in place of such tools as dental picks, tweezers, spatulas, and putty knives.

Nesotas, Tony C.; Tyler, Brent

1989-01-01

201

Quasicrystalline tilings with nematic colloidal platelets.  

PubMed

Complex nematic fluids have the remarkable capability for self-assembling regular colloidal structures of various symmetries and dimensionality according to their micromolecular orientational order. Colloidal chains, clusters, and crystals were demonstrated recently, exhibiting soft-matter functionalities of robust binding, spontaneous chiral symmetry breaking, entanglement, shape-driven and topological driven assembly, and even memory imprinting. However, no quasicrystalline structures were found. Here, we show with numerical modeling that quasicrystalline colloidal lattices can be achieved in the form of original Penrose P1 tiling by using pentagonal colloidal platelets in layers of nematic liquid crystals. The tilings are energetically stabilized with binding energies up to 2500 kBT for micrometer-sized platelets and further allow for hierarchical substitution tiling, i.e., hierarchical pentagulation. Quasicrystalline structures are constructed bottom-up by assembling the boat, rhombus, and star maximum density clusters, thus avoiding other (nonquasicrystalline) stable or metastable configurations of platelets. Central to our design of the quasicrystalline tilings is the symmetry breaking imposed by the platelet shape and the surface anchoring conditions at the colloidal platelets, which are misaligning and asymmetric over two perpendicular mirror planes. Finally, the design of the quasicrystalline tilings as platelets in nematic liquid crystals is inherently capable of a continuous variety of length scales of the tiling, ranging over three orders of magnitude in the typical length (from ~ 10 nm to ~ 10 ?m), which could allow for the design of quasicrystalline photonics at multiple frequency ranges. PMID:24550269

Dontabhaktuni, Jayasri; Ravnik, Miha; Žumer, Slobodan

2014-02-18

202

Performance of the TFTR moveable limiter tiles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The movable limiter for the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR) is composed of an Inconel X-750 backing plate covered with titanium carbide coated graphite tiles. It has been used for ohmic heating discharges at input powers up to about 2 MW for durations up to 3 s. Even though these levels were well within the design requirements, discharges showed high levels (up to 1%) of titanium contamination. It was observed that certain tiles were showing substantial coating removal which became progressively worse as more discharges were made. After about 800 discharges the tiles were removed. A few of the tiles were examined in the Sandia external beam facility. This analysis showed that the TiC coating was completely removed over large areas. There was also evidence of plasma deposited material on the tiles. The thickness of the remaining coating from this beam analysis agreed with the thickness determined from sectioning control coupons from the production runs. There was a weak correlation between damage and coating thickness. The correlation was such that there was a higher probability of coating failure as the coating thickness increased from 15 ?m to 40 ?m. Test were done using the ASTM-C-633 procedure for measuring coating bond strength. The adhesion strength agreed well with the behavior observed in TFTR. The coating has been removed, and the tiles reinstalled.

Ulrickson, M.; Cecchi, J. L.; Doyle, B. L.; Dylla, H. F.; Medley, S. S.; Owens, D. K.; Trester, P.

1985-08-01

203

Measurement of exclusive branching fractions of hadronic one-prong tau decays  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have measured the branching fractions for the hadronic ? decays, ? ? ?Kn?° ? (0? n ?3), with the L3 detector at LEP. Multiphoton final states are analyzed using the fine-grained, high-resolution electromagnetic calorimeter. The decay channels are identified using a neural network method. The results are: BR(? ? ?K?) = (11.82 ± 0.26 ± 0.43) %, BR(? ?

M. M. Accarri; A. Adam; O. Adriani; M. Aguilar-Benitez; S. Ahlen; J. Alcaraz; A. Aloisio; G. Alverson; M. G. Alviggi; G. Ambrosi; Q. An; H. Anderhub; A. L. Anderson; V. P. Andreev; T. Angelescu; L. Antonov; D. Antreasyan; G. Alkhazov; P. Arce; A. Arefiev; T. Azemoon; T. Aziz; P. V. K. S. Baba; P. Bagnaia; J. A. Bakken; L. Baksay; R. C. Ball; S. Banerjee; K. Banicz; R. Barillère; L. Barone; A. Baschirotto; M. Basile; R. Battiston; A. Bay; F. Becattini; U. Becker; F. Behner; Gy. L. Bencze; J. Berdugo; P. Berges; B. Bertucci; B. L. Betev; M. Biasini; A. Biland; G. M. Bilei; R. Bizzarri; J. J. Blaising; G. J. Bobbink; R. Bock; A. Böhm; B. Borgia; A. Boucham; D. Bourilkov; M. Bourquin; D. Boutigny; B. Bouwens; E. Brambilla; J. G. Branson; V. Brigljevic; I. C. Brock; M. Brooks; A. Bujak; J. D. Burger; W. J. Burger; C. Burgos; J. Busenitz; A. Buytenhuijs; A. Bykov; X. D. Cai; M. Capell; G. Cara Romeo; M. Caria; G. Carlino; A. M. Cartacci; J. Casaus; R. Castello; N. Cavallo; M. Cerrada; M. Cesaroni; M. Chamizo; Y. H. Chang; U. K. Chaturvedi; M. Chemarin; A. Chen; C. Chen; G. Chen; H. F. Chen; H. S. Chen; M. Chen; G. Chiefari; C. Y. Chien; M. T. Choi; S. Chung; L. Cifarelli; F. Cindolo; C. Civinini; I. Clare; R. Clare; T. E. Coan; H. O. Cohn; G. Coignet; N. Colino; S. Costantini; F. Cotorobai; B. de la Cruz; X. T. Cui; X. Y. Cui; T. S. Dai; R. D'Alessandro; R. de Asmundis; A. Degré; K. Deiters; E. Dénes; P. Denes; F. Denotaristefani; D. Dibitonto; M. Diemoz; H. R. Dimitrov; C. Dionisi; M. Dittmar; L. Djambazov; I. Dorne; M. T. Dova; E. Drago; D. Duchesneau; F. Duhem; P. Duinker; I. Duran; S. Dutta; S. Easo; H. El Mamouni; A. Engler; F. J. Eppling; F. C. Erné; P. Extermann; R. Fabbretti; M. Fabre; S. Falciano; A. Favara; J. Fay; M. Felcini; T. Ferguson; D. Fernandez; G. Fernandez; F. Ferroni; H. Fesefeldt; E. Fiandrini; J. H. Field; F. Filthaut; P. H. Fisher; G. Forconi; L. Fredj; K. Freudenreich; M. Gailloud; Yu. Galaktionov; E. Gallo; S. N. Ganguli; P. Garcia-Abia; S. Gentile; J. Gerald; N. Gheordanescu; S. Giagu; S. Goldfarb; J. Goldstein; Z. F. Gong; E. Gonzalez; A. Gougas; D. Goujon; G. Gratta; M. W. Gruenewald; C. Gu; M. Guanziroli; V. K. Gupta; A. Gurtu; H. R. Gustafson; L. J. Gutay; A. Hasan; D. Hauschildt; J. T. He; T. Hebbeker; M. Hebert; A. Hervé; K. Hilgers; H. Hofer; H. Hoorani; S. R. Hou; G. Hu; B. Ille; M. M. Ilyas; V. Innocente; H. Janssen; B. N. Jin; L. W. Jones; P. de Jong; I. Josa-Mutuberria; A. Kasser; R. A. Khan; Yu. Kamyshkov; P. Kapinos; J. S. Kapustinsky; Y. Karyotakis; M. Kaur; S. Khokhar; M. N. Kienzle-Focacci; D. Kim; J. K. Kim; S. C. Kim; Y. G. Kim; W. W. Kinnison; A. Kirkby; D. Kirkby; J. Kirkby; S. Kirsch; W. Kittel; A. Klimentov; A. C. König; E. Koffeman; O. Kornadt; V. Koutsenko; A. Koulbardis; R. W. Kraemer; T. Kramer; V. R. Krastev; W. Krenz; H. Kuijten; K. S. Kumar; A. Kunin; P. Ladron de Guevara; G. Landi; D. Lanske; S. Lanzano; P. Laurikainen; A. Lebedev; P. Lebrun; P. Lecomte; P. Lecoq; P. Le Coultre; D. M. Lee; J. S. Lee; K. Y. Lee; I. Leedom; C. Leggett; J. M. Le Goff; R. Leiste; M. Lenti; E. Leonardi; P. Levtchenko; C. Li; E. Lieb; W. T. Lin; F. L. Linde; B. Lindemann; L. Lista; Y. Liu; W. Lohmann; E. Longo; W. Lu; Y. S. Lu; J. M. Lubbers; K. Lübelsmeyer; C. Luci; D. Luckey; L. Ludovici; L. Luminari; W. Lustermann; W. G. Ma; M. MacDermott; M. Maity; L. Malgeri; R. Malik; A. Malinin; C. Maña; S. Mangla; M. Maolinbay; P. Marchesini; A. Marin; J. P. Martin; F. Marzano; G. G. G. Massaro; K. Mazumdar; P. McBride; T. McMahon; D. McNally; S. Mele; M. Merk; L. Merola; M. Meschini; W. J. Metzger; Y. Mi; A. Mihul; G. B. Mills; Y. Mir; G. Mirabelli; J. Mnich; M. Möller; V. Monaco; B. Monteleoni; R. Morand; S. Morganti; N. E. Moulai; R. Mount; S. Müller; E. Nagy; M. Napolitano; F. Nessi-Tedaldi; H. Newman; M. A. Niaz; A. Nippe; H. Nowak; G. Organtini; R. Ostonen; D. Pandoulas; S. Paoletti; P. Paolucci; G. Pascale; G. Passaleva; S. Patricelli; T. Paul; M. Pauluzzi; C. Paus; F. Pauss; Y. J. Pei; S. Pensotti; D. Perret-Gallix; A. Pevsner; D. Piccolo; M. Pieri; J. C. Pinto; P. A. Piroué; E. Pistolesi; F. Plasil; V. Plyaskin; M. Pohl; V. Pojidaev; H. Postema; N. Produit; J. M. Qian; K. N. Qureshi; R. Raghavan; G. Rahal-Callot; P. G. Rancoita; M. Rattaggi; G. Raven; P. Razis; K. Read; M. Redaelli; D. Ren; Z. Ren; M. Rescigno; S. Reucroft; A. Ricker; S. Riemann; B. C. Riemers; K. Riles; O. Rind; H. A. Rizvi; S. Ro; A. Robohm; F. J. Rodriguez; B. P. Roe; M. Röhner; S. Röhner; L. Romero; S. Rosier-Lees; R. Rosmalen; Ph. Rosselet; W. van Rossum; S. Roth; A. Rubbia; J. A. Rubio; H. Rykaczewski; J. Salicio; E. Sanchez; G. S. Sanders; A. Santocchia; M. E. Sarakinos; S. Sarkar; G. Sartorelli; M. Sassowsky; G. Sauvage; H. Schäfer; V. Schegelsky; D. Schmitz; P. Schmitz; M. Schneegans; N. Scholz; H. Schopper; D. J. Schotanus; S. Shotkin; H. J. Schreiber; J. Shukla

1995-01-01

204

Measurement of the time development of particle showers in a uranium scintillator calorimeter  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report on the time evolution of particle showers, as measured in modules of the uranium-scintillator barrel calorimeter of the ZEUS detector. The time development of hadronic showers differs significantly from that of electromagnetic showers, with about 40% of the response to hadronic showers arising from energy depositions which occur late in the shower development. The degree of compensation and the hadronic energy resolution were measured as a function of integration time, giving a value of {e}/{?} = 1.02 ± 0.01 for a gate width of 100 ns. The possibilities for electron-hadron separation based on the time structure of the shower were studied, with pion rejection factors in excess of 100 being achieved for electron efficiencies greater than 60%. The custom electronics used to perform these measurements samples the calorimeter signal at close to 60 MHz, stores all samples for a period of over 4 ?s using analog switched capacitor pipelines, and digitizes the samples for triggered events with 12-bit ADCs.

Caldwell, A.; Hervás, L.; Parsons, J. A.; Sciulli, F.; Sippach, W.; Wai, L.

1993-06-01

205

Tile drainage as karst: Conduit flow and diffuse flow in a tile-drained watershed  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The similarity of tiled-drained watersheds to karst drainage basins can be used to improve understanding of watershed-scale nutrient losses from subsurface tile drainage networks. In this study, short-term variations in discharge and chemistry were examined from a tile outlet collecting subsurface tile flow from a 963 ha agricultural watershed. Study objectives were to apply analytical techniques from karst springs to tile discharge to evaluate water sources and estimate the loads of agricultural pollutants discharged from the tile with conduit, intermediate and diffuse flow regimes. A two-member mixing model using nitrate, chloride and specific conductance was used to distinguish rainwater versus groundwater inputs. Results indicated that groundwater comprised 75% of the discharge for a three-day storm period and rainwater was primarily concentrated during the hydrograph peak. A contrasting pattern of solute concentrations and export loads was observed in tile flow. During base flow periods, tile flow consisted of diffuse flow from groundwater sources and contained elevated levels of nitrate, chloride and specific conductance. During storm events, suspended solids and pollutants adhered to soil surfaces (phosphorus, ammonium and organic nitrogen) were concentrated and discharged during the rapid, conduit flow portion of the hydrograph. During a three-day period, conduit flow occurred for 5.6% of the time but accounted for 16.5% of the total flow. Nitrate and chloride were delivered primarily with diffuse flow (more than 70%), whereas 80-94% of total suspended sediment, phosphorus and ammonium were exported with conduit and intermediate flow regimes. Understanding the water sources contributing to tile drainage and the manner by which pollutant discharge occurs from these systems (conduit, intermediate or diffuse flow) may be useful for designing, implementing and evaluating non-point source reduction strategies in tile-drained landscapes. ?? 2007 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Schilling, K. E.; Helmers, M.

2008-01-01

206

Quasiperiodicity and randomness in tilings of the plane  

SciTech Connect

The authors define new tilings of the plane with Robinson triangles, by means of generalized inflation rules, and study their Fourier spectrum. Penrose's matching rules are not obeyed; hence the tilings exhibit new local environments, such as three different bond lengths, as well as new patterns at all length scales. Several kinds of such generalized tilings are considered. A large class of deterministic tilings, including chiral tilings, is strictly quasiperiodic, with a tenfold rotationally symmetric Fourier spectrum. Random tilings, either locally (with extensive entropy) or globally random (without extensive entropy), exhibit a mixed (discrete + continuous) diffraction spectrum, implying a partial perfect long-range order.

Godreche, C.; Luck, J.M. (CEN Saclay, Gif-sur-Yvette (France))

1989-04-01

207

Tiled WMS/KML Server V2  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This software is a higher-performance implementation of tiled WMS, with integral support for KML and time-varying data. This software is compliant with the Open Geospatial WMS standard, and supports KML natively as a WMS return type, including support for the time attribute. Regionated KML wrappers are generated that match the existing tiled WMS dataset. Ping and JPG formats are supported, and the software is implemented as an Apache 2.0 module that supports a threading execution model that is capable of supporting very high request rates. The module intercepts and responds to WMS requests that match certain patterns and returns the existing tiles. If a KML format that matches an existing pyramid and tile dataset is requested, regionated KML is generated and returned to the requesting application. In addition, KML requests that do not match the existing tile datasets generate a KML response that includes the corresponding JPG WMS request, effectively adding KML support to a backing WMS server.

Plesea, Lucian

2012-01-01

208

TAAPP: Tiling Array Analysis Pipeline for Prokaryotes.  

PubMed

High-density tiling arrays provide closer view of transcription than regular microarrays and can also be used for annotating functional elements in genomes. The identified transcripts usually have a complex overlapping architecture when compared to the existing genome annotation. Therefore, there is a need for customized tiling array data analysis tools. Since most of the initial tiling arrays were conducted in eukaryotes, data analysis methods are well suited for eukaryotic genomes. For using whole-genome tiling arrays to identify previously unknown transcriptional elements like small RNA and antisense RNA in prokaryotes, existing data analysis tools need to be tailored for prokaryotic genome architecture. Furthermore, automation of such custom data analysis workflow is necessary for biologists to apply this powerful platform for knowledge discovery. Here we describe TAAPP, a web-based package that consists of two modules for prokaryotic tiling array data analysis. The transcript generation module works on normalized data to generate transcriptionally active regions (TARs). The feature extraction and annotation module then maps TARs to existing genome annotation. This module further categorizes the transcription profile into potential novel non-coding RNA, antisense RNA, gene expression and operon structures. The implemented workflow is microarray platform independent and is presented as a web-based service. The web interface is freely available for academic use at http://lims.lsbi.mafes.msstate.edu/TAAPP-HTML/. PMID:21641563

Kumar, Ranjit; Burgess, Shane C; Lawrence, Mark L; Nanduri, Bindu

2011-04-01

209

High energy hadron-hadron collisions  

SciTech Connect

Results of a study on high energy collision with the geometrical model are summarized in three parts: (1) the elastic hadron-hadron collision, (2) the inelastic hadron-hadron collision, and (3) the e{sup +}e{sup {minus}} annihilation. More recent studies are highlighted below. For elastic scattering, a modified form for the hadronic matter form factor of the proton was proposed which remains to be dipole in form but contains an energy-dependent range parameter. This new expression of the opacity function fits the elastic {bar p}p scattering very well from the ISR to S{bar p}pS energies. Extrapolation of this theory also yielded results in good agreement with the {bar p}p differential cross section measured at the Tevatron. For inelastic hadron-hadron collisions, we have made a systematic investigation of the single-particle momentum spectra in the entire S{bar p}pS energy region. Results are useful for the extrapolation of angular distribution to the higher SSC energies. In e{sup +}e{sup {minus}} annihilation, a detailed analysis of all available experimental multiplicity data from PETRA to LEP energies has been performed. We discovered that the cluster size of emitted hadrons increases steadily with energy and is close to 2 as we predicted.

Chou, T.T.

1991-12-01

210

Morphometry and structure of natural random tilings.  

PubMed

A vast range of both living and inanimate planar cellular partitions obeys universal empirical laws describing their structure. To better understand this observation, we analyze the morphometric parameters of a sizeable set of experimental data that includes animal and plant tissues, patterns in desiccated starch slurry, suprafroth in type-I superconductors, soap froths, and geological formations. We characterize the tilings by the distributions of polygon reduced area, a scale-free measure of the roundedness of polygons. These distributions are fairly sharp and seem to belong to the same family. We show that the experimental tilings can be mapped onto the model tilings of equal-area, equal-perimeter polygons obtained by numerical simulations. This suggests that the random two-dimensional patterns can be parametrized by their median reduced area alone. PMID:21107883

Ho?evar, A; El Shawish, S; Ziherl, P

2010-12-01

211

Nematic colloidal tilings as photonic materials  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Colloidal platelets are explored as elementary building blocks for the shape-controlled assembly of crystalline and quasicrystalline tilings. Using three-dimensional (3D) numerical modelling based on the minimization of Landau-de Gennes free energy for modelling of colloids combined with Finite Difference Time Domain calculations for optics, we demonstrate the self-assembly and optical (transmission) properties of triangular, square and pentagonal sub-micrometer sized platelets in a thin layer of nematic liquid crystal. Interactions between platelets are explored, providing an insight into the assembly process. Two-dimensional tilings of various-shaped colloidal platelets are demonstrated, and their use as diffraction layers is explored by using FDTD simulations. Designing symmetry-breaking surface anchoring profiles on pentagonal platelets opens also a possibility to achieve interactions that could lead to tilings with non-crystalline symmetry.

Ravnik, M.; Dontabhaktuni, J.; Cancula, M.; Zumer, S.

2014-02-01

212

AIRBORNE ASBESTOS CONCENTRATIONS DURING BUFFING OF RESILIENT FLOOR TILE  

EPA Science Inventory

Although asbestos-containing resilient floor tiles are considered nonfriable, the frictional forces exerted on the tile during routine maintenance operations can generate asbestos-containing structures. tudy was conducted to determine the level of airborne asbestos concentrations...

213

Hadron Spectroscopy and Structure  

SciTech Connect

In this talk I review and comment upon recent developments in hadron spectroscopy and structure. The talk is organized into three main sections dealing with heavy quarkonia (QQ(bar)), hadrons containing a single heavy quark (Qq(bar) and Qqq), and hadrons containing only light quarks and glue, although I will emphasize a surprising unity of the phenomena characterizing these systems.

Isgur, Nathan

1992-08-01

214

Packing, tiling, and covering with tetrahedra  

PubMed Central

It is well known that three-dimensional Euclidean space cannot be tiled by regular tetrahedra. But how well can we do? In this work, we give several constructions that may answer the various senses of this question. In so doing, we provide some solutions to packing, tiling, and covering problems of tetrahedra. Our results suggest that the regular tetrahedron may not be able to pack as densely as the sphere, which would contradict a conjecture of Ulam. The regular tetrahedron might even be the convex body having the smallest possible packing density.

Conway, J. H.; Torquato, S.

2006-01-01

215

2.OA Red and Blue Tiles  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a task from the Illustrative Mathematics website that is one part of a complete illustration of the standard to which it is aligned. Each task has at least one solution and some commentary that addresses important asects of the task and its potential use. Here are the first few lines of the commentary for this task: Lin wants to put some red and blue tiles on a wall for decoration. She is thinking about several different patterns of tiles she could create. She want...

216

Tiles for managing computational complexity of video encoding and decoding  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we introduce the concept of tiles. Tiles are incorporated into the current design of the High Efficiency Video Coding (HEVC) standard being developed by the Joint Collaborative Team on Video Coding (JCT-VC). In the design, tiles are introduced to support high-level parallelism and also to reduce on-chip memory requirements. This paper describes the tile concept and reports

Arild Fuldseth; Michael Horowitz; Shilin Xu; Kiran Misra; Andrew Segall; Minhua Zhou

2012-01-01

217

Robust tile-based texture synthesis using artificial immune system  

Microsoft Academic Search

One significant problem in tile-based texture synthesis is the presence of conspicuous seams in the tiles. The reason is that\\u000a sample patches employed as primary patterns of the tile set may not be well stitched if carelessly picked. In this paper,\\u000a we introduce a robust approach that can stably generate an ?-tile set of high quality and pattern diversity. First,

Weiming Dong; Ning Zhou; Jean-claude Paul

2009-01-01

218

Random Tilings of High Symmetry: I. Mean-Field Theory  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We study random tiling models in the limit of high rotational symmetry. In this limit a mean-field theory yields reasonable predictions for the configurational entropy of free boundary rhombus tilings in two dimensions. We base our mean-field theory on an iterative tiling construction inspired by the work of de Bruijn. In addition to the entropy, we consider correlation functions, phason elasticity and the thermodynamic limit. Tilings of dimension other than two are considered briefly.

Destainville, N.; Widom, M.; Mosseri, R.; Bailly, F.

2005-09-01

219

DeskAlign: Automaticlly Aligning a Tiled Windows Desktop  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tiled projector arrays are effective at meeting the needs for scalable, cost effective, higher resolution displays. In- creases in PC performance have allowed small tiled dis- plays to be driven from a single PC with multiple graphics cards. In this paper we present a system for automatically aligning the Windows Desktop of a tiled display. This sys- tem consists of

Grant Wallace; Han Chen; Kai Li

220

Installation of Ceramic Tile: Residential Thin-Set Methods.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This curriculum guide contains materials for use in teaching a course on residential thin-set methods of tile installation. Covered in the individual units are the following topics: the tile industry; basic math; tools; measurement; safety in tile setting; installation materials and guidelines for their use; floors; counter tops and backsplashes;…

Short, Sam

221

Two Views of Islam: Ceramic Tile Design and Miniatures.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes an art project focusing on Islamic art that consists of two parts: (1) ceramic tile design; and (2) Islamic miniatures. Provides background information on Islamic art and step-by-step instructions for designing the Islamic tile and miniature. Includes learning objectives and resources on Islamic tile miniatures. (CMK)

Macaulay, Sara Grove

2001-01-01

222

Influence of firing temperature on mechanical properties on roofing tiles  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the ceramic roofing tile manufacturing, absence of good mechanical properties, such as strength and hardness, leads to reject production of both green and fired tiles. We evaluated the effects of firing temperatures on bending strength and Vickers hardness in fired ceramic roofing tiles from kaolinite and illite-carbonate clay materials. The separately designed ceramics samples were shaped by dry pressing

Leposava Sidjanin; Jonjaua Ranogajec; Dragan Rajnovic; Elvira Molnar

2007-01-01

223

Hadron energy reconstruction for the ATLAS calorimetry in the framework of the non-parametrical method ATLAS  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper discusses hadron energy reconstruction for the ATLAS barrel prototype combined calorimeter (consisting of a lead-liquid argon electromagnetic part and an iron-scintillator hadronic part) in the framework of the non-parametrical method. The non-parametrical method utilizes only the known e\\/h ratios and the electron calibration constants and does not require the determination of any parameters by a minimization technique. Thus,

S. Akhmadaliev; P. Amaral; G. Ambrosini; A. Amorim; K. Anderson; M. L. Andrieux; B. Aubert; E. Augé; F. Badaud; L. Baisin; F. Barreiro; G. Battistoni; A. Bazan; K. Bazizi; A. Belymam; D. Benchekroun; S. Berglund; J. C. Berset; G. Blanchot; A. Bogush; C. Bohm; V. Boldea; W. Bonivento; M. Bosman; N. Bouhemaid; D. Breton; P. Brette; C. Bromberg; J. Budagov; S. Burdin; L. Caloba; F. Camarena; D. V. Camin; B. Canton; M. Caprini; J. Carvalho; P. Casado; M. V. Castillo; D. Cavalli; M. Cavalli-Sforza; V. Cavasinni; R. Chadelas; M. Chalifour; L. Chekhtman; J. L. Chevalley; I. Chirikov-Zorin; G. Chlachidze; M. Citterio; W. E. Cleland; C. Clement; M. Cobal; F. Cogswell; J. Colas; J. Collot; S. Cologna; S. Constantinescu; G. Costa; D. Costanzo; M. Crouau; F. Daudon; J. David; M. David; T. Davidek; J. Dawson; K. De; C. de la Taille; J. Del Peso; T. Del Prete; P. de Saintignon; B. Di Girolamo; B. Dinkespiller; S. Dita; J. Dodd; J. Dolejsi; Z. Dolezal; R. Downing; J.-J. Dugne; D. Dzahini; I. Efthymiopoulos; D. Errede; S. Errede; H. Evans; G. Eynard; F. Fassi; P. Fassnacht; A. Ferrari; A. Ferrer; V. Flaminio; D. Fournier; G. Fumagalli; E. Gallas; M. Gaspar; V. Giakoumopoulou; F. Gianotti; O. Gildemeister; N. Giokaris; V. Glagolev; V. Glebov; A. Gomes; V. Gonzalez; S. Gonzalez De La Hoz; V. Grabsky; E. Grauges; Ph. Grenier; H. Hakopian; M. Haney; C. Hebrard; A. Henriques; L. Hervas; E. Higon; S. Holmgren; J. Y. Hostachy; A. Hoummada; J. Huston; D. Imbault; Yu. Ivanyushenkov; S. Jezequel; E. Johansson; R. Jones; A. Juste; S. Kakurin; A. Karyukhin; Yu. Khokhlov; J. Khubua; V. Klyukhin; G. Kolachev; S. Kopikov; M. Kostrikov; V. Kozlov; P. Krivkova; V. Kukhtin; M. Kulagin; Y. Kulchitsky; M. Kuzmin; L. Labarga; G. Laborie; D. Lacour; B. Laforge; S. Lami; V. Lapin; O. Le Dortz; M. Lefebvre; T. Le Flour; R. Leitner; M. Leltchouk; J. Li; M. Liablin; O. Linossier; D. Lissauer; F. Lobkowicz; M. Lokajicek; Yu. Lomakin; J. M. Lopez Amengual; B. Lund-Jensen; A. Maio; D. Makowiecki; S. Malyukov; L. Mandelli; B. Mansoulié; L. Mapelli; C. P. Marin; P. Marrocchesi; F. Marroquim; Ph. Martin; A. Maslennikov; N. Massol; L. Mataix; M. Mazzanti; E. Mazzoni; F. Merritt; B. Michel; R. Miller; I. Minashvili; L. Miralles; E. Mnatsakanian; E. Monnier; G. Montarou; G. Mornacchi; M. Moynot; G. S. Muanza; P. Nayman; S. Nemecek; M. Nessi; S. Nicoleau; M. Niculescu; J.-M. Noppe; A. Onofre; D. Pallin; D. Pantea; R. Paoletti; I. C. Park; G. Parrour; J. Parsons; A. Pereira; L. Perini; J. A. Perlas; P. Perrodo; J. Pilcher; J. Pinhao; H. Plothow-Besch; L. Poggioli; S. Poirot; L. Price; Y. Protopopov; J. Proudfoot; P. Puzo; V. Radeka; D. Rahm; G. Reinmuth; G. Renzoni; S. Rescia; S. Resconi; R. Richards; J.-P. Richer; C. Roda; S. Rodier; J. Roldan; J. B. Romance; V. Romanov; P. Romero; F. Rossel; N. Russakovich; P. Sala; E. Sanchis; H. Sanders; C. Santoni; J. Santos; D. Sauvage; G. Sauvage; L. Sawyer; L.-P. Says; A.-C. Schaffer; P. Schwemling; J. Schwindling; N. Seguin-Moreau; W. Seidl; J. M. Seixas; B. Sellden; M. Seman; A. Semenov; L. Serin; E. Shaldaev; M. Shochet; V. Sidorov; J. Silva; V. Simaitis; S. Simion; A. Sissakian; R. Snopkov; J. Soderqvist; A. Solodkov; A. Soloviev; I. Soloviev; P. Sonderegger; K. Soustruznik; F. Spano; R. Spiwoks; R. Stanek; E. Starchenko; P. Stavina; R. Stephens; M. Suk; A. Surkov; I. Sykora; H. Takai; F. Tang; S. Tardell; F. Tartarelli; P. Tas; J. Teiger; J. Thaler; J. Thion; Y. Tikhonov; S. Tisserant; S. Tokar; N. Topilin; Z. Trka; M. Turcotte; S. Valkar; M. J. Varanda; A. Vartapetian; F. Vazeille; I. Vichou; V. Vinogradov; S. Vorozhtsov; V. Vuillemin; A. White; M. Wielers; I. Wingerter-Seez; H. Wolters; N. Yamdagni; C. Yosef; A. Zaitsev; R. Zitoun; Y. P. Zolnierowski

2002-01-01

224

5.8 X-ray Calorimeters  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

X-ray calorimeter instruments for astrophysics have seen rapid development since they were invented in 1984. The prime instrument on all currently planned X-ray spectroscopic observatories is based on calorimeter technology. This relatively simple detection concept that senses the energy of an incident photon by measuring the temperature rise of an absorber material at very low temperatures, can form the basis of a very high performance, non-dispersive spectrometer. State-of-the-art calorimeter instruments have resolving powers of over 3000, large simultaneous band-passes, and near unit efficiency. This coupled with the intrinsic imaging capability of a pixilated x-ray calorimeter array, allows true spectral-spatial instruments to be constructed. In this chapter I briefly review the detection scheme, the state-of-the-art in X-ray calorimeter instruments and the future outlook for this technology.

Porter, F. Scott

2008-01-01

225

CFD-Predicted Tile Heating Bump Factors Due to Tile Overlay Repairs  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A Computational Fluid Dynamics investigation of the Orbiter's Tile Overlay Repair (TOR) is performed to assess the aeroheating Damage Assessment Team's (DAT) existing heating correlation method for protuberance interference heating on the surrounding thermal protection system. Aerothermodynamic heating analyses are performed for TORs at the design reference damage locations body points 1800 and 1075 for a Mach 17.9 and a=39deg STS-107 flight trajectory point with laminar flow. Six different cases are considered. The computed peak heating bump factor on the surrounding tiles are below the DAT's heating bump factor values for smooth tile cases. However, for the uneven tiles cases the peak interference heating is shown to be considerably higher than the existing correlation prediction.

Lessard, Victor R.

2006-01-01

226

High Temperature Filler for Tile Gaps  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Gaps between ceramic tiles filled with ceramic-coated fabric that withstands temperatures as high as 2,000 degrees F (1,300 degrees C). Reusable high-temperature gap filler is made of fabric coated with ceramic slurry and bonded in place with room-temperature-vulcanized adhesive. Procedure used in kilns and furnaces.

Holt, J. W.; Wang, D. S.

1983-01-01

227

Phase diagram of a random tiling quasicrystal  

Microsoft Academic Search

We study the phase diagram of a two-dimensional random tiling model for quasicrystals. At proper concentrations the model has 8-fold rotational symmetry. Landau theory correctly gives most of the qualitative features of the phase diagram, which is in turn studied in detail numerically using a transfer matrix approach. We find that the system can enter the quasicrystal phase from many

Weixiong Li; Michael Widom

1992-01-01

228

Tiles: A Mixed Reality Authoring Interface  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mixed Reality (MR) aims to create user interfaces where interactive virtual objects are overlaid on the physical environment, naturally blending with it in real time. In this paper we presents Tiles, a MR authoring in- terface for easy and effective spatial composition, layout and arrangement of digital objects in mixed reality envi- ronments. Based on a tangible MR interface approach,

Ivan Poupyrev; Desney Tan; Mark Billinghurst; Hirokazu Kato; Holger Regenbrecht; Nobuji Tetsutani

2001-01-01

229

Behavior of structural clay tile infilled frames  

SciTech Connect

Steel frames infilled with structural clay tile have been used in commercial and industrial buildings for most of this century. Often these buildings are located in moderate to high seismic zones and are likely to experience earthquake forces. Little prior research has been conducted to investigate the behavior of clay tile infills under lateral loading. Twenty-one large-scale clay tile infilled frames were tested to determine their behavior and correlate the results with other available experimental data. The infills greatly increased the in-plane stiffness and strength of the otherwise flexible framing. Two in-plane failure mechanisms were observed, diagonal cracking and comer crushing. Under uniform out-of-plane load, the infills cracked along the mortar joints and developed membrane forces. Tremendous out-of-plane capacity was observed as the panels arched vertically and then horizontally, remaining stable after ultimate capacity was reached. Under sequential and combined bidirectional loadings, the panels remained stable with little interaction of the in-plane and out-of-plane behavior, particularly in the frame member forces. Analytical comparisons of measured versus predicted stiffness, ultimate capacity, and frame member forces were performed. A numerical model based on a piecewise linear equivalent strut was developed. Recommendations for evaluation of clay tile infills subjected to seismic loads were proposed.

Flanagan, R.D.

1994-12-18

230

Comparison testing of a mound calorimeter and a Savannah River Site calorimeter  

SciTech Connect

This paper describes the paired comparison testing of a Savannah River Site (SRS) calorimeter and a Mound calorimeter. Prior to this test, no offsite testing had been performed on an SRS calorimeter. The testing was performed at the Plutonium Facility of Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). The SRS calorimeter was designed, fabricated and delivered to LANL. The Mound calorimeter chosen for comparison was similar in well dimensions and located in the same room as the SRS calorimeter. There were three series of tests performed. First, twenty radiometric standard measurements were completed using two different standards. The second series of tests were dedicated to heat distribution measurements and the third series focused on measuring typical process samples.

ReFalo, L.A. [Westinghouse Savannah River Co., Aiken, SC (United States); Foster, L.A. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)

1995-11-01

231

Performance of the CMS Global Calorimeter Trigger  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The CMS Global Calorimeter Trigger system performs a wide-variety of calorimeter data processing functions required by the CMS Level-1 trigger. It is responsible for finding and classifying jets and tau-jets, calculating total and missing transverse energy, total transverse energy identified within jets, sorting e/? candidates, and calculating several quantities based on forward calorimetry for minimum-bias triggers. The system is based on high-speed serial optical links and large FPGAs. The system has provided CMS with calorimeter triggers during commissioning and cosmic runs throughout 2008. The performance of the system in validation tests and cosmic runs is presented here.

Brooke, J.; Foudas, C.; Frazier, R.; Hansen, M.; Hansen, M.; Heath, G.; Iles, G.; Jones, J.; Marrouche, J.; Rose, A.; Sidiropoulos, G.; Stettler, M.; Tapper, A.

2010-11-01

232

The Soudan 2 honeycomb calorimeter  

SciTech Connect

Soudan 2 is an 1100-ton honeycomb tracking calorimeter which is being constructed to search for nucleon decay. The detector consists of finely segmented iron instrumented with long drift tubes, and records three spatial coordinates and dE/dx for every gas crossing. Excellent event reconstruction capability, particle identification and muon sign and direction determination give superior rejection of the neutrino background to nucleon decay in many modes. The first 620 tons of Soudan 2 are now in steady operation, with completion planned for 1992. Detector performance has been studied using cosmic ray tracks and a charged test beam calibration. Results on detector performance and detector response are described in this paper. 2 refs. , 11 figs.

Garcia-Garcia, C.

1990-12-01

233

AC calorimeter bridge; a new multi-pixel readout method for TES calorimeter arrays  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In order to realize a large format (e.g. ~32×32) calorimeter array, it is essential to multiplex calorimeter signals at cryogenic temperatures without losing signal to noise ratio. For this purpose we propose a brand-new readout method, the CABBAGE (Calorimeter B_ridge B_iased by an A_C Generator) where an AC biased calorimeters are placed in resistance bridges. In this paper we first describe the principles of CABBAGE and investigate its response and noise. We propose the large format calorimeter array readout using CABBAGEs, and discuss the new TES microcalorimeter readout method without using SQUIDs. .

Miyazaki, T.; Yamazaki, M.; Futamoto, K.; Mitsuda, K.; Fujimoto, R.; Iyomoto, N.; Oshima, T.; Audley, D.; Ishisaki, Y.; Kagei, T.; Ohashi, T.; Yamasaki, N.; Shoji, S.; Kudo, H.; Yokoyama, Y.

2002-02-01

234

Radiation hardness tests of GaAs amplifiers operated in liquid argon in the ATLAS calorimeter  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Highly integrated Gallium Arsenide (GaAs) chips of preamplifiers and summing amplifiers have been exposed to high fluence of fast neutrons and ?-dose at the IBR-2 reactor in Dubna. A stable performance of the electronics has been demonstrated up to a fluence of 5×1014 n cm-2 and a ?-dose of 55 kGy. The radiation hardness tests confirm the applicability of the preamplifiers for more than 10 years operation in the ATLAS hadronic end-cap calorimeter at LHC.

Ban, J.; Brettel, H.; Cheplakov, A.; Cwienk, W.; Fent, J.; Golikov, V.; Golubyh, S.; Jakobs, K.; Kukhtin, V.; Kulagin, E.; Kurchaninov, L.; Ladygin, E.; Luschikov, V.; Oberlack, H.; Obudovsky, V.; Schacht, P.; Shalyugin, A.; Stiegler, U.; Zweimüller, T.

2008-09-01

235

The Growth of the Roof-tile  

Microsoft Academic Search

PdeT SymtJnd~' CQIi'g., WiM-VJIn DOCUMENTARY REFERENCESto the use ajcLay tiles and slone slates are used to build up a picture showing where tifts were produced and where they were used. A chronology for the industry is established and some ojthe injiutT\\/as on its location and expansion are discussed. The continuiry ofproduction at a numberofcentres is established, as is the growth

Medieval Wessex; N. HARE

236

8.G Tile Patterns II: hexagons  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a task from the Illustrative Mathematics website that is one part of a complete illustration of the standard to which it is aligned. Each task has at least one solution and some commentary that addresses important asects of the task and its potential use. Here are the first few lines of the commentary for this task: A common tiling pattern with hexagons is pictured below: A regular hexagon is a hexagon with $6$ congruent sides and $6$ congruent interior angles. Fin...

237

FITS Tile Compression in the NOAO DMS  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The NOAO Data Management system (DMS) captures data from eleven NOAO and partner telescopes and transports these data from three mountaintops to replicate them between three data centers both North and South of the equator. Image files are annotated, remediated, ingested, and persisted through interfaces of the NOAO Science Archive. Wide-field optical and infrared images flow out of the archive, through the NOAO High Performance Pipeline creating several new data products that flow back into the archive. Raw, pipeline-reduced, and survey data products, both proprietary and post-proprietary, are made available through the NOAO Portal using VO standards and services. Each of these several steps requires access to both image data and metadata in the form of image header keywords. Measures of storage efficiency and throughput characterize performance, cost, schedule, and risk in a matrix across all telescopes and all subsystems. Anything that impedes access to data or metadata diminishes throughput, thus slowing schedules, increasing costs, revealing risks, and adversely affecting performance. The familiar gzip compression algorithm is often used to increase data storage efficiency. However, gzip actually reduces throughput due to initial and recurring overhead of compression and later uncompression. For example, if metadata for an image require remediation, the whole image must be compressed, uncompressed, and compressed again. By contrast, the FITS tile convention using the Rice algorithm achieves about 40% better compression than gzip in just one-third the time. Image headers remain readable such that images often need never be uncompressed at all; metadata can be simply edited in place. Further, a library such as CFITSIO can support tile compression as a native image format. The pixel tiling feature means that for applications such as a cutout service, only the tiles overlapping the desired image section need be uncompressed.

Stobie, E.; Seaman, R.; Barg, I.

2009-09-01

238

Extruded Plastic Scintillator for the Minos Calorimeters.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

MINOS is a long-baseline, neutrino-oscillation experiment. Two iron- and scintillator-calorimeters will be built, requiring almost 300 tons of finished plastic scintillator. In order to lower the scintillator costs, MINOS will use an extruded rectangular ...

A. Pla-Dalmau

2001-01-01

239

Interference Lattice-based Loop Nest Tilings for Stencil Computations  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A common method for improving performance of stencil operations on structured multi-dimensional discretization grids is loop tiling. Tile shapes and sizes are usually determined heuristically, based on the size of the primary data cache. We provide a lower bound on the numbers of cache misses that must be incurred by any tiling, and a close achievable bound using a particular tiling based on the grid interference lattice. The latter tiling is used to derive highly efficient loop orderings. The total number of cache misses of a code is the sum of (necessary) cold misses and misses caused by elements being dropped from the cache between successive loads (replacement misses). Maximizing temporal locality is equivalent to minimizing replacement misses. Temporal locality of loop nests implementing stencil operations is optimized by tilings that avoid data conflicts. We divide the loop nest iteration space into conflict-free tiles, derived from the cache miss equation. The tiling involves the definition of the grid interference lattice an equivalence class of grid points whose images in main memory map to the same location in the cache-and the construction of a special basis for the lattice. Conflicts only occur on the boundaries of the tiles, unless the tiles are too thin. We show that the surface area of the tiles is bounded for grids of any dimensionality, and for caches of any associativity, provided the eccentricity of the fundamental parallelepiped (the tile spanned by the basis) of the lattice is bounded. Eccentricity is determined by two factors, aspect ratio and skewness. The aspect ratio of the parallelepiped can be bounded by appropriate array padding. The skewness can be bounded by the choice of a proper basis. Combining these two strategies ensures that pathologically thin tiles are avoided. They do not, however, minimize replacement misses per se. The reason is that tile visitation order influences the number of data conflicts on the tile boundaries. If two adjacent tiles are visited successively, there will be no replacement misses on the shared boundary. The iteration space may be covered with pencils larger than the size of the cache while avoiding data conflicts if the pencils are traversed by a scanning-face method. Replacement misses are incurred only on the boundaries of the pencils, and the number of misses is minimized by maximizing the volume of the scanning face, not the volume of the tile. We present an algorithm for constructing the most efficient scanning face for a given grid and stencil operator. In two dimensions it is based on a continued fraction algorithm. In three dimensions it follows Voronoi's successive minima algorithm. We show experimental results of using the scanning face, and compare with canonical loop orderings.

VanderWijngaart, Rob F.; Frumkin, Michael

2000-01-01

240

Design, fabrication, and tests of a metallic shell tile thermal protection system for space transportation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A thermal protection tile for earth-to-orbit transports is described. The tiles consist of a rigid external shell filled with a flexible insulation. The tiles tend to be thicker than the current Shuttle rigidized silica tiles for the same entry heat load but are projected to be more durable and lighter. The tiles were thermally tested for several simulated entry trajectories.

Macconochie, Ian O.; Kelly, H. Neale

1989-01-01

241

Military Curriculum Materials for Vocational and Technical Education. Builders School, Ceramic Tile Setting 3-9.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This course, for individualized or group instruction on ceramic tile setting, was developed from military sources for use in vocational education. The course provides students with skills in mortar preparation, surface preparation, tile layout planning, tile setting, tile cutting, and the grouting of tile joints. Both theory and shop assignments…

Ohio State Univ., Columbus. National Center for Research in Vocational Education.

242

The ZEUS Hadron Electron Separator, Performance and Experience  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The hadron electron separator (HES), a component of the ZEUS experiment is designed to improve the identification of electrons generally and, in particular, within jets. It consists of 20518 silicon diodes with 20m2 active area. The diodes are installed after 3-5 X0 of the electromagnetic uranium-calorimeter, where the maximum intensity of the shower is expected. With an analog readout of each channel the deposited energy is measured. The HES improves the electron identification by a energy dependent factor 2.5 to 5 and the granularity by a factor 10. The attained position resolution is 5.4mm.

Göttlicher, P.

2002-01-01

243

First wall tile attachment using carbon-carbon composite fittings  

SciTech Connect

This paper presents unique first wall tile attachment concepts of round or square graphite tiles to an Inconel 625 vacuum vessel (VV) with carbon-carbon (c-c) structural/mechanical elements to satisfy the following objectives: 1. a low profile installation to optimize field efficiency; 2. tile alignment of sufficient precision to fully protect the VV, without adverse interference of the plasma; 3. adequate structural capacity to safely accommodate normal static and dynamic loads as well as disruption and handling loads; 4. a tile and tile shank-to-VV wall stud mechanical interface that provides an acceptable level of conductive heat transfer while accommodating freedom of thermal expansion and contraction; 5. a minimum irradiated life expectancy of 3,000 operating pulses; and 6. a reliable and repeatable method of replacing first wall tiles by means of a conventional remote manipulator device.

Lutz, G.R.; Tarasen, W.L.

1986-11-01

244

Design optimization methods for genomic DNA tiling arrays  

PubMed Central

A recent development in microarray research entails the unbiased coverage, or tiling, of genomic DNA for the large-scale identification of transcribed sequences and regulatory elements. A central issue in designing tiling arrays is that of arriving at a single-copy tile path, as significant sequence cross-hybridization can result from the presence of non-unique probes on the array. Due to the fragmentation of genomic DNA caused by the widespread distribution of repetitive elements, the problem of obtaining adequate sequence coverage increases with the sizes of subsequence tiles that are to be included in the design. This becomes increasingly problematic when considering complex eukaryotic genomes that contain many thousands of interspersed repeats. The general problem of sequence tiling can be framed as finding an optimal partitioning of non-repetitive subsequences over a prescribed range of tile sizes, on a DNA sequence comprising repetitive and non-repetitive regions. Exact solutions to the tiling problem become computationally infeasible when applied to large genomes, but successive optimizations are developed that allow their practical implementation. These include an efficient method for determining the degree of similarity of many oligonucleotide sequences over large genomes, and two algorithms for finding an optimal tile path composed of longer sequence tiles. The first algorithm, a dynamic programming approach, finds an optimal tiling in linear time and space; the second applies a heuristic search to reduce the space complexity to a constant requirement. A Web resource has also been developed, accessible at http://tiling.gersteinlab.org, to generate optimal tile paths from user-provided DNA sequences.

Bertone, Paul; Trifonov, Valery; Rozowsky, Joel S.; Schubert, Falk; Emanuelsson, Olof; Karro, John; Kao, Ming-Yang; Snyder, Michael; Gerstein, Mark

2006-01-01

245

Refinement Techniques for Animated Evolutionary Photomosaics Using Limited Tile Collections  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a An animated evolutionary photomosaic is produced from a sequence of still or static photomosaics to evolve a near match to a given target image. A static photomosaic\\u000a is composed of small digital images or tiles, each having their own aesthetic value. If the tiles are prepared manually, the\\u000a tile collections are typically small. This potentially limits the visual quality of

Shahrul Badariah Mat Sah; Victor Ciesielski; Daryl J. D'Souza

2010-01-01

246

Introduction to building projection-based tiled display systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

This tutorial introduces the concepts and technologies needed to build projector-based display systems. Tiled displays offer scalability, high resolution, and large formats for various applications. Tiled displays are an emerging technology for constructing semi-immersive visualization environments capable of presenting high-resolution images from scientific simulation. The largest impact may well arise from using large-format tiled displays as one of possibly multiple

Mark Hereld; Ivan R. Judson; Rick L. Stevens

2000-01-01

247

Forward Di-Hadron Correlations and RdA in d+Au Collisions at RHIC  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Measurements using the PHENIX forward detectors in high energy deuteron-gold collisions make it possible to study cold nuclear matter effects in nucleon structure. The high parton densities in nuclei at low-x lead to gluon fusion causing saturation of the gluon distribution and thus suppression of hadron production cross section. This saturation has been described as the formation of the Color Glass Condensate (CGC). A conclusive measurement discriminating between different mechanisms has yet to be carried out. CGC calculations predict significant suppression of conditional yields for rapidity separated hadron pairs with one of the hadrons at forward rapidity. Two new forward electromagnetic calorimeters (Muon Piston Calorimeters, -3.1 < ?< -3.7, 3.1 < ?< 3.9 ) allow the PHENIX experiment to further study forward di-hadron correlations and RdA which have been predicted to show dramatic effects due to gluon saturation. Azimuthal correlations of di- hadron pairs at different pseudorapidities and RdA of 0? and ? will be shown. The forward pseudorapidity correlations are especially interesting because it is expected that they provide a test of gluon saturation down to x 10-3 in the Au nucleus. The analysis presented is based on the high integrated luminosity data sample of d+Au collisions at ?sNN = 200 GeV taken at RHIC in 2008.

Choi, Ihnjea

2011-10-01

248

Realization of a tiled-grating compressor for the OMEGA EP Petawatt Laser System  

Microsoft Academic Search

Eight tiled-grating assemblies (TGApsilas) have been developed for the OMEGA EP Petawatt laser system. The methods and results for tiling individual TGApsilas and for optimizing the overall tiling performance of the compressors will be described.

J. Qiao; A. Kalb; D. Canning; J. H. Kelly

2008-01-01

249

Measurement of the hadronic photon structure function at LEP 1 for values between 9.9 and 284 GeV2  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Inclusive ?*? interactions to hadronic final states where one scattered electron or positron is detected in the electromagnetic calorimeters have been studied in the LEP 1 data taken by ALEPH from 1991 to 1995. The event sample has been used to measure the hadronic structure function of the photon F2? in three bins with of 9.9, 20.7 and 284 GeV2.

ALEPH Collaboration; Barate, R.; Decamp, D.; Ghez, P.; Goy, C.; Lees, J.-P.; Merle, E.; Minard, M.-N.; Pietrzyk, B.; Alemany, R.; Casado, M. P.; Chmeissani, M.; Crespo, J. M.; Fernandez, E.; Fernandez-Bosman, M.; Garrido, Ll.; Graugès, E.; Juste, A.; Martinez, M.; Merino, G.; Miquel, R.; Mir, Ll. M.; Pacheco, A.; Park, I. C.; Riu, I.; Colaleo, A.; Creanza, D.; de Palma, M.; Gelao, G.; Iaselli, G.; Maggi, G.; Maggi, M.; Nuzzo, S.; Ranieri, A.; Raso, G.; Ruggieri, F.; Selvaggi, G.; Silvestris, L.; Tempesta, P.; Tricomi, A.; Zito, G.; Huang, X.; Lin, J.; Ouyang, Q.; Wang, T.; Xie, Y.; Xu, R.; Xue, S.; Zhang, J.; Zhang, L.; Zhao, W.; Abbaneo, D.; Becker, U.; Boix, G.; Cattaneo, M.; Cerutti, F.; Ciulli, V.; Dissertori, G.; Drevermann, H.; Forty, R. W.; Frank, M.; Halley, A. W.; Hansen, J. B.; Harvey, J.; Janot, P.; Jost, B.; Lehraus, I.; Leroy, O.; Mato, P.; Minten, A.; Moutoussi, A.; Ranjard, F.; Rolandi, L.; Rousseau, D.; Schlatter, D.; Schmitt, M.; Schneider, O.; Spagnolo, P.; Tejessy, W.; Teubert, F.; Tomalin, I. R.; Tournefier, E.; Wright, A. E.; Ajaltouni, Z.; Badaud, F.; Chazelle, G.; Deschamps, O.; Falvard, A.; Ferdi, C.; Gay, P.; Guicheney, C.; Henrard, P.; Jousset, J.; Michel, B.; Monteil, S.; Montret, J.-C.; Pallin, D.; Perret, P.; Podlyski, F.; Hansen, J. D.; Hansen, J. R.; Hansen, P. H.; Nilsson, B. S.; Rensch, B.; Wäänänen, A.; Daskalakis, G.; Kyriakis, A.; Markou, C.; Simopoulou, E.; Siotis, I.; Vayaki, A.; Blondel, A.; Bonneaud, G.; Brient, J.-C.; Rougé, A.; Rumpf, M.; Swynghedauw, M.; Verderi, M.; Videau, H.; Focardi, E.; Parrini, G.; Zachariadou, K.; Cavanaugh, R.; Corden, M.; Georgiopoulos, C.; Antonelli, A.; Bencivenni, G.; Bologna, G.; Bossi, F.; Campana, P.; Capon, G.; Chiarella, V.; Laurelli, P.; Mannocchi, G.; Murtas, F.; Murtas, G. P.; Passalacqua, L.; Pepe-Altarelli, M.; Curtis, L.; Lynch, J. G.; Negus, P.; O'Shea, V.; Raine, C.; Teixeira-Dias, P.; Thompson, A. S.; Buchmüller, O.; Dhamotharan, S.; Geweniger, C.; Hanke, P.; Hansper, G.; Hepp, V.; Kluge, E. E.; Putzer, A.; Sommer, J.; Tittel, K.; Werner, S.; Wunsch, M.; Ghete, V. M.; Girtler, P.; Kneringer, E.; Kuhn, D.; Rudolph, G.; Bowdery, C. K.; Buck, P. G.; Finch, A. J.; Foster, F.; Hughes, G.; Jones, R. W. L.; Robertson, N. A.; Williams, M. I.; Giehl, I.; Jakobs, K.; Kleinknecht, K.; Quast, G.; Renk, B.; Rohne, E.; Sander, H.-G.; Wachsmuth, H.; Zeitnitz, C.; Aubert, J. J.; Benchouk, C.; Bonissent, A.; Carr, J.; Coyle, P.; Etienne, F.; Motsch, F.; Payre, P.; Talby, M.; Thulasidas, M.; Aleppo, M.; Antonelli, M.; Ragusa, F.; Büscher, V.; Dietl, H.; Ganis, G.; Hüttmann, K.; Lütjens, G.; Mannert, C.; Männer, W.; Moser, H.-G.; Schael, S.; Settles, R.; Seywerd, H.; Stenzel, H.; Wiedenmann, W.; Wolf, G.; Azzurri, P.; Boucrot, J.; Callot, O.; Chen, S.; Cordier, A.; Davier, M.; Duflot, L.; Grivaz, J.-F.; Heusse, Ph.; Jacholkowska, A.; Le Diberder, F.; Lefrançois, J.; Lutz, A.-M.; Schune, M.-H.; Veillet, J.-J.; Videau, I.; Zerwas, D.; Bagliesi, G.; Bettarini, S.; Boccali, T.; Bozzi, C.; Calderini, G.; dell'Orso, R.; Ferrante, I.; Foà, L.; Giassi, A.; Gregorio, A.; Ligabue, F.; Lusiani, A.; Marrocchesi, P. S.; Messineo, A.; Palla, F.; Rizzo, G.; Sanguinetti, G.; Sguazzoni, G.; Tenchini, R.; Vannini, C.; Venturi, A.; Verdini, P. G.; Blair, G. A.; Cowan, G.; Green, M. G.; Medcalf, T.; Strong, J. A.; von Wimmersperg-Toeller, J. H.; Botterill, D. R.; Clifft, R. W.; Edgecock, T. R.; Norton, P. R.; Thompson, J. C.; Bloch-Devaux, B.; Colas, P.; Emery, S.; Kozanecki, W.; Lançon, E.; Lemaire, M.-C.; Locci, E.; Perez, P.; Rander, J.; Renardy, J.-F.; Roussarie, A.; Schuller, J.-P.; Schwindling, J.; Trabelsi, A.; Vallage, B.; Black, S. N.; Dann, J. H.; Johnson, R. P.; Kim, H. Y.; Konstantinidis, N.; Litke, A. M.; McNeil, M. A.; Taylor, G.; Booth, C. N.; Cartwright, S.; Combley, F.; Kelly, M. S.; Lehto, M.; Thompson, L. F.; Affholderbach, K.; Böhrer, A.; Brandt, S.; Grupen, C.; Prange, G.; Giannini, G.; Gobbo, B.; Rothberg, J.; Wasserbaech, S.; Armstrong, S. R.; Charles, E.; Elmer, P.; Ferguson, D. P. S.; Gao, Y.; González, S.; Greening, T. C.; Hayes, O. J.; Hu, H.; Jin, S.; McNamara, P. A., III; Nachtman, J. M.; Nielsen, J.; Orejudos, W.; Pan, Y. B.; Saadi, Y.; Scott, I. J.; Walsh, J.; Wu, Sau Lan; Wu, X.; Zobernig, G.

1999-07-01

250

ALT-II armor tile design for upgraded TEXTOR operation  

SciTech Connect

The upgrade of the TEXTOR tokamak at KFA Juelich was recently completed. This upgrade extended the TEXTOR pulse length from 5 seconds to 10 seconds. The auxiliary heating was increased to a total of 8.0 MW through a combination of neutral beam injection and radio frequency heating. Originally, the inertially cooled armor tiles of the full toroidal belt Advanced Limiter Test -- II (ALT-II) were designed for a 5-second operation with total heating of 6.0 MW. The upgrade of TEXTOR will increase the energy deposited per pulse onto the ALT-II by about 300%. Consequently, the graphite armor tiles for the ALT-II had to be redesigned to avoid excessively high graphite armor surface temperatures that would lead to unacceptable contamination of the plasma. This redesign took the form of two major changes in the ALT-II armor tile geometry. The first design change was an increase of the armor tile thermal mass, primarily by increasing the radial thickness of each tile from 17 mm to 20 mm. This increase in the radial tile dimension reduces the overall pumping efficiency of the ALT-II pump limiter by about 30%. The reduction in exhaust efficiency is unfortunate, but could be avoided only by active cooling of the ALT-II armor tiles. The active cooling option was too complicated and expensive to be considered at this time. The second design change involved redefining the plasma facing surface of each armor tile in order to fully utilize the entire surface area. The incident charged particle heat flux was distributed uniformly over the armor tile surfaces by carefully matching the radial, poloidal and toroidal curvature of each tile to the plasma flow in the TEXTOR boundary layer. This geometry redefinition complicates the manufacturing of the armor tiles, but results in significant thermal performance gains. In addition to these geometry upgrades, several material options were analyzed and evaluated.

Newberry, B.L. [Univ. of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); McGrath, R.T.; Watson, R.D. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Kohlhaas, W.; Finken, K.H. [Kernforschungsanlage Juelich GmbH (Germany). Inst. fuer Plasmaphysik; Noda, N. [National Inst. for Fusion Science, Nagoya (Japan)

1994-08-01

251

Brane tilings and M2 branes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Brane tilings are efficient mnemonics for Lagrangians of Script N = 2 Chern-Simons-matter theories. Such theories are conjectured to arise on M2-branes probing singular toric Calabi-Yau fourfolds. In this paper, a simple modification of the Kasteleyn technique is described which is conjectured to compute the three dimensional toric diagram of the non-compact moduli space of a single probe. The Hilbert Series is used to compute the spectrum of non-trivial scaling dimensions for a selected set of examples.

Hanany, Amihay; Vegh, David; Zaffaroni, Alberto

2009-03-01

252

Vortex states in Archimedean tiling pinning arrays  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We numerically study vortex ordering and pinning in Archimedean tiling substrates composed of square and triangular plaquettes. The two different plaquettes become occupied at different vortex densities, producing commensurate peaks in the magnetization at non-integer matching fields. We find that as the field increases, in some cases the fraction of occupied pins can decrease due to the competition between fillings of the different plaquette types. We also identify a number of different types of vortex orderings as a function of the field at integer and non-integer commensurate fillings.

Ray, D.; Reichhardt, C.; Olson Reichhardt, C. J.

2014-07-01

253

a Study of Hadronic Shower Punchthrough Originating from Incident Hadrons with Momentum from 10 TO 300 Gev/c.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Muons will provide the experimental signature for many of the most interesting and rare physical processes to be studied at future hadron colliders, such as the LHC. Particles originating from hadronic shower punchthrough will be a major source of background to the muon signal in LHC experiments. A detailed characterization of muon backgrounds and a deep understanding of processes which obscure the accurate measurement of muons is therefore essential, first in the design of such experiments and then later in the analysis of data. A detailed study of hadronic shower punchthrough was conducted by the RD5 collaboration at CERN. The RD5 detector was designed to simulate a slice of a typical collider detector, thus mimicking the experimental environment which will be encountered at the LHC. The RD5 detector is composed of tracking detectors, a calorimeter (10 lambda absorber thickness) and a muon spectrometer. The calorimeter was installed inside a superconducting magnet, with a maximum 3 T field, in order to investigate the effect of a strong magnetic field on hadronic punchthrough. The total punchthrough probability of hadronic showers, as a function of absorber depth, and the momentum and angular spectrum of punchthrough muons, was measured for several different types of incident hadron ( pi^{-}, pi^{+} , K^{+} and p) and wide range of incident hadron momenta (10 to 300 GeV/c). Measurements were made with the absorber in a magnetic field ranging from 0 to 3 T. The measurement of total punchthrough reached a depth of 31lambda, farther than measured by previous experiments. The momentum and angular spectrum was measured for punchthrough muons which reached to at least 20lambda. The momentum resolution (Delta p/p) ranged from _sp{+10%}{-8.5% } at 30 GeV/c, to _sp{+27 %}{-18%} at 300 GeV/c. The angular resolution was about 1 mrad. The momentum was given for a reference plane at 10lambda. The measurements were compared with a GEANT-based simulation of the RD5 detector. The general agreement between the simulation and all aspects of the punchthrough study in RD5 gave us confidence that this simulation could be used to make accurate predictions when applied to the design of a LHC detector. A simulation study of the CMS detector was conducted to predict the impact of several sources of background muons on the CMS muon system.

Chrisman, David Aubrey

1995-01-01

254

Steady-state differential calorimeter measures gamma heating in reactor  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Steady-state differential calorimeter, which displays good accuracy and reproducibility of results, is used to measure gamma heating in a reactor environment. The calorimeter has a long life expectancy since it is virtually unharmed by the reactor environment.

Herbst, D.; Talboy, J. H.

1968-01-01

255

Topics in Hadronic Physics  

SciTech Connect

Hadron production cross sections are calculated in the perturbative QCD frame work. Parton distribution functions are obtained from a strip-soliton model. The fragmentation functions are derived from the Lund model of string breaking.

Alfred Tang

2002-08-01

256

Robot assisted tiling of glass mosaics with image processing  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – This paper describes a robotic system developed for tiling mosaics based on image processing according to customer expectations. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – Many varieties of mosaics art in different forms has been applied manually over centuries for art decorating. Although the mosaics material is cheap with immense decorative potential, the mosaics tiling process is difficult and costly skill to perform.

Bulent Kaya; Ahmet Berkay; Fehmi Erzincanli

2005-01-01

257

Picture Languages: From Wang Tiles to 2D Grammars  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this paper is to collect definitions and results on t he main classes of 2D languages introduced with the attempt of generalizing regular and context-free string languages and in same time preserving some of their nice properties. Almost all the models here described are based on tiles. So we also summarize some results on Wang tiles and

Alessandra Cherubini; Matteo Pradella

2009-01-01

258

Tiling, Block Data Layout, and Memory Hierarchy Performance  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recently, several experimental studies have been conducted on block data layout in conjunction with tiling as a data transformation technique to improve cache performance. In this paper, we analyze cache and translation look-aside buffer (TLB) performance of such alternate layouts (including block data layout and Morton layout) when used in conjunction with tiling. We derive a tight lower bound on

Bo Hong; Viktor K. Prasanna

2003-01-01

259

Computerized Machine for Cutting Space Shuttle Thermal Tiles  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A report presents the concept of a machine aboard the space shuttle that would cut oversized thermal-tile blanks to precise sizes and shapes needed to replace tiles that were damaged or lost during ascent to orbit. The machine would include a computer-controlled jigsaw enclosed in a clear acrylic shell that would prevent escape of cutting debris. A vacuum motor would collect the debris into a reservoir and would hold a tile blank securely in place. A database stored in the computer would contain the unique shape and dimensions of every tile. Once a broken or missing tile was identified, its identification number would be entered into the computer, wherein the cutting pattern associated with that number would be retrieved from the database. A tile blank would be locked into a crib in the machine, the shell would be closed (proximity sensors would prevent activation of the machine while the shell was open), and a "cut" command would be sent from the computer. A blade would be moved around the crib like a plotter, cutting the tile to the required size and shape. Once the tile was cut, an astronaut would take a space walk for installation.

Ramirez, Luis E.; Reuter, Lisa A.

2009-01-01

260

Tiling multidimensional iteration spaces for nonshared memory machines  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper addresses the problem of compiling multi Iy nested loops for nonshared memory machines. T~e relatively high communication startup costs in these machmes renders fre uent communication very expensive. 1“ Motivated by t 1s, we present a method of aggregating a number of loop iterations into tiles where the tiles execute atomically – a processor executin the iterations belonging

J. Ramanujam; P. Sadayappan

1991-01-01

261

Jets in hadronic reactions  

SciTech Connect

Recent experimental data on the properties of jets in hadronic reactions are reviewed and compared with theoretical expectations. Jets are clearly established as the dominant process for high E/sub T/ events in hadronic reactions. The cross section and the other properties of these events are in qualitative and even semiquantitative agreement with expectations based on perturbative QCD. However, we can not yet make precise tests of QCD, primarily because there are substantial uncertainties in the theoretical calculations. 45 references. (WHK)

Paige, F.E.

1983-01-01

262

Some aspects of recent improvements of temperature-modulated calorimeter  

Microsoft Academic Search

Some aspects of recent improvements in temperature modulated calorimeter have been described. The contents are: (1) a low-frequency AC calorimeter with an improved resolution; ?CpCp ? 0.010%, ?T ? 7 mK; (2) an ultra-low frequency fully automated multifrequency AC calorimeter operated down to 0.5 mHz; and (3) a calorimeter with a capability of both AC-mode and relaxation-mode operations.

Kenji Ema; Haruhiko Yao

1997-01-01

263

Temperature Effects in the ATIC BGO Calorimeter  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Advanced Thin Ionization Calorimeter ATIC Balloon Experiment contains a segmented calorimeter composed of 320 individual BGO crystals 18 radiation lengths deep to determine the particle energy Like all inorganic scintillation crystals the light output of BGO depends not only on the energy deposited by particles but also on the temperature of the crystal ATIC had successful flights in 2000 2001 and 2002 2003 from McMurdo Antarctica The temperature of balloon instruments varies during their flights at altitude due to sun angle variations and differences in albedo from the ground and is monitored and recorded In order to determine the temperature sensitivity of the ATIC calorimeter the instrument was temperature cycled in the thermal vacuum chamber at the CSBF in Palestine TX The temperature dependence derived from the pulse height response to cosmic ray muons at various temperatures is discussed and compared to values in the literature

Isbert, J.; Wefel, J. P.; Atic Team

264

Temperature Effects in the ATIC BGO Calorimeter  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Advanced Thin Ionization Calorimeter (ATIC) Balloon Experiment contains a segmented calorimeter composed of 320 individual BGO crystals (18 radiation lengths deep) to determine the particle energy. Like all inorganic scintillation crystals the light output of BGO depends not only on the energy deposited by particles but also on the temperature of the crystal. ATIC had successful flights in 2000/2001 and 2002/2003 from McMurdo, Antarctica. The temperature of balloon instruments varies during their flights at altitude due to sun angle variations and differences in albedo from the ground and is monitored and recorded. In order to determine the temperature sensitivity of the ATIC calorimeter it was temperature cycled in the thermal vacuum chamber at the CSBF in Palestine, TX. The temperature dependence is derived from the pulse height response to cosmic ray muons at various temperatures.

Isbert, J.; Adams, J. H.; Ahn, H.; Bashindzhagyan, G.; Batkov, K.; Chang, J.; Christl, M. J.; Fazely, A.; Ganel, O.; Gunasigha, R.

2006-01-01

265

Strength integrity of the Space Shuttle Orbiter tiles  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The development of the thermal protection system (TPS) for shielding the Shuttle from high temperature aerodynamic heating during atmospheric entry is described. The TPS was required to limit structural heating to 350 F, be used for 100 flights, withstand temperature ranges from -250 to 2800 F, attach to an aluminum structure, and provide the aerodynamic moldline. More than 30,000 tiles of individual size, shape, and strength were bonded adhesively to a Nomex felt mat which coated critical areas of the craft. Densification processes for strengthening the tiles in highly loaded areas are outlined and stress sources for each mission phase are analyzed. Aerodynamic, acoustic, combined loads, and verification tests for stress levels up to 125% of nominal were performed for each tile. The one complete and 15 partial tiles lost during the initial flight were all lower strength, undensified tiles.

Moser, T. L.; Schneider, W. C.

1981-01-01

266

Buffet loads on shuttle thermal-protection-system tiles  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Results of wind-tunnel and acoustic tests to investigate buffet loads on Shuttle Thermal-Protection-System (TPS) tiles are given. Also described is the application of these results to the prediction of tile buffet loads for the first shuttle flight into orbit. The wind-tunnel tests of tiles were conducted at transonic and supersonic Mach numbers simulating flow regions on the Orbiter where shock waves and boundary-layer separations occur. The acoustic tests were conducted in a progressive wave tube at an overall sound pressure level (OASPL) approximately equal to the maximum OASPL measured during the wind-tunnel tests in a region of flow separation. The STS-1 buffet load predictions yielded peak tile stresses due to buffeting that were as much as 20 percent of the total stress for the design-load case when a shock wave was on a tile.

Coe, C. F.

1982-01-01

267

Precision Crystal Calorimeters in High Energy Physics  

ScienceCinema

Precision crystal calorimeters traditionally play an important role in high energy physics experiments. In the last two decades, it faces a challenge to maintain its precision in a hostile radiation environment. This paper reviews the performance of crystal calorimeters constructed for high energy physics experiments and the progress achieved in understanding crystal?s radiation damage as well as in developing high quality scintillating crystals for particle physics. Potential applications of new generation scintillating crystals of high density and high light yield, such as LSO and LYSO, in particle physics experiments is also discussed.

Ren-Yuan Zhu

2010-01-08

268

Comparison between calorimeter and HLNC errors  

SciTech Connect

This paper summarizes an error analysis that compares systematic and random errors of total plutonium mass estimated for high-level neutron coincidence counter (HLNC) and calorimeter measurements. This task was part of an International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) study on the comparison of the two instruments to determine if HLNC measurement errors met IAEA standards and if the calorimeter gave significantly'' better precision. Our analysis was based on propagation of error models that contained all known sources of errors including uncertainties associated with plutonium isotopic measurements. 5 refs., 2 tabs.

Goldman, A.S. (Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)); De Ridder, P.; Laszlo, G. (International Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna (Austria))

1991-01-01

269

Rad Hard Active Media For Calorimeters  

SciTech Connect

Zero-degree calorimeters have limited space and extreme levels of radiation. A simple, low cost, radiation hard design uses tungsten metal as the absorber and a suitable liquid as the Cerenkov radiator. In other applications a PPAC (Parallel Plate Avalanche Counter) operating with a suitable atmospheric-pressure gas is an attractive active material for a calorimeter. It can be made radiation hard and has sufficient gain in the gas that no electronic components are needed near the detector. It works well even with the highest concentration of shower particles. For this pressure range, R134A (used in auto air conditioners) has many desirable features.

Norbeck, E.; Olson, J. E.; Moeller, A.; Onel, Y. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Iowa, Iowa City, IA (United States)

2006-10-27

270

Rad Hard Active Media For Calorimeters  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Zero-degree calorimeters have limited space and extreme levels of radiation. A simple, low cost, radiation hard design uses tungsten metal as the absorber and a suitable liquid as the ?erenkov radiator. In other applications a PPAC (Parallel Plate Avalanche Counter) operating with a suitable atmospheric-pressure gas is an attractive active material for a calorimeter. It can be made radiation hard and has sufficient gain in the gas that no electronic components are needed near the detector. It works well even with the highest concentration of shower particles. For this pressure range, R134A (used in auto air conditioners) has many desirable features.

Norbeck, E.; Olson, J. E.; Moeller, A.; Onel, Y.

2006-10-01

271

BioTile, A Perl based tool for the identification of differentially enriched regions in tiling microarray data  

PubMed Central

Background Genome-wide tiling array experiments are increasingly used for the analysis of DNA methylation. Because DNA methylation patterns are tissue and cell type specific, the detection of differentially methylated regions (DMRs) with small effect size is a necessary feature of tiling microarray ‘peak’ finding algorithms, as cellular heterogeneity within a studied tissue may lead to a dilution of the phenotypically relevant effects. Additionally, the ability to detect short length DMRs is necessary as biologically relevant signal may occur in focused regions throughout the genome. Results We present a free open-source Perl application, Binding Intensity Only Tile array analysis or “BioTile”, for the identification of differentially enriched regions (DERs) in tiling array data. The application of BioTile to non-smoothed data allows for the identification of shorter length and smaller effect-size DERs, while correcting for probe specific variation by inversely weighting on probe variance through a permutation corrected meta-analysis procedure employed at identified regions. BioTile exhibits higher power to identify significant DERs of low effect size and across shorter genomic stretches as compared to other peak finding algorithms, while not sacrificing power to detect longer DERs. Conclusion BioTile represents an easy to use analysis option applicable to multiple microarray platforms, allowing for its integration into the analysis workflow of array data analysis.

2013-01-01

272

Nuclear-nuclear collision centrality determination by the spectators calorimeter for the MPD setup at the NICA facility  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The work conditions of the hadron calorimeter for spectators registration (Zero Degree Calorimeter, ZDC) were studied for the heavy nuclei collisions with the several GeV invariant energy. The ZDC simulations were performed for the MPD (Multi-Purpose Detector) at the NICA (Nuclotron-based Ion Collider fAcility) collider, which are under developement at the Joint Institute for Nuclear Research (JINR, Dubna). Taking into account the spectator nuclear fragments leads to a nonmonotonic dependence of the ZDC response on the impact parameter. The reason for this dependence studied with several event generators is the primary beam hole in the ZDC center. It is shown, that the ZDC signal should be combined with a data from other MPD@NICA detector subsystems to determine centrality.

Golubeva, M. B.; Guber, F. F.; Ivashkin, A. P.; Isupov, A. Yu.; Kurepin, A. B.; Litvinenko, A. G.; Litvinenko, E. I.; Migulina, I. I.; Peresedov, V. F.

2013-01-01

273

Automatic Temperature Control for an Adiabatic Calorimeter  

Microsoft Academic Search

An automatic temperature control device for an adiabatic oxygen bomb calorimeter has been developed which keeps the temperature of the outer water jacket equal to that of the inner bath. When the temperature of the inner bath is not changing rapidly, heat losses are negligible; however, the error due to lag when the inner bath temperature is rising rapidly is

W. W. Cleland; Richard S. Harding

1957-01-01

274

Transportable calorimeter measurements of highly enriched uranium  

Microsoft Academic Search

A sensitive calorimeter has been combined with a small temperature-controlled water bath to compose a transportable system that is capable of measuring multikilogram quantities of highly enriched uranium (HEU). The sample chamber size, 5 in. in diameter by 10 in. high, is large enough to hold sufficient HEU metal or high-grade scrap to provide a measurable thermal signal. Calorimetric measurements

C. Rudy; D. S. Bracken; P. Staples; L. Carrillo

1997-01-01

275

Energy flow with high granularity calorimeters  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In order to perform high precision measurements as well as search for new phenomena at a next Linear Collider, excellent ENERGY FLOW is mandatory. High granularity calorimeters design will fulfill the requests and preliminary results are presented as well as further directions to reach the final performances. .

Gay, P.

2001-07-01

276

Cone Calorimeter Testing of Vegetation: An Update.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

As part of efforts to address fire problems in the wildland-urban interface, the cone calorimeter is being used to measure the relative flammability of different plant species. In the first two studies, we tested plants used to landscape homes in Californ...

A. C. Dibble D. R. Weise K. Mackes R. H. White

2002-01-01

277

A Calorimeter for Measuring Laser Output Energy.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A new calorimeter design for measuring the output energy of pulse lasers and the output power of CW lasers is described which traces the intensity reduction of the irradiation of the walls of an absorption body and the shortening of the time for equalizin...

D. Vavrouch

1969-01-01

278

Coal fly ash utilization: low temperature sintering of wall tiles.  

PubMed

We present here a study of the sintering of fly ash and its mixture with low alkali pyrophyllite in the presence of sodium hexa meta phosphate (SHMP), a complex activator of sintering, for the purpose of wall tile manufacturing. The sintering of fly ash with SHMP in the temperature range 925-1050 degrees C produces tiles with low impact strength; however, the incremental addition of low alkali pyrophyllite improves impact strength. The impact strength of composites with >or=40% (w/w) pyrophyllite in the fly ash-pyrophyllite mix satisfies the acceptable limit (19.6 J/m) set by the Indian Standards Institute for wall tiles. Increasing the pyrophyllite content results in an increase in the apparent density of tiles, while shrinkage and water absorption decrease. The strength of fly ash tiles is attributed to the formation of a silicophosphate phase; in pyrophyllite rich tiles, it is attributed to the formation of a tridymite-structured T-AlPO(4) phase. Scanning electron micrographs show that the reinforcing rod shaped T-AlPO(4) crystals become more prominent as the pyrophyllite content increases in the sintered tiles. PMID:17950591

Chandra, Navin; Sharma, Priya; Pashkov, G L; Voskresenskaya, E N; Amritphale, S S; Baghel, Narendra S

2008-01-01

279

Floor tile and mastic removal project report  

SciTech Connect

A test program was developed and coordinated with State and Federal Regulators and carried out at Fort Sill, Oklahoma. This program was carefully designed to create the worst conditions in order to evaluate whether asbestos fibers are released when asbestos containing floor tile and mastic are removed. There were over 1,000 samples taken and analyzed during the execution of the program. The conclusions reached were based upon analysis of the critical samples using the Transmission Electron Microscope (TEM) technology. Additionally, the TEM procedures were used to evaluate personnel samples to determine whether those fibers found were asbestos or other materials. Most of the (TEM) samples were analyzed by the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Risk Reduction Engineering Laboratory in Cincinnati, Ohio.

Not Available

1992-11-01

280

Hypervelocity impact testing of Shuttle Orbiter thermal protection system tiles  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Results are presented from a series of 22 hypervelocity impact tests carried out on the thermal protection system (TPS) for the Shuttle Orbiter. Both coated and uncoated low-density (0.14 g/cu cm) LI-900 and high-density (0.35 g/cu cm) LI-2200 tiles were tested. The results are used to develop the penetration and damage correlations which can be used in meteoroid and debris hazard analyses for spacecraft with a ceramic tile TPS. It is shown that tile coatings act as a 'bumper' to fragment the impacting projectile, with thicker coating providing increased protection.

Christiansen, Eric L.; Ortega, Javier

1990-01-01

281

Synthesizing Minimal Tile Sets for Patterned DNA Self-assembly  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Pattern self-Assembly Tile set Synthesis (PATS) problem is to determine a set of coloured tiles that self-assemble to implement a given rectangular colour pattern. We give an exhaustive branch-and-bound algorithm to find tile sets of minimum cardinality for the PATS problem. Our algorithm makes use of a search tree in the lattice of partitions of the ambient rectangular grid, and an efficient bounding function to prune this search tree. Empirical data on the performance of the algorithm shows that it compares favourably to previously presented heuristic solutions to the problem.

Göös, Mika; Orponen, Pekka

282

Hadron Therapy for Cancer Treatment  

SciTech Connect

The biological and physical rationale for hadron therapy is well understood by the research community, but hadron therapy is not well established in mainstream medicine. This talk will describe the biological advantage of neutron therapy and the dose distribution advantage of proton therapy, followed by a discussion of the challenges to be met before hadron therapy can play a significant role in treating cancer. A proposal for a new research-oriented hadron clinic will be presented.

Lennox, Arlene

2003-09-10

283

Hadron Therapy for Cancer Treatment  

ScienceCinema

The biological and physical rationale for hadron therapy is well understood by the research community, but hadron therapy is not well established in mainstream medicine. This talk will describe the biological advantage of neutron therapy and the dose distribution advantage of proton therapy, followed by a discussion of the challenges to be met before hadron therapy can play a significant role in treating cancer. A proposal for a new research-oriented hadron clinic will be presented.

284

Building 2D Low-Discrepancy Sequences for Hierarchical Importance Sampling Using Dodecagonal Aperiodic Tiling  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper introduces a new method for building 2D low- discrepancy sequences and fast hierarchical importance sampling. Our approach is based on self-similar tiling of the plane with a set of aperiodic tiles having twelve-fold (dedecagonal) rotational symmetry. Sampling points of our low-discrepancy sequence are associated with tiles, one point per tiles. Each tile is recursively subdivided until the desired

Victor Ostromoukhov

2007-01-01

285

Robustness of a Neighbor Selection Markov Chain in Prefetching Tiled Web Data  

Microsoft Academic Search

The service speed of tiled-web data such as a map can be improved by prefetching future tiles while the current one is being\\u000a displayed. Traditional prefetching techniques examine the transition probabilities among the tiles to predict the next tile\\u000a to be requested. However, when the tile space is very huge, and a large portion of it is accessed with even

Dongho Lee; Jungsup Kim; Soo Duk Kim; Ki-chang Kim; Jaehyun Park

2002-01-01

286

Detail of first floor of loading dock showing composition tile ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Detail of first floor of loading dock showing composition tile over wood floor/basement ceiling - Southern Pacific Railroad Depot, Railroad Terminal Post Office & Express Building, Fifth & I Streets, Sacramento, Sacramento County, CA

287

ROOM 8, WITH TILED LIGHT TRAP DOORWAY TO ADJOINING DARKROOM, ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

ROOM 8, WITH TILED LIGHT TRAP DOORWAY TO ADJOINING DARKROOM, AND PASS THROUGH IN WALL - Hamilton Field, Photographic Laboratory, Seventh Street between Escolta & Hangar Avenues, Novato, Marin County, CA

288

Evaluation of Fungal Growth ('Penicillium glabrum') on a Ceiling Tile.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The paper gives results of a study employing static chambers to study the impact of different equilibrium relative humidities (RHs) and moisture conditions on the ability of a new ceiling tile to support fungal growth. Amplification of the mold, Penicilli...

J. C. S. Chang K. K. Foarde D. W. VanOsdell

1994-01-01

289

A new image quality assessment database for tiled images  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Tiled displays fill the increasingly important need to display very large images. As these displays become more common, the ability to objectively measure their visual quality becomes more important. One cost of the size flexibility offered by these displays is the grid-type distortion created by the gaps between each sub-display's active area. General purpose Image Quality Assessment (IQA) metrics are commonly used to measure the visual quality effect of image distortions such as blur and white noise, but no research has been performed to determine their suitability for tiling distortions. This paper addresses that research gap by creating a new image quality database specifically targeting tiled images. Common state-of-the-art IQA metrics are tested against this new database and their performances are compared between tiled distortions and `traditional' image distortions.

McFadden, Steven B.; Ward, Paul A. S.

2014-01-01

290

Measurement of Tritium Surface Distribution on TFTR Bumper Limiter Tiles  

SciTech Connect

The tritium surface distribution on graphite tiles used in the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR) bumper limiter and exposed to TFTR deuterium-tritium (D-T) discharges from 1993 to 1997 was measured by the Tritium Imaging Plate Technique (TIPT). The TFTR bumper limiter shows both re-/co-deposition and erosion. The tritium images for all tiles measured are strongly correlated with erosion and deposition patterns, and long-term tritium retention was found in the re-/co-depositions and flakes. The CFC tiles located at erosion dominated areas clearly showed their woven structure in their tritium images owing to different erosion yields between fibers and matrix. Significantly high tritium retention was observed on all sides of the erosion tiles, indicating carbon transport via repetition of local erosion/deposition cycles.

K. Sugiyama; T. Tanabe; C.H. Skinner; C.A. Gentile

2004-06-28

291

Numerical methods for analysis of clay tile infills.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Recent Department of Energy requirements have led to a comprehensive evaluation of the industrial facilities at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant. The structures consist of simply connected steel frames infilled with structural clay tile walls. The objective of th...

R. D. Flanagan M. A. Tenbus R. M. Bennett

1993-01-01

292

30. Mark A. Bookspan, photographer DETAIL, FAIENCE TILE, WAINSCOT PATTERN, ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

30. Mark A. Bookspan, photographer DETAIL, FAIENCE TILE, WAINSCOT PATTERN, ARRIVAL LOBBY, SOUTH WALL (SAME PATTERN THROUGHOUT BAGGAGE AND EXPRESS BUILDING) - Los Angeles Union Passenger Terminal, Tracks & Shed, 800 North Alameda Street, Los Angeles, Los Angeles County, CA

293

Ftir Instrumentation to Monitor Vapors from Shuttle Tile Waterproofing Materials.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Space Shuttle Thermal Protection System (TPS) tiles and blankets are waterproofed using DimethylEthoxySilane (DMEX) in the Orbiter Processing Facilities (OPF). DMES has a Threshold Limit Value (TLV) for exposure of personnel to vapor concentration in ...

1995-01-01

294

25. CAFETERIA Note remains of tile floor in foreground. Food ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

25. CAFETERIA Note remains of tile floor in foreground. Food cooked on the stove was served to workers in the eating area to the left of the counter (off picture). - Hovden Cannery, 886 Cannery Row, Monterey, Monterey County, CA

295

X-Ray Calorimeter Arrays for Astrophysics  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

High-resolution x-ray spectroscopy is a powerful tool for studying the evolving universe. The grating spectrometers on the XMM and Chandra satellites started a new era in x-ray astronomy, but there remains a need for instrumentation that can provide higher spectral resolution with high throughput in the Fe-K band (around 6 keV) and can enable imaging spectroscopy of extended sources, such as supernova remnants and galaxy clusters. The instrumentation needed is a broad-band imaging spectrometer - basically an x-ray camera that can distinguish tens of thousands of x-ray colors. The potential benefits to astrophysics of using a low-temperature calorimeter to determine the energy of an incident x-ray photon via measurement of a small change in temperature was first articulated by S. H. Moseley over two decades ago. In the time since, technological progress has been steady, though full realization in an orbiting x-ray telescope is still awaited. A low-temperature calorimeter can be characterized by the type of thermometer it uses, and three types presently dominate the field. The first two types are temperature-sensitive resistors - semiconductors in the metal-insulator transition and superconductors operated in the superconducting-normal transition. The third type uses a paramagnetic thermometer. These types can be considered the three generations of x-ray calorimeters; by now each has demonstrated a resolving power of 2000 at 6 keV, but only a semiconductor calorimeter system has been developed to spaceflight readiness. The Soft X-ray Spectrometer on Astro-H, expected to launch in 2013, will use an array of silicon thermistors with I-IgTe x-ray absorbers that will operate at 50 mK. Both the semiconductor and superconductor calorimeters have been implemented in small arrays, kilo-pixel arrays of the superconducting calorimeters are just now being produced, and it is anticipated that much larger arrays will require the non-dissipative advantage of magnetic thermometers.

Kilbourne, Caroline A.

2009-01-01

296

Electroweak and hadron studies  

SciTech Connect

Some final results are presented on ..mu mu.., /tau//tau/, and hadron production, obtained by the MARK J collaboration at PETRA, over the cm energy band 22 GeV to 46.8 GeV. The MARK J results agree with world averaged data. They constitute powerful tests of the predictions of the Standard Model. 29 refs., 8 figs., 3 tabs.

Rau, R.R.

1988-01-01

297

Hadronic Production of Glueballs.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Local Gauge Invariance of SU(3)/sub c/ and color confinement would require that the only hadrons in the world be glueballs. However, when we add the quarks and obtain QCD it is experimentally clear that quark built states mask the expected glueballs. Thus...

S. J. Lindenbaum

1983-01-01

298

Ternary and senary representations using DNA double-crossover tiles.  

PubMed

The information capacity of DNA double-crossover (DX) tiles was successfully increased beyond a binary representation to higher base representations. By controlling the length and the position of DNA hairpins on the DX tile, ternary and senary (base-3 and base-6) digit representations were realized and verified by atomic force microscopy. Also, normal mode analysis was carried out to study the mechanical characteristics of each structure. PMID:24532021

Kim, Byeonghoon; Jo, Soojin; Son, Junyoung; Kim, Junghoon; Kim, Min Hyeok; Hwang, Si Un; Dugasani, Sreekantha Reddy; Kim, Byung-Dong; Liu, Wing Kam; Kim, Moon Ki; Park, Sung Ha

2014-03-14

299

Detecting transcriptionally active regions using genomic tiling arrays  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have developed a method for interpreting genomic tiling array data, implemented as the program TranscriptionDetector. Probed loci expressed above background are identified by combining replicates in a way that makes minimal assumptions about the data. We performed medium-resolution Anopheles gambiae tiling array experiments and found extensive transcription of both coding and non-coding regions. Our method also showed improved detection

Gabor Halasz; Marinus F van Batenburg; Joelle Perusse; Sujun Hua; Xiang-Jun Lu; Kevin P White; Harmen J Bussemaker

2006-01-01

300

No inherent glassiness in a Penrose tiling quasicrystal  

SciTech Connect

Consideration of the structure of the Penrose pattern has led to speculation that a system with a Penrose tiling ground state might be subject to inherent glassy behavior. Monte Carol simulations show, using a simple model of the energetics, that there is no inherent glassiness in the Penrose tiling. Thermodynamic quantities measured are completely reversible, displaying no observable hysterisis, and the system may be easily cooled from a highly disordered configuration into its lowest energy state. 11 refs., 7 figs.

Strandburg, K.J.; Dressel, P.R.

1988-11-01

301

Tile-based Map Service GeoWebCache middleware  

Microsoft Academic Search

Take open source GeoWebCache tile map service middleware as an example, through analysis of its basic principle and system architecture, this paper give three optimization strategies which are tile spatial index, extension mechanism and the deployment strategy. Finally, we make a performance comparison between GeoWebCache and traditional OGC (Open Geospatial Consortium, OGC) standard WMS(Web Map Service). Our experimental results show

Hailing Liu; Yunfeng Nie

2010-01-01

302

56. ORIGINAL MOLDS. THE MORAVIAN POTTERY AND TILE WORKS HAS ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

56. ORIGINAL MOLDS. THE MORAVIAN POTTERY AND TILE WORKS HAS APPROXIMATELY 6,000 PLASTER MOLDS OF VARIOUS TYPES, INCLUDING THE DEEP CAVITY MOLDS IN THE CENTER OF THE PHOTOGRAPH. THESE MOLDS PRODUCED ALLEGORICAL FIGURES TO BE INSTALLED AROUND THE CORNICES OF PUBLIC SCHOOLS. - Moravian Pottery & Tile Works, Southwest side of State Route 313 (Swamp Road), Northwest of East Court Street, Doylestown, Bucks County, PA

303

Thin-film solar cells on commercial ceramic tiles  

Microsoft Academic Search

Amorphous silicon solar cells were deposited on porcelain stoneware tiles in order to develop a fully integrated PV building element. In a previous work we demonstrated the feasibility of adopting porcelain stoneware tiles as thin-film solar cell substrates and we fabricated 1×1cm2 solar cells on “industrial-level” ceramic substrates showing more than 4% efficiency. In this study we focus our attention

Daniele Iencinella; Emanuele Centurioni; Maria Grazia Busana

2009-01-01

304

Polishing experiments on surface quality of building stone tiles  

Microsoft Academic Search

Polishing experiments were carried out on eight different carbonate stones with a machine designed for simulating industrial scale tile polishing process. Polishing was performed at 0.8, 1.3, 1.8 and 2.3m\\/min belt speeds under fixed rotational speed and pressure of a polishing head. During the tests, calibrated stone tiles were sequentially polished with 60, 80, 120, 220, 320, 400 and 600

H. Yavuz; T. Ozkahraman; S. Demirdag

2011-01-01

305

On the Minimum Weight Steiner Triangular Tiling problem  

SciTech Connect

In this paper, we introduce the Minimum Weight Steiner Triangular Tiling problem, which is a generalization of the Minimum Weight Steiner Triangulation. Contrary to the conjecture of Eppstein that the Minimum Weight Steiner Triangulation of a convex polygon has the property that the Steiner points all lie on the boundary of the polygon [Epp94], we show that the Steiner points of a Minimum Weight Steiner Triangular Tiling could lie in the interior of a convex polygon.

Doddi, S.; Zhu, B.

1995-04-01

306

Exotic hadrons and hadron-hadron interactions in heavy-ion collisions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We discuss the exotic hadron structure and hadron-hadron interactions in view of heavy-ion collisions. First, we demonstrate that a hadronic molecule with a large spatial size would be produced more abundantly in the coalescence model compared with the statistical model result. Secondly, we constrain the ?? interaction by using recently measured ?? correlation data. We find that the RHIC-STAR data favor the ?? scattering parameters in the range 1/a0?-0.8 fm and reff?3 fm.

Ohnishi, A.; Cho, S.; Furumoto, T.; Hyodo, T.; Jido, D.; Ko, C. M.; Morita, K.; Lee, S. H.; Nielsen, M.; Sekihara, T.; Yasui, S.; Yazaki, K.; ExHIC Collaboration

307

Exotic hadrons and hadron-hadron interactions in heavy-ion collisions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We discuss the exotic hadron structure and hadron-hadron interactions in view of heavy-ion collisions. First, we demonstrate that a hadronic molecule with a large spatial size would be produced more abundantly in the coalescence model compared with the statistical model result. Secondly, we constrain the ?? interaction by using recently measured ?? correlation data. We find that the RHIC-STAR data favor the ?? scattering parameters in the range 1/a0?-0.8 fm and reff?3 fm.

ExHIC Collaboration; Ohnishi, A.; Cho, S.; Furumoto, T.; Hyodo, T.; Jido, D.; Ko, C. M.; Morita, K.; Lee, S. H.; Nielsen, M.; Sekihara, T.; Yasui, S.; Yazaki, K.

2013-09-01

308

Extracting hadron-neutron scattering amplitudes from hadron-proton and hadron-deuteron measurements  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A method is presented for extracting hadron-neutron scattering amplitudes from hadron-proton and hadron-deuteron measurements within the framework of the Glauber approximation. This method, which involves the solution of a linear integral equation, is applied to pn collisions between 15 and 275 GeV/c. Effects arising from inelastic intermediate states are estimated.

Franco, V.

1977-01-01

309

Calorimeter, Coffee Cup (ChemPages Lab)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Calorimeter, Coffee Cup: this is a resource in the collection "ChemPages Laboratory Resources". A coffee cup calorimeter is a useful, simple device that can be used to measure the temperature change that accompanies a reaction. A Styrofoam cup is used because it is a good insulator. The cup will absorb (or supply) negligible amounts of heat during most General Chemistry experiments. Thus, any change in temperature is assumed to be due only to the reaction, and the heat transferred in the reaction may be calculated. The ChemPages Laboratory Resources are a set of web pages that include text, images, video, and self check questions. The topics included are those that are commonly encountered in the first-year chemistry laboratory. They have been put together for use as both a pre-laboratory preparation tool and an in-laboratory reference source.

310

Thermochemistry : BombCalorimeter (4 Variations)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Stearic acid (CH 3 (CH 2 ) 16 CO 2 H) is a fatty acid, the part of fat that stores most of the energy. 1.00 g of stearic acid was burned in a bomb calorimeter. The bomb had a heat capacity of 652 J/ o C and a 500. g water reservoir. If the temperature rose from 25.0 to 39.3 o C, how much heat was released when the stearic acid was burned?

311

Scintillating LXe\\/LKr electromagnetic calorimeter  

Microsoft Academic Search

A scintillating LXe\\/LKr electromagnetic calorimeter has been built at the ITEP and tested at the BATES (MIT) accelerator. The detector consists of a PMT matrix and 45 light collecting cells made of aluminized Mylar partially covered with p-terphenyl as a wavelength-shifter (WLS). Each pyramidal cell has (2.1×2.1)×40×(4.15×4.15) cm dimensions and is viewed by an FEU-85 glass-window photomultiplier. The detector has

D. Yu. Akimov; A. J. Bolozdynya; D. L. Churakov; V. N. Afonasyev; S. G. Belogurov; A. D. Brastilov; A. A. Burenkov; L. N. Gusev; V. F. Kuzichev; V. N. Lebedenko; T. A. Osipova; I. A. Rogovsky; A. Safronov; A. Simonychev; V. N. Solovov; V. S. Sopov; G. N. Smirnov; V. P. Tchernyshev; M. Chen; M. M. Smolin; W. Turchinetz; R. A. Minakova; V. M. Shershukov; V. H. Dodohov

1995-01-01

312

The ATLAS Liquid Argon Electromagnetic Calorimeter  

SciTech Connect

The construction of the ATLAS Liquid Argon Electromagnetic calorimeter has been completed and commissioning is in progress. After a brief description of the detector layout, readout electronics and calibration, a review of the present status of the integration and the detector qualification is reported. Finally a selection of performance results obtained during several test beams will be presented with particular attention to linearity, uniformity, position reconstruction and {gamma}/{pi}0 separation.

Carminati, L. [INFN e dipartimento di Fisica dell' Universita di Milano, Via G. Celoria 16, 20122 Milan (Italy)

2005-10-12

313

The Fermilab E760 forward electromagnetic calorimeter  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fermilab experiment E760 will perform precision measurements of charmonium masses and widths, as well as search for the yet unconfirmed eta'c, 1P1, and 1,3D2 states, using a hydrogen gas jet target in the Antiproton Accumulator. The E760 detector includes a forward electromagnetic calorimeter which has been calibrated with electron beams from 0.06 to 3 GeV, as well as pi0's produced

M. A. Hasan; S. G. Gilbert; K. Keilholtz; T. A. Armstrong; R. A. Lewis; A. Majewska; E. D. Minor; J. Passaneau; J. D. Reid; G. A. Smith; C. Mariotti

1990-01-01

314

Orbiter thermal pressure drop characteristics for shuttle orbiter thermal protection system components: High density tile, low density tile, densified low density tile, and strain isolation pad  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Pressure drop tests were conducted on available samples of low and high density tile, densified low density tile, and strain isolation pads. The results are presented in terms of pressure drop, material thickness and volume flow rate. Although the test apparatus was only capable of a small part of the range of conditions to be encountered in a Shuttle Orbiter flight, the data serve to determine the type of flow characteristics to be expected for each material type tested; the measured quantities also should serve as input for initial venting and flow through analysis.

Lawing, P. L.; Nystrom, D. M.

1980-01-01

315

An absorbed dose calorimeter for IMRT dosimetry  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A new calorimeter for dosimetry in small and complex fields has been built. The device is intended for the direct determination of absorbed dose to water in moderately small fields and in composite fields such as IMRT treatments, and as a transfer instrument calibrated against existing absorbed dose standards in conventional reference conditions. The geometry, materials and mode of operation have been chosen to minimize detector perturbations when used in a water phantom, to give a reasonably isotropic response and to minimize the effects of heat transfer when the calorimeter is used in non-reference conditions in a water phantom. The size of the core is meant to meet the needs of measurement in IMRT treatments and is comparable to the size of the air cavity in a type NE2611 ionization chamber. The calorimeter may also be used for small field dosimetry. Initial measurements in reference conditions and in an IMRT head and neck plan, collapsed to gantry angle zero, have been made to estimate the thermal characteristics of the device, and to assess its performance in use. The standard deviation (estimated repeatability) of the reference absorbed dose measurements was 0.02 Gy (0.6%).

Duane, S.; Aldehaybes, M.; Bailey, M.; Lee, N. D.; Thomas, C. G.; Palmans, H.

2012-10-01

316

Foam on Tile Impact Modeling for the STS-107 Investigation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Following the breakup of the Space Shuttle Columbia during reentry a NASA/Contractor investigation team was formed to examine the probable damage inflicted on Orbiter Thermal Protection System elements by impact of External Tank insulating foam projectiles. The authors formed a working subgroup within the larger team to apply the Smooth Particle Hydrodynamics code SPHC to the damage estimation problem. Numerical models of the Orbiter's tiles and of the Tank's foam were constructed and used as inputs into the code. Material properties needed to properly model the tiles and foam were obtained from other working subgroups who performed tests on these items for this purpose. Two- and three-dimensional models of the tiles were constructed, including the glass outer layer, the main body of LI-900 insulation, the densified lower layer of LI-900, the Nomex felt mounting layer, and the Aluminum 2024 vehicle skin. A model for the BX-250 foam including porous compression, elastic rebound, and surface erosion was developed. Code results for the tile damage and foam behavior were extensively validated through comparison with Southwest Research Institute foam-on-tile impact experiments carried out in 1999. These tests involved small projectiles striking individual tiles and small tile arrays. Following code and model validation we simulated impacts of larger foam projectiles on the examples of tile systems used on the Orbiter. Results for impacts on the main landing gear door are presented in this paper, including effects of impacts at several angles, and of rapidly rotating projectiles. General results suggest that foam impacts on tiles at about 500 mph could cause appreciable damage if the impact angle is greater than about 20 degrees. Some variations of the foam properties, such as increased brittleness or increased density could increase damage in some cases. Rotation up to 17 rps failed to increase the damage for the two cases considered. This does not rule out other cases in which the rotational energy might lead to an increase in tile damage, but suggests that in most cases rotation will not be an important factor.

Stellingwerf, R. F.; Robinson, J. H.; Richardson, S.; Evans, S. W.; Stallworth, R.; Hovater, M.

2004-01-01

317

Addendum 3 to CSAR 80-027, Use of calorimeter 109B for fissile material measurement.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This modification to the Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP) calorimeter system involves removing current calorimeter No. 3 from the water bath and replacing it with a calorimeter that can accommodate larger diameter items (an oversize can). The inside diamet...

T. Chiao

1994-01-01

318

Results from beam tests of UA1 U/TMP calorimeter modules  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present results from three types of Uranium/TMP calorimeter modules constructed by the UA1 Collaboration. Electromagnetic and hadronic energy resolutions have been measured using electron and pion beams in the momentum range 7 GeV/c to 70 GeV/c. Results on energy linearity and spatial uniformity of response are also reported. The electromagnetic shower position resolution in the fine sampling modules has been measured using a position detector placed at a depth of 3.4 X 0. The ratio of the electron to pion response has been measured both as a function of the energy and of the electric field. The high lateral and longitudinal granularity of one of the modules which includes a position detector has been used to determine the electron-pion separation as a function of energy.

Virdee, Tejinder S.; UA1 Collaboration

1991-07-01

319

ATLAS High-Level Trigger performance for calorimeter-based algorithms in LHC Run-I  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

During Run-I of the Large Hadron Collider at CERN the ATLAS detector recorded more than 26 fb?1 of proton-proton collision events. One of the key components of the ATLAS detector is its trigger system. In order to keep up with the fast-paced evolution of the beam conditions during Run-I, the trigger selection had to be constantly adapted. For most of the calorimeter-based triggers only modest modifications of the thresholds had to be made, given the change in instantaneous luminosity of five orders of magnitude. This was achieved by various improvements in the High-Level Trigger algorithms, in several places abandoning the original RoI-based concept and introducing new features to overcome previous limitations. The excellent performance of both ATLAS and the LHC made possible the discovery of a new particle already during Run-I, the long-sought Higgs boson.

Mann, A.; Atlas Collaboration

2014-06-01

320

Tau hadronic branching ratios  

Microsoft Academic Search

From 64492 selected \\\\tau-pair events, produced at the Z^0 resonance, the measurement of the tau decays into hadrons from a global analysis using 1991, 1992 and 1993 ALEPH data is presented. Special emphasis is given to the reconstruction of photons and \\\\pi^0's, and the removal of fake photons. A detailed study of the systematics entering the \\\\pi^0 reconstruction is also

Damir Buskulic; David William Casper; I De Bonis; D Décamp; P Ghez; C Goy; J P Lees; A Lucotte; M N Minard; P Odier; B Pietrzyk; F Ariztizabal; M Chmeissani; J M Crespo; I Efthymiopoulos; E Fernández; M Fernández-Bosman; V Gaitan; M Martínez; S Orteu; A Pacheco; C Padilla; Fabrizio Palla; A Pascual; J A Perlas; F Sánchez; F Teubert; A Colaleo; D Creanza; M De Palma; A Farilla; G Gelao; M Girone; Giuseppe Iaselli; G Maggi; M Maggi; N Marinelli; S Natali; S Nuzzo; A Ranieri; G Raso; F Romano; F Ruggieri; G Selvaggi; L Silvestris; P Tempesta; G Zito; X Huang; J Lin; Q Ouyang; T Wang; Y Xie; R Xu; S Xue; J Zhang; L Zhang; W Zhao; G Bonvicini; M Cattaneo; P Comas; P Coyle; H Drevermann; A Engelhardt; Roger W Forty; M Frank; R Hagelberg; J Harvey; R Jacobsen; P Janot; B Jost; E Kneringer; J Knobloch; Ivan Lehraus; C Markou; E B Martin; P Mato; Adolf G Minten; R Miquel; T Oest; P Palazzi; J R Pater; J F Pusztaszeri; F Ranjard; P E Rensing; Luigi Rolandi; W D Schlatter; M Schmelling; O Schneider; W Tejessy; I R Tomalin; A Venturi; H W Wachsmuth; W Wiedenmann; T Wildish; W Witzeling; J Wotschack; Ziad J Ajaltouni; Maria Bardadin-Otwinowska; A Barrès; C Boyer; A Falvard; P Gay; C Guicheney; P Henrard; J Jousset; B Michel; S Monteil; D Pallin; P Perret; F Podlyski; J Proriol; J M Rossignol; F Saadi; Tom Fearnley; J B Hansen; J D Hansen; J R Hansen; P H Hansen; B S Nilsson; A Kyriakis; Errietta Simopoulou; I Siotis; Anna Vayaki; K Zachariadou; A Blondel; G R Bonneaud; J C Brient; P Bourdon; L Passalacqua; A Rougé; M Rumpf; R Tanaka; Andrea Valassi; M Verderi; H L Videau; D J Candlin; M I Parsons; E Focardi; G Parrini; M Corden; M C Delfino; C H Georgiopoulos; D E Jaffe; A Antonelli; G Bencivenni; G Bologna; F Bossi; P Campana; G Capon; V Chiarella; G Felici; P Laurelli; G Mannocchi; F Murtas; G P Murtas; M Pepé-Altarelli; S J Dorris; A W Halley; I ten Have; I G Knowles; J G Lynch; W T Morton; V O'Shea; C Raine; P Reeves; J M Scarr; K Smith; M G Smith; A S Thompson; F Thomson; S Thorn; R M Turnbull; U Becker; O Braun; C Geweniger; G Graefe; P Hanke; V Hepp; E E Kluge; A Putzer; B Rensch; M Schmidt; J Sommer; H Stenzel; K Tittel; S Werner; M Wunsch; R Beuselinck; David M Binnie; W Cameron; D J Colling; Peter J Dornan; N P Konstantinidis; L Moneta; A Moutoussi; J Nash; G San Martin; J K Sedgbeer; A M Stacey; G Dissertori; P Girtler; D Kuhn; G Rudolph; C K Bowdery; T J Brodbeck; P Colrain; G Crawford; A J Finch; F Foster; G Hughes; Terence Sloan; E P Whelan; M I Williams; A Galla; A M Greene; K Kleinknecht; G Quast; J Raab; B Renk; H G Sander; R Wanke; P Van Gemmeren; C Zeitnitz; Jean-Jacques Aubert; A M Bencheikh; C Benchouk; A Bonissent; G Bujosa; D Calvet; J Carr; C A Diaconu; F Etienne; M Thulasidas; D Nicod; P Payre; D Rousseau; M Talby; I Abt; R W Assmann; C Bauer; Walter Blum; D Brown; H Dietl; Friedrich Dydak; G Ganis; C Gotzhein; K Jakobs; H Kroha; G Lütjens; Gerhard Lutz; W Männer; H G Moser; R H Richter; A Rosado-Schlosser; S Schael; Ronald Settles; H C J Seywerd; R Saint-Denis; G Wolf; R Alemany; J Boucrot; O Callot; A Cordier; F Courault; M Davier; L Duflot; J F Grivaz; P Heusse; M Jacquet; D W Kim; F R Le Diberder; J Lefrançois; A M Lutz; G Musolino; I A Nikolic; H J Park; I C Park; M H Schune; S Simion; J J Veillet; I Videau; D Abbaneo; P Azzurri; G Bagliesi; G Batignani; S Bettarini; C Bozzi; G Calderini; M Carpinelli; M A Ciocci; V Ciulli; R Dell'Orso; R Fantechi; I Ferrante; L Foà; F Forti; A Giassi; M A Giorgi; A Gregorio; F Ligabue; A Lusiani; P S Marrocchesi; A Messineo; G Rizzo; G Sanguinetti; A Sciabà; P Spagnolo; Jack Steinberger; Roberto Tenchini; G Tonelli; G Triggiani; C Vannini; P G Verdini; J Walsh; A P Betteridge; G A Blair; L M Bryant; F Cerutti; Y Gao; M G Green; D L Johnson; T Medcalf; L M Mir; P Perrodo; J A Strong; V Bertin; David R Botterill; R W Clifft; T R Edgecock; S Haywood; M Edwards; P Maley; P R Norton; J C Thompson; B Bloch-Devaux; P Colas; S Emery; Witold Kozanecki; E Lançon; M C Lemaire; E Locci; B Marx; P Pérez; J Rander; J F Renardy; A Roussarie; J P Schuller; J Schwindling; A Trabelsi; B Vallage; R P Johnson; H Y Kim; A M Litke; M A McNeil; G Taylor; A Beddall; C N Booth; R Boswell; S L Cartwright; F Combley; I Dawson; A Köksal; M Letho; W M Newton; C Rankin; L F Thompson; A Böhrer; S Brandt; G D Cowan; E Feigl; Claus Grupen; G Lutters; J A Minguet-Rodríguez; F Rivera; P Saraiva; L Smolik; F Stephan; M Apollonio; L Bosisio; R Della Marina; G Giannini; B Gobbo; F Ragusa; J E Rothberg; S R Wasserbaech; S R Armstrong; L Bellantoni; P Elmer; Z Feng; D P S Ferguson; S González; J Grahl; J L Harton; O J Hayes; H Hu; P A McNamara; J M Nachtman; W Orejudos; Y B Pan; Y Saadi; M Schmitt; I J Scott; V Sharma; J Turk; A M Walsh; Wu Sau Lan; X Wu; J M Yamartino; M Zheng; G Zobernig

1995-01-01

321

Charmed Hadron Interactions  

SciTech Connect

We calculate the scattering lengths of the scattering processes where one or both hadrons contain charm quarks in full lattice QCD. We use relativistic Fermilab formulation for the charm quark. For the light quark, we use domain-wall fermions in the valence sector and improved Kogut- Susskind sea quarks. In J = Psi - N and D - K channels, we observe attractive interactions. In D - D* channel, the sign of the scattering length changes, which suggests a bound state.

Liuming Liu

2009-07-01

322

The Large Hadron Collider  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This article on the CERN website provides an explanation the importance of the Large Hadron Collider--a particle accelerator that is an international collaboration--and how its results will help improve our understanding of the conditions of the universe just after the Big Bang. The site provides descriptions of why the LHC was built, how it works, its various experiments, and also safety considerations.

2008-09-23

323

Large Hadron Rap  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This YouTube video, created by Kate McAlpine, features a rap song created to commemorate the start-up of The Large Hadron Collider (LHC). The rap lyrics present the theories that the LHC will test, as well as many of the challenges and questions of the standard model of particle physics. The video was shot at various parts of the LHC.

2008-10-10

324

D-0 End Calorimeter Warm Tube/TeV Dry Air Purge  

SciTech Connect

This Engineering Note studies the design of the Dry Air Purge that is going to flow through the Warm Tube of the End Calorimeter of the D-O Calorimeter. The Tev tubes through the E.C. can be thought of as a cluster of concentric tubes: The Tev tube, the warm (vacuum vessel) tube, 15 layers of superinsulation, the cold (argon vessel) tube, and the Inner Hadronic center support tube. The Dry Air Purge will involve flowing Dry Air through the annular region between the Warm Tube and the Tev Beam Pipe. This air flow is intended to prevent condensation from forming in this region which could turn to ice under cryogenic temperatures. Any ice formed in this gap, could cause serious problems when these tubes are moved. The Air will flow through a Nylon Tube Fitting -1/4-inch I.D. to 1/8-inch male pipe thread (Cole Palmer YB-06465-15) see Drawing MC-295221 (Appendix A). This fitting will be attached to the Nylon 2-inch Tube-Wiper and Seal Assembly which is clamped to the ends of the Warm Tube (Appendix A). This note includes drawings and calculations that explain the setup of the Dry Air Purge and give the required information on the pressure drops through the setup. The Equations and properties used in the calculations were obtained from the Applied Fluid Dynamics Handbook by Robert D. Blevins and Fluid Dynamics Second Edition by Frank M. White.

Leibfritz, J.R.; /Fermilab

1991-08-14

325

Upgrade plans for the ATLAS Forward Calorimeter at the HL-LHC  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Although data-taking at CERN's Large Hadron Collider (LHC) is expected to continue for a number of years, plans are already being developed for operation of the LHC and associated detectors at an increased instantaneous luminosity about 5 times the original design value of 1034 cm-2 s-1. The increased particle flux at this high luminosity (HL) will have an impact on many sub-systems of the ATLAS detector. In particular, in the liquid argon forward calorimeter (FCal), which was designed for operation at LHC luminosities, the associated increase in the ionization load at HL-LHC luminosities creates a number of problems which can degrade its performance. These include space-charge effects in the liquid argon gaps, excessive drop in potential across the gaps due to large HV supply currents through the protection resistors, and an increase in temperature which may cause the liquid argon to boil. One solution, which would require opening both End-Cap cryostats, is the construction and installation of new FCals with narrower liquid argon gaps, lowering the values of the protection resistors, and the addition of cooling loops. A second proposed solution, which does not require opening the cryostat cold volume, is the addition of a small, warm calorimeter in front of each existing FCal, resulting in a reduction of the particle flux to levels at which the existing FCal can operate normally.

Rutherfoord, John; ATLAS Liquid Argon Calorimeter Group

2012-12-01

326

Hollow clay tile wall program summary report  

SciTech Connect

Many of the Y-12 Plant buildings, constructed during the 1940s and 1950s, consist of steel ed concrete framing infilled with hollow clay tile (HCT). The infill was intended to provide for building enclosure and was not designed to have vertical or lateral load-carrying capacity. During the late 1970s and early 1980s, seismic and wind evaluations were performed on many of these buildings in conjunction with the preparation of a site-wide safety analysis report. This analytical work, based on the best available methodology, considered lateral load-carrying capacity of the HCT infill on the basis of building code allowable shear values. In parallel with the analysis effort, DOE initiated a program to develop natural phenomena capacity and performance criteria for existing buildings, but these criteria did not specify guidelines for determining the lateral force capacity of frames infilled with HCT. The evaluation of infills was, therefore, based on the provisions for the design of unreinforced masonry as outlined in standard masonry codes. When the results of the seismic and wind evaluations were compared with the new criteria, the projected building capacities fell short of the requirements. Apparently, if the buildings were to meet the new criteria, many millions of dollars would be required for building upgrades. Because the upgrade costs were significant, the assumptions and approaches used in the analyses were reevaluated. Four issues were identified: (1) Once the infilled walls cracked, what capacity (nonlinear response), if any, would the walls have to resist earthquake or wind loads applied in the plane of the infill (in-plane)? (2) Would the infilled walls remain within the steel or reinforced concrete framing when subjected to earthquake or high wind loads applied perpendicular to the infill (out-of-plane)? (3) What was the actual shear capacity of the HCT infill? (4) Was modeling the HCT infill as a shear wall the best approach?

Henderson, R.C.; Jones, W.D. [Gilbert/Commonwealth, Inc., Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Beavers, J.E. [MS Technology, Inc. (United States)

1995-07-30

327

High energy hadron-hadron collisions. [Dept. of Physics and Astronomy, Univ. of Georgia, Athens, Georgia  

SciTech Connect

Results of a study on high energy collisions with the geometrical model are summarized in three parts: (1) the elastic hadron-hadron collision, (2) the inelastic hadron-hadron collision, and (3) e[sup +]e[sup [minus

Chou, T.T.

1992-01-01

328

Searches for heavy long-lived sleptons and R-hadrons with the ATLAS detector  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A search for long-lived particles is performed using a data sample of 4.7 fb-1 from proton-proton collisions at a centre-of-mass energy ?s = 7 TeV collected by the ATLAS detector at the LHC. No excess is observed above the estimated background and lower limits, at 95% confidence level, are set on the mass of the long-lived particles in different scenarios, based on their possible interactions in the inner detector, the calorimeters and the muon spectrometer. Long-lived staus in gauge-mediated SUSY-breaking models are excluded up to a mass of 300 GeV for tan ? = 5 - 20. Directly produced long-lived sleptons are excluded up to a mass of 278 GeV. R-hadrons, composites of gluino (stop, sbottom) and light quarks, are excluded up to a mass of 985 GeV (683 GeV, 612 GeV) when using a generic interaction model. Additionally two sets of limits on R-hadrons are obtained that are less sensitive to the interaction model for R-hadrons. One set of limits is obtained using only the inner detector and calorimeter observables, and a second set of limits is obtained based on the inner detector alone. The full paper can be found in [1].

Mehlhase, Sascha

2013-05-01

329

Weave tile architecture construction strategy for DNA nanotechnology.  

PubMed

Architectural designs for DNA nanostructures typically fall within one of two broad categories: tile-based designs (assembled from chemically synthesized oligonucleotides) and origami designs (woven structures employing a biological scaffold strand and synthetic staple strands). Both previous designs typically contain many Holliday-type multi-arm junctions. Here we describe the design, implementation, and testing of a unique architectural strategy incorporating some aspects of each of the two previous design categories but without multi-arm junction motifs. Goals for the new design were to use only chemically synthesized DNA, to minimize the number of component strands, and to mimic the back-and-forth, woven strand routing of the origami architectures. The resulting architectural strategy employs "weave tiles" formed from only two oligonucleotides as basic building blocks, thus decreasing the burden of matching multiple strand stoichiometries compared to previous tile-based architectures and resulting in a structurally flexible tile. As an example application, we have shown that the four-helix weave tile can be used to increase the anticoagulant activity of thrombin-binding aptamers in vitro. PMID:20863133

Hansen, Majken N; Zhang, Alex M; Rangnekar, Abhijit; Bompiani, Kristin M; Carter, Joshua D; Gothelf, Kurt V; LaBean, Thomas H

2010-10-20

330

Construction of a hadronic calorimeter prototype for the future CERN LHC high energy accelerator.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The study of fragment-fragment correlations at small relative momentum can give informations on the space and time extend of the emitting source, and on the nuclear density, which is one of the variables used in the equation of state. This analysis shows ...

F. Rival

1994-01-01

331

(Development of industrial processes for manufacturing of silicon sampling hadron calorimeters)  

SciTech Connect

The travelers attended meetings in Dubna and in Zelenograd. Discussions in Dubna centered on (1) obtaining information on USSR capabilities in silicon detector manufacture and testing and on (2) strategy regarding the development of an industrial process and the manufacture of a large quantity of silicon detectors for the SSC L* collaboration. The ELMA plant in Zelenograd was inspected, and discussions were held on production process development and on a possible detector supply time line. In addition, J. Walter participated in technical and cost estimate forecast discussions with representatives of Wacker-Chemitronic Factory (Germany) about silicon crystals for possible use in the SSC.

Plasil, F.; Walter, J.

1991-01-04

332

Progress on the upgrade of the CMS Hadron Calorimeter Front-End electronics  

SciTech Connect

We present a scheme to upgrade the CMS HCAL front-end electronics in the second long shutdown to upgrade the LHC (LS2), which is expected to occur around 2018. The HCAL electronics upgrade is required to handle the major instantaneous luminosity increase (up to 5 * 10{sup 34} cm{sup -2} s{sup -1}) and an expected integrated luminosity of {approx}3000 fb{sup -1}. A key aspect of the HCAL upgrade is to read out longitudinal segmentation information to improve background rejection, energy resolution, and electron isolation at the L1 trigger. This paper focuses on the requirements for the new electronics and on the proposed solutions. The requirements include increased channel count, additional timing capabilities, and additional redundancy. The electronics are required to operate in a harsh environment and are constrained by the existing infrastructure. The proposed solutions span from chip level to system level. They include the development of a new ASIC ADC, the design and testing of higher speed transmitters to handle the increased data volume, the evaluation and use of circuits from other developments, evaluation of commercial FPGAs, better thermal design, and improvements in the overall readout architecture. We will report on the progress of the designs for these upgraded systems, along with performance requirements and initial design studies.

Anderson, Jake; Whitmore, Juliana; /Fermilab

2011-11-01

333

Calibration of an electromagnetic calorimeter for direct photon physics  

Microsoft Academic Search

A large lead-liquid scintillator electromagnetic calorimeter has been built for a ``direct photon'' experiment at CERN. Gain equalisation and monitoring of the calorimeter were achieved by two complementary computer-controlled calibration systems, a laser system connected by optical fibres and a system of moveable radioactive sources. Final corrections to the equalisation were made using the physics data recorded during the experiment.

M. Bonesini; E. Bonvin; L. J. Carroll; A. J. Cass; D. Cavalli; G. Costa; M. Donnat; P. A. Dorsaz; D. N. Edwards; J. R. Fischer; L. Fluri; D. Frame; F. Gianotti; S. C. Jack; J. N. Jackson; A. Jornod; M. Kelly; M. N. Kienzle-Focacci; R. Lucock; J. G. Lynch; L. Mandelli; M. Martin; L. Mathys; R. A. Maxwell; M. Mazzanti; J. J. Myerscough; P. J. Negus; R. O'Neill; S. Pensotti-Rancoita; L. Perini; D. Perrin; W. H. Range; L. Rosselet; S. W. Snow; A. S. Thompson; R. M. Turnbull; J. Wells; M. Werlen

1988-01-01

334

Precision two-compartment bomb calorimeter for combustion in fluorine  

Microsoft Academic Search

An isothermally jacketed liquid calorimeter permitting thermochemical studies on spontaneous combustion in fluorine has been built and tested. The fluorine storage tank was located outside the calorimeter vessel, thus lowering the heat capacity of the system and its thermal inertia. Particular attention was paid to the method and rate of liquid circulation since it largely determines the experimental accuracy. The

H. Lenski; D. Böhler

1980-01-01

335

A hidden bias in a common calorimeter calibration scheme  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, a common calorimeter calibration scheme is explored and a hidden bias found. Since this bias mimics a non-linearity in response in the calorimeter, it must be understood and removed from the calibration before true non-linearities are investigated. The effect and its removal are explored and understood through straightforward calculus and algebra.

Lincoln, Don; Morrow, Greg; Kasper, Peter

1994-07-01

336

First experimental tests of a lead glass drift calorimeter  

SciTech Connect

The authors are building a drift collection calorimeter, which has a combined radiator and electric field shaping structure made of fused lead glass tubing, treated in a H/sub 2/ reducing atmosphere. They describe the construction detail of the calorimeter and the experimental measurements on several prototypes with radioactive sources and minimum ionizing particles.

DelGaerra, A.; Bellazini, R.; Conti, M.; Massai, M.M.; Schwartz, G.; Habel, R.; Molera, T.

1986-02-01

337

Thermochemistry : CoffeeCupCalorimeter (2 Variations)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

A block of copper is heated to {x} °C and then is dropped into a coffee cup calorimeter containing {y} g of water at 25.0 °C. The final temperature of the system is 45.1 °C. What is the mass of the copper block to the nearest gram? (Assume all heat is transferred to the water). Write your answer in the box, and do NOT include units. Specific heat capacity of copper = 0.383 J/(g*°C) Specific heat capacity of water = 4.18 J/(g*°C)

338

Development of a thermographic laser calorimeter  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A thermographic laser calorimeter for the measurement of absorptance in optical coatings is described. The heat transport equation is solved for a laser-heated disk with a thin-film coating. The solutions are used to calculate the output characteristics of the thermographic scanning system. The absorption and the thermal conductivity of oxide coatings (SiO2, TiO2, HfO2, Al2O3, and Ta2O5) were measured. Results lead to the conclusion that there is a considerable difference between the thermal properties of the coating and the corresponding bulk material.

Ristau, Detlev; Ebert, Johannes

1986-12-01

339

Flutter Analysis of the Shuttle Tile Overlay Repair Concept  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Space Shuttle tile overlay repair concept, developed at the NASA Johnson Space Center, is designed for on-orbit installation over an area of damaged tile to permit safe re-entry. The thin flexible plate is placed over the damaged area and secured to tile at discreet points around its perimeter. A series of flutter analyses were performed to determine if the onset of flutter met the required safety margins. Normal vibration modes of the panel, obtained from a simplified structural analysis of the installed concept, were combined with a series of aerodynamic analyses of increasing levels of fidelity in terms of modeling the flow physics to determine the onset of flutter. Results from these analyses indicate that it is unlikely that the overlay installed at body point 1800 will flutter during re-entry.

Bey, Kim S.; Scott, Robert C.; Bartels, Robert E.; Waters, William A.; Chen, Roger

2007-01-01

340

New perspectives on forbidden symmetries, quasicrystals, and Penrose tilings  

PubMed Central

Quasicrystals are solids with quasiperiodic atomic structures and symmetries forbidden to ordinary periodic crystals—e.g., 5-fold symmetry axes. A powerful model for understanding their structure and properties has been the two-dimensional Penrose tiling. Recently discovered properties of Penrose tilings suggest a simple picture of the structure of quasicrystals and shed new light on why they form. The results show that quasicrystals can be constructed from a single repeating cluster of atoms and that the rigid matching rules of Penrose tilings can be replaced by more physically plausible cluster energetics. The new concepts make the conditions for forming quasicrystals appear to be closely related to the conditions for forming periodic crystals.

Steinhardt, Paul J.

1996-01-01

341

New class tiling design for dot-diffused halftoning.  

PubMed

In this paper, a new class tiling designed dot diffusion along with the optimized class matrix and diffused matrix are proposed. The result of this method presents a nearly periodic-free halftone when compared to the former schemes. Formerly, the class matrix of the dot diffusion is duplicated and orthogonally tiled to fulfill the entire image for further thresholding and quantized-error diffusion, which accompanies subsequent periodic artifacts. In our observation, this artifact can be solved by manipulating the class tiling with comprising rotation, transpose, and alternatively shifting of the class matrices. As documented in the experimental results, the proposed dot diffusion has been compared with the former halftoning methods with parallelism in terms of image quality, processing efficiency, periodicity, and memory consumption; the proposed dot diffusion exhibits as a very competitive candidate in the printing/display market. PMID:23192555

Liu, Yun-Fu; Guo, Jing-Ming

2013-03-01

342

Solare Cell Roof Tile And Method Of Forming Same  

DOEpatents

A solar cell roof tile includes a front support layer, a transparent encapsulant layer, a plurality of interconnected solar cells and a backskin layer. The front support layer is formed of light transmitting material and has first and second surfaces. The transparent encapsulant layer is disposed adjacent the second surface of the front support layer. The interconnected solar cells has a first surface disposed adjacent the transparent encapsulant layer. The backskin layer has a first surface disposed adjacent a second surface of the interconnected solar cells, wherein a portion of the backskin layer wraps around and contacts the first surface of the front support layer to form the border region. A portion of the border region has an extended width. The solar cell roof tile may have stand-offs disposed on the extended width border region for providing vertical spacing with respect to an adjacent solar cell roof tile.

Hanoka, Jack I. (Brookline, MA); Real, Markus (Oberberg, CH)

1999-11-16

343

Tony Rollins fashions a new tile for the Space Shuttle orbiter  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In the Tile Fabrication Shop, Tony Rollins, with United Space Alliance, holds down a curtain while making a test sample of tile on a block 5-axis computerized numerical control milling machine. About 70 percent of a Space Shuttle orbiter's external surface is shielded from heat by a network of more than 24,000 tiles formed from a silica fiber compound. They are known as High-Temperature Reusable Surface Insulation (HRSI) tiles and Low-Temperature Reusable Surface Insulation (LRSI) tiles. Most HRSI tiles are 6 inches square, but may be as large as 12 inches in some areas, and 1 to 5 inches thick. LRSI tiles are generally 8 inches square, ranging from 0.2- to 1-inch thick. More advanced materials such as Flexible Insulation Blankets have replaced tiles on some upper surfaces of the orbiter.

1998-01-01

344

An automated data management/analysis system for space shuttle orbiter tiles. [stress analysis  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An engineering data management system was combined with a nonlinear stress analysis program to provide a capability for analyzing a large number of tiles on the space shuttle orbiter. Tile geometry data and all data necessary of define the tile loads environment accessed automatically as needed for the analysis of a particular tile or a set of tiles. User documentation provided includes: (1) description of computer programs and data files contained in the system; (2) definitions of all engineering data stored in the data base; (3) characteristics of the tile anaytical model; (4) instructions for preparation of user input; and (5) a sample problem to illustrate use of the system. Description of data, computer programs, and analytical models of the tile are sufficiently detailed to guide extension of the system to include additional zones of tiles and/or additional types of analyses

Giles, G. L.; Ballas, M.

1982-01-01

345

Physical, Chemical, and Microbiological Factors Affecting the Discharge of Water into Drain Tile.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In the Imperial and Coachella Valleys in Southern California, installation of tile drainage has been necessary following expanded irrigation activity and use of Colorado River water. However, the flow of water into and through tile drainage lines is often...

S. J. Richards

1972-01-01

346

Closed Gap Slug Calorimeter for Plasma Stream Characterization  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Slug calorimeters are used in sheer and stagnation mode to characterize heat flux levels for high enthalpy streams. The traditional design features a gap between slug and holder, which can be of concern in these convective heat flux environments. The challenge is to develop a calorimeter that closes the gap to gas flow, but largely maintains thermal insulation of the slug. The work presented herein introduces two new slug calorimeter designs featuring a closed gap. This is done using either aerogel as a filler or press fitting the slug with a disk. The designs were verified and compared to the baseline calorimeter design under radiative heat flux. Building on this, the calorimeters were exposed to convective heat flux in the arc-jet facilities. Results from the new designs and conclusions on the impact of the gap in convective heat flux will be shown.

Nawaz, Anuscheh; Gorbunov, Sergey; Terrazas-Salinas, Imelda; Jones, Steven M.

2012-01-01

347

High energy hadron-hadron collisions. Annual progress report  

SciTech Connect

Results of a study on high energy collisions with the geometrical model are summarized in three parts: (1) the elastic hadron-hadron collision, (2) the inelastic hadron-hadron collision, and (3) e{sup +}e{sup {minus}} annihilation. For elastic scattering, a modified form for the hadronic matter form factor of the proton was proposed which is still dipole in form but contains an energy--dependent range parameter. This new expression of the opacity function fits the elastic {bar p}p scattering very well from the ISR to S{bar p}pS energies. Extrapolation of this theory also yielded results {bar p}p in good agreement with the {bar p}p differential cross section measured at the Tevatron. For inelastic hadron-hadron collisions, we have made a systematic investigation of the single-particle momentum spectra in the entire S{bar p}pS energy region. Results are useful for the extrapolation of angular distribution to the higher SSC energies. In e{sup +}e{sup {minus}} annihilation, a detailed analysis of all available experimental multiplicity data from PETRA to LEP energies has been performed. The cluster size of emitted hadrons increases gradually with energy. Aside from high-energy collisions, the giant fullerene molecules were studied and precise algebraic eigenvalue expressions of the Hueckel problem for carbon-240 were obtained.

Chou, T.T.

1992-12-31

348

High energy hadron-hadron collisions. Annual progress report  

SciTech Connect

Results of a study on high energy collision with the geometrical model are summarized in three parts: (1) the elastic hadron-hadron collision, (2) the inelastic hadron-hadron collision, and (3) the e{sup +}e{sup {minus}} annihilation. More recent studies are highlighted below. For elastic scattering, a modified form for the hadronic matter form factor of the proton was proposed which remains to be dipole in form but contains an energy-dependent range parameter. This new expression of the opacity function fits the elastic {bar p}p scattering very well from the ISR to S{bar p}pS energies. Extrapolation of this theory also yielded results in good agreement with the {bar p}p differential cross section measured at the Tevatron. For inelastic hadron-hadron collisions, we have made a systematic investigation of the single-particle momentum spectra in the entire S{bar p}pS energy region. Results are useful for the extrapolation of angular distribution to the higher SSC energies. In e{sup +}e{sup {minus}} annihilation, a detailed analysis of all available experimental multiplicity data from PETRA to LEP energies has been performed. We discovered that the cluster size of emitted hadrons increases steadily with energy and is close to 2 as we predicted.

Chou, T.T.

1991-12-01

349

Hadron structure from ?* p scattering: interpreting hadronic matrix elements  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Hadron structure from high-Q2 ?* p scattering processes is often expressed in terms of hadronic matrix elements of nonlocal operators. Properly defining and interpreting these quantities is very important in light of experiments aiming to extract transverse momentum dependent parton distributions or generalized parton distributions. The current status will be reviewed, including recent developments concerning Wigner distributions.

Boer, D.

2005-05-01

350

Review on DTU-parton model for hadron-hadron and hadron-nucleus collisions  

SciTech Connect

The parton picture of color separation of dual string and its subsequent breakup is used to motivate the DTU-parton model for high energy small p/sub T/ multiparticle productions in hadron-hadron and hadron-nucleus collisions. A brief survey on phenomenological applications of the model: such as the inclusive spectra for various hh processes and central plateau heights predicted, hA inclusive spectra and the approximate anti v-universalities is presented.

Chiu, C.B.

1980-08-01

351

Saturation at hadron colliders  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We extend the saturation models à la Golec-Biernat and Wüsthoff to cross-sections of hard processes initiated by virtual-gluon probes separated by large rapidity intervals at hadron colliders. We derive their analytic expressions and apply them to physical examples, such as saturation effects for Mueller-Navelet forward jets. By comparison to ? ?- ? ? cross-sections we find a more abrupt transition to saturation. We propose to study observables with a potentially clear saturation signal and to use heavy vector and flavored mesons as alternative hard probes to forward jets.

Marquet, C.; Peschanski, R.

2004-05-01

352

Quarkonia production with leptons and hadrons  

SciTech Connect

We discuss current issues and present the latest measurements on quarkonia production from experiments monitoring hadron-hadron and lepton-hadron collisions. These measurements include cross section and polarization results for charmonium and bottomonium states.

V. Papadimitriou

2004-06-09

353

High-Performance Tiled WMS and KML Web Server  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This software is an Apache 2.0 module implementing a high-performance map server to support interactive map viewers and virtual planet client software. It can be used in applications that require access to very-high-resolution geolocated images, such as GIS, virtual planet applications, and flight simulators. It serves Web Map Service (WMS) requests that comply with a given request grid from an existing tile dataset. It also generates the KML super-overlay configuration files required to access the WMS image tiles.

Plesea, Lucian

2007-01-01

354

A Single Cluster Covering for Dodecagonal Quasiperiodic Ship Tiling  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The single cluster covering approach provides a plausible mechanism for the formation and stability of octagonal and decagonal quasiperiodic structures. For dodecagonal quasiperiodic patterns, such a single cluster covering scheme is still unavailable. We demonstrate that ship tiling, one of the dodecagonal quasiperiodic structures, can be completely covered by a single cluster. A deflation procedure is devised by assigning proper orientations to different tiles, and nine types of vertex configurations, if the mirror patterns are considered to be identical, have been identified, which fulfill the closure condition under deflation and all result in a T-cluster centered at the vertex.

Liao, Long-Guang; Zhang, Wen-Bin; Yu, Tong-Xu; Cao, Ze-Xian

2013-02-01

355

8.G Tile Patterns I: octagons and squares  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a task from the Illustrative Mathematics website that is one part of a complete illustration of the standard to which it is aligned. Each task has at least one solution and some commentary that addresses important asects of the task and its potential use. Here are the first few lines of the commentary for this task: One interesting tile pattern (see for example this Tile Pattern) has four octagons surrounding what appears to be a square as in the picture below: The...

356

High energy hadron-hadron collisions. Final report  

SciTech Connect

This project of studying high energy collision phenomena with the geometrical model has been undertaken and developed by this investigator and collaborators since 1967. Instead of basing conjectures on mathematical extrapolations from some ad hoc theories, this approach was to scrutinize first the general features of the phenomena before going into specific details. This particular method has proved successful in correlating experimental data, suggesting experiments, predicting new phenomena and guiding future experimental studies. In the following, important results of the geometrical model obtained with the support of the DOE grant are summarized in three parts: the elastic hadron-hadron scattering, the inelastic hadron-hadron collision, and the hadronic production in e{sup +}e{sup {minus}} annihilation. The fourth part of this report outlines the results of other topics of investigation. To avoid repetition, only the main physical ideas and essential experimental evidences are presented, leaving out detailed discussions which can be found in the literature and previous reports.

Chou, T.T.

1995-08-01

357

Error suppression mechanisms for DNA tile self-assembly and their simulation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Algorithmic self-assembly using DNA-based molecular tiles has been demonstrated to implement molecular computation. When several\\u000a different types of DNA tile self-assemble, they can form large two-dimensional algorithmic patterns. Prior analysis predicted\\u000a that the error rates of tile assembly can be reduced by optimizing physical parameters such as tile concentrations and temperature.\\u000a However, in exchange, the growth speed is also very

Kenichi Fujibayashi; David Yu Zhang; Erik Winfree; Satoshi Murata

2009-01-01

358

Convection currents in a water calorimeter.  

PubMed

A flexible, temperature-regulated water calorimeter has been constructed containing two pairs of thermistor sensors at depths of 6.23 and 10.0 cm. It may be irradiated by vertical or horizontal beams, and operated at temperatures in the range from 3 to 40 degrees C. When irradiated at 30 degrees C with a vertically downward 19 MeV electron beam, the responses of the proximal and midline thermistors were in accordance with the depth-dose curve. When irradiated horizontally, the initial patterns of temperature rise were the same, but after about 30 s (4 Gy) the rate of temperature rise decreased at the proximal thermistors and increased at the midline thermistors. Shortly after irradiation, the temperature curve and increased at the midline thermistors. Shortly after irradiation, the temperature curve of the midline thermistors crossed that for the proximal thermistors, a pattern that suggested the presence of convection currents. To test this hypothesis, the calorimeter was operated at 4 degrees C. The temperature patterns for horizontal irradiation became the same as those obtained with vertical beams, thus demonstrating the production of convection currents in water at a temperature of 30 degrees C for temperature gradients as small as 10(-3) degrees C cm-1. PMID:4070365

Schulz, R J; Weinhous, M S

1985-10-01

359

Transportable calorimeter measurements of highly enriched uranium  

SciTech Connect

A sensitive calorimeter has been combined with a small temperature-controlled water bath to compose a transportable system that is capable of measuring multikilogram quantities of highly enriched uranium (HEU). The sample chamber size, 5 in. in diameter by 10 in. high, is large enough to hold sufficient HEU metal or high-grade scrap to provide a measurable thermal signal. Calorimetric measurements performed on well-characterized material indicate that the thermal power generated by 93% {sup 235}U samples with 1.0% {sup 234}U can be measured with a precision of about 1% (1 sigma) for 4-kg samples. The transportable system consists of a twin-bridge calorimeter installed inside a 55-gal. stainless steel drum filled with water with heating and cooling supplied by a removable thermoelectric module attached to the side. Isotopic measurements using high-resolution gamma-ray measurements of the HEU samples and analysis with the FRAM code were used to determine the isotopic ratios and specific power of the samples. This information was used to transform the measured thermal power into grams of HEU. Because no physical standards are required, this system could be used for the verification of plutonium, {sup 238}Pu heat sources, or large quantities of metal or other high-grade matrix forms of HEU.

Rudy, C.; Bracken, D.S.; Staples, P.; Carrillo, L.

1997-11-01

360

Thermal effects on the STAR electromagnetic calorimeter  

SciTech Connect

The STAR detector for the RHIC colliding beam accelerator is under construction at Brookhaven National Laboratory. This detector will consist of a number of subsystems. These include a silicon vertex detector (SVT) for charged particle tracks near the interaction region, a time projection chamber (TPC) for charged particle tracking, an array of plastic scintillation counters (CTB) in a layer around the TPC for triggering on charged particles, a conventional solenoidal magnet, and some additional small triggering detectors along the beam-line. An electromagnetic calorimeter (EMC) is an upgrade to the ``baseline`` detector configuration above. The conventional magnet and numerous electronic channels for the SVT and TPC subsystems will generate a considerable amount of heat during the operation of STAR. However, it is possible that a chiller for the magnet cooling water will not be available during some of the early STAR runs. As a result, the average magnet temperature may vary considerably between winter and summer. This note summarizes calculations and measurements performed to evaluate the effects of an elevated magnet temperature on the performance of the electromagnetic calorimeter.

Fornek, T.; Guarino, V.; Spinka, H.; Underwood, D. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States). High Energy Physics Div.

1994-07-19

361

The ALICE electromagnetic calorimeter high level triggers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The ALICE (A Large Ion Collider Experiment) detector yields a huge sample of data from different sub-detectors. On-line data processing is applied to select and reduce the volume of the stored data. ALICE applies a multi-level hardware trigger scheme where fast detectors are used to feed a three-level (L0, L1, and L2) deep chain. The High-Level Trigger (HLT) is a fourth filtering stage sitting logically between the L2 trigger and the data acquisition event building. The EMCal detector comprises a large area electromagnetic calorimeter that extends the momentum measurement of photons and neutral mesons up to pT = 250 GeV/c, which improves the ALICE capability to perform jet reconstruction with measurement of the neutral energy component of jets. An online reconstruction and trigger chain has been developed within the HLT framework to sharpen the EMCal hardware triggers, by combining the central barrel tracking information with the shower reconstruction (clusters) in the calorimeter. In the present report the status and the functionality of the software components developed for the EMCal HLT online reconstruction and trigger chain will be discussed, as well as preliminary results from their commissioning performed during the 2011 LHC running period.

Ronchetti, F.; Blanco, F.; Figueredo, M.; Knospe, A. G.; Xaplanteris, L.

2012-12-01

362

Random square-triangle tilings: A model for twelvefold-symmetric quasicrystals  

Microsoft Academic Search

Random tilings that comprise squares and equilateral triangles can model quasicrystals with twelvefold symmetry. A (phason) elastic theory for such tilings is constructed, whose order parameter is the phason field, and whose entropy density includes terms up to third order in the phason strain. Due to an unusual constraint, the phason field of any square-triangle tiling is irrotational and, as

Mark Oxborrow; Christopher L. Henley

1993-01-01

363

Study on the utilization of fly ash as raw material for architectonic tile  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to utilize fly ashes of Mongolian fourth and Tsuruga Power Plant's as ceramics raw material, the green body of tile was prepared by using the methods Dr. blade. The sintering of tile performed at temperature 1000-1400°C and mullite formation process was conducted above 1250°C. Water absorption, shrinkage and bending strength of tile were corresponded to Japan industrial standard

Janchiviin Budsuren; Kazuo Yamana

2010-01-01

364

Interferometric Tiling of large-aperture gratings for Petawatt laser systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

A tiled-grating assembly with three large-scale gratings is developed with real-time interferometric tiling control for a petawatt laser system. Tiling-parameters sensitivity and focal-spot degradation are analyzed for a compressor composed of four such assemblies.

J. Qiao; J. H. Kelly; D. Canning; M. J. Guardalben; G. King; J. Price; A. Kalb; R. Jungquist; A. L. Rigatti

2007-01-01

365

Measurement of exclusive branching fractions of hadronic one-prong tau decays  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have measured the branching fractions for the hadronic ? decays, ? ? {?}/{Kn?° } ? (0? n ?3), with the L3 detector at LEP. Multiphoton final states are analyzed using the fine-grained, high-resolution electromagnetic calorimeter. The decay channels are identified using a neural network method. The results are: BR(? ? {?}/{K? }) = (11.82 ± 0.26 ± 0.43) %, BR(? ? {?}/{K?° } ?) = (25.05 ± 0.35 ± 0.50) %, BR(? ? {?}/{K2?° } ?) = (8.88 ± 0.37 ± 0.42) %, BR(? ? {?}/{K3?? } ?) = (1.70 ± 0.24 ± 0.38) %, where the first error quoted is statistical, the second systematic.

Acciarri, M.; Adam, A.; Adriani, O.; Aguilar-Benitez, M.; Ahlen, S.; Alcaraz, J.; Aloisio, A.; Alverson, G.; Alviggi, M. G.; Ambrosi, G.; An, Q.; Anderhub, H.; Anderson, A. L.; Andreev, V. P.; Angelescu, T.; Antonov, L.; Antreasyan, D.; Alkhazov, G.; Arce, P.; Arefiev, A.; Azemoon, T.; Aziz, T.; Baba, P. V. K. S.; Bagnaia, P.; Bakken, J. A.; Baksay, L.; Ball, R. C.; Banerjee, S.; Banicz, K.; Barillère, R.; Barone, L.; Baschirotto, A.; Basile, M.; Battiston, R.; Bay, A.; Becattini, F.; Becker, U.; Behner, F.; Bencze, Gy. L.; Berdugo, J.; Berges, P.; Bertucci, B.; Betev, B. L.; Biasini, M.; Biland, A.; Bilei, G. M.; Bizzarri, R.; Blaising, J. J.; Bobbink, G. J.; Bock, R.; Böhm, A.; Borgia, B.; Boucham, A.; Bourilkov, D.; Bourquin, M.; Boutigny, D.; Bouwens, B.; Brambilla, E.; Branson, J. G.; Brigljevic, V.; Brock, I. C.; Brooks, M.; Bujak, A.; Burger, J. D.; Burger, W. J.; Burgos, C.; Busenitz, J.; Buytenhuijs, A.; Bykov, A.; Cai, X. D.; Capell, M.; Cara Romeo, G.; Caria, M.; Carlino, G.; Cartacci, A. M.; Casaus, J.; Castello, R.; Cavallo, N.; Cerrada, M.; Cesaroni, M.; Chamizo, M.; Chang, Y. H.; Chaturvedi, U. K.; Chemarin, M.; Chen, A.; Chen, C.; Chen, G.; Chen, G. M.; Chen, H. F.; Chen, H. S.; Chen, M.; Chiefari, G.; Chien, C. Y.; Choi, M. T.; Chung, S.; Cifarelli, L.; Cindolo, F.; Civinini, C.; Clare, I.; Clare, R.; Coan, T. E.; Cohn, H. O.; Coignet, G.; Colino, N.; Costantini, S.; Cotorobai, F.; de la Cruz, B.; Cui, X. T.; Cui, X. Y.; Dai, T. S.; D'Alessandro, R.; de Asmundis, R.; Degré, A.; Deiters, K.; Dénes, E.; Denes, P.; DeNotaristefani, F.; DiBitonto, D.; Diemoz, M.; Dimitrov, H. R.; Dionisi, C.; Dittmar, M.; Djambazov, L.; Dorne, I.; Dova, M. T.; Drago, E.; Duchesneau, D.; Duhem, F.; Duinker, P.; Duran, I.; Dutta, S.; Easo, S.; El Mamouni, H.; Engler, A.; Eppling, F. J.; Erné, F. C.; Extermann, P.; Fabbretti, R.; Fabre, M.; Falciano, S.; Favara, A.; Fay, J.; Felcini, M.; Ferguson, T.; Fernandez, D.; Fernandez, G.; Ferroni, F.; Fesefeldt, H.; Fiandrini, E.; Field, J. H.; Filthaut, F.; Fisher, P. H.; Forconi, G.; Fredj, L.; Freudenreich, K.; Gailloud, M.; Galaktionov, Yu.; Gallo, E.; Ganguli, S. N.; Garcia-Abia, P.; Gentile, S.; Gerald, J.; Gheordanescu, N.; Giagu, S.; Goldfarb, S.; Goldstein, J.; Gong, Z. F.; Gonzalez, E.; Gougas, A.; Goujon, D.; Gratta, G.; Gruenewald, M. W.; Gu, C.; Guanziroli, M.; Gupta, V. K.; Gurtu, A.; Gustafson, H. R.; Gutay, L. J.; Hasan, A.; Hauschildt, D.; He, J. T.; Hebbeker, T.; Hebert, M.; Hervé, A.; Hilgers, K.; Hofer, H.; Hoorani, H.; Hou, S. R.; Hu, G.; Ille, B.; Ilyas, M. M.; Innocente, V.; Janssen, H.; Jin, B. N.; Jones, L. W.; de Jong, P.; Josa-Mutuberria, I.; Kasser, A.; Khan, R. A.; Kamyshkov, Yu.; Kapinos, P.; Kapustinsky, J. S.; Karyotakis, Y.; Kaur, M.; Khokhar, S.; Kienzle-Focacci, M. N.; Kim, D.; Kim, J. K.; Kim, S. C.; Kim, Y. G.; Kinnison, W. W.; Kirkby, A.; Kirkby, D.; Kirkby, J.; Kirsch, S.; Kittel, W.; Klimentov, A.; König, A. C.; Koffeman, E.; Kornadt, O.; Koutsenko, V.; Koulbardis, A.; Kraemer, R. W.; Kramer, T.; Krastev, V. R.; Krenz, W.; Kuijten, H.; Kumar, K. S.; Kunin, A.; Ladron de Guevara, P.; Landi, G.; Lanske, D.; Lanzano, S.; Laurikainen, P.; Lebedev, A.; Lebrun, P.; Lecomte, P.; Lecoq, P.; Le Coultre, P.; Lee, D. M.; Lee, J. S.; Lee, K. Y.; Leedom, I.; Leggett, C.; Le Goff, J. M.; Leiste, R.; Lenti, M.; Leonardi, E.; Levtchenko, P.; Li, C.; Lieb, E.; Lin, W. T.; Linde, F. L.; Lindemann, B.; Lista, L.; Liu, Y.; Lohmann, W.; Longo, E.; Lu, W.; Lu, Y. S.; Lubbers, J. M.; Lübelsmeyer, K.; Luci, C.; Luckey, D.; Ludovici, L.; Luminari, L.; Lustermann, W.; Ma, W. G.; MacDermott, M.; Maity, M.; Malgeri, L.; Malik, R.; Malinin, A.; Maña, C.; Mangla, S.; Maolinbay, M.; Marchesini, P.; Marin, A.; Martin, J. P.; Marzano, F.; Massaro, G. G. G.; Mazumdar, K.; McBride, P.; McMahon, T.; McNally, D.; Mele, S.; Merk, M.; Merola, L.; Meschini, M.; Metzger, W. J.; Mi, Y.; Mihul, A.; Mills, G. B.; Mir, Y.; Mirabelli, G.; Mnich, J.; Möller, M.; Monaco, V.; Monteleoni, B.; Morand, R.; Morganti, S.; Moulai, N. E.; Mount, R.; Müller, S.; Nagy, E.; Napolitano, M.; Nessi-Tedaldi, F.; Newman, H.; Niaz, M. A.; Nippe, A.; Nowak, H.; Organtini, G.; Ostonen, R.; Pandoulas, D.; Paoletti, S.; Paolucci, P.; Pascale, G.; Passaleva, G.; Patricelli, S.; Paul, T.; Pauluzzi, M.; Paus, C.; Pauss, F.; Pei, Y. J.; Pensotti, S.; Perret-Gallix, D.; Pevsner, A.; Piccolo, D.; Pieri, M.; Pinto, J. C.; Piroué, P. A.; Pistolesi, E.; Plasil, F.; Plyaskin, V.; Pohl, M.; Pojidaev, V.; Postema, H.; Produit, N.; Qian, J. M.; Qureshi, K. N.; Raghavan, R.; Rahal-Callot, G.; Rancoita, P. G.; Rattaggi, M.; Raven, G.; Razis, P.; Read, K.; Redaelli, M.; Ren, D.; Ren, Z.; Rescigno, M.; Reucroft, S.; Ricker, A.; Riemann, S.; Riemers, B. C.; Riles, K.; Rind, O.; Rizvi, H. A.; Ro, S.; Robohm, A.

1995-02-01

366

Results from hadron colliders  

SciTech Connect

The present status of hadron collider physics is reviewed. The total cross section for {bar p} + p has been measured at 1.8 TeV: {sigma}{sub tot} = 72.1 {plus minus} 3.3 mb. New data confirm the UA2 observation of W/Z {yields} {bar q}q. Precision measurements of M{sub W} by UA2 and CDF give an average value M{sub W} = 80.13 {plus minus} 0.30 GeV/c{sup 2}. When combined with measurements of M{sub Z} from LEP and SLC this number gives sin{sup 2}{theta}{sub W} = 0.227 {plus minus} 0.006, or m{sub top} = 130{sub {minus}60}{sup +40} GeV/c{sup 2} from the EWK radiative correction term {Delta}r. Evidence for hadron colliders as practical sources of b quarks has been strengthened, while searches for t quarks have pushed the mass above M{sub W}: m{sub top} > 89 GeV/c{sup 2} 95% cl (CDF Preliminary). Searches beyond the standard model based on the missing E{sub T} signature have not yet produced any positive results. Future prospects for the discovery of the top quark in the range m{sub top} < 200 GeV/c{sup 2} look promising. 80 refs., 35 figs., 7 tabs.

Pondrom, L.G. (Wisconsin Univ., Madison, WI (USA))

1990-12-14

367

New hadron spectroscopies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

QCD-motivated models for hadrons predict an assortment of "exotic" hadrons that have structures that are more complex than the quark-antiquark mesons and three-quark baryons of the original quark-parton model. These include pentaquark baryons, the six-quark H-dibaryon, and tetraquark and glueball mesons. Despite extensive experimental searches, no unambiguous candidates for any of these exotic configurations have yet to be identified. On the other hand, a number of meson states, one that seems to be a proton-antiproton bound state, and others that contain either charmed-anticharmed quark pairs or bottom-antibottom quark pairs, have been recently discovered that neither fit into the quark-antiquark meson picture nor match the expected properties of the QCD-inspired exotics. Here I briefly review results from a recent search for the H-dibaryon, and discuss some properties of the newly discovered states -the so-called XYZ mesons- and compare them with expectations for conventional quark-antiquark mesons and the predicted QCD-exotic states.

Olsen, Stephen Lars

2014-04-01

368

Foam on Tile Impact Modeling for the Space Shuttle Program  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Following the breakup of the Space Shuttle Columbia during reentry a NASA-wide investigation team was formed to examine the probable damage inflicted on Orbiter Thermal Protection System (TPS) elements by impact of External Tank insulating foam projectiles. Our team was to apply rigorous, physics-based analysis techniques to help determine parameters of interest for an experimental test program, utilize validated codes to investigate the full range of impact scenarios, and use analysis derived models to predict aero-thermal-structural responses to entry conditions. We were to operate on a non-interference basis with the j Team, and were to supply significant findings to that team and to the Orbiter Vehicle Engineering Working Group, being responsive to any solicitations for support from these entities. The authors formed a working sub-group within the larger team to apply the Smooth Particle Hydrodynamics code SPHC to the damage estimation problem. Numerical models of the LI-900 TPS tiles and of the BX-250 foam were constructed and used as inputs into the code. Material properties needed to properly model the tiles and foam were obtained from other working sub-groups who performed tests on these items for this purpose. Two- and three- dimensional models of the tiles were constructed, including the glass outer layer, the densified lower layer of LI-900 insulation, the Nomex felt Strain Isolation Pad (SIP) mounting layer, and the underlying aluminum 2024 vehicle skin. A model for the BX-250 foam including porous compression, elastic rebound, and surface erosion was developed. Code results for the tile damage and foam behavior were extensively validated through comparison with the Southwest Research Institute (SwRI) foam-on-tile impact experiments carried out in 1999. These tests involved small projectiles striking individual tiles and small tile arrays. Following code and model validation we simulated impacts of larger ET foam projectiles on the TPS tile systems used on the wings of the orbiter. Tiles used on the Wing Acreage, the Main Landing Gear Door, and the Carrier Panels near the front edge of the wing were modeled. Foam impacts shot for the CAB investigation were modeled, as well as impacts at larger angles, including rapid rotation of the projectile, and with varying foam properties. General results suggest that foam impacts on tiles at about 500 mph could cause appreciable damage if the impact angle is greater than about 20 degrees. Some variations of the foam properties, such as increased brittleness or increased density could increase damage in some cases. Rapid (17 rps) rotation failed to increase the damage for the two cases considered. This does not rule out other cases in which the rotational energy might lead to an increase in tile damage, but suggests that in most cases rotation will not be an important factor. Similar models will be applied for other impacting materials, other velocities, and other geometries as part of the Return to Flight process.

Stellingwerf, R. F.; Robinson, J. H.; Richardson, S.; Evans, S. W.; Stallworth, R.; Hovater, M.

2003-01-01

369

Task 4 supporting technology. Part 1: Detailed test plan for leading edge tile development. Leading edge material development and testing  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This task develops two alternative candidate tile materials for leading edge applications: coated alumina enhanced thermal barrier (AETB) tile and silicone impregnated reusable ceramic ablator (SIRCA) tile. Upon reentry of the X-33/RLV space vehicle, the leading edges experience the highest heating rates and temperatures. The wing leading edge and nose cap experience peak temperatures in the range 2000 to 2700 F. Replacing reinforced carbon-carbon (RCC) with tile-based thermal protection system (TPS) materials is the primary objective. Weight, complexity, coating impact damage, and repairability are among the problems that this tile technology development addresses. The following subtasks will be performed in this development effort: tile coating development; SIRCA tile development; robustness testing of tiles; tile repair development; tile operations/processing; tile leading edge configuration; and life cycle testing.

Hogenson, P. A.; Staszak, Paul; Hinkle, Karrie

1995-01-01

370

Charmed hadron production by neutrinos  

Microsoft Academic Search

Charmed hadron production has been studied using a hybrid emulsion spectrometer in the Fermilab wide-band neutrino beam. The relative rates of D0, D+, F+, and Lambda+c production have been measured - the fraction of D mesons is 69 +\\/- 810%. Momentum, transverse momentum, Feynman X, and fragmentation (Z) distributions are presented. The mean Z for charmed hadrons is 0.59 +\\/-

N. Ushida; T. Kondo; F. Fujioka; H. Fukushima; Y. Takahashi; S. Tatsumi; C. Yokohama; Y. Homma; Y. Tsuzuki; S. Bahk; C. Kim; J. Song; D. Bailey; S. Conetti; J. Fischer; J. Trischuk; H. Fuchi; K. Hoshino; M. Miyanashi; K. Niu; K. Niwa; H. Shibuya; Y. Yanagisawa; S. Errede; M. Gutzwiller; S. Kuramata; N. W. Reay; K. Reibel; T. A. Romanowski; R. Sidwell; N. R. Stanton; K. Moriyama; H. Shibata; T. Hara; O. Kusumoto; Y. Noguchi; M. Teranaka; H. Okabe; J. Yokota; J. Harnois; C. Hébert; J. Hébert; S. Lokanathan; B. McLeod; S. Tasaka; P. Davis; J. Martin; D. Pitman; J. D. Prentice; P. Sinervo; T. S. Yoon; H. Kimura; Y. Maeda

1983-01-01

371

Current Status of Exotic Hadrons  

SciTech Connect

Physics of exotic hadrons is in the limelight these days. The models for these baryons are discussed as well as their production and decay processes and methods of their identification. The results of recent experiments in this field are presented, in which some unusual states are observed. These states are candidates for exotic hadrons.

Saeed, M.A.; Ahmed, Maqsood; Fazal-e-Aleem [Centre for High Energy Physics University of The Punjab, Lahore-54590 (Pakistan)

2005-03-17

372

Current Status of Exotic Hadrons  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Physics of exotic hadrons is in the limelight these days. The models for these baryons are discussed as well as their production and decay processes and methods of their identification. The results of recent experiments in this field are presented, in which some unusual states are observed. These states are candidates for exotic hadrons.

Saeed, M. A.; Ahmed, Maqsood; Fazal-E-Aleem

2005-03-01

373

Program of hadronic physics investigations  

Microsoft Academic Search

The discussion of a program of hadronic physics investigations includes some of the open questions which may be resolved through studies with the Doubler in its collision mode, and then with external beams. Low momentum-transfer conventional hadron physics is emphasized. Elastic and inelastic scattering, total and differential cross sections, inclusive processes, pomeron exchange and spin flip are covered. (JFP)

1976-01-01

374

Stabilizing hadron resonance gas models  

SciTech Connect

We examine the stability of hadron resonance gas models by extending them to include undiscovered resonances through the Hagedorn formula. We find that the influence of unknown resonances on thermodynamics is large but bounded. We model the decays of resonances and investigate the ratios of particle yields in heavy-ion collisions. We find that observables such as hydrodynamics and hadron yield ratios change little upon extending the model. As a result, heavy-ion collisions at the RHIC and LHC are insensitive to a possible exponential rise in the hadronic density of states, thus increasing the stability of the predictions of hadron resonance gas models in this context. Hadron resonance gases are internally consistent up to a temperature higher than the crossover temperature in QCD, but by examining quark number susceptibilities we find that their region of applicability ends below the QCD crossover.

Chatterjee, S.; Godbole, R. M. [Center for High Energy Physics, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore 560012 (India); Gupta, Sourendu [Department of Theoretical Physics, Tata Institute of Fundamental Research, Homi Bhabha Road, Mumbai 400005 (India)

2010-04-15

375

HADRON SPECTROSCOPY future facilities, opportunities and directions of the field  

Microsoft Academic Search

Facilities and research programs for hadron spectroscopy are discussed. International accelerators capable of hadron production from hadron-hadron, lepton-hadron, and lepton-lepton interactions are reviewed. Detector facilities are described. (AIP)

Kamal K. Seth; Kamal K

1998-01-01

376

HADRON SPECTROSCOPY future facilities, opportunities and directions of the field  

SciTech Connect

Facilities and research programs for hadron spectroscopy are discussed. International accelerators capable of hadron production from hadron-hadron, lepton-hadron, and lepton-lepton interactions are reviewed. Detector facilities are described.

Seth, Kamal K. [Northwestern University, Evanston, Illinois 60208 (United States)

1998-05-29

377

A distributed graphics system for large tiled displays  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent interest in large displays has led to renewed development of tiled displays, which are comprised of several individual displays arranged in an array and used as one large logical display. Stanford's “Interactive Mural” is an example of such a display, using an overlapping four by two array of projectors that back-project onto a diffuse screen to form a 6'

Greg Humphreys; Pat Hanrahan

1999-01-01

378

Design tradeoffs for tiled CMP on-chip networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

We develop detailed area and energy models for on-chip in- terconnection networks and describe tradeos in the design of ecient networks for tiled chip multiprocessors. Using these detailed models we investigate how aspects of the net- work architecture including topology, channel width, routing strategy, and buer size aect performance and impact area and energy eciency. We simulate the performance of

James D. Balfour; William J. Dally

2006-01-01

379

Virtual-memory tiling for spatial data handling in GIS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Virtual-memory tiling enables applications efficiently to handle much larger arrays of raster spatial data more efficiently than is otherwise possible, without requiring specialist computing resources. It has particular application to geographical information systems (GIS) given the wide availability of large sets of digital raster spatial data from remote sensing and other sources. The size of these data sets often greatly

J. E. McCormack; J. Hogg

1997-01-01

380

Adaptive Beam Director for a Tiled Fiber Array  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present the concept development of a novel atmospheric compensation system based on adaptive tiled fiber array (ATFA) operating with target-in-the-loop (TIL) scenarios for directed energy applications. The ATFA system is integrated with adaptive beam director (ABD) with wavefront control and sensing functions performed directly on a beam director telescope primary mirror. The ATFA beam control aims to compensation of

M. Voronstov; Jim F. Riker; Ernst Polnau; Svetlana L. Lachinova; V. S. Rao Gudimetla

2006-01-01

381

A design rationale for NASA TileWorld  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Automated systems that can operate in unrestricted real-world domains are still well beyond current computational capabilities. This paper argues that isolating essential problem characteristics found in real-world domains allows for a careful study of how particular control systems operate. By isolating essential problem characteristics and studying their impact on autonomous system performance, we should be able to more quickly deliver systems for practical real-world problems. For our research on planning, scheduling, and control, we have selected three particular domain attributes to study: exogenous events, uncertain action outcome, and metric time. We are not suggesting that studies of these attributes in isolation are sufficient to guarantee the obvious goals of good methodology, brilliant architectures, or first-class results; however, we are suggesting that such isolation facilitates the achievement of these goals. To study these attributes, we have developed the NASA TileWorld. We describe the NASA TileWorld simulator in general terms, present an example NASA TileWorld problem, and discuss some of our motivations and concerns for NASA TileWorld.

Philips, Andrew B.; Swanson, Keith J.; Drummond, Mark E.; Bresina, John L.

1991-01-01

382

No inherent glassiness in a Penrose tiling quasicrystal.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Consideration of the structure of the Penrose pattern has led to speculation that a system with a Penrose tiling ground state might be subject to inherent glassy behavior. Monte Carol simulations show, using a simple model of the energetics, that there is...

K. J. Strandburg P. R. Dressel

1988-01-01

383

Random-tiling model of membranes and interfaces  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A class of random tiling membrane models with an intrinsic self-diffusion mechanism is introduced. As an illustration, a random Wieringa roof model is constructed and investigated by means of Monte Carlo simulations. The long time transport is found to be consistent with normal diffusion both at low and high temperatures.

Jari?, Marko Vukobrat; Johnson, Steven L.

1996-02-01

384

Optically Tiled Flat Panel Displays. A Feasibility Study.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report presents the results of a study examining the feasibility of micro-optic arrays to eliminate the seams between tiling modules making up a large flat panel display. The individual modules consist of commercially-available liquid crystal display...

B. S. Fritz

1992-01-01

385

Using local clays and waste products to produce facing tiles  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper deals with the production of tile bodies based on the local raw materials of the Gorodok deposit (Gomel' district) and the waste products of the Dobrush Porcelain Factory (sediments of the sewage water of the factory). A systematic study of the \\

I. M. Tereshchenko; I. S. Kachan; A. V. Deshkovets; O. I. Livshits; Ya. I. Moiseeva; N. P. Belyi

1986-01-01

386

Transcript mapping with high-density oligonucleotide tiling arrays  

Microsoft Academic Search

Motivation: High-density DNA tiling microarrays are a powerful tool for the characterization of complete transcriptomes. The two major analytical challenges are the segmentation of the hybridization signal along genomic coordinates to accurately determine transcript bound- aries and the adjustment of the sequence-dependent response of the oligonucleotide probes to achieve quantitative comparability of the signal between different probes. Results: We describe

Wolfgang Huber; Joern Toedling; Lars M. Steinmetz

2006-01-01

387

Garuda: a scalable tiled display wall using commodity PCs.  

PubMed

Cluster-based tiled display walls can provide cost-effective and scalable displays with high resolution and a large display area. The software to drive them needs to scale too if arbitrarily large displays are to be built. Chromium is a popular software API used to construct such displays. Chromium transparently renders any OpenGL application to a tiled display by partitioning and sending individual OpenGL primitives to each client per frame. Visualization applications often deal with massive geometric data with millions of primitives. Transmitting them every frame results in huge network requirements that adversely affect the scalability of the system. In this paper, we present Garuda, a client-server-based display wall framework that uses off-the-shelf hardware and a standard network. Garuda is scalable to large tile configurations and massive environments. It can transparently render any application built using the Open Scene Graph (OSG) API to a tiled display without any modification by the user. The Garuda server uses an object-based scene structure represented using a scene graph. The server determines the objects visible to each display tile using a novel adaptive algorithm that culls the scene graph to a hierarchy of frustums. Required parts of the scene graph are transmitted to the clients, which cache them to exploit the interframe redundancy. A multicast-based protocol is used to transmit the geometry to exploit the spatial redundancy present in tiled display systems. A geometry push philosophy from the server helps keep the clients in sync with one another. Neither the server nor a client needs to render the entire scene, making the system suitable for interactive rendering of massive models. Transparent rendering is achieved by intercepting the cull, draw, and swap functions of OSG and replacing them with our own. We demonstrate the performance and scalability of the Garuda system for different configurations of display wall. We also show that the server and network loads grow sublinearly with the increase in the number of tiles, which makes our scheme suitable to construct very large displays. PMID:17710769

Nirnimesh; Harish, Pawan; Narayanan, P J

2007-01-01

388

Hadron physics at FAIR  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

To deepen our understanding of the properties and structure of matter, new large-scale facilities are under construction or in preparation worldwide that provide for novel research capabilities in many areas of science. The GSI-Darmstadt laboratory together with the international user community, has developed the concept for such a facility to broadly address frontiers in strong-interaction physics and in the general research with intense ion beams. The new facility builds, and substantially expands, on the present accelerator system. Primary beams of high-energy ions, and secondary beams including antiprotons and beams of short-lived nuclei, together with an intricate system of beam-storage and experimental rings, are its key features. This report provides a short overview of the science motivation of the hadron community for the facility, as well as of its technical layout and performance characteristics.

Peters, K.

2005-10-01

389

Hadron Physics at FAIR  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

To deepen our understanding of the properties and structure of matter, new large-scale facilities are under construction or in preparation worldwide that provide for novel research capabilities in many areas of science. The GSI-Darmstadt laboratory together with the international user community, has developed the concept for such a facility to broadly address frontiers in strong-interaction physics and in the general research with intense ion beams. The new facility builds, and substantially expands, on the present accelerator system. Primary beams of high-energy ions, and secondary beams including antiprotons and beams of short-lived nuclei, together with an intricate system of beam-storage and experimental rings, are its key features. This report provides a short overview of the science motivation of the hadron community for the facility, as well as of its technical layout and performance characteristics.

Peters, K.

2006-04-01

390

Hadron physics at FAIR  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

To deepen our understanding of the properties and structure of matter, new large-scale facilities are under construction or in preparation worldwide that provide for novel research capabilities in many areas of science. The GSI-Darmstadt laboratory together with the international user community, has developed the concept for such a facility to broadly address frontiers in strong-interaction physics and in the general research with intense ion beams. The new facility builds, and substantially expands, on the present accelerator system. Primary beams of high-energy ions, and secondary beams including antiprotons and beams of short-lived nuclei, together with an intricate system of beam-storage and experimental rings, are its key features. This report provides a short overview of the science motivation of the hadron community for the facility, as well as of its technical layout and performance characteristics.

Peters, K.

2006-02-01

391

HIGH ENERGY HADRON POLARIMETRY.  

SciTech Connect

Proton polarimetry at RHIC uses the interference of electromagnetic (EM) and hadronic scattering amplitudes. The EM spin-flip amplitude for protons is responsible for the proton's anomalous magnetic moment, and is large. This then generates a significant analyzing power for small angle elastic scattering. RHIC polarimetry has reached a 5% uncertainty on the beam polarization, and seem capable of reducing this uncertainty further. Polarized neutron beams ax also interesting for RHIC and for a polarized electron-polarized proton/ion collider in the fume. In this case, deuterons, for example, have a very small anomalous magnetic moment, making the approach used for protons impractical. Although it might be possible to use quasielastic scattering from the protons in the deuteron to monitor the polarization. 3-He beams can provide polarized neutrons, and do have a large anomalous magnetic moment, making a similar approach to proton polarimetry possible.

BUNCE,G.

2007-09-10

392

Trigger circuits for the PHENIX electromagnetic calorimeter  

SciTech Connect

Monolithic and discrete circuits have been developed to provide trigger signals for the PHENIX electromagnetic calorimeter detector. These trigger circuits are deadtimeless and create overlapping 4 by 4 energy sums, a cosmic muon trigger, and a 144 channel energy sum. The front end electronics of the PHENIX system sample the energy and timing channels at each bunch crossing (BC) but it is not known immediately if this data is of interest. The information from the trigger circuits is used to determine if the data collected is of interest and should be digitized and stored or discarded. This paper presents details of the design, issues affecting circuit performance, characterization of prototypes fabricated in 1.2 {micro}m Orbit CMOS, and integration of the circuits into the EMCal electronics system.

Frank, S.S.; Britton, C.L. Jr.; Winterberg, A.L.; Young, G.R.

1997-11-01

393

Pierre Auger Observatory:. the World's Largest Calorimeter  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Pierre Auger Observatory is designed to observe and study a high statistics sample of ultra high energy cosmic rays (UHECR) with energy greater than 1019 eV. The hybrid nature of the observatories, using both air-fluorescence and ground water Cherenkov array, will enable Auger to measure the energy of the cosmic ray showers with an improved accuracy compared to previous experiments. With a surface area of ~ 3000 Km2, and an effective aperture of at least 7350 Km2Sr for each observatory, the PAO will be the world's largest calorimeter to date, and will be able to conclusively determine whether the cosmic ray spectrum extends beyond the GZK cutoff. The Auger detector components, and the status of the observatory are described in this report.

Tripathi, A. K.

2002-01-01

394

The NO?A Neutrino Calorimeter  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The NO?A experiment is a long baseline neutrino detector designed to 1) observe oscillations of muon neutrinos to electron neutrinos, 2) determine the ordering of the neutrino mass states, and 3) observe CP violation in neutrinos if it exists. To accomplish this, the NO?A detector is a unique low-Z, high sampling fraction calorimeter capable of precise measurements of the particles produced in a neutrino interaction while also being able to reject particles from background cosmic rays. Some experience has already been obtained with the operation of a prototype near detector on the Fermilab site, and construction of the far detector is just beginning in northern Minnesota. The calorimetric properties of the NO?A detector will be described with emphasis on relevance to the overall experimental goals.

Magill, Stephen

2012-12-01

395

Beta spectrometry with metallic magnetic calorimeters.  

PubMed

Metallic magnetic calorimeters are a specific type of cryogenic detectors that have been shown to enable precise measurement of the shape of low energy beta spectra. The aim of their use at LNHB is the determination of the shape factors of beta spectra. The beta source is enclosed in the detector absorber, allowing for very high detection efficiency. It has turned out that the type of source is of crucial importance for the correctness of the measured spectrum. Spectra of (63)Ni measured with several sources prepared by drying a NiCl2 solution differ from one another and from theory, whereas spectra measured with electroplated sources are reproducible and agree with theory. With these latter measurements we could confirm the atomic exchange effect down to very low energy (200eV). PMID:24368065

Loidl, M; Rodrigues, M; Le-Bret, C; Mougeot, X

2014-05-01

396

Application of laser-based methods and finite element analysis to bond verfication of space shuttle tiles  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes a novel application of a laser-based vibration measuring system and finite element modeling to evaluate the bond condition of Space Shuttle thermal protection system tiles. This application is based on characterizing the vibrational response of tiles when excited by an audible acoustic energy. Finite element models for tile assemblies which are comprised of tiles, SIP, and RTV

Faissal A. Moslehy; Steven A. Mueller; Richard M. Davis

1993-01-01

397

A procedure to evaluate the resistance to biological colonization as a characteristic for product quality of ceramic roofing tiles  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ceramic roofing tiles suffer deterioration through time due to environmental exposure. Biological colonization affects the appearance and integrity of building materials, such as roofing tiles. The resistance to biocolonization represents an important property affecting the product quality of ceramic roofing tiles. While natural colonization of roofing tiles by organisms is a progressive, heterogeneous, and slow process, laboratory assessment of this

M. C. Portillo; M. F. Gazulla; E. Sanchez; J. M. Gonzalez

2011-01-01

398

Advanced Thin Ionization Calorimeter (ATIC) Balloon Experiment  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

During grant NAG5-5064, Louisiana State University (LSU) led the ATIC team in the development, construction, testing, accelerator validation, pre-deployment integration and flight operations of the Advanced Thin Ionization Calorimeter (ATIC) Balloon Experiment. This involved interfacing among the ATIC collaborators (UMD, NRL/MSFC, SU, MSU, WI, SNU) to develop a new balloon payload based upon a fully active calorimeter, a carbon target, a scintillator strip hodoscope and a pixilated silicon solid state detector for a detailed investigation of the very high energy cosmic rays to energies beyond 10(exp 14) eV/nucleus. It is in this very high energy region that theory predicts changes in composition and energy spectra related to the Supernova Remnant Acceleration model for cosmic rays below the "knee" in the all-particle spectrum. This report provides a documentation list, details the anticipated ATIC science return, describes the particle detection principles on which the experiment is based, summarizes the simulation results for the system, describes the validation work at the CERN SPS accelerator and details the balloon flight configuration. The ATIC experiment had a very successful LDB flight from McMurdo, Antarctica in 12/00 - 1/01. The instrument performed well for the entire 15 days. Preliminary data analysis shows acceptable charge resolution and an all-particle power law energy deposition distribution not inconsistent with previous measurements. Detailed analysis is underway and will result in new data on the cosmic ray charge and energy spectra in the GeV - TeV energy range. ATIC is currently being refurbished in anticipation of another LDB flight in the 2002-03 period.

Wefel, John P.; Guzik, T. Gregory

2001-01-01

399

Hadron collider physics at UCR  

SciTech Connect

This paper describes the research work in high energy physics by the group at the University of California, Riverside. Work has been divided between hadron collider physics and e{sup +}-e{sup {minus}} collider physics, and theoretical work. The hadron effort has been heavily involved in the startup activities of the D-Zero detector, commissioning and ongoing redesign. The lepton collider work has included work on TPC/2{gamma} at PEP and the OPAL detector at LEP, as well as efforts on hadron machines.

Kernan, A.; Shen, B.C.

1997-07-01

400

Heavy quarks in hadronic collisions  

SciTech Connect

It is suggested that the presence of c anti c-pairs on the 1 to 2% level in the hadron Fock state decomposition (intrinsic charm) gives a natural description of the ISR data for charm hadron production. The theoretical foundations of the intrinsic charm hypothesis together with its consequences for lepton- and hadron-induced reactions are discussed in some detail. There is no contradiction with the EMC data on F/sub 2//sup c/ provided the appropriate threshold dependence is taken into account.

Brodsky, S.J.; Peterson, C.

1982-03-01

401

Simulation of soft hadron hadron collisions at ultrarelativistic energies  

SciTech Connect

An event generator to simulate ultrarelativistic hadron hadron collisions is proposed. It is based on the following main assumptions: the process can be divided into two independent steps, string formation and string fragmentation; strings are formed as a consequence of color exchange between a quark of the projectile and a quark of the target; the fragmentation of strings is the same as in e/sup +/e/sup -/ annihilation or in lepton nucleon scattering. 11 refs., 4 figs.

Werner, K.

1987-01-01

402

Heavy Hadron Spectroscopy: a Quark Model Perspective  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present recent results of hadron spectroscopy and hadron-hadron interaction from the perspective of constituent quark models. We pay special attention to the role played by higher-order Fock space components in the hadron spectra and the connection of this extension with the hadron-hadron interaction. The main goal of our description is to obtain a coherent understanding of the low-energy hadron phenomenology without enforcing any particular model, to constrain its characteristics and learn about the low-energy realization of the theory.

Vijande, J.; Valcarce, A.; Caramés, T. F.; Garcilazo, H.

2013-05-01

403

The BaBar cesium iodide electromagnetic calorimeter  

SciTech Connect

The BABAR Cesium Iodide Electromagnetic Calorimeter is currently in the technical design stage. The calorimeter consists of approximately 10,000 individual thallium-doped cesium iodide crystals arranged in a near-hermetic barrel and endcap structure. Taking previous cesium iodide calorimeters as a benchmark, we hope to build a system with roughly two times better energy resolution. This will be achieved by a combination of high quality crystal growing, precision mechanical processing of crystals and support structure, highly efficient light collection and low noise readout electronics. The calorimeter described here represents the current state of the design and we are undertaking an active period of optimization before this design is finalized. We discuss here the physics motivation, the current design and options for optimization.

Wuest, C.R.

1994-12-01

404

CALOR89 calorimeter simulations, benchmarking, and design calculations  

SciTech Connect

Results on CALOR89 benchmarking and design calculations utilizing the CALOR89 programs are presented. The benchmarking is done with respect to the ZEUS and DO calorimeters. The design calculations were done for a variety of absorbers (depleted uranium, lead, and iron) of various thickness for a given scintillator thickness and for a fixed absorber thickness using various thickness for the scintillator. These studies indicate that a compensating calorimeter can be built using lead as the absorber, whereas a purely iron calorimeter would be non-compensating. A depleted uranium calorimeter would possibly be unsuitable if used in a large configuration and a high luminosity machine because of the delayed energy release from capture gammas. 11 refs., 5 figs.

Handler, T. (Tennessee Univ., Knoxville, TN (USA)); Panakkal, J.K.; Proudfoot, J. (Argonne National Lab., IL (USA)); Cremaldi, L.; Moore, B.; Reidy, J.J. (Mississippi Univ., University, MS (USA)); Alsmiller, R.G. Jr.; Fu, P.; Gabriel, T.A. (Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (USA))

1990-01-01

405

Fiber-Optical Light Collection from Scintillation Calorimeters.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A method is described for collecting light from scintillation counter calorimeters by means of an optical fiber connected to a wave length shifter, covering the edge of a scintillation plate. The optical fiber passes between continuous metallic plates and...

V. I. Kryshkin A. I. Ronzhin

1985-01-01

406

Thermal simulations of STRIKE tiles for the assessment of the CFC prototypes and of the configuration for SPIDER  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The ITER project requires additional heating via injection of neutral beams, provided by two injectors accelerating negative ions. To study and optimise negative ion production, the SPIDER prototype is under construction in Padova, whose beam has an energy of 100keV and a current of 50A. The instrumented calorimeter STRIKE (Short-Time Retractable Instrumented Kalorimeter Experiment) has been developed with the main purpose of characterising the SPIDER negative ion beam in terms of beam uniformity and beam divergence during short pulse operations (several seconds). STRIKE is made of 16 1D Carbon Fibre Composite (CFC) tiles, intercepting the whole beam and observed on the rear side by infrared (IR) cameras. Prototypes of the CFC material were procured and this contribution presents experimental tests and numerical simulations devoted to the characterisation of the CFC properties and to the assessment of the performance of the diagnostic. Tests are described, performed using a CO2 laser to investigate the spatial resolution of the diagnostic on the scale lengths and with the experimental layout expected in SPIDER. Data recorded by an IR camera during the experiments are compared with simulations aiming to reproducing the experimental data with the purpose of validating the thermal parameters of CFC.

Serianni, G.; De Muri, M.; Fasolo, D.; Pasqualotto, R.; Cervaro, V.; Dal Bello, S.; Palma, M. Dalla; Franchin, L.; Rizzolo, A.; Tollin, M.

2013-02-01

407

Forward physics of hadronic colliders  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

These lectures were given at the Baikal Summer School on Physics of Elementary Particles and Astrophysics in July 2012. They can be viewed as a concise introduction to hadronic diffraction, to the physics of the Pomeron and related topics.

Ivanov, I. P.

2013-12-01

408

Beam tests of the DØ uranium liquid argon end calorimeters  

Microsoft Academic Search

We describe the results of beam tests of three uranium-liquid argon calorimeter modules constructed for the DØ detector at the Fermilab Tevatron collider. As part of the calibration procedure, these modules were exposed to beams of electrons, pions and muons between 10 and 150 GeV\\/c before their installation in the end calorimeter of the completed DØ detector. We obtain an

S. Abachi; M. Abolins; H. Aihara; N. Amos; Y. Antipov; S. H. Aronson; R. Astur; R. Avellaneda; R. E. Avery; A. R. Baden; B. Baldin; J. Bantly; E. Barasch; J. F. Bartlett; K. Bazizi; T. Behnke; V. Bezzubov; P. Bhat; G. C. Blazey; S. Blessing; D. Bogert; F. Borcherding; J. Borders; N. Bozko; R. Brock; A. D. Bross; D. Buchholz; N. Bulgakov; V. Burtovoy; J. M. Butler; R. Cence; S. Chekulaev; S. Cherny; J. Chen; J. H. Christenson; A. R. Clark; J. Cochran; W. E. Cooper; C. Cretsinger; D. Cullen-Vidal; D. Cutts; O. I. Dahl; A. Davidenko; K. de; M. Demarteau; D. Denisov; S. Denisov; W. Dharmaratna; H. T. Diehl; M. Diesburg; R. Dixon; P. Draper; Y. Ducros; G. Dugan; S. Durston; A. Dyakonenkov; D. Eartly; D. Edmunds; A. Efimov; J. Ellison; R. Engelmann; O. Eroshin; V. Evdokimov; S. Fahey; M. Fatyga; J. Featherly; S. Feher; T. Ferbel; D. Finley; G. Finocchiaro; H. E. Fisk; G. E. Forden; M. Fortner; P. Franzini; S. Fuess; C. S. Gao; T. Geld; K. Genser; B. G. Gibbard; V. Glebov; J.-F. Glicenstein; B. Gobbi; M. Goforth; M. L. Good; H. A. Gordon; N. Graf; P. D. Grannis; D. R. Green; J. Green; H. Greenlee; P. Grudberg; J. A. Guida; J. M. Guida; W. Guryn; N. J. Hadley; H. Haggerty; S. Hagopian; R. Hall; D. Hedin; T. Heuring; R. Hirosky; J. Hoftun; J. F. Hubbard; T. Huehn; R. Huson; S. Igarashi; A. S. Ito; M. E. Johnson; A. M. Jonckheere; K. Johns; H. Jostlein; W. Karsh; S. Kahn; A. Kernan; L. Kerth; A. Kholodenko; A. Kirunin; E. Kistenev; A. Klatchko; B. Klima; B. Klochkov; C. Klopfenstein; V. Klyukhin; V. Kochetkov; W. Kononenko; J. Kotcher; I. Kotov; J. Kourlas; E. Kozlovsky; S. Kunori; S. Krzywdzinzski; R. Lanou; P. Laurens; J. Lee-Franzini; R. Li; Q. Z. Li-Demarteau; J. T. Linnemann; S. L. Linn; R. Lipton; F. Lobkowicz; S. C. Loken; S. Lökös; P. Lucas; R. J. Madaras; R. Madden; E. Malamud; Ph. Mangeot; B. Mansoulié; I. Manning; H.-S. Mao; T. Marshall; P. S. Martin; H. J. Martin; M. Marx; A. Mayorov; R. McCarthy; J. McKinley; X. C. Meng; K. W. Merritt; A. Milder; A. Mincer; P. Mooney; R. Morphis; M. Mudan; C. T. Murphy; F. Nang; V. S. Narasimham; H. A. Neal; P. Nemethy; D. Nesic; K. Ng; D. Norman; L. Oesch; E. Oltman; N. Oshima; D. L. Owen; D. P. Owen; R. Partridge; M. Paterno; A. Peryshkin; M. Peters; B. Pi; H. Piekarz; Y. Pischalnikov; D. Pizzuto; V. Platonov; A. Pluquet; V. Podstavkov; B. G. Pope; H. Prosper; S. Protopopescu; R. Raja; S. Rajagopalan; L. Rasmussen; A. L. Read; T. M.-L. Ren; S. Repond; V. Riadovikov; M. Rijssenbeek; N. A. Roe; P. Rubinov; R. Ruland; J. Rutherfoord; R. D. Schamberger; J. Sculli; W. Selove; A. Shkurenkov; M. Shupe; W. Smart; D. Smith; R. P. Smith; G. R. Snow; A. L. Spadafora; R. Stephens; M. L. Stevenson; C. Stewart; F. Stocker; D. Stoyanova; K. Streets; M. Strovink; A. Suhanov; A. Taketani; M. Tartaglia; J. Teiger; G. Theodosiou; J. Thompson; S. Tisserant; T. G. Trippe; P. M. Tuts; R. van Berg; A. Vorobiev; H. D. Wahl; H. Weerts; W. A. Wenzel; A. P. White; J. T. White; S. Willis; J. A. Wightman; S. J. Wimpenny; Z. Wolf; J. Womersley; Y. Xia; P. Xie; H. Xu; J. Xu; R. Yamada; P. Yamin; M.-J. Yang; C. Yoshikawa; S. Youssef; J. Yu; R. Zeller; Y. H. Zhou; Q. Zhu; D. Zieminska; A. Zieminski; A. Zotov; A. Zylberstejn

1993-01-01

409

The H1 lead\\/scintillating-fibre calorimeter  

Microsoft Academic Search

The backward region of the H1 detector has been upgraded in order to provide improved measurement of the scattered electron in deep inelastic scattering events. The centerpiece of the upgrade is a high-resolution lead\\/scintillating-fibre calorimeter. The main design goals of the calorimeter are: good coverage of the region close to the beam pipe, high angular resolution and energy resolution of

R.-D. Appuhn; C. Arndt; E. Barrelet; R. Barschke; U. Bassler; V. Boudry; R. Buchholz; F. Brasse; D. Bruncko; S. Chechelnitski; B. Claxton; G. Cozzika; J. Cvach; S. Dagoret-Campagne; W. D. Dau; H. Deckers; T. Deckers; F. Descamps; M. Dirkmann; J. Dowdell; V. Efremenko; E. Eisenhandler; A. N. Eliseev; G. Falley; J. Ferencei; B. Fominykh; K. Gadow; U. Goerlach; L. A. Gorbov; I. Gorelov; M. Grewe; L. Hajduk; I. Herynek; J. Hladký; M. Hütte; H. Hutter; W. Janczur; J. Janoth; L. Jönsson; H. Kolanoski; V. Korbel; F. Kriván; D. Lacour; F. Lamarche; M. P. J. Landon; B. Laforge; J.-F. Laporte; F. Lehner; R. Maracek; K. Meier; A. Meyer; A. Migliori; F. Moreau; G. Müller; P. Murín; V. Nagovizin; T. C. Nicholls; D. Ozerov; E. Perez; J. P. Pharabod; R. Pöschl; K. Rybicki; A. Rostovtsev; C. Royon; S. Schleif; A. Schuhmacher; A. Semenov; V. Shekelyan; Y. Sirois; P. A. Smirnov; V. Solochenko; J. Špalek; S. Spielmann; H. Steiner; J. Stiewe; M. Tasevský; V. Tchernyshov; K. Thiele; E. Tzamariudaki; S. Valkár; D. Vandenplas; G. Villet; K. Wacker; A. Walther; M. Weber; D. Wegener; T. Wenk; J. Žá?ek; A. Zhokin; K. Zuber

1997-01-01

410

Signal feedthroughs for the ATLAS barrel and endcap calorimeters  

SciTech Connect

The function, design, construction, testing, and installation of the signal feedthroughs for the barrel and endcap ATLAS liquid argon calorimeters are described. The feedthroughs provide a high density and radiation hard method to extract over 200 000 signals from the cryogenic environment of the calorimeters using an application of a design based on flexible kapton circuit board transmission lines. A model to describe the frequency dependent behavior of the transmission lines is also presented.

Axen, D.; Hackenburg, R.; Hoffmann, A.; Kane, S.; Lissauer, D.; Makowiecki, D.; Muller, T.; Pate, D.; Radeka, V.; Rahm, D.; Rehak, M.; Rescia, S.; Sexton, K.; Sondericker, J.; Birney, P.; Dowling, A.W.; Fincke-Keeler, M.; Hodges, T.; Holness, F.; Honkanen, N. [Department of Physics, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada V6T 1Z1 (Canada); Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, New York 11973-5000 (United States); Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Victoria, Victoria, British Columbia, V8W 3P6 (Canada); TRIUMF, Vancouver, British Columbia, V6T 2A3 (Canada)] [and others

2005-06-15

411

Laser monitoring system for the CMS lead tungstate crystal calorimeter  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report on the multiple wavelength laser monitoring system designed for the compact muon solenoid (CMS) lead tungstate crystal calorimeter. Results are presented for the test-beam performance of the system designed to achieve ?0.2% relative optical transmittance inter-calibration for 75 848 lead tungstate crystals. The system cycles continuously over the calorimeter to follow each crystal's evolution under the irradiation and recovery periods foreseen during operation at the LHC.

Anfreville, M.; Bailleux, D.; Bard, J. P.; Bornheim, A.; Bouchand, C.; Bougamont, E.; Boyer, M.; Chipaux, R.; Daponte-Puill, V.; Dejardin, M.; Faure, J. L.; Gras, P.; Jarry, P.; Jeanney, C.; Joudon, A.; Pansart, J. P.; Penichot, Y.; Rander, J.; Rolquin, J.; Reymond, J. M.; Tartas, J.; Venault, P.; Verrecchia, P.; Zhang, L.; Zhu, K.; Zhu, R. Y.

2008-09-01

412

Current status and performance of the BESIII electromagnetic calorimeter  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The design and construction of the BESIII electromagnetic calorimeter is introduced briefly. Radiation dose of CsI(Tl) crystals is monitored and history graph of integral dose of crystals is showed. LED-fiber system is used for monitoring the EMC light output, and large decrease of light output of several crystals is discussed. BESIII electromagnetic calorimeter works very well and its performance reach the design value.

Fang, Jian; Wang, Zhigang

2012-12-01

413

An automatically compensating heat-exchange calorimeter for metabolic studies  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes an easily constructed calorimeter functioning on a heat-exchange principle in which a continuously flowing\\u000a coolant removes heat at a preset rate. Variations in heat loss from an experimental animal are compensated by a resistance\\u000a hot wire in a simple feed-back circuit so that calorimeter temperature is held constant. Accommodation for simultaneous measurement\\u000a of oxygen consumption (heat production)

George V. Pickwell

1968-01-01

414

A cryogenic dose calorimeter for pulsed radiographic accelerators  

SciTech Connect

Calorimetry is the most direct, absolute technique for absorbed dose measurements. To improve the measurement accuracy for use with quantitative radiography, a calorimeter has been developed for LANL`s pulsed radiographic machines which produce Bremsstrahlung radiation fields of 50-200 Rad per pulse at 1 meter from the source. This paper describes the theory of operation, the calorimeter design, and presents results from the PHERMEX accelerator.

Watson, S.A.; Kauppila, T.; Mueller, K.H.

1994-10-01

415

The BaBar Electromagnetic Calorimeter: Status and Performance Improvements  

SciTech Connect

The electromagnetic calorimeter at the BABAR detector, part of the asymmetric B Factory at SLAC, measures photons in the energy range from 20 MeV to 8 GeV with high resolution. The current status of the calorimeter, now in its seventh year of operation, is being presented, as well as details on improvements made to the analysis code during the last years.

Bauer, Johannes M.; /SLAC

2006-01-20

416

Design and performance of the ASP lead-glass calorimeter  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The design of the ASP detector is described and details of the construction and performance of the lead-glass tracking calorimeter are presented. ASP, a nonmagnetic particle detector, was used at the PEP e +e - storage ring at s = 29 GeV to study low-multiplicity final states consisting primarily of electrons and photons. The design utilized extruded lead-glass bars to obtain a compact electromagnetic calorimeter with good energy resolution, tracking and pattern recognition capabilities.

Bartha, G. T.; Burke, D. L.; Extermann, P.; Garbincius, P. H.; Hawkins, C. A.; Jonker, M. J.; Keller, L.; Matteuzzi, C.; Roe, N. A.; Steele, T. R.; Johnson, A. S.; Whitaker, J. S.; Wilson, R. J.; Hearty, C.; Rothberg, J. E.; Young, K. K.; Hollebeek, R. J.

1989-02-01

417

Late effects from hadron therapy  

SciTech Connect

Successful cancer patient survival and local tumor control from hadron radiotherapy warrant a discussion of potential secondary late effects from the radiation. The study of late-appearing clinical effects from particle beams of protons, carbon, or heavier ions is a relatively new field with few data. However, new clinical information is available from pioneer hadron radiotherapy programs in the USA, Japan, Germany and Switzerland. This paper will review available data on late tissue effects from particle radiation exposures, and discuss its importance to the future of hadron therapy. Potential late radiation effects are associated with irradiated normal tissue volumes at risk that in many cases can be reduced with hadron therapy. However, normal tissues present within hadron treatment volumes can demonstrate enhanced responses compared to conventional modes of therapy. Late endpoints of concern include induction of secondary cancers, cataract, fibrosis, neurodegeneration, vascular damage, and immunological, endocrine and hereditary effects. Low-dose tissue effects at tumor margins need further study, and there is need for more acute molecular studies underlying late effects of hadron therapy.

Blakely, Eleanor A.; Chang, Polly Y.

2004-06-01

418

Signatures of color glass condensate: Forward azimuthal angle di-hadron correlations in PHENIX  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Measurements using the PHENIX forward detectors in high energy deuteron-gold collisions make it possible to study cold nuclear matter effects in nucleon structure at low x. The high gluon densities in Lorentz-contracted gold nuclei make it possible to probe for gluon saturation or Color Glass Condensate effects. Past RHIC experiments have shown a suppression in nuclear modification factors ( R, R) for ?{s}=200 GeVd+Au collisions in the forward (deuteron) direction. Multiple theories can explain the observed suppression (including saturation), but a conclusive measurement discriminating between the models has yet to be carried out. Two new forward electromagnetic calorimeters (Muon Piston Calorimeters, -3.7hadron correlations, which have been predicted to show dramatic effects due to gluon saturation. In particular, azimuthal correlations of di-hadron pairs at different pseudorapidities will be shown; the forward pseudorapidity correlations are especially interesting because it is expected that they provide a test of gluon saturation down to x?10 in the Au nucleus. The analysis presented is based on the high integrated luminosity data sample of d+Au collisions at ?{s}=200 GeV taken at RHIC in 2008.

Meredith, Beau; Phenix Collaboration

2011-03-01

419

Superconducting Hadron Linacs  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This article discusses the main building blocks of a superconducting (SC) linac, the choice of SC resonators, their frequencies, accelerating gradients and apertures, focusing structures, practical aspects of cryomodule design, and concepts to minimize the heat load into the cryogenic system. It starts with an overview of design concepts for all types of hadron linacs differentiated by duty cycle (pulsed or continuous wave) or by the type of ion species (protons, H-, and ions) being accelerated. Design concepts are detailed for SC linacs in application to both light ion (proton, deuteron) and heavy ion linacs. The physics design of SC linacs, including transverse and longitudinal lattice designs, matching between different accelerating-focusing lattices, and transition from NC to SC sections, is detailed. Design of high-intensity SC linacs for light ions, methods for the reduction of beam losses, preventing beam halo formation, and the effect of HOMs and errors on beam quality are discussed. Examples are taken from existing designs of continuous wave (CW) heavy ion linacs and high-intensity pulsed or CW proton linacs. Finally, we review ongoing R&D work toward high-power SC linacs for various applications.

Ostroumov, Peter; Gerigk, Frank

2014-02-01

420

A simplistic view of hadron calorimetry  

SciTech Connect

All too often we rely on Monte Carlo simulations withoutworrying too much about basic physics. It is possible to start with avery simple calorimeter (a big cylinder) and learn the functional form ofpi e by aninduction argument. Monte Carlo simulations provide sanitychecks and constants. A power-law functional form describes test beamresults surprisingly well. The prediction that calorimeters responddifferently to protons and pions of the same energy was unexpected. Theeffect was later demonstrated by the CMS forward calorimeter group, usingthe most noncompensating calorimeter ever built. Calorimeter resolutionis dominated by fluctuations in piz production and the energy deposit byneutrons. The DREAM collaboration has recently used a dual readoutcalorimeter to eliminate the first of these. Ultimate resolution dependson measuring neutrons on an event-by-event basis as well.

Groom, Donald E.

2006-11-16

421

Methylation Profiling Using Methylated DNA Immunoprecipitation and Tiling Array Hybridization  

PubMed Central

DNA methylation is an important epigenetic modification that regulates development and plays a role in the pathophysiology of many diseases. It is dynamically changed during germline development. Methylated DNA immunoprecipitation (MeDIP) is an efficient, cost-effective method for locus-specific and genome-wide analysis. Methylated DNA fragments are enriched by a 5-methylcytidine-recognizing antibody, therefore allowing the analysis of both CpG and non-CpG methylation. The enriched DNA fragments can be amplified and hybridized to tiling arrays covering CpG islands, promoters, or the entire genome. Comparison of different methylomes permits the discovery of differentially methylated regions that might be important in disease- or tissue-specific expression. Here, we describe an established MeDIP protocol and tiling array hybridization method for profiling methylation of testicular germ cells.

Cheung, Hoi-Hung; Lee, Tin-Lap; Rennert, Owen M.; Chan, Wai-Yee

2013-01-01

422

Thermodynamic behavior of a Penrose-tiling quasicrystal  

SciTech Connect

The Penrose tiling provides a prototype for the quasiperiodic crystal model of quasicrystals. We report results of Monte Carlo simulations of a two-dimensional model in which a Penrose tiling is the ground state. A single energy is assigned to any violation of the Penrose matching rules. Our results support the existence of two separate phase transitions, corresponding to single- and double-arrow matching-rule disorder, respectively. Manifestations of these transitions in the behavior of perpendicular-space'' quantities are explored. A limited exploration of the effects of unequal double- and single-arrow matching-rule-violation energies is performed. Speculations that the Penrose pattern might be inherently prone to glassy behavior are shown to be incorrect.

Strandburg, K.J.; Dressel, P.R. (Materials Science Division, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, Illinois 60439 (US))

1990-02-01

423

Third-order phase transition in random tilings.  

PubMed

We consider the domino tilings of an Aztec diamond with a cut-off corner of macroscopic square shape and given size and address the bulk properties of tilings as the size is varied. We observe that the free energy exhibits a third-order phase transition when the cut-off square, increasing in size, reaches the arctic ellipse-the phase separation curve of the original (unmodified) Aztec diamond. We obtain this result by studying the thermodynamic limit of a certain nonlocal correlation function of the underlying six-vertex model with domain wall boundary conditions, the so-called emptiness formation probability (EFP). We consider EFP in two different representations: as a ? function for Toda chains and as a random matrix model integral. The latter has a discrete measure and a linear potential with hard walls; the observed phase transition shares properties with both Gross-Witten-Wadia and Douglas-Kazakov phase transitions. PMID:24229134

Colomo, F; Pronko, A G

2013-10-01

424

Large-scale testing of structural clay tile infilled frames  

SciTech Connect

A summary of large-scale cyclic static tests of structural clay tile infilled frames is given. In-plane racking tests examined the effects of varying frame stiffness, varying infill size, infill offset from frame centerline, and single and double wythe infill construction. Out-of-plane tests examined infilled frame response to inertial loadings and inter-story drift loadings. Sequential in-plane and out-of-plane loadings were performed to determine the effects of orthogonal damage and degradation on both strength and stiffness. A combined out-of-plane inertial and in-plane racking test was conducted to investigate the interaction of multi-directional loading. To determine constitutive properties of the infills, prism compression, mortar compression and various unit tile tests were performed.

Flanagan, R.D. [Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, TN (United States); Bennett, R.M. [Tennessee Univ., Knoxville, TN (United States). Dept. of Civil Engineering

1993-03-18

425

Water table management impacts on phosphorus loads in tile drainage  

Microsoft Academic Search

Increased phosphorus (P) concentrations, consistently exceeding Quebec's surface water quality standard of 0.03mgL?1 total P, caused increased P loads in tile drainage from controlled drainage\\/subirrigation (CD\\/SI) plots compared to free drainage (FD) plots in a field study carried out in 2005 in Coteau-du-Lac (southwestern Quebec, Canada). This happened even though the total outflow volumes from CD\\/SI plots were reduced by

Caroline Sanchez Valero; Chandra A. Madramootoo; Nicolas Stämpfli

2007-01-01

426

Life cycle assessment of ceramic tiles. Environmental and statistical analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose  The aim of this paper is to conduct a life cycle assessment study of ceramic tiles (single-fired glazed stoneware) in order\\u000a to identify the stages that produce the greatest impact on the environment and the materials and\\/or processes that make the\\u000a largest contribution to that impact. The life cycle is considered to be made up of seven stages: (1) mining

Valeria Ibáñez-Forés; Maria-Dolores Bovea; Amelia Simó

427

Fractal structures of regular pentagonal stars in Penrose tiling  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Fractal structures of regular pentagonal stars are proposed. Some of these structures are detected in Penrose tiling. The fractals are based on generalized stars, whose vertices generate the centers of smaller size stars. There are two possible orientations of generalized stars interrelated by the operation of inversion in a point. The generalized stars to initial star linear sizes ratios are equal to integer degrees of golden mean.

Polyakov, A. A.

2012-08-01

428

One-Time-Pads encryption in the tile assembly model  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent research has demonstrated that the ultra-scale computation by self-assembly DNA tiles could be implemented in the laboratory. One of the significant applications is the DNA-based cryptography systems. In this paper, we detail procedures for the DNA-based cryptography based on the One-Time-Pads (OTP) which is in principle unbreakable. In order to implement the whole encrypting and decrypting processes, we propose

Zhihua Chen; Jin Xu

2008-01-01

429

Perturbation theory of uniform tiling of space with resistors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Using the general Green method, the resistance between two arbitrary nodes of any resistor network structure, which is a periodic (uniform) tiling of d -dimensional space with electrical resistors, is studied when the network is perturbed by replacing one edge (resistor) by another one. The analytical expression of the resistance for perturbed lattice in terms of that for the perfect one is derived. Theoretical results are presented for the infinite perturbed centered square lattice. In addition, these results are verified experimentally and numerically.

Owaidat, M. Q.; Hijjawi, R. S.; Khalifeh, J. M.

2014-02-01

430

Mapping the genome landscape using tiling array technology.  

PubMed

With the availability of complete genome sequences for a growing number of organisms, high-throughput methods for gene annotation and analysis of genome dynamics are needed. The application of whole-genome tiling microarrays for studies of global gene expression is providing a more unbiased view of the transcriptional activity within genomes. For example, this approach has led to the identification and isolation of many novel non-protein-coding RNAs (ncRNAs), which have been suggested to comprise a major component of the transcriptome that have novel functions involved in epigenetic regulation of the genome. Additionally, tiling arrays have been recently applied to the study of histone modifications and methylation of cytosine bases (DNA methylation). Surprisingly, recent studies combining the analysis of gene expression (transcriptome) and DNA methylation (methylome) using whole-genome tiling arrays revealed that DNA methylation regulates the expression levels of many ncRNAs. Further capture and integration of additional types of genome-wide data sets will help to illuminate additional hidden features of the dynamic genomic landscape that are regulated by both genetic and epigenetic pathways in plants. PMID:17703988

Yazaki, Junshi; Gregory, Brian D; Ecker, Joseph R

2007-10-01

431

Hadron particle theory  

SciTech Connect

Radiation therapy with ``hadrons`` (protons, neutrons, pions, ions) has accrued a 55-year track record, with by now over 30,000 patients having received treatments with one of these particles. Very good, and in some cases spectacular results are leading to growth in the field in specific well-defined directions. The most noted contributor to success has been the ability to better define and control the radiation field produced with these particles, to increase the dose delivered to the treatment volume while achieving a high degree of sparing of normal tissue. An additional benefit is the highly-ionizing, character of certain beams, leading to creater cell-killing potential for tumor lines that have historically been very resistant to radiation treatments. Until recently these treatments have been delivered in laboratories and research centers whose primary, or original mission was physics research. With maturity in the field has come both the desire to provide beam facilities more accessible to the clinical setting, of a hospital, as well as achieving, highly-efficient, reliable and economical accelerator and beam-delivery systems that can make maximum advantage of the physical characteristics of these particle beams. Considerable work in technology development is now leading, to the implementation of many of these ideas, and a new generation of clinically-oriented facilities is beginning to appear. We will discuss both the physical, clinical and technological considerations that are driving these designs, as well as highlighting, specific examples of new facilities that are either now treating, patients or that will be doing so in the near future.

Alonso, J.R.

1995-05-01

432

Hierarchical trigger of the ALICE calorimeters  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The trigger of the ALICE electromagnetic calorimeters is implemented in 2 hierarchically connected layers of electronics. In the lower layer, level-0 algorithms search shower energy above threshold in locally confined Trigger Region Units (TRU). The top layer is implemented as a single, global trigger unit that receives the trigger data from all TRUs as input to the level-1 algorithm. This architecture was first developed for the PHOS high pT photon trigger before it was adopted by EMCal also for the jet trigger. TRU units digitize up to 112 analogue input signals from the Front End Electronics (FEE) and concentrate their digital stream in a single FPGA. A charge and time summing algorithm is combined with a peakfinder that suppresses spurious noise and is precise to single LHC bunches. With a peak-to-peak noise level of 150 MeV the linear dynamic range above threshold spans from MIP energies at 215 up to 50 GeV. Local level-0 decisions take less than 600 ns after LHC collisions, upon which all TRUs transfer their level-0 trigger data to the upstream global trigger module which searches within the remaining level-1 latency for high pT gamma showers (PHOS) and/or for Jet cone areas (EMCaL).

Muller, Hans; Awes, Terry C.; Novitzky, Norbert; Kral, Jiri; Rak, Jan; Schambach, Jo; Wang, Yaping; Wang, Dong; Zhou, Daicui

2010-05-01

433

Hierarchical Trigger of the ALICE Calorimeters  

SciTech Connect

The trigger of the ALICE electromagnetic calorimeters is implemented in 2 hierarchically connected layers of electronics. In the lower layer, level-0 algorithms search shower energy above threshold in locally confined Trigger Region Units (TRU). The top layer is implemented as a single, global trigger unit that receives the trigger data from all TRUs as input to the level-1 algorithm. This architecture was first developed for the PHOS high p{sub T} photon trigger before it was adopted by EMCal also for the jet trigger. TRU units digitize up to 112 analogue input signals from the Front End Electronics (FEE) and concentrate their digital stream in a single FPGA. A charge and time summing algorithm is combined with a peakfinder that suppresses spurious noise and is precise to single LHC bunches. With a peak-to-peak noise level of 150 MeV the linear dynamic range above threshold spans from MIP energies at 215 up to 50 GeV. Local level-0 decisions take less than 600 ns after LHC collisions, upon which all TRUs transfer their level-0 trigger data to the upstream global trigger module which searches within the remaining level-1 latency for high p{sub T} gamma showers (PHOS) and/or for Jet cone areas (EMCaL).

Muller, Hans [CERN, Geneva, Switzerland; Awes, Terry C [ORNL

2010-05-01

434

Scintillating LXe/LKr electromagnetic calorimeter  

SciTech Connect

A scintillating LXe/LKr electromagnetic calorimeter has been built at the ITEP and tested at the BATES (MIT) accelerator. The detector consists of a PMT matrix and 45 light collecting cells made of aluminized Mylar partially covered with p-terphenyl as a wavelength-shifter (WLS). Each pyramidal cell has (2.1 x 2.1) x 40 x (4.15 x 4.15) cm dimensions and is viewed by an FEU-85 glass-window photomultiplier. The detector has been exposed to the 106--348 MeV electron beam. The energy resolution is {sigma}{sub E}/E {approx_equal} 5%/{radical}E at 100--350 MeV range in LXe; the coordinate resolution is {sigma}{sub X} {approx_equal} 0.7 cm; the time resolution is {sigma}{sub {tau}} {approx_equal} 0.6 ns for a single cell. Possible ways to improve energy resolution are discussed.

Akimov, D.Yu.; Bolozdynya, A.J.; Churakov, D.L. [ITEP, Moscow (Russian Federation)] [and others] [ITEP, Moscow (Russian Federation); and others

1995-12-01

435

Hybrid Calorimeter Algorithm Development for Primex Experiment  

SciTech Connect

The PrimEx Collaboration seeks to measure the lifetime of the 0 meson (neutral pion) at high precision. The decay rate of the pion is considered to be the most fundamental prediction of low-energy quantum chromodynamics (QCD). Pions will be produced by the Primakoff Effect: a few GeV photon interacts with the coulomb field of a nucleus to produce a pion. The pion then decays almost immediately ({approx}10-16 seconds) into two photons. The decay photons will be detected by an electromagnetic hybrid calorimeter (HYCAL), an array of lead tungstate and lead glass crystals. An algorithm is needed to calculate the angular separation of the two decay photons (and thus the invariant mass of the pion) from the energies deposited in HYCAL. A GEANT Monte Carlo simulation of the experiment is used to test and develop the algorithm to achieve the best angular resolution. The development of the algorithm is essential to the PrimEx project.

Motoyama, E.; Gasparian, A.; Bernstein, A.

2002-01-01

436

Central Calorimeter Support Cradle Jack Failure Analysis  

SciTech Connect

The Central Calorimeter and its support cradle are to be supported by either hydraulic or mechanical jacks. If hydraulics are used, each support will use two hydraulically coupled jacks with two out of the four supports hydraulically coupled giving the effect of a three point support system. If mechanical jacks are used, all four points are used for support. Figure 2 shows two examples of jack placement on a 3.5 inch support plate. These two support scenarios lead to five jack failure cases to be studied. This report deals with the way in which a 0.25 inch drop (failed jack) at one support affects the stresses in the cradle. The stresses from each failure case were analyzed in two ways. First, stress factors, defined as quotients of stress intensities of the failed case with respect to the static case, were generated and then, hand calculations similar to those in Engineering Note 3740.215-EN-14 were done using the reaction forces from the failed case.

Rudland, D.L.; /Fermilab

1987-04-10

437

SUITABILITY OF A NEW CALORIMETER FOR EXOTIC MESON SEARCHES  

SciTech Connect

Exotic mesons, particles that have quantum numbers that are inaccessible to conventional quark-model mesons, are predicted by quantum chromodynamics (QCD), but past experiments seeking to identify exotic candidates have produced controversial results. The HyCLAS experiment (E04005) at Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (TJNAF) proposes the use of the Continuous Electron Beam Accelerator Facility (CEBAF) Large Acceptance Spectrometer (CLAS) in Hall B to study the photoproduction of exotic mesons. However, the base detector package at CLAS is not ideal for observing and measuring neutral particles, particularly at forward angles. The Deeply Virtual Compton Scattering (DVCS) experiment at TJNAF has commissioned a new calorimeter for detecting small-angle photons, but studies must be performed to determine its suitability for a meson spectroscopy experiment. The ?? system has been under especial scrutiny in the community as a source for potential exotics, so the new calorimeter’s ability at reconstructing these resonances must be evaluated. To achieve this, the invariant mass of showers in the calorimeter are reconstructed. Also, two electroproduction reaction channels analogous to photoproduction channels of interest to HyCLAS are examined in DVCS data. It is found that, while not ideal, the new calorimeter will allow access to additional reaction channels, and its inclusion in HyCLAS is warranted. Results in basic shower reconstruction show that the calorimeter has good effi ciency in resolving ?° decays, but its ? reconstruction is not as strong. When examining ep ? ep?°?, preliminary reconstruction of the ??° system shows faint signals in the a0(980) region. In the ep ? e n ?+ ? channel, preliminary reconstruction of the ??+ system gave good signals in the a0(980) and a2(1320) regions, but statistics were poor. While more analyses are necessary to improve statistics and remove background, these preliminary results support the claim that the DVCS calorimeter will be a valuable addition to CLAS for upcoming exotic meson searches in photoproduction.

Bookwalter, C.; Ostrovidov, A.; Eugenio, P.

2007-01-01

438

Tritium release from bulk of carbon-based tiles used in JT-60U  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Tritium thermal release behavior from the isotropic graphite tile and the CFC tile used as the plasma facing material of JT-60U was experimentally examined. Whole tritium retained in the bulk of tile could not be released by dry gas purge at high temperature in such a period as one day. Utilization of the isotope exchange reaction using purge gas with hydrogen or humid gas was more effective to release the retained tritium. However, approximately 1% of retained tritium was not recovered by the isotope exchange reaction with dry hydrogen even though such high temperature as 1200 °C was applied. Combustion method with oxygen was required to recover all tritium left in the deeper site of the tile. It was observed that combustion of isotropic graphite tile and CFC tile became vigorous at higher temperature than 700 °C though the combustion rate was rather slow at 650 °C.

Takeishi, Toshiharu; Katayama, Kazunari; Nishikawa, Masabumi; Masaki, Kei; Miya, Naoyuki

2006-03-01

439

Modal analysis and dynamic stresses for acoustically excited Shuttle insulation tiles  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The thermal protection system of the Space Shuttle consists of thousands of separate insulation tiles, of varying thicknesses, bonded to the orbiter's surface through a soft strain-isolation pad which is bonded, in turn, to the vehicle's stiffened metallic skin. A modal procedure for obtaining the acoustically induced RMS stress in these comparatively thick tiles is described. The modes employed are generated by a previously developed iterative procedure which converges rapidly for the combined system of tiles and primary structure considered. Each tile is idealized by several hundred three-dimensional finite elements and all tiles on a given panel interact dynamically. Acoustic response results from the present analyses are presented. Comparisons with other analytical results and measured modal data for a typical Shuttle panel, both with and without tiles, are made, and the agreement is good.

Ojalvo, I. U.; Ogilvie, P. I.

1976-01-01

440

Flow through the tile gaps in the Space Shuttle Thermal Protection System  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The problem of predicting aerodynamic loads on the insulating tiles of the Space Shuttle Thermal Protection System (TPS) is discussed and seen to require a method for predicting pressure and mass flux in the gaps between tiles. A mathematical model of the tile-gap flow is developed based upon a slow viscous (Stokes) flow analysis and is verified against available experimental data. This model derives the tile-gap pressure field from a solution of the two-dimensional Laplace equation; the mass flux vector is then calculated from the pressure gradient. The means for incorporating this model into a lumped-parameter network analogy for porous-media flow is also given. The flow model shows tile-gap mass flux to be very sensitive to the gap width indicating a need for coupling the TPS flow and tile displacement calculations. Finally recommendations are made concerning additional analytical and experimental work to improve TPS flow predictions.

Dwoyer, D. L.; Newman, P. A.; Thames, F. C.; Melson, N. D.

1982-01-01

441

TILE64 - Processor: A 64Core SoC with Mesh Interconnect  

Microsoft Academic Search

The TILE64TM processor is a multicore SoC targeting the high-performance demands of a wide range of embedded applications across networking and digital multimedia applications. A figure shows a block diagram with 64 tile processors arranged in an 8x8 array. These tiles connect through a scalable 2D mesh network with high-speed I\\/Os on the periphery. Each general-purpose processor is identical and

S. Bell; B. Edwards; J. Amann; R. Conlin; K. Joyce; V. Leung; J. MacKay; M. Reif; Liewei Bao; J. Brown; M. Mattina; Chyi-Chang Miao; C. Ramey; D. Wentzlaff; W. Anderson; E. Berger; N. Fairbanks; D. Khan; F. Montenegro; J. Stickney; J. Zook

2008-01-01

442

Wang-Tiles for the Simulation and Visualization of Plant Competition  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Wang Tiles method is a successful and effective tech- nique for the representation of 2D-texture or 3D-geometry. In this paper we present a new method to fill Wang tiles with a 2D-FON distribution or a 3D-geometry in order to achieve a more efficient runtime. We extend the Wang Tiles method to include information about their position. We further demonstrate

Monssef Alsweis; Oliver Deussen

2006-01-01

443

On the M-CubITS Pedestrian WYSIWYAS Navigation Using Tile Carpets  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper proposes the M-CublTS pedestrian WYSIWYAS navigation system for intuitive guidance using tile carpets that are wide spread in buildings. We adopt tile carpets instead of textured paving blocks that we have used in our previous studies of the M-CublTS pedestrian WYSIWYAS navigation system because of their wide spread use. In addition, since for setting up only exchange tile

Tetsuya MANABE; Takaaki HASEGAWA; Yoshihiro MATSUOKA; Seiji FURUKAWA; A. Fukuda

2007-01-01

444

Molecular mechanisms of tiling and self-avoidance in neural development  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent studies have begun to unravel the molecular basis of tiling and self-avoidance, two important cellular mechanisms that shape neuronal circuitry during development in both invertebrates and vertebrates. Dscams and Turtle (Tutl), two Ig superfamily proteins, have been shown to mediate contact-dependent homotypic interactions in tiling and self-avoidance. By contrast, the Activin pathway regulates axonal tiling in a contact-independent manner.

Scott Cameron; Yong Rao

2010-01-01