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Sample records for haematology

  1. Haematological problems in obstetrics.

    PubMed

    Rodger, Marc; Sheppard, Dawn; Gándara, Esteban; Tinmouth, Alan

    2015-07-01

    Physiologic changes occur during pregnancy, which influence normal haematologic values and impact the diagnosis and management of haematologic disease in pregnancy. Physiologic changes of pregnancy also commonly lead to mimicking symptoms of haematologic disease that may prompt investigations for haematologic disease. The toxicity and radiation associated with the diagnostic imaging and pharmacologic management of both benign and malignant haematological conditions during pregnancy present unique challenges. Strategies for diagnosis and treatment must weigh the benefits and risks to the mother while also taking foetal outcome into consideration. In this review, we highlight the common haematologic diseases encountered by obstetricians and try to provide guidance for the most prevalent diagnostic and therapeutic questions. At the other end of the spectrum, we also comment on less common but very challenging haematologic diseases in pregnancy that require multidisciplinary effort to arrive at difficult individual diagnostic and treatment decisions. PMID:25819750

  2. Haematology and neurology

    PubMed Central

    Austin, Steven; Cohen, Hannah; Losseff, Nick

    2007-01-01

    This review aims to update the reader on advances in the understanding of haematological conditions that may arise in neurological practice. Thrombophilia, antiphospholipid antibody syndrome, thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura, sickle cell and clonal disorders associated with neuropathy are discussed. PMID:17369588

  3. Haematological abnormalities in mitochondrial disorders

    PubMed Central

    Finsterer, Josef; Frank, Marlies

    2015-01-01

    INTRODUCTION This study aimed to assess the kind of haematological abnormalities that are present in patients with mitochondrial disorders (MIDs) and the frequency of their occurrence. METHODS The blood cell counts of a cohort of patients with syndromic and non-syndromic MIDs were retrospectively reviewed. MIDs were classified as ‘definite’, ‘probable’ or ‘possible’ according to clinical presentation, instrumental findings, immunohistological findings on muscle biopsy, biochemical abnormalities of the respiratory chain and/or the results of genetic studies. Patients who had medical conditions other than MID that account for the haematological abnormalities were excluded. RESULTS A total of 46 patients (‘definite’ = 5; ‘probable’ = 9; ‘possible’ = 32) had haematological abnormalities attributable to MIDs. The most frequent haematological abnormality in patients with MIDs was anaemia. 27 patients had anaemia as their sole haematological problem. Anaemia was associated with thrombopenia (n = 4), thrombocytosis (n = 2), leucopenia (n = 2), and eosinophilia (n = 1). Anaemia was hypochromic and normocytic in 27 patients, hypochromic and microcytic in six patients, hyperchromic and macrocytic in two patients, and normochromic and microcytic in one patient. Among the 46 patients with a mitochondrial haematological abnormality, 78.3% had anaemia, 13.0% had thrombopenia, 8.7% had leucopenia and 8.7% had eosinophilia, alone or in combination with other haematological abnormalities. CONCLUSION MID should be considered if a patient’s abnormal blood cell counts (particularly those associated with anaemia, thrombopenia, leucopenia or eosinophilia) cannot be explained by established causes. Abnormal blood cell counts may be the sole manifestation of MID or a collateral feature of a multisystem problem. PMID:26243978

  4. Haematological manifestations of lupus

    PubMed Central

    Fayyaz, Anum; Igoe, Ann; Kurien, Biji T; Danda, Debashish; James, Judith A; Stafford, Haraldine A; Scofield, R Hal

    2015-01-01

    Our purpose was to compile information on the haematological manifestations of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), namely leucopenia, lymphopenia, thrombocytopenia, autoimmune haemolytic anaemia (AIHA), thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura (TTP) and myelofibrosis. During our search of the English-language MEDLINE sources, we did not place a date-of-publication constraint. Hence, we have reviewed previous as well as most recent studies with the subject heading SLE in combination with each manifestation. Neutropenia can lead to morbidity and mortality from increased susceptibility to infection. Severe neutropenia can be successfully treated with granulocyte colony-stimulating factor. While related to disease activity, there is no specific therapy for lymphopenia. Severe lymphopenia may require the use of prophylactic therapy to prevent select opportunistic infections. Isolated idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura maybe the first manifestation of SLE by months or even years. Some manifestations of lupus occur more frequently in association with low platelet count in these patients, for example, neuropsychiatric manifestation, haemolytic anaemia, the antiphospholipid syndrome and renal disease. Thrombocytopenia can be regarded as an important prognostic indicator of survival in patients with SLE. Medical, surgical and biological treatment modalities are reviewed for this manifestation. First-line therapy remains glucocorticoids. Through our review, we conclude glucocorticoids do produce a response in majority of patients initially, but sustained response to therapy is unlikely. Glucocorticoids are used as first-line therapy in patients with SLE with AIHA, but there is no conclusive evidence to guide second-line therapy. Rituximab is promising in refractory and non-responding AIHA. TTP is not recognised as a criteria for classification of SLE, but there is a considerable overlap between the presenting features of TTP and SLE, and a few patients with SLE have concurrent TTP. Myelofibrosis is an uncommon yet well-documented manifestation of SLE. We have compiled the cases that were reported in MEDLINE sources. PMID:25861458

  5. Bone biopsy in haematological disorders.

    PubMed Central

    Burkhardt, R; Frisch, B; Bartl, R

    1982-01-01

    Bone marrow biopsies are now widely used in the investigation and follow-up of many diseases. Semi-thin sections of 8216 undecalcified biopsies of patients with haematological disorders were studied. Observations were made on the cytopenias and the myelodysplastic syndromes, the acute leukaemias the myeloproliferative disorders, Hodgkin's disease and the malignant lymphomas including multiple myeloma, hairy cell leukaemia and angioimmunoblastic lymphadenopathy. Bone marrow biopsies are essential for the differential diagnosis of most cytopenias and for the early recognition of fibrosis which most frequently occurred as a consequence of megakaryocytic proliferation in the myeloproliferative disorders. Different patterns of bone marrow involvement were found in the lymphoproliferative disorders and both their type and extent constituted factors of prognostic significance. A survey of the literature is given and the conclusion is drawn that bone marrow biopsies provide indispensible information for the diagnostic evaluation and the follow-up of patients with haematological disorders. Images PMID:7040489

  6. Cellular therapy for haematological malignancies.

    PubMed

    Roddie, P H; Turner, M L

    2002-11-01

    The aim of this review was to summarize the recent progress made in the field of cellular therapeutics in haematological malignancy. The review also examined the role that the National Transfusion Services might play in the manufacture of new cellular therapeutic agents, given both their expertise in the safe provision of blood products and their possession of accredited cell manipulation facilities. Cellular therapy is entering an era in which novel cellular products will find increasing clinical use, particularly in the areas of haematopoietic stem cell transplantation and immunotherapy. The production of novel cell-based therapies, both in Europe and North America, is now under strict regulatory control and therefore collaboration with the National Transfusion Services in the manufacture of these agents may well be beneficial if the production standards demanded by the regulatory authorities are to be fulfilled. PMID:12437515

  7. Automated haematology analysis to diagnose malaria

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    For more than a decade, flow cytometry-based automated haematology analysers have been studied for malaria diagnosis. Although current haematology analysers are not specifically designed to detect malaria-related abnormalities, most studies have found sensitivities that comply with WHO malaria-diagnostic guidelines, i.e. ≥ 95% in samples with > 100 parasites/μl. Establishing a correct and early malaria diagnosis is a prerequisite for an adequate treatment and to minimizing adverse outcomes. Expert light microscopy remains the 'gold standard' for malaria diagnosis in most clinical settings. However, it requires an explicit request from clinicians and has variable accuracy. Malaria diagnosis with flow cytometry-based haematology analysers could become an important adjuvant diagnostic tool in the routine laboratory work-up of febrile patients in or returning from malaria-endemic regions. Haematology analysers so far studied for malaria diagnosis are the Cell-Dyn®, Coulter® GEN·S and LH 750, and the Sysmex XE-2100® analysers. For Cell-Dyn analysers, abnormal depolarization events mainly in the lobularity/granularity and other scatter-plots, and various reticulocyte abnormalities have shown overall sensitivities and specificities of 49% to 97% and 61% to 100%, respectively. For the Coulter analysers, a 'malaria factor' using the monocyte and lymphocyte size standard deviations obtained by impedance detection has shown overall sensitivities and specificities of 82% to 98% and 72% to 94%, respectively. For the XE-2100, abnormal patterns in the DIFF, WBC/BASO, and RET-EXT scatter-plots, and pseudoeosinophilia and other abnormal haematological variables have been described, and multivariate diagnostic models have been designed with overall sensitivities and specificities of 86% to 97% and 81% to 98%, respectively. The accuracy for malaria diagnosis may vary according to species, parasite load, immunity and clinical context where the method is applied. Future developments in new haematology analysers such as considerably simplified, robust and inexpensive devices for malaria detection fitted with an automatically generated alert could improve the detection capacity of these instruments and potentially expand their clinical utility in malaria diagnosis. PMID:21118557

  8. Imaging features of haematological malignancies of kidneys.

    PubMed

    Sandrasegaran, K; Menias, C O; Verma, S; Abdelbaki, A; Shaaban, A; Elsayes, K M

    2016-03-01

    Haematological malignancies are relatively uncommon neoplasms of kidneys. Nevertheless, the incidence of these neoplasms is increasing, partly due to more widespread use of computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging. This article discusses the clinical and imaging features of renal lymphoma, leukaemia, extra-osseous multiple myeloma, and post-transplant lymphoproliferative disorder. Although there is overlap of imaging features with other more common malignancies, such as transitional and renal cell cancers, the combination of imaging findings and the appropriate clinical picture should allow the radiologist to raise a provisional diagnosis of a haematological neoplasm. This has management implications including the preference for image-guided core biopsies and a shift towards medical rather than surgical therapy. PMID:26688550

  9. Cancer stem cells in haematological malignancies

    PubMed Central

    Golab, Jakub

    2015-01-01

    At least several types of human haematological malignancies can now be seen as ‘stem-cell diseases’. The best-studied in this context is acute myeloid leukaemia (AML). It has been shown that these diseases are driven by a pool of ‘leukaemia stem cells (LSC)’, which remain in the quiescent state, have the capacity to survive and self-renew, and are responsible for the recurrence of cancer after classical chemotherapy. It has been understood that LSC must be eliminated in order to cure patients suffering from haematological cancers. Recent advances in LSC research have allowed for description of LSC phenotype and identification of potential targets for anti-LSC therapies. This concise review summarises the current view on LSC biology and targeted approaches against LSC. PMID:25691816

  10. [Toward pertinent analytical objectives for haematological parameters].

    PubMed

    Iobagiu, Cristina; Nehar, Diane; Denis, Isabelle; de Saint-Trivier, Aurlie; Boyer, Michelle

    2014-01-01

    Usually, the blood cell counting activity in haematology laboratory uses the comparison of IQC values to the target values proposed by the manufacturer. We intended to improve the monitoring of the proper functioning of our analytical measure system for 17 main haematologic parameters. To set the allowable critical limits of IQC, we propose our reflection based on several elements: benchmark and expert recommendation, clinical requirements, statistical indicators of the laboratory calculated using IQC values (3 levels, 2 different lots, 2 haematology analysers and 2 passage modes) and the EEQ values, during four months. We exploited the reports obtained from the middleware (our own IQC values), and the interlaboratory comparison reports (obtained from SNCS and EuroCell websites) and we compared our performances to the Ricos objectives, to set clearly argued allowable limits for IQC values. Finally, the allowable limits correspond to the imprecision limits stated by Ricos for 14 parameters (desirable for 11 parametres and minimal for 3 parameters) and personalized limits (more exigent than desirable Ricos limits) for 3 parameters of blood cell counting. PMID:25486666

  11. [Optimising therapy in patients with haematological malignancies].

    PubMed

    Dumontet, Charles

    2008-10-01

    Haematological malignancies, although relatively infrequent diseases, have benefited from major advances both in terms of diagnosis, identification of prognostic factors and therapeutic breakthroughs. The combination of morphological, cytogenetic, immunological and molecular approaches has greatly contributed to the identification of homogeneous entities, as well as prognostic subgroups of patients. Targeted therapies, such as monoclonal antibodies and kinase inhibitors, have demonstrated their efficacy in this group of diseases and since then has been generalized to patients with solid tumours. Current efforts include the evaluation of individual characteristics of patients, including their genetic make-up, to reduce treatment toxicity while increasing the quality and the duration of response. PMID:19004726

  12. Trial of Haploidentical Stem Cell Transplantation for Haematological Cancers

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2015-12-07

    Hodgkin's Lymphoma; Non-Hodgkin's Lymphoma; Acute Myeloid Leukaemia; Acute Lymphoblastic Leukaemia; Myelodysplastic Syndrome; Chronic Myeloid Leukaemia; Chronic Lymphocytic Leukaemia; Acquired Bone Marrow Failure Syndromes; Other Haematological Malignancies; Unrelated HSCT Indicated

  13. Haematological cancer and quality of life: a systematic literature review

    PubMed Central

    Allart-Vorelli, P; Porro, B; Baguet, F; Michel, A; Cousson-Gélie, F

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study is to examine the impact of haematological cancers on quality of life (QoL). A review of the international literature was conducted from the databases ‘PsycInfo' and 'Medline' using the keywords: 'haematological cancer', 'quality of life', 'physical', 'psychological', 'social', 'vocational', 'professional', 'economic', 'cognitive', and 'sexual'. Twenty-one reliable studies were analysed. Among these studies, 12 showed that haematological cancer altered overall QoL, 8 papers found a deterioration of physical dimension, 8 papers reported on functional and role dimensions, 11 papers reported on the psychological component and 9 on the social component. Moreover, one study and two manuscripts, respectively, reported deteriorated sexual and cognitive dimensions. Our review demonstrates that the different dimensions of QoL are deteriorated by haematological malignancies and, probably, by the side effects of treatment. PMID:25909835

  14. Tuberculosis in Patients with Haematological Malignancies

    PubMed Central

    Anibarro, Luis; Pena, Alberto

    2014-01-01

    Tuberculosis (TB) is an infectious disease that causes more than 1 million deaths worldwide every year. In addition, it is estimated that one third of the world population is infected with M. tuberculosis in a latent state, which involves an eventual risk of progressing to active TB disease. Patients with immunodeficiencies, such as those suffering from haematological malignancies, have a greater risk of progressing to TB disease once infected. It is estimated that the Relative Risk of TB disease in patients with hematologic malignancies is 2–40 times that of the general population. The diagnosis of TB in these patients is often challenging as they often present clinical characteristics that are distinct to those of patients without any other underlying disease. Mortality due to TB is higher. Therefore, it is recommended to diagnose latent TB infection and consider preventive therapy that could avoid the progression from a latent state to active TB disease. There are currently two methods for diagnosing latent TB infection: the Tuberculin Skin Test (TST) and the Interferon-Gamma Release Assays (IGRA). Due to the lack of sensitivity in patients with immunodeficient conditions, a combined TST-IGRA testing is probably the best way for latent TB diagnosis in order to gain sensitivity. Treatment of latent TB infection and TB disease should follow the general principles to that in the general population. PMID:24803999

  15. The role of CCN family genes in haematological malignancies.

    PubMed

    Wells, J E; Howlett, M; Cheung, L C; Kees, Ursula R

    2015-09-01

    Haematological malignancies, although a broad range of specific disease types, continue to show considerable overlap in classification, and patients are treated using similar chemotherapy regimes. In this review we look at the role of the CCN family of matricellular proteins and indicate their role in nine haematological malignancies including both myeloid and lymphoid neoplasms. The potential for further haematological neoplasms with CCN family associations is argued by summarising the demonstrated role of CCN family genes in the differentiation of haematopoietic stem cells (HSC) and mesenchymal stem cells. The expanding field of knowledge encompassing CCN family genes and cancers of the HSC-lineage highlights the importance of extracellular matrix-interactions in both normal physiology and tumorigenesis of the blood, bone marrow and lymph nodes. PMID:26026820

  16. [Management of treatment-induced pain in paediatric haematology].

    PubMed

    Ben Hamadi, Donia; Calvet, Clmence

    2015-01-01

    Invasive procedures are frequent and painful in children treated in paediatric haematology. It is therefore essential to take into consideration and anticipate the pain induced by these procedures. The caregiver has various effective methods of providing a high quality care management. PMID:26183097

  17. [The treatment of leukaemia in paediatric haematology day hospital].

    PubMed

    Héritier, Sébastien; Morand, Karine; Courcoux, Mary-France; Leverger, Guy

    2015-01-01

    The paediatric haematology day hospital administers almost all types of chemotherapy used to treat acute lymphoblastic leukaemia. Blood transfusions, myelograms and lumbar punctures are also performed there. The prevention of pain and anxiety generated by the care is a priority. PMID:26183094

  18. Design and implementation of a web-enabled haematological system.

    PubMed

    Gortzis, Lefteris; Koubias, Stavros; Nikiforidis, George

    2004-09-01

    This paper describes the design and the implementation of a web-enabled integrated haematological system, named e-HS. The proposed system runs on a set of distributed network nodes providing useful haematological services. These services include patient-oriented data management, digitized histopathological slides (DHS) acquisition, teleconsulting facilities, etc. The objective of e-HS is to supply web-enabled services according to haematological requirements, implement a distributed storage scheme for DHS, and provide a common database containing all haematological laboratory results by using eXtensible Markup Language (XML) and web technologies. Our implementation can be accessible to every authorized physician at the distributed nodes without any additional software. The only software required for the user is the widely used browser (e.g. MS Internet Explorer v 3.02 or higher). Besides, by using a self-explaining user interfaces and HTML-techniques, such as hyperlinks, the necessary amount of training at the physicians-side is reduced to a minimum. A first implementation of the e-HS, has been established at the Medical Physics Department of the University of Patras (master node of the system), and has been tested with success by the medical staff of the Hospital Departments of the University of Patras and Thessalonica that served as distributed nodes of the system. PMID:15265621

  19. The role of extracellular histones in haematological disorders.

    PubMed

    Alhamdi, Yasir; Toh, Cheng-Hock

    2016-06-01

    Over the past decades, chromosomal alterations have been extensively investigated for their pathophysiological relevance in haematological malignancies. In particular, epigenetic modifications of intra-nuclear histones are now known as key regulators of healthy cell cycles that have also evolved into novel therapeutic targets for certain blood cancers. Thus, for most haematologists, histones are DNA-chained proteins that are buried deep within chromatin. However, the plot has deepened with recent revelations on the function of histones when unchained and released extracellularly upon cell death or from activated neutrophils as part of neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs). Extracellular histones and NETs are increasingly recognized for profound cytotoxicity and pro-coagulant effects. This article highlights the importance of recognizing this new paradigm of extracellular histones as a key player in host defence through its damage-associated molecular patterns, which could translate into novel diagnostic and therapeutic biomarkers in various haematological and critical disorders. PMID:27062156

  20. Lipid peroxidation in Nigerians affected with haematological malignancies.

    PubMed

    Akinlolu, A; Akingbola, T; Salau, B

    2012-12-01

    This study investigated Lipid peroxidation status in twenty Nigerians; five (5) healthy subjects and 15 (fifteen) Haematological cancer patients; 5 affected with Chronic Myeloid leukaemia (CML), 5 (five) with Non-Hodgkin's Lymphoma and 5 (five) with Multiple Myeloma. Consents were sought and received from all participants used in the study. 10 mls of blood samples were collected in lithium heparin bottles from all subjects used in the study. Free plasma Malondialdehyde (MDA) quantification was used to assess lipid peroxidation in all subjects. MDA levels were increased in CML and Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma patients compared with that of control subjects at P < 0.001. However, a decreased non-significant free plasma MDA level was observed in multiple myeloma patients compared with control subjects. Increase in lipid peroxidation status in Nigerians affected with Haematological malignancies may be associated with a dysregulation of antioxidant system. Lipid peroxidation status could be used as clinical clue for diagnosis, prognosis and treatment of patients affected with haematological malignancies. PMID:23678650

  1. Haematology and blood chemistry values for several flamingo species.

    PubMed

    Peinado, V I; Polo, F J; Viscor, G; Palomeque, J

    1992-01-01

    Reference values for some haematological and plasma chemical values in four species of clinically normal adult flamingos were established for use in avian medicine. The following variables were studied in rosy, greater, Chilean and lesser flamingos: haematocrit, haemoglobin concentration, erythrocyte and leucocyte counts, haematimetric indices, erythrocyte dimensions, glucose, urea, uric acid, cholesterol, creatinine, total bilirubin, aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, alkaline phosphatase, creatinine, phosphokinase, lactic dehydrogenase, total phosphorus, chloride, total plasma protein, albumin, globulins, albumin-globulin ratio, sodium, potassium, calcium, magnesium and osmolality. PMID:18670915

  2. Haematological and biochemical markers as predictors of dengue infection.

    PubMed

    Rashmi, M V; Hamsaveena

    2015-12-01

    Dengue is a viral infection which has become a serious problem in recent years. It is a major cause of mortality and morbidity. The present study is a prospective, hospital-based, observational study done from August 2014 to October 2014. The objective of our study was to consider whether dengue infection can be suspected based on haematological and biochemical findings. The study included 100 patients positive for dengue infection. Complete hemogram, transaminases for liver injury, blood urea and serum creatinine levels for renal assessment were performed for these patients. The most common haematological findings were thrombocytopenia, leucopenia, an increase in the mixed cell fraction of the leucocytes and the presence of reactive lymphocytes. Biochemical parameters like the aminotranferases, blood urea and serum creatinine levels were significantly raised. Hence, a platelet count of <100,000 cells/µl, leucopenia of <4000 cells/µl and aspartate aminotransferase levels of >82.2 U/L can be considered as predictors of dengue infection. PMID:26712670

  3. The Role of miRNA in Haematological Malignancy

    PubMed Central

    Gounaris-Shannon, Stephanie

    2013-01-01

    Currently, there are over 1,800 annotated human miRNAs, many of which have tissue-specific expression. Numerous studies have highlighted their role in haematopoietic differentiation and proliferation, acting as master regulators of haematopoietic stem cell function. Aberrant expression of miRNAs has been observed in haematological cancers, exhibiting unique expression signatures in comparison to normal counterparts. Functional and target analyses as well as animal models have attempted to annotate how different miRNA may contribute to the pathophysiology of these malignancies from modulating cancer associated genes, functioning directly as oncogenes or tumour suppressor genes or acting as bystanders or regulators of the epigenetic mechanisms in cancer. miRNAs have also been shown to play a role in modulating drug resistance and determining prognosis between the various subtypes of blood cancers. This review discusses the important role that miRNAs play in haematological malignancies by exploring associations that exist between the two and trying to examine evidence of causality to support the tantalising possibility that miRNAs might serve as therapeutic targets in blood cancers. PMID:24416592

  4. [A new automated haematology analyser: the Excell 2280].

    PubMed

    Bouvier, S; Machon, C; Destenay, S; Brun, S; Arnaud, A; Cochery-Nouvellon, E; Lissalde-Lavigne, G; Gris, J-C

    2008-01-01

    Excell 2280 analyser is a new automated haematology analyser manufactured by Drew Scientific Inc, Texas, USA, and distributed in France by MAXMAT S.A., Montpellier. It can achieve 80 complete blood cell counts per hour, with leukocyte differential counts. Three sampling possibilities are included: a direct one (open tubes, 180 microL), a blood saver one (80 microL) and an automatic, through-the-cap one (180 microL). The analytic principles are: electrical impedance for cell counting (WBC, RBC, platelets, MCV) and RBC/platelet sizing; and a new multidimensional optical system using a laser light scattering flow cytometer for WBC counting and classification. We evaluated the Excell 2280 in our laboratory: we quantified intra-run and within-run variations, correlations between the automatic and the direct sampling method, stability of the results over time, linearity of the detections and finally correlation between results obtained with this analyzer and the Gen'S one from Beckman-Coulter Inc. The obtained results were within the theoretical ranges given by the manufacturer. The presence of any abnormal result, or of any flag, must systematically lead to check the blood smear. This new automated haematology analyser appears to be convenient for emergency room-related laboratories, and for routine small-to-medium laboratories. PMID:18725343

  5. Cerebrovascular disease as the initial clinical presentation of haematological disorders.

    PubMed

    Arboix, A; Besses, C

    1997-01-01

    We describe 14 patients (mean age 57 years) in whom stroke or TIA was the presenting manifestation of a haematologic disorder. Twelve patients had an ischaemic stroke and 2 a haemorrhagic stroke. This group represented 1.27% (14/1,099) of the total number of patients with first-ever stroke diagnosed from 1986 to 1992 at our institution, accounted for 1.32% (12/906) of all brain infarcts and 1.03% (2/193) of all haemorrhagic strokes, and was the most common aetiology (25%) of ischaemic stroke of unusual cause. Haematological disorders included essential thrombocythaemia (6), polycythaemia vera (1), smoker's polycythaemia (1), thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura (1), IgA lambda myeloma (1), acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (1), Waldenström's macroglobulinaemia (1), chronic granulocytic leukaemia (1) and IgG lambda myeloma (1). Stroke subtypes included definitive cerebral infarct (10), TIA (2), parenchymal haemorrhage (1) and spontaneous subdural haematoma (1). Vascular territories in ischaemic stroke were the carotid in 7 patients, the vertebrobasilar in 1 and undetermined in 4. Mean follow-up was 40 months (range, 1-96 months). The mortality rate was 18.7%. PMID:9208259

  6. Biochemical and haematological effects of phenylbutazone in horses.

    PubMed

    Lees, P; Creed, R F; Gerring, E E; Gould, P W; Humphreys, D J; Maitho, T E; Michell, A R; Taylor, J B

    1983-04-01

    Five matched pairs of horses were used to investigate the effects of phenylbutazone on a range of physiological, biochemical and haematological variables. The drug was given by mouth daily for 15 consecutive days at the manufacturer's recommended dose rates to one group of horses (Group A); the second group (Group B) received equivalent doses of a placebo. For some of the measured parameters, significant changes were recorded in both groups, indicating background instability. Significant decreases in serum total protein, albumin, plasma pH, viscosity and magnesium, and an increase in albumin: globulin ratio occurred in Group A, but not in Group B. These changes were, therefore, attributed to phenylbutazone or its metabolites. Toxicologically, the change in pH is probably unimportant but the decrease in protein concentration may have resulted from a protein losing enteropathy and/or from decreased synthesis in the liver. In one animal which received phenylbutazone, clinical signs of toxicity (lethargy, inappetence, oedema) were observed and evidence of hepatotoxicity and haematological changes were also noted in this horse. It is concluded that recommended dose rates of phenylbutazone should never be exceeded and that the period for which the highest dose (4.4 mg/kg body weight twice daily for four days) is administered should be reduced. In clinical cases, where phenylbutazone toxicity is suspected, measurement of serum or plasma protein concentration might provide an indication of the need to reduce dose levels or stop therapy. PMID:6873049

  7. Intestinal helminths induce haematological changes in dogs from Jabalpur, India.

    PubMed

    Qadir, S; Dixit, A K; Dixit, P; Sharma, R L

    2011-12-01

    The effect of canine intestinal helminths on the haematological profile of 200 dogs, of both sexes and variable age, visiting university veterinary clinics for routine examination was investigated. The dogs were assigned to parasitized (n = 39) and non-parasitized (n = 161) groups of animals. Coprological examination revealed a 19.5% prevalence of different species of the helminths. Of these animals, 10.25% had mixed infections with Ancylostoma caninum, Toxascaris spp. and Dipylidium caninum. The intensity of A. caninum infection was the highest, with mean egg counts of 951.43 (standard error 88.66), followed by Toxascaris 283.33 (standard error 116.81) and D. caninum. The parasitized animals had significantly lower levels of haemoglobin, packed cell volume and total erythrocyte counts than non-parasitized animals (P < 0.01). Values of other parameters, except for lymphocytes and eosinophils, were not different between the two groups. Analyses of the haematological profile revealed normocytic hypochromic anaemia in the parasitized group of animals. PMID:21110909

  8. Effects of different stressors in haematological variables in cultured Oreochromis aureus S.

    PubMed

    Silveira-Coffigny, R; Prieto-Trujillo, A; Ascencio-Valle, F

    2004-12-01

    Since haematological variables can be used to assess the health state in cultured fish, a haematological characterization of clinically healthy Oreochromis aureus was done to establish the reference indices of this species. Fish were subjected to different stressed conditions (bacterial infection, nitrite intoxication, malachite green overdose) to study the changes in the haematological indices and its relation with the health condition. This species showed microcytic anaemia under experimental bacterial infection by Corynebacterium sp.; anaemia, neutrophilia and erythrocytes deformation following nitrite intoxication and medication overdose with malachite green. PMID:15683834

  9. Guidelines for genomic array analysis in acquired haematological neoplastic disorders.

    PubMed

    Schoumans, Jacqueline; Suela, Javier; Hastings, Ros; Muehlematter, Dominique; Rack, Katrina; van den Berg, Eva; Berna Beverloo, H; Stevens-Kroef, Marian

    2016-05-01

    Genetic profiling is important for disease evaluation and prediction of prognosis or responsiveness to therapy in neoplasia. Microarray technologies, including array comparative genomic hybridization and single-nucleotide polymorphism-detecting arrays, have in recent years been introduced into the diagnostic setting for specific types of haematological malignancies and solid tumours. It can be used as a complementary test or depending on the neoplasia investigated, also as a standalone test. However, comprehensive and readable presentation of frequently identified complex genomic profiles remains challenging. To assist diagnostic laboratories, standardization and minimum criteria for clinical interpretation and reporting of acquired genomic abnormalities detected through arrays in neoplastic disorders are presented. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26774012

  10. An evaluation of the Technicon H6000 haematology system.

    PubMed

    Cave, R J; Holder, R L; Morris, T K; Taylor, J; Smith, D; Shinton, N K

    1983-01-01

    The Technicon H6000 haematology system combines haemoglobinometry with cell counting including differential counts of leucocytes. Evaluation confirmed it to be safe, precise and free from carry-over of practical significance. Comparability with standard reference methods showed a difference with mean cell volume (MCV) and packed cell volume (PCV) but the haemoglobin, red cell count and mean haemoglobin concentration (MCH) were comparable. Total white cell counts and differential counts were comparable apart from eosinophils and basophils. Platelet counts were higher at both ends of the range. Throughput was confirmed at 90 samples per hour. The system was shown to be cost-effective when taking into consideration staff costs, materials and maintenance but expensive with regard to materials alone. PMID:6883971

  11. Haematology of wild penguins (spenisciformes) in the Falkland Islands.

    PubMed

    Hawkey, C M; Horsley, D T; Keymer, I F

    1989-07-01

    Haematological values were determined in 50 Rockhopper (Eudyptes crestatus), 19 Gentoo (Pygoscelis papua) and 12 Magellanic (Spheniscus magellanicus) penguins from various sites on the Falkland Islands. Adult Magellanic penguins had significantly lower haemoglobin (Hb) levels, packed cell volumes (PCV) and red cell counts (RBC) than adults of the other two species. Hb, PCV and RBC values were also lower in juvenile birds than in adults and lower in post-moult than in pre-moult adults. Comparison of findings in wild Rockhopper and Gentoo penguins with values obtained from captive birds showed slight but significant differences in Hb and mean cell haemoglobin concentration, and in the relative numbers of heterophils, lymphocytes, monocytes and eosinophils present. PMID:18679879

  12. Normal and clinical haematology of greater and lesser flamingos (Phoenicopterus roseus and Phoeniconaias minor).

    PubMed

    Hawkey, C M; Hart, M G; Samour, H J

    1985-10-01

    Normal haematological reference values were obtained for Greater and Lesser flamingos (Phoenicopterus roseus, Phoeniconaias minor). Statistically significant differences in the total white cell count and the absolute heterophil count were found in the two species. The reference values were used to identify abnormalities in the blood of five sick birds. Three of these were anaemic, all showed red cell hypochromia and four had heterophilia. The findings suggested that haematological testing is of potential diagnostic value in the species. PMID:18766947

  13. Curriculum Design of a Flipped Classroom to Enhance Haematology Learning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Porcaro, Pauline A.; Jackson, Denise E.; McLaughlin, Patricia M.; O'Malley, Cindy J.

    2016-06-01

    A common trend in higher education is the "flipped" classroom, which facilitates active learning during class. The flipped approach to teaching was instituted in a haematology `major' class and the students' attitudes and preferences for the teaching materials were surveyed. The curriculum design was explicit and involved four major components (1) the preparation of the students; (2) the weekly pre-class work; (3) the in-class active learning strategies and (4) closing the learning loop using formative quizzes. Each of these components is discussed in detail and was informed by sound pedagogical strategies. Several different sources of information and several freely available software tools to engage the students are discussed. Two iterations are reported here, with improved pass rate for the final examination from 47 to 48 % in the traditional class to 56-65 % in the flipped classroom approach. The majority of students (93 and 89 %) came to the class prepared, after viewing the screencasts and engaged fully with the activities within the face-to-face time. The students perceived that solving case studies (93 %) was the most beneficial activity for their learning and this was closely followed by the production of essay plans (71 %). The majority of students recommended that this approach be repeated the following year (69 and 75 %).

  14. Curriculum Design of a Flipped Classroom to Enhance Haematology Learning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Porcaro, Pauline A.; Jackson, Denise E.; McLaughlin, Patricia M.; O'Malley, Cindy J.

    2016-01-01

    A common trend in higher education is the "flipped" classroom, which facilitates active learning during class. The flipped approach to teaching was instituted in a haematology `major' class and the students' attitudes and preferences for the teaching materials were surveyed. The curriculum design was explicit and involved four major components (1) the preparation of the students; (2) the weekly pre-class work; (3) the in-class active learning strategies and (4) closing the learning loop using formative quizzes. Each of these components is discussed in detail and was informed by sound pedagogical strategies. Several different sources of information and several freely available software tools to engage the students are discussed. Two iterations are reported here, with improved pass rate for the final examination from 47 to 48 % in the traditional class to 56-65 % in the flipped classroom approach. The majority of students (93 and 89 %) came to the class prepared, after viewing the screencasts and engaged fully with the activities within the face-to-face time. The students perceived that solving case studies (93 %) was the most beneficial activity for their learning and this was closely followed by the production of essay plans (71 %). The majority of students recommended that this approach be repeated the following year (69 and 75 %).

  15. Current status of chimeric antigen receptor therapy for haematological malignancies.

    PubMed

    Maude, Shannon; Barrett, David M

    2016-01-01

    The field of adoptive cell transfer includes chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) engineered T cells, constructs that emerged from basic research into principles of immunology and have transformed into clinically effective therapies for haematological malignancies. T cells engineered to express these artificial receptors hold great promise, but also carry significant risk. While permanent genetic modification of mature T cells appears safe, modulating their in vivo function is difficult, partly because the robust response can trigger other arms of the immune system. Suicide systems and toxicity management with cytokine blockade or signal transduction modulators have emerged as a new frontier in this field, a far cry from early problems getting CAR T cells to work at all. Currently, clinical trials in patients with relapsed or refractory B cell malignancies treated with CD19-specific CAR T cells have induced durable remissions in adults and children. Results from these trials indicate that more work needs to be done to understand biomarkers of efficacy, the role of T cell persistence and how to integrate this care into standard practice. Cell therapy will not be a 'one size fits all' class of medicine, and here we will discuss the development of this therapy and important questions for its future. PMID:26560054

  16. Haematological manifestations of human immune deficiency virus infection.

    PubMed

    Vishnu, Prakash; Aboulafia, David M

    2015-12-01

    Early in the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) epidemic, infected patients presented to medical attention with striking abnormalities in each of the major blood cell lineages. The reasons for these derangements remain complex and multifactorial. HIV infects multipotent haematopoietic progenitor cells and establish latent cellular reservoirs, disturbs the bone marrow microenvironment and also causes immune dysregulation. These events lead to cytokine imbalances and disruption of other factors required for normal haematopoiesis. Activation of the reticulo-endothelial system can also result in increased blood cell destruction. The deleterious effects of medications, including first and second generation anti-retroviral agents, on haematopoiesis were well documented in the early years of HIV care; in the current era of HIV-care, the advent of newer and less toxic anti-retroviral drugs have had a more beneficial impact on haematopoiesis. Due to impaired regulation of the immune system and potential side effects of one or more anti-retroviral agents, there is also an increase in coagulation abnormalities such as thromboembolism, and less frequently, acquired disorders of coagulation including thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura, immune thrombocytopenic purpura and acquired inhibitors of coagulation. In this article we review the epidemiology and aetiology of select non-oncological haematological disorders commonly seen in people living with HIV-acquired immune deficiency syndrome. PMID:26452169

  17. Endotoxin-triggered haematological interactions in Fusobacterium necrophorum infections.

    PubMed

    Garcia, G G; Goto, Y; Shinjo, T

    2000-01-01

    The haematological mechanisms in the course of liver abscess formation were evaluated. They were examined by employing viable cells of Fusobacterium necrophorum subsp. necrophorum and Fusobacterium necrophorum subsp. funduliforme in comparison with their endotoxins. Whole cell infection with F.n. necrophorum led to neutrophilia and to a concomitant monocytosis in parallel with those responses induced by the in vivo injection of its endotoxin. Viable infection with F.n. funduliforme was characterized by a sustained endotoxin-related monocytosis against neutropenia. The stimulatory impact of endotoxin on monocytes when released from a viable F.n. funduliforme infection suggested an inherently peculiar mechanism which differed from the induction of both neutrophilia and monocytosis when F.n. funduliforme endotoxin was administered alone. The neutrophilic inducing capacity of the F.n. necrophorum endotoxin was equally illustrated by its positive chemotactic effect on polymorphonuclear neutrophils in vitro. The data presented here emphasize the virulence of F.n. necrophorum viewed in reference to changes in leucocyte trafficking and as complemented by a relatively high endotoxin content. PMID:10817519

  18. Clinical, haematological and biochemical responses of sheep undergoing autologous blood transfusion

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background This study aimed to evaluate the clinical, haematological and biochemical responses to autologous blood transfusion and the feasibility of this practice in sheep. Thus, we used eight male, 8 months old sheep, weighing on average 30 kg, from which 15 mL/kg of whole blood was collected and stored in CPDA-1 bags. Blood samples were refrigerated for 8 days and subsequently re-infused. The clinical, haematological and biochemical parameters were evaluated before blood collection and reinfusion, after 10 minutes of collection and reinfusion, after 3, 6, 12, 24, 48, 96 and 192 hours after collection and reinfusion. Results With respect to clinical parameters, we observed a decrease in heart rate after 24, 48 and 196 hours from reinfusion compared to basal values (p < 0.05). Haematological variables including globular volume and erythrocyte counts showed a significant decrease (p < 0.01) at all time points after collection and increased (p < 0.01) at all time points after reinfusion. There was a significant increase in total protein and calcium at all time points after reinfusion (p < 0.05). Conclusion Autologous transfusion in sheep slightly altered the physiological, biochemical and haematological responses of sheep, indicating that the technique proposed is safe and can be applied in the clinical practice of this species. The 8 d period was not sufficient for complete recovery of the haematological parameters after blood collection. PMID:22607611

  19. Biochemical and haematological profile of pheasant hens during the laying period.

    PubMed

    Schumann, J; Bedanova, I; Voslarova, E; Hrabcakova, P; Chloupek, J; Pistekova, V

    2014-01-01

    The present paper provides new experimental data on the biochemical and haematological profile of blood in pheasant hens, and points out the changes in both biochemical and haematological parameters that occur during the laying period. Significant effects of egg laying on both the biochemical and the haematological blood parameters of pheasant hens were found. Biochemical analyses revealed a significant increase in the metabolites cholesterol, uric acid, lactate, the enzyme aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and the minerals calcium and phosphorous, as well as a significant decrease in total protein, albumin and glucose in the course of the laying period. Haematological analyses revealed a significant increase in the count of leukocytes, lymphocytes, eosinophils, basophils and monocytes due to egg laying. In addition, the erythrocyte count and haemoglobin content significantly decreased in the middle of the laying period and then rebounded at the end of the laying period. The haematocrit content gradually decreased till the end of the laying period. All together, the results of this study underline the impact of the reproduction status of pheasant hens on basic blood parameters. The biochemical and haematological values presented in this study may be of help in assessing disease conditions in laying pheasant hens. PMID:24724469

  20. Haematological changes in elite kayakers during a training season.

    PubMed

    Borges, Grasiely Faccin; Rama, Luis Manuel Pinto Lopes; Pedreiro, Susana; Rosado, Fátima; Alves, Francisco; Santos, Amândio Manuel Cupido; Paiva, Artur; Teixeira, Ana Maria

    2012-12-01

    This study monitored haematological markers in response to training load in elite kayakers during a training season. The sample comprised eight elite kayakers aged 22 ± 4.2 years with a 77.2 ± 6.7 kg body mass and a 177.5 ± 5.6 cm stature. The initial [Formula: see text]O(2max) was 61.2 ± 5.5 mL·kg(-1)·min(-1). The control group consisted of six healthy males, aged 18.6 ± 1.1 years, with an 81.3 ± 13.8 kg body mass and a 171.9 ± 4.5 cm stature. Blood samples were collected at the beginning of the training season after an off-training period of six weeks (t(0)), at the 11th week after the application of high training volumes (t(1)), at the 26th week after an intense training cycle (t(2)), and at the 31st week at the end of a tapering phase (t(3)). Differences between time points were detected using ANOVA and the Bonferroni post hoc test. Significant changes were found after the intense training cycle (t(2)), lymphocytes decreased while haemoglobin, mean corpuscular volume, mean corposcular haemoglobin, mean concentration of corpuscular hemoglobin concentration, platelets distribution width, and red blood cell distribution width values increased when compared with baseline values. At t(3), a reduction in monocyte numbers and an increase in mean platelet volume compared with baseline values were seen. By reducing the volume and intensity of training, many variables returned to values close to those at baseline. Although many athletes had accumulated responses over time due to training, they still suffered transient changes that appear to be influenced by training load. Haemorheology monitoring may help detect health risks, especially during times of intensified training. PMID:22973999

  1. The prevention and management of infections due to multidrug resistant organisms in haematology patients

    PubMed Central

    Trubiano, Jason A; Worth, Leon J; Thursky, Karin A; Slavin, Monica A

    2015-01-01

    Infections due to resistant and multidrug resistant (MDR) organisms in haematology patients and haematopoietic stem cell transplant recipients are an increasingly complex problem of global concern. We outline the burden of illness and epidemiology of resistant organisms such as gram-negative pathogens, vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium (VRE), and Clostridium difficile in haematology cohorts. Intervention strategies aimed at reducing the impact of these organisms are reviewed: infection prevention programmes, screening and fluoroquinolone prophylaxis. The role of newer therapies (e.g. linezolid, daptomycin and tigecycline) for treatment of resistant and MDR organisms in haematology populations is evaluated, in addition to the mobilization of older agents (e.g. colistin, pristinamycin and fosfomycin) and the potential benefit of combination regimens. PMID:24341410

  2. Haematological response of curimbas Prochilodus lineatus, naturally infected with Neoechinorhynchus curemai.

    PubMed

    Belo, M A A; Souza, D G F; Faria, V P; Prado, E J R; Moraes, F R; Onaka, E M

    2013-04-01

    This study evaluated the haematological response of curimbas Prochilodus lineatus, naturally infected with Neoechinorhynchus curemai (Acanthocephala: Neoechinorhynchidae). Thirty-seven fish were captured in October 2010 from the Mogi Guaçu River, Porto Ferreira, SP, Brazil. Infected fish presented increased mean corpuscular volume of erythrocytes, and lower thrombocyte and higher monocyte counts than uninfected fish. PMID:23557315

  3. Sample stability for complete blood cell count using the Sysmex XN haematological analyser

    PubMed Central

    Daves, Massimo; Zagler, Elmar M.; Cemin, Roberto; Gnech, Flora; Joos, Alexandra; Platzgummer, Stefan; Lippi, Giuseppe

    2015-01-01

    Background Sample stability is a crucial aspect for the quality of results of a haematology laboratory. This study was conducted to investigate the reliability of haematological testing using Sysmex XN in samples stored for up to 24 h at different temperatures. Materials and methods Haematological tests were performed on whole blood samples collected from 16 ostensibly healthy outpatients immediately after collection and 3 h, 6 h or 24 h afterwards, with triple aliquots kept at room temperature, 4 °C or 37 °C. Results No meaningful bias was observed after 3 h under different storage conditions, except for red blood cell distribution width (RDW) and platelet count (impedance technique, PLT-I) at 37 °C. After 6 h, meaningful bias was observed for mean corpuscular haemoglobin (MCH) and mean corpuscular volume (MCV) at room temperature, red blood cell (RBC) count, mean corpuscular haemoglobin concentration (MCHC), MCH, MCV and PLT-I at 4 °C, and RBC, RDW, MCHC, MCH and PLT-I at 37 °C. After 24 h, a meaningful bias was observed for MCHC, MCV, platelet count (fluorescent technique, PLT-F) and mean platelet volume (MPV) at room temperature, MCHC, MCV, PLT-I and MPV at 4 °C, and all parameters except RBC count and MPV at 37 °C. Discussion Great caution should be observed when analysing results of haematological tests conducted more than 3 h after sample collection. PMID:26057491

  4. Haematological and biochemical reference intervals for free-ranging brown bears (Ursus arctos) in Sweden

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Establishment of haematological and biochemical reference intervals is important to assess health of animals on individual and population level. Reference intervals for 13 haematological and 34 biochemical variables were established based on 88 apparently healthy free-ranging brown bears (39 males and 49 females) in Sweden. The animals were chemically immobilised by darting from a helicopter with a combination of medetomidine, tiletamine and zolazepam in April and May 2006–2012 in the county of Dalarna, Sweden. Venous blood samples were collected during anaesthesia for radio collaring and marking for ecological studies. For each of the variables, the reference interval was described based on the 95% confidence interval, and differences due to host characteristics sex and age were included if detected. To our knowledge, this is the first report of reference intervals for free-ranging brown bears in Sweden. Results The following variables were not affected by host characteristics: red blood cell, white blood cell, monocyte and platelet count, alanine transaminase, amylase, bilirubin, free fatty acids, glucose, calcium, chloride, potassium, and cortisol. Age differences were seen for the majority of the haematological variables, whereas sex influenced only mean corpuscular haemoglobin concentration, aspartate aminotransferase, lipase, lactate dehydrogenase, β-globulin, bile acids, triglycerides and sodium. Conclusions The biochemical and haematological reference intervals provided and the differences due to host factors age and gender can be useful for evaluation of health status in free-ranging European brown bears. PMID:25139149

  5. Haematological values of post-laying Arrau turtle (Podocnemis expansa) in the Orinoco River, Venezuela.

    PubMed

    Rossini, M; Blanco, P A; Marín, E; Comerma-Steffensen, S; Zerpa, H

    2012-02-01

    The Arrau turtle (Podocnemis expansa) is an endangered species, as a result of long-lasting, unsustainable exploitation. To obtain reference haematological values from the wild Podocnemis expansa during post-laying, 20 turtles were captured in the Orinoco River. Blood was obtained from the dorsal cervical sinus in lithium heparin tubes. Red blood cells (RBC), white blood cells (WBC), thrombocytes (TC), packed cell volume (PCV), plasmatic protein (PP), haemoglobin (Hgb), mean corpuscular volume (MCV) and differential leukocyte count were determined. Haematological values were: RBC 0.9×10(9)/L, WBC 5.7×10(9)/L, TC 5.4×10(9)/L, PCV 35.6%, PP 4.2g/dL, Hgb 11.8g/dL, MCV 411fL. The differential leukocyte count comprised: 71% heterophils, 23% lymphocytes, 3% eosinophils, 1.6% basophils, and 1% monocytes. The reports of reference haematology values for the wild P. expansa are limited; therefore, the results presented herein contrast with those values obtained in captivity. This study represents a contribution to the referential haematological values of the wild P. expansa. PMID:21122881

  6. A nightmare for haematology clinics: extensively drug-resistant (XDR) Acinetobacter baumannnii.

    PubMed

    Metan, Gkhan; Pala, i?dem; Kaynar, Leylagl; Cevahir, Fatma; Alp, Emine

    2014-12-01

    The purpose of our study was to share experience on demographic characteristics and clinical outcome of the patients infected with extensively drug-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii (XDRAB) in haematology clinics, focusing on the period with a sudden increase in the number of XDRAB cases. A regular patient-based infection control programme was set up in haematology clinics and haematopoietic stem cell transplant centre starting from 2008. An infection control nurse visited all patients daily. A form including demographic data and laboratory results were recorded for all patients. The source of infections was identified according to the criteria proposed by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. While haematology ward-acquired XRDAB was rare before 2012, between January 2012 and July 2013, 29 A. baumannii infection episodes were detected in 28 patients. All but one isolate were MDR and 72.4% (21 out of 29) were XDR. Blood cultures revealed A. baumannii in 26 out of 29 episodes. While the haematological malignancy was relapsing or not under remission in 15 patients, four patients were under remission, and 10 patients were newly diagnosed. The mortality rate was 81.2%. All patients with a poor outcome died in the first week after the index blood culture was performed. In 16 out of 29 episodes, the patients died before the culture results became available. Colistin was initiated for the treatment in 11 out of 29 episodes. Three patients received colistin combined with sulbactam or sulbactam containing beta-lactams; the remaining eight patients who received colistin monotherapy were already under carbapenems. In conclusion, XDRAB infections can easily become nightmares for haematology clinics without any reliable treatment option. PMID:25551842

  7. Invasive pneumococcal disease in patients with haematological malignancies before routine use of conjugate vaccines in Finland.

    PubMed

    Lindström, Vesa; Aittoniemi, Janne; Lyytikäinen, Outi; Klemets, Peter; Ollgren, Jukka; Silvennoinen, Raija; Nuorti, J Pekka; Sinisalo, Marjatta

    2016-05-01

    The baseline national invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) incidence rate, serotype distribution and serotype coverage of pneumococcal vaccines were evaluated in patients with Hodgkin's and non-Hodgkin's lymphomas, myeloma and leukaemia within 1 year after haematological diagnosis during 1995-2002, before introduction of pneumococcal conjugate vaccines. Pneumococcal serotype distribution among these patients was different from serotypes causing IPD in the general population. The serotype coverages of PCV13 and PPSV23 were 57% and 64%, respectively, lower than in the general population. This reflects a higher predisposition to IPD in vaccinated patients with haematological malignancies and possibly less benefit of herd immunity gained with the wide use of pneumococcal conjugate vaccines in the general population. This data will be useful as a baseline for determining the future role of adult PCV vaccination in these patient groups. PMID:26635103

  8. Biosimilar Epoetin Zeta in Oncology and Haematology: Development and Experience following 6 Years of Use.

    PubMed

    Michallet, Mauricette; Losem, Christoph

    2016-01-01

    Chemotherapy-induced anaemia is frequent in cancer patients, with severity depending on the extent of the disease and intensity of treatment. Clinical guidelines recommend erythropoietin therapy to treat or prevent anaemia in some oncology/haematology patients being treated with chemotherapy. The patent expiry of the first-generation erythropoietins has led to the development of biosimilar products, i.e. therapeutic proteins exhibiting comparable quality, safety and efficacy to an existing reference biological medicine, the patent of which has expired. This review summarises the available data set supporting the use of one such biosimilar product, epoetin zeta (Retacrit™) in oncology/haematology. The body of evidence supporting the use of epoetin zeta continues to grow, with post-marketing clinical studies underway to evaluate its longer-term clinical efficacy and safety. Biosimilar medicines have the potential to offer cost savings to health care providers, with the assurance of ongoing risk management programmes to ensure patient safety. PMID:26426164

  9. Non-malignant haematology research in the UK: looking forward to new opportunities.

    PubMed

    Collins, P W; Baglin, T P; Dang, R; Evans, G; Greaves, M; Laffan, M; Pasi, K J; Rose, P; Stanworth, S; Toh, C H

    2010-09-01

    Over the last few years there has been rapid and radical change in the way clinical research in the UK is funded and supported within the NHS. This has resulted from restructuring and major new investment in research infrastructure, co-ordinated through Clinical Local Research Networks (CLRNs) and equivalent organisations in the devolved nations. CLRNs have resources to support local researchers undertake studies that have been adopted on to the national research portfolio. For example, CLRNs can help with gaining local approvals or provide research nurses to recruit patients, undertake study procedures and perform data entry. CLRNs can establish Local Speciality Groups in a number of areas of medicine, including nonmalignant haematology. These new networks offer non-malignant haematology access to significant new resources and a major opportunity to support clinical research for the benefit of our patients. PMID:21105240

  10. Virologic response and haematologic toxicity of boceprevir- and telaprevir-containing regimens in actual clinical settings.

    PubMed

    Butt, A A; Yan, P; Shaikh, O S; Freiberg, M S; Lo Re, V; Justice, A C; Sherman, K E

    2015-09-01

    Effectiveness, safety and tolerability of boceprevir (BOC) and telaprevir (TPV) in actual clinical settings remain unknown. We determined rates of sustained virologic response (SVR) and haematologic adverse effects among persons treated with BOC- or TPV-containing regimens, compared with pegylated interferon/ribavirin (PEG/RBV). Using an established cohort of hepatitis C virus (HCV)-infected persons, Electronically Retrieved Cohort of HCV Infected Veterans (ERCHIVES), we identified those treated with a BOC- or TPV-containing regimen and HCV genotype 1-infected controls treated with PEG/RBV. We excluded those with HIV coinfection and missing HCV RNA values to determine SVR. Primary endpoints were SVR (undetectable HCV RNA ≥12 weeks after treatment completion) and haematologic toxicity (grade 3/4 anaemia, neutropenia and thrombocytopenia). We evaluated 2288 persons on BOC-, 409 on TPV-containing regimen and 6308 on PEG/RBV. Among these groups, respectively, 31%, 43% and 9% were treatment-experienced; 17%, 37% and 14% had baseline cirrhosis; 63%, 54% and 48% were genotype 1a. SVR rates among noncirrhotics were as follows: treatment naïve: 65% (BOC), 67% (TPV) and 31% (PEG/RBV); treatment experienced: 57% (BOC), 54% (TPV) and 13% (PEG/RBV); (P-value not significant for BOC vs TPV; P < 0.0001 for BOC or TPV vs PEG/RBV). Haematologic toxicities among BOC-, TPV- and PEG/RBV-treated groups were as follows: grade 3/4 anaemia 7%, 11% and 3%; grade 4 thrombocytopenia 2.2%, 5.4% and 1.7%; grade 4 neutropenia 8.2%, 5.6% and 3.4%. SVR rates are higher and closer to those reported in pivotal clinical trials among BOC- and TPV-treated persons compared with PEG/RBV-treated persons. Haematologic adverse events are frequent, but severe toxicity is uncommon. PMID:25524834

  11. Voriconazole associated torsades de pointes in two adult patients with haematological malignancies

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Jeremy D.; Lim, Lyn-li; Koning, Sonia

    2014-01-01

    Voriconazole can prolong the QT interval contributing to life-threatening cardiac arrhythmia. Torsades de pointes is an uncommon but serious complication of voriconazole use which may be under-recognised. We present torsades de pointes in two patients with underlying haematological malignancy being treated for invasive fungal infection with voriconazole. Patients receiving voriconazole should be screened and monitored for evidence of QT prolongation, and if prolongation detected, consideration given to alternative treatments or more intensive cardiac monitoring. PMID:24855597

  12. Changes in period and cohort effects on haematological cancer mortality in Spain, 1952-2006

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background In contrast to other haematological cancers, mortality from non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma and multiple myeloma increased dramatically during the second half of the 20th century in most developed countries. This widespread upward trend remains controversial, as it may be attributable either to progressive improvements in diagnosis and certification or to increasing exposures to little-known but relevant risk factors. Methods To assess the relative contribution of these factors, we analysed the independent effects of age, death period, and birth cohort on haematological cancer mortality rates in Spain across the period 1952-2006. Weighted joinpoint regression analyses were performed to detect and estimate changes in period and cohort curvatures. Results Although mortality rates were consistently higher among men, trends across periods and cohorts were virtually identical in both sexes. There was an early period trend reversal in the 1960s for Hodgkin’s disease and leukaemia, which was delayed to the 1980s for multiple myeloma and the 1990s for non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma. Birth cohort patterns showed a first downturn for generations born in the 1900s and 1910s for all haematological cancers, and a second trend reversal for more recent cohorts born in the 1950s and 1960s for non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma and leukaemia. Conclusions The sustained decline in Hodgkin’s disease mortality and the levelling off in leukaemia seem to be driven by an early period effect linked to improvements in disease treatment, whereas the steep upward trends in non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma and multiple myeloma mortality in Spain are more likely explained by a cohort effect linked to better diagnosis and death certification in the elderly. The consistent male excess mortality across all calendar periods and age groups points to the importance of possible sex-related genetic markers of susceptibility in haematological cancers. PMID:24716829

  13. Biochemical and haematological effects of a revised dosage schedule of phenylbutazone in horses.

    PubMed

    Taylor, J B; Walland, A; Lees, P; Gerring, E L; Maitho, T E; Millar, J D

    1983-06-25

    Five pairs of matched horses were used to study the biochemical and haematological effects of a revised dosage schedule of phenylbutazone. One group of five horses received a phenylbutazone paste formulation daily for 12 days and a second group of five animals received a placebo preparation for a similar time. Some statistically significant differences were recorded from pretreatment levels in both groups of horses. These changes represented instability in baseline levels and could not be ascribed to phenylbutazone administration. PMID:6879987

  14. Serum biochemical and haematological reference intervals for water buffalo Bubalus bubalis heifers.

    PubMed

    Abd Ellah, Mahmoud R; Hamed, Maha I; Ibrahim, Derar R; Rateb, Hassan Z

    2014-01-01

    Based on a review of the literature, reference intervals for water buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) serum biochemistry and haematology have not previously been published. The current study was done to establish reference intervals for water buffalo heifers. The International Federation of Clinical Chemistry stated that at least 120 values are necessary to obtain reliable estimates for reference intervals. A total number of 127 clinically healthy buffalo heifers (1-2 years old) were included in the study. Animals were examined at buffalo farms that belong to Assiut Governorate, Egypt. Three types of samples were collected: serum samples for biochemical analysis, whole blood samples for haematological analysis and faecal samples for parasitological examination. Animals that fitted the inclusion criteria were included in the study. Biochemical analysis included serum total proteins, albumin, total globulins, alpha, beta and gamma globulin levels, and aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, gamma glutamyl transferase, creatine phosphokinase and lactate dehydrogenase activity. In addition to the above, serum creatinine, urea, total bilirubin, direct bilirubin, indirect bilirubin, sodium, potassium, chloride, magnesium, calcium, phosphorus, copper, zinc, iron, triglycerides, high density lipoprotein, low density lipoprotein, very low density lipoprotein, glucose levels and 20 haematological variables were measured. The 95.0% reference intervals were calculated by removing the upper and lower 2.5% of the interval for each serum biochemical constituent to give the 2.5 and 97.5 percentiles. Confidence intervals were calculated for each reference limit. Reference intervals from the current study were compared with established values for cows. The current study is as far as could be determined the first that establishes reference intervals for the serum biochemical and haematological parameters in water buffalo heifers. PMID:24831856

  15. Molecular Characterization and Resistant Spectrum of Enterococci Isolated from a Haematology Unit in China

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Jiajia; Shi, Jinfang; Zhao, Ruike; Han, Qingzhen; Qian, Xuefeng; Gu, Guohao; Zhang, Xianfeng

    2015-01-01

    Objectives The present study screened clinical isolates of E. faecalis and E. faecium to determine resistant spectrum and the potential virulence genes characterization among them of haematology patients. Methods Clinical Enterococci isolates were obtained from a haematology unit in a tertiary care hospital in China. Results Among 125 isolates available for the investigation, 46 were identified as E. faecium, and 79 were E. faecalis. Urine was the most common source (82, 65.6%). E. faecium isolates were more resistant than E. faecalis. Among E. faecium, maximum resistance was seen against PEN 93.5% and AMP 93.5% followed by CIP 87%. Eight vancomycin-resistant E. faecium (VREfm) isolates were obtained, positive for vanA genotype. Of 125 Enterococci isolates, 67(53.6%) were acm, and 42.4%, 25.6%, 25.6%, 24.8%, 23.2%, 20.8%, 10.4% and 7.2% of isolates were positive for esp, cylL-A, asa 1, cylL-S, cpd, cylL-L, gel-E and ace, respectively. E. faecalis isolates have more virulence genes (VGs) than E. faecium. MLST analysis of VREfm identified three different STs (ST17, ST78 and ST203). Conclusion The study provides the molecular characterization and resistant spectrum of Enterococci isolated from a haematology unit in China. Molecular analysis showed that all VREfm isolates belonged to pandemic clonal complex-17(CC17), associated with hospital-related isolates. Therefore, determining resistant spectrum and virulence characterization is crucial for the prevention and control of the spread of nosocomial infections caused by Enterococci in the haematology unit. PMID:26266119

  16. Effects of lichen extracts on haematological parameters of rats with experimental insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Colak, Suat; Geyikoğlu, Fatime; Aslan, Ali; Deniz, Gülşah Yıldız

    2014-11-01

    The prevalence of diabetes mellitus in the world is steadily increasing. Oxidative stress contributes to the development of diabetic complications, including diabetic haematological changes. Lichens are used as food supplements and are also used as possible natural antioxidant, antimicrobial and anticancer agents. We hypothesized that antioxidant activity of lichens may decrease hyperglycaemia-induced oxidative stress and prevent the development of diabetic complications, including abnormality in haematological condition. Therefore, the effects of Cetraria islandica water extract (CIWE) and Pseudevernia furfuracea water extract (PFWE) on the haematological parameters of rats with type 1 DM were investigated for the first time in the present study. Control Sprague-Dawley or streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats were either untreated or treated with water lichen extracts (5-500 mg/kg body weight (bw)/day) for 2 weeks, starting at 72 h after STZ injection. On day 14, animals were anaesthetized and haematological and metabolic parameters were determined between control and experimental groups. In addition, the total oxidative stress (TOS), a specific indicator of oxidative stress, and the total antioxidant capacity (TAC) were measured by biochemical studies. In diabetic rats, CIWE of 250-500 mg/kg bw dose showed more prominent results when compared with doses of PFWE for TAC. The results obtained in the present study suggested that the antioxidant activities of lichens might be the possible reason behind the observed antihaematological status. However, the protective effect of lichen extracts were inadequate on diabetes-induced microcytic hypochromic anaemia. In addition, the extracts have no effect on metabolic complications. Our experimental data showed that high doses of CIWE and PFWE alone have no detrimental effect on blood cells and TOS status of plasma. Hence, they are safe and suitable for different administration routes. PMID:23114377

  17. Candiduria in haematologic malignancy patients without a urinary catheter: nothing more than a frailty marker?

    PubMed

    Georgiadou, Sarah P; Tarrand, Jeffrey; Sipsas, Nikolaos V; Kontoyiannis, Dimitrios P

    2013-05-01

    There is scarcity of data regarding significance of candiduria in patients with haematologic malignancies and its association with invasive candidiasis. To that end, we retrospectively evaluated all hospitalised, non-intensive care unit patients with haematologic malignancies and candiduria during a 10-year period (2001-2011). To decrease the possibility of bladder colonisation and sample contamination, we excluded all patients with candiduria who had urinary catheters and those with concomitant bacteriuria. Twenty-four such patients (21 females) were identified, with median age at diagnosis 62 years (range, 20-82 years). Acute leukaemia was the most common underlying disease (54%); 62% of these cases were not in remission. Twenty-nine percent of the patients had diabetes mellitus and 25% were neutropenic. The most common isolated Candida species was Candida glabrata (37%), followed by C. albicans (29%). Only 8% of them had urinary tract infection symptoms. However, 88% received systemic antifungals. Candidemia and crude mortality rates at 4 weeks were low (4% and 12% respectively). Isolated candiduria in patients with haematologic malignancies has risk factors similar to those in other hospitalised patients, and it does not seem to be a strong predictor of subsequent invasive candidiasis. PMID:23170870

  18. Fertility preservation in patients with haematological disorders: a retrospective cohort study?

    PubMed Central

    Senapati, Suneeta; Morse, Christopher B; Sammel, Mary D; Kim, Jayeon; Mersereau, Jennifer E; Efymow, Brenda; Gracia, Clarisa R

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the factors associated with utilization of fertility preservation and the differences in treatments and outcomes by prior chemotherapy exposure in patients with haematological diseases. This study included all 67 women with haematological diseases seen for fertility preservation consultation at two university hospitals between 2006 and 2011. Of the total, 49% had lymphoma, 33% had leukaemia, 7% had myelodysplastic syndrome and 4% had aplastic anaemia; 46% had prior chemotherapy; and 33% were planning for bone marrow transplantation, 33% pursued ovarian stimulation and 7% used ovarian tissue banking; and 48% of patients did not pursue fertility preservation treatment. All five cycle cancellations were in the post-chemotherapy group: three patients with leukaemia and two with lymphoma. Patients with prior chemotherapy had lower baseline antral follicle count (10 versus 22) and received more gonadotrophins to achieve similar peak oestradiol concentrations, with no difference in oocyte yield (10.5 versus 10) after adjustment for age. Embryo yield was similar between those who had prior chemotherapy and those who had not. Half of the patients with haematological diseases who present for fertility preservation have been exposed to chemotherapy. While ovarian reserve is likely impaired in this group, oocyte yield may be acceptable. PMID:24140311

  19. Utility of next-generation sequencing technologies for the efficient genetic resolution of haematological disorders.

    PubMed

    Zhang, J; Barbaro, P; Guo, Y; Alodaib, A; Li, J; Gold, W; Adès, L; Keating, B J; Xu, X; Teo, J; Hakonarson, H; Christodoulou, J

    2016-02-01

    Next-generation sequencing (NGS) has now evolved to be a relatively affordable and efficient means of detecting genetic mutations. Whole genome sequencing (WGS) or whole exome sequencing (WES) offers the opportunity for rapid diagnosis in many paediatric haematological conditions, where phenotypes are variable and either a large number of genes are involved, or the genes are large making sanger sequencing expensive and labour-intensive. NGS offers the potential for gene discovery in patients who do not have mutations in currently known genes. This report shows how WES was used in the diagnosis of six paediatric haematology cases. In four cases (Diamond-Blackfan anaemia, congenital neutropenia (n = 2), and Fanconi anaemia), the diagnosis was suspected based on classical phenotype, and NGS confirmed those suspicions. Mutations in RPS19, ELANE and FANCD2 were found. The final two cases (MYH9 associated macrothrombocytopenia associated with multiple congenital anomalies; atypical juvenile myelomonocytic leukaemia associated with a KRAS mutation) highlight the utility of NGS where the diagnosis is less certain, or where there is an unusual phenotype. We discuss the advantages and limitations of NGS in the setting of these cases, and in haematological conditions more broadly, and discuss where NGS is most efficiently used. PMID:25703294

  20. Haematological and Biochemical Parameters during the Laying Period in Common Pheasant Hens Housed in Enhanced Cages

    PubMed Central

    Hrabčáková, Petra; Voslářová, Eva; Bedáňová, Iveta; Pištěková, Vladimíra; Chloupek, Jan; Večerek, Vladimír

    2014-01-01

    The development of selected haematological and biochemical parameters during the laying period was monitored in common pheasant hens housed in an enhanced cage system. The cages were enhanced by the addition of two perches and a shelter formed by strips of cloth hanging in the corner of the cage. The results showed significant changes in the haematological and biochemical parameters monitored during egg laying. At the time when laying capacity approached a maximum, a decrease was observed (P < 0.05) in haematocrit, erythrocytes, and haemoglobin values, whereas monocytes, eosinophils, the heterophil/lymphocyte ratio, phosphorus, and calcium exhibited an increase (P < 0.05). At the end of the laying period, an increase (P < 0.05) was recorded in the count of leukocytes, heterophils, lymphocytes and basophils, the heterophil to lymphocyte ratio, and the concentrations of aspartate aminotransferase, cholesterol, phosphorus, and calcium, whereas lower values (P < 0.05) were recorded for haematocrit and plasma total protein in comparison with the values of the indicators at the beginning of the laying period. The results provide new information about dynamic changes in selected haematological and biochemical parameters in clinically healthy common pheasant hens during the laying period. PMID:25121117

  1. Trichlorfon-induced haematological and biochemical changes in Cyprinus carpio: ameliorative effect of propolis.

    PubMed

    Yonar, M Enis; Yonar, Serpil Mi?e; Pala, Ay?egl; Silici, Sibel; Sa?lam, Naim

    2015-06-01

    Trichlorfon is among the most commonly used products to treat fish parasites in aquaculture. We investigated the effectiveness of propolis in alleviating the toxicity of trichlorfon on haematological and oxidant/antioxidant parameters in carp Cyprinus carpio. Fish were exposed to sublethal concentrations (11 and 22 mg l-1) of trichlorfon, and propolis (10 mg kg-1 of fish weight) was simultaneously administered. At the end of 14 d administration, blood and tissue (liver, kidney, gill) samples were collected. Haematological changes (red and white blood cell count, haemoglobin concentration, haematocrit level and erythrocyte indices: mean corpuscular volume, mean corpuscular haemoglobin and mean corpuscular haemoglobin concentration) were determined in the blood samples, while antioxidant parameters (malondialdehyde and reduced glutathione levels and superoxide dismutase, catalase and glutathione peroxidase activities) were evaluated in the liver, kidney and gill samples. Trichlorfon led to negative alterations in the haematological and antioxidant parameters investigated. The administration of propolis alleviated this effect and suggests that fish treated with trichlorfon improve their physiological status when fed a propolis-supplemented diet. PMID:26036828

  2. KIR Genes and Patterns Given by the A Priori Algorithm: Immunity for Haematological Malignancies

    PubMed Central

    Rodríguez-Escobedo, J. Gilberto; García-Sepúlveda, Christian A.; Cuevas-Tello, Juan C.

    2015-01-01

    Killer-cell immunoglobulin-like receptors (KIRs) are membrane proteins expressed by cells of innate and adaptive immunity. The KIR system consists of 17 genes and 614 alleles arranged into different haplotypes. KIR genes modulate susceptibility to haematological malignancies, viral infections, and autoimmune diseases. Molecular epidemiology studies rely on traditional statistical methods to identify associations between KIR genes and disease. We have previously described our results by applying support vector machines to identify associations between KIR genes and disease. However, rules specifying which haplotypes are associated with greater susceptibility to malignancies are lacking. Here we present the results of our investigation into the rules governing haematological malignancy susceptibility. We have studied the different haplotypic combinations of 17 KIR genes in 300 healthy individuals and 43 patients with haematological malignancies (25 with leukaemia and 18 with lymphomas). We compare two machine learning algorithms against traditional statistical analysis and show that the “a priori” algorithm is capable of discovering patterns unrevealed by previous algorithms and statistical approaches. PMID:26495028

  3. Altitude training causes haematological fluctuations with relevance for the Athlete Biological Passport.

    PubMed

    Bonne, Thomas Christian; Lundby, Carsten; Lundby, Anne Kristine; Sander, Mikael; Bejder, Jacob; Nordsborg, Nikolai Baastrup

    2015-08-01

    The impact of altitude training on haematological parameters and the Athlete Biological Passport (ABP) was evaluated in international-level elite athletes. One group of swimmers lived high and trained high (LHTH, n = 10) for three to four weeks at 2130 m or higher whereas a control group (n = 10) completed a three-week training camp at sea-level. Haematological parameters were determined weekly three times before and four times after the training camps. ABP thresholds for haemoglobin concentration ([Hb]), reticulocyte percentage (RET%), OFF score and the abnormal blood profile score (ABPS) were calculated using the Bayesian model. After altitude training, six swimmers exceeded the 99% ABP thresholds: two swimmers exceeded the OFF score thresholds at day +7; one swimmer exceeded the OFF score threshold at day +28; one swimmer exceeded the threshold for RET% at day +14; and one swimmer surpassed the ABPS threshold at day +14. In the control group, no values exceeded the individual ABP reference range. In conclusion, LHTH induces haematological changes in Olympic-level elite athletes which can exceed the individually generated references in the ABP. Training at altitude should be considered a confounding factor for ABP interpretation for up to four weeks after altitude exposure but does not consistently cause abnormal values in the ABP. PMID:25545030

  4. Haematological and biochemical parameters during the laying period in common pheasant hens housed in enhanced cages.

    PubMed

    Hrab?kov, Petra; Vosl?ov, Eva; Bed?ov, Iveta; Pit?kov, Vladimra; Chloupek, Jan; Ve?erek, Vladimr

    2014-01-01

    The development of selected haematological and biochemical parameters during the laying period was monitored in common pheasant hens housed in an enhanced cage system. The cages were enhanced by the addition of two perches and a shelter formed by strips of cloth hanging in the corner of the cage. The results showed significant changes in the haematological and biochemical parameters monitored during egg laying. At the time when laying capacity approached a maximum, a decrease was observed (P < 0.05) in haematocrit, erythrocytes, and haemoglobin values, whereas monocytes, eosinophils, the heterophil/lymphocyte ratio, phosphorus, and calcium exhibited an increase (P < 0.05). At the end of the laying period, an increase (P < 0.05) was recorded in the count of leukocytes, heterophils, lymphocytes and basophils, the heterophil to lymphocyte ratio, and the concentrations of aspartate aminotransferase, cholesterol, phosphorus, and calcium, whereas lower values (P < 0.05) were recorded for haematocrit and plasma total protein in comparison with the values of the indicators at the beginning of the laying period. The results provide new information about dynamic changes in selected haematological and biochemical parameters in clinically healthy common pheasant hens during the laying period. PMID:25121117

  5. Establishment of baseline haematology and biochemistry parameters in wild adult African penguins (Spheniscus demersus).

    PubMed

    Parsons, Nola J; Schaefer, Adam M; van der Spuy, Stephen D; Gous, Tertius A

    2015-01-01

    There are few publications on the clinical haematology and biochemistry of African penguins (Spheniscus demersus) and these are based on captive populations. Baseline haematology and serum biochemistry parameters were analysed from 108 blood samples from wild, adult African penguins. Samples were collected from the breeding range of the African penguin in South Africa and the results were compared between breeding region and sex. The haematological parameters that were measured were: haematocrit, haemoglobin, red cell count and white cell count. The biochemical parameters that were measured were: sodium, potassium, chloride, calcium, inorganic phosphate, creatinine, cholesterol, serum glucose, uric acid, bile acid, total serum protein, albumin, aspartate transaminase and creatine kinase. All samples were serologically negative for selected avian diseases and no blood parasites were detected. No haemolysis was present in any of the analysed samples. Male African penguins were larger and heavier than females, with higher haematocrit, haemoglobin and red cell count values, but lower calcium and phosphate values. African penguins in the Eastern Cape were heavier than those in the Western Cape, with lower white cell count and globulin values and a higher albumin/globulin ratio, possibly indicating that birds are in a poorer condition in the Western Cape. Results were also compared between multiple penguin species and with African penguins in captivity. These values for healthy, wild, adult penguins can be used for future health and disease assessments. PMID:26016391

  6. Effect of ellagic acid on some haematological, immunological and antioxidant parameters of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss).

    PubMed

    Mişe Yonar, S; Yonar, M E; Yöntürk, Y; Pala, A

    2014-10-01

    In this study, effect of ellagic acid on some haematological, immunological and antioxidant parameters in the blood and various tissues of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) were examined. Four groups of rainbow trout were fed experimental diets containing either no ellagic acid (control) or supplemented with ellagic acid at 50 mg/kg diet (EA-50), 100 mg/kg diet (EA-100) or 150 mg/kg diet (EA-150) for 21 days. Samples of the blood and tissue (liver, kidney and spleen) were collected at the end of the experiment and analysed for their haematological profile (the red blood cell count, the haemoglobin concentration and the haematocrit level), immune response (the white blood cell count, the oxidative radical production (NBT activity), the total plasma protein and total immunoglobulin level) and oxidant/antioxidant status (the malondialdehyde level, the superoxide dismutase, catalase and glutathione peroxidase activity as well as the reduced glutathione concentration). The findings of this study demonstrated that ellagic acid had a positive effect on the haematological parameters, the immune response and the antioxidant enzyme activities of the fish. PMID:24401136

  7. The Efficacy of Nardostachys Jatamansi Against The Radiation Induced Haematological Damage In Rats

    PubMed Central

    Gowda, Damodara K M; Shetty, Lathika; A P, Krishna; Kumari, Suchetha N; Sanjeev, Ganesh; P, Naveen

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: Radiation is increasingly being used for medical purposes and it is an established weapon in the diagnosis and the therapy of cancer. An exposure to 1-2 Gys causes the NVD (Nausea, vomiting, diarrhoea) syndrome, whereas an exposure to 2-6 Gys causes the haematopoietic syndrome. The aim of the present study was to investigate the protective effect of the Nardostachys jatamansi root extract (NJE) on the radiation induced haematological damage in rats. Materials and Methods: EBR was performed at the Microtron Centre, Mangalore University, India. Rats were treated with NJE once daily for 15 days before and after the irradiation. After the irradiation, blood was collected for determining the peripheral blood counts (RBC and WBC), haemoglobin, the platelet count and the packed cell volume (PCV) at 6 hours, 12 hours, 24 hours, 48 hours and 5, 10 and 15 days post irradiation. The data was analyzed by one way ANOVA, followed by the Tukeys test for multiple comparisons. Result: NJE provided protection against the radiation induced haematological disorders. The rats treated with NJE exhibited a time dependent significant elevation in all the haematological parameters which were studied and its modulation upto the near normal level was recorded. Conclusion: From this study, we concluded that, NJE provides protection by modulating the radiation induced damage on the haematopoietic system. PMID:23905085

  8. Haematological malignancies: the rationale for integrated haematopathology services, key elements of organization and wider contribution to patient care.

    PubMed

    Ireland, Robin

    2011-01-01

    The National Institute for Clinical Excellence (NICE) defined the process of care for haematological malignancies in Improving outcomes in haematological cancers. The manual in 2003. The most challenging recommendation has been the requirement to develop integrated laboratory services for accurate diagnosis. This is an aim that has not been fully achieved. The unified concept of haematological malignancy is recent and based on an understanding of the cellular pathology of the bone marrow and immune systems. Historical UK pathology practice has previously resulted in the separation of laboratory haematology from histopathology and of liquid and tissue specimens. Proposals for reintegration and centralization with specialist-led, centralized diagnostic and reporting services challenge the fragmented historical model. Accuracy and certainty of diagnosis remains problematic, particularly for lymphomas, with evidence that the accuracy of diagnosis is slowly improving but still only approaches 85%. There is a potentially significant human and financial cost of diagnostic errors. No nationwide, validated and comparable epidemiology/population-based data exist for accurate and complete ascertainment of new cases of haematological cancer, service planning or clinical outcomes monitoring. This article examines the original rationale behind the NICE guidance and outlines the key components and processes of an integrated diagnostic service. PMID:21261689

  9. ATM germline mutations in women with familial breast cancer and a relative with haematological malignancy.

    PubMed

    Paglia, Laura La; Laug, Anthony; Weber, Jrmie; Champ, Jrme; Cavaciuti, Eve; Russo, Antonio; Viovy, Jean-Louis; Stoppa-Lyonnet, Dominique

    2010-01-01

    Biallelic inactivation of the ATM gene causes ataxia-telangiectasia (A-T), a complex neurological disease associated with a high risk of leukaemias and lymphomas. Mothers of A-T children, obligate ATM heterozygote mutation carriers, have a breast cancer (BC) relative risk of about 3. The frequency of ATM carriers in BC women with a BC family history has been estimated to be 2.70%. To further our clinical understanding of familial BC and examine whether haematological malignancies are predictive of ATM germline mutation, we estimated the frequency of heterozygote mutation carriers in a series of 122 BC women with a family history of both BC and haematological malignancy and without BRCA1/2 mutation. The gene screening was performed with a new high throughput method, EMMA (enhanced mismatch mutation analysis). Amongst 28 different ATM variants, eight mutations have been identified in eight patients: two mutations leading to a putative truncated protein and six being likely deleterious mutations. One of the truncating mutations was initially interpreted as a missense mutation, p.Asp2597Tyr, but is actually a splice mutation (c.7789G>T/p.Asp2597_Lys2643>LysfsX3). The estimated frequency of ATM heterozygote mutation carriers in our series is 6.56% (95% CI: 2.16-10.95), a significantly higher figure than that observed in the general population, estimated to be between 0.3 and 0.6%. Although a trend towards an increased frequency of ATM carriers was observed, it was not different from that observed in a population of familial BC women not selected for haematological malignancy as the frequency of ATM carriers was 2.70%, a value situated in the confidence interval of our study. PMID:19404735

  10. Modulation of platelet aggregation, haematological and histological parameters by structured lipids on hypercholesterolaemic rats.

    PubMed

    Sengupta, Avery; Ghosh, Mahua

    2010-05-01

    The effect of the consumption of medium-chain fatty acid (MCFA)-rich and polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA)-rich mustard oil on platelet aggregation, haematological parameters and the liver was studied in male albino rats. The rats were fed on standard stock diet with control (mustard oil) and experimental oils for 28 days. Haematological examinations in the normal condition showed that there was no significant variation in the platelet count, total white blood cell (WBC) and red blood cell (RBC) counts, haematocrit value and mean cell haemoglobin concentration (MCHC) percentage in the rats fed with control and experimental oils. Haematological examinations in the hypercholesterolaemic condition revealed that there was a significant increase in the platelet count by 39.38% in hypercholesterolaemia, which was decreased by 27.29 and 42.71% by the administration of the experimental oils, respectively. The haemoglobin level was decreased by 5.3%, whereas the haematocrit value was increased by 12.52% in hypercholesterolaemia, which were normalised by treatment with the experimental oils. The platelet aggregation study indicated that the adenosine diphosphate (ADP)-induced platelet aggregation increased by 71.67% in hypercholesterolaemia, but the experimental oils beneficially reduced platelet aggregation by 26.33 and 68.33%, respectively. There was increased total cholesterol, non-high-density lipoprotein (non-HDL) cholesterol and triglyceride levels in liver in hypercholesterolaemia, which was also recovered by the administration of experimental oils. Organopathological examination showed that there was deposition of cholesterol in the liver in the hypercholesterolaemic condition, which was also reduced by treatment with the two experimental oils. PMID:20401638

  11. Infection by Brazilian and Dutch swine hepatitis E virus strains induces haematological changes in Macaca fascicularis

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Hepatitis E virus (HEV) has been described as an emerging pathogen in Brazil and seems to be widely disseminated among swine herds. An autochthonous human case of acute hepatitis E was recently reported. To obtain a better understanding of the phenotypic profiles of both human and swine HEV strains, a experimental study was conducted using the animal model, Macaca fascicularis. Methods Six cynomolgus monkeys (Macaca fascicularis) were inoculated intravenously with swine HEV genotype 3 that was isolated from naturally and experimentally infected pigs in Brazil and the Netherlands. Two other monkeys were inoculated with HEV genotype 3 that was recovered from Brazilian and Argentinean patients with locally acquired acute and fulminant hepatitis E. The haematological, biochemical, and virological parameters of all animals were monitored for 67 days. Results Subclinical hepatitis was observed in all monkeys after inoculation with HEV genotype 3 that was recovered from the infected swine and human patients. HEV RNA was detected in the serum and/or faeces of 6 out of the 8 cynomolgus monkeys between 5 and 53 days after inoculation. The mild inflammation of liver tissues and elevations of discrete liver enzymes were observed. Seroconversions to anti-HEV IgM and/or IgG were detected in 7 animals. Reactivities to anti-HEV IgA were also detected in the salivary samples of 3 animals. Interestingly, all of the infected monkeys showed severe lymphopenia and a trend toward monocytosis, which coincided with elevations in alanine aminotransferase and antibody titres. Conclusions The ability of HEV to cross the species barrier was confirmed for both the swine (Brazilian and Dutch) and human (Argentinean) strains, thus reinforcing the zoonotic risk of hepatitis E in South America. Cynomolgus monkeys that were infected with HEV genotype 3 developed subclinical hepatitis that was associated with haematological changes. Haematological approaches should be considered in future studies of HEV infection. PMID:24148233

  12. Alcohol drinking, tobacco smoking and subtypes of haematological malignancy in the UK Million Women Study

    PubMed Central

    Kroll, M E; Murphy, F; Pirie, K; Reeves, G K; Green, J; Beral, V

    2012-01-01

    Background: Previous research suggests associations of lower alcohol intake and higher tobacco consumption with increased risks of haematological malignancy. The prospective Million Women Study provides sufficient power for reliable estimates of subtype-specific associations in women. Methods: Approximately 1.3 million middle-aged women were recruited in the United Kingdom during 1996–2001 and followed for death, emigration and cancer registration until 2009 (mean 10.3 years per woman); potential risk factors were assessed by questionnaire. Adjusted relative risks were estimated by Cox regression. Results: During follow-up, 9162 incident cases of haematological malignancy were recorded, including 7047 lymphoid and 2072 myeloid cancers. Among predominantly moderate alcohol drinkers, higher intake was associated with lower risk of lymphoid malignancies, in particular diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (relative risk 0.85 per 10 g alcohol per day (95% confidence interval 0.75–0.96)), follicular lymphoma (0.86 (0.76–0.98)) and plasma cell neoplasms (0.86 (0.77–0.96)). Among never- and current smokers, higher cigarette consumption was associated with increased risk of Hodgkin lymphoma (1.45 per 10 cigarettes per day (1.22–1.72)), mature T-cell malignancies (1.38 (1.10–1.73)) and myeloproliferative/myelodysplastic disease (1.42 (1.31–1.55)). Conclusion: These findings confirm and extend existing evidence for associations of subtypes of haematological malignancy with two common exposures in women. PMID:22878373

  13. Seasonal changes in haematology, lymphocyte transferrin receptors and intracellular iron in Ironman triathletes and untrained men.

    PubMed

    Broadbent, Suzanne

    2011-01-01

    We investigated whether 12 months of chronic endurance training would affect haematology, CD4(+) lymphocyte transferrin receptor (CD71) expression, CD4(+) intracellular iron and the incidence of upper respiratory tract illnesses (URTI) in Ironman triathletes compared with untrained men. Resting venous blood samples were taken from 15 Ironman triathletes (TR 30 ± 5 year) and 12 untrained men (UT 30 ± 6 year) every 4 weeks for 12 months. Erythrocyte, leukocyte and platelet concentration, haematocrit, haemoglobin (Hb) and mean corpuscular haemoglobin (MCHC) were measured with a full blood count. CD4(+) lymphocytes were analysed for changes in transferrin receptor (CD71) expression (CD4(+)CD71(+)), and intracellular iron (Fe(3+)), by flow cytometry. The TR group had significantly lower Hb, MCHC, and platelets for 10, 9 and 11 months, respectively; lower CD4(+)CD71(+) (3 months) and Fe(3+) (1 month), respectively; higher CD4(+)CD71(+) (1 month); a higher lymphocyte count for 4 months. There were no between-group differences in other variables. In both groups haematology and lymphocytes increased during spring, early summer and winter and decreased during late summer/late winter, with an inverse relationship between CD4(+)CD71(+) and Fe(3+). The TR group reported significantly fewer URTI than the UT. Low Hb and MCHC suggest an iron deficiency which may affect triathlete performance. Monthly changes in lymphocytes, CD4(+)CD71(+) and Fe(3+) suggested that spring, summer and late autumn are associated with CD4(+) proliferation. There may be seasonal relationships between haematology and lymphocyte function, independent of endurance training, possibly affecting performance but not the incidence of URTI. PMID:20821024

  14. A probable role of blood lead levels on some haematological parameters in traffic police, Lahore, Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Khan, Shafaat Yar; Arshad, Muhammad; Arshad, Najma; Shafaat, Shazia; Tahir, Hafiz Muhammad

    2016-05-01

    The impact of elevated blood lead level on some haematological parameters was studied in the field force of Lahore traffic police, in Pakistan. The blood samples were tested for total leucocytes count (TLC) and differential leucocytes count in the persons with high and low blood lead levels. The TLC and percentage of neutrophils and eosinophils were observed as being significantly elevated in the policemen. No significant change was observed in the percentage of lymphocytes, while the percentage of monocytes was observed as being significantly less in the field force of traffic police. PMID:24311624

  15. Age-related haematological changes and haemopathological responses in Chilean flamingos (Phoenicopterus chiliensis).

    PubMed

    Hawkey, C; Hart, M G; Samour, H J

    1984-04-01

    Full blood counts and fibrinogen estimations were carried out on 49 clinically normal Chilean flamingos of different ages. Compared with adults, chicks aged 2-3 months showed low haemoglobin levels, red cell counts, packed cell volumes and mean cell haemoglobin concentrations. There was a rise in haemoglobin level and red cell count with increasing age but the mean cell haemoglobin concentration did not reach optimum until the birds were mature. In chicks the total white cell count was high and the number of heterophils was widely variable. Findings on four sick adult birds provided preliminary evidence that clinical haematology has a potential diagnostic value in this species. PMID:18766839

  16. Yoga in addition to standard care for patients with haematological malignancies

    PubMed Central

    Felbel, Steffen; Meerpohl, Joerg J; Monsef, Ina; Engert, Andreas; Skoetz, Nicole

    2016-01-01

    Background Haematological malignancies are malignant neoplasms of the myeloid or lymphatic cell lines including leukaemia, lymphoma and myeloma. In order to manage physical and psychological aspects of the disease and its treatment, complementary therapies like yoga are coming increasingly into focus. However, the effectiveness of yoga practice for people suffering from haematological malignancies remains unclear. Objectives To assess the effects of yoga practice in addition to standard cancer treatment for people with haematological malignancies. Search methods Our search strategy included the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), MEDLINE (1950 to 4th February 2014), databases of ongoing trials (controlled-trials.com; clinicaltrials.gov), conference proceedings of the American Society of Clinical Oncology, the American Society of Hematology, the European Haematology Association, the European Congress for Integrative Medicine, and Global Advances in Health and Medicine. We handsearched references of these studies from identified trials and relevant review articles. Two review authors independently screened the search results. Selection criteria We included randomised controlled trials (RCTs) of yoga in addition to standard care for haematological malignancies compared with standard care only. We did not restrict this to any specific style of yoga. Data collection and analysis Two review authors independently extracted data for eligible studies and assessed the risk of bias according to predefined criteria. We evaluated distress, fatigue, anxiety, depression and quality of sleep. Further outcomes we planned to assess were health-related quality of life (HRQoL), overall survival (OS) and adverse events (AE), but data on these were not available. Main results Our search strategies led to 149 potentially relevant references, but only a single small study met our inclusion criteria. The included study was published as a full text article and investigated the feasibility and effect of Tibetan Yoga additional to standard care (N = 20; 1 person dropped out before attending any classes and no data were collected) compared to standard care only (N = 19). The study included people with all stages of Hodgkin and non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma, with and without current cancer treatment. The mean age was 51 years. We judged the overall risk of bias as high as we found a high risk for performance, detection and attrition bias. Additionally, potential outcome reporting bias could not be completely ruled out. Following the recommendations of GRADE, we judged the overall quality of the body of evidence for all predefined outcomes as ‘very low’, due to the methodical limitations and the very small sample size. The influence of yoga on HRQoL and OS was not reported. There is no evidence that yoga in addition to standard care compared with standard care only can improve distress in people with haematological malignancies (mean difference (MD) −0.30, 95% confidence interval (CI) −5.55 to 4.95; P = 0.91). Similarly, there is no evidence of a difference between either group for fatigue (MD 0.00, 95% CI −0.94 to 0.94; P = 1.00), anxiety (MD 0.30, 95% CI −5.01 to 5.61; P = 0.91) or depression (MD −0.70, 95% CI −3.21 to 1.81; P = 0.58). There is very low quality evidence that yoga improves the overall quality of sleep (MD −2.30, 95% CI −3.78 to −0.82; P = 0.002). The yoga groups’ total score for the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) was 5.8 (± 2.3 SD) and better than the total score (8.1 (± 2.4 SD)) of the control group. A PSQI total score of 0 to 5 indicates good sleep whereas PSQI total score 6 to 21 points towards significant sleep disturbances. The occurrence of AEs was not reported. Authors’ conclusions The currently available data provide little information about the effectiveness of yoga interventions for people suffering from haemato-logical malignancies. The finding that yoga may be beneficial for the patients’ quality of sleep is based on a very small body of evidence. Therefore, the role of yoga as an additional therapy for haematological malignancies remains unclear. Further high-quality randomised controlled trials with larger numbers of participants are needed to make a definitive statement. PMID:24919720

  17. Detection of quantitative trait loci affecting haematological traits in swine via genome scanning

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Haematological traits, which consist of mainly three components: leukocyte traits, erythrocyte traits and platelet traits, play extremely important role in animal immune function and disease resistance. But knowledge of the genetic background controlling variability of these traits is very limited, especially in swine. Results In the present study, 18 haematological traits (7 leukocyte traits, 7 erythrocyte traits and 4 platelet traits) were measured in a pig resource population consisting of 368 purebred piglets of three breeds (Landrace, Large White and Songliao Black Pig), after inoculation with the swine fever vaccine when the pigs were 21 days old. A whole-genome scan of QTL for these traits was performed using 206 microsatellite markers covering all 18 autosomes and the X chromosome. Using variance component analysis based on a linear mixed model and the false discovery rate (FDR) test, 35 QTL with FDR < 0.10 were identified: 3 for the leukocyte traits, 28 for the erythrocyte traits, and 4 for the platelet traits. Of the 35 QTL, 25 were significant at FDR < 0.05 level, including 9 significant at FDR < 0.01 level. Conclusions Very few QTL were previously identified for hematological traits of pigs and never in purebred populations. Most of the QTL detected here, in particular the QTL for the platelet traits, have not been reported before. Our results lay important foundation for identifying the causal genes underlying the hematological trait variations in pigs. PMID:20584270

  18. Haematology and plasma chemistry of the red top ice blue mbuna cichlid (Metriaclima greshakei).

    PubMed

    Snellgrove, Donna L; Alexander, Lucille G

    2011-10-01

    Clinical haematology and blood plasma chemistry can be used as a valuable tool to provide substantial diagnostic information for fish. A wide range of parameters can be used to assess nutritional status, digestive function, disease identification, routine metabolic levels, general physiological status and even the assessment and management of wild fish populations. However to evaluate such data accurately, baseline reference intervals for each measurable parameter must be established for the species of fish in question. Baseline data for ornamental fish species are limited, as research is more commonly conducted using commercially cultured fish. Blood samples were collected from sixteen red top ice blue cichlids (Metriaclima greshakei), an ornamental freshwater fish, to describe a range of haematology and plasma chemistry parameters. Since this cichlid is fairly large in comparison with most tropical ornamental fish, two independent blood samples were taken to assess a large range of parameters. No significant differences were noted between sample periods for any parameter. Values obtained for a large number of parameters were similar to those established for other closely related fish species such as tilapia (Oreochromis spp.). In addition to reporting the first set of blood values for M. Greshakei, to our knowledge, this study highlights the possibility of using previously established data for cultured cichlid species in studies with ornamental cichlid fish. PMID:22005416

  19. Studies on the haematology and trace element status of adult Bactrian camels (Camelus bactrianus) in China.

    PubMed

    Zongping, Liu

    2003-07-01

    Reference values were established for some haematological and serum biochemical constituents in Bactrian camels (Camelus bactrianus) in China. The contents of seven trace elements in the blood, hair, liver, kidney, heart, spleen, lung, cerebrum, cerebellum, rib, ovary, pancreas and gluteal muscle of Bactrian camels were also measured. Some of these values are reported for the first time for Bactrian camels in China. Most haematological and serum biochemical values were similar to those of cattle, yaks, sheep and dromedary camels, but the mean serum albumin concentration and the albumim/globulin ratio were significantly higher than those in other ruminants and the mean thyroxine concentration was half that in dromedary camels. The liver contained the highest concentrations of copper, zinc, manganese and iron, and the renal cortex contained the highest concentration of selenium. The concentrations of selenium, cobalt, zinc, manganese and molybdenum in the tissues were within the reference ranges for other ruminants, but the mean iron and copper concentrations in the liver were significantly higher than those in other ruminants. PMID:14509454

  20. Alfalfa dodder (Cuscuta campestris) toxicity in horses: clinical, haematological and serum biochemical findings.

    PubMed

    Abutarbush, S M

    2013-07-27

    The objective of this observational study is to describe clinical, haematological and serum biochemical findings of horses affected with alfalfa dodder (Cuscuta campestris) toxicity. Twenty horses naturally exposed to alfalfa dodder toxicity were examined and information was collected on history and clinical signs. Physical examination was done on horses in the premises (n=20), and venous blood samples of 12 horses were submitted for haematology and serum biochemical examination for each horse. Abnormal clinical signs started around 36 hours after horses were fed the contaminated alfalfa. Abnormal signs were seen in 11 horses and those included diarrhoea (n=8), decreased appetite (n=7), neurological signs (n=4) and abdominal pain (n=1). Some horses had multiple clinical signs of the above. The results of complete blood cell count revealed leukocytopenia, neutropenia and thrombocytopenia. Serum biochemical analysis revealed decreased ALP, AST and CPK levels and increased direct bilirubin level. The used alfalfa was stopped immediately and a different alfalfa from a new container that did not contain any weeds was fed. Horses on the premises were observed closely, and the abnormal clinical signs resolved within three days. No treatment was implemented. Knowledge about toxicity of horses by Cuscuta species is scarce in the English veterinary literature and very limited. PMID:23800626

  1. Haematological effects among silk screening workers exposed to 2-ethoxy ethyl acetate

    PubMed Central

    Loh, C; Shih, T; Liou, S; Lin, Y; Hsieh, A; Chen, C; Liao, G

    2003-01-01

    Aims: To investigate the haematological effects in 2-EEA exposed workers. Methods: Workers from one silk screening shop (n = 29), using 2-EEA as the major cleaning and printing solvent, were recruited as a high exposure group. Workers with indirect and non-exposure to 2-EEA (n = 56) were recruited as the comparison group. Venous blood was collected for blood routine examination. Air concentration of 2-EEA in this plant was measured by eight hour personal sampling. Results: The geometric mean (GM) of air concentration of 2-EEA in the high exposure group was 7.41 ppm (range 1.35–16.5 pppm). The mean exposure of female workers (GM = 9.34 ppm) was significantly higher than that of male workers (GM = 4.87 ppm). The GM of air 2-EEA concentration in the comparison group was 0.07 ppm (range: non-detectable to 3.62 ppm, n = 26). The haemoglobin and haematocrit in the female high 2-EEA exposure workers were significantly lower than those of female workers in the comparison group. No difference was found between male 2-EEA high exposure and comparison group workers. The haemoglobin, haematocrit, and RBC count in the study population had a significant dose-response relation with air 2-EEA levels. Conclusion: Results suggest that 2-EEA is a haematological toxicant, which leads to anaemic status in high exposure female workers. PMID:12937203

  2. Relationship between anthropometric and haematological parameters among third trimester pregnant women in Sokoto State, Northwest Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Bamaiyi, A J; Adelaiye, A B; Igbokwe, V U

    2013-01-01

    The pregnancy state in a woman's life is a unique state in terms of the desirable physiological changes and the exciting reversal of the changes soon after the termination of the pregnancy. It is considered essential that to guarantee a good feto-maternal outcome the attainment of optimum anthropometric and haematological parameters are key. Our study assessed the anthropometric and haematological changes and also looked at the relationship that exists between these parameters among pregnant women.We carried out a cross-sectional descriptive study which considered 160 apparently healthy, singleton, third trimester pregnant women attending ANC at the State Specialist Hospital and 58 apparently healthy non-pregnant controls sourced from the Sokoto metropolis population. Each subject or control enrolled was contacted 3 times at 2 weekly intervals. And at each occasion they are assessed for changes in the anthropometric and haematological parameters. The response rate was 93.6% (3 pregnants and 11 controls were loss to follow up). The pregnant and control subgroups mean ages were 28.02 ± 6.81 years and 26.89 ± 5.84 years respectively (p = 0.265). Weekly weight gains of 0.48kg among the pregnant sub-group against 0.13kg obtained in the control group were recorded. BMI increase of about 0.19kg/m2 per week among the pregnant sub-group and only 0.05kg per week in the controls. 95% of the distribution of pregnant sub-group has haemoglobin and haematocrit of ≥8.9g/dL and ≥26% respectively. Among the pregnant sub-group, mean weekly haemoglobin and haematocrit drop of 0.24g/dL and 0.74% were respectively recorded. A steady rise in WBC was recorded but platelets counts dropped at an average of 5.04 x 103 /μL per week. A positive correlation between BMI and haemoglobin levels was observed (r > 0 and p < 0.05). No particular regularity in the relationship between BMI and WBC was noticed. We conclude that there was optimum weight gain and good haematological indices for those with good BMI during the third trimester of pregnancy. There was a positive correlation between BMI and plasma haemoglobin level but WBC showed no particular relationship with the anthropometric changes. We therefore, recommend that good education to improve the socio- economic wellbeing of the girl-child be encouraged to boost self sufficiency for better weight gains and to facilitate access to good healthcare so that the ideal anthropometric and haematological parameters can be achieved during pregnancy to guarantee good feto-maternal outcome. PMID:24937399

  3. Comparison of the influence of EDTA-K3 and sodium citrate on haematology analysis in healthy dogs.

    PubMed

    Zmigrodzka, M; Winnicka, A; Guzera, M

    2012-01-01

    The study was carried out on 30 clinically healthy dogs of various breeds. Haemoglobin concentration, haematocrit, platelet count and platelet haematocrit were significantly lower in citrate blood than in tripotassium ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA-K3) blood. The study confirmed the limited usage of sodium citrate in haematology analysis, unless canine EDTA-dependent thrombocytopenia is suspected. PMID:22844720

  4. Different doses of prophylactic platelet transfusion for preventing bleeding in patients with haematological disorders after chemotherapy or stem cell transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Estcourt, Lise J; Stanworth, Simon; Doree, Carolyn; Trivella, Marialena; Hopewell, Sally; Murphy, Michael F; Tinmouth, Alan

    2014-01-01

    This is the protocol for a review and there is no abstract. The objectives are as follows: To determine whether different doses of prophylactic platelet transfusions (platelet transfusions given to prevent bleeding) affect their efficacy and safety in preventing bleeding in patients with haematological disorders after chemotherapy with or without stem cell transplantation. PMID:25722652

  5. Tales from the Jazz ASH: highlights from the 2013 American Society of Haematology meeting.

    PubMed

    Mazzarella, Luca

    2014-01-01

    The 55th annual ASH meeting was held in pleasant New Orleans and was the largest in its history, with 22,495 participants coming from 113 nations. A 'bench-to-bedside and back' attitude characterises haematology probably more than any other discipline in medicine and, as usual, this was reflected in the extremely wide breadth of the topics covered, including the last results from clinical trials and cutting-edge advancements in basic science. This year, the balance was arguably skewed: few truly clinical practice-changing results were presented. On the other hand, a great number of basic and translational studies significantly increased our understanding of the biology of numerous malignancies and heralded the coming of age of disruptive technologies. Namely, above all, next generation sequencing and T cell engineering-based cell therapy. PMID:24678345

  6. Tales from the Jazz ASH: highlights from the 2013 American Society of Haematology meeting

    PubMed Central

    Mazzarella, Luca

    2014-01-01

    The 55th annual ASH meeting was held in pleasant New Orleans and was the largest in its history, with 22,495 participants coming from 113 nations. A ‘bench-to-bedside and back’ attitude characterises haematology probably more than any other discipline in medicine and, as usual, this was reflected in the extremely wide breadth of the topics covered, including the last results from clinical trials and cutting-edge advancements in basic science. This year, the balance was arguably skewed: few truly clinical practice-changing results were presented. On the other hand, a great number of basic and translational studies significantly increased our understanding of the biology of numerous malignancies and heralded the coming of age of disruptive technologies. Namely, above all, next generation sequencing and T cell engineering-based cell therapy. PMID:24678345

  7. First report of blood parasites in fishes from Kashmir and their effect on the haematological profile

    PubMed Central

    Shahi, N.; Yousuf, A.R.; Rather, M.I.; Ahmad, F.; Yaseen, T.

    2013-01-01

    Cyprinus carpio communis Linnaeus, Carassius carassius Linnaeus, Schizothorax curvifrons Heckel and Triplophysa marmorata species of fishes were captured from Anchar Lake and river Jhelum of Kashmir Himalaya for hematological and parasitological analysis. During the investigation haemoflagellates from the genus Babesiosoma and Trypanosoma were recorded in the blood smears. Trypanosomes were present in all the species except C. carpio, whereas Babesiosoma were only found in T. marmorata. Haematological analysis revealed a significant (p<0.01) reduction in red blood cell count in the fishes infected with Babesiosoma and Trypanosoma. A significant decrease (p<0.05) was recorded in haemoglobin value and packed cell volume in the infected fishes in comparison to the non-infected fishes. PMID:26623319

  8. Some haematological and clinical-chemical parameters of sight hounds (Afghan hound, saluki and whippet).

    PubMed

    Hilppö, M

    1986-01-01

    Blood was collected from 111 clinically healthy dogs of sight hound breeds for haematological and clinical chemical analyses. The distributions according to age, breed and sex are tabulated. Reference values for haemoglobin were established as 172-240 g/l for adults and 136-217 g/l for growing dogs; the respective packed cell volume values were 50-69% and 41-64%. Ten serum parameters were determined: AP, ALAT, ASAT, GT, CK, urea, cholesterol, creatinine, total protein and albumin. The results are given as means +/- S.D., and a reference value for serum creatinine was established as less than or equal to 165 mumol/l for adults. PMID:3675721

  9. Cellular therapy to treat haematological and other malignancies: progress and pitfalls.

    PubMed

    Fromm, Phillip D; Gottlieb, David; Bradstock, Kenneth F; Hart, Derek N J

    2011-10-01

    The recent Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approval of a cellular therapy to treat castration resistant prostate cancer has reinforced the potential of cellular therapy to consolidate current pharmacological approaches to treating cancer. The emergence of the cell manufacturing facility to facilitate clinical translation of these new methodologies allows greater access to these novel therapies. Here we review different strategies currently being explored to treat haematological malignancies with a focus on adoptive allogeneic or autologous transfer of antigen specific T cells, NK cells or dendritic cells. These approaches all aim to generate immunological responses against overexpressed tissue antigens, mismatched minor histocompatability antigens or tumour associated antigens. Current successes and limitations of these different approaches will be discussed with an emphasis on challenges encountered in generating long term engraftment, antigen selection and implementation as well as therapeutic immune monitoring of clinical responses, with examples from recent clinical trials. PMID:21897329

  10. 50th Annual Scientific Meeting of the British Society for Haematology.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Angela E

    2010-08-01

    The 50th Annual Scientific Meeting of the British Society for Haematology was notable, not only for its golden anniversary, but also because it coincided with the eruption of the Icelandic volcano, Eyjafjallajökull, and the ensuing travel chaos. In total, 28 speakers from overseas were unable to reach Edinburgh, including a significant number of British speakers who were stranded. However, owing to the superb efforts of the conference organisers and Edinburgh International Conference Centre staff, teleconferencing equipment was installed and all speakers were contacted and able to give their talks on time. The program, consisting of simultaneous sessions and plenary lectures, covered not only recent advances in clinical and laboratory hematology, but also reflected on the contribution of British hematology to the international arena over the past 50 years. PMID:21083029

  11. Effects of Aflatoxin on Some Haematological Parameters and Protective Effectiveness of Esterified Glucomannan in Merino Rams

    PubMed Central

    Dönmez, Nurcan; Dönmez, H. H.; Keskin, E.; Kısadere, İ.

    2012-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to evaluate the toxic effects of aflatoxin on some hematological parameters and to determine the preventive effectiveness of added glucomannan. In the study, 32 Merino rams were used, and the rams were separated equally to four groups as control (C), glucomannan (G), glucomannan + aflatoxin (AG), and aflatoxin (A). Erythrocyte, leukocyte count, hemoglobin, and hematocrit levels were decreased in A group compared with the other groups, and there was a reduction in similar parameters in AG group compared to control values. On the other hand, these parameters were tended to increase in AG group compared to A group values. Aflatoxicosis caused the lymphocytopenia and monocytopenia but increased percentage of neutrophil counts. In conclusion, the results determined in the study might be important to demonstrate the effects of aflatoxicosis and glucomannan on some haematological parameters before the clinical symptoms appear. PMID:22629132

  12. Effects of nitrite exposure on haematological parameters, oxidative stress and apoptosis in juvenile turbot (Scophthalmus maximus).

    PubMed

    Jia, Rui; Han, Cen; Lei, Ji-Lin; Liu, Bao-Liang; Huang, Bin; Huo, Huan-Huan; Yin, Shu-Ting

    2015-12-01

    Nitrite (NO2(-)) is commonly present as contaminant in aquatic environment and toxic to aquatic organisms. In the present study, we investigated the effects of nitrite exposure on haematological parameters, oxidative stress and apoptosis in juvenile turbot (Scophthalmus maximus). Fish were exposed to various concentrations of nitrite (0, 0.02, 0.08, 0.4 and 0.8mM) for 96 h. Fish blood and gills were collected to assay haematological parameters, oxidative stress and expression of genes after 0, 24, 48 and 96 h of exposure. In blood, the data showed that the levels of methemoglobin (MetHb), triglyceride (TG), potassium (K(+)), cortisol, heat shock protein 70 (HSP70) and glucose significantly increased in treatments with higher concentrations of nitrite (0.4 and/or 0.8mM) after 48 and 96 h, while the levels of haemoglobin (Hb) and sodium (Na(+)) significantly decreased in these treatments. In gills, nitrite (0.4 and/or 0.8mM) apparently reduced the levels of superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), catalase (CAT) and glutathione (GSH), increased the formation of malondialdehyde (MDA), up-regulated the mRNA levels of c-jun amino-terminal kinase (JUK1), p53, caspase-3, caspase-7 and caspase-9 after 48 and 96 h of exposure. The results suggested caspase-dependent and JUK signaling pathways played important roles in nitrite-induced apoptosis in fish. Further, this study provides new insights into how nitrite affects the physiological responses and apoptosis in a marine fish. PMID:26476021

  13. First-dose pharmacokinetics of aminoglycosides in critically ill haematological malignancy patients.

    PubMed

    Blackburn, Laura M; Tverdek, Frank P; Hernandez, Mike; Bruno, Jeffrey J

    2015-01-01

    The primary objective of this study was to determine the volume of distribution (Vd) (L/kg) of intravenous aminoglycosides (AGs) in critically ill haematological malignancy patients. Secondary objectives were to determine the body weight (actual, ideal, adjusted or lean) that yields the most precise estimate of Vd when normalised in L/kg as well as the frequency that current first-dose strategies result in post-distributional peak concentrations (C(peak)) within the target range (tobramycin 16-24 mg/L; amikacin 32-48 mg/L). In total, 58 AG doses were included (tobramycin, n = 34; amikacin, n = 24). Median Vd was 0.38 L/kg normalised per the most precise dose weight, which was actual body weight (ABW). The median dose was 445 mg (5.8 mg/kg ABW) for tobramycin and 1200 mg (13.8 mg/kg ABW) for amikacin. Target C(peak) (tobramycin 20mg/L; amikacin 40 mg/L) was achieved in only 25% of all AG episodes, with 4% exceeding the target and 71% falling below the target. Twenty-four organisms were isolated in the study sample; target C(peak) achievement (tobramycin 20 mg/L; amikacin 40 mg/L) would yield a peak:minimum inhibitory concentration of 10 in 75% and 52% of organisms, respectively. In conclusion, an increased Vd of AGs was identified in this critically ill haematological malignancy patient sample, and current dosing yielded a suboptimal C(peak) in the majority of patients. PMID:25455848

  14. Effect of pre-analytical handling on haematological variables in minipigs.

    PubMed

    Olsen, A K; Bladbjerg, E M; Jensen, A L; Hansen, A K

    2001-04-01

    Pre-analytical handling may be an important determinant of haematological variables, if analysis is delayed. We investigated the effect of anticoagulants, i.e. tripotassium ethylenediamine-tetraacetic acid (EDTA) and citric acid, theophylline, adenosine, dipyridamole (CTAD), storage time (0.5, 1.5, 3.5, 5.5, 7.5, 25.5 and 27.5 h after blood sampling), and storage temperature (5 degrees C and 20 degrees C) on the variation in haemoglobin (HGB), red blood cell count (RBC), haematocrit (HCT), white blood cell count (WBC), and platelet count (PLT) in minipigs. Medians of HGB, RBC, HCT, WBC and PLT were significantly higher in EDTA tubes than in CTAD tubes due to the dilution effect of the anticoagulant. We found a minor significant increase in HCT after 25.5 h in blood stored at 20 degrees C, and at the same time a minor significant increase in WBC in EDTA tubes stored at 20 degrees C. We found a significant decrease in PLT in blood stored at 5 degrees C, especially in EDTA tubes. Minor variations were also observed in HGB and RBC. Our results indicate that PLT should only be measured in tubes placed at room temperature. If HCT or WBC analyses are to be performed on the day after blood sampling, the samples must be stored in a refrigerator until analysis. Our studies underline that time delay before analysis of haematological variables can cause increased variation, and should therefore be limited as far as possible in order to reduce the number of animals needed to make reliable conclusions. PMID:11315163

  15. Haematology and Serum Biochemistry Parameters and Variations in the Eurasian Beaver (Castor fiber)

    PubMed Central

    Girling, Simon J.; Campbell-Palmer, Roisin; Pizzi, Romain; Fraser, Mary A.; Cracknell, Jonathan; Arnemo, Jon; Rosell, Frank

    2015-01-01

    Haematology parameters (N = 24) and serum biochemistry parameters (N = 35) were determined for wild Eurasian beavers (Castor fiber), between 6 months – 12 years old. Of the population tested in this study, N = 18 Eurasian beavers were from Norway and N = 17 originating from Bavaria but now living extensively in a reserve in England. All blood samples were collected from beavers via the ventral tail vein. All beavers were chemically restrained using inhalant isoflurane in 100% oxygen prior to blood sampling. Results were determined for haematological and serum biochemical parameters for the species and were compared between the two different populations with differences in means estimated and significant differences being noted. Standard blood parameters for the Eurasian beaver were determined and their ranges characterised using percentiles. Whilst the majority of blood parameters between the two populations showed no significant variation, haemoglobin, packed cell volume, mean cell haemoglobin and white blood cell counts showed significantly greater values (p<0.01) in the Bavarian origin population than the Norwegian; neutrophil counts, alpha 2 globulins, cholesterol, sodium: potassium ratios and phosphorus levels showed significantly (p<0.05) greater values in Bavarian versus Norwegian; and potassium, bile acids, gamma globulins, urea, creatinine and total calcium values levels showed significantly (p<0.05) greater values in Norwegian versus Bavarian relict populations. No significant differences were noted between male and female beavers or between sexually immature (<3 years old) and sexually mature (≥3 years old) beavers in the animals sampled. With Eurasian beaver reintroduction encouraged by legislation throughout Europe, knowledge of baseline blood values for the species and any variations therein is essential when assessing their health and welfare and the success or failure of any reintroduction program. This is the first study to produce base-line blood values and their variations for the Eurasian beaver. PMID:26066344

  16. Effect of petroleum products inhalation on some haematological indices of fuel attendants in Calabar metropolis, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Okoro, A M; Ani, E J; Ibu, J O; Akpogomeh, B A

    2006-01-01

    The Haematotoxic implications of exposure to petroleum fumes through inhalation in human subjects were investigated. A total of 400 subjects (200 males and 200 females) aged between 18-30 years participated. Each gender was further categorized into two groups of 100 each for control and test, respectively. The test group was again subdivided into test 1 (T1) and test 2 (T2) in both sexes. T1 subjects were exposed to petroleum fumes for two years and below while T2 subjects were exposed for more than two years. Samples of blood were collected daily and subjected to haematological analysis. The results obtained showed that in males and females, red blood cell counts (10(6) /mm3) was significantly [P < 0.001] decreased in T1 (4.4 +/- 0.13) and T2 (3.85 +/- 0.07) compared to control (4.76 +/- 0.01). White blood cell counts, haematocrit, haemoglobin concentration and mean corpusclular haemoglobin concentration (MCHC) were significantly [P < 0.01] decreased in both sexes of test groups when compared with control. There was also a significant [P < 0.001] decrease in mean corpuscular haemoglobin (MCH) and mean corpuscular volume (MCV) in test 2 males compared with control. Most subjects exposed for longer than two years (T2) had significantly [P < 0.001] lower values of red blood cell count, haemoglobin concentration and haematocrit than those exposed for less than two years. The odds/odds ratio that a subject would become anaemic progressively rose from less than 1 in the control to greater than 1 or infinity on exposure to petroleum fumes. These results indicate that the petroleum fumes cause a reduction in haematological indices which worsens with prolonged exposure. PMID:17242722

  17. Functional and Biological Role of Endothelial Precursor Cells in Tumour Progression: A New Potential Therapeutic Target in Haematological Malignancies

    PubMed Central

    Reale, Antonia; Melaccio, Assunta; Lamanuzzi, Aurelia; Saltarella, Ilaria; Dammacco, Franco; Vacca, Angelo; Ria, Roberto

    2016-01-01

    It was believed that vasculogenesis occurred only during embryo life and that postnatal formation of vessels arose from angiogenesis. Recent findings demonstrate the existence of Endothelial Precursor Cells (EPCs), which take partin postnatal vasculogenesis. EPCs are recruited from the bone marrow under the stimulation of growth factors and cytokines and reach the sites of neovascularization in both physiological and pathological conditions such as malignancies where they contribute to the “angiogenic switch” and tumor progression. An implementation of circulating EPCs in the bloodstream of patients with haematological malignancies has been demonstrated. This increase is strictly related to the bone marrow microvessel density and correlated with a poor prognosis. The EPCs characterization is a very complex process and still under investigation. This literature review aims to provide an overview of the functional and biological role of EPCs in haematological malignancies and to investigate their potential as a new cancer therapeutic target. PMID:26788072

  18. EMQN Best Practice Guidelines for molecular and haematology methods for carrier identification and prenatal diagnosis of the haemoglobinopathies.

    PubMed

    Traeger-Synodinos, Joanne; Harteveld, Cornelis L; Old, John M; Petrou, Mary; Galanello, Renzo; Giordano, Piero; Angastioniotis, Michael; De la Salle, Barbara; Henderson, Shirley; May, Alison

    2015-04-01

    Haemoglobinopathies constitute the commonest recessive monogenic disorders worldwide, and the treatment of affected individuals presents a substantial global disease burden. Carrier identification and prenatal diagnosis represent valuable procedures that identify couples at risk for having affected children, so that they can be offered options to have healthy offspring. Molecular diagnosis facilitates prenatal diagnosis and definitive diagnosis of carriers and patients (especially 'atypical' cases who often have complex genotype interactions). However, the haemoglobin disorders are unique among all genetic diseases in that identification of carriers is preferable by haematological (biochemical) tests rather than DNA analysis. These Best Practice guidelines offer an overview of recommended strategies and methods for carrier identification and prenatal diagnosis of haemoglobinopathies, and emphasize the importance of appropriately applying and interpreting haematological tests in supporting the optimum application and evaluation of globin gene DNA analysis. PMID:25052315

  19. The Effect of Cement Dust Exposure on Haematological Parameters of Cement Factory workers in Nalagonda, Andhra Pradesh.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guguloth, Mohan Rao.; Sambanaik, A.; srinivasnaik, L.; Mude, Jagadishnaik.

    2012-10-01

    This study was measured on haematological parameters in workers exposed to cement dust in order to test the the hypothesis and to identify a simple, readily available, cost effective screening test that could help in identifying the presence of disease, its severity, that Cement dust exposure may perturb these functions related to their workplace.Assesment of haematological parameters were performed in 100exposed workers occupationally exposed to cement dust and 50 matched unexposed controls with ages ranging from 20-35, 35-50, 50-65 years. The blood samples were taken from them and percentage of hemoglobin, Lymphocytes / monocytes count were analysed.The hemoglobin percentage of exposed workers were significantly lower(P<0.05).Lymphocytes/Monocytes counts of exposed workers was insignificant (P<0.05).These results suggest that long term occupational exposure to cement dust may perturb haemopoietic function.

  20. Functional and Biological Role of Endothelial Precursor Cells in Tumour Progression: A New Potential Therapeutic Target in Haematological Malignancies.

    PubMed

    Reale, Antonia; Melaccio, Assunta; Lamanuzzi, Aurelia; Saltarella, Ilaria; Dammacco, Franco; Vacca, Angelo; Ria, Roberto

    2016-01-01

    It was believed that vasculogenesis occurred only during embryo life and that postnatal formation of vessels arose from angiogenesis. Recent findings demonstrate the existence of Endothelial Precursor Cells (EPCs), which take partin postnatal vasculogenesis. EPCs are recruited from the bone marrow under the stimulation of growth factors and cytokines and reach the sites of neovascularization in both physiological and pathological conditions such as malignancies where they contribute to the "angiogenic switch" and tumor progression. An implementation of circulating EPCs in the bloodstream of patients with haematological malignancies has been demonstrated. This increase is strictly related to the bone marrow microvessel density and correlated with a poor prognosis. The EPCs characterization is a very complex process and still under investigation. This literature review aims to provide an overview of the functional and biological role of EPCs in haematological malignancies and to investigate their potential as a new cancer therapeutic target. PMID:26788072

  1. EMQN Best Practice Guidelines for molecular and haematology methods for carrier identification and prenatal diagnosis of the haemoglobinopathies

    PubMed Central

    Traeger-Synodinos, Joanne; Harteveld, Cornelis L; Old, John M; Petrou, Mary; Galanello, Renzo; Giordano, Piero; Angastioniotis, Michael; De la Salle, Barbara; Henderson, Shirley; May, Alison

    2015-01-01

    Haemoglobinopathies constitute the commonest recessive monogenic disorders worldwide, and the treatment of affected individuals presents a substantial global disease burden. Carrier identification and prenatal diagnosis represent valuable procedures that identify couples at risk for having affected children, so that they can be offered options to have healthy offspring. Molecular diagnosis facilitates prenatal diagnosis and definitive diagnosis of carriers and patients (especially ‘atypical' cases who often have complex genotype interactions). However, the haemoglobin disorders are unique among all genetic diseases in that identification of carriers is preferable by haematological (biochemical) tests rather than DNA analysis. These Best Practice guidelines offer an overview of recommended strategies and methods for carrier identification and prenatal diagnosis of haemoglobinopathies, and emphasize the importance of appropriately applying and interpreting haematological tests in supporting the optimum application and evaluation of globin gene DNA analysis. PMID:25052315

  2. Iron requirements based upon iron absorption tests are poorly predicted by haematological indices in patients with inactive inflammatory bowel disease

    PubMed Central

    Lomer, Miranda CE; Cook, William B; Jan-Mohamed, Hamid Jan B; Hutchinson, Carol; Liu, Ding Yong; Hider, Robert C; Powell, Jonathan J

    2012-01-01

    Iron deficiency (ID) and iron deficiency anaemia (IDA) are common in patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Traditional clinical markers of iron status can be skewed in the presence of inflammation meaning that a patient’s iron status can be misinterpreted. Additionally, iron absorption is known to be down-regulated in patients with active IBD. However, whether this is the case for quiescent or mildly active disease has not been formally assessed. This study aimed to investigate the relationship between iron absorption, iron requirements and standard haematological indices in IBD patients without active disease. Twenty nine patients with quiescent or mildly active IBD and 28 control subjects undertook an iron absorption test which measured sequential rises in serum iron over four hours following ingestion of 200 mg ferrous sulphate. At baseline, serum iron, transferrin saturation, non-transferrin bound iron (NTBI), ferritin and soluble transferrin receptor were all measured. Thereafter (30-240 minutes) only serum iron and NTBI were measured. Iron absorption did not differ between the two groups (P=0.9; RM-ANOVA). In control subjects baseline haematological parameters predicted iron absorption (i.e. iron requirements) but this was not the case for patients with IBD. Iron absorption is normal in quiescent or mildly active IBD patients but standard haematological parameters do not accurately predict iron requirements. PMID:22152498

  3. Effect of Aqueous Extract of Telfairia occidentalis Leaf on the Performance and Haematological Indices of Starter Broilers

    PubMed Central

    P. N., Onu

    2012-01-01

    This experiment was conducted to determine the effect of aqueous extract of Telfairia occidentalis (Fluted Pumpkin) leaf on the performance and haematological indices of starter broilers. A total of 200, 8-day-old broiler chicks were randomly allotted to five (5) treatments, each with 4 replicate groups containing 10 chicks and fed with standard starter broiler diets. Telfaria occidentalis leaves extract (FPLE) was added at 0, 40, 80, 120, and 160 mL/litre of drinking water. Growth performance and haematological indices were evaluated. Results showed that there was significant (P < 0.05) difference in weight gain, feed conversion, and protein efficiency ratios of the birds among the treatments. Birds fed 80 ml FPLE/litre of water had significantly the highest weight gain and the best feed conversion and protein efficiency ratios. There was no significant (P > 0.05) variations in the feed and water intakes of the birds. Results also show no significant (P > 0.05) difference in haematological indices of birds among the treatments. The results of this study indicate that, for enhanced weight gain and feed conversion efficiency, birds should be fed 80 mL FPLE/litre of water. PMID:23738128

  4. Efficacy of environmental measures to decrease the risk of hospital-acquired aspergillosis in patients hospitalised in haematology wards.

    PubMed

    Berthelot, P; Loulergue, P; Raberin, H; Turco, M; Mounier, C; Tran Manh Sung, R; Lucht, F; Pozzetto, B; Guyotat, D

    2006-08-01

    This study evaluated a multidisciplinary strategy to decrease the rate of invasive pulmonary aspergillosis (IPA) among adult patients hospitalised in two haematology wards in a single 560-bed building at the University Hospital of Saint-Etienne. Upgrading of the air filtration system and construction of an air-lock chamber at the entrance to the unit were completed during 1994. In 1995, specific hygienic measures were introduced during hospital building work, including the use of plastic barriers, watering during demolition work, reduction of pedestrian traffic in construction areas, and the wearing of high-efficiency filtration masks by immunosuppressed patients when outside the protected unit. This strategy was evaluated by a prospective survey of IPA cases between 1993 and 2001, coupled with environmental surveillance. The number and risk-level of hospital renovation projects increased between 1995 and 2001 (p < 0.01). In parallel, the rate of IPA decreased globally in the haematology unit from 0.85% (1.19/1,000 patients) in 1993 to 0.28% (0.21/1,000 patients) in 2001. The incidence of IPA decreased significantly between 1993-1996 and 1997-2001 (p 0.02, Mann-Whitney test). These results show that a multidisciplinary approach involving engineers, infection control practitioners, mycologists and clinicians enables IPA rates among patients hospitalised in haematology wards to be significantly decreased. PMID:16842568

  5. Changes in haematological profile of common pheasant (Phasianus colchicus) induced by transit to pheasantry.

    PubMed

    Voslarova, E; Bedanova, I; Vecerek, V; Pistekova, V; Chloupek, P; Suchy, P

    2006-10-01

    The aim of this study was to assess haematological changes in hand-reared pheasants (Phasianus colchicus) transported from intensive housing facilities to a pheasantry. Selected haematological parameters were monitored in a group of 100 pheasants (50 males and 50 females) aged of 9 weeks that were transported for 4 hours by a covered lorry in crates, with a total body weight of 12 +/- 0.5 kg per crate (Group C12 - floor space: 290 cm2/kg) and with a total body weight of 18 +/- 0.5 kg per crate (Group C18 - floor space: 195 cm2/kg). Blood samples were taken from 10 randomly selected males and 10 females before transport (CON group) and 20 hours after transport (C12 and C18 groups). Examinations consisted in determining the total erythrocyte and leukocyte counts, haematocrit values, haemoglobin levels and differential leukocyte counts, whereby the proportions of heterophil, basophil and eosinophil granulocytes, lymphocytes and monocytes of the total leukocytes were computed. The changes in the parameters of red blood cell count were manifested by an increase (P < 0.01) in the haemoglobin level, MCH (mean cell haemoglobin) and MCHC (mean cell haemoglobin concentration) values and a decrease (P < 0.01) in the total erythrocyte count and haematocrit level in both C12 and C18 pheasants, when compared with the control group of non-transported pheasants. C18 pheasants exhibited also a significant increase (P < 0.05) in MCV (mean cell value) value. When analyzing differential leukocyte counts, C18 pheasants showed a decrease (P < 0.01) in heterophil counts and H/L ratio, whereas values in C12 pheasants did not differ from the non-transported control group. Individual counts of lymphocytes were decreased (P < 0.05) in C12 pheasants, whereas basophil counts were increased (P < 0.01) in both C12 and C18 pheasants. Total leukocyte count was decreased (P < 0.01) in C12 and C18 pheasants. In conclusion, the specific requirements of pheasants, as primarily wild animals, for the density in crates should be respected during transportation and they should be transported at lower densities than other poultry species, at least 290 cm2/kg live weight should be provided. PMID:17078531

  6. A pilot study on parvovirus B19 infection in paediatric haematological malignancies

    PubMed Central

    Kishore, Janak; Sen, Manodeep; Kumar, Ashutosh; Kumar, Archana

    2011-01-01

    Background & objectives: Leukaemia and lymphoma are common paediatric haematological malignancies acquiring human parvovirus B19 (B19) infection. In some studies anaemia has been found in children with acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL) during maintenance therapy and rarely in lymphoma. We studied frequency of B19 infection and its implications in new onset acute leukaemia (mostly ALL) and lymphoma in children. Methods: Seventy serum samples from 35 children (age <12 yr, 29 males) newly diagnosed with haematological malignancies (on induction therapy) were collected together with 34 controls (solid tumours). Children were examined clinically and for anti-B19 IgM antibodies by quantitative ELISA and B19 DNA by PCR (VP1-VP2) and nested-PCR (VP1 unique). Bone marrow aspirates were examined histopathologically, whenever possible. Results: Of the 35 children, 22 had acute leukaemia while 13 had lymphoma. B19 infection was seen in six (17.1%) of 35 children (5 ALL, 1 NHL), two at diagnosis and four during follow up compared to none in the control. Among five B19 IgM positive ALL (n=18) children, two had B19 genome and two had giant pronormoblasts (lantern cells; but one lacked B19 DNA). Of the 70 serum samples tested, eight (11.4%) had anti-B19 IgM as two children had persistent B19 infection and one showed atypical maculopapular rashes (lower limbs) while 12 (34.3%) had anti-B19 IgG antibodies. B19 infected children had unexplained anaemia (80%), required more blood transfusions (6.6 ± 4.8 Units vs 3.0 ± 2.6 Units) besides induction chemotherapy was delayed (60%) and required longer duration of therapy (29.2 ± 20 vs 6.3 ± 7.8 days) (P<0.02). Five children (2 ALL, 2 AML, 1 NHL) died but none were infected with B19. Interpretation & conclusions: B19 infection should be considered in children with ALL as it frequently caused unexplained anaemia and delay in induction chemotherapy. PMID:21537094

  7. Role of Haematological Parameters as an Indicator of Acute Malarial Infection in Uttarakhand State of India

    PubMed Central

    Chandra, Smita; Chandra, Harish

    2013-01-01

    Background Malaria may be associated with complications which may be avoided by early diagnosis and treatment. Microscopic diagnosis showing presence of malarial parasites is needed for confirmation which at times may be unreliable and requires technical expertise. The present study was conducted to statistically analyze the haematological parameters including platelet indices which can give initial hint for malarial infection and therefore prompt the laboratory physician for active search of the parasite microscopically. Methods A retrospective study was conducted which included 334 cases of acute malaria caused by Plasmodium vivax, falciparum and dual infection along with 100 cases of control. Routine haematological parameters along with platelet indices (MPV and PDW) which are easily available on automated cell counter were statistically analyzed to assess their role as indicators for malaria. Results Leukocyte count and platelet count were significantly lower in cases of acute malaria in comparison to controls (p value <0.001). Platelet count<150×109/l showed 87.2% sensitivity, 65% specificity, 89.3% positive predictive value and 2.49 likelihood ratio for the infection. PDW of 6–10 and MPV>8 fl had 71.9% and 61.5% sensitivity and 78.2% and 77.7% positive predictive value respectively for infection. Platelet count <150×109/l and MPV>8 fl was comparatively more sensitive indicator for vivax (88% and 70.8% respectively) than falciparum (84.8% and 50.4% respectively) and PDW 6–10 was more sensitive indicator for falciparum (82.6%) than vivax (69.5%) infection. Conclusion Thrombocytopenia (<150×109/l) and low leukocyte count (<4×109/l) may be used as probable indicator for malaria in endemic countries. Higher MPV (>8 fl) and PDW of 6–10 also show considerable sensitivity for malarial infection. In addition, thrombocytopenia (<150×109/l) and higher MPV (>8 fl) was more sensitive for vivax infection while PDW 6–10 was more sensitive for falciparum infection. PMID:23350022

  8. Chronic Lymphocytic Leukaemia: Census of Patients Treated in Italian Haematology Units

    PubMed Central

    Salvi, Gianfranco; Innocenti, Idanna; Autore, Francesco; Laurenti, Luca

    2015-01-01

    This study was conducted by contacting the population of the Italian haematology units and collecting from 68% of them data concerning the number of patients with chronic lymphocytic leukaemia visited over the previous 12 months, with the aim of obtaining an overview of the treatment of this disease and comparing the results with the prevalence estimates found in literature. The projection obtained (about 17,000 patients visited in the previous 12 months) is probably overestimated because of double-counting of patients who may have been treated at two different facilities during the year, although it is also underestimated since the internal medicine units were not involved. The balance of these two opposite factors is not known. It is important to bear in mind the approximation with which the count was performed in facilities for which no official data were available. Albeit with these limits, the results obtained are in line with some existing prevalence data and make it possible to determine the portion of patients at different Binet stages and in the various age ranges, identifying the corresponding therapeutic treatments. Use of the CIRS scale to classify patients as FIT and UNFIT was seen to be still somewhat limited. PMID:26543525

  9. Comparative haematology, haemochrmistry and electrocardiography of the slender loris and bonnet monkey.

    PubMed

    Rahaman, H; Srihari, S; Krishnamoorthy, R V

    1975-01-01

    The famale loris had a higher erythrocyte count than the male whereas in the bonnet monkey the converse occurred. Sex differences were seen in the neutrophil and leucocyte counts, but not in the eosinophils and monocytes. The loris exhibited high potassium, magnesium, chloride and sulphate levels, while the bonnet monkey showed a relatively high level of sugar and haemoglobin. The loris showed higher percentages of blood cholesterol and urea. There were species-dependent variations in the plasma proteins independent of the sex. The electrocardiographic patterns did not reveal sex differences in either animal. However the conventional II lead revealed species specific differences in the duration and the component wave form amplitudes of these animals. The haematological and electrocardiographic differences have been correlated with differences in physiology and physical activity patterns of these animals. The present data suggests that a gradual reduction in the number of lymphocytes and an increase in the number of neutrophils occurred during the course of the evolution of primates. PMID:804075

  10. Haematological, biochemical and histopathological alterations induced by abamectin and Bacillus thuringiensis in male albino rats.

    PubMed

    Eissa, F I; Zidan, N A

    2010-03-01

    The renal- and hepato-toxicity induced by abamectin pesticide (Vertimec) and a commercial form of a bio-insecticide Bacillus thuringiensis (Agerin) in male albino rats were evaluated. Blood picture and blood glucose level were investigated. Male albino rats were administered dietary doses each equivalent to 1/10 or 1/100 of the LD50 values of each toxicant for 30 consecutive days. Abamectin was found to pose risks of renal- and hepato-toxicity in rats, since the biochemical parameters of liver function (i.e. aspartate aminotransferase activity, alanine aminotransferase activity, acid phosphatase activity, albumin, and total protein levels) and kidney function (uric acid and creatinine concentration) were severely affected. These effects were verified by histopathological examination of liver and kidney tissues. Likewise, some haematological indices (i.e. erythrocyte count, leukocyte count and haemoglobin concentration) were also influenced; in addition abamectin might cause hypoglycaemia. On the other hand, the above-mentioned lesions were less pronounced in the case of Bacillus thuringiensis -treated rats. PMID:20194097

  11. Haematological and biochemical changes in experimental Trypanosoma evansi infection in rabbits.

    PubMed

    Sivajothi, S; Rayulu, V C; Sudhakara Reddy, B

    2015-06-01

    New Zealand white rabbits (N = 4) were challenged with the local strain of Trypanosoma evansi. Each rabbit was infected with 5 × 10(5) trypanosomes subcutaneously. The infection was characterized by intermittent pyrexia, undulating parasitaemia, anorexia and emaciation. The infected rabbits were examined daily for development of clinical signs and infection status by wet blood-films made from the ear veins. Thick and thin blood smears were also examined daily until the end of the experiment for description of blood cells. Differential leukocyte count (DLC) was also done. The parasite was observed in the blood during the acute phase only. Leukocytosis in the acute phase followed by leukopenia during the chronic phase was recognized. Haematological studies revealed reduced TEC, Hb and PCV. The main changes in the erythrocytes were macrocytes, hypochromic cells, Howell-Jolly bodies, target cells, stomatocytes and burr cells. Serum chemistry revealed hypoproteinemia, hypocholesterolaemia, hypoglycemia, hyperbilirubinemia, elevated creatinine, BUN, increased AST and ALT. PMID:26064003

  12. Evaluation of the monocyte counting by two automated haematology analysers compared with flow cytometry.

    PubMed

    Grimaldi, E; Carandente, P; Scopacasa, F; Romano, M F; Pellegrino, M; Bisogni, R; De Caterina, M

    2005-04-01

    The aim is to determine the monocyte count performance of the Bayer Diagnostics ADVIA120 and Coulter LH 750 automated haematology analysers and the results obtained by these two instruments were compared with those provided by Becton Dickinson FACScan flow cytometer using the combination of CD45/CD14 MoAb. Linearity and imprecision were also evaluated. The linearity of both instruments was good. Coulter LH 750 showed better precision (4.3%) than ADVIA 120 (9.0%) both within and between batch. A significant correlation (r = 0.973) was found between the LH 750 and the flow cytometry method, while a modest one was observed between the latter and the ADVIA 120 (r = 0.880). When comparing the percentage of monocytes by means of one-way anova and Tukey test, it was found that the LH 750 provided the closest results in comparison with flow cytometry, with no statistical difference between the means (mean difference MO% = 0.6); however the difference was statistically different between the ADVIA 120 and flow cytometry (mean difference MO% = -4.06). These data were confirmed by Altman-Bland and Deming regression analyses. PMID:15784123

  13. Prenatal ultrasound heating impacts on fluctuations in haematological analysis of Oryctolagus cuniculus

    PubMed Central

    Md. Dom, Sulaiman; Abdul Razak, Hairil Rashmizal; Hassan, Hamzah Fansuri

    2013-01-01

    Prenatal Ultrasound (US) is commonly used as a routine procedure on pregnant women. It is generally perceived as a safe procedure due to the use of non-ionizing radiation. However, the neurotoxicity of diagnostic prenatal US was detected to have a correlation with high susceptibility to early developing fetus. This research involved in vivo experimental model by using 3rd trimester pregnant Oryctolagus cuniculus and exposing them to US exposures for 30, 60, and 90 minutes at their gestational day (GD) 28-29. The output power and intensities, spatial peak temporal average intensity (ISPTA) of US were varied from 0.4 to 0.7 W and 0.13 to 0.19 W/cm2 respectively were tested initially in free-field, water. Haematological analysis was carried out to detect any changes in blood constituents. Statistically significant differences were detected in red blood cell (RBC) count (P<0.001), haemoglobin (Hb) concentration (P<0.001) and also platelet (PLT) count (P<0.001) in newborn of Oryctolagus cuniculus. These findings indicate the possibility of US heating in causing defects on studied animal. PMID:24273744

  14. Haematological toxicity: a marker of adjuvant chemotherapy efficacy in stage II and III breast cancer.

    PubMed Central

    Saarto, T.; Blomqvist, C.; Rissanen, P.; Auvinen, A.; Elomaa, I.

    1997-01-01

    Two hundred and eleven patients with node-positive stage II and III breast cancer were treated with eight cycles of adjuvant chemotherapy comprising cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin and oral ftorafur (CAFt), with and without tamoxifen. All patients had undergone radical surgery, and 148 patients were treated with post-operative radiotherapy in two randomized studies. The impact of haematological toxicity of CAFt on distant disease-free (DDFS) and overall survival (OS) was recorded. Dose intensity of all given cycles (DI), dose intensity of the two initial cycles (DI2) and total dose (TD) were calculated separately for all chemotherapy drugs and were correlated with DDFS and OS. Patients with a lower leucocyte nadir during the chemotherapy had significantly better DDFS and OS (P = 0.01 and 0.04 respectively). Dose intensity of the two first cycles also correlated significantly with DDFS (P = 0.05) in univariate but not in multivariate analysis, while the leucocyte nadir retained its prognostic value. These results indicate that the leucocyte nadir during the adjuvant chemotherapy is a biological marker of chemotherapy efficacy; this presents the possibility of establishing an optimal dose intensity for each patient. The initial dose intensity of adjuvant chemotherapy also seems to be important in assuring the optimal effect of adjuvant chemotherapy. PMID:9010042

  15. Minimal residual disease monitoring: the new standard for treatment evaluation of haematological malignancies?

    PubMed

    Hauwel, Mathieu; Matthes, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Minimal residual disease (MRD) refers to the small number of malignant cells that remain after therapy when the patient is in remission and shows no symptoms or overt signs of disease. Current treatment protocols for haematological malignancies allow most patients to obtain some form of MRD state, but cure seldom follows and in most cases fatal relapses occur sooner or later, leaving a bitter impression of having won a battle yet lost the war. MRD detection and quantification are used for evaluation of treatment efficiency, patient risk stratification and long-term outcome prediction. Whereas multicolour flow cytometry (MCFC) and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) based methods constitute the two most commonly used techniques for MRD detection, next generation sequencing will certainly be widely employed in the future. As MRD reflects the nature of the malignant disease itself, including its sensitivity to the drug regimens applied, it constitutes the ideal method for surveillance and patient follow-up. The morphological examination of peripheral blood or bone marrow smears, although still an indispensable part of routine laboratory testing, is clearly insufficient for patient management, and clinicians should not ask themselves whether to look for MRD or not, but how and when. PMID:24452390

  16. Pharmacological and haematological study of shol fish (Channa striatus) skin extract on experimental animal.

    PubMed

    Karmakar, Surajit; Dasgupta, S C; Gomes, A

    2002-01-01

    Snake head fish Channa striatus (locally called 'shol') skin extract (SFSE) was examined for certain pharmacological and haematological effects on experimental animals. LD50 of SFSE was found to be 6 mg/20gm (iv) in male albino mice. SFSE potentiated pentobarbitone induced sleeping time in male albino mice and produced hypothermia. Low dose of SFSE decreased respiratory rate in rat and guineapig and high dose produced apnoea leading to death. On isolated toad and guineapig heart, SFSE significantly decreased rate and amplitude of contraction leading to temporary blockade, which returned after repeated wash. On isolated nerve muscle preparations, SFSE produced irreversible blockade of twitch response. SFSE induced quick contraction on isolated guineapig ileum, which was antagonised by atropine and cyproheptadine. SFSE did not possess haemolytic and haemorrhagic activity but produced anaemia in male albino mice. A neurotoxic compound (fluoroscent and ninhydrin positive) was isolated from SFSE by thin layer chromatography. This compound (CS-NT) was lethal in male albino mice, produced death by apnoea in rat and produced irreversible blockade of isolated nerve-muscle preparation. This study confirms that the skin of Channa striatus possesses toxic, and lethal components, which needs further detailed study. PMID:12561982

  17. Biochemical and haematological measurements in beef cattle in Mendoza plain rangelands (Argentina).

    PubMed

    Grünwaldt, E G; Guevara, J C; Estévez, O R; Vicente, A; Rousselle, H; Alcuten, N; Aguerregaray, D; Stasi, C R

    2005-08-01

    Biochemical and haematological measurements were used to identify constraints on productivity in beef cattle. One hundred and twelve Aberdeen Angus and Criollo Argentino females including lactating cows, dry non-pregnant cows and heifers were selected. Blood samples were taken in the middle of summer and autumn. Serum was analysed for haemoglobin, PCV, glucose, albumin, urea, creatinine, Ca, P, Mg, Fe, Cu, ALP, AST, ALT, CK, LDH, Cl-, Na and K content. Globulin was calculated by taking the difference between total protein and albumin. Percentages of all cattle that had metabolite levels outside reference ranges were: 15% (glucose), 8% (globulin), 5% (urea), 96% (Ca), 50% (P), 12% (Mg), 20% (Na), 5% (K), 24% (Cl), 18% (Fe), 5% (Cu) and 85% (CK). These results indicate with some certainty that dietary protein was not limiting. Body condition score loss was detected only in lactating cows. There were a few animals that could have presented chronic inflammatory disease. Phosphorus could be an important potential constraint on fertility, although the presence of symptoms of hypophosphataemia was not observed. The study also demonstrates the absence of anaemia or liver disease. Breed, seasonal and physiological state differences in some blood metabolites could be attributed to one or more of the following factors: chemical composition of the feed ingested, environmental temperature, nutrient content of the forage, animal age and cattle foraging experience. The study provides a basis for implementing helpful adjustments in current cattle management practices so as to alleviate the constraints on productivity, provided that these practices are profitable. PMID:16248224

  18. To what extent will contaminated water affect physical, haematological and lipid properties of Clariasgariepinus?

    PubMed

    Adeyemi, Olalekan; Oginni, Olatunde; Igbakin, Ayanfe P; Adeyemi, Oyeyemi; Osubor, Chris C

    2011-01-01

    Some haematological and physical properties of Clarias gariepinus cultivated in water contaminated with phthalate, benzene and cyclohexane over a period of 56 days were examined. The haemoglobin (Hb) and packed cell volume (PCV) concentrations of test animals were found to be significantly lower than those of control (p<0.05). The gain in body weight of male C. gariepinus cultivated in uncontaminated water (control), water contaminated with phthalate, benzene and cyclohexane was found to be 11.88 0.55, 13.5 0.62, 21.60 1.03 and 27.54 1.22 g, respectively. Serum cholesterol concentrations of fish cultivated in contaminated water were found to be significantly higher than those of control (p<0.05). The experimental results suggested that the pollutants may cause anaemia in the fish as evident in the Hb and PCV results. It could also be inferred that the gain in body weight may be due to impaired fat metabolism which might have led to elevated levels of serum cholesterol and triglycerides in the fish. It is our view that consumption of such fish may cause hypercholesterolemia. PMID:19801186

  19. Analysis of the effects of malaria chemoprophylaxis in children on haematological responses, morbidity and mortality.

    PubMed Central

    Geerligs, Paul D. Prinsen; Brabin, Bernard J.; Eggelte, Teunis A.

    2003-01-01

    This paper reviews the evidence for beneficial effects of malaria chemoprophylaxis on haematological responses, morbidity, mortality, health service utilization and rebound immunity in children. As anaemia may play an important role in childhood mortality, it is important to assess evidence from controlled trials of the potential of chemoprophylaxis to reduce childhood anaemia. An analysis of trials found good evidence that malaria chemoprophylaxis improves mean haemoglobin levels and reduces severe anaemia, clinical malaria attacks, parasite and spleen rates. Significant reductions in outpatient attendance and hospital admissions have been achieved, and substantial evidence from Gambian studies shows reductions in mortality. Chemoprophylaxis in children does not seem to produce any sustained impairment of immunity to malaria, although rebound effects may be greater in children who receive prophylaxis during infancy. Short periods of targeted prophylaxis are likely to be preferable to continuous drug administration. Evidence of the protective efficacy of malaria chemoprophylaxis in children shows that this strategy could be considered within integrated health programmes for specific time periods. Intermittent routine combination therapy early in childhood may be appropriate for those living under holoendemic conditions. Large-scale studies over a number of years are needed to address this issue and the impact of this approach on health service utilization, mortality, and the emergence of drug-resistant parasites. PMID:12764517

  20. [Inclusion Body Disease (IBD of Boids)--a haematological, histological and electron microscopical study].

    PubMed

    Keilwerth, Melanie; Bühler, Ilina; Hoffmann, Rudolf; Soliman, Hatem; El-Matbouli, Mansour

    2012-01-01

    Our objective was to evaluate diagnostic tools for the detection of Inclusion Body Disease (IBD) in bold snakes. The aetiology of IBD is unknown, and the disease has non-specific clinical signs, hence there is a need for a clinically-applicable, specific diagnostic method. We examined blood smears and liver biopsies from 26 bold snakes (17 boas and nine pythons; some of which were suspected of having IBD) for the presence of characteristic inclusion bodies. We used haematology, histology and electron microscopy to characterise samples as IBD-positive or -negative. Our results indicate that examination of a simple blood smear is sufficient to diagnose IBD in boas. Inclusion bodies in lymphocytes, erythrocytes and thrombocytes were observed. In both, boas and pythons, we detected inclusion bodies within hepatocytes. We demonstrated also that IBD was more common in boas than in pythons: only samples from two Ball Pythons (Python regius) tested positive, whereas no other Pythonidae were positive. We consider that blood smears represents a rapid, non-invasive technique for detection of IBD. PMID:23045804

  1. The psychosocial experience of adolescents with haematological malignancies in Jordan: an interpretive phenomenological analysis study.

    PubMed

    Al Omari, Omar; Wynaden, Dianne

    2014-01-01

    The qualitative research method of interpretive phenomenological analysis was used to explore the lived experience of 14 Jordanian adolescents with haematological malignancies. They were admitted to two hospitals in Jordan and were interviewed for this study twice during the first six months after receiving their diagnosis. The results of this study revealed three themes: (1) Being in hospital, (2) The changing self, and (3) Fearing the unknown. When the participants were hospitalised due to their illness they were removed from their families and friends and prevented from engaging in their normal daily routine. Participants also reported receiving limited emotional and psychological support from health team members during hospitalisation. From the onset of cancer treatments, the bio-psychosocial side effects of the chemotherapy became one of the most distressing factors for participants affecting all aspects of their life and generated uncertainty about their future. The findings add to existing understanding of the lived experiences of cancer patients and in particular Jordanian adolescents. They provide a valuable insight for clinicians into improvements in service delivery to this group of patients. PMID:24550700

  2. Newer antifungal agents for invasive fungal infections in patients with haematological malignancy.

    PubMed

    Rogers, Thomas R; Frost, Susanna

    2009-03-01

    Since 2001 five new systemically administered antifungal agents have been approved for clinical use. This represents a major advance for antifungal therapy in haematological malignancy patients undergoing chemotherapy or haematopoietic stem cell transplant (HSCT). The echinocandins are a new class of antifungals with a novel mode of action. Capsofungin has already established itself as a valuable therapy for candidaemia and salvage therapy of invasive aspergillosis. Although both anidulafungin and micafungin are approved for treatment of candidiasis, their role in invasive aspergillosis requires more clinical trial evaluation. Of the two newer triazoles, voriconazole has been recommended in international guidelines as primary therapy for acute invasive aspergillosis. Posaconazole has a broad spectrum of activity in vitro and a potentially key role in antifungal prophylaxis in high-risk HSCT recipients and during prolonged neutropenia. Although some of these drugs have important interactions with other medications, and potential toxicities, they are safer to use and more efficacious than amphotericin B deoxycholate. Their arrival gives more choices to treat rarer mycoses and will facilitate clinical trial assessment of combination therapy of aspergillosis where single agent therapy gives less than 50% success rates. PMID:19120371

  3. Clinical, haematological, cytokine and acute phase protein changes during experimental Babesia gibsoni infection of beagle puppies.

    PubMed

    Brown, A L; Shiel, R E; Irwin, P J

    2015-10-01

    Babesia gibsoni is a haemoprotozoan parasite of emerging global importance. The clinical presentation of babesial infections is diverse and the systemic inflammatory response induced by infection is considered to be a major feature of the pathophysiology of canine babesiosis. An experimental case-controlled longitudinal study was conducted to assess the clinical, haematological, cytokine and acute phase protein changes that occur during experimental B. gibsoni infection of beagle puppies. Infected dogs became transiently pyrexic and anaemic, intermittently neutropenic and transiently, but profoundly, thrombocytopenic, although this had no apparent adverse clinical effect. Experimental B. gibsoni infection also induced an acute phase response, characterised by a marked increase in the concentration of C-reactive protein, which was delayed in onset following infection but preceded the detection of peripheral parasitaemia. Experimental B. gibsoni infection was also associated with marked increases in the concentration of multiple cytokines which were also delayed in onset following infection and occurred subsequent to the detection of peripheral parasitaemia and the acute phase response. This study furthers our understanding of the immune response that occurs during babesial infections and the role that systemic inflammation plays in the pathophysiology of canine babesiosis. PMID:26297954

  4. Pseudomonas aeruginosa outbreak in a haematology-oncology unit associated with contaminated surface cleaning equipment.

    PubMed

    Engelhart, S; Krizek, L; Glasmacher, A; Fischnaller, E; Marklein, G; Exner, M

    2002-10-01

    An outbreak of six cases of hospital-acquired Pseudomonas aeruginosa infections (two pneumonia two septicaemia, two skin/wound infection) occurred between August and September 2000 in an adult haematology-oncology unit at a tertiary-care centre. During the outbreak, hospital-acquired infection (HAI) incidence density rates rose from 29.4 to 62.3 (P < 0.05) infections per 1000 days at risk (i.e., neutropenic days). A systematic outbreak management system was actioned in accordance with a German draft guideline. Multiple samples from the patients' environment were tested for the presence of P. aeruginosa. A total of 4.5% of samples from sanitary equipment and 20.0% of samples from surface cleaning equipment were found to be contaminated with P. aeruginosa. Genotypic analysis by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis showed different patterns for all (N = 6) of the patient isolates, however, two of the patient isolates were identical in comparison with environmental isolates from cleaning equipment (four samples) and sanitary equipment (one sample). Our investigation revealed that the cleaning staff had used cleaning solution instead of disinfectants for decontamination of the patients' environment. The outbreak was terminated after re-adoption of surface disinfection, application of sterile filters on taps and shower heads, chemical disinfection of the washbasin drains, and appointment of a hospital hygiene nurse to a previously unfilled position. After institution of the control measures, HAI incidence densities decreased to pre-outbreak level. This investigation emphasizes the need to carefully evaluate cleaning and disinfection practices for patient care, particularly in neutropenic patients. PMID:12392900

  5. The effects of levamisole poisoning on the haematological and biochemical parameters in dogs.

    PubMed

    Gokce, H I; Gunes, V; Erdogan, H M; Citil, M; Akca, A; Yuksek, N

    2004-02-01

    This study was designed to evaluate possible organ and system disorders associated with experimentally induced levamisole poisoning in dogs. For this purpose, twelve clinically healthy dogs of different ages, sexes and breeds were used. They were divided into two equal groups (Group A and Group B) and given levamisole orally at a dose of 25 mg/kg of body weight daily for three days. The dogs in Group B were also injected with atropin sulphate (0.04 mg/kg of body weight) subcutaneously (sc) 1 hour after each administration of levamisole. Routine clinical examinations were made and some haematological, biochemical and blood gas parameters were established at various times after administration of levamisole. The dogs in Group A developed severe neurological signs, gastric haemorrhage, bloody vomiting, colic, anaemia and four dogs died. In Group B these signs were mild and only one dog died. Levamisole poisoning was characterised by a significant reduction in the total number of red blood cells (RBCs), concentration of haemoglobin (Hb) and packed cell volume (PCV), and by anaemia. Peripheral blood pH, actual bicarbonate of plasma (HCO3), actual base excess (BE), partial pressure of oxygen (pO2) and saturated oxygen (O2SAT) increased in both groups of animals and these dogs developed metabolic alkalosis 48 hours after the first administration of levamisole. The results of the study also show that levamisole poisoning in dogs causes a significant increase in the activity of serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and of alkaline phosphatase (AP) and in the concentration of urea in both Group A and Group B. In the study, atropin sulphate reduced the severity of the clinical signs and the number of deaths, but it was not alone sufficient to remedy levamisole poisoning in dogs. PMID:15032267

  6. Impact of age on haematological markers pre- and post-marathon running.

    PubMed

    Martin, Thomas G; Pata, Rachel W; D'Addario, Johanna; Yuknis, Lauren; Kingston, Rebecca; Feinn, Richard

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated whether haematological markers differ between young and masters marathon participants, running at similar performance levels. Nine young (31.89 ± 4.96 years) and eight masters (63.13 ± 4.61 years) runners participated. At five time points (pre-race through 54 h post-race), a complete blood cell count, basic metabolic panel and creatine kinase (CK) isoenzyme panel were assessed. Race performance was standardised using the World Masters Association Age Grading Performance Tables. Total CK levels were elevated for all participants at all time points post-race (P < 0.001). The CK-isoenzyme MB% was elevated across groups at 6, 30 and 54 h post-race (P < 0.01, P < 0.01 and P < 0.05), with masters runners having a higher CK-MB% at 30 and 54 h (P < 0.05, P < 0.05). Total white blood cell and neutrophil counts were elevated through 6 h post-race (P < 0.001), with higher levels found in younger runners (P < 0.001). When considering all blood work, masters runners had a higher number of abnormal values at 6, 30 and 54 h post-race (P < 0.05, P < 0.01 and P < 0.05). In conclusion, masters runners demonstrated sustained CK-MB elevation, which may suggest greater cardiac stress. However, future studies using additional cardiac markers should be completed to confirm these findings. In addition, masters runners showed an increased number of laboratory values outside normal range, indicating the body's reduced capacity to respond to marathon running. PMID:25789424

  7. Distribution of haematological indices among subjects with Blastocystis hominis infection compared to controls

    PubMed Central

    Javaherizadeh, Hazhir; Soltani, Shahrzad; Torabizadeh, Mehdi; Yousefi, Elham

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Some studies suggest Blastocystis hominis is a potentially pathogenic protozoa. Blastocystis hominis contributed to anaemia in children aged 8–10 years old in one study. Aim To compare haematological indices in cases with blastocystis hominis infection with healthy controls. Material and methods From 2001 to 2012, 97600 stool examinations were done in 4 university hospitals. Parasites were observed in 46,200 specimens. Of these cases, subjects with complete laboratory investigation (complete blood count – CBC, ferritin, total iron binding capacity – TIBC, and serum) and blastocystis hominis infection were included in this study as the case group. Of these cases, 6851 cases had only B. hominis infection. In the control group, 3615 subjects without parasite infestation were included. Age, haemoglobin (Hb), serum iron, TIBC, white blood cell (WBC), platelet (PLT), mean corpuscular volume (MCV), haematocrit (HCT) and erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) were recorded for cases and controls. SPSS software version 13.0 was used for analysis. Independent sample t-test and χ2 tests were used for comparison. Results Erythrocyte sedimentation rate level was significantly higher in cases with B. hominis infection (p < 0.05). C-reactive protein level was positive in 1.46% of cases and 0.5% of controls, which was statistically significant (p < 0.05). Frequency of serum iron < 120 was significantly higher in cases with B. hominis infection compared to controls. Occult blood was positive in 0.93% of cases and in none of the controls (p < 0.05). Conclusions The ESR, CRP and occult blood was significantly higher in cases with B. hominis infection. PMID:24868297

  8. Canine parvovirus enteritis 1: Clinical, haematological and pathological features of experimental infection.

    PubMed

    Macartney, L; McCandlish, I A; Thompson, H; Cornwell, H J

    1984-09-01

    The effect of oral infection of puppies, eight and 10 weeks old, with canine parvovirus of faecal origin was studied. Clinical signs of enteric disease were first apparent at five days after inoculation and persisted during days 6 and 7 after inoculation. The severity of clinical signs varied from transient dullness and anorexia to emesis, dysentery and death. Changes in haematological parameters were first found at day 3 after inoculation when a relative lymphopenia was observed. A profound neutropenia developed in severely affected dogs after the appearance of clinical enteric disease. Post mortem examination revealed thymic atrophy in all dogs killed on day 4 after inoculation. Macroscopic changes in the small intestine were apparent only in animals examined during the phase of severe enteric disease and consisted of thickening, rigidity and congestion of the small intestines. Microscopically there was lymphocytolysis in the thymic cortex and the germinal centres of the lymph nodes from days 2 and 3 after inoculation respectively and this rapidly resulted in depletion of these tissues. There was repopulation of lymph nodes from day 7 after inoculation but significant thymic regeneration was not apparent during the course of this study. In the small intestine, necrosis of crypt epithelium, atrophy of villi and, in some areas, complete collapse of mucosal architecture were found but the extent of these changes varied along the length of the small intestine and between individuals. Regenerative intestinal changes were observed in those animals surviving the acute phase of enteric dysfunction. The variable severity of clinical and enteric lesions, together with the factors which may affect the expression of clinical disease, are discussed. PMID:6091317

  9. A case/control study of adult haematological malignancies in relation to overhead powerlines.

    PubMed Central

    Youngson, J. H.; Clayden, A. D.; Myers, A.; Cartwright, R. A.

    1991-01-01

    A population based case control study of adult haematological malignancy and distance from, and magnetic fields associated with, overhead (OH) power lines has been carried out in the North West and Yorkshire regions of England. Three-thousand, one hundred and forty-four cases with histologically proven disease were entered into the study. One control per case, matched for age, sex, year of diagnosis and health district of residence, was selected from hospital discharges. Seven per cent of cases and controls lived near to OH power lines as defined by the study protocol. The measure of exposure used was the calculated magnetic field strength at each of these addresses due to maximum load currents carried by OH power lines in the 5 years preceding diagnosis. The odds ratio (OR) for living within 50 m of an OH line was 1.29 with a 95% Confidence Interval (CI) of 0.99-1.68 but a chi 2 test for trend with distance was not statistically significant. The analysis of calculated magnetic fields, did not produce any statistically odds ratios. The OR for magnetic fields greater than or equal to 0.1 mG was 1.03 (95% CI 0.81 1.32). Analysis of magnetic fields greater than or equal to 3.0 mG gave an OR of 1.87 (95% CI 0.79 4.42), but this result is based on small numbers. No evidence was found for confounding by the type of dwelling which was used as a partial surrogate for socio-economic status. PMID:2069855

  10. A Genome-wide screen identifies frequently methylated genes in haematological and epithelial cancers

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Genetic as well as epigenetic alterations are a hallmark of both epithelial and haematological malignancies. High throughput screens are required to identify epigenetic markers that can be useful for diagnostic and prognostic purposes across malignancies. Results Here we report for the first time the use of the MIRA assay (methylated CpG island recovery assay) in combination with genome-wide CpG island arrays to identify epigenetic molecular markers in childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) on a genome-wide scale. We identified 30 genes demonstrating methylation frequencies of ≥25% in childhood ALL, nine genes showed significantly different methylation frequencies in B vs T-ALL. For majority of the genes expression could be restored in methylated leukemia lines after treatment with 5-azaDC. Forty-four percent of the genes represent targets of the polycomb complex. In chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) two of the genes, (TFAP2A and EBF2), demonstrated increased methylation in blast crisis compared to chronic phase (P < 0.05). Furthermore hypermethylation of an autophagy related gene ATG16L2 was associated with poorer prognosis in terms of molecular response to Imatinib treatment. Lastly we demonstrated that ten of these genes were also frequently methylated in common epithelial cancers. Conclusion In summary we have identified a large number of genes showing frequent methylation in childhood ALL, methylation status of two of these genes is associated with advanced disease in CML and methylation status of another gene is associated with prognosis. In addition a subset of these genes may act as epigenetic markers across hematological malignancies as well as common epithelial cancers. PMID:20184741

  11. Haematological parameters of alloxan-induced diabetic rats treated with leaf essential oil of Hoslundia opposita (Vahl)

    PubMed Central

    Muhammad, N.O.; Akolade, J.O.; Usman, L.A.; Oloyede, O.B.

    2012-01-01

    The effect of leaf essential oil of Hoslundia opposita (Vahl) on the haematological parameters of alloxan-induced diabetic rats was investigated. Forty-eight albino rats (Rattus norvegicus), of average weight 132.5 g, were randomly selected into normal and diabetic groups, each with four sub-groups. The rats were treated with 110 and 220 mg/kg body weight (b. wt.) of the essential oil. 14.2 mg/kg body weight of metformin (Glucophage) was used as a reference drug. All treatments were administered, intraperitoneally, once a day for four days. Haematological parameters like haemoglobin (HGB), red blood cell (RBC) count, white blood cell (WBC) count, percentage lymphocytes (LYM) and neutrophils (NEU) were analysed. There were no significant differences (p > 0.05) in the erythrocyte indices of all the normal (non-diabetic) rats, both treated and untreated. However, there was a significant increase (p < 0.05) in the WBC count and a significant reduction (p < 0.05) in the lymphocyte (LYM) percentages of the normal (non-diabetic) rats administered with higher dose of the essential oil. The results also revealed a significant reduction (p < 0.05) and a significant increase (p < 0.05) in the RBC counts of untreated diabetic rats and diabetic rats administered 110 mg/kg b. wt. of the oil respectively. A significant increase (p < 0.05) in the LYM of diabetic untreated rats was also observed, while administration of metformin and 110 mg/kg b. wt. Hoslundia opposita leaf essential oil (HOLEO) to diabetic rats significantly (p < 0.05) reduced the LYM percentages to values within range of the normal control animals. Overall, administration of the oil has significant ameliorative effect on alloxan-induced anaemia in diabetic state and this may be of immense benefits in the management of type 2 diabetes and its associated haematological complications.

  12. Alternative agents versus prophylactic platelet transfusion for preventing bleeding in patients with haematological disorders after chemotherapy or stem cell transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Estcourt, Lise J; Gregg, Richard; Stanworth, Simon; Doree, Carolyn; Trivella, Marialena; Murphy, Michael F; Tinmouth, Alan

    2014-01-01

    This is the protocol for a review and there is no abstract. The objectives are as follows: To determine whether alternative agents (e.g. artificial platelet substitutes, platelet-poor plasma, fibrinogen, rFVIIa, thrombopoietin mimetics) are as effective and safe as the use of platelet transfusions for the prevention of bleeding (prophylactic platelet transfusion) in patients with haematological disorders who are undergoing myelosuppressive chemotherapy or stem cell transplantation. Antifibrinolytics (lysine analogues) will not be included in this review because they have been the focus of another Cochrane review (Wardrop 2013). PMID:25722650

  13. BCSH/BSBMT/UK clinical virology network guideline: diagnosis and management of common respiratory viral infections in patients undergoing treatment for haematological malignancies or stem cell transplantation.

    PubMed

    Dignan, Fiona L; Clark, Andrew; Aitken, Celia; Gilleece, Maria; Jayakar, Vishal; Krishnamurthy, Pramila; Pagliuca, Antonio; Potter, Michael N; Shaw, Bronwen; Skinner, Roderick; Turner, Andrew; Wynn, Robert F; Coyle, Peter

    2016-05-01

    A joint working group established by the Haemato-oncology subgroup of the British Committee for Standards in Haematology, the British Society for Bone Marrow Transplantation and the UK Clinical Virology Network has reviewed the available literature and made recommendations for the diagnosis and management of respiratory viral infections in patients with haematological malignancies or those undergoing haematopoietic stem cell transplantation. This guideline includes recommendations for the diagnosis, prevention and treatment of respiratory viral infections in adults and children. The suggestions and recommendations are primarily intended for physicians practising in the United Kingdom. PMID:27060988

  14. Contribution of new diagnostic approaches to antifungal treatment plans in high-risk haematology patients.

    PubMed

    Einsele, H; Loeffler, J

    2008-05-01

    In high-risk patient cohorts, such as patients after solid-organ or allogeneic stem-cell transplantation, or patients with acute leukaemia, early diagnosis of invasive fungal infections (IFIs) is essential, as delayed or missing diagnosis of IFI results in increasing rates of mortality. However, diagnosis of most IFIs, especially of invasive aspergillosis, is difficult because classic tests have low sensitivity and specificity, and radiology often provides non-specific and transient results. The limited sensitivity and specificity of conventional assays for the detection of IFI and the growing number of immunocompromised patients who are at risk for opportunistic fungal infections have led to the development of new assays. These methods include antigen detection systems, such as ELISAs, and different molecular methods (PCR assays). Serological tests, such as the detection of the carbohydrate galactomannan, are standardised and commercially available. However, they still need to be evaluated in large patient cohorts, especially children. The benefit of antibody detection remains unclear if patients are under immune suppression or are heavily colonised but not infected. A range of different PCR assays (conventional, nested, real-time) have been developed, targeting different gene regions (cytochrome P450, heat-shock proteins, 18S, 5.8S, 28S, internal transcribed spacer), including a variety of amplicon detection methods, such as gel electrophoresis, hybridisation with specific probes, ELISA and restriction fragment length polymorphism. These molecular assays provide high potential in terms of sensitivity and specificity, but vary widely in their feasibility and up to now have not been standardised. Taken together, new non-culture-based diagnostic assays are appropriate as simple and rapid screening tests with high sensitivities and quick turnaround times. Thus, they might help to reduce empirical antifungal therapy and might be valuable tools to allow early initiation and monitoring of pre-emptive antifungal therapy. In this review, we assess the performance of a variety of non-culture-based tests for the detection of IFI in high-risk haematological patients, with emphasis on the impact of the assays on different management strategies. PMID:18430128

  15. Treatment of invasive fungal infections in high-risk haematological patients: what have we learnt in the past 10 years?

    PubMed

    Vallejo, Carlos; Vázquez, Lourdes; Cabrera Martín, José Rafael; Carreras, Enric; García Rodríguez, Julio; Ruiz Camps, Isabel; Fortún, Jesús; Mensa, Josep; Barberán, José

    2013-12-01

    Invasive fungal infection (IFI) caused by filamentous fungi remains a very severe infectious complication in patients with onco-haematological diseases. Last advances in the diagnostic and therapeutic fields, today we know that their contributions are limited. Something similar can be said of clinical trials especially in relation to some changes in the characteristics of the host. The development of promising diagnostic techniques and the relative expansion in the number of antifungal agents has been associated with diversification of therapeutic strategies (prophylaxis with extended-spectrum azoles and preemptive antifungal treatment). However, the low sensitivity of AGA testing in some circumstances, and the potential delay in starting treatment due to logistic reasons, has been reflected by a greater mortality in certain type of patients and a significant increase in the days of treatment. All these circumstances has once again focus attention to the empirical approach as a central strategy in high-risk patients. The objective of this article is to review the clinical experience in the treatment of IFI in onco-haematological patients according to data published in the literature in the last decade and to present a set of recommendations. PMID:24399355

  16. Preliminary study of the fungal ecology at the haematology and medical-oncology ward in Bamako, Mali.

    PubMed

    Niaré-Doumbo, Safiatou; Normand, Anne Cécile; Diallo, Yacouba Lazarre; Dembelé, Abdoul Karim; Thera, Mahamadou A; Diallo, Dapa; Piarroux, Renaud; Doumbo, Ogobara; Ranque, Stéphane

    2014-08-01

    Data on fungal epidemiology in sub-Saharan African countries are scarce. This exploratory study aimed to characterize the fungal flora at the Onco-Haematology ward of the National Teaching Hospital of Point G in Bamako, Mali. A cross-sectional survey was conducted in the dry and in the rainy seasons. Nasal swab and sputum samples were collected from the hospitalized patients while airborne fungal spores were collected using electrostatic dust-fall collectors. Fungi were identified by their morphological characteristics and MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry. Candida albicans was the most frequent yeast species colonizing patients; Aspergillus species were isolated in 86 % of the patients and were the main airborne environmental contaminants. Overall, airborne fungal contamination rates increased from 33.8 % in the dry to 66.2 % in the rainy season (p < 0.001). The most frequent Aspergillus species were Aspergillus niger (36.6 %) and Aspergillus flavus (32.92 %). In contrast, Aspergillus fumigatus (5.43 %) was relatively rare. This high level of fungal exposure raises concern regarding the management of at-risk patients in this Onco-Haematology ward and stresses the need for strengthening the mycological diagnostic capacities to accompany the implementation of adapted fungal infection prevention and management policies. PMID:24889723

  17. Indications for allo- and auto-SCT for haematological diseases, solid tumours and immune disorders: current practice in Europe, 2015.

    PubMed

    Sureda, A; Bader, P; Cesaro, S; Dreger, P; Duarte, R F; Dufour, C; Falkenburg, J H F; Farge-Bancel, D; Gennery, A; Kröger, N; Lanza, F; Marsh, J C; Nagler, A; Peters, C; Velardi, A; Mohty, M; Madrigal, A

    2015-08-01

    This is the sixth special report that the European Society for Blood and Marrow Transplantation regularly publishes on the current practice and indications for haematopoietic SCT for haematological diseases, solid tumours and immune disorders in Europe. Major changes have occurred in the field of haematopoietic SCT over the last years. Cord blood units as well as haploidentical donors have been increasingly used as stem cell sources for allo-SCT, thus, augmenting the possibility of finding a suitable donor for a patient. Continuous refinement of conditioning strategies has also expanded not only the number of potential indications but also has permitted consideration of older patients or those with co-morbidity for a transplant. There is accumulating evidence of the role of haematopoietic SCT in non-haematological disorders such as autoimmune diseases. On the other hand, the advent of new drugs and very effective targeted therapy has challenged the role of SCT in some instances or at least, modified its position in the treatment armamentarium of a given patient. An updated report with revised tables and operating definitions is presented. PMID:25798672

  18. Consensus guidelines for the treatment of yeast infections in the haematology, oncology and intensive care setting, 2014.

    PubMed

    Chen, S C; Sorrell, T C; Chang, C C; Paige, E K; Bryant, P A; Slavin, M A

    2014-12-01

    Pathogenic yeast forms are commonly associated with invasive fungal disease in the immunocompromised host, including patients with haematological malignancies and patients of haemopoietic stem cell transplants. Yeasts include the Candida spp., Cryptococcus spp., Pneumocystis jirovecii and some lesser-known pathogens. Candida species remain the most common cause of invasive yeast infections (and the most common human pathogenic fungi). These guidelines present evidence-based recommendations for the antifungal management of established, invasive yeast infections in adult and paediatric patients in the haematology/oncology setting. Consideration is also given to the critically ill patient in intensive care units, including the neonatal intensive care unit. Evidence for 'pre-emptive' or 'diagnostic-driven antifungal therapy' is also discussed. For the purposes of this paper, invasive yeast diseases are categorised under the headings of invasive candidiasis, cryptococcosis and uncommon yeast infections. Specific recommendations for the management of Pneumocystis jirovecii are presented in an accompanying article (see consensus guidelines by Cooley et al. appearing elsewhere in this supplement). PMID:25482743

  19. Research and development in haematology. A report on international congresses and visit to academic centres in Europe.

    PubMed

    Wood, L

    1990-01-01

    Haematology is one of the most rapidly expanding disciplines in medicine and nursing. As occurs in other highly specialised areas, optimum care is now largely of a multidisciplinary nature. In this context there are literally unlimited opportunities for the involvement of professional nurses and, as I have attempted to illustrate in this report, integration in all aspects of research and development and active participation in presentation of research data and discussion at international meetings is one direction in which fulfillment of academic aspirations can be achieved. It is my viewpoint, based on more than a decade of direct involvement in all the activities of our department in Cape Town that these are entirely attainable goals. There is currently, in our country, a concerted move afoot to develop an improved career structure for the professional nurse along the lines of the American clinical nurse specialist. Much of this experience overseas would strongly support that commitment. It was my privilege to enjoy the confidence of the department, university and medical school sufficient for me to present research data at international meetings and to be a welcome visitor at some of the world's premier academic and research institutions. That this was possible reflects the uncompromising commitment in Haematology to the position of the professional nurse as an integral and equal part of the multidisciplinary health care team. PMID:1977529

  20. Diagnostic accuracy of the Aspergillus-specific bronchoalveolar lavage lateral-flow assay in haematological malignancy patients.

    PubMed

    Prattes, Juergen; Lackner, Michaela; Eigl, Susanne; Reischies, Frederike; Raggam, Reinhard B; Koidl, Christoph; Flick, Holger; Wurm, Robert; Palfner, Michael; Wlfler, Albert; Neumeister, Peter; Thornton, Christopher R; Krause, Robert; Lass-Flrl, Cornelia; Hoenigl, Martin

    2015-08-01

    We evaluated the performance of the Aspergillus-specific lateral-flow device (LFD) test for diagnosing invasive pulmonary aspergillosis (IPA) in patients with underlying haematological malignancies. Participating centres were the two Austrian University Hospitals of Graz and Innsbruck. LFD performance was evaluated with 95 bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) samples from 72 patients collected prospectively in Graz, and with 24 BALF bio bank samples from 23 patients (21 samples with probable IPA) in Innsbruck. Invasive fungal infections were classified according to the revised European Organization of Research and Treatment of Cancer/Mycoses Study Group criteria. Overall, 27 patients (30 samples) had probable IPA, 32 (43 samples) possible and 36 (46 samples) did not fulfil IPA criteria. The vast majority of patients - in particular those with probable IPA - received mould-active treatment before bronchoscopy. Sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value and negative-predictive-value for probable IPA diagnosis using the BALF-LFD test were 71%, 76%, 35% and 94% for the Graz cohort. Sensitivity of the BALF-LFD test for probable IPA was 57% in Innsbruck bio bank samples. Our results indicate that the BALF-LFD-test provides fast results with moderate sensitivities in patients with underlying haematological malignancies. Similar to other diagnostic tests and biomarkers sensitivity of the test may be influenced by ongoing systemic mould-active treatment. PMID:26103209

  1. Effects of probiotic supplementation over 5 months on routine haematology and clinical chemistry measures in healthy active adults.

    PubMed

    Cox, A J; West, N P; Horn, P L; Lehtinen, M J; Koerbin, G; Pyne, D B; Lahtinen, S J; Fricker, P A; Cripps, A W

    2014-11-01

    Use of probiotic-containing foods and probiotic supplements is increasing; however, few studies document safety and tolerability in conjunction with defined clinical end points. This paper reports the effects of 150 days of supplementation with either a single- (Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis Bl-04) or a double-strain (Lactobacillus acidophilus NCFM and Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis Bi-07) probiotic on routine haematology and clinical chemistry measures in healthy active adults. Pre- to post-intervention changes in laboratory measures were determined and compared between supplement and placebo groups. Overall there were few differences in routine haematology and clinical chemistry measures between supplement and placebo groups post-intervention. Exceptions included plasma calcium (P=0.03) and urea (P=0.015); however, observed changes were small and within assay-specific laboratory reference ranges. These data provide evidence supporting the use of these probiotic supplements over a period of 5 months in healthy active adults without obvious safety or tolerability issues. PMID:25052229

  2. Perceived need for information among patients with a haematological malignancy: associations with information satisfaction and treatment decision-making preferences.

    PubMed

    Rood, Janneke A J; van Zuuren, Florence J; Stam, Frank; van der Ploeg, Tjeerd; Eeltink, Corien; Verdonck-de Leeuw, Irma M; Huijgens, Peter C

    2015-06-01

    For patients with haematological malignancies, information on disease, prognosis, treatment and impact on quality of life is of the utmost importance. To gain insight into the perceived need for information in relation to sociodemographic and clinical parameters, comorbidity, quality of life (QoL) and information satisfaction, we compiled a questionnaire based on existing validated questionnaires. A total of 458 patients diagnosed with a haematological malignancy participated. The perceived need for information was moderate to high (40-70%). Multivariate regression analyses showed that a higher need for information was related to younger age, worse QoL, being member of a patient society and moderate comorbidity. The need for disease and treatment-related information was higher than the need for psychosocial information. A higher need for disease and treatment-related information was associated to being diagnosed with multiple myeloma. A higher need for psychosocial information was related to a lower educational level. The information provision could be improved according to 41% of the patients. Higher satisfaction with provided information was associated with better QoL. Most patients (62%) reported that they wanted to be fully informed about their illness and actively involved in treatment decision-making. The results contribute to improving patient-tailored information provision and shared decision-making in clinical practice. PMID:24811073

  3. Volume Conductivity and Scatter Parameters as an Indicator of Acute Bacterial Infections by the Automated Haematology Analyser

    PubMed Central

    Suresh, Pooja K; Rao, Purnima S; Ballal, Kirthinath; Sridevi, Hanaganahalli B; Padyana, Mahesha

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Complete blood picture is the first and foremost investigation ordered for evaluation of acute infectious processes which require early and prompt intervention. With the advent of automated Coulter ® Haematology analysers, the Volume, Conductivity & Scatter parameters of the leucocytes could be analysed for the early detection of the infections. Aim To evaluate the clinical usefulness of Volume, Conductivity & Scatter parameters of neutrophils & monocytes in predicting the onset of acute bacterial infections. Materials and Methods Peripheral blood samples from 94 patients with infections (systemic infections n=36 & localised infections n=58) and 46 control subjects were studied using the Volume, Conductivity & Scatter parameters by the Coulter Haematology analyser. Results We observed a significant increase in the mean channel of neutrophil volume & mean channel of monocyte volume from patients with infections (both systemic & localised) as compared with control subjects (Mean Neutrophil Volume: 158.3 ± 13.7 vs 137.2 ± 4.3; p<0.001) & (Mean Monocyte Volume: 177.8± 16 vs 161.7 ± 6.04; p <0.001). However, there was no significant difference in the Mean Neutrophil Volume of patients with systemic infection & localised infections (160.5±17.5 vs 156.8±10.5, p>0.05). Conclusion The Volume, Conductivity & Scatter parameters like Mean Neutrophil Volume & Mean Monocyte Volume are more sensitive parameters and could prove to be a quick diagnostic indicator of acute bacterial infections. PMID:26894069

  4. Experiential Relationship between Malaria Parasite Density and Some Haematological Parameters in Malaria Infected Male Subjects in Port Harcourt, Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    M., Eze Evelyn; Ezeiruaku, F. C.; Ukaji, D. C.

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the experiential relationship between the parasite density and haematological parameters in male patients with Plasmodium falciparum infection in Port Harcourt, Nigeria reporting to malaria clinics. A total of one hundred and thirty-six (136) male patients were recruited. QBC haematological analysis, QBC malaria parasite specie identification and quantification and thin blood film for differential leucocytes count was used. The mean values of the haematological parameters in each quartile of parasite densities were determined using Microsoft Excel statistical package. Regression analysis was employed to model the experiential relationship between parasite density and haematological parameters. All regression relationships were tested and the relationship with the highest coefficient of determination (R2) was accepted as the valid relationship. The relationships tested included linear, polynomial, exponential, logarithmic and power relationships. The X- axis of the regression graphs stand for the parasite density while Y-axis stands for the respective haematological parameters Neutrophil count had a negative exponential relationship with the parasite density and is related to the parasite density by a polynomial equation model: ynm = -7E-07x2 - 0.0003x + 56.685. The coefficient of determination (R2) was 0.6140. This means that the rate of change of the parasitemia will depend on the initial value of the neutrophil. As the neutrophil increases, the parasitemia will tend to decrease in a double, triple and quadruple manner. The relationship between lymphocyte count, monocyte count and eosinophil count and parasite density was logarithmic and expressed by the following linear equation models: ylm = -2.371ln(x) + 37.296, ymm = 0.6965ln(x) + 5.7692 and yem = 0.9334ln(x) + 4.1718 in the same order. Their respective high coefficients of determination (R2) were 0.8027, 0.8867 and 0.9553. This logarithmic relationship means that each doubling of monocyte count and eosinophil count will cause the same amount of increase in parasitemia whereas each doubling of lymphocyte count will cause the same amount of decrease in parasitemia. The best fitting regression model for total white cell count (WBC), haemoglobin concentration, packed cell volume (PCV)(haematocrit) and mean cell haemoglobin concentration (MCHC) and parasite density was a linear model and expressed by the following linear equation models: yWBCm = 1.2314x + 8533.8, yHbm = -0.0014x + 13.004, yPCVm = -0.0046x + 41.443 and yMCHCm = -0.0008x + 32.336. Their respective coefficients of determination are 0.7397, 0.6248, 0.9758 and 0.8584. This linear relationship means that as the parasite density is increasing that there is a corresponding decrease in haemoglobin concentration, PCV and MCHC and a corresponding increase in total white cell count. The best fitting regression model between platelet count and parasite density is a power model with a very high coefficient of determination (R2=0.9938) and expressed by: yPltm = 278047x-0.122. These equation models could be very useful in areas where there may not be functional microscopes or competent microscopists and in medical emergencies. PMID:22980350

  5. Comparison of different platelet count thresholds to guide administration of prophylactic platelet transfusion for preventing bleeding in patients with haematological disorders after chemotherapy or stem cell transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Estcourt, Lise J; Stanworth, Simon; Doree, Carolyn; Trivella, Marialena; Hopewell, Sally; Murphy, Michael F; Tinmouth, Alan

    2014-01-01

    This is the protocol for a review and there is no abstract. The objectives are as follows: To determine whether different platelet transfusion thresholds for administration of prophylactic platelet transfusions (platelet transfusions given to prevent bleeding) affect the efficacy and safety of prophylactic platelet transfusions in preventing bleeding in patients with haematological disorders after chemotherapy with or without stem cell transplantation. PMID:25722651

  6. Haematological characteristics predicting susceptibility for ascites. 1. High carbon dioxide tensions in juvenile chickens.

    PubMed

    Scheele, C W; van Der Klis, J D; Kwakernaak, C; Buys, N; Decuypere, E

    2003-07-01

    1. Male broilers of two different genetic stocks, a pure broiler sire line (A) and commercially available Ross broilers (B), were used to study the effect of haematological characteristics in juvenile chickens on the development of clinical ascitic signs. Production performance (body weight gain (BWG), feed intake (FI), feed conversion ratio (FCR)) from 448 birds per stock was measured from 2 to 5 weeks of age. Mortality was recorded from 2 to 6 weeks of age. The birds were housed at a low ambient temperature to stimulate the incidence of ascites. 2. From each stock, 32 birds with the highest (high risk: HRc) and 32 birds with the lowest (low risk: LRc) carbon dioxide tensions (pCO2) in venous blood were selected at 11 d of age. These birds were marked for future blood sampling to determine changes in pCO2 with age to relate these values to ascites susceptibility. 3. At 2 weeks of age all birds (including HRc and LRc birds) were allotted to 32 floor pens (one HRc and one LRc in each pen) per stock. Venous blood samples were collected weekly from HRc and LRc birds for blood gas analysis and haematocrit, and at week 5 also for thyroid hormone (T3, T4) concentrations in plasma. At 5 weeks of age all HRc and LRc birds were examined post-mortem, relative heart, lung, and liver weights and arterial pressure index (API) values were recorded. 4. Birds from stock A showed a lower BWG and FCR and notably higher ascites mortality compared with stock B. An effect of pCO2 tensions at d 11 was found on the incidence of ascitic signs in selected birds of both stocks up to week 5. From the HRc groups 30% of the birds showed ascitic signs, whereas this was only 8% in the LRc group. LRc birds of stock B in particular showed constant low API values (20 +/- 3%) and none of these birds showed signs of ascites. 5. Our results suggest that the ascites problem in Ross birds can be eliminated by selection for low pCO2 tensions in venous blood. Stock effects on API, liver weight, lung weight, and plasma thyroid hormone independent of pCO2 showed a more complex picture of the ascitic signs in stock A compared with B. 6. We concluded that in this experiment a high pCO2 tension in venous blood measured at d 11 was a reliable predictor for ascites susceptibility observed at 5 weeks of age. A low pCO2 tension provides an appropriate criterion for genetic selection, whereas a high pCO2 tension emphasises the necessity for intensive management in poultry houses. PMID:12964632

  7. Haematological and biochemical measurements in healthy, adult, free-ranging golden jackals (Canis aureus syriacus) held in captivity.

    PubMed

    Aroch, I; Shpigel, N Y; Avidar, Y; Yakobson, B; King, R; Shamir, M

    2005-09-10

    Blood from 31 healthy, free-ranging golden jackals held in captivity for seven days was collected while they were anaesthetised. Haematological and serum biochemical measurements were analysed and the 95 per cent confidence interval for each variable was compared with the reference value for domestic dogs. The measurements of their red blood cells were within the reference interval for dogs, but the jackals had higher white blood cell counts and eosinophil counts than dogs. The male jackals had a higher haematocrit, red blood cell count, mean corpuscular volume and mean corpuscular haemoglobin concentration, and a lower red blood cell distribution width than the female jackals. High activities of muscle enzymes were detected in many of the jackals, in several of which the activity of creatine kinase exceeded 5000 U/l; these were considered abnormal. PMID:16155240

  8. Are there any new insights for G-CSF and/or AMD3100 in chemotherapy of haematological malignants?

    PubMed

    Shen, Zhao-Hua; Zeng, Dong-Feng; Ma, Ying-Ying; Zhang, Xi; Zhang, Cheng; Kong, Pei-Yan

    2015-12-01

    AML is a common life-threatening blood system malignancy. The treatment of AML continues to face greater challenges. An abnormal haematopoietic niche with high adhesion and proliferation might be the root cause of resistance and relapse. Most leukaemia cells are stored in the endosteal niche and recess in the G0 phase, and they are not sensitive to varieties of radiotherapies and chemotherapies. G-CSF and AMD3100 are increasingly used in priming chemotherapy. G-CSF can promote leukaemia cells to the cell cycle, which improves the complete remission rate of leukaemia patients. AMD3100, the novel CXCR4 antagonist, could also potentially promote leukaemia cells to cell cycle and improve the susceptibility of leukaemia cells to chemotherapeutic agents. The combination of them enhances anti-leukaemia effect. So in this review, we explore the function of G-CSF and/or AMD3100 in the priming chemotherapy of haematological malignants. PMID:26526720

  9. Parameters of haematology, clinical chemistry and lipid metabolism in the common marmoset and alterations under stress conditions.

    PubMed

    Kuehnel, F; Grohmann, J; Buchwald, U; Koeller, G; Teupser, D; Einspanier, A

    2012-08-01

    Common marmosets are suitable non-human primate models for many human diseases. Standard values for blood parameters are required to evaluate physiological and pathological situations. Two studies were conducted: study I to determine standard values and study II to examine these under changed housing conditions. In study I, all parameters for clinical chemistry were similar in range for both genders with these specifics: male marmosets had significantly higher total and LDL cholesterol levels than females, whereas the mean corpuscular volume and the mean corpuscular haemoglobin were significantly lower than in females. In study II, glucose, lymphocytes and salivary cortisol were significantly lower, and faecal cortisol was increased during the change of housing conditions. In conclusion, standard values for haematology and clinical chemistry for the common marmoset were determined. Further on, parameters that are influenced by relocation stress and its importance for experimental results are described. PMID:22765494

  10. The protective effect of hydrated sodium calcium aluminosilicate against haematological, biochemical and pathological changes induced by Zearalenone in mice.

    PubMed

    Abbès, Samir; Ouanes, Zouhour; ben Salah-Abbès, Jalila; Houas, Zohra; Oueslati, Ridha; Bacha, Hassen; Othman, Omar

    2006-04-01

    Hydrated sodium calcium aluminosilicate (HSCAS), an anticaking agent for mixed feed, was added alone or simultaneously with a toxic Zearalenone (ZEN) dose to balb/c mice and was evaluated for its ability to restore damages induced by ZEN. The latter is a mycotoxin produced by fusarium genera; it is mainly known to induce several toxic effects such as hepatotoxicity, immunotoxicity and nephrotoxicity on animals and humans. The experimental approach consisted of eight treatments of six mice each by 400 mg/kg bw or 5 g/kg bw of HSCAS. Two experimental groups have received respectively ZEN alone at 40 (8% of LD50) and at 500 mg/kg bw (LD50). Two other groups have received ZEN at 40 or 500 mg/kg bw combined respectively with HSCAS at 400 mg/kg bw and 5 g/kg bw. The control groups received water or olive oil. Forty-eight hours after treatment, blood samples were collected for haematological and serum biochemical parameters measurements. ZEN treatment significantly increased hematocrit, haemoglobin, white blood cells: lymphocytes, eosinophils, neutrophils, monocytes and the most of biochemical serum parameters; it significantly reduced platelets and induced degenerative changes in the hepatic and renal tissues; while, the mixture of HSCAS with ZEN induced a reestablishment of haematological parameters, levels of serum biochemical enzyme activities and histological pictures of both liver and kidney. It also prevented general toxicity of ZEN. This was observed by the shift of LD50 for this toxin. Thus, our data strongly suggested that deleterious effects of ZEN could be overcome or, at least, significantly were diminished by HSCAS. Moreover, this sorbent by itself did not show any toxic effects. PMID:16563452

  11. Blood Haematology, Serum Thyroid Hormones and Glutathione Peroxidase Status in Kacang Goats Fed Inorganic Iodine and Selenium Supplemented Diets

    PubMed Central

    Aghwan, Z. A.; Sazili, A. Q.; Alimon, A. R.; Goh, Y. M.; Hilmi, M.

    2013-01-01

    The effects of dietary supplementation of selenium (Se), iodine (I), and a combination of both on the blood haematology, serum free thyroxine (FT4) and free triiodothyronine (FT3) hormones and glutathione peroxidase enzyme (GSH-Px) activity were examined on twenty four (7 to 8 months old, 221.17 kg live weight) Kacang crossbred male goats. Animals were randomly assigned to four dietary treatments (6 animals in each group). Throughout 100 d of feeding trial, the animals of control group (CON) received a basal diet, while the other three groups were offered basal diet supplemented with 0.6 mg/kg diet DM Se (SS), or 0.6 mg/kg diet DM I (PI), or a combination of both Se and I, each at 0.6 mg/kg diet DM (SSPI). The haematological attributes which are haemoglobin (Hb), red blood cell (RBC), packed cell volume (PCV), mean cell volume (MCV), white blood cells (WBC), band neutrophils (B Neut), segmented neutrophils (S Neut), lymphocytes (Lymph), monocytes (Mono), eosinophils (Eosin) and basophils (Baso) were similar among the four treatment groups, while serum levels of Se and I increased significantly (p<0.05) in the supplemented groups. The combined dietary supplementation of Se and I (SSPI) significantly increased serum FT3 in the supplemented animals. Serum GSH-Px activity increased significantly in the animals of SS and SSPI groups. It is concluded that the dietary supplementation of inorganic Se and I at a level of 0.6 mg/kg DM increased serum Se and I concentration, FT3 hormone and GSH-Px activity of Kacang crossbred male goats. PMID:25049744

  12. Breakthrough candidaemia caused by phenotypically susceptible Candida spp. in patients with haematological malignancies does not correlate with established interpretive breakpoints.

    PubMed

    Gamaletsou, Maria N; Daikos, George L; Walsh, Thomas J; Perlin, David S; Ortigosa, Cristina Jimenez; Psaroulaki, Anna; Pagoni, Maria; Argyropoulou, Athina; Nepka, Martha; Perivolioti, Efstathia; Kotsopoulou, Maria; Perloretzou, Stavroula; Marangos, Markos; Kofteridis, Diamantis; Grammatikou, Maria; Goukos, Dimitrios; Petrikkos, George; Sipsas, Nikolaos V

    2014-09-01

    In a study of 27,864 patients with haematological malignancies, 40 patients with candidaemia were identified, among whom 21 developed candidaemia while receiving systemic antifungal therapy [breakthrough candidaemia (BTC)]. Demographic, clinical, microbiological and molecular features of these episodes were analysed. Compared with 19 patients with de novo candidaemia, patients with BTC were more likely to have neutropenia (81% vs. 63%), longer median duration of neutropenia (27 days vs. 15 days), hypogammaglobulinaemia (62% vs. 37%) and central venous catheters (CVCs) (86% vs. 68%). The median duration of prior antifungal exposure was 46 days (range 3-108 days). Among the 18 available Candida spp. isolates, 15 (83%) were phenotypically susceptible to the antifungal agent that the patient was receiving. Emergence of resistance was the mechanism leading to BTC in three cases of patients receiving echinocandins. Other possible mechanisms of BTC were (i) elevated (≥2) minimum lethal concentration/minimum inhibitory concentration (MLC/MIC) ratio (reduced ability for a fungicidal agent to kill a fungal pathogen) in all patients receiving amphotericin B and (ii) elevated MLC/MIC ratios in all Candida parapsilosis isolates with MICs≤1 μg/mL to echinocandins. DNA sequencing of the hotspot 1 region of the fks1 and fks2 genes in seven different isolates of C. parapsilosis group demonstrated P660A in Fks1 but no polymorphisms in fks2. In conclusion, mechanisms for BTC in the setting of prolonged neutropenia may be host-based (hypogammaglobulinaemia and CVC) and pathogen-based. CLSI interpretive breakpoints do not reliably predict BTC in patients with haematological malignancies and warrant further investigation. PMID:25108876

  13. Growth and haematological response of indigenous Venda chickens aged 8 to 13 weeks to varying dietary lysine to energy ratios.

    PubMed

    Alabi, O J; Ng'ambi, J W; Mbajiorgu, E F; Norris, D; Mabelebele, M

    2015-06-01

    The effect of feeding varying dietary lysine to energy levels on growth and haematological values of indigenous Venda chickens aged 8 - 13 weeks was evaluated. Four hundred and twenty Venda chickens (BW 362 10 g) were allocated to four dietary treatments in a completely randomized design. Each treatment was replicated seven times, and each replicate had fifteen chickens. Four maize-soya beans-based diets were formulated. Each diet had similar CP (150 g/kg DM) and lysine (8 g lysine/kg DM) but varying energy levels (11, 12, 13 and 14 MJ ME/kg DM). The birds were reared in a deep litter house; feed and water were provided ad libitum. Data on growth and haematological values were collected and analysed using one-way analysis of variance. Duncan's test for multiple comparisons was used to test the significant difference between treatment means (p < 0.05). A quadratic equation was used to determine dietary lysine to energy ratios for optimum parameters which were significant difference. Results showed that dietary energy level influenced (p < 0.05) feed intake, feed conversion ratio, live weight, haemoglobin and pack cell volume values of chickens. Dry matter digestibility, metabolizable energy and nitrogen retention not influenced by dietary lysine to energy ratio. Also, white blood cell, red blood cell, mean corpuscular volume, mean corpuscular haemoglobin and mean corpuscular haemoglobin concentration in female Venda chickens aged 91 days were not influenced by dietary lysine to energy ratio. It is concluded that dietary lysine to energy ratios of 0.672, 0.646, 0.639 and 0.649 optimized feed intake, growth rate, FCR and live weight in indigenous female Venda chickens fed diets containing 8 g of lysine/kg DM, 150 g of CP/kg DM and 11 MJ of ME/kg DM. This has implications in diet formulation for indigenous female Venda chickens. PMID:25495676

  14. Carbapenemase-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae bloodstream infections in neutropenic patients with haematological malignancies or aplastic anaemia: Analysis of 50 cases.

    PubMed

    Tofas, Polydoros; Skiada, Anna; Angelopoulou, Maria; Sipsas, Nikolaos; Pavlopoulou, Ioanna; Tsaousi, Sofia; Pagoni, Maria; Kotsopoulou, Maria; Perlorentzou, Stavroula; Antoniadou, Anastasia; Pirounaki, Maria; Skoutelis, Athanasios; Daikos, George L

    2016-04-01

    Carbapenemase-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae (CP-Kp) are currently among the most important nosocomial pathogens in many geographic regions. A retrospective study was conducted between 2010 and 2014 in four hospitals located in a high-prevalence area (Athens, Greece) to describe the clinical features, treatment and outcomes of neutropenic patients with haematological diseases complicated with CP-Kp bloodstream infections. A total of 50 patients were identified, including 48 with haematological malignancies and 2 with aplastic anaemia. All patients had neutropenia (<500cells/mm(3)), of whom 40 had <100neutrophils/mm(3). The probable source of bacteraemia was identified in 9 patients; in the remaining 41 patients the bacteraemia was considered primary. For definitive treatment, 30 patients received combination therapy (two or more active drugs), 10 received monotherapy (one active drug) and 4 received therapy with no active drug; the remaining 6 patients died within 48h after the onset of bacteraemia. The 14-day all-cause mortality rate was 50%, 38% and 33% for those who received one, two or three active drugs respectively. In the Cox proportional hazards model, unresolved neutropenia [hazard ratio (HR)=19.28, 95% confidence interval (CI) 2.31-160.69; P=0.006], septic shock (HR=3.04, 95% CI 1.06-8.78; P=0.04) and treatment with one active drug (HR for monotherapy versus combination therapy=3.95, 95% CI 1.23-12.65; P=0.02) were independent predictors of death, whilst combination therapy was associated with lower mortality. These findings may assist physicians in making treatment decisions for neutropenic patients with CP-Kp infections. PMID:27005460

  15. Chlorpyrifos-induced changes in oxidant/antioxidant status and haematological parameters of Cyprinus carpio carpio: ameliorative effect of lycopene.

    PubMed

    Ural, Mevlüt Şener

    2013-02-01

    The present study was carried out to investigate the potential ameliorative effects of lycopene against chlorpyrifos (CPF) toxicity in carp. The fish were divided into 7 different experimental groups and received the following treatments: Group 1, control; Group 2, orally administered corn oil; Group 3, oral lycopene (10 mg kg(-1) body weight); Group 4, exposure to 0.040 mg L(-1) CPF; Group 5, exposure to 0.040 mg L(-1) CPF plus oral administration of 10 mg kg(-1) lycopene; Group 6, exposure to 0.080 mg L(-1) CPF; and Group 7, exposure to 0.040 mg L(-1) CPF plus oral administration of 10 mg kg(-1) lycopene. Treatment was continued for 14 d and samples of the blood and tissue (liver, kidney, and gill) were collected at the end of the experiment and analysed for their oxidant-antioxidant status, including the malondialdehyde (MDA) levels, and the superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) activity. The samples were also measured for changes in the haematological parameters, such as the red blood cell (RBC) and white blood cell (WBC) counts, the haemoglobin concentration (Hb), the haematocrit (Ht) level, and the erythrocyte indices: the mean corpuscular volume (MCV), the mean corpuscular haemoglobin (MCH) and the mean corpuscular haemoglobin concentration (MCHC). The findings of this study demonstrated that CPF had a negative effect on the haematological parameters and the antioxidant enzyme activities of the fish; this toxic effect was neutralised by the administration of lycopene. The present results suggest that lycopene (10 mg kg(-1)) can be effective in the protection of CPF-induced toxicity in fish. PMID:23312461

  16. A non-randomised trial of an art therapy intervention for patients with haematological malignancies to support post-traumatic growth.

    PubMed

    Singer, Susanne; Götze, Heide; Buttstädt, Marianne; Ziegler, Corinna; Richter, Robert; Brown, Anna; Niederwieser, Dietger; Dorst, Jana; Jäkel, Nadja; Geue, Kristina

    2013-07-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the effect of art therapy on post-traumatic growth in patients with haematological malignancies in a non-randomised trial (n = 36, intervention group; n = 129, control group). Art therapy was administered over a period of 22 weeks in small groups. Post-traumatic growth was measured with the Stress-Related Growth Scale. After controlling for the effect of potential confounders, no difference in post-traumatic growth was observed between the intervention and control groups after 22 weeks. There was no evidence for an effect of weekly group sessions with art therapy on post-traumatic growth in patients with haematological malignancies. PMID:23027781

  17. Effect of high wavelengths low intensity light during dark period on physical exercise performance, biochemical and haematological parameters of swimming rats.

    PubMed

    Beck, W; Gobatto, C

    2016-03-01

    Nocturnal rodents should be assessed at an appropriate time of day, which leads to a challenge in identifying an adequate environmental light which allows animal visualisation without perturbing physiological homeostasis. Thus, we analysed the influence of high wavelength and low intensity light during dark period on physical exercise and biochemical and haematological parameters of nocturnal rats. We submitted 80 animals to an exhaustive exercise at individualised intensity under two different illuminations during dark period. Red light (> 600 nm; < 15lux) was applied constantly during dark period (EI; for experimental illumination groups) or only for handling and assessments (SI; for standard illumination groups). EI led to worse haematological and biochemical conditions, demonstrating that EI alone can influence physiological parameters and jeopardise result interpretation. SI promotes normal physiological conditions and greater aerobic tolerance than EI, showing the importance of a correct illumination pattern for all researchers that employ nocturnal rats for health/disease or sports performance experiments. PMID:27030633

  18. The effect of fasting during Ramadan on parameters of the haematological and steroidal modules of the athletes biological passport - a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Alsaadi, K; Voss, S C; Kraiem, S; Alwahaibi, A; Alyazedi, S; Dbes, N; Goebel, R; Mohamed-Ali, V; Alsowaidi, S; Seyam, A M; Bashraheel, A S; Alsayrafi, M; Georgakopoulos, C

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the effect of Ramadan on the haematological and steroid module of the Athletes Biological Passport (ABP) of the World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA). Nine healthy physically active subjects were tested in the morning and afternoon for two days before and three days during Ramadan. Sample collection and all analyses were performed according to WADA technical documents. Although there were significant changes in the haemoglobin concentration during Ramadan, especially during the first fasting week, none of the subjects in this study exceeded the individually calculated thresholds of the ABP. No significant effects on testosterone/epitestosterone (T/E) ratio were observed but only the afternoon specific gravity (SG) of the urine was elevated. Thus, when urinary steroid concentrations are required, SG corrections need to be performed. The haematological and the steroid module of the ABP can be reliably applied during Ramadan as the observed changes are only marginal. PMID:26695489

  19. A therapeutic-only versus prophylactic platelet transfusion strategy for preventing bleeding in patients with haematological disorders after chemotherapy or stem cell transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Estcourt, Lise J; Crighton, Gemma L; Wood, Erica M; Stanworth, Simon; Trivella, Marialena; Doree, Carolyn; Tinmouth, Alan; Murphy, Michael F

    2014-01-01

    This is the protocol for a review and there is no abstract. The objectives are as follows: To determine whether a therapeutic-only platelet transfusion policy (platelet transfusions given when patient bleeds) is as effective and safe as a prophylactic platelet transfusion policy (platelet transfusions given to prevent bleeding usually when the platelet count falls below a given trigger level) in patients with haematological disorders undergoing myelosuppressive chemotherapy or stem cell transplantation. PMID:25722649

  20. Antidiabetic and haematological effect of aqueous extract of stem bark of Afzelia africana (Smith) on streptozotocin-induced diabetic Wistar rats

    PubMed Central

    Oyedemi, SO; Adewusi, EA; Aiyegoro, OA; Akinpelu, DA

    2011-01-01

    Objective To investigate the antidiabetic properties of aqueous extract of stem bark of Afzelia africana (A. africana) and its beneficial effect on haematological parameters in streptozotocin induced diabetic rats. Methods A total of 30 rats including 24 diabetic and 6 normal rats were used for this study. Diabetes was induced in male Wistar rats by intraperitoneal injection of streptozotocin. After being confirmed diabetic, animals were orally treated with distilled water or extracts at 100 or 200 mg/kg body weight daily for 10 days. The haematological parameters including red blood and white blood cells and their functional indices were evaluated in diabetic treated groups compared with the controls. Results The extract significantly reduced the blood glucose levels while the best result was obtained at 200 mg/kg body weight. The feed and water intake in diabetic rats were significantly reduced while weight loss was minimized at both dosages. Similarly, the levels of red blood, white blood cells and their functional indices were significantly improved after extract administration at both doses. Conclusions It can be concluded that the aqueous extract of bark of A. africana possesses antihyperglycemic properties. In addition, the extract can prevent various complications of diabetes and improve some haematological parameters. Further experimental investigation is needed to exploit its relevant therapeutic effect to substantiate its ethnomedicinal usage. PMID:23569792

  1. Protective role of propolis in chlorpyrifos-induced changes in the haematological parameters and the oxidative/antioxidative status of Cyprinus carpio carpio.

    PubMed

    Enis Yonar, M; Yonar, Serpil Mişe; Ural, Mevlüt Şener; Silici, Sibel; Düşükcan, Mustafa

    2012-08-01

    The protective effect of propolis on haematological parameters and antioxidant status were evaluated in the blood and various tissues of carp exposed to chlorpyrifos (CPF). The fish were exposed to sublethal concentrations of CPF (0.040 and 0.080 mg/L) for 10 days, and propolis (10 mg per kg of fish weight) was simultaneously administered. Samples of the blood and tissue (liver, kidney, and gill) were collected at the end of the experiment and analysed for their oxidant-antioxidant status, including the malondialdehyde (MDA) levels, and the superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) activity. The samples were also measured for changes in the haematological parameters, such as the red blood cell (RBC) and white blood cell (WBC) counts, the haemoglobin concentration (Hb), the haematocrit (Ht) level, and the erythrocyte indices: the mean corpuscular volume (MCV), the mean corpuscular haemoglobin (MCH) and the mean corpuscular haemoglobin concentration (MCHC). The findings of this study demonstrated that CPF had a negative effect on the haematological parameters and the antioxidant enzyme activities of the fish; this toxic effect was neutralised by the administration of propolis. The present results suggest that propolis can be effective in the protection of CPF-induced toxicity in fish. PMID:22634289

  2. The role of vitamin C as antioxidant in protection of biochemical and haematological stress induced by chlorpyrifos in freshwater fish Clarias batrachus.

    PubMed

    Narra, Madhusudan Reddy; Rajender, Kodimyala; Rudra Reddy, R; Rao, J Venkateswara; Begum, Ghousia

    2015-08-01

    The study was conducted to explore the modulatory effects of chlorpyrifos and protective role of vitamin C in tissues of Clarias batrachus. Treatments include E1 group (basal diet plus 1.65mgL(-1) CPF) and E2 group (basal diet+200mgkg body weight vitamin C and 1.65mgL(-1) CPF) along with a control group of fishes (fed on basal diet only). After 1, 7, 15, and 30d of treatment, fish tissues (brain, blood and liver) were used for the estimation of growth, biochemical and haematological parameters. The results of E1 group indicated significantly lower weight gain and survival rate. Brain AChE activity was inhibited. The RBC, Hb, respiratory burst activity, total protein and HSI were also reduced whereas WBC count, plasma glucose and haematocrit were elevated. In contrast, liver glycogen content, lactate dehydrogenase, alkaline and acid phosphatase activities were inhibited and malate dehydrogenase, aspartate, alanine amino transferase were enhanced. The E2 group of fish exhibited significant improvement in growth, survival, haematological indices, brain AChE, liver glycogen and oxidative enzyme activity. The findings support that dietary vitamin C supplementation might be helpful in abrogation of chlorpyrifos toxicity and improves growth, survival, biochemical and haematological conditions in fishes. PMID:25855010

  3. Haematological rather than skeletal muscle adaptations contribute to the increase in peak oxygen uptake induced by moderate endurance training.

    PubMed

    Montero, David; Cathomen, Adrian; Jacobs, Robert A; Flück, Daniela; de Leur, Jeroen; Keiser, Stefanie; Bonne, Thomas; Kirk, Niels; Lundby, Anne-Kristine; Lundby, Carsten

    2015-10-15

    It remains unclear whether improvements in peak oxygen uptake (V̇(O2peak)) following endurance training (ET) are primarily determined by central and/or peripheral adaptations. Herein, we tested the hypothesis that the improvement in V̇(O2peak) following 6 weeks of ET is mainly determined by haematological rather than skeletal muscle adaptations. Sixteen untrained healthy male volunteers (age = 25 ± 4 years, V̇(O2peak) = 3.5 ± 0.5 l min(-1)) underwent supervised ET (6 weeks, 3-4 sessions per week). V̇(O2peak), peak cardiac output (Q̇(peak)), haemoglobin mass (Hb(mass)) and blood volumes were assessed prior to and following ET. Skeletal muscle biopsies were analysed for mitochondrial volume density (Mito(VD)), capillarity, fibre types and respiratory capacity (OXPHOS). After the post-ET assessment, red blood cell volume (RBCV) was re-established at the pre-ET level by phlebotomy and V̇(O2peak) and Q̇(peak) were measured again. We speculated that the contribution of skeletal muscle adaptations to the ET-induced increase in V̇(O2peak) would be revealed when controlling for haematological adaptations. V̇(O2peak) and Q̇(peak) were increased (P < 0.05) following ET (9 ± 8 and 7 ± 6%, respectively) and decreased (P < 0.05) after phlebotomy (-7 ± 7 and -10 ± 7%). RBCV, plasma volume and Hb(mass) all increased (P < 0.05) after ET (8 ± 4, 4 ± 6 and 6 ± 5%). As for skeletal muscle adaptations, capillary-to-fibre ratio and total Mito(VD) increased (P < 0.05) following ET (18 ± 16 and 43 ± 30%), but OXPHOS remained unaltered. Through stepwise multiple regression analysis, Q̇(peak), RBCV and Hb(mass) were found to be independent predictors of V̇(O2peak). In conclusion, the improvement in V̇(O2peak) following 6 weeks of ET is primarily attributed to increases in Q̇(peak) and oxygen-carrying capacity of blood in untrained healthy young subjects. PMID:26282186

  4. Effects of age and season on haematological parameters of donkeys during the rainy and cold-dry seasons.

    PubMed

    Zakari, Friday Ocheja; Ayo, Joseph Olusegun; Rekwot, Peter Ibrahim; Kawu, Mohammed Umar

    2015-12-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate the effects of age and season on haematological parameters of donkeys at rest during the rainy and cold-dry seasons. Thirty healthy donkeys divided into three groups based on their age served as the subjects. During each season, blood sample was collected from each donkey thrice, 2 weeks apart, for haematological analysis, and the dry-bulb temperature (DBT), relative humidity (RH) and temperature-humidity index (THI) were obtained thrice each day during the experimental period using standard procedures. During the rainy season, the mean DBT (33.05 ± 0.49 °C), RH (73.63 ± 1.09 %) and THI (84.39 ± 0.71) were higher (P < 0.0001) than the corresponding values of 24.00 ± 0.44 °C, 36.80 ± 0.92 % and 64.80 ± 0.62, during the cold-dry season. Packed cell volume (PCV), erythrocyte count [red blood cell (RBC)], haemoglobin concentration (Hb), mean corpuscular volume (MCV), mean corpuscular haemoglobin (MCH), platelet count (PLT), leucocyte count [white blood cell (WBC)], lymphocyte count (LYM) and neutrophil/lymphocyte ratio (N/L) were higher (P < 0.05) in adults than foals during the rainy season. The MCV, MCH, WBC, NEU, LYM and PLT of adult and yearling donkeys were higher (P < 0.05) during the rainy than the cold-dry season. The PCV, RBC, Hb, MCV, MCH, and NEU of foals were higher in the rainy than the cold-dry season. The N/L of adult and foal donkeys were higher (P < 0.05) in the rainy than in the cold-dry season. In conclusion, PCV, RBC, Hb and LYM were considerably higher in foals than yearlings or adults during the rainy season, while erythrocytic indices and platelet counts were higher in adults or yearlings than in foals in both seasons. Erythrocytic indices, PLT and N/L were higher in the rainy than the cold-dry season in adults, yearlings and foals. PMID:25860334

  5. Effects of age and season on haematological parameters of donkeys during the rainy and cold-dry seasons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zakari, Friday Ocheja; Ayo, Joseph Olusegun; Rekwot, Peter Ibrahim; Kawu, Mohammed Umar

    2015-12-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate the effects of age and season on haematological parameters of donkeys at rest during the rainy and cold-dry seasons. Thirty healthy donkeys divided into three groups based on their age served as the subjects. During each season, blood sample was collected from each donkey thrice, 2 weeks apart, for haematological analysis, and the dry-bulb temperature (DBT), relative humidity (RH) and temperature-humidity index (THI) were obtained thrice each day during the experimental period using standard procedures. During the rainy season, the mean DBT (33.05 ± 0.49 °C), RH (73.63 ± 1.09 %) and THI (84.39 ± 0.71) were higher ( P < 0.0001) than the corresponding values of 24.00 ± 0.44 °C, 36.80 ± 0.92 % and 64.80 ± 0.62, during the cold-dry season. Packed cell volume (PCV), erythrocyte count [red blood cell (RBC)], haemoglobin concentration (Hb), mean corpuscular volume (MCV), mean corpuscular haemoglobin (MCH), platelet count (PLT), leucocyte count [white blood cell (WBC)], lymphocyte count (LYM) and neutrophil/lymphocyte ratio (N/L) were higher ( P < 0.05) in adults than foals during the rainy season. The MCV, MCH, WBC, NEU, LYM and PLT of adult and yearling donkeys were higher ( P < 0.05) during the rainy than the cold-dry season. The PCV, RBC, Hb, MCV, MCH, and NEU of foals were higher in the rainy than the cold-dry season. The N/L of adult and foal donkeys were higher ( P < 0.05) in the rainy than in the cold-dry season. In conclusion, PCV, RBC, Hb and LYM were considerably higher in foals than yearlings or adults during the rainy season, while erythrocytic indices and platelet counts were higher in adults or yearlings than in foals in both seasons. Erythrocytic indices, PLT and N/L were higher in the rainy than the cold-dry season in adults, yearlings and foals.

  6. Loci associated with N-glycosylation of human immunoglobulin G show pleiotropy with autoimmune diseases and haematological cancers.

    PubMed

    Lauc, Gordan; Huffman, Jennifer E; Pučić, Maja; Zgaga, Lina; Adamczyk, Barbara; Mužinić, Ana; Novokmet, Mislav; Polašek, Ozren; Gornik, Olga; Krištić, Jasminka; Keser, Toma; Vitart, Veronique; Scheijen, Blanca; Uh, Hae-Won; Molokhia, Mariam; Patrick, Alan Leslie; McKeigue, Paul; Kolčić, Ivana; Lukić, Ivan Krešimir; Swann, Olivia; van Leeuwen, Frank N; Ruhaak, L Renee; Houwing-Duistermaat, Jeanine J; Slagboom, P Eline; Beekman, Marian; de Craen, Anton J M; Deelder, André M; Zeng, Qiang; Wang, Wei; Hastie, Nicholas D; Gyllensten, Ulf; Wilson, James F; Wuhrer, Manfred; Wright, Alan F; Rudd, Pauline M; Hayward, Caroline; Aulchenko, Yurii; Campbell, Harry; Rudan, Igor

    2013-01-01

    Glycosylation of immunoglobulin G (IgG) influences IgG effector function by modulating binding to Fc receptors. To identify genetic loci associated with IgG glycosylation, we quantitated N-linked IgG glycans using two approaches. After isolating IgG from human plasma, we performed 77 quantitative measurements of N-glycosylation using ultra-performance liquid chromatography (UPLC) in 2,247 individuals from four European discovery populations. In parallel, we measured IgG N-glycans using MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry (MS) in a replication cohort of 1,848 Europeans. Meta-analysis of genome-wide association study (GWAS) results identified 9 genome-wide significant loci (P<2.27 × 10(-9)) in the discovery analysis and two of the same loci (B4GALT1 and MGAT3) in the replication cohort. Four loci contained genes encoding glycosyltransferases (ST6GAL1, B4GALT1, FUT8, and MGAT3), while the remaining 5 contained genes that have not been previously implicated in protein glycosylation (IKZF1, IL6ST-ANKRD55, ABCF2-SMARCD3, SUV420H1, and SMARCB1-DERL3). However, most of them have been strongly associated with autoimmune and inflammatory conditions (e.g., systemic lupus erythematosus, rheumatoid arthritis, ulcerative colitis, Crohn's disease, diabetes type 1, multiple sclerosis, Graves' disease, celiac disease, nodular sclerosis) and/or haematological cancers (acute lymphoblastic leukaemia, Hodgkin lymphoma, and multiple myeloma). Follow-up functional experiments in haplodeficient Ikzf1 knock-out mice showed the same general pattern of changes in IgG glycosylation as identified in the meta-analysis. As IKZF1 was associated with multiple IgG N-glycan traits, we explored biomarker potential of affected N-glycans in 101 cases with SLE and 183 matched controls and demonstrated substantial discriminative power in a ROC-curve analysis (area under the curve = 0.842). Our study shows that it is possible to identify new loci that control glycosylation of a single plasma protein using GWAS. The results may also provide an explanation for the reported pleiotropy and antagonistic effects of loci involved in autoimmune diseases and haematological cancer. PMID:23382691

  7. Influence of porcine coat colour genotypes on haematological parameters, piglet birth weight and body weight gain until weaning.

    PubMed

    Fésüs, L; Zsolnai, A; Komlósi, I

    2005-04-01

    Two F2 generations of an intercross between Hampshire boars and Hungarian Large White sows were produced to estimate the effects of the porcine KIT genotypes (II, Ii and ii) on quantitative and qualitative haematological indices, on piglet birth weight and growth performance until weaning. Piglets carrying the I allele had significantly fewer lymphocytes (p = 0.041) than the ii homozygotes, heterozygotes had measures between the two homozygotes. KIT genotypes did not influence white blood cells, red blood cells, haemoglobin and haematocrite. II genotype piglets were significantly lighter at birth than the ones carrying the recessive i allele, the effect of KIT genotypes on gain until weaning was not significant, but II piglets tended to gain less. The results of this study support the hypothesis of M. Johansson, H. Ellegren, L. Marklund, U. Gustavsson, E. Ringmar-Cederberg, K. Andersson, I. Edfors-Lilja and L. Andersson [(1992) Genomics, 14, 965] that the pleiotrophic effect of the porcine KIT mutations on haematopoietic cells must be mild. PMID:16130479

  8. In vitro activity of bortezomib in cultures of patient tumour cells--potential utility in haematological malignancies.

    PubMed

    Wiberg, Kristina; Carlson, Kristina; Aleskog, Anna; Larsson, Rolf; Nygren, Peter; Lindhagen, Elin

    2009-01-01

    Bortezomib represents a new class of anti-cancer drugs, the proteasome inhibitors. We evaluated the in vitro activity of bortezomib with regard to tumour-type specificity and possible mechanisms of drug resistance in 115 samples of tumour cells from patients and in a cell-line panel, using the short-term fluorometric microculture cytotoxicity assay. Bortezomib generally showed dose-response curves with a steep slope. In patient cells, bortezomib was more active in haematological than in solid tumour samples. Myeloma and chronic myeloid leukaemia were the most sensitive tumour types although with great variability in drug response between the individual samples. Colorectal and kidney cancer samples were the least sensitive. In the cell-line panel, only small differences in response were seen between the different cell lines, and the proteasome inhibitors, lactacystin and MG 262, showed an activity pattern similar to that of bortezomib. The cell-line data suggest that resistance to bortezomib was not mediated by MRP-, PgP, GSH-; tubulin and topo II-associated MDR. Combination experiments indicated synergy between bortezomib and arsenic trioxide or irinotecan. The data support the current use of bortezomib but also points to its potential utility in other tumour types and in combination with cytotoxic drugs. PMID:19016012

  9. Changes in haematology, plasma biochemistry and erythrocyte osmotic fragility of the Nigerian laughing dove (Streptopelia senegalensis) in captivity.

    PubMed

    Azeez, O I; Oyagbemi, A A; Olawuwo, O S; Oyewale, J O

    2013-01-01

    The haematology, plasma biochemistry and erythrocyte osmotic fragility of the Nigerian laughing dove (Streptopelia senegalensis) were studied after 4 and 8 weeks in captivity. At 8 weeks, there was a normocytic hypochromic anaemia characterized by reduced values for packed cell volume (PCV), red blood cell count (RBC), haemoglobin (Hb) concentration, mean corpuscular haemoglobin (MCH) and mean corpuscular haemoglobin concentration (MCHC), but the mean corpuscular volume (MCV) was unaltered compared with the corresponding values at 4 weeks. The platelet count, total white blood cell count, heterophil, lymphocyte and monocyte counts were also lower at 8 weeks than those of the birds sampled at 4 weeks in captivity. There was also a stress induced increased heterophil/lymphocyte ratio and the erythrocytes were more fragile in hypotonic solution in birds sampled at 8 weeks. Plasma aspartate transaminase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and alkaline phosphate (ALP) increased at 8 weeks, though non-significantly, which might have been due to muscle wasting consequent upon decreased muscular activities associated with prolonged captivity. The results suggest that maintaining wild birds in captivity for a prolonged period could be stressful as shown by the heterophil/lymphocytes ratio and reduced erythrocyte osmotic resistance, and could lead to decreases in erythrocyte parameters and muscle wasting. PMID:23955409

  10. Haematopoietic stem cell transplantation for Diamond Blackfan anaemia: a report from the Italian Association of Paediatric Haematology and Oncology Registry.

    PubMed

    Fagioli, Franca; Quarello, Paola; Zecca, Marco; Lanino, Edoardo; Corti, Paola; Favre, Claudio; Ripaldi, Mimmo; Ramenghi, Ugo; Locatelli, Franco; Prete, Arcangelo

    2014-06-01

    Allogeneic haematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) is the only curative option for patients with Diamond Blackfan anaemia (DBA). We report the transplantation outcome of 30 Italian DBA patients referred to the Italian Association of Paediatric Haematology and Oncology Registry between 1990 and 2012. This is one of the largest national registry cohorts of transplanted DBA patients. Most patients (83%) were allografted after 2000. A matched sibling donor was employed in 16 patients (53%), the remaining 14 patients (47%) were transplanted from matched unrelated donors. Twenty-eight of the 30 patients engrafted. One patient died at day +6 due to veno-occlusive disease without achieving neutrophil recovery and another patient remained transfusion-dependent despite the presence of a full donor chimerism. The 5-year overall survival and transplant-related mortality was 74·4% and 25·6%, respectively. Patients younger than 10 years as well as those transplanted after 2000 showed a significantly higher overall survival and a significantly lower risk of transplant-related mortality. No difference between donor type was observed. Our data suggest that allogeneic HSCT from a related or unrelated donor was a reasonable alternative to transfusion therapy in young and well chelated DBA patients. PMID:24611452

  11. The Effect of Mycotoxin Deoxynivalenol on Haematological and Biochemical Indicators and Histopathological Changes in Rainbow Trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)

    PubMed Central

    Modra, Helena; Blahova, Jana; Franc, Ales; Fictum, Petr; Sevcikova, Marie; Svobodova, Zdenka

    2014-01-01

    Deoxynivalenol (DON), produced by the Fusarium genus, is a major contaminant of cereal grains used in the production of fish feed. The effect of mycotoxin deoxynivalenol on rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) was studied using a commercial feed with the addition of DON in a dose of 2 mg/kg feed. The fish (n = 40) were exposed to the mycotoxin for 23 days. The trout were divided into two groups, control and experimental groups. Control groups were fed a commercial feed naturally contaminated with a low concentration of DON (225 μg/kg feed); experimental groups were fed a commercial feed with the addition of DON (1964 μg/kg feed). Plasma biochemical and haematological indices, biometric parameters, and histopathological changes were assessed at the end of the experiment. The experimental groups showed significantly lower values in MCH (P < 0.05). In biochemical indices, after 23-day exposure, a significant decrease in glucose, cholesterol (P < 0.05), and ammonia (P < 0.01) was recorded in the experimental group compared to the control group. Our assessment showed no significant changes in biometric parameters. The histopathological examination revealed disorders in the caudal kidney of the exposed fish. The obtained data show the sensitivity of rainbow trout (O. mykiss) to deoxynivalenol. PMID:24729967

  12. Effect of dystocia and treatment with oxytocin on neonatal calf vitality and acid-base, electrolyte and haematological status.

    PubMed

    Vannucchi, C I; Rodrigues, J A; Silva, L C G; Lúcio, C F; Veiga, G A L

    2015-02-01

    Under adverse obstetrical conditions, appropriate supervision and assistance during the immediate neonatal period are of the utmost importance, especially for weak calves. The aim of this study was to establish the effects of dystocia and oxytocin infusion on neonatal vitality, acid-base balance, and electrolyte and haematological homeostasis of dairy calves. Data were collected for 30 Holstein calves which were allocated to three groups: normal calving (n = 10); dystocia with mild to severe obstetric assistance (n = 10); and uterine inertia treated with oxytocin (n = 10). All 30 calves exhibited normothermia at birth, but had a significant decrease in body temperature after 60 min. Dystocic calves had lower Apgar scores than calves in the other two groups, and had respiratory and metabolic acidosis. Calves from normal calvings had normal blood pH, but base excess below the reference range. The mean partial pressure (Pa) of oxygen of calves whose dam had been treated with oxytocin was lower than that of calves from normal calvings. In all experimental groups, there was improvement in metabolic status in the first 60 min postpartum as PaCO2 values significantly decreased. All calves had normonatraemia, normokalaemia and normochloridaemia during the study period, but calves born to dams treated with oxytocin had a higher sodium concentration than those in the two other groups. PMID:25599899

  13. Effect of fluconazole prophylaxis on fungal blood cultures: an autopsy-based study involving 720 patients with haematological malignancy.

    PubMed

    Kami, Masahiro; Machida, Utako; Okuzumi, Katsuko; Matsumura, Tomoko; Mori Si, Shin-ichiro; Hori, Akiko; Kashima, Takeshi; Kanda, Yoshinobu; Takaue, Yoichi; Sakamaki, Hisashi; Hirai, Hisamaru; Yoneyama, Akiko; Mutou, Yoshitomo

    2002-04-01

    To investigate the utility of blood culture of invasive fungal infections in patients with haematological malignancies, an autopsy survey was conducted in 720 patients who were treated between 1980 and 1999. We identified 252 patients with invasive mycosis. These included Candida (n = 94), Aspergillus (n = 91), Zygomycetes (n = 34), Cryptococcus (n = 7), Trichosporon (n = 11), Fusarium (n = 1), and unknown fungi (n = 20). Of the 94 patients with invasive candidiasis, 20 had positive blood cultures. Of the 11 patients with invasive trichosporonosis, seven had positive blood cultures. The sensitivities of blood cultures were 1.1%, 0% and 14% for detecting invasive aspergillosis, zygomycosis and cryptococcosis respectively. Multiple regression analysis showed a significant correlation between results of Candida blood cultures and some variables, including prophylactic use of absorbable antifungals (P = 0.0181) and infection by Candida albicans (P = 0.0086). The sensitivity of blood cultures decreased when patients received antifungal chemoprophylaxis. Unless these agents are inactivated in culture bottles, conventional blood cultures might produce false-negative results. PMID:11918531

  14. Delayed Haematological recovery after autologous stem cell transplantation is associated with favourable outcome in acute myeloid leukaemia.

    PubMed

    Wetzel, Dana; Mueller, Beatrice U; Mansouri Taleghani, Behrouz; Baerlocher, Gabriela M; Seipel, Katja; Leibundgut, Kurt; Pabst, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Autologous stem cell transplantation (ASCT) is applied to consolidate first remission in patients with acute myeloid leukaemia (AML). However, outcome after ASCT widely varies among AML patients. We analyzed the prognostic significance of haematological recovery for neutrophils [absolute neutrophil count (ANC) >1·0 × 10(9) /l] and platelets (platelet count >20·0 × 10(9) /l), stratifying at day 20 after ASCT in 88 consecutive and homogeneously treated AML patients in first remission. We observed that patients with delayed recovery had better overall survival (OS; ANC: P < 0·0001 and platelets: P = 0·0062) and time to progression (TTP; ANC: P = 0·0003 and platelets: P = 0·0125). Delayed recovery was an independent marker for better OS and TTP in a multivariate analysis including age, gender, number of transfused CD34+ cells, cytogenetics, FLT3-internal tandem duplication and NPM1 mutation. Our results suggest that delayed neutrophil and platelet recovery is associated with longer OS and TTP in AML patients consolidated with ASCT in first remission. PMID:25212255

  15. Interaction effect of whole wheat feeding and mannanoligosaccharides supplementation on growth performance, haematological indices and caecal microbiota of cockerel chicks.

    PubMed

    Oso, A O; Erinle, O Y; William, G A; Ogunade, A C

    2015-10-01

    The interaction effect of whole wheat feeding and mannanoligosaccharides supplementation on growth performance, haematological indices and caecal microbiota of cockerel chicks were investigated using 250-day-old cockerel chicks previously reared for 7 days pre-experimental period. Birds were fed with commercial chick mash during the pre-experimental period. At the expiration of this period, 192 chicks were selected on weight equalization basis and assigned into 24 pens. Each treatment consisted of six pens, while each pen housed eight birds. Four wheat-soya bean-based experimental diets were formulated in a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement of diets having two wheat forms (ground and whole wheat grain) each supplemented or not with 1 g/kg MOS/kg feed. Whole wheat feeding (irrespective of MOS supplementation) showed reduced (p < 0.05) feed intake. Birds fed whole wheat diet supplemented with MOS recorded the highest (p < 0.01) final live weight, weight gain and the best (p < 0.05) feed conversion ratio. Haemoglobin concentration, packed cell volume and red blood cell count of the chicks were not affected (p > 0.05) by dietary treatment. However, dietary supplementation with MOS resulted in increased (p < 0.05) WBC counts. The caecum content of chicks fed with MOS-supplemented whole wheat diets recorded the least (p < 0.01) salmonella counts. In conclusion, combination of whole wheat feeding and MOS supplementation showed improved growth performance, gut microbiota and indications of improved health status of cockerel chicks. PMID:25817244

  16. The effect of mycotoxin deoxynivalenol on haematological and biochemical indicators and histopathological changes in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss).

    PubMed

    Matejova, Iveta; Modra, Helena; Blahova, Jana; Franc, Ales; Fictum, Petr; Sevcikova, Marie; Svobodova, Zdenka

    2014-01-01

    Deoxynivalenol (DON), produced by the Fusarium genus, is a major contaminant of cereal grains used in the production of fish feed. The effect of mycotoxin deoxynivalenol on rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) was studied using a commercial feed with the addition of DON in a dose of 2 mg/kg feed. The fish (n=40) were exposed to the mycotoxin for 23 days. The trout were divided into two groups, control and experimental groups. Control groups were fed a commercial feed naturally contaminated with a low concentration of DON (225  μg/kg feed); experimental groups were fed a commercial feed with the addition of DON (1964  μg/kg feed). Plasma biochemical and haematological indices, biometric parameters, and histopathological changes were assessed at the end of the experiment. The experimental groups showed significantly lower values in MCH (P<0.05). In biochemical indices, after 23-day exposure, a significant decrease in glucose, cholesterol (P<0.05), and ammonia (P<0.01) was recorded in the experimental group compared to the control group. Our assessment showed no significant changes in biometric parameters. The histopathological examination revealed disorders in the caudal kidney of the exposed fish. The obtained data show the sensitivity of rainbow trout (O. mykiss) to deoxynivalenol. PMID:24729967

  17. The impact of acute gastroenteritis on haematological markers used for the athletes biological passport - report of 5 cases.

    PubMed

    Schumacher, Y O; Pottgiesser, T

    2011-02-01

    The haematological module of the "Athletes Biological Passport" (ABP) is used to detect blood doping through the longitudinal variation of blood variables, such as haemoglobin concentration (Hb). Sporting federations have opened disciplinary procedures against athletes based on ABP results. Suspicious athletes try to explain the variations in their blood values with dehydration caused by gastrointestinal (GI) problems. The aim of the present report is to describe haemoglobin concentration, a key variable of the ABP, during acute gastroenteritis in athletes. 5 athletes with severe gastroenteritis were studied in retrospective. Blood test results (Hb, white blood cell count (WBC) and differential, CRP) obtained on hospital admission for GI problems were compared to data obtained from the same athletes in states of good health on previous occasions. During GI problems, athletes displayed marked inflammatory constellations with increased CRP and typical WBC shifts. Hb was not affected and remained mostly unchanged. This is in line with basic physiologic fluid regulation, where plasma volume is kept constant, even under conditions of severe dehydration. It is therefore unlikely that fluid loss associated with gastroenteritis will cause athletes blood data to reach levels of abnormality that will be suspicious of blood doping. PMID:21110289

  18. Oxygen consumption and haematology of juvenile shortnose sturgeon Acipenser brevirostrum during an acute 24 h saltwater challenge.

    PubMed

    Penny, F M; Kieffer, J D

    2014-04-01

    This study focused on the acute physiological responses to saltwater exposure in juvenile shortnose sturgeon Acipenser brevirostrum. In two separate laboratory experiments, 2 year-old A. brevirostrum were exposed to either full (32) or half-strength (16) seawater for up to 24 h. First, oxygen consumption rates were used to estimate the metabolic costs over 24 h. Secondly, blood and muscle samples were analysed at 6, 12 and 24 h for water loss, various measures of osmoregulatory status (plasma osmolality and ions) and other standard haematological variables. Juveniles exposed to full-strength seawater showed significant decreases in oxygen consumption rates during the 24 h exposure. Furthermore, seawater-exposed fish had significantly increased plasma osmolality, ions (Na(+) and Cl(-)) and a 17% decrease in total wet mass over the 24 h exposure period. To a lesser extent, increases in osmolality, ions and mass loss were observed in fish exposed to half-strength seawater but no changes to oxygen consumption. Cortisol was also significantly increased in fish exposed to full-strength seawater. While plasma protein was elevated following 24 h in full-strength seawater, haemoglobin, haematocrit and plasma glucose levels did not change with increased salinity. These results imply an inability of juvenile A. brevirostrum to regulate water and ions in full-strength seawater within 24 h. Nonetheless, no mortality occurred in any exposure, suggesting that juvenile A. brevirostrum can tolerate short periods in saline environments. PMID:24628001

  19. Serial lumbar and ventricle cerebrospinal fluid lactate dehydrogenase activities in patients with leptomeningeal metastases from solid and haematological tumours.

    PubMed Central

    Twijnstra, A; van Zanten, A P; Hart, A A; Ongerboer de Visser, B W

    1987-01-01

    Lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) activities were measured in cerebrospinal fluid in 350 patients with various neurological diseases to establish the sensitivity and specificity of the CSF LDH as a marker for the diagnosis of leptomeningeal metastases. Slight elevations of CSF LDH were observed in nonmalignant diseases, while marked elevations were observed in a considerable number of patients with bacterial meningitis. A sensitivity of 79% and a specificity of 83% were calculated. In the 34 patients with leptomeningeal metastases from solid and haematological tumours, the LDH in lumbar and ventricular CSF were measured simultaneously. The lumbar CSF LDH concentration in patients with leptomeningeal metastases was about five times greater than that in the ventricular CSF. No relationship was found between the CSF LDH and histology of the primary tumour. A good correlation was demonstrated between the lumbar CSF LDH and the effected area of the neuraxis. Serial determinations of CSF LDH showed a relationship between level changes and responses to therapy or progression. The findings of this study indicate that measurement of LDH in CSF can be used as an adjunctive diagnostic test for leptomeningeal metastases and in monitoring the efficacy of treatment. PMID:3559613

  20. Effect of Aqueous Stem Bark Extract of Khaya senegalensis on Some Biochemical, Haematological, and Histopathological Parameters of Rats.

    PubMed

    Onu, A; Saidu, Y; Ladan, M J; Bilbis, L S; Aliero, A A; Sahabi, S M

    2013-01-01

    The subchronic effect of aqueous stem bark extract of Khaya senegalensis on some biochemical, haematological, and histopathological parameters of rats was investigated. The rats were divided into six groups of five rats per group. Groups I to VI were administered graded doses of 0, 400, 800, 1200, 1600, and 2000 mg/kg bw, respectively. The result of study revealed that administration of the Khaya senegalensis for twenty-eight days at the experimental dose resulted in significant (P < 0.05) increase in urea, electrolytes (Na(+), K(+)), and creatinine levels. The extract also significantly (P < 0.05) increased serum activity of ALT, AST, and ALP. The levels of protein, albumin, and bilirubin were significantly changed when compared to their control values, but they were not dose dependent. The hematological indices assayed in this study were not significantly affected at the experimental dose when compared to the control values. Histological studies of the liver showed cellular degeneration and necrosis and bile duct hyperplasia and fibrosis with lymphocytic infiltration of the hepatocyte, providing supportive evidence for discussing the biochemical findings, indicative of functional derangement. The histological architecture of the kidney and that of the heart were however preserved. The result of this study indicates that the aqueous stem bark extract of K. senegalensis may affect the cellular integrity of vital organs of the body. PMID:24348549

  1. Effect of Aqueous Stem Bark Extract of Khaya senegalensis on Some Biochemical, Haematological, and Histopathological Parameters of Rats

    PubMed Central

    Onu, A.; Saidu, Y.; Ladan, M. J.; Bilbis, L. S.; Aliero, A. A.; Sahabi, S. M.

    2013-01-01

    The subchronic effect of aqueous stem bark extract of Khaya senegalensis on some biochemical, haematological, and histopathological parameters of rats was investigated. The rats were divided into six groups of five rats per group. Groups I to VI were administered graded doses of 0, 400, 800, 1200, 1600, and 2000 mg/kg bw, respectively. The result of study revealed that administration of the Khaya senegalensis for twenty-eight days at the experimental dose resulted in significant (P < 0.05) increase in urea, electrolytes (Na+, K+), and creatinine levels. The extract also significantly (P < 0.05) increased serum activity of ALT, AST, and ALP. The levels of protein, albumin, and bilirubin were significantly changed when compared to their control values, but they were not dose dependent. The hematological indices assayed in this study were not significantly affected at the experimental dose when compared to the control values. Histological studies of the liver showed cellular degeneration and necrosis and bile duct hyperplasia and fibrosis with lymphocytic infiltration of the hepatocyte, providing supportive evidence for discussing the biochemical findings, indicative of functional derangement. The histological architecture of the kidney and that of the heart were however preserved. The result of this study indicates that the aqueous stem bark extract of K. senegalensis may affect the cellular integrity of vital organs of the body. PMID:24348549

  2. Principal components analysis of haematological data from F344 rats with bladder cancer fed N-(ethyl)-all-trans-retinamide.

    PubMed

    Festing, M F; Hawkey, C M; Hart, M G; Turton, J A; Gwynne, J; Hicks, R M

    1984-07-01

    Several multivariate statistical methods are available which can alleviate the problems of analysing the large volumes of data generated from toxicological experiments. One such technique, principal components analysis, provides a method for exploring the relationships between a number of variables (such as blood parameters) and for eliminating redundant data if strong correlations exist between the characters. It also provides a method for clustering individuals, which may reveal similarities between animals in a treatment group or highlight individual 'outliers'. The application of principal components analysis to a set of haematological data from a trial evaluating the efficacy of a synthetic retinoid against carcinogen-induced bladder cancer in the rat has clearly shown, in two bivariate plots, that while some animals in the carcinogen-treated groups were normal, others were anaemic and that animals fed the synthetic retinoid and killed at 1 year had a microcytic anaemia. A full exploration of the data using conventional univariate statistical analysis would have involved at least 28 graphic representations of the data, as well as the interpretation of more than 130 means and SDs. Principal components analysis provides a valuable additional tool for the statistical analysis and exploration of toxicological data, but it must be used in conjunction with univariate or other multivariate methods if hypothesis testing is required. The use of multivariate techniques in toxicology may best be assessed by their practical application to toxicological data, and this paper presents such an evaluation with the aim of encouraging further exploration of the usefulness of principal components analysis. The raw data on which most analyses have been carried out are given. PMID:6540231

  3. Haematological profile of 21 patients with hairy cell leukaemia in a tertiary care centre of north India

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Arvind Kumar; Sachdeva, Man Updesh Singh; Ahluwalia, Jasmina; Das, Reena; Naseem, Shano; Sharma, Prashant; Kumar, Narender; Malhotra, Pankaj; Varma, Neelam; Varma, Subhash

    2015-01-01

    Background & objectives: Hairy cell leukaemia (HCL) is a B cell neoplasm which constitutes around 2 per cent of all the lymphoid leukaemias. It has a characteristic morphology and immunophenotypic profile. It is important to distinguish HCL from other B cell lymphoproliferative disorders due to availability of different chemotherapeutic agents. This study presents clinical, haematological and immunophenotypic profile of patients with HCL seen over a period of four years in a tertiary care hospital in north India. Methods: Twenty one cases of hairy cell leukaemia were analyzed for their clinical details, haemogram, bone marrow examination and immunophenotypic findings. Results: Age of the patients ranged from 28-76 yr with male predominance. Weakness and fever were commonest presentations. Splenomegaly, hepatomegaly, lymphadenopathy were seen in decreasing order of frequency. Anaemia was noted in all 21 patients, leukopenia in 15 and thrombocytopenia in 19 cases. Fourteen patients were pancytopenic. Bone marrow examination showed typical hairy cells in all cases. Immunophenotyping showed expression of CD19, CD20, CD103, CD25 and CD11c in all cases, while positivity was seen for CD79b in 93.7 per cent, kappa light chain restriction in 60 per cent and lambda in 40 per cent cases. Notably, 20 per cent showed CD10 and 12 per cent showed CD23 expression. Interpretation & conclusions: This study reveals some unusual findings in otherwise classical disease entity, like absence of palpable spleen, presence of lymphadenopathy, normal or elevated leukocyte counts, expression of CD10, which at times could be diagnostically challenging. PMID:26609034

  4. Effects of growth hormone on growth performance, haematology, metabolites and hormones in iron-deficient veal calves.

    PubMed

    Ceppi, A; Blum, J W

    1994-08-01

    Effects of subcutaneous (s.c.) administration of 50 micrograms/kg body weight of recombinant bovine growth hormone (rbGH) or saline were studied for 11 weeks in 40 intact male veal calves supplied 50 mg or 10 mg of iron (Fe)/kg of milk replacer (MR). Feed intake, average daily gain and growth: feed ratio were reduced in Fe-deficient calves, but not significantly influenced by rbGH. Plasma Fe and haemoglobin concentration, red-cell number and packed cell volume were decreased in Fe-deficient calves (P < 0.05) and rbGH further reduced red-cell number in Fe-deficient calves (P < 0.05). The age-dependent increase of total Fe binding capacity was greater in Fe-deficient calves and enhanced by rbGH (P < 0.05). Plasma urea concentrations increased, whereas glucose (G) and triiodothyronine (T3) levels decreased in Fe-deficient calves. rbGH significantly increased G in calves fed MR containing 50 mg/kg (P < 0.05) and influenced urea concentrations (P < 0.05). Plasma insulin (I) and IGF-I concentrations were lower in Fe-deficient calves (P < 0.05). Plasma GH in the first hours after rbGH injections increased (P < 0.05) to higher levels in calves fed 10 than in those fed 50 mg Fe/kg MR, but incremental changes were comparable. In conclusion, low Fe intake caused haematologic, metabolic and endocrine changes. Plasma IGF-I, I and T3 concentrations after rbGH administration and effects of rbGH on IGF-I in Fe-deficient calves were reduced, even though plasma GH levels were increased. PMID:7863735

  5. Haematological and serum biochemical responses of rabbit does to crude Moringa oleifera leaf extract at gestation and lactation.

    PubMed

    Ewuola, Emmanuel Olubisi; Sokunbi, Olujide Adedamola; Sanni, Kafayat Modupeola; Oyedemi, Oluwaseyi Margaret; Lawal, Temitope Tawakalit

    2015-04-01

    As the plant Moringa oleifera is used in herbal medicines for animals, an experiment was carried out to assess the effects of crude M. oleifera leaf extract (CMOLE) on the blood profile of rabbit does during gestation and lactation. Twenty-four mature does (mean weight 2200 g) housed individually were assigned to four treatments in a completely randomised design. The animals in treatments 2, 3 and 4 were orally given 100, 200 and 300 mL/L CMOLE, respectively, at 2.5 mL/kg body weight at 48 h intervals for 9 weeks. The control animals (treatment 1) were given with water only. All the does were mated with untreated bucks 2 weeks into the experiment. Blood samples were collected at 3rd trimester (day 25 of gestation) and 2nd week of lactation. During gestation, levels of erythrocytes, leukocytes, haematocrit, haemoglobin, lymphocytes, monocytes and eosinophils were not significantly different among the treatments. However, animals on treatment 2 had the highest platelets (148.8 × 10(9)/L), not significantly different from those on treatments 3 (141.5 × 10(9)/L) and 4 (135.0 × 10(9)/L), but higher (p < 0.05) than the control (126.6 × 10(9)/L). Haematological parameters during lactation were not significantly different among the treatments. Of the serum biochemical variables examined during gestation, only urea was higher (p < 0.05) in control rabbits than those administered with 300 mL/L CMOLE. In lactation, only cholesterol was significantly (p < 0.05) reduced with an increase in CMOLE concentration. This suggests that Moringa has a hypocholesterolemic effect and is safe for use up to 300 mL/L for both nutritional and medicinal purposes. PMID:25686552

  6. Understanding the impact of pre-analytic variation in haematological and clinical chemistry analytes on the power of association studies

    PubMed Central

    Gaye, Amadou; Peakman, Tim; Tobin, Martin D; Burton, Paul R

    2014-01-01

    Background: Errors, introduced through poor assessment of physical measurement or because of inconsistent or inappropriate standard operating procedures for collecting, processing, storing or analysing haematological and biochemistry analytes, have a negative impact on the power of association studies using the collected data. A dataset from UK Biobank was used to evaluate the impact of pre-analytical variability on the power of association studies. Methods: First, we estimated the proportion of the variance in analyte concentration that may be attributed to delay in processing using variance component analysis. Then, we captured the proportion of heterogeneity between subjects that is due to variability in the rate of degradation of analytes, by fitting a mixed model. Finally, we evaluated the impact of delay in processing on the power of a nested case-control study using a power calculator that we developed and which takes into account uncertainty in outcome and explanatory variables measurements. Results: The results showed that (i) the majority of the analytes investigated in our analysis, were stable over a period of 36 h and (ii) some analytes were unstable and the resulting pre-analytical variation substantially decreased the power of the study, under the settings we investigated. Conclusions: It is important to specify a limited delay in processing for analytes that are very sensitive to delayed assay. If the rate of degradation of an analyte varies between individuals, any delay introduces a bias which increases with increasing delay. If pre-analytical variation occurring due to delays in sample processing is ignored, it affects adversely the power of the studies that use the data. PMID:25085103

  7. Biochemical and haematological assessment of toxic effects of the leaf ethanol extract of Petroselinum crispum (Mill) Nyman ex A.W. Hill (Parsley) in rats

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Petroselinum crispum, a bright green biennial shrub is widely used traditionally as a food additive and herbal remedies for many ailments. This study therefore aimed to assess the toxic effects of its leaf extract using some biochemical, haematological parameters. Methods The toxic effects were assessed by quantifying liver enzymes such as serum aspartate amino transferase (AST), alanine amino transferase (ALT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), total serum protein and liver weight. Effects on haematological parameters were assessed by analysis of parked cell volume (PCV), red blood cell count (RBC), white blood cells (WBC) and haemoglobin (Hb) concentrations. Histopathological studies were done on the liver and kidneys. Results The extract caused significant increase in serum activity of alanine amino transferase and blood urea nitrogen (BUN) levels at the dose of 1000 mg/kg. Other biochemical and haematological parameters were not affected at lower doses. Conversely, the liver weight was not affected after eight weeks of treatment at the dose levels studied. The organs obtained for pathological study, were structurally unchanged under histopathological evaluation at lower doses but inflammatory and necrotic features were observed at doses ≥ 1000 mg/kg. Conclusion The results indicate that the leaf ethanol extract of Petroselinum crispum was hepatotoxic and nephrotoxic at continued oral doses equal to or more than 1000 mg/kg, but no obvious toxicity when used at lower doses. Therefore, there should be caution in its administration to avoid overdosing and known interaction with some medications. In addition, the plant should be kept away from pets and domestic animals and should not be cultivated on soil irrigated with waste water due to their ability to bio-accumulate toxic metals. PMID:23557241

  8. Variations in haematological parameters and erythrocyte osmotic fragility of pigs during hot-dry and harmattan season in Northern Guinea Savanna zone of Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Adenkola, A Y; Ayo, J O; Asala, O O

    2011-12-01

    Experiments were performed with the aim of investigating the effect of season on haematological parameters and erythrocyte osmotic fragility (EOF) of pigs. A total of 23 local pigs including males, non-pregnant and non-nursing females, aged 9 to 12 months were used for the study, ten animals were used during the hot-dry season and thirteen during the harmattan season. Blood sample was taken from each animal for the determination of EOF and other haematological parameters as well as total protein. The PCV value of 39.7±1.9 % obtained during the hot-dry season was significantly higher than 32.00 ± 0.9 % obtained during the harmattan season. Total leucocyte count of 18,836.5±1727.1 obtained during the harmattan season was higher than the value 15,920.00±1119.1 recorded during the hot-dry season. The neutrophil:lymphocyte ratio value was significantly higher during the harmattan season, with a value of 0.61±0.0 than the recorded value of 0.43±0.0 during the hot-dry season. The percentage haemolysis values obtained during the harmattan season at NaCl concentration of 0.5-0.9 % with a value of 92.03±0.02 % respectively were significantly higher than those recorded during the hot-dry season. In conclusion, the haematological values showed that harmattan season was more stressful to pigs than the hot-dry season in the Northern Guinea Savanna zone of Nigeria. PMID:22547178

  9. Survey of antifungal prophylaxis and fungal diagnostic tests employed in malignant haematology and haemopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) in Australia and New Zealand.

    PubMed

    van Hal, S J; Gilroy, N M; Morrissey, C O; Worth, L J; Szer, J; Tam, C S; Chen, S C; Thursky, K A; Slavin, M A

    2014-12-01

    This article reports the findings of a survey developed to assess the current use of antifungal prophylaxis among haematology and infectious disease clinicians across Australia and New Zealand, and their alignment with existing consensus guidelines for the use of antifungal agents in the haematology/oncology setting (published 2008). Surveyed clinicians largely followed the current recommendations for prophylaxis in the setting of induction chemotherapy for acute myeloid leukaemia, as well as autologous and low-risk allogeneic haemopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). In keeping with guideline recommendations, posaconazole was the agent used by most centres for high-risk allogeneic HSCT. However, its routine continuation for 75-100 days post-transplantation without de-escalation suggested use beyond those indications described in the 2008 guidelines, namely pre-engraftment neutropenia and graft-versus-host disease. Variations in practice were observed in other settings, such as acute lymphoblastic leukaemia and myelodysplastic syndrome, reflecting the general lack of evidence for antifungal prophylaxis in these patient populations and changing perceptions of risk. With regard to the availability of testing in cases of suspected breakthrough IFD, 40% of centres did not have access to investigative bronchoscopy within 48 h of referral, and results of Aspergillus galactomannan (GM), fungal polymerase chain reaction and therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM) were not available within 48 h in 83%, 90% and 85% of centres respectively. The survey's findings will influence the recommendations provided in the updated 2014 consensus guidelines for the use of antifungal agents in the haematology/oncology setting. PMID:25482740

  10. Serum cortisol and haematological, biochemical and antioxidant enzyme variables in horse blood sampled in a slaughterhouse lairage, immediately before stunning and during exsanguination.

    PubMed

    Nemec Svete, A; Čebulj-Kadunc, N; Frangež, R; Kruljc, P

    2012-08-01

    The aim of the study was to determine changes of serum cortisol and biochemical, haematological and antioxidant enzyme variables in the blood of horses sampled during the pre-slaughter period (in the lairage and in the stunning box) and during exsanguination. A total of 24 Slovenian warm-blooded horses were observed. Blood samples for determination of serum cortisol and biochemical, haematological (red blood cell count, haematocrit, haemaglobin concentration) and antioxidant enzyme (whole blood superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase) variables were collected by venipuncture of the left jugular vein in the lairage pen, 60 min before stunning (lairage) and immediately before stunning (stunning box). At exsanguination, blood samples were collected from the wound at the time of jugular vein sticking. During blood collection in the lairage pen and in the stunning box, horses were gently restrained with a halter. They were stunned using a penetrating captive bolt pistol impelled by air and were bled by jugular vein sticking. Horses were physically active in the lairage pen and in the race before entering the stunning box. After stunning, the horses showed paddling movements with their legs. In horses, the plasma lactate and glucose concentrations, the serum potassium concentration, the activities of the serum muscle enzymes aspartate aminotransferase and creatine kinase, and values of most of the other biochemical (Table 1) and haematological variables (Table 2), were significantly (P < 0.05) higher at exsanguination, than in blood sampled while they were in the lairage and in the stunning box. The serum concentrations of cortisol and chloride and the activities of alanine aminotransferase and antioxidant enzymes were not significantly different between the pre-slaughter period and exsanguination. All selected blood variables were not significantly different between the lairge and the stunning box sampling time, indicating no physiological stress responses of the investigated horses to stressors, such as novelty of the pre-slaughter environment and handling, present in the slaughterhouse between the lairage and the stunning box. However, the significantly higher values, at exsanguination, for the plasma lactate and glucose concentrations, serum muscle enzyme activities and haematological variables, than during the pre-slaughter period, might partially be attributed to stimulation of the sympathetic nervous system, caused by stunning and bleeding. PMID:23217233

  11. Haematological and biochemical profile of growing Yankasa rams fed sorghum stover supplemented with graded levels of dried poultry droppings based diets.

    PubMed

    Bello, Abdul Waheed Adeyemi; Tsado, Daniel Nma

    2013-12-15

    This study was designed to determine the haematological and biochemical profiles of growing Yankasa rams fed sorghum stover supplemented with Sun-Dried Poultry Droppings diets (SDPD). Poultry dropping is a good source of protein supplement. Its high nitrogen content suggests feeding it to ruminant would be an excellent avenue to convert nutrients in the waste into animal products. But a major challenge for it utilization is the danger of pathogenic organisms. Sun-drying of the droppings can render the waste free of pathogens. Thirty growing Yankasa rams aged 9-12 months, weighing 11.5-15.5 kg were randomly divided into five groups (3 in each) and assigned to five experimental diets T1-T5 which contained 0, 20, 40, 60 and 80% SDPD. Blood samples were analyzed for haematological and biochemical parameters. Results showed that White Blood Cell (WBC), Haemoglobin (Hb) and Packed Cell Volume (PCV) were significantly influenced by Dried Poultry Droppings based diets (DPD). Their values were WBC, 10.6, 12.9, 9.5, 7.0 and 10.7 L(-1), Hb, 8.6, 9.3, 8.6, 8.4 and 9.7 g dL(-1) and PCV, 22.9, 29.4, 27.1, 23.6 and 21.5%, respectively. Additionally, urea, sodium and total protein were significantly influenced by treatment diet. Their values were urea, 6.1, 6.3, 6.8, 6.9 and 8.1 mg dL(-1), sodium, 102.9, 128.8, 129.2, 130.7 and 130.7 mmol L(-1). total protein, 6.3, 6.5, 7.1, 7.2 and 7.1 g dL(-1). Most haematological and biochemical values obtained were within the normal range for sheep. SDPS diet can satisfactorily supplement sorghum stover without any deleterious effect on the blood chemistry and haematological profile of growing Yankasa rams. PMID:24517007

  12. Using a screening tool to improve timely referral of patients from acute oncology-haematology to palliative care services.

    PubMed

    Begum, Akhtari

    2013-01-01

    This project was done at specialist cancer hospital in Qatar. At a haematology-oncology inpatient department most patients were not getting access to palliative care unless they were at the very end stages of life. Data collected from 2008-2011 showed significant numbers of patients were dying within one month of their transfer to palliative care. There was no standard measure to identify the prospective palliative care patients. A multidisciplinary team developed a Palliative care referral screening tool based on the National Cancer Care Network guideline. Retrospective medical record review done from January to April 2012 showed a mean of 68% of patients who scored more than five were not consulted, 32% of patients who scored more than seven were not transferred to palliative care and seven percent died without any referral. The team used various kinds of quality planning, analysis and improvement tools in the form of process mapping, value analysis, Fish Bone diagrams, stakeholders' analysis and communication, physician survey, "Pareto's principal" (80 / 20 rule, the law of vital few) and other data collection tools. The palliative care referral process was standardised by preparing and implementing an objective scoring tool based on international best practice. It changed the referral culture and helped manage the psychological barriers of patients, families and caregivers. Extensive orientation and education of all key stakeholders was implemented. Monthly auditing of patient records was carried out. The aim has been achieved, exceeded and sustained, and we reduced the percentage of patients who scored more than five without palliative consultation from a mean of 68% to 16% and those who scored more than seven without palliative care transfer from a mean of thirty two percent to three percent, after four months of the project's implementation. Standardising the referral process and creating an objective referral tool is needed to facilitate safe, collaborative, continuous and patient centered care. Timely referral of cancer patients to palliative care minimises patient and caregiver distress, ensures better quality of life, and provides an appropriate measure for end of life care. PMID:26734188

  13. Haematological and biochemical parameters and tissue accumulations of cadmium in Oreochromis niloticus exposed to various concentrations of cadmium chloride

    PubMed Central

    Al-Asgah, Nasser A.; Abdel-Warith, Abdel-Wahab A.; Younis, El-Sayed M.; Allam, Hassan Y.

    2015-01-01

    Oreochromis niloticus, weighing 36.45 ± 1.12 g were exposed to 10%, 20% and 30% of the LC50 of CdCl2 which represents treatments (T1)1.68, (T2)3.36 and (T3)5.03 mg/l, respectively, for a period of 10, 20 and 30 days. It was found that, compared to a control group reading of 0.19 ± 0.03 μg/g dry weight, accumulation of Cd in the gills was significantly (p < 0.05) increased in samples ranging between 7.64 ± 0.86 and 61.73 ± 0.82 μg/g dry weight from T1 at 10 days to T3 at 30 days. The accumulation of Cd in the liver, meanwhile, was also observed to significantly increase (p < 0.05) with increasing time and concentrations with results ranging between 3.21 ± 0.12 and 181.61 ± 1.32 compared to the control group results of 0.29 ± 0.04 μg/g dry weight. Although muscles exhibited lower levels of accumulation than the gills and liver they still showed the same pattern of increase compared to the control group, with a significant difference ranging between 0.32 ± 0.02 and 2.16 ± 0.08 compared to the control group results of 0.03 ± 0.001 μg/g dry weight. Also, haematological parameters such as red blood cells (RBCs), haemoglobin (Hb) and haematocrit (Hct) were reduced in fish exposed to Cd at all periods, with significant differences (p < 0.05). Plasma glucose concentration showed a significant increase. Total protein levels of fish showed a significant reduction (p > 0.05) for all exposed treatments. Also, the total lipid level increased significantly as fish were exposed to increasing cadmium concentrations, compared to control fish. Finally, the activities of aspartate aminotransferase (AST IU/l) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT IU/l) showed a significant increase (p < 0.05) with increasing time and concentrations. PMID:26288556

  14. Studies on fate and toxicity of nanoalumina in male albino rats: Some haematological, biochemical and histological aspects.

    PubMed

    Morsy, Gamal M; El-Ala, Kawther S Abou; Ali, Atef A

    2016-04-01

    The work aimed to evaluate the nanoalumina toxicity on the histological architecture, some haematological and biochemical aspects in male albino rats, during acute and sublethal experiments. Rats, in acute experiments, were injected with a single-acute dose of 3.9 g or 6.4 g or 8.5 g of aluminium oxide (Al2O3) kg(-) (1), whereas those of sublethal were injected with 1.3 g of Al2O3kg(-) (1)2 days(-) (1) One-way analysis of variance indicated that injected doses and the experimental periods were significantly affected by haemoglobin (Hb) content; haematocrit value (Hct); white blood cell (WBC) count; blood platelet (Plt) count; mean corpuscular volume (MCV); mean corpuscular Hb (MCH) and MCH concentration (MCHC). In acute experiments, Hct, WBC count, MCV and Plt were significantly higher than the corresponding controls, whereas Hb, MCH and MCHC markedly decreased. In comparison with the related controls after 1, 3 and 7 days post-injection, red blood cell count, Hb, Hct, WBC count, Plt and MCV were significantly increased, but begun to decrease after 14 or/and 28 days and were associated with a marked decrease in MCH and MCHC. In serum of rats injected with acute or sublethal dose, the concentrations of total protein (TP) and total lipid (TL) were significantly lesser than the corresponding controls, whereas the levels of urea, uric acid, creatinine and the activities of aspartate aminotransferase and alanine aminotransferase were markedly increased. The injected doses were directly proportional with all the studied biochemical parameter, except the TL and TP that exhibited a negative correlation. Histologically, the highest acute and sublethal doses of nanoalumina caused hepatic irregular disarray, necrosis to the hepatic and Kupffer cells that are associated with congested blood sinusoids. The renal tissues characterized by the appearance of inter-tubular congestion that is accompanied by the dilation of the vascular glomeruli that completely occupied Bowman's capsule and accompanied with partial disappearance of the renal tubule's brush border. The brain showed a progressive degeneration of neurons in both the experiments. PMID:24215066

  15. Effect of feeding cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) root meal on growth performance, hydrocyanide intake and haematological parameters of broiler chicks.

    PubMed

    Akapo, Abiola Olajetemi; Oso, Abimbola Oladele; Bamgbose, Adeyemi Mustapha; Sanwo, Kehinde A; Jegede, Adebayo Vincent; Sobayo, Richard Abayomi; Idowu, Olusegun Mark; Fan, Juexin; Li, Lili; Olorunsola, Rotimi A

    2014-10-01

    The effect of feeding cassava root meal on growth performance, hydrocyanide intake, haematological indices and serum thiocyanate concentration of broiler chicks was investigated using 300-day-old male broilers. There were five dietary treatments arranged in a 2 × 2 + 1 factorial arrangement of two processing methods of cassava root (peeled and unpeeled) included at two levels (100 and 200 g/kg) plus a control diet (maize-based diet, containing no cassava root). Each treatment was replicated six times with ten birds per replicate. The feeding trial lasted for 28 days. Control-fed birds had the highest overall (P < 0.01) final liveweight and weight gain, least (P < 0.05) hydrocyanide (HCN) intake and best (P < 0.05) feed-to-gain ratio. Chicks fed with control and diet containing 100 g/kg peeled cassava root meal (PCRM) had the least (P < 0.05) feed cost per weight gain. Chicks fed with diet containing 100 g/kg cassava root meal had higher (P < 0.05) final liveweight and weight gain and reduced (P < 0.05) HCN intake than chicks fed with diet containing 200 g/kg cassava root meal. Dietary inclusion of peeled cassava root meal (PCRM) for broiler chicks resulted in increased final liveweight (P < 0.05), weight gain (P < 0.01) and feed intake (P < 0.01) when compared with birds fed with diet containing unpeeled cassava root meal (UCRM). The least (P < 0.01) final liveweight and weight gain and worst (P < 0.05) feed-to-gain ratio were obtained with chicks fed with diet containing 200 g/kg UCRM. Increased dietary inclusion levels of cassava root resulted in significant increase (P < 0.05) in white blood cell (WBC) count, heterophil count and serum thiocyanate concentration. In comparison with chicks fed with diet containing UCRM, dietary inclusion of PCRM resulted in increased (P < 0.05) red blood cell (RBC) count and haemoglobin (Hb) concentration and reduced (P < 0.05) white blood cell (WBC) count and serum thiocyanate concentration. Although inclusion of 100 g/kg PCRM showed some economic sense, dietary inclusion of either peeled or unpeeled cassava root poses a threat on growth and health status of broiler chicks. PMID:24913764

  16. The use of body condition and haematology to detect widespread threatening processes in sleepy lizards (Tiliqua rugosa) in two agricultural environments.

    PubMed

    Smyth, Anita K; Smee, Elizabeth; Godfrey, Stephanie S; Crowther, Mathew; Phalen, David

    2014-12-01

    Agricultural practices, including habitat alteration and application of agricultural chemicals, can impact wildlife resulting in their decline. Determining which of these practices are contributing to declines is essential if the declines are to be reversed. In this study, the health of two geographically separated sleepy lizard (Tiliqua rugosa) populations was compared between a rangeland environment and cropping environment using linear body size index (LBSI) and haematology. Animals in the cropping site were smaller, suggesting genetic differences as the result of geographical isolation. The animals in the cropping site had a lower LBSI and many were experiencing a regenerative anaemia. The anaemia was postulated to be the cause of the low LBSI. The anaemia appeared to be the result of haemolysis and was likely to be caused by exposure to agricultural chemicals applied in the cropping site but not the rangeland site. Elevated white blood cell counts in lizards in the rangeland site suggested that they were experiencing an inflammatory disease of possible ecological significance. Together, these results demonstrate the value of combining physical and haematological parameters when studying the impact of agricultural practices on wildlife. They also show that reptiles may be useful as sentinel species for livestock and humans. PMID:26064571

  17. Facilitating Surveillance of Pulmonary Invasive Mold Diseases in Patients with Haematological Malignancies by Screening Computed Tomography Reports Using Natural Language Processing

    PubMed Central

    Ananda-Rajah, Michelle R.; Martinez, David; Slavin, Monica A.; Cavedon, Lawrence; Dooley, Michael; Cheng, Allen; Thursky, Karin A.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Prospective surveillance of invasive mold diseases (IMDs) in haematology patients should be standard of care but is hampered by the absence of a reliable laboratory prompt and the difficulty of manual surveillance. We used a high throughput technology, natural language processing (NLP), to develop a classifier based on machine learning techniques to screen computed tomography (CT) reports supportive for IMDs. Patients and Methods We conducted a retrospective case-control study of CT reports from the clinical encounter and up to 12-weeks after, from a random subset of 79 of 270 case patients with 33 probable/proven IMDs by international definitions, and 68 of 257 uninfected-control patients identified from 3 tertiary haematology centres. The classifier was trained and tested on a reference standard of 449 physician annotated reports including a development subset (n = 366), from a total of 1880 reports, using 10-fold cross validation, comparing binary and probabilistic predictions to the reference standard to generate sensitivity, specificity and area under the receiver-operating-curve (ROC). Results For the development subset, sensitivity/specificity was 91% (95%CI 86% to 94%)/79% (95%CI 71% to 84%) and ROC area was 0.92 (95%CI 89% to 94%). Of 25 (5.6%) missed notifications, only 4 (0.9%) reports were regarded as clinically significant. Conclusion CT reports are a readily available and timely resource that may be exploited by NLP to facilitate continuous prospective IMD surveillance with translational benefits beyond surveillance alone. PMID:25250675

  18. The use of body condition and haematology to detect widespread threatening processes in sleepy lizards (Tiliqua rugosa) in two agricultural environments

    PubMed Central

    Smyth, Anita K.; Smee, Elizabeth; Godfrey, Stephanie S.; Crowther, Mathew; Phalen, David

    2014-01-01

    Agricultural practices, including habitat alteration and application of agricultural chemicals, can impact wildlife resulting in their decline. Determining which of these practices are contributing to declines is essential if the declines are to be reversed. In this study, the health of two geographically separated sleepy lizard (Tiliqua rugosa) populations was compared between a rangeland environment and cropping environment using linear body size index (LBSI) and haematology. Animals in the cropping site were smaller, suggesting genetic differences as the result of geographical isolation. The animals in the cropping site had a lower LBSI and many were experiencing a regenerative anaemia. The anaemia was postulated to be the cause of the low LBSI. The anaemia appeared to be the result of haemolysis and was likely to be caused by exposure to agricultural chemicals applied in the cropping site but not the rangeland site. Elevated white blood cell counts in lizards in the rangeland site suggested that they were experiencing an inflammatory disease of possible ecological significance. Together, these results demonstrate the value of combining physical and haematological parameters when studying the impact of agricultural practices on wildlife. They also show that reptiles may be useful as sentinel species for livestock and humans. PMID:26064571

  19. Malathion-induced changes in the haematological profile, the immune response, and the oxidative/antioxidant status of Cyprinus carpio carpio: protective role of propolis.

    PubMed

    Yonar, Serpil Mişe; Ural, Mevlüt Şener; Silici, Sibel; Yonar, M Enis

    2014-04-01

    The present study investigated the potential ameliorative effects of propolis against malathion toxicity in the blood and various tissues of carp. The fish were exposed to sublethal concentrations of malathion (0.5 and 1 mg/L) for 10 days, and propolis (10 mg/kg of fish weight) was simultaneously administered. Blood and tissue (liver, kidney, and gill) samples were collected at the end of the experiment and analysed to determine the haematological profile (red blood cell count, haemoglobin concentration, haematocrit level, and erythrocyte indices: mean corpuscular volume, mean corpuscular haemoglobin, and mean corpuscular haemoglobin concentration), immune response (white blood cell count, oxidative radical production, nitroblue tetrazolium (NBT) activity, total plasma protein and total immunoglobulin levels, and the phagocytic activity), and oxidant/antioxidant status (malondialdehyde and reduced glutathione levels and superoxide dismutase, catalase, and glutathione peroxidase activities) of the fish. The findings of this study demonstrate that malathion has a negative effect on the haematological parameters, immune response, and antioxidant enzyme activities of the fish. However, the administration of propolis ameliorated the malathion-induced toxic effects. PMID:24480596

  20. Haematological studies on vegans.

    PubMed

    Sanders, T A; Ellis, F R; Dickerson, J W

    1978-07-01

    1. The concentrations of vitamin B12 and folate in the serum and folate in the erythrocytes were determined and full blood counts made on a series of caucasian vegans and omnivore controls. 2. The blood counts and films were normal in all the vegans and no subject had a haemoblobin concentration below the lower limit of normality. 3. Although within the normal range, male but not female vegans had lower values for erythrocyte counts and higher values for mean corpuscular volume and mean corpuscular haemoglobin than their controls regardless of whether they were taking vitamin B12 supplements or not. 4. The mean serum vitamin B12 concentration was lower in the vegans not taking vitamin B12 supplements and in those using foods supplemented with the vitamin than in the controls, but in no subject was it below 80 ng/1. 5. The serum folate concentrations were higher in the vegans than in their controls. The mean value for erythrocyte folate tended to be greater in the vegans not taking vitamin B12 supplements. No subject had an erythrocyte folate concentration of less than 100 microgram/1. 6. It is concluded that megaloblastic anaemia is very rare in caucasian vegans and that a diet consisting entirely of plant foods is generally adequate to promote normal blood formation providing it is composed of a mixture of unrefined cereals, pulses, nuts, fruit and vegetables and is supplemented with vitamin B12. PMID:667007

  1. Orlando Magic: report from the 57th meeting of the American Society of Haematology, 5–7 December 2015, Orlando, USA

    PubMed Central

    Mazzarella, Luca

    2016-01-01

    The 57th American Society of Haematology (ASH) meeting held in Orlando, FL was certainly the year when myeloma management changed for good, with a plethora of newly Food and Drug Administration (FDA)-approved drugs showing impressive outcome improvements and the introduction of new techniques for disease monitoring. Also, chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) T cells continued their triumphal march, consolidating their success in lymphoma and chronic lymhocytic leukaemia (CLL) and venturing into new fields such as again multiple myeloma. Some experimental drugs showed long-awaited results (midostaurin in FLT3-mutated acute myeloid leukaemia (AML)) and some brand new drugs showed promising results in the clinic after extensive preclinical studies, such as those targeting new epigenetic factors (histone methyltransferases) and apoptosis. PMID:26823681

  2. Effect of potassium permanganate, cobalt chloride and vitamin B complex on the haematological parameters of cadmium treated common carp, Cyprinus carpio.

    PubMed

    Kaviraj, A; Das, B K

    1995-01-01

    Effect of potassium permanganate, cobalt chloride and vitamin B complex on the haematological parameters of common carp Cyprinus carpio were markedly influenced by a treatment of 2.5 mg/l Cd in the laboratory for 96 hours. Hb% and ESR values were increased but the RBC and PCV values were reduced. Treatment of KMnO4 (1 mg/l) or CoCl2 (2 mg/l) induced a further reduction of RBC of the Cd treated fish. But parameters like PCV, MCV and MCH of Cd treated fish were not affected by the treatment of KMnO4 and CoCl2. Intramuscular injection of vitamin B complex did not produce any impact on ESR and MCV values of the Cd treated exposed fish but most of the other parameters of such fish were found comparable to control indicating that vitamin B complex could counteract Cd to reduce its ill effect. PMID:8580524

  3. Rise of the mutants: report from the 19th conference of the European Haematology Association, Milan, 12–15 June 2014

    PubMed Central

    Mazzarella, Luca

    2014-01-01

    At the 19th conference of the European Haematology Association in Milan, we saw the true and dramatic changes brought about by the integration of extensive genomic information in clinical practice, and the dilemmas that accompany such a rapid increase in knowledge. Each disease is sliced more and more into smaller pieces, each with its own better-determined outcome and treatment. We also observed the rise of mutant-specific epigenetic agents, which benefit from knowing the underlying genetic abnormality to specifically assign an epigenetic drug where it is needed. In contrast to the ‘one mutation, one drug’ approach, others are pursuing the search for drugs targeting pathways fundamental for the survival of all or most cancer cells, sometimes looking at more ‘exotic’ pathways like neddylation or nuclear export. PMID:25183998

  4. Orlando Magic: report from the 57th meeting of the American Society of Haematology, 5-7 December 2015, Orlando, USA.

    PubMed

    Mazzarella, Luca

    2016-01-01

    The 57th American Society of Haematology (ASH) meeting held in Orlando, FL was certainly the year when myeloma management changed for good, with a plethora of newly Food and Drug Administration (FDA)-approved drugs showing impressive outcome improvements and the introduction of new techniques for disease monitoring. Also, chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) T cells continued their triumphal march, consolidating their success in lymphoma and chronic lymhocytic leukaemia (CLL) and venturing into new fields such as again multiple myeloma. Some experimental drugs showed long-awaited results (midostaurin in FLT3-mutated acute myeloid leukaemia (AML)) and some brand new drugs showed promising results in the clinic after extensive preclinical studies, such as those targeting new epigenetic factors (histone methyltransferases) and apoptosis. PMID:26823681

  5. Impact of portable air filtration units on exposure of haematology-oncology patients to airborne Aspergillus fumigatus spores under field conditions.

    TOXLINE Toxicology Bibliographic Information

    Engelhart S; Hanfland J; Glasmacher A; Krizek L; Schmidt-Wolf IG; Exner M

    2003-08-01

    We undertook a one-year study to investigate the impact of the NSA model 7100A/B portable air filtration unit on exposure of haematology-oncology patients to airborne Aspergillus fumigatus spores under field conditions. Weekly measurements for airborne A. fumigatus were conducted in indoor and outdoor air, and surveillance for invasive aspergillosis was based on a combination of ward liaison, targeted chart review and consultation with the medical staff. The mean indoor A. fumigatus counts (8.1 cfu/m3; range, <0.8 to 42 cfu/m3) reflected the fungal load of outdoor air (9.4 cfu/m3; range, <0.8 to 50 cfu/m3), and were reduced by only about one third in rooms with portable air filtration units (5.3 cfu/m3; range, <0.8 to 41 cfu/m3). During the study period, a total of five cases (incidence density, 0.8 per 1000 patient-days) of invasive aspergillosis (one proven case, four suspected cases; case fatality rate 40%) were recorded. None of these five patients was allocated to a room with portable air filtration unit, however, the difference between incidence densities in rooms with and without portable air filtration units was non-significant (Fisher's exact test, P=0.33). Due to the noise level and thermal discomfort, patient compliance with the air filtration units was poor. We conclude that under field conditions this air filtration unit cannot be recommended for prevention of invasive aspergillosis in neutropenic haematology-oncology patients.

  6. Modification of endotoxin-induced haemodynamic and haematological changes in the rabbit by methylprednisolone, F(ab')2 fragments and rosmarinic acid.

    PubMed Central

    Bult, H.; Herman, A. G.; Rampart, M.

    1985-01-01

    The effects of methylprednisolone, F(ab')2 fragments of human gamma globulins and rosmarinic acid, an inhibitor of complement activation, were tested on endotoxin-induced haemodynamic and haematological changes in the rabbit. Their effects were compared with complement depletion by cobra venom factor (CVF) pretreatment. The results provide further evidence for the role of complement activation and the concomitant triggering of the arachidonic acid cascade in the early phase of shock. The formation of vasoactive prostanoids (prostacyclin and thromboxane A2), the arterial hypotension and the thrombocytopenia were largely dependent on the presence of the intact complement system. F(ab')2 fragments (150 mg kg-1, i.v.) diminished the second fall in blood pressure to some extent but failed to alter any of the other endotoxin-induced changes. Methylprednisolone (40 mg kg-1, i.v.) given 10 min before endotoxin significantly reduced the activation of complement, the second rise of prostacyclin and the secondary hypotension, but was without effect on the early thromboxane peak of the haematological features of endotoxin shock. Rosmarinic acid (20 mg kg-1, i.v.) may be of potential interest for treatment of septic shock, since the drug suppressed the endotoxin-induced activation of complement, the formation of prostacyclin, both hypotensive phases, the thrombocytopenia and the concomitant release of thromboxane A2. The role of leukocytes and their arachidonic acid metabolites in plasma exudation deserves further investigation, because leukopenia and pulmonary oedema were not complement-dependent and were not affected by any of the treatments. Our results indicate that drugs, interfering with complement activation and/or prostaglandin biosynthesis, may be beneficial in endotoxin shock, provided that they are administered at an early stage. PMID:3838489

  7. Characterisation of Escherichia coli isolates from the blood of haematological adult patients with bacteraemia: translocation from gut to blood requires the cooperation of multiple virulence factors.

    PubMed

    Krawczyk, B; Śledzińska, A; Szemiako, K; Samet, A; Nowicki, B; Kur, J

    2015-06-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate whether there are unique pathotypes of Escherichia coli capable of transmission from the gastrointestinal tract to the vascular bed. The study included E. coli strains isolated from clinical materials collected from 115 patients suffering from haematologic malignancies diagnosed with bacteraemia. The genotyping techniques established that 89 E. coli isolates from the blood had the same genotype as the E. coli from the patient's bowel. The presence of 21 genes encoding virulence factors typical of various E. coli pathotypes and their relationship with the phylogenetic group was established. One-dimensional analysis showed that the focG gene occurred more frequently in the control bowel group, while the ampicillin-resistant afa/dr E. coli were associated with bacteraemia. Blood isolates with the highest occurrence of virulence factors belonged to pathogenic group B2 and non-pathogenic group A. The co-occurrence of multiple genes encoding papC, sfa, usp and cnf1 virulence factors probably predisposes E. coli to translocation from the gastrointestinal tract to the vascular bed in the group of patients with haematologic malignancies. Based on clustering analysis, dominance of the most virulent strains assigned to the cluster with seven virulence factors encoded by the following genes, papC, sfaD/E, cnf1, usp, agn43, hlyA and iutA, was found. The obtained results enforce the previously proposed concept of bowel-blood translocation and further expand our hypothesis by defining the unique virulence characteristics of E. coli isolates, which predispose them to bowel colonisation or translocation and bacteraemia in this group of patients. PMID:25655758

  8. Variability of Voriconazole Trough Levels in Haematological Patients: Influence of Comedications with cytochrome P450(CYP) Inhibitors and/or with CYP Inhibitors plus CYP Inducers.

    PubMed

    Cojutti, Piergiorgio; Candoni, Anna; Forghieri, Fabio; Isola, Miriam; Zannier, Maria Elena; Bigliardi, Sara; Luppi, Mario; Fanin, Renato; Pea, Federico

    2016-06-01

    Voriconazole plasma exposure greatly varies among haematological patients. The purpose of this study was to identify the magnitude of influence of comedications with CYP inhibitors and/or with CYP inhibitors plus CYP inducers on voriconazole trough level (Cmin ). Voriconazole Cmin was retrospectively assessed among haematological patients who underwent therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM). Univariate and multivariate linear mixed-effect regression analyses were performed to identify the independent predictors of normalized Cmin . Of the 83 included patients, 35 had comedications with CYP inhibitors (omeprazole or pantoprazole) and 21 with CYP inhibitors (omeprazole or pantoprazole) plus CYP inducers (methylprednisolone, dexamethasone, phenobarbital, rifampin or carbamazepine). Median Cmin value (n = 199) was 2.4 mg/L with a wide range of distribution (<0.2-13.5 mg/L). Median (IQR) normalized voriconazole Cmin value was significantly higher in the presence of CYP inhibitors (4.20 mg/L, 3.23-5.51 mg/L) than either in the absence of interacting cotreatments (2.55 mg/L, 1.54-3.47 mg/L) or in the presence of CYP inhibitors plus CYP inducers (2.16 mg/L, 1.19-3.09 mg/L). The presence of CYP inhibitors was highly significantly associated with Cmin >5.5 mg/L (OR: 23.22, 95% CI: 3.01-179.09, p = 0.003). No significant association emerged when CYP inhibitors were coadministered with CYP inducers (OR: 3.53, 95% CI: 0.36-34.95, p = 0.280). The amount of expected Cmin increase was significantly influenced by both the type and the dose of the administered proton pump inhibitor. The study highlights that the benefit from TDM of voriconazole may be maximal in those patients who are cotreated with CYP inhibitors and/or with CYP inhibitors plus CYP inducers, especially when receiving proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) at very high dosages intravenously. PMID:26572687

  9. Changes in haematology measurements with the Sysmex XT-2000iV during storage of feline blood sampled in EDTA or EDTA plus CTAD.

    PubMed

    Granat, Fanny; Geffré, Anne; Bourgès-Abella, Nathalie; Braun, Jean-Pierre; Trumel, Catherine

    2013-06-01

    In veterinary medicine a complete blood cell count (CBC) cannot always be performed within 24 h as usually recommended, particularly for specimens shipped to a reference laboratory. This raises the question of the stability of the variables, especially in ethylenediamine tetra-acetic acid (EDTA) feline blood specimens, known to be prone to in vitro platelet aggregation. Citrate, theophylline, adenosine and dipyridamole (CTAD) has been reported to limit platelet aggregation in feline blood specimens. The aim of this study was to measure the stability of the haematological variables and the platelet aggregation score in EDTA and EDTA plus CTAD (EDCT) feline blood specimens during 48 h of storage at room temperature. Forty-six feline EDTA and EDCT blood specimens were analysed with a Sysmex XT-2000iV analyser, and the platelet count and score of platelet aggregation were estimated immediately and after 24 and 48 h of storage. A significant increase in mean corpuscular volume, haematocrit, reticulocyte and eosinophil counts, and a significant decrease in mean corpuscular haemoglobin concentration and monocyte count were observed. Haemoglobin, mean corpuscular haemoglobin, and red blood cell, white blood cell, neutrophil and lymphocyte counts remained stable. Changes in reticulocyte indexes with time (low fluorescence ratio, medium fluorescence ratio, high fluorescence ratio and immature reticulocyte fraction) were not significant. Changes were generally more pronounced in EDTA than in EDCT. Platelet aggregation decreased markedly in initially highly aggregated EDTA specimens, and increased slightly in initially non- or mildly-aggregated EDTA or EDCT specimens. Platelet counts increased and decreased, or remained stable, respectively. CTAD can reduce storage-induced changes of the haematological variables in feline samples, thus improving the reliability of a CBC and limiting clinical misinterpretations. PMID:23264612

  10. Comparative study of growth traits and haematological parameters of Anak and Nigerian heavy ecotype chickens fed with graded levels of mango seed kernel (Mangifera indica) meal.

    PubMed

    Mbunwen, Ndofor-Foleng Harriet; Ngongeh, Lucas Atehmengo; Okolie, Peter Nzeribe; Okoli, Emeka Linus

    2015-08-01

    One hundred fifty Anak and 120 Nigerian heavy local ecotype (NHLE) chickens were used to study the effects of feeding graded levels of mango seed kernel meal (MKM) replacing maize diet on growth traits and haematological parameters. A 2 × 5 factorial arrangement was employed: two breeds and five diets. The birds were randomly allocated to five finisher diets formulated such that MKM replaced maize at 0, 10, 20, 30 and 40% (T1, T2, T3, T4 and T5) inclusion levels, respectively. The effect of breed and dietary treatments on growth performance and blood characteristics were determined. The results showed a significant (P < 0.05) breed effect on body weight and gain, shank length, thigh length, body width and body length. The growth traits of Anak breed were found to be superior to NHLE chickens. Within treatments, chicks on T1, T2 and T3, grew heavier than those on T4 and T5. However, feed intake, feed conversion ratio (FCR) and haematological indices (RBC, Hb, MCV, MCH and MCHC count) were not significant (P > 0.05) when the breeds and treatments were compared. It was concluded that inclusion of dietary MKM below 30% could replace maize in the diets of Anak and NHLE growing chickens without adverse effect on growth performance and blood constituents. This work suggests that genetic differences exist in growth traits of these breeds of chickens. This advantage could be useful in breed improvement programmes and better feeding managements of the NHLE and Anak chickens. PMID:25939914

  11. Antiviral prophylaxis in patients with solid tumours and haematological malignancies--update of the Guidelines of the Infectious Diseases Working Party (AGIHO) of the German Society for Hematology and Medical Oncology (DGHO).

    PubMed

    Sandherr, Michael; Hentrich, Marcus; von Lilienfeld-Toal, Marie; Massenkeil, Gero; Neumann, Silke; Penack, Olaf; Biehl, Lena; Cornely, Oliver A

    2015-09-01

    Reactivation of viral infections is common in patients with solid tumour or haematological malignancy. Incidence and severity depend on the extent of cellular immunosuppression. Antiviral prophylaxis may be effective to prevent viral reactivation. In 2006, the Infectious Diseases Working Party of German Society for Hematology and Medical Oncology (DGHO) published guidelines for antiviral prophylaxis in these patient populations. Here, we present an update of these guidelines for patients with solid and haematological malignancies undergoing antineoplastic treatment but not allogeneic stem cell transplantation. Relevant literature for reactivation of different viruses (herpes simplex virus (HSV), varicella zoster virus (VZV), hepatitis B virus (HBV) and respiratory viruses) is discussed to provide evidence-based recommendations for clinicians taking care of this patient population. We recommend a risk-adapted approach with (val)acyclovir against HSV and VZV in patients treated with alemtuzumab, bortezomib or purine analogues. Seasonal vaccination against influenza is recommended for all patients with solid or haematological malignancies regardless of antineoplastic therapy. Hepatitis B screening is recommended in lymphoproliferative disorders, acute leukaemia, and breast cancer, and during treatment with monoclonal anti-B-cell antibodies, anthracyclines, steroids and in autologous stem cell transplantation. In those with a history of hepatitis B prophylactic lamivudine, entecavir or nucleotide analogues as adefovir are recommended to prevent reactivation. PMID:26193852

  12. Drug- not carrier-dependent haematological and biochemical changes in a repeated dose study of cyclosporine encapsulated polyester nano- and micro-particles: size does not matter.

    PubMed

    Venkatpurwar, V P; Rhodes, S; Oien, K A; Elliott, M A; Tekwe, C D; Jørgensen, H G; Kumar, M N V Ravi

    2015-04-01

    Biodegradable nanoparticles are being considered more often as drug carriers to address pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic issues, yet nano-product safety has not been systematically proven. In this study, haematological, biochemical and histological parameters were examined on 28 day daily dosing of rats with nano- or micro-particle encapsulated cyclosporine (CsA) to confirm if any changes observed were drug or carrier dependent. CsA encapsulated poly(lactide-co-glycolide) [PLGA] nano- (nCsA) and micro-particles (mCsA) were prepared by emulsion techniques. CsA (15, 30, 45 mg/kg) were administered by oral gavage to Sprague Dawley (SD) rats over 28 days. Haematological and biochemical metrics were followed with tissue histology performed on sacrifice. Whether presented as nCsA or mCsA, 45 mg/kg dose caused significant loss of body weight and lowered food consumption compared to untreated control. Across the doses, both nCsA and mCsA produce significant decreases in lymphocyte numbers compared to controls, commensurate with the proprietary product, Neoral(®) 15. Dosing with nCsA showed higher serum drug levels than mCsA presumably owing to the smaller particle size facilitating absorption. The treatment had no noticeable effects on inflammatory/oxidative stress markers or antioxidant enzyme levels, except an increase in ceruloplasmin (CP) levels for high dose nCsA/mCsA group. Further, only subtle, sub-lethal changes were observed in histology of nCsA/mCsA treated rat organs. Blank (drug-free) particles did not induce changes in the parameters studied. Therefore, it is extremely important that the encapsulated drug in the nano-products is considered when safety of the overall product is assessed rather than relying on just the particle size. This study has addressed some concerns surrounding particulate drug delivery, demonstrating safe delivery of CsA whilst achieving augmented serum concentrations. PMID:25637670

  13. Comparison of selected haematological and biochemical indices and behaviour patterns of pheasant hens kept in different housing systems during the laying period.

    PubMed

    Voslarova, Eva; Bedanova, Iveta; Radisavljevic, Katarina; Hrabcakova, Petra; Marsalek, Petr; Vecerek, Vladimir

    2015-01-01

    Selected haematological and biochemical indices and behaviour patterns were monitored in cage-housed pheasant hens during the peak-of-lay egg laying period. Lower counts of monocytes (p = 0.035) and concentrations of plasma biopterin (p = 0.020) and higher concentrations of plasma neopterin (p = 0.005) and plasma phosphorus (p = 0.025) were found in spectacles-fitted pheasant hens kept in conventional cages compared to non-spectacled hens kept in enriched cages. Even more pronounced effects of the housing system were revealed by analysis of the behaviour of pheasant hens: spectacles-fitted pheasant hens kept in conventional cages exhibited higher occurrences of movement (p = 0.045), stereotyped behaviour (p = 0.039), and aggression (p = 0.004), and lower rates of feeding (p = 0.009), drinking (p < 0.001), defecation (p = 0.038), preening (p = 0.013), and feather pecking (p < 0.001). Our results show that the relatively easy and inexpensive enrichment of the cage environment (two perches, a simple hideout) where breeding groups of common pheasants are housed during the laying period can significantly contribute to the health and welfare (including the ability to express natural behaviour patterns) of pheasants kept in commercial cage systems. PMID:26591380

  14. Haematological and immunological adaptations of non-pregnant, non-lactating dairy cows to a high-energetic diet containing mycotoxins.

    PubMed

    Dänicke, Sven; Meyer, Ulrich; Winkler, Janine; Ulrich, Sebastian; Frahm, Jana; Kersten, Susanne; Valenta, Hana; Rehage, Jürgen; Häussler, Susanne; Sauerwein, Helga; Locher, Lena

    2016-02-01

    Diet change and fatness are supposed to challenge the immune system of the cow. Therefore, immunological and haematological consequences of adaptation to and continued feeding of a high-energy diet were studied in eight non-pregnant, non-lactating Holstein cows over 16 weeks. Blood haptoglobin concentration remained unaltered, suggesting that an acute phase reaction was not induced. Stimulation ability of peripheral blood mononuclear cells and stimulated oxidative burst capacity of granulocytes increased significantly in the course of the experiment after an initial drop. While total leucocyte counts increased, the proportion of granulocytes increased and that of lymphocytes decreased at the same time as the ratio of CD4(+)/CD8(+) lymphocytes did. Capability of rumen microbes to detoxify the immune-modulating mycotoxin deoxynivalenol (DON) was not compromised as indicated by the exclusive presence of de-DON as the detoxified DON metabolite in blood. In conclusion, both diet change and prolonged positive energy balance influenced the bovine immune system. PMID:26654380

  15. A therapeutic-only versus prophylactic platelet transfusion strategy for preventing bleeding in patients with haematological disorders after myelosuppressive chemotherapy or stem cell transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Crighton, Gemma L; Estcourt, Lise J; Wood, Erica M; Trivella, Marialena; Doree, Carolyn; Stanworth, Simon

    2015-01-01

    Background Platelet transfusions are used in modern clinical practice to prevent and treat bleeding in thrombocytopenic patients with bone marrow failure. Although considerable advances have been made in platelet transfusion therapy in the last 40 years, some areas continue to provoke debate, especially concerning the use of prophylactic platelet transfusions for the prevention of thrombocytopenic bleeding. This is an update of a Cochrane review first published in 2004 and updated in 2012 that addressed four separate questions: therapeutic-only versus prophylactic platelet transfusion policy; prophylactic platelet transfusion threshold; prophylactic platelet transfusion dose; and platelet transfusions compared to alternative treatments. We have now split this review into four smaller reviews looking at these questions individually; this review is the first part of the original review. Objectives To determine whether a therapeutic-only platelet transfusion policy (platelet transfusions given when patient bleeds) is as effective and safe as a prophylactic platelet transfusion policy (platelet transfusions given to prevent bleeding, usually when the platelet count falls below a given trigger level) in patients with haematological disorders undergoing myelosuppressive chemotherapy or stem cell transplantation. Search methods We searched for randomised controlled trials (RCTs) in the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (Cochrane Library 2015, Issue 6), MEDLINE (from 1946), Embase (from 1974), CINAHL (from 1937), the Transfusion Evidence Library (from 1950) and ongoing trial databases to 23 July 2015. Selection criteria RCTs involving transfusions of platelet concentrates prepared either from individual units of whole blood or by apheresis, and given to prevent or treat bleeding in patients with malignant haematological disorders receiving myelosuppressive chemotherapy or undergoing HSCT. Data collection and analysis We used standard methodological procedures expected by The Cochrane Collaboration. Main results We identified seven RCTs that compared therapeutic platelet transfusions to prophylactic platelet transfusions in haematology patients undergoing myelosuppressive chemotherapy or HSCT. One trial is still ongoing, leaving six trials eligible with a total of 1195 participants. These trials were conducted between 1978 and 2013 and enrolled participants from fairly comparable patient populations. We were able to critically appraise five of these studies, which contained separate data for each arm, and were unable to perform quantitative analysis on one study that did not report the numbers of participants in each treatment arm. Overall the quality of evidence per outcome was low to moderate according to the GRADE approach. None of the included studies were at low risk of bias in every domain, and all the studies identified had some threats to validity. We deemed only one study to be at low risk of bias in all domains other than blinding. Two RCTs (801 participants) reported at least one bleeding episode within 30 days of the start of the study. We were unable to perform a meta-analysis due to considerable statistical heterogeneity between studies. The statistical heterogeneity seen may relate to the different methods used in studies for the assessment and grading of bleeding. The underlying patient diagnostic and treatment categories also appeared to have some effect on bleeding risk. Individually these studies showed a similar effect, that a therapeutic-only platelet transfusion strategy was associated with an increased risk of clinically significant bleeding compared with a prophylactic platelet transfusion policy. Number of days with a clinically significant bleeding event per participant was higher in the therapeutic-only group than in the prophylactic group (one RCT; 600 participants; mean difference 0.50, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.10 to 0.90; moderate-quality evidence). There was insufficient evidence to determine whether there was any difference in the number of participants with severe or life-threatening bleeding between a therapeutic-only transfusion policy and a prophylactic platelet transfusion policy (two RCTs; 801 participants; risk ratio (RR) 4.91, 95% CI 0.86 to 28.12; low-quality evidence). Two RCTs (801 participants) reported time to first bleeding episode. As there was considerable heterogeneity between the studies, we were unable to perform a meta-analysis. Both studies individually found that time to first bleeding episode was shorter in the therapeutic-only group compared with the prophylactic platelet transfusion group. There was insufficient evidence to determine any difference in all-cause mortality within 30 days of the start of the study using a therapeutic-only platelet transfusion policy compared with a prophylactic platelet transfusion policy (two RCTs; 629 participants). Mortality was a rare event, and therefore larger studies would be needed to establish the effect of these alternative strategies. There was a clear reduction in the number of platelet transfusions per participant in the therapeutic-only arm (two RCTs, 991 participants; standardised mean reduction of 0.50 platelet transfusions per participant, 95% CI −0.63 to −0.37; moderate-quality evidence). None of the studies reported quality of life. There was no evidence of any difference in the frequency of adverse events, such as transfusion reactions, between a therapeutic-only and prophylactic platelet transfusion policy (two RCTs; 991 participants; RR 1.02, 95% CI 0.62 to 1.68), although the confidence intervals were wide. Authors’ conclusions We found low- to moderate-grade evidence that a therapeutic-only platelet transfusion policy is associated with increased risk of bleeding when compared with a prophylactic platelet transfusion policy in haematology patients who are thrombocytopenic due to myelosuppressive chemotherapy or HSCT. There is insufficient evidence to determine any difference in mortality rates and no evidence of any difference in adverse events between a therapeutic-only platelet transfusion policy and a prophylactic platelet transfusion policy. A therapeutic-only platelet transfusion policy is associated with a clear reduction in the number of platelet components administered. PMID:26422767

  16. Haematological and biochemical reference intervals for three species of hydrophiine sea snakes (Hydrophis curtus, H. elegans and H. peronii) in Australia.

    PubMed

    Gillett, Amber K; Flint, Mark; Hulse, Lyndal; Hanger, Jon; Mills, Paul C

    2015-06-01

    This study presents the first set of comprehensive reference intervals (RIs) for plasma biochemistry and haematology for three species of sea snakes common to the Indo-Pacific waters of Australia. In total 98 snakes, composed of Hydrophis curtus (n= 60), H. elegans (n = 27) and H. peronii (n = 11), were captured, clinically examined and had venous blood samples collected. All snakes were deemed healthy and in good to excellent body condition with snout to vent lengths of 40.7-73.9 cm (H. curtus), 68.9-131.4 cm (H. elegans) and 55.0-83.0 cm (H. peronii), respectively. Lymphocyte numbers, alkaline phosphatase, alanine aminotransferase, creatine kinase and lactate dehydrogenase levels were species-dependent. All other parameters are presented as a single range for the three species. Gender ratio was evenly distributed for H. curtus and H. elegans, but 8/11 (73%) of H. peronii were males. No significant differences were detected between males and females for any of the measured blood parameters. Lymph contamination was considered and accounted for. Although only three species of sea snakes are represented in this study, the RIs generated may be useful in the clinical assessment of other sea snake species. PMID:25933825

  17. Primary antifungal prophylaxis with micafungin in patients with haematological malignancies: real-life data from a retrospective single-centre observational study.

    PubMed

    Nachbaur, David; Angelova, Olga; Orth-Höller, Dorothea; Ditlbacher, Adelheid; Lackner, Michaela; Auberger, Jutta; Lass-Flörl, Cornelia

    2015-03-01

    Mould-active antifungal prophylaxis is increasingly used in patients at risk for invasive fungal disease. Between June 2011 and June 2012, one hundred patients with various haematological malignancies at risk for invasive fungal disease received primary antifungal prophylaxis with intravenous micafungin at a daily dosage of 50 mg during neutropenia. The median number of days on micafungin prophylaxis was 14 (range, 6-48 d). The incidence of proven and probable breakthrough invasive fungal diseases (bIFDs) was 6% and 3%, respectively. There were two bloodstream infections caused by yeasts or yeast-like fungi (Candida krusei, Trichosporon asahii) in two patients during the neutropenic phase after allogeneic haematopoietic stem cell transplantation. Four proven bIFDs caused by non-Aspergillus moulds and three cases of probable pulmonary bIFDs were documented during the neutropenic phase after induction/consolidation chemotherapy for acute leukaemia. Colonisation with Candida spp. was documented in 51% of the patients with none of the isolates being in vitro micafungin resistant. Compared to a historical control, receiving primary prophylaxis with posaconazole micafungin is at least as effective in preventing IFD. In both cohorts, bIFDs were exclusively caused by emerging pathogens with a highly preserved in vitro sensitivity to amphotericin B. PMID:25082655

  18. Different doses of prophylactic platelet transfusion for preventing bleeding in people with haematological disorders after myelosuppressive chemotherapy or stem cell transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Estcourt, Lise J; Stanworth, Simon; Doree, Carolyn; Trivella, Marialena; Hopewell, Sally; Blanco, Patricia; Murphy, Michael F

    2015-01-01

    Background Platelet transfusions are used in modern clinical practice to prevent and treat bleeding in people who are thrombocytopenic due to bone marrow failure. Although considerable advances have been made in platelet transfusion therapy in the last 40 years, some areas continue to provoke debate, especially concerning the use of prophylactic platelet transfusions for the prevention of thrombocytopenic bleeding. This is an update of a Cochrane review first published in 2004, and updated in 2012 that addressed four separate questions: prophylactic versus therapeutic-only platelet transfusion policy; prophylactic platelet transfusion threshold; prophylactic platelet transfusion dose; and platelet transfusions compared to alternative treatments. This review has now been split into four smaller reviews; this review compares different platelet transfusion doses. Objectives To determine whether different doses of prophylactic platelet transfusions (platelet transfusions given to prevent bleeding) affect their efficacy and safety in preventing bleeding in people with haematological disorders undergoing myelosuppressive chemotherapy with or without haematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). Search methods We searched for randomised controlled trials in the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) (Cochrane Library 2015, Issue 6), MEDLINE (from 1946), Embase (from 1974), CINAHL (from 1937), the Transfusion Evidence Library (from 1950), and ongoing trial databases to 23 July 2015. Selection criteria Randomised controlled trials involving transfusions of platelet concentrates, prepared either from individual units of whole blood or by apheresis, and given to prevent bleeding in people with malignant haematological disorders or undergoing HSCT that compared different platelet component doses (low dose 1.1 × 1011/m2 ± 25%, standard dose 2.2 × 1011/m2 ± 25%, high dose 4.4 × 1011/m2 ± 25%). Data collection and analysis We used the standard methodological procedures expected by The Cochrane Collaboration. Main results We included seven trials (1814 participants) in this review; six were conducted during one course of treatment (chemotherapy or HSCT). Overall the methodological quality of studies was low to moderate across different outcomes according to GRADE methodology. None of the included studies were at low risk of bias in every domain, and all the included studies had some threats to validity. Five studies reported the number of participants with at least one clinically significant bleeding episode within 30 days from the start of the study. There was no difference in the number of participants with a clinically significant bleeding episode between the low-dose and standard-dose groups (four studies; 1170 participants; risk ratio (RR) 1.04, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.95 to 1.13; moderate-quality evidence); low-dose and high-dose groups (one study; 849 participants; RR 1.02, 95% CI 0.93 to 1.11; moderate-quality evidence); or high-dose and standard-dose groups (two studies; 951 participants; RR 1.02, 95% CI 0.93 to 1.11; moderate-quality evidence). Three studies reported the number of days with a clinically significant bleeding event per participant. There was no difference in the number of days of bleeding per participant between the low-dose and standard-dose groups (two studies; 230 participants; mean difference −0.17, 95% CI −0.51 to 0.17; low quality evidence). One study (855 participants) showed no difference in the number of days of bleeding per participant between high-dose and standard-dose groups, or between low-dose and high-dose groups (849 participants). Three studies reported the number of participants with severe or life-threatening bleeding. There was no difference in the number of participants with severe or life-threatening bleeding between a low-dose and a standard-dose platelet transfusion policy (three studies; 1059 participants; RR 1.33, 95% CI 0.91 to 1.92; low-quality evidence); low-dose and high-dose groups (one study; 849 participants; RR 1.20, 95% CI 0.82 to 1.77; low-quality evidence); or high-dose and standard-dose groups (one study; 855 participants; RR 1.11, 95% CI 0.73 to 1.68; low-quality evidence). Two studies reported the time to first bleeding episodes; we were unable to perform a meta-analysis. Both studies (959 participants) individually found that the time to first bleeding episode was either the same, or longer, in the low-dose group compared to the standard-dose group. One study (855 participants) found that the time to the first bleeding episode was the same in the high-dose group compared to the standard-dose group. Three studies reported all-cause mortality within 30 days from the start of the study. There was no difference in all-cause mortality between treatment arms (low-dose versus standard-dose: three studies; 1070 participants; RR 2.04, 95% CI 0.70 to 5.93; low-quality evidence; low-dose versus high-dose: one study; 849 participants; RR 1.33, 95% CI 0.50 to 3.54; low-quality evidence; and high-dose versus standard-dose: one study; 855 participants; RR 1.71, 95% CI 0.51 to 5.81; low-quality evidence). Six studies reported the number of platelet transfusions; we were unable to perform a meta-analysis. Two studies (959 participants) out of three (1070 participants) found that a low-dose transfusion strategy led to more transfusion episodes than a standard-dose. One study (849 participants) found that a low-dose transfusion strategy led to more transfusion episodes than a high-dose strategy. One study (855 participants) out of three (1007 participants) found no difference in the number of platelet transfusions between the high-dose and standard-dose groups. One study reported on transfusion reactions. This study’s authors suggested that a high-dose platelet transfusion strategy may lead to a higher rate of transfusion-related adverse events. None of the studies reported quality-of-life. Authors’ conclusions In haematology patients who are thrombocytopenic due to myelosuppressive chemotherapy or HSCT, we found no evidence to suggest that a low-dose platelet transfusion policy is associated with an increased bleeding risk compared to a standard-dose or high-dose policy, or that a high-dose platelet transfusion policy is associated with a decreased risk of bleeding when compared to a standard-dose policy. A low-dose platelet transfusion strategy leads to an increased number of transfusion episodes compared to a standard-dose strategy. A high-dose platelet transfusion strategy does not decrease the number of transfusion episodes per participant compared to a standard-dose regimen, and it may increase the number of transfusion-related adverse events. Findings from this review would suggest a change from current practice, with low-dose platelet transfusions used for people receiving in-patient treatment for their haematological disorder and high-dose platelet transfusion strategies not being used routinely. PMID:26505729

  19. The effects of inulin supplementation of diets with or without hydrolysed protein sources on digestibility, faecal characteristics, haematology and immunoglobulins in dogs.

    PubMed

    Verlinden, A; Hesta, M; Hermans, J M; Janssens, G P J

    2006-11-01

    Dogs with food allergy are often treated by giving a diet with hydrolysed protein sources. Prebiotics might also be successful in prevention and treatment of allergic disease through their effect on the colonic microflora, analogous to studies on probiotics in allergic children. The present study was set up to investigate the effect of supplementing inulin (IN) to commercial hypoallergenic dog diets on apparent nutrient digestibility, faecal characteristics, haematology and Ig in dogs. Supplementation of 3 % IN did not affect faecal pH, food and water intake and urine production. Compared with the intact protein diet with a limited number of ingredients (L), the diet with a hydrolysed protein source (H) resulted in an increased water intake (P<0.001), which could be due to the osmotic effect of free amino acids. Faeces production was increased by IN due to increased faecal moisture content. Increased faeces production on the H diet was mainly due to a higher DM excretion. Subsequently, the apparent digestibility coefficient (ADC) of DM was lower in the H diet group. A similar result was noted for ADC of diethyl ether extract and crude ash. The ADC of crude protein was higher in the H diet group, whereas IN decreased the ADC of crude protein. Differences in the ADC of crude protein among the different diets disappeared after correction for a higher faecal biomass, except for the dogs fed the L+IN diet. Total faecal IgA concentrations were lower in the H group (P<0.05) because of lower antigenic stimulation of hydrolysed protein, which implies that hydrolysed protein is really hypoallergenic. The present study indicates that the use of hydrolysed protein diets for canine food allergy treatment can affect digestibility and that combination with IN affected apparent protein digestibility but not IgA response. PMID:17092385

  20. Looking for prognosticators in ovine anaplasmosis: discriminant analysis of clinical and haematological parameters in lambs belonging to differently susceptible breeds experimentally infected with Anaplasma ovis

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background A study was carried out to evaluate the response of different native sheep breeds to experimental infection with Anaplasma ovis, the most prevalent sheep tick-borne pathogen in Apulia (Southern Italy). Thirty-four lambs belonging to a Northern European breed (Suffolk) and two Southern Italian breeds (Comisana and Altamurana) were infected. Eleven clinical as well as haematological parameters were monitored at different temporal resolutions on the same subjects before and after the infection, resulting in a data set of 435 observations. The present work, aiming to further the research, presents the results of a multivariate analysis carried out to identify which parameters out of the eleven considered are the most reliable parameters to be considered as markers of the disease phenotype as well as prognosticators of practical clinical importance. Results Data were analysed by discriminant analysis. Out of the eleven considered variables (red blood cells, packed cell volume, mean corpuscular volume, mean corpuscular haemoglobin, mean corpuscular haemoglobin content, haemoglobin concentration, white blood cells, neutrophils, leukocytes, platelets, rectal temperature), only seven were included in the step-wise model since significantly increasing the Mahlanobis distance between the two closest groups. Both discriminant functions resulted to be highly significant (P < 0.0001) and the percentage of variation accounted for by the first discriminant function was 63.6% of the variance in the grouping variable. Conclusions Taken together, the observed results stress the marked differentiation among the three breeds in terms of physio-pathological phenotypes indicating packed cell volume and red blood cell count as the most informative parameters in the routine clinical practice for A. ovis infection in sheep. PMID:24053615

  1. Comparison of different platelet count thresholds to guide administration of prophylactic platelet transfusion for preventing bleeding in people with haematological disorders after myelosuppressive chemotherapy or stem cell transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Estcourt, Lise J; Stanworth, Simon J; Doree, Carolyn; Hopewell, Sally; Trivella, Marialena; Murphy, Michael F

    2015-01-01

    Background Platelet transfusions are used in modern clinical practice to prevent and treat bleeding in people who are thrombocytopenic due to bone marrow failure. Although considerable advances have been made in platelet transfusion therapy in the last 40 years, some areas continue to provoke debate, especially concerning the use of prophylactic platelet transfusions for the prevention of thrombocytopenic bleeding. This is an update of a Cochrane review first published in 2004, and previously updated in 2012 that addressed four separate questions: prophylactic versus therapeutic-only platelet transfusion policy; prophylactic platelet transfusion threshold; prophylactic platelet transfusion dose; and platelet transfusions compared to alternative treatments. This review has now been split into four smaller reviews looking at these questions individually; this review compares prophylactic platelet transfusion thresholds. Objectives To determine whether different platelet transfusion thresholds for administration of prophylactic platelet transfusions (platelet transfusions given to prevent bleeding) affect the efficacy and safety of prophylactic platelet transfusions in preventing bleeding in people with haematological disorders undergoing myelosuppressive chemotherapy or haematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). Search methods We searched for randomised controlled trials (RCTs) in the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) (Cochrane Library 2015, Issue 6, 23 July 2015), MEDLINE (from 1946), Embase (from 1974), CINAHL (from 1937), the Transfusion Evidence Library (from 1950), and ongoing trial databases to 23 July 2015. Selection criteria We included RCTs involving transfusions of platelet concentrates, prepared either from individual units of whole blood or by apheresis, and given to prevent bleeding in people with haematological disorders (receiving myelosuppressive chemotherapy or undergoing HSCT) that compared different thresholds for administration of prophylactic platelet transfusions (low trigger (5 × 109/L); standard trigger (10 × 109/L); higher trigger (20 × 109/L, 30 × 109/L, 50 × 109/L); or alternative platelet trigger (for example platelet mass)). Data collection and analysis We used the standard methodological procedures expected by Cochrane. Main results Three trials met our predefined inclusion criteria and were included for analysis in the review (499 participants). All three trials compared a standard trigger (10 × 109/L) versus a higher trigger (20 × 109/L or 30 × 109/L). None of the trials compared a low trigger versus a standard trigger or an alternative platelet trigger. The trials were conducted between 1991 and 2001 and enrolled participants from fairly comparable patient populations. The original review contained four trials (658 participants); in the previous update of this review we excluded one trial (159 participants) because fewer than 80% of participants had a haematological disorder. We identified no new trials in this update of the review. Overall, the methodological quality of the studies was low across different outcomes according to GRADE methodology. None of the included studies were at low risk of bias in every domain, and all the included studies had some threats to validity. Three studies reported the number of participants with at least one clinically significant bleeding episode within 30 days from the start of the study. There was no evidence of a difference in the number of participants with a clinically significant bleeding episode between the standard and higher trigger groups (three studies; 499 participants; risk ratio (RR) 1.35, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.95 to 1.90; low-quality evidence). One study reported the number of days with a clinically significant bleeding event (adjusted for repeated measures). There was no evidence of a difference in the number of days of bleeding per participant between the standard and higher trigger groups (one study; 255 participants; relative proportion of days with World Health Organization Grade 2 or worse bleeding (RR 1.71, 95% CI 0.84 to 3.48, P = 0.162; authors’ own results; low-quality evidence). Two studies reported the number of participants with severe or life-threatening bleeding. There was no evidence of any difference in the number of participants with severe or life-threatening bleeding between a standard trigger level and a higher trigger level (two studies; 421 participants; RR 0.99, 95% CI 0.52 to 1.88; low-quality evidence). Only one study reported the time to first bleeding episode. There was no evidence of any difference in the time to the first bleeding episode between a standard trigger level and a higher trigger level (one study; 255 participants; hazard ratio 1.11, 95% CI 0.64 to 1.91; low-quality evidence). Only one study reported on all-cause mortality within 30 days from the start of the study. There was no evidence of any difference in all-cause mortality between standard and higher trigger groups (one study; 255 participants; RR 1.78, 95% CI 0.83 to 3.81; low-quality evidence). Three studies reported on the number of platelet transfusions per participant. Two studies reported on the mean number of platelet transfusions per participant. There was a significant reduction in the number of platelet transfusions per participant in the standard trigger group (two studies, mean difference −2.09, 95% CI −3.20 to −0.99; low-quality evidence). One study reported on the number of transfusion reactions. There was no evidence to demonstrate any difference in transfusion reactions between the standard and higher trigger groups (one study; 79 participants; RR 0.07, 95% CI 0.00 to 1.09). None of the studies reported on quality of life. Authors’ conclusions In people with haematological disorders who are thrombocytopenic due to myelosuppressive chemotherapy or HSCT, we found low-quality evidence that a standard trigger level (10 × 109/L) is associated with no increase in the risk of bleeding when compared to a higher trigger level (20 × 109/L or 30 × 109/L). There was low-quality evidence that a standard trigger level is associated with a decreased number of transfusion episodes when compared to a higher trigger level (20 × 109/L or 30 × 109/L). Findings from this review were based on three studies and 499 participants. Without further evidence, it is reasonable to continue with the current practice of administering prophylactic platelet transfusions using the standard trigger level (10 × 109/L) in the absence of other risk factors for bleeding. PMID:26576687

  2. Do We Know Why We Make Errors in Morphological Diagnosis? An Analysis of Approach and Decision-Making in Haematological Morphology

    PubMed Central

    Brereton, Michelle; De La Salle, Barbara; Ardern, John; Hyde, Keith; Burthem, John

    2015-01-01

    Summary Background The laboratory interpretation of blood film morphology is frequently a rapid, accurate, and cost-effective final-stage of blood count analysis. However, the interpretation of findings often rests with a single individual, and errors can carry significant impact. Cell identification and classification skills are well supported by existing resources, but the contribution and importance of other skills are less well understood. Methods The UK external quality assurance group in haematology (UK NEQAS(H)) runs a Continued Professional Development scheme where large digital-images of abnormal blood smears are presented using a web-based virtual microscope. Each case is answered by more than 800 individuals. Morphological feature selection and prioritisation, as well as diagnosis and proposed action, are recorded. We analysed the responses of participants, aiming to identify successful strategies as well as sources of error. Findings The approach to assessment by participants depended on the affected cell type, case complexity or skills of the morphologist. For cases with few morphological abnormalities, we found that accurate cell identification and classification were the principle requirements for success. For more complex films however, feature recognition and prioritisation had primary importance. Additionally however, we found that participants employed a range of heuristic techniques to support their assessment, leading to associated bias and error. Interpretation A wide range of skills together allow successful morphological assessment and the complexity of this process is not always understood or recognised. Heuristic techniques are widely employed to support or reinforce primary observations and to simplify complex findings. These approaches are effective and are integral to assessment; however they may also be a source of bias or error. Improving outcomes and supporting diagnosis require the development of decision-support mechanisms that identify and support the benefits of heuristic strategies while identifying or avoiding associated biases. Funding The CPD scheme is funded by participant subscription. PMID:26501122

  3. Protective effect of herbal and probiotics enriched diet on haematological and immunity status of Oplegnathus fasciatus (Temminck & Schlegel) against Edwardsiella tarda.

    PubMed

    Harikrishnan, Ramasamy; Kim, Man-Chul; Kim, Ju-Sang; Balasundaram, Chellam; Heo, Moon-Soo

    2011-03-01

    This study determines the effect of diet enriched with the herb Baical skullcap Scutellaria baicalensis, and/or probiotics Lactobacillus sakei BK19 in rock bream, Oplegnathus fasciatus (32 ± 3 g) against Edwardsiella tarda. The changes in haematological parameters, innate immune response, and disease resistance were investigated after 1, 3, and 6 weeks. The white blood cell count (WBC: 10(4) mm(-3)), red blood cell count (RBC: 10(6) mm(-3)), and haemoglobin (Hb: g dl(-1)) levels significant increased (P < 0.05) with mixed diet on 3rd and 6th week and probiotics enriched diet on 6th week. The haematocrit (Ht: %) level significantly increased (P < 0.05) when fed with mixed diet on weeks 1-6. Interestingly, in mixed diet group the lymphocytes (LYM), monocytes (MON), and neutrophils (NEU) significantly increased from week 1-6. The eosinophils (EOS) significantly increased in all the treated groups. In the probiotics or mixed diet groups the total protein (TP: g dl(-1)) increased significantly on weeks 3 and 6. The serum lysozyme activity significantly was enhanced in all the treated groups indicating an increase in the innate immunity level. Serum complement, antiprotease activities, reactive oxygen species (ROS) and reactive nitrogen species (RNS) production significantly increased from week 1-6 with mixed diet. The maximum protection against E. tarda was recorded in mixed diet group with a minimum cumulative mortality of 20% and a high relative percent survival (RPS) of 72.84. In the probiotics and herbal diet groups the cumulative mortality was 25% and 35% and RPS was 68.63 and 59.42, respectively. This study indicates that administration of probiotics or mixed diets can effectively minimize the mortality and restore the altered hematological parameters and enhancing the innate immunity in O. fasciatus against E. tarda. PMID:21272648

  4. Effects of iron-glycine chelate on growth, carcass characteristic, liver mineral concentrations and haematological and biochemical blood parameters in broilers.

    PubMed

    Kwiecień, M; Samolińska, W; Bujanowicz-Haraś, B

    2015-12-01

    Studies were carried out to determine the effect of additive iron-glycine chelate on the production performance, slaughter yield, mineral deposition in the liver and the metabolic blood panel in broiler chickens. A total of 250 one-day-old Ross 308 chicks were allotted into five groups with five replicates of 10 birds each. Diets were supplemented with the organic form iron (Fe-Gly at the rate of 25%, 50% or 100% of the total requirements of the elements) and inorganic Fe (FeSO4 at the rate of 50% or 100%). In the experiment, iron was added to the premix (containing no Fe) in an amount of 40 or 20 mg per kg of basal diet, in groups I and II, in the form of FeSO4 , and in an amount of 40, 20 or 10 mg per kg of basal diet, in groups III, IV and V, in the form of Fe-Gly. The study covering the period from the first to the 42nd day of breeding revealed that the production performance and slaughter yield were not dependent on the form and amount of added Fe. In the experimental groups with the addition of Fe-Gly of 20 or 10 mg/kg, there were no deaths of chickens during the whole fattening period. As a result, introducing an organic form of iron covering 50% and 25% of the birds' requirement increased the effectiveness of chicken fattening (European Efficiency Index) (p < 0.01). An organic Fe compound (40, 20 or 10 mg/kg) added to mixtures contributed to significant changes in the level of biochemical and haematological indicators in blood. The study demonstrated that an addition of Fe-Gly to mixtures for broilers can be fully effective in terms of production and health performance even if the suggested requirement for this element is 50% or 25% covered. PMID:25865671

  5. Long-term follow-up of bone density, general and reproductive health in female survivors after treatment for haematological malignancies.

    PubMed

    Naessén, Sabine; Bergström, Ingrid; Ljungman, Per; Landgren, Britt-Marie

    2014-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the ovarian function, fertility and bone mineral density in women who previously had treatment for different haematological malignancies (HMs). The overall survival and cure rates of patients with HMs have improved dramatically. The treatment affects fertility and bone density. Fifty-two premenopausal women, from Stockholm region, were included in the study between 1998 and 2002, followed until 2011. The diagnoses were acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (n = 6), acute myeloid leukaemia (n = 10), chronic lymphocytic leukaemia (n = 1), chronic myeloid leukaemia (n = 12), Hodgkin lymphoma (n = 12) and non-Hodgkin lymphoma (n = 11). Before treatment, women without children (43/52), when possible, were offered fertility preservation options. The mean age at diagnosis was 27, at final evaluation 39 yr. Thirty-seven patients received HSCT; 26 allogeneic, 11 autologous. Before allogeneic HSCT, nineteen patients had myeloablative conditioning; seven had reduced-intensity conditioning. Eleven patients got total body irradiation. Eight patients were transplanted with grafts from an HLA-identical sibling donor, while 18 had unrelated donors. All women were in a menopausal state post-therapy. Hormone replacement therapy (HRT) was given, and bone mineral density (BMD) was measured every other year. The serum levels of parathyroid hormone (PTH), free and bound calcium was within normal range. BMD measurements showed a slight increase over time in the spine with a mean of 0.015 g/cm(2) /yr. Four spontaneous pregnancies resulted in two babies and two discontinued pregnancies; two pregnancies were achieved with oocyte donation and surrogacy and one woman adopted a child. HRT sustains BMD in long-term survivors from HMs. This study highlights the importance of HRT and fertility issues in this patient group. PMID:24649942

  6. The haematological features and transfusion management of women who required massive transfusion for major obstetric haemorrhage in the UK: a population based study.

    PubMed

    Green, Laura; Knight, Marian; Seeney, Frances; Hopkinson, Cathy; Collins, Peter W; Collis, Rachel E; Simpson, Nigel A B; Weeks, Andrew; Stanworth, Simon J

    2016-02-01

    Understanding the coagulopathy of major-obstetric-haemorrhage (MOH) that leads to massive-transfusion (MT) is fundamental to improving outcomes. This study reports on the haematological features and transfusion management of women experiencing MT [defined as transfusion of ≥8 units of red blood cells (RBC) within 24 h of delivery]. One hundred and eighty-one cases [median (interquartile range; IQR) age 33 years (29-36)] were identified from all UK hospitals, using the UK Obstetric Surveillance System between July 2012 and June 2013. The median (IQR) estimated blood loss was 6 l (4·5-8). At presentation, the median platelet count was lowest for placenta accreta, compared with other causes, while the median prothrombin time and fibrinogen were <1·5 × mean normal and <3 g/l, respectively for all aetiologies. Median platelet count and fibrinogen fell to <75 × 10(9) /l and <2 g/l, respectively for all causes during bleeding, except for trauma. The median (IQR) units of RBC, fresh-frozen-plasma (FFP) and cryoprecipitate transfused were 10 (8-14), 6 (4-8) and 2 (2-4), respectively. The median time from the onset of bleeding to delivery of the first RBC unit was significantly shorter for women who delivered via elective caesarean section, compared with others. The coagulopathy of MT during MOH differs significantly depending on its cause, suggesting that more targeted transfusion strategies are required. PMID:26683982

  7. Cost analysis of voriconazole versus liposomal amphotericin B for primary therapy of invasive aspergillosis among patients with haematological disorders in Germany and Spain

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The current healthcare climate demands pharmacoeconomic evaluations for different treatment strategies incorporating drug acquisition costs, costs incurred for hospitalisation, drug administration and preparation, diagnostic and laboratory testing and drug-related adverse events (AEs). Here we evaluate the pharmacoeconomics of voriconazole versus liposomal amphotericin B as first-line therapies for invasive aspergillosis (IA) in patients with haematological malignancy and prolonged neutropenia or who were undergoing haematopoietic stem-cell transplantation in Germany or Spain. Methods A decision analytic model based on a decision tree was constructed to estimate the potential treatment costs of voriconazole versus liposomal amphotericin B. Each model pathway was defined by the probability of an event occurring and the costs of clinical outcomes. Outcome probabilities and cost inputs were derived from the published literature, clinical trials, expert panels and local database costs. In the base case, patients who failed to respond to first-line therapy were assumed to experience a single switch between comparator drugs or the other drug was added as second-line treatment. Base-case evaluation included only drug-management costs and additional hospitalisation costs due to severe AEs associated with first- and second-line therapies. Sensitivity analyses were conducted to assess the robustness of the results. Cost estimates were inflated to 2011 euros (€). Results Based on clinical trial success rates of 52.8% (voriconazole) and 50.0% (liposomal amphotericin B), voriconazole had lower total treatment costs compared with liposomal amphotericin B in both Germany (€12,256 versus €18,133; length of therapy [LOT] = 10-day intravenous [IV] + 5-day oral voriconazole and 15-day IV liposomal amphotericin B) and Spain (€8,032 versus €10,516; LOT = 7-day IV + 8-day oral voriconazole and 15-day IV liposomal amphotericin B). Assuming the same efficacy (50.0%) in first-line therapy, voriconazole maintained a lower total treatment cost compared with liposomal amphotericin B. Cost savings were primarily due to the lower drug acquisition costs and shorter IV LOT associated with voriconazole. Sensitivity analyses showed that the results were sensitive to drug price, particularly the cost of liposomal amphotericin B. Conclusions Voriconazole is likely to be cost-saving compared with liposomal amphotericin B when used as a first-line treatment for IA in Germany and Spain. PMID:25253630

  8. In vitro activities of amphotericin B and AmBisome against Aspergillus isolates recovered from Italian patients treated for haematological malignancies.

    PubMed

    Colozza, Camilla; Posteraro, Brunella; Santilli, Stefania; De Carolis, Elena; Sanguinetti, Maurizio; Girmenia, Corrado

    2012-05-01

    Although there is evidence that liposomal amphotericin B (AmBisome) is non-inferior to amphotericin B (AmB) in terms of in vivo efficacy, in vitro data regarding the activity of AmBisome against clinical isolates of Aspergillus are rare. In this study, the susceptibilities to AmB and AmBisome of 103 Aspergillus complex isolates (48 Aspergillus flavus, 33 Aspergillus fumigatus, 13 Aspergillus terreus and 9 Aspergillus niger) recovered from haematological patients with invasive infection were compared. Minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) were determined by the broth microdilution (BMD) method according to the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI), whilst AmB susceptibility was also determined by Etest. Using a susceptible/resistant MIC cut-off of 1mg/L, all A. fumigatus and A. niger complexes isolates were susceptible to both AmB and AmBisome. In contrast, 38.5% and 30.8% of the A. terreus complex isolates were resistant to AmB and AmBisome, respectively, with good agreement between BMD and Etest methods. With respect to A. flavus complex isolates, 43.7% and 16.7% were resistant by the BMD method to AmBisome and AmB, respectively. For isolates with discrepant results, AmB MICs obtained by Etest were higher than those obtained for AmB by the BMD method and they were closer to those obtained for AmBisome by BMD. Aspergillus flavus AmB MICs ranged from 0.5 mg/L to 2 mg/L by the BMD method and from 1 mg/L to >16 mg/L by the Etest method, and AmBisome MICs ranged from 0.06 mg/L to >16 mg/L by the BMD method. Etest appears to be superior to the CLSI BMD method using AmB in detecting AmB resistance of Aspergillus spp., although the CLSI BMD method might be a suitable procedure if AmBisome is used as the test drug. PMID:22429723

  9. Effects of Saccharomyces cerevisiae extract on haematological parameters, immune function and the antioxidant defence system in breeder hens fed aflatoxin contaminated diets.

    PubMed

    Matur, E; Ergul, E; Akyazi, I; Eraslan, E; Inal, G; Bilgic, S; Demircan, H

    2011-10-01

    The study was conducted to investigate the efficacy of Saccharomyces cerevisiae extract (SC) on haematological parameters, immune function, and the antioxidant defence system in breeder hens fed a diet contaminated with low level aflatoxin (AF). Forty-eight Ross 308 breeder hens were fed on diets containing AF (0 or 100 µg/kg) and SC (0 or 1 g/kg) in a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement. Red blood cell (RBC), white blood cell (WBC), and platelet counts, differential leucocyte counts, blood CD3+, CD4+, CD8+ and CD5+ T cell ratios, phagocytic activity and oxidative burst of heterophils, plasma and liver catalase activity, and malondialdehyde (MDA) and ascorbic acid concentrations were measured. 3. Plasma and liver MDA concentrations increased (P < 0·05), liver catalase activity decreased (P < 0·05) and total WBC count tended to decrease (P = 0·082) in hens fed the contaminated diet. WBC count, monocyte percentage, phagocytic activity and oxidative burst of heterophils increased (P < 0·05), and plasma MDA concentration tended to decrease (P = 0.088) in SC extract supplemented hens. There was a significant interaction between AF and SC on heterophil, lymphocyte, CD5+ cell percentages, and plasma catalase activity. Blood heterophil percentage decreased but lymphocyte percentage increased in hens fed on the AF contaminated diet without SC supplementation. SC supplementation counteracted the negative effect of AF on heterophils and lymphocytes. The CD5+ cell percentage decreased in unsupplemented hens fed the AF contaminated diet and this negative effect was minimised in SC supplemented hens. Plasma catalase activity increased in SC supplemented hens fed the uncontaminated diet whereas the effect of SC decreased in hens fed the AF contaminated diet. 4. The SC reduced some of the some adverse effects of AF, and improved functions of the non-specific immune system. Therefore, the SC extract which has been used for improving productive performance in birds and mammals may also be useful for modulating some of the effects of a low level, chronic dosage of AF. PMID:22029780

  10. BiOsimilaRs in the management of anaemia secondary to chemotherapy in HaEmatology and Oncology: results of the ORHEO observational study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The approval of epoetin biosimilars in the European Union requires extensive scientific evaluation and stringent regulatory procedures, including post-marketing studies. The ORHEO (place of biOsimilaRs in the therapeutic management of anaemia secondary to chemotherapy in HaEmatology and Oncology) study was an observational, longitudinal, multicentre study performed in France to evaluate the efficacy and safety of biosimilar epoetins for the treatment of chemotherapy-induced anaemia (CIA) in the clinical setting. Methods Patients >18 years with CIA (haemoglobin [Hb] <11 g/dL) in association with solid tumours, lymphoma or myeloma and eligible for treatment with an epoetin biosimilar were included in this study. Patient characteristics were recorded at baseline along with anaemia-related information, such as observed and target Hb (as chosen by the treating clinician), brand and dose of epoetin biosimilar prescribed, and details of any other treatments. Patients were then followed-up at 3 and 6 months. The primary endpoint was Hb response (defined as Hb reaching ≥10 g/dL, an increase of Hb ≥1 g/dL since inclusion visit or reaching physician-defined target Hb, with no blood transfusions in the 3 weeks prior to measurement). Other endpoints included adverse events, achievement of target Hb and associated treatments. Results Overall, 2333 patients >18 years (mean age 66.5 years) with CIA (haemoglobin [Hb] <11 g/dL) in association with solid tumours, lymphoma or myeloma and eligible for biosimilar epoetin treatment were included. 99.9% of patients received epoetin zeta (median dose 30,000 IU/week). Mean baseline Hb was 9.61 g/dL, with 35.6% of patients having moderate anaemia (Hb 8–9.5 g/dL). Hb response was achieved in 81.6% and 86.5% of patients at 3 and 6 months, respectively. Overall mean change in Hb level was 1.52 ± 1.61 and 1.72 ± 1.61 g/dL at 3 and 6 months, respectively. Transfusion and thromboembolic event rates were 9.4% and 2.4% at 3 months, and 5.8% and 1.5% at 6 months, respectively. Conclusions Epoetin zeta was effective and well tolerated in the management of CIA in patients with solid tumours, lymphoma and myeloma. Trial registration Trial registration number: NCT02140736 (date of registration: 14 May 2014). PMID:25011615

  11. Endocrine Profiles, Haematology and Pregnancy Outcomes of Late Pregnant Holstein Dairy Heifers Sired by Bulls Giving a High or Low Incidence of Stillbirth

    PubMed Central

    Kornmatitsuk, B; Dahl, E; Ropstad, E; Beckers, JF; Gustafsson, H; Kindahl, H

    2004-01-01

    The high incidence of stillbirth in Swedish Holstein heifers has increased continuously during the last 15 years to an average of 11% today. The pathological reasons behind the increased incidence of stillbirth are unknown. The present experiment was undertaken to investigate possible causes of stillbirth and to study possible physiological markers for predicting stillbirth. Twenty Swedish Holstein dairy heifers sired by bulls with breeding values for a high risk of stillbirth (n = 12) (experimental group) and a low risk of stillbirth (n = 8) (control group, group B) were selected based on information in the Swedish AI-data base. The experimental group consisted of 2 subgroups of heifers (groups A1 and A2) inseminated with 2 different bulls with 3.5% and 9% higher stillbirth rates than the average, and the control group consisted of heifers pregnant with 5 different bulls with 0%–6% lower stillbirth rates than the average. The bull used for group A1 had also calving difficulties due to large calves as compared to the bull in group A2 showing no calving difficulties. The heifers were supervised from 6–7 months of pregnancy up to birth, and the pregnancies and parturitions were compared between groups regarding hormonal levels, haematology, placental characteristics and calf viability. In group A1, 1 stillborn, 1 weak and 4 normal calves were recorded. In group A2, 2 stillborn and 4 normal calves were registered. All animals in the control group gave birth to a normal living calf without any assistance. The weak calf showed deviating profiles of body temperature, saturated oxygen and heart rates, compared with the normal living calves. No differences of the placentome thickness, measured in vivo by ultrasonography were seen between the groups. The number of leukocytes and differential cell counts in groups A1 and A2 followed the profiles found in the control group. In group A1, a slight decrease of oestrone sulphate (E1SO4) levels was found in the animal delivering a stillborn calf from the first 24-h blood sampling at 6 weeks to the second at 3 weeks prior to delivery, while the levels of E1SO4 at both periods in the animal delivering a weak calf followed the profile in animals delivering a normal living calf. During late pregnancy and at the time of parturition, the levels of E1SO4 and PAGs in animals delivering a stillborn or weak calf (from group A1) followed the normal profiles found in animals delivering a normal living calf. In group A2, low levels of E1SO4 and pregnancy associated glycoproteins (PAGs) over 24 h at both 3 and 6 weeks prior to parturition (<1.5 nmol/L) were recorded in animals delivering a stillborn calf. During late pregnancy and parturition, the levels of E1SO4 and PAGs were slightly lower during 30–50 days prior to delivery and increased with a lower magnitude at the time of parturition. In conclusion, our results indicate that the aetiology behind stillbirth varies depending on the AI-bulls used and is associated with dystocia or low viability of the calves. Deviating profiles of oestrone sulphate (E1SO4) and pregnancy associated glycoproteins (PAGs) in animals delivering a stillborn calf not caused by dystocia were observed, suggesting placental dysfunction as a possible factor. The finding suggests that the analyses of E1SO4 and PAGs could be used for monitoring foetal well-being in animals with a high risk of stillbirth at term. PMID:15535086

  12. Adaptive Evolution Coupled with Retrotransposon Exaptation Allowed for the Generation of a Human-Protein-Specific Coding Gene That Promotes Cancer Cell Proliferation and Metastasis in Both Haematological Malignancies and Solid Tumours: The Extraordinary Case of MYEOV Gene

    PubMed Central

    Papamichos, Spyros I.; Margaritis, Dimitrios; Kotsianidis, Ioannis

    2015-01-01

    The incidence of cancer in human is high as compared to chimpanzee. However previous analysis has documented that numerous human cancer-related genes are highly conserved in chimpanzee. Till date whether human genome includes species-specific cancer-related genes that could potentially contribute to a higher cancer susceptibility remains obscure. This study focuses on MYEOV, an oncogene encoding for two protein isoforms, reported as causally involved in promoting cancer cell proliferation and metastasis in both haematological malignancies and solid tumours. First we document, via stringent in silico analysis, that MYEOV arose de novo in Catarrhini. We show that MYEOV short-isoform start codon was evolutionarily acquired after Catarrhini/Platyrrhini divergence. Throughout the course of Catarrhini evolution MYEOV acquired a gradually elongated translatable open reading frame (ORF), a gradually shortened translation-regulatory upstream ORF, and alternatively spliced mRNA variants. A point mutation introduced in human allowed for the acquisition of MYEOV long-isoform start codon. Second, we demonstrate the precious impact of exonized transposable elements on the creation of MYEOV gene structure. Third, we highlight that the initial part of MYEOV long-isoform coding DNA sequence was under positive selection pressure during Catarrhini evolution. MYEOV represents a Primate Orphan Gene that acquired, via ORF expansion, a human-protein-specific coding potential. PMID:26568894

  13. Cardiovascular, haematological and neurological effects of the venom of the Papua New Guinean small-eyed snake (Micropechis ikaheka) and their neutralisation with CSL polyvalent and black snake antivenoms.

    PubMed

    Tibballs, J; Kuruppu, S; Hodgson, W C; Carroll, T; Hawdon, G; Sourial, M; Baker, T; Winkel, K

    2003-11-01

    Cardiovascular and haematological effects of venom of the small-eyed Snake (Micropechis ikaheka) were examined in ventilated anaesthetised piglets. Neurotoxic effects were examined in chick biventer cervicis nerve-muscle preparations. Immunoreactivity of venom was tested against the monovalent antivenom components in a CSL Ltd Venom Detection Kit. Neutralisation was tested in vivo and in vitro with CSL Ltd polyvalent snake and Black Snake (Pseudechis australis) antivenoms. Venom in 0.1% bovine serum albumin in saline was infused into piglets in doses 1-2000 microg/kg. Pulmonary hypertension (P= 0.0007) and depression of cardiac output (P= 0.002) were observed up to 3 h after 150-160 microg/kg. The concentration of plasma free-haemoglobin increased more than 50-fold, indicating haemolysis. Neither coagulopathy nor thrombocytopenia occurred. Creatine phosphokinase and serum potassium levels did not increase suggesting absence of acute rhabdomyolysis. The venom caused post-synaptic neurotoxicty. Immunoreactivity of venom with Black Snake antivenom was observed at very high venom concentrations. Cardiovascular effects were absent and haemolysis was less after venom was pre-incubated at 37 degrees C for 30 min with polyvalent antivenom. Neutralisation by Black Snake antivenom was less effective. The neurotoxicity was neutralised by polyvalent or Black Snake antivenoms. Human envenomation may be treated with CSL Ltd polyvalent snake antivenom. PMID:14602120

  14. Long-term outcome and prognostic factors of unrelated cord blood transplantation in children with haematological malignancies: a retrospective study using the Spanish Working Party for BMT in Children (GETMON) database.

    PubMed

    Díaz de Heredia, C; González, M; Verdeguer, A; Elorza, I; Rodriguez, A; Martinez, A; Pérez, J M; Badell, I; Gonzalez, M E; Olivé, T; Fernández, J M; Maldonado, M S; Díaz, M A; Sánchez de Toledo, J

    2014-06-01

    Outcomes of unrelated cord blood transplants (UCBT) were assessed in 172 consecutive children, median age 5 years (range: 0.5-18), with haematological malignancies treated at nine Spanish hospitals between February 1996 and April 2009. Data were collected from the Spanish Working Party for Blood and Marrow Transplantation in Children (GETMON) database. ALL was diagnosed in 125 patients, AML in 43 and myelodysplastic syndrome in 4. Myeloid engraftment (ANC⩾0.5 × 10(9)/L) occurred in 87.2% at a median of 22 days and was associated with the total nucleated cell (TNC) dose infused and use of a TT-containing conditioning regimen. Cumulative incidence of relapse was 20% at 1 year post transplant and 29% at 3 years, being higher in patients with a diagnosis of ALL, very high risk disease and GVHD grades 0-1. Cumulative incidence of non-relapse mortality (NRM) was 19% at 100 days post transplant and 39% at 1 year. BU-FLU-TT-ATG-conditioned patients had lower NRM. Disease-free survival (DFS) was 40% at 2 years post transplant (for patients transplanted since 2006). On multivariate analysis, TNC dose infused, AML and BU-FLU-TT-ATG-conditioning regimen increased the probability of DFS. It is of paramount importance to select cord blood units with the highest cell dose. As the BU-FLU-TT-ATG-conditioning regimen was associated with better DFS owing to lower NRM, further prospective studies testing this regimen are warranted. PMID:24614843

  15. The clinical impact of IKZF1 deletions in paediatric B-cell precursor acute lymphoblastic leukaemia is independent of minimal residual disease stratification in Nordic Society for Paediatric Haematology and Oncology treatment protocols used between 1992 and 2013.

    PubMed

    Olsson, Linda; Ivanov Öfverholm, Ingegerd; Norén-Nyström, Ulrika; Zachariadis, Vasilios; Nordlund, Jessica; Sjögren, Helene; Golovleva, Irina; Nordgren, Ann; Paulsson, Kajsa; Heyman, Mats; Barbany, Gisela; Johansson, Bertil

    2015-09-01

    Paediatric B-cell precursor acute lymphoblastic leukaemias (BCP ALL) with IKZF1 deletions (∆IKZF1) are associated with a poor outcome. However, there are conflicting data as to whether ∆IKZF1 is an independent risk factor if minimal residual disease (MRD) and other copy number alterations also are taken into account. We investigated 334 paediatric BCP ALL, diagnosed 1992-2013 and treated according to Nordic Society for Paediatric Haematology and Oncology ALL protocols, with known IKZF1 status based on either single nucleotide polymorphism array (N = 218) or multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification (N = 116) analyses. ∆IKZF1, found in 15%, was associated with inferior 10-year probabilities of event-free (60% vs. 83%; P < 0·001) and overall survival (pOS; 73% vs. 89%; P = 0·001). Adjusting for known risk factors, including white blood cell (WBC) count and MRD, ∆IKZF1 was the strongest independent factor for relapse and death. ∆IKZF1 was present in 27% of cases with non-informative cytogenetics ('BCP-other') and a poor 10-year pOS was particularly pronounced in this group (58% vs. 90%; P < 0·001). Importantly, neither MRD nor WBC count predicted events in the ∆IKZF1-positive cases. Co-occurrence of pseudoautosomal region 1 (PAR1) deletions in Xp22.33/Yp11.32 (P2RY8-CRLF2) and ∆IKZF1 increased the risk of relapse (75% vs. 30% for cases with only ∆IKZF1; P = 0·045), indicating that BCP-other ALL with both P2RY8-CRLF2 and ∆IKZF1 constitutes a particularly high-risk group. PMID:26018335

  16. [Invasive mould disease in haematological patients].

    PubMed

    Ruiz-Camps, Isabel; Jarque, Isidro

    2014-01-01

    Invasive mould infections (IMI) are a persistent problem with high morbidity and mortality rates among patients receiving chemotherapy for hematological malignancies and hematopoietic stem cell transplant recipients. Management of IMI in this setting has become increasingly complex with the advent of new antifungal agents and diagnostic tests, which have resulted in different therapeutic strategies (prophylactic, empirical, pre-emptive, and directed). A proper assessment of the individual risk for IMI appears to be critical in order to use the best prophylactic and therapeutic approach and increase the survival rates. Among the available antifungal drugs, the most frequently used in the hematologic patient are fluconazole, mould-active azoles (itraconazole, posaconazole and voriconazole), candins (anidulafungin, caspofungin and micafungin), and lipid formulations of amphotericin B. Specific recommendations for their use, and criteria for selecting the antifungal agents are discussed in this paper. PMID:25434346

  17. [2013: The Seville document on consensus on the alternatives to allogenic blood transfusion. Update to the Seville document. Spanish Societies of Anaesthesiology (SEDAR), Haematology and Haemotherapy (SEHH), Hospital Pharmacy (SEFH), Critical Care Medicine (SEMICYUC), Thrombosis and Haemostasis (SETH) and Blood Transfusion (SETS)].

    PubMed

    Leal-Noval, S R; Muñoz, M; Asuero, M; Contreras, E; García-Erce, J A; Llau, J V; Moral, V; Páramo, J A; Quintana, M

    2013-01-01

    As allogeneic blood transfusion (ABT) is not harmless, multiple alternatives to TSA (AABT) have emerged, but there is a huge variability with respect to their indications and appropriate use. This variability results from the interplay of a number of factors, which include physicians specialty, knowledge and preferences, degree of anaemia, transfusion policy, and AABT availability. Since the ABBT are not harmless and may not meet costeffectiveness criteria, such avariability is unacceptable. The Spanish Societies of Anaesthesiology (SEDAR), Haematology and Haemotherapy (SEHH), Hospital Pharmacy (SEFH), Critical Care Medicine (SEMICYUC), Thrombosis and Haemostasis (SETH) and Blood Transfusion (SETS) have developed a Consensus Document for the proper use of AABTs. A panel of experts convened by these six Societies have conducted a systematic review of the medical literature and developed the «2013. Seville Document of Consensus on Alternatives to Allogeneic Blood Transfusion», which only considers those AABT aimed to decrease the transfusion of packed red cells. The AABTs are defined as any pharmacological and non-pharmacological measure aimed to decrease the transfusion of of red blood cell concentrates, while preserving the patient safety. For each AABT, the main question is formulated, positively or negatively, as: «Does or does not this particular AABT reduce the transfusion rate?» All the recommendations on the use of AABTs were formulated according to the GRADE (Grades of Recommendation Assessment, Development and Evaluation) methodology. PMID:23789799

  18. Haematological and erythrocyte membrane changes induced by amiodarone, in rats.

    PubMed

    Padmavathy, B; Devraj, N S; Devraj, H

    1992-10-01

    The effect of Amiodarone (AD), a cationic amphiphilic drug, on erythrocytes and leucocytes was studied. Treatment of rats with AD showed a significant decrease in the red cell count and the level of Hemoglobin. Amiodarone altered the fluidity of the erythrocyte membrane followed by a decrease in the activities of membrane bound enzymes like (Na+, K+)-ATPase, Acetylcholine esterase and NADH dehydrogenase. A slight increase in the leucocyte count was also observed in the treated animals. PMID:1337899

  19. [The place of the parents at the haematology day hospital].

    PubMed

    Granjard-Goy, Florence

    2015-01-01

    Over recent years, paediatric departments have slowly opened up to parents who now have a recognised status as partners in their children's care. However, while in theory their place in the hospital is no longer brought into question, in practice some difficulties still arise. PMID:26183099

  20. Cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterases as targets for treatment of haematological malignancies

    PubMed Central

    Lerner, Adam; Epstein, Paul M.

    2005-01-01

    The cAMP signalling pathway has emerged as a key regulator of haematopoietic cell proliferation, differentiation and apoptosis. In parallel, general understanding of the biology of cyclic nucleotide PDEs (phosphodiesterases) has advanced considerably, revealing the remarkable complexity of this enzyme system that regulates the amplitude, kinetics and location of intracellular cAMP-mediated signalling. The development of therapeutic inhibitors of specific PDE gene families has resulted in a growing appreciation of the potential therapeutic application of PDE inhibitors to the treatment of immune-mediated illnesses and haematopoietic malignancies. This review summarizes the expression and function of PDEs in normal haematopoietic cells and the evidence that family-specific inhibitors will be therapeutically useful in myeloid and lymphoid malignancies. PMID:16336197

  1. Cytotoxic T lymphocytes as immune-therapy in haematological practice.

    PubMed

    Leen, Ann M; Heslop, Helen E

    2008-10-01

    Viral infections are a significant cause of morbidity and mortality, particularly in pediatric allogeneic haematopoietic stem cell transplant recipients. Effective therapies are limited and often associated with significant side effects. Adoptive transfer of virus-reactive T cells offers a means of reconstituting antiviral immunity and this approach has been successfully used to prevent and treat cytomegalovirus, Epstein-Barr virus, and adenovirus infections in vivo. This review outlines the clinical trials that have been performed to date, and will describe future initiatives to (a) develop strategies that can increase the breadth of the viruses that can be targeted, and (b) simplify the process to extend this technology to more centers so that cellular therapy to reconstitute immunity can be more widely applied. PMID:18691164

  2. Predictors of parenting stress in patients with haematological cancer.

    PubMed

    Fernandes, Cheryl; Muller, Robert; Rodin, Gary

    2012-01-01

    This study was designed to identify potential determinants of parenting stress in parents with leukemia or lymphoma and with children younger than age 18 years. Participants recruited at a comprehensive cancer center completed self-report measures of parenting stress, attachment style, parenting alliance, depression, and anxiety. Depression was positively correlated with parenting stress. Anxious and avoidant attachment styles, but not the degree of physical distress or the quality of the parenting alliance, significantly predicted parenting stress. These findings underscore the relationship of parenting stress to psychological well-being and the contribution of individual characteristics in parents to this stress. PMID:22269077

  3. Not so benign haematology: anaemia of the elderly

    PubMed Central

    Merchant, Akil A.; Roy, Cindy N.

    2011-01-01

    Summary Developed countries, such as the United Kingdom, are experiencing a change in demographics resulting in the largest proportion of adults over 65 years of age that our health systems have ever experienced. As such, haematologists must be prepared to evaluate and treat anaemia in a more complicated patient population, but sufficient evidence-based guidelines are lacking. Critical next steps that must be taken to ensure the best care of this population include the determination of appropriate haemoglobin concentrations for older adults in light of age, gender, race, and comorbidities; the development of interventional trials that address physical performance outcomes in addition to haemoglobin targets; and translational studies which address the molecular pathogenesis of anaemia in older adults with the most advanced scientific approaches. PMID:22050828

  4. Improving TCR Gene Therapy for Treatment of Haematological Malignancies

    PubMed Central

    Nicholson, Emma; Ghorashian, Sara; Stauss, Hans

    2012-01-01

    Adoptive immunotherapy using TCR gene modified T cells may allow separation of beneficial Graft versus tumour responses from harmful GvHD. Improvements to this include methods to generate high avidity or high affinity TCR, improvements in vector design and reduction in mispairing. Following adoptive transfer, TCR transduced T cells must be able to survive and persist in vivo to give most effective antitumour responses. Central memory or naive T cells have both been shown to be more effective than effector cells at expanding and persisting in vivo. Lymphodepletion may enhance persistence of transferred T cell populations. TCR gene transfer can be used to redirect CD4 helper T cells, and these could be used in combination with CD8+ tumour specific T cells to provide help for the antitumour response. Antigen specific T regulatory T cells can also be generated by TCR gene transfer and could be used to suppress unwanted alloresponses. PMID:22319532

  5. Campylobacter fetus sepsis in an immunocompetent patient with haematological complication

    PubMed Central

    Nagy, Mathias Thomas; Hla, Sann Minn

    2013-01-01

    Campylobacter fetus sepsis is rare, especially among young, immunocompetent patients. We present the case of a 43-year-old man with a history of ulcerative colitis who was diagnosed with C fetus bacteraemia with endovascular manifestation. The patient was found to have a low vitamin K level and a high international normalised ratio, and developed deep vein thrombosis. The patient was fully recovered with oral antibiotic treatment, anticoagulation and supportive therapy. Clinicians should be aware that this type of infection, although extremely rare, can occur even in younger, healthy adults and immediate diagnosis and treatment are required to avert life-threatening complications. PMID:23536648

  6. 'On line' data handling in a routine haematology department.

    PubMed

    Burmester, H B; Crow, G S

    1979-03-01

    The use of a ;stand alone' mini computer, on line, data acquisition system is described utilising a microprocessor as an adjunct to the main central processor to increase data transmission rates. Visual display units (VDU) provide on line flexibility of data input. The system acquires, on line, the Coulter S generated parameters together with the associated patient identification data and other requested tests. Erythrocyte sedimentation rate, platelet count, and B12 and folate results are fed in at will via the VDUs, using rapid entry subroutines. Percentage differential white cell count results and the absolute leucocyte count are calculated by the microprocessor, on line input being facilitated by remote keyboards associated with the VDUs. Total editing of all requests and results is available on all ;current' (unfiled) reports via the VDUs, and this facility includes the entry of film appearances using plus symbols and predetermined comments available against a code number. This editing function is also used to enter all other results that can be made available on the computer-printed report form. The computer system also provides quality control data, immediate printout of Coulter S results outside given limits, cumulative filing for all routine and designated ;priority' results, and a daily alphabetical listing of all patients from whom specimens have been examined together with full blood count, ESR, and platelet results on specimens examined that day. PMID:429594

  7. Cutaneous mast cell tumor (Mastocytoma): Cyto- histopathological and haematological investigations

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Cutaneous mast cell tumours (MCTs) are the most common skin tumours in dogs. Due to the prevalence of canine MCTs and the variable biologic behavior of this disease, accurate prognostication and a thorough understanding of MCT biology are critical for the treatment of this disease. A cytologic diagnosis of mast cell tumor with evidence of prior hemorrhage was made, and the masses were surgically removed. Cytological evaluation of fine-needle aspirates from the cutaneous mass from the axillary comprised many well-differentiated, highly granulated mast cells with moderate numbers of eosinophils. Nuclei were varied in size and shape with high nuclear’to’cytoplasmic ratio, prominent nucleoli, marked atypical and mitotic figures. Microscopically, mass consisted of sheets of neoplastic round cells that formed nonencapsulated nodules in the dermis and infiltrated into the adjacent dermal collagen, and also there was diffuse subcutis invasion of round to pleomorphic tumor cells. Tumor cells had moderate to abundant cytoplasm, round to ovoid nuclei with scattered chromatin, and mitotic figures. In this tumor, cytoplasmic granules showed atypical metachromasia. In addition, eosinophils were scattered among the mast cells at the periphery of the nodules. The presence of eosinophils and the observation, at high magnification, of cells with cytoplasmic metachromatic granules. Invasion of the deep subcutaneous fat or cutaneous muscles were a common feature of grade III tumour. Finally, a diagnosis of grade III cutaneous mast cell tumor was made. Virtual slides The virtual slide(s) of this article can be found here: http://www.diagnosticpathology.diagnomx.eu/vs/4755249151157024. PMID:24444100

  8. Molecular diagnosis of sepsis in neutropenic patients with haematological malignancies.

    PubMed

    Mancini, Nicasio; Clerici, Daniela; Diotti, Roberta; Perotti, Mario; Ghidoli, Nadia; De Marco, Donata; Pizzorno, Beatrice; Emrich, Thomas; Burioni, Roberto; Ciceri, Fabio; Clementi, Massimo

    2008-05-01

    The rapid diagnosis of an infectious cause in the course of fever of unknown origin plays a pivotal role in the correct management of neutropenic patients. In this study, blood samples from febrile oncohaematological patients were tested using a novel commercial real-time PCR assay (LightCycler SeptiFast; Roche Molecular Systems) and blood culture (BacT/Alert 3D; bioMérieux). Twenty-one (20.4 %) and 34 (33 %) of the 103 samples under study tested positive by blood culture and PCR, respectively. The analysis of concordance evidenced a low correlation between the two approaches (83 %), mainly due to samples that tested negative by culture but positive using the molecular approach. Among 14 discordant cases negative by culture but positive by PCR, 12 were observed in sequential samples of patients with initial concordant results on samples drawn before the administration of a specific antimicrobial therapy. Moreover, DNA of a fastidious organism, Aspergillus fumigatus, not easily detectable by the cultural approach was rapidly detected in the two remaining discordant cases. Overall, the characteristics featured by the molecular method could be of interest in the development of new algorithms for the diagnosis of sepsis in critical patients. PMID:18436593

  9. Targeting the ubiquitin proteasome system in haematological malignancies.

    PubMed

    Crawford, Lisa J; Irvine, Alexandra E

    2013-11-01

    The ubiquitin proteasome system (UPS) plays a central role in cellular protein homeostasis through the targeted destruction of damaged/misfolded proteins and regulatory proteins that control critical cellular functions. The UPS comprises a sequential series of enzymatic activities to covalently attach ubiquitin to proteins to target them for degradation through the proteasome. Aberrancies within this system have been associated with transformation and tumourigenesis and thus, the UPS represents an attractive target for the development of anti-cancer therapies. The use of the first-in-class proteasome inhibitor, bortezomib, in the treatment of Plasma Cell Myeloma and Mantle Cell Lymphoma has validated the UPS as a therapeutic target. Following on its success, efforts are focused on the development of second-generation proteasome inhibitors and small molecule inhibitors of other components of the UPS. This review will provide an overview of the UPS and discuss current and novel therapies targeting the UPS. PMID:24183816

  10. Clinical applications of molecular haematology: flow cytometry in leukaemias and myelodysplastic syndromes.

    PubMed

    Dalal, Bakul I

    2007-08-01

    Flow cytometry is semi-automated study of antigen profile of cells using the Scatchard principle of antigen-antibody binding and fluorochrome-based detection systems. Flow cytometric evaluation of cellular proteomics has become an integral part of the laboratory diagnosis and classification of haematopoietic neoplasms. Recent technical advances in lasers, monoclonal antibodies, fluorochromes, and computer-based color compensation algorithms have expanded the usefulness of flow cytometry. Detection of minimal residual disease by flow cytometry in leukaemias and lymphomas is incorporated in many treatment protocols. Finding of aberrant maturation pattern of granulocytes offers a sensitive screening tool for early diagnosis of myelodysplastic syndromes. Detailed proteomic analysis of leukemias is helping more precise prognostic and biological stratification. PMID:18019799

  11. Haematological manifestations of arthrogryposis-renal dysfunction-cholestasis (ARC) syndrome: a case report.

    PubMed

    Saadah, Omar I; Bokhari, Bayan E; Alshaeri, Taghreed M; Jastaniah, Wasil

    2013-03-01

    Arthrogryposis multiplex congenita, renal dysfunction, and cholestasis (ARC) syndrome is a rare, fatal, multisystem disorder. Bleeding problems, which occur spontaneously and post organ biopsies, have been reported in these patients. We report the case of an infant who had life-threatening spontaneous nasal bleeding. A detailed assessment of her platelet function and morphology is presented. PMID:23622807

  12. [Cryptosporidiosis in newborn calves in Ankara region: clinical, haematological findings and treatment with Lasalocid-NA].

    PubMed

    Sahal, M; Karaer, Z; Yasa Duru, S; Cizmeci, S; Tanyel, B

    2005-06-01

    In the first part of the present study, a total of 109 faeces samples collected from calves suffering from diarrhoea were examined for Cryptosporidium parvum oocytes and 39 (35.8%) of them were found to be positive. On the basis of oocyte counts, 14 (36%) samples were assessed as mildly infected and 25 (64%) samples as heavily infected. The occurrence of the disease was more common in winter (56.4%) than during other seasons (autuma 0%, summer 15.4% spring 28.2%. In the present study, the ionophore polyetherantibiotic Lasalocid-Na, that is licensed as a feed additive (Bovatec, 15% Lasalocid-Na, Roche AG) in Turkey, was administered to 11 calves naturally infected with Cryptosporidium and its therapeutic effect was evaluated. Lasalocid-Na (8 mg/ kg BW) was given once daily for 3 days added to the milk. The clinical parameters of infected calves were evaluated before and 3 days after the treatment in 24 hour intervals. The oocyst counts of faeces of calves with cryptosporidiosis were between 15 x 10(6) and 96 x 10(6)/mL before treatment. No oocystes were found in faecal samples of 3 calves (27.3%) after 48 hours and 4 (40%) calves after 72 hours of treatment, respectively. The number of oocytes in the faeces of the remaining calves varied between 90 and 1.2 x 10(6)/mL during the respective period. The number of oocystes before treatment was significantly higher than the number of oocytes after treatment. One of the calves died 56 h after the first treatment despite the treatment. The pH of venous blood was decreased prior to treatment as expected. The lowest pH was 6.83, the lowest bicarbonate concentration was 3.80 mmol/l and the lowest base excess was -31.2 mmol/l. After the treatment, pH, pCO2, HCO3- and BE values of the venous blood increased significantly and reached physiological values before discharge. The differences between the values assessed before the treatment and at the 2nd, 3rd, and 4th sampling time were statistically significant. Number of leucocyte and haemoglobin concentration before the treatment were significantly higher than the values after treatment (p < 0.01). These values returned back to physiological ranges 72 hours after first treatment. Lasalocid-Na was rather well tolerated. Side effects such as the decline of the suckling reflex and intoxication symptoms in respect to present administration form and dosage were found only in one calf (9%). Treatment procedure in the present study with Lasalocid-Na was found to be suitable in combination with an adequate infusion therapy for the treatment of calves on farms with problems related to cryptosporidiosis. Although the use of Lasolacid-Na for the treatment of Cryptosporidium infection in the EU is banned, it might be used as an alternative drug outside of the EU since it has a successful effect for preventing reinfections. PMID:16028484

  13. Capsaicin-Induced Death of Human Haematological Malignant Cell Lines Is Independent of TRPV1 Activation.

    PubMed

    Omari, Sofia A; Adams, Murray J; Kunde, Dale A; Geraghty, Dominic P

    2016-01-01

    The effect of the plant-derived vanilloid, capsaicin (CAP), on the metabolic activity of THP-1, U266B1 and U937 hematological malignancy cells was determined. CAP reduced metabolic activity in a concentration-dependent manner in the three cell lines. A biphasic effect was observed on THP-1 cells (EC50: IC50 (95% CI) 32.9 (19.9-54.3)/219 (144-246) µmol/l). U266B1 cells were more resistant to CAP than THP-1 and U937. Metabolic activity was significantly inhibited by CAP in U937 compared to U266B1 cells (IC50: 197 versus 431 µmol/l, respectively, p < 0.008). Transient receptor potential vanilloid-1 (TRPV1) and CB1 antagonists (SB452533 and AM251, respectively) suppressed the CAP-induced increase in THP-1 cell metabolic activity (p < 0.001). AM251 and SB452533 appeared to act as partial agonists and displayed a synergistic effect with CAP in U937 cells. CAP inhibits the metabolic activity of malignant hematological cells through non-TRPV1-dependent mechanisms. PMID:27160991

  14. Haematologic alterations caused by Ipomoea carnea in experimental poisoning of guinea pig.

    PubMed

    García, Enrique N; Aguirre, María V; Gimeno, Eduardo J; Rios, Elvio E; Acosta, Ofelia C; Cholich, Luciana A

    2015-10-01

    Ipomoea carnea subsp. fistulosa (Convolvulaceae) causes poisoning of goats, sheep and cattle in many tropical and subtropical countries. The pathophysiology of this poisoning mainly involves an abnormal glycoprotein metabolism. The aim of this study was to describe the potential toxicity of I. carnea in a guinea pig model through its effect on hematopoiesis in a time course study of 40 days. Experimental poisoning was achieved by feeding animals with "small balls" prepared with milled leaves of I. carnea mixed with commercial crushed pellets for rodents. Hematologic and biochemical parameters, bone marrow and spleencellularities, histopathologic evaluations and lectin-histochemistrywere performed during the scheduled time of the study.The treatment with "small balls" caused significant changes in the weight of spleen, a notable decrease in peripheral red blood cells, and concomitantwith morphological and histopathologicalalterationsin hematopoietic tissues. Overall, the present study suggested that 20 days ofthis treatmentcouldbe enough to develop bone marrow hypoplasia and vacuolation of white cells of spleen, blood and lymph nodes with a transient erythropoietic contribution of the splenic niche.Moreover, this work provides a cheap and simple method for detecting preclinical cases of intoxication by I. carnea in livestock. PMID:26208869

  15. Detection of EPO doping and blood doping: the haematological module of the Athlete Biological Passport.

    PubMed

    Schumacher, Yorck Olaf; Saugy, Martial; Pottgiesser, Torben; Robinson, Neil

    2012-11-01

    The increase of the body's capacity to transport oxygen is a prime target for doping athletes in all endurance sports. For this pupose, blood transfusions or erythropoiesis stimulating agents (ESA), such as erythropoietin, NESP, and CERA are used. As direct detection of such manipulations is difficult, biomarkers that are connected to the haematopoietic system (haemoglobin concentration, reticulocytes) are monitored over time (Athlete Biological Passport (ABP)) and analyzed using mathematical models to identify patterns suspicious of doping. With this information, athletes can either be sanctioned directly based on their profile or targeted with conventional doping tests. Key issues for the appropriate use of the ABP are correct targeting and use of all available information (e.g. whereabouts, cross sectional population data) in a forensic manner. Future developments of the passport include the correction of all concentration-based variables for shifts in plasma volume, which might considerably increase sensitivity. New passport markers from the genomic, proteomic, and metabolomic level might add further information, but need to be validated before integration into the passport procedure. A first assessment of blood data of federations that have implemented the passport show encouraging signs of a decreased blood-doping prevalence in their athletes, which adds scientific credibility to this innovative concept in the fight against ESA- and blood doping. PMID:22374784

  16. Effect of hydration on some orthostatic and haematological responses to head-up tilt

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harrison, M. H.; Hill, L. C.; Spaul, W. A.; Greenleaf, J. E.

    1986-01-01

    Experiments were undertaken to determine the effects of hydration status on: (1) orthostatic responses, and on (2) relative changes in intravascular volume and protein content, during 70 deg head-up tilt (HUT). Six men underwent 45 min of HUT, preceded by 45 min supine, first dehydrated, and again 105 min later after rehydration with water. Heart rate was consistently lower following rehydration (p less than 0.01), while supine diastolic pressure was higher (p less than 0.02). Systolic pressure fell during dehydrated HUT (p less than 0.01), but not during rehydrated HUT. Postural haemoconcentration, which was reduced after rehydration (p less than 0.001), was accompanied by a decrease in intravascular albumin content (p less than 0.05). Two subjects experienced severe presyncopal symptoms during dehydrated HUT, but not during rehydrated HUT. Thus, it appears that rehydration after fluid restriction improves orthostatic tolerance. Furthermore, extravascular hydration status may be more important than intravascular hydration status in determining orthostatic tolerance.

  17. Heterozygous beta-thalassaemia with normal haemoglobin pattern. Haematologic, haemoglobin and biosynthesis study of 4 families.

    PubMed

    Silvestroni, E; Bianco, I; Graziani, B; Carboni, C

    1978-01-01

    Thalassaemia with normal levels of Hb A2 and Hb F and with an alpha/beta ratio higher than 1 is described in 4 families. 3 of these families show direct or indirect signs of the presence of the delta-thalassaemia gene along with the beta-thalassaemia gene. The fourth family leaves the question as to whether there is a single mutation of the deltabeta tract or a beta + delta-thalassaemia in coupling unanswered. The necessity of knowing of the existence of this thalassaemia which conceals the presence of a beta-thalassaemia gene, is stressed, above all in view of the danger that mating between a carrier of this thalassaemia and a carrier of classical beta-thalassaemia could result in the birth of children with Cooley's disease. PMID:97891

  18. Haematological characteristics predicting susceptibility for ascites. 2. High haematocrit values in juvenile chickens.

    PubMed

    Scheele, C W; van Der Klis, J D; Kwakernaak, C; Buys, N; Decuypere, E

    2003-07-01

    1. Male broilers of two different genetic stocks, a pure broiler sire line (A) and commercially available Ross broilers (B), were used to study the effect of differences in haematocrit values in 12-d-old chickens on the development of ascitic symptoms. Body weight gain (BWG), feed intake (FI) and feed conversion ratio (FRC) were measured from 2 to 5 weeks of age. Mortality was recorded from 2 to 6 weeks. The birds were kept at a low ambient temperature to stimulate the incidence of ascites. 2. From each stock 32 birds with the highest (High Ht) and 32 birds with the lowest (Low Ht) haematocrit values in venous blood were selected at 12 d of age for an examination on susceptibility for the ascites syndrome at 5 weeks. 3. At 2 weeks 448 birds per stock (including High Ht and Low Ht birds) were allotted to 32 floor pens (1 High Ht and 1 Low Ht in each pen). Venous blood samples were taken weekly in High Ht and Low Ht birds for haematocrit measurements and at week 5 also thyroid hormone (T3, T4) concentrations in plasma were measured. At 5 weeks all High Ht and Low Ht birds were examined post-mortem and arterial pressure index, heart weight, lung weight and liver weight (all relative to body weight) were recorded. High values for arterial pressure index, relative heart and liver weights and low values for relative lung weights and plasma thyroid hormone were considered to be indicators for ascites susceptibility. 4. Stock A, with the highest ascites mortality, had lower values for BWG and FCR than stock B. Throughout, a clear difference in Ht values between High Ht and Low Ht birds was maintained. No significant effects of 12-d haematocrit values were found on the incidence of ascitic symptoms until week 5. High Ht values tended to correlate with low relative lung weights and low plasma T3 concentrations in High Ht birds. 5. Within the groups of selected birds, there was an effect of stock on ascitic symptoms (arterial pressure index, relative heart weight and T3 values) at week 5. This is consistent with a higher ascites mortality in flock A than in flock B, over the whole period up to 6 weeks. Until 4 weeks both A and B were similar with respect to mean Ht values of High Ht and Low Ht groups. After 4 weeks Ht values were very high in the High Ht birds of stock A, possibly as a result of the susceptibility for ascites of stock A. There was a significant interaction between stock and Ht values on the ascites-related variable arterial pressure index. Only in stock A was high arterial pressure at 5 weeks related to high Ht values at d 12. 6. Overall it was concluded that a high Ht in blood of juvenile chickens has limited practical value in predicting incidence of ascites at 5 weeks of age. PMID:12964633

  19. Adoptive T-cell therapy for fungal infections in haematology patients

    PubMed Central

    Deo, Shivashni S; Gottlieb, David J

    2015-01-01

    The prolonged immune deficiency resulting from haematopoietic stem cell transplant and chemotherapy predisposes to a high risk of invasive fungal infections. Despite the recent advances in molecular diagnostic testing, early initiation of pre-emptive antifungal therapy and the use of combination pharmacotherapy, mortality from invasive mould infections remain high among recipients of allogeneic stem cell transplant. The increasing incidences of previously rare and drug-resistant strains of fungi present a further clinical challenge. Therefore, there is a need for novel strategies to combat fungal infections in the immunocompromised. Adoptive therapy using in vitro-expanded fungus-specific CD4 cells of the Th-1 type has shown clinical efficacy in murine studies and in a small human clinical study. Several techniques for the isolation and expansion of fungus-specific T cells have been successfully applied. Here we discuss the incidence and changing patterns of invasive fungal diseases, clinical evidence supporting the role of T cells in fungal immunity, methods to expand fungus-specific T cells in the laboratory and considerations surrounding the use of T cells for fungal immunotherapy. PMID:26366286

  20. The treatment of bovine dermatophilosis and its effect on some haematological and blood chemical parameters.

    PubMed

    Hamid, M E; Musa, M S

    2009-12-01

    In this study, the authors evaluated parenteral treatment of zebu cattle, with naturally and experimentally induced bovine dermatophilosis, in western Sudan, using four different antibiotic treatments. In terms of recovery rate, weight gain, avoiding relapse and preventing death, gentamycin was found to be the most effective treatment, followed by a combination of penicillin and streptomycin and, finally, long-acting oxytetracycline. However, enrofloxacin was not successful. A significant improvement in the red blood cell count was noticed among cattle treated with penicillin-streptomycin (p = 0.021) and gentamycin (p = 0.029). All treated cattle, except those treated with enrofloxacin, showed a significant improvement in mean corpuscular haemoglobin concentration (p = 0.021); mean corpuscular volume (p = 0.021), and white blood cell count (p < 0.021). Significant improvements were observed among treated cattle in their total levels of protein, calcium (p = 0.021) and cholesterol (p < 0.05), when compared to untreated cattle infected with Dermatophilus congolensis. This study recommends gentamycin as a drug of choice for the parenteral treatment of dermatophilosis. Treatment was not only effective in early, mild cases but also useful among moderately and heavily affected cattle. According to the observations of the authors, when no intervention took place, the condition of moderately and heavily affected cattle deteriorated and/or resulted in death. PMID:20462170

  1. Haematological values and parasitic infections in school children in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, M M

    1991-12-01

    A total of 1426 apparently healthy Saudi children, were subjected to clinical and laboratory investigations of blood, urine and stools. Lower means were observed for Hb concentration, Hot ratio, RBC and WBC counts. The MCV was in the range of Western levels. Of 1343 stool specimens 156 (11.6%) were positive for intestinal parasites (5.4% pathogenic and 6.3% commensals). The higher infection rate of commensals strongly suggests the presence of potentially infectious environmental sources and a public health problem. Giardia lamblia was the most common pathogenic parasite 3.6% and its high infection rate seemed to be associated with lower Hb level. So screening for parasitic infections especially among anaemic children is necessary as a part of the general health care programme. PMID:1765697

  2. Evaluation of an alternative posaconazole prophylaxis regimen in haematological malignancy patients receiving concomitant stress ulcer prophylaxis.

    PubMed

    Ross, Ashley L; Slain, Douglas; Cumpston, Aaron; Bryant, Alexander M; Hamadani, Mehdi; Craig, Michael

    2012-12-01

    Posaconazole (PCZ) is approved for fungal prophylaxis in high-risk neutropenic patients. Unfortunately, PCZ oral absorption is affected by nutritional intake and drug interactions with proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) and possibly histamine-2 antagonists (H2As). Cancer patients frequently receive stress ulcer prophylaxis (SUP) with PPIs or H2As. Recommended PCZ steady-state concentrations (C(ss)) are difficult to achieve using the traditional dosing regimen of 200 mg thrice daily. Given the paucity of guidance on PCZ dosing in patients receiving SUP, this study evaluated attainment of targeted PCZ C(ss) (0.5 μg/mL and 0.7 μg/mL) with two different PCZ dosing regimens when SUP was given. Twenty patients received the traditional dosing and 34 patients received 400 mg twice daily. Median PCZ C(ss) levels were 0.37 μg/mL and 0.32 μg/mL with the traditional and 400 mg twice-daily regimens, respectively (P=0.809). When stratified by type of SUP, H2A patients had a median PCZ C(ss) of 0.39 μg/mL, whereas PPI patients had a median PCZ C(ss) of 0.32 μg/mL. Despite having more patients with PCZ C(ss) >0.5 μg/mL in the H2A group, a statistical significance was not found (P=0.368). Multiple logistic regression did show that increasing age [odds ratio (OR)=1.08, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.03-1.19] and use of H2As over PPIs (OR=6.8, 95% CI 1.22-55.16] was associated with PCZ target attainment. These results suggest that PCZ target attainment is similar with either PCZ regimen but that there may be less of an interaction with H2As compared with PPIs. PMID:23068599

  3. Notch signalling in T cell lymphoblastic leukaemia/lymphoma and other haematological malignancies

    PubMed Central

    Aster, Jon C.; Blacklow, Stephen C.; Pear, Warren S.

    2010-01-01

    Notch receptors participate in a highly conserved signalling pathway that regulates normal development and tissue homeostasis in a context- and dose-dependent manner. Deregulated Notch signalling has been implicated in many diseases, but the clearest example of a pathogenic role is found in T cell lymphoblastic leukaemia/lymphoma (T-LL), in which the majority of human and murine tumours have acquired mutations that lead to aberrant increases in Notch1 signalling. Remarkably, it appears that the selective pressure for Notch mutations is virtually unique among cancers to T-LL, presumably reflecting a special context-dependent role for Notch in normal T cell progenitors. Nevertheless, there are some recent reports suggesting that Notch signalling has subtle yet important roles in other forms of hematologic malignancy as well. Here, we review the role of Notch signalling in various blood cancers, focusing on T-LL with an eye toward targeted therapeutics. PMID:20967796

  4. Haematological changes in the laboratory rat Rattus norvegicus infected with Echinostoma caproni (Trematoda: Echinostomatidae).

    PubMed

    Muñoz-Antoli, C; Cortés, A; Torres, D; Esteban, J G; Toledo, R

    2015-09-01

    To study possible indirect effects of the infection with intestinal helminths, 12 Rattus norvegicus (Wistar) were each experimentally exposed to 100 metacercariae of Echinostoma caproni, and blood samples were taken weekly up to 4 weeks post-exposure for comparison with control rats. Values of haematocrit (HCT), red blood cells (RBC), platelets (PLT), white blood cells (WBC), haemoglobin (HGB) and haematimatrix indices, and mean corpuscular haemoglobin concentrations (MCHC) were determined. In addition, leucocyte counts, including lymphocytes, neutrophils, monocytes, eosinophils and basophils were analysed. These parameters, including the leucocyte counts, showed no significant differences, except for MCHC at 4 weeks post-exposure. The present results indicate that in rats infected with E. caproni, although eosinophilia did not significantly increase, a significant reduction in MCHC was associated with an increase in the number of RBC. PMID:24893315

  5. Acute megakaryoblastic leukaemia: a clinico-haematological profile of five cases.

    PubMed

    Shukla, Jyoti; Rai, Sunita; Singh, V P

    2004-04-01

    Herein we are presenting the clinical, morphological and cytochemical characteristics of five cases of acute megakaryoblastic leukaemia (AML-M7) seen by us over a period of five years (Jan 1996-Dec 2000). Morphological assessment revealed marked polymorphism of blast cells and platelets both in the peripheral blood and bone marrow smears in all cases. Size of the blast cells ranged from very small to very large multinucleated cells, with variable chromatin pattern and number of nucleoli. More differentiated megakaryocytic cells showing cytoplasmic blebs, protrusions and platelet budding with bizarre platelet morphology were characteristic features suggesting the diagnosis. Cytochemical stains like myeloperoxidase, sudan black and PAS were positive in 5-15% of blast cell. Coagulation studies revealed a normal coagulation profile, whereas platelet studies showed marked impairment in aggregation of platelets with ADP and adrenalin with a normal PF-3 availability. PMID:16295495

  6. [Wrong administration of methotrexate can lead to fatal haematological complications in elderly patients].

    PubMed

    Christensen, Anders Mark; Thagaard, Mikkel Svankjær; Stentoft, Jesper

    2013-02-11

    We present four cases of life-threatening methotrexate intoxications of patients with rheumatological disease. In two of the cases, the direct cause of intoxication was accidentally daily administration of the drug instead of weekly. The patients presented with uncharacteristic symptoms, including nausea, mucositis and fever. All of them had pancytopenia, and despite therapy with broad spectrum antibiotics three patients died in a state of septic shock. These cases demonstrate the importance of adequate communication between health-care professionals, who are involved in the administration of methotrexate and in particular it emphazises that methotrexate should be administrated as weekly doses. PMID:23402255

  7. Association of genotoxic effects of arsenic with haematological malignancy in West Bengal.

    PubMed

    Paul, Sonali; Chakraborty, Tulika; Halder, Ajanta; Bandopadhyay, Debasis; Chaudhuri, Utpal; De, Madhusnata

    2011-02-01

    Arsenic is a naturally occurring metalloid that has been associated with increased incidence of human cancers in certain highly exposed populations. This present work aimed to study whether arsenic plays any role in the increased incidence of blood cancer among residents of West Bengal, India, which is one of the worst arsenic-affected areas of the world. Our study group included both blood cancer patients and age-, sex-matched healthy controls. We studied the arsenic concentration in the hair and nail samples of our study group. We found significantly higher arsenic concentration in the biological tissues of patients, which also correlated with their greater incidence of chromosomal aberrations. Thus, arsenic may act as a predisposing factor for blood cancer. PMID:20385706

  8. Case 35: an unusual haematological neoplasm characterized by cells with cytoplasmic tails.

    PubMed

    Kassam, Shireen; Rice, Alexandra; Morilla, Ricardo; Bain, Barbara J

    2007-06-01

    A middle aged Northern European man presented with a submental lymph node and was found on imaging to have generalized lymphadenopathy. There was bone marrow infiltration by small apparently lymphoid cells, many with cytoplasmic tails; these cells were CD56(+) and weakly CD4(+). A provisional diagnosis was confirmed by further immunophenotyping. PMID:17577785

  9. Second cancers and late mortality in Australian children treated by allogeneic HSCT for haematological malignancy.

    PubMed

    Nelson, A S; Ashton, L J; Vajdic, C M; Le Marsney, R E; Daniels, B; Nivison-Smith, I; Wilcox, L; Dodds, A J; O'Brien, T A

    2015-02-01

    We examined risk of second cancer and late mortality in a population-based Australian cohort of 717 pediatric allogeneic stem cell transplant (HSCT) recipients treated for a malignant disease during 1982-2007. Record linkage with population-based death and cancer registries identified 17 second cancers at a median of 7.9 years post HSCT; thyroid cancer being the most common malignancy (n=8). The cumulative incidence of second cancer was 8.7% at follow-up, and second cancers occurred 20 times more often than in the general population (standardised incidence ratio 20.3, 95% confidence interval (CI)=12.6-32.7). Transplantation using radiation-based conditioning regimens was associated with increased second cancer risk. A total of 367 patients survived for at least 2 years post HSCT and of these 44 (12%) died at a median of 3.1 years after HSCT. Relapse was the most common cause of late mortality (n=32). The cumulative incidence of late mortality was 14.7%. The observed rate of late mortality was 36 times greater than in the matched general population (standardised mortality ratio 35.9, 95% CI=26.7-48.3). Recipients who relapsed or who had radiation-based conditioning regimens were at higher risk of late mortality. Second cancers and late mortality continue to be a risk for pediatric patients undergoing HSCT, and these results highlight the need for effective screening and survivorship programs. PMID:24962016

  10. Haematology and Plasma Biochemistry of Wild Black Flying-Foxes, (Pteropus alecto) in Queensland, Australia

    PubMed Central

    McMichael, Lee; Edson, Daniel; McLaughlin, Amanda; Mayer, David; Kopp, Steven; Meers, Joanne; Field, Hume

    2015-01-01

    This paper establishes reference ranges for hematologic and plasma biochemistry values in wild Black flying-foxes (Pteropus alecto) captured in South East Queensland, Australia. Values were found to be consistent with those of other Pteropus species. Four hundred and forty-seven animals were sampled over 12 months and significant differences were found between age, sex, reproductive and body condition cohorts in the sample population. Mean values for each cohort fell within the determined normal adult reference range, with the exception of elevated levels of alkaline phosphatase in juvenile animals. Hematologic and biochemistry parameters of injured animals showed little or no deviation from the normal reference values for minor injuries, while two animals with more severe injury or abscessation showed leucocytosis, anaemia, thrombocytosis, hyperglobulinemia and hypoalbuminemia. PMID:25938493

  11. Haematological findings in healthy and sick captive rosy flamingos (Phoenicopterus ruber ruber).

    PubMed

    Hawkey, C; Hart, M G; Samour, H J; Knight, J A; Hutton, R E

    1984-04-01

    Full blood counts and fibrinogen estimations were carried out on 36 clinically normal adult Rosy flamingos (21 males, 15 females) and six juveniles (sex uncertain). No significant sex differences were found but the haemoglobin levels, red cell counts, packed cell volumes and mean cell haemoglobin concentrations were lower and the white cell counts higher in juveniles than in adults. Reference values obtained from the normal birds were used as a basis for assessing the results of blood counts on nine birds showing a variety of abnormal clinical conditions. Heterophilia occurred in individuals with infections, chronic renal lesions, haemorrhage and suspected thrombosis. In one case, morphologically abnormal heterophils were present. A bird with carcinoma and peritonitis showed heteropenia. Several birds had hypochromic, microcytic red cells and severe hypochromic microcytic anaemia was found in a bird with an organising abdominal haematoma associated with chronic renal pathology. Several of the cases also had thrombocytosis and raised fibrinogen levels. PMID:18766834

  12. A Rare Case of Transfusion Transmission of Hepatitis A Virus to Two Patients with Haematological Disease

    PubMed Central

    da Silva, Suely Gonçalves Cordeiro; Leon, Luciane Almeida Amado; Alves, Gilda; Brito, Selma Magalhães; Sandes, Valcieny de Souza; Lima, Magda Maria Adorno Ferreira; Nogueira, Marta Colares; Tavares, Rita de Cássia Barbosa da Silva; Dobbin, Jane; Apa, Alexandre; de Paula, Vanessa Salete; Oliveira, Jaqueline Mendes de Oliveira; Pinto, Marcelo Alves; Ferreira Jr, Orlando da Costa; Motta, Iara de Jesus Ferreira

    2016-01-01

    Summary Background This paper describes the transmission of hepatitis A virus (HAV) to two blood recipients from a healthy donor that later presented to the blood bank with jaundice. Methods The RNA of HAV was detected by qualitative nested reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (nested RT-PCR) and quantified by real-time RT-PCR. HAV RNA samples were genotyped by direct sequencing of PCR products. A sequence from a fragment of 168 bp from the VP1/2A HAV region was used to construct a phylogenetic tree. Case Report A 31-year-old male donor accepted for donation of a whole blood unit returned to the blood bank with clinical jaundice 20 days after donation. His serological and NAT tests were negative for HBV and HCV. Serological tests for HAV IgM and IgG were negative on donation sample but positive on follow-up sample, confirming donor's HAV acute infection. Both recipients of red blood cells (R1) and platelet concentrate (R2) from the same implicated donation were HAV IgM-negative and IgG-positive. Qualitative PCR was positive on samples from all three individuals and phylogenetic analysis of viruses proved HAV transmission to the two recipients of blood products. HAV viral load on donor follow-up sample and the platelet recipient was 1.3 and 1.5 × 103 IU/ml, respectively. The RBC recipient, also infected by HCV, was undergoing bone marrow transplantation and died from fulminant hepatitis, 26 days after the implicated HAV transfusion. Conclusion The blood donor, a garbage collector, spontaneously returned to the blood bank when developing jaundice. This highlights the importance of donor education to immediately report to blood banks of any signs and symptoms related to infectious disease developed after blood donation. The fact that one immunocompromised patient with HCV infection died from fulminant hepatitis after receiving a HAV-contaminated platelet transfusion underpins the importance of a HAV vaccination program for these group of patients. PMID:27226795

  13. [The role of the nurse and child health nurse in a haematology day hospital].

    PubMed

    Perray, Stéphanie; Costes, Élodie; Héritier, Sébastien

    2015-01-01

    The paediatric haemato-oncology nurse and the child health nurse in a day hospital have specific technical skills and in-depth knowledge in order to be able to provide global care for children with leukaemia. Close collaboration between the different professionals working in this care unit is essential. PMID:26183096

  14. Alfred Francois Donné (1801-78): a pioneer of microscopy, microbiology and haematology.

    PubMed

    Diamantis, Aristidis; Magiorkinis, Emmanouil; Androutsos, George

    2009-05-01

    Alfred François Donné is widely known in the scientific community as the discoverer of Trichomonas vaginalis, since he was the first to illustrate the parasite that later was recognized to cause vaginal infections. However, his other, less-known findings are equally important: he was also the inventor of the photoelectric microscope, with the assistance of his student Léon Foucault, as well as the first to apply photography to microscopic preparations (Daguerreotype). His research in microscopy extended to almost all human fluids that could be investigated and culminated in his famous Atlas, which was illustrated with numerous photographs. Donné was also the first to describe the microscopic appearances of leukaemia based on blood preparations acquired from patients. Finally, his work in the hygiene of child upbringing and nutrition is very significant. PMID:19401511

  15. Recommendations of the International Council for Standardization in Haematology for Ethylenediaminetetraacetic Acid Anticoagulation of Blood for Blood Cell Counting and Sizing. International Council for Standardization in Haematology: Expert Panel on Cytometry.

    PubMed

    1993-10-01

    Of the three ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) salts used for anticoagulation of blood specimens for hematologic testing, potassium salts are the most readily soluble. Tripotassium EDTA is dispensed as a liquid and thus causes a slight dilution of the specimen. This salt also has been shown to affect the red blood cell size more at increased concentrations and on storage than the dipotassium salt. Therefore, dipotassium EDTA is recommended as the anticoagulant of choice in specimen collection for blood cell counting and sizing. The amount of dipotassium EDTA used is 1.5-2.2 mg (3.7-5.4 mumol) per milliliter of blood. PMID:8213631

  16. The Effects of Exposure to Petrol Vapours on Growth, Haematological Parameters and Oxidative Markers in Sprague-Dawley Male Rats

    PubMed Central

    ABUBAKAR, Murtala Bello; ABDULLAH, Wan Zaidah; SULAIMAN, Siti Amrah; ANG, Boon Suen

    2015-01-01

    Background: Petrol is known to be hazardous to human health and is associated with various health effects, such as haematotoxicity and oxidative stress. Although Malaysia has adopted the European fuel quality standards in recent years in order to reduce petroleum pollutants and to improve air quality, gasoline with research octane number 95 (RON95), believed to contain benzene and other toxic substances, is still widely used all over the country. This study assessed the effect of RON95 gasoline on haemtological parameters of rats after 11 weeks of exposure. Methods: A total of 16 male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into two groups: control (exposed to ambient air daily) and gasoline exposed (exposed to petrol fumes at 11.13 ± 1.1cm3/h for 6h daily, 6 days/week) groups. Body weight was monitored daily. At the end of 11 weeks, the rats were sacrificed, bone marrow was extracted for cytological examination, and blood samples were collected for a full blood picture examination, full blood counts and oxidative markers. Results: The results show that gasoline inhalation was associated with a significant (P < 0.05) reduction in the rate of weight gain and a reduction in mean corpuscular haemoglobin concentration and red cell distribution width. It was also observed that the inhalation of gasoline was associated with changes in the nuclei of megakaryocytes, hence causing an increase in the percentage of abnormal megakaryocytes with detached nuclei, hypo-lobulation and/or disintegration. However, the inhalation of gasoline did not cause significant changes in oxidative markers in the erythrocytes. Conclusion: This study shows that 11 weeks of inhaling RON95 petrol vapours caused adverse effects on weight gain, blood cell indices and bone marrow megakaryocytes, but did not cause significant changes in oxidative markers in erythrocytes. The definitive effects of these changes on health require further confirmation. PMID:25892947

  17. Clinical and haematological risk factors for cerebral macrovasculopathy in a sickle cell disease newborn cohort: a prospective study.

    PubMed

    Sommet, Julie; Alberti, Corinne; Couque, Nathalie; Verlhac, Suzanne; Haouari, Zinedine; Mohamed, Damir; François, Martine; Missud, Florence; Holvoet, Laurent; Elmaleh, Monique; Ithier, Ghislaine; Denjean, André; Elion, Jacques; Baruchel, André; Benkerrou, Malika

    2016-03-01

    Children with sickle cell disease (SCD) have a significant vascular morbidity, especially cerebral macrovasculopathy (CV), detectable by transcranial Doppler. This study aimed to identify risk factors for CV using longitudinal biological and clinical data in a SCD newborn cohort followed at the Robert Debre Reference centre (n = 375 SS/Sβ(0) ). Median follow-up was 6·8 years (2677 patient-years). Among the 59 children presenting with CV, seven had a stroke. Overall, the incidence of CV was 2·20/100 patient-years [95% confidence interval (95% CI): 1·64-2·76] and the incidence of stroke was 0·26/100 patient-years (95% CI: 0·07-0·46). The cumulative risk of CV by age 14 years was 26·0% (95% CI: 20·0-33·3%). Risk factors for CV were assessed by a Cox model encompassing linear multivariate modelling of longitudinal quantitative variables. Years per upper-airway obstruction [Hazard ratio (HR) = 1·47; 95% CI: 1·05-2·06] or bronchial obstruction (HR = 1·76; 95% CI: 1·49-2·08) and reticulocyte count (HR = 1·82 per 50 × 10(9) /l increase; 95% CI: 1·10-3·01) were independent risk factors whereas fetal haemoglobin level (HR = 0·68 per 5% increase; 95% CI: 0·48-0·96) was protective. Alpha-thalassaemia was not protective in multivariate analysis (ancillary analysis n = 209). Specific treatment for upper or lower-airway obstruction and indirect targeting of fetal haemoglobin and reticulocyte count by hydroxycarbamide could potentially reduce the risk of CV. PMID:26728571

  18. Effect of caffeine supplementation on haematological and biochemical variables in elite soccer players under physical stress conditions

    PubMed Central

    Bassini‐Cameron, Adriana; Sweet, Eric; Bottino, Altamiro; Bittar, Christina; Veiga, Carlos; Cameron, Luiz‐Claudio

    2007-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the effect of caffeine on white cell distribution and muscle injury markers in professional soccer players during exercise. Methods 22 male athletes completed a placebo controlled double blind test protocol to simulate a soccer match, followed by a Yo‐Yo intermittent recovery test. Results Exercise caused an increase in packed cell volume that was enhanced by caffeine. Caffeine and exercise had a synergistic effect on the blood lymphocyte count, which increased by about 38% after exercise, and by an additional 35% when combined with caffeine. Caffeine promoted an exercise independent rise in circulating monocytes, and a synergistic action of exercise and caffeine was observed on segmented neutrophils. Caffeine promoted thrombocytosis. Plasma adenosine deaminase, aspartate aminotransferase, and lactate dehydrogenase concentrations were enhanced by exercise, and alanine transaminase concentration was enhanced in both groups, with a synergistic effect of caffeine. Conclusions The pronounced increase in the white cell count in the group receiving caffeine appeared to be caused by greater muscle stress and consequently more intense endothelial and muscle cell injury. The use of caffeine may augment the risk of muscle damage in athletes. PMID:17473001

  19. Effects of organohalogen pollutants on haematological and urine clinical-chemical parameters in Greenland sledge dogs (Canis familiaris).

    PubMed

    Sonne, Christian; Dietz, Rune; Kirkegaard, Maja; Letcher, Robert J; Shahmiri, Soheila; Andersen, Steen; Møller, Per; Olsen, Aage Kristian; Jensen, Asger L

    2008-03-01

    Seven West Greenland sledge dog bitches (Canis familiaris) and their three pups were fed 50-200 g of contaminated West Greenland minke whale (Balaenoptera acutorostrata) blubber, and in a control cohort eight sister bitches and their five pups were fed a similar amount pork fat. Blood plasma and urine clinical-chemical parameters were measured and compared between the bitches and pups form the control and exposed cohorts. Based on existing reference intervals, Arctic mammals may have blood clinical-chemical endpoint levels that differ from comparable species at lower latitudes. The cortisol:creatinine ratio, protein:creatinine ratio, alkaline phosphatase, cholesterol and inorganic phosphate were significantly highest (ANCOVA: all p<0.05) in the pup generation. The cortisol:creatinine ratio, cholesterol, lactate dehydrogenase and creatinine kinase were significantly higher (ANCOVA: all p<0.05) in the control group, while glucose was significantly highest (ANCOVA: p<0.05) in the exposed group. Furthermore, the blood cholesterol levels indicate that exposure via the diet to marine mammal blubber has a preventive effect on the development of cardiovascular diseases. We therefore suggest that the consumption of contaminated Arctic marine blubber impacted liver and kidney function in adult and pup sledge dogs. PMID:17434585

  20. Influence of granite-grit on nutrient digestibility and haematological parameters of broiler chickens fed rice offal based diets.

    PubMed

    Idachaba, C U; Abeke, F O; Olugbemi, T S; Ademu, L A

    2013-10-01

    A total of 270 broiler chickens were used for the study. The birds were fed common diet containing 23% Crude protein and 2864 kcal kg(-1) Metabolizable energy at the starter phase while 20% Crude protein and 2923 kcal kg(-1) Metabolizable energy was fed at the finisher phase. Starter and finisher diets contained 10 and 15% inclusion levels of rice offal respectively. Granite grit was added to the basal diet at 0.0, 2.0, 4.0, 6.0, 8.0 and 10.0 g per bird per month thus making a total of six treatments. Each treatment was replicated three times with 15 birds per replicate in a completely randomized design. Packed cell volume and haemoglobin level were not significantly (p>0.05) affected by dietary grit levels while total protein increased across the graded levels of granite grit. Crude protein, crude fibre and nitrogen free extract significantly (p<0.05) improved with increasing grit levels. These parameters improved up to the highest level of grit addition (10.0 g) granite-grit. It was concluded that 10.0 g granite grit per bird per month is beneficial to broiler chickens as it allows for efficient nutrient utilization. Further study to determine the optimum level of granite grit in broiler diet is encouraged since result obtained showed the optimum level was not attained. PMID:24502172

  1. Serum Copper and Haematological Values of Sheep of Different Physiological Stages in the Dry and Wet Seasons of Central Trinidad

    PubMed Central

    Mohammed, A.; Campbell, M.; Youssef, F. G.

    2014-01-01

    A study was conducted to determine serum copper (Cu) concentrations and hematological values of 174 sheep from four medium sized farms, pertaining to physiological stage, in the late dry and late wet seasons of Central Trinidad. Serum Cu was significantly lower in the dry than in the wet season (P < 0.001) with a corresponding high percentage of samples with low Cu levels in the former. 31% of dry nonpregnant sheep exhibited a nonregenerative anaemia. Also, hemoglobin and packed cell volume values varied (P < 0.001) including lymphocyte (P < 0.01) counts, among growing animals compared with other physiological stages. Significant variations also occurred among neutrophil (P < 0.05) and eosinophil (P < 0.05) values in sheep. Highest haemoglobin and packed cell volume, white blood cell counts, and lymphocyte values in growing sheep compared with other stages were probably age related. PMID:24895542

  2. Trigonella foenum-graecum protection against deltamethrin-induced toxic effects on haematological, biochemical, and oxidative stress parameters in rats.

    PubMed

    Abdel-Daim, Mohamed M; Abd Eldaim, Mabrouk A; Mahmoud, Mohamed M

    2014-08-01

    Trigonella foenum-graecum L. is enriched with many active ingredients. TFG oil was evaluated for its protective effect against deltamethrin toxicity in rats. Rats of the control group were administered saline. The 2nd group was administered deltamethrin (DLM) orally at a concentration of 15 mg/kg body mass. The 3rd and 4th groups were administered DLM at a concentration of 15 mg/kg body mass and were fed diets containing 2.5% and 5% TFG oil, respectively. DLM intoxication reduced red blood cell and platelet counts, hemoglobin concentration, and hematocrit value while it induced leucocytosis. Furthermore, it increased serum levels of lactate dehydrogenase, aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, alkaline phosphatase, ?-glutamyltransferase, triglycerides, cholesterol, uric acid, urea, and creatinine; increased hepatic, renal, and brain lipid peroxidation; decreased serum acetylcholine esterase level; and decreased hepatic, renal, and brain antioxidant markers' activities. However, TFG oil kept the studied hematological and biochemical parameters within normal ranges. In addition, it prevented lipid peroxidation and oxidative stress induced by DLM intoxication in a dose-dependent manner. Therefore, these results indicated that TFG oil inhibited the toxic effects of DLM on hematological and biochemical parameters as well as oxidative status by its free radical scavenging and potent antioxidant activities, and it appeared to be a promising protective agent against DLM-induced toxicity. PMID:25029214

  3. Corprological and haematological parameters of albino mice (Mus musculus) concurrently infected with Heligmosomoides bakeri and Trypanosoma brucei

    PubMed Central

    Onyeabor, A.I.; Wosu, M.I.; Ohaeri, C.C.

    2013-01-01

    The effect of concurrent infection with Trypanosoma brucei (T. brucei) and Heligmosomoides bakeri (H. bakeri) was investigated in this study. Thirty adult male albino mice were used for the study. The mice were divided into six groups of five mice each. Group 1 served as uninfected control, Groups 2 and 3 were infected with H. bakeri and T. brucei respectively, Group 4 received both T. brucei and H. bakeri on the same day, Group 5 was experimentally infected with H. bakeri three days after T. brucei infection, while Group 6 was infected with T. brucei three days after H. bakeri infection. Blood and faecal samples were collected and analyzed weekly to determine the faecal egg counts (FEC), packed cell volume (PCV) and level of parasitaemia (LP). Weekly body weights (BW) were also recorded. FEC and parasitaemia increased in all the infected groups during the study, but these were significantly (p<0.05) higher in the multiple-infection (groups 4, 5 and 6) than those with the single infection (groups 2 and 3). The same trend was also observed in the BW and PCV (p<0.05). The level of infection produced by single infection with T. brucei and H. bakeri respectively were similar (p<0.05). All treatment groups were significantly (p<0.05) different from the control group. From the results, it was concluded that concurrent helminth and protozoan parasite infections produced more deleterious effect on the host when compared with single infection with either parasite. However, the pathology produced by concurrent infection was more severe when the host was exposed to the protozoan parasite before the helminth parasite. PMID:26623320

  4. Lymphoma incidence, survival and prevalence 2004–2014: sub-type analyses from the UK's Haematological Malignancy Research Network

    PubMed Central

    Smith, A; Crouch, S; Lax, S; Li, J; Painter, D; Howell, D; Patmore, R; Jack, A; Roman, E

    2015-01-01

    Background: Population-based information about cancer occurrence and survival are required to inform clinical practice and research; but for most lymphomas data are lacking. Methods: Set within a socio-demographically representative UK population of nearly 4 million, lymphoma data (N=5796) are from an established patient cohort. Results: Incidence, survival (overall and relative) and prevalence estimates for >20 subtypes are presented. With few exceptions, males tended to be diagnosed at younger ages and have significantly (P<0.05) higher incidence rates. Differences were greatest at younger ages: the <15 year male/female rate ratio for all subtypes combined being 2.2 (95% CI 1.3–3.4). These gender differences impacted on prevalence; most subtype estimates being significantly (P<0.05) higher in males than females. Outcome varied widely by subtype; survival of patients with nodular lymphocyte predominant Hodgkin lymphoma approached that of the general population, whereas less than a third of those with other B-cell (e.g., mantle cell) or T-cell (e.g., peripheral-T) lymphomas survived for ≥5 years. No males/female survival differences were detected. Conclusions: Major strengths of our study include completeness of ascertainment, world-class diagnostics and generalisability. The marked variations demonstrated confirm the requirement for ‘real-world' data to inform aetiological hypotheses, health-care planning and the future monitoring of therapeutic changes. PMID:25867256

  5. How to manage lung infiltrates in adults suffering from haematological malignancies outside allogeneic haematopoietic stem cell transplantation.

    PubMed

    Maschmeyer, Georg; Donnelly, J Peter

    2016-04-01

    Pulmonary complications affect up to 40% of patients with severe neutropenia lasting for more than 10 d. As they are frequently associated with fever and elevation of C-reactive protein or other signs of inflammation, they are mostly handled as pneumonia. However, the differential diagnosis is broad, and a causative microbial agent remains undetected in the majority of cases. Pulmonary side effects from cytotoxic treatment or pulmonary involvement by the underlying malignancy must always be taken into account and may provide grounds for invasive diagnostic procedures in selected patients. Pneumocystis jirovecii (in patients not receiving co-trimoxazole as prophylaxis), multi-resistant gram-negative bacilli, mycobacteria or respiratory viruses may be involved. High-risk patients may be infected by filamentous fungi, such as Aspergillus spp., but these infections are seldom proven when treatment is initiated. Microorganisms isolated from cultures of blood, bronchoalveolar lavage or respiratory secretions need careful interpretation as they may be irrelevant for determining the aetiology of pulmonary infiltrates, particularly when cultures yield coagulase-negative staphylococci, enterococci or Candida species. Non-culture based diagnostics for detecting Aspergillus galactomannan, beta-D-glucan or DNA from blood, bronchoalveolar lavage or tissue samples can facilitate the diagnosis, but must always be interpreted in the context of clinical and imaging findings. Systemic antifungal treatment with mould-active agents, given in combination with broad-spectrum antibiotics, improves clinical outcome when given pre-emptively. Co-trimoxazole remains the first-line treatment for Pneumocystis pneumonia, while cytomegalovirus pneumonia will respond to ganciclovir or foscarnet in most cases. The clinical outcome of acute respiratory failure can also be successful with proper intensive care, when indicated. PMID:26729577

  6. Integrated Haematological Profiles of Redox Status, Lipid, and Inflammatory Protein Biomarkers in Benign Obesity and Unhealthy Obesity with Metabolic Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Lubrano, Carla; Valacchi, Giuseppe; Specchia, Palma; Gnessi, Lucio; Rubanenko, Elizaveta P.; Shuginina, Elena A.; Trukhanov, Arseny I.; Korkina, Liudmila G.; De Luca, Chiara

    2015-01-01

    The pathogenesis of obesity (OB) and metabolic syndrome (MetS) implies free radical-, oxidized lipid- (LOOH-), and inflammatory cytokine-mediated altered pathways in target organs. Key elements of the transition from benign OB to unhealthy OB+MetS remain unclear. Here, we measured a panel of redox, antioxidant, and inflammation markers in the groups of OB patients (67 with, 45 without MetS) and 90 controls. Both OB groups displayed elevated levels of adipokines and heavy oxidative stress (OS) evidenced by reduced levels of glutathione, downregulated glutathione-S-transferase, increased 4-hydroxynonenal-protein adducts, reactive oxygen species, and membrane-bound monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA). Exclusively in OB+MetS, higher-than-normal glutathione peroxidase activity, tumor necrosis factor-α, and other proinflammatory cytokines/chemokines/growth factors were observed; a combination of high adipokine plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 and MUFA was consistent with increased cardiovascular risk. The uncomplicated OB group showed features of adaptation to OS such as decreased levels of vitamin E, activated superoxide dismutase, and inhibited catalase, suggesting H2O2 hyperproduction. Proinflammatory cytokine pattern was normal, except few markers like RANTES, a suitable candidate for therapeutic approaches to prevent a setting of MetS by inhibition of LOOH-primed leukocyte chemotaxis/recruitment to target tissues. PMID:26090072

  7. Influence of ascorbic acid supplementation on the haematological and clinical biochemistry parameters of male rabbits exposed to aflatoxin B1.

    PubMed

    Yousef, M I; Salem, M H; Kamel, K I; Hassan, G A; El-Nouty, F D

    2003-03-01

    This study was undertaken to evaluate the effectiveness of L-ascorbic acid (AA) in alleviating the toxicity of aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) in male New-Zealand white rabbits. Five rabbits (6 months of age and mean body weight 3.12 kg) per group were assigned to 1 of 6 treatment groups: 0 mg AA and 0 mg AFB1/kg BW (control); 20 mg AA/kg BW; 15 microg AFB1/kg BW; 15 microg AFB1 plus 20 mg AA/kg BW; 30 pg AFB1/kg BW; 30 pg AFB1 plus 20 mg AA/kg BW. Rabbits were orally administered their respective doses every other day for 9 weeks, followed by a 9-week recovery period where all drugs were withdrawn. Evaluations were made for hemato-biochemical parameters and enzymatic activities. Results showed that AFB1 significantly (p < 0.05) decreased hemoglobin (Hb), total erythrocytic count (TEC) and packed cell volume (PCV), in a dose-dependent manner, and these effects were continued during the recovery period. Ascorbic acid caused an increase in these parameters, and alleviated the negative effect of AFB1 during the treatment period. Additionally, serum concentrations of total protein, albumin and glucose were significantly (P < 0.05) declined by treatment with the high dose of aflatoxin and these effects were continued during the recovery period. Ascorbic acid caused non-significant increases in these parameters and alleviated the harmful effect of AFB1. On the other hand, aflatoxin treatment caused significant increases (P < 0.05) in the activities of serum aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and alkaline phosphatase (AlP) during the treatment period in a dose dependent manner, and this effect was continued during the recovery period, especially with the high dose. Also, treatment with the high dose of aflatoxin caused significant increases (P<0.05) in cholesterol and total bilirubin. Ascorbic acid caused significant decreases in these parameters and alleviated the harmful effects of AFB1. Whereas, Total leukocyte count (TLC), urea and creatinine were not significantly affected by aflatoxin-treatment. Generally, it is interesting feature that the treatment with AA alone had no negative effects on most of the previous parameters. Also, the presence of AA could diminished the adverse effects of AFB1 on most of hematological and biochemical values, and enzymatic activities in rabbits. PMID:12617557

  8. Clinical and molecular analysis of haemoglobin H disease in Sardinia: haematological, obstetric and cardiac aspects in patients with different genotypes.

    PubMed

    Origa, R; Sollaino, M C; Giagu, N; Barella, S; Campus, S; Mandas, C; Bina, P; Perseu, L; Galanello, R

    2007-01-01

    In this study, 251 Sardinian patients (187 adults and 64 children) with haemoglobin (Hb) H disease were evaluated. Two-hundred and sixteen patients (86%) had the deletional type (- -/-alpha) and 36 (14%) patients had the non-deletional type (- -/alpha(ND)alpha). A clear genotype-phenotype correlation was found, with the non-deletional type more severe than the deletional type. Diagnosis of Hb H disease was incidental in about 60% of cases. Aplastic crises due to B19 parvovirus infection were found in five patients (2.1%), while 23 patients (9.6%) experienced one or more haemolytic crises. Nineteen patients with Hb H received sporadic red blood cell transfusions and three patients were repeatedly transfused. Forty-seven of 61 married women (77%) had 82 pregnancies. In children, mean serum ferritin was 87 +/-92 mug/l and in adults, was 192 +/- 180 mug/l in females and 363 +/- 303 mug/l in males. For the 98 male patients, a significant correlation was found between ferritin values and age (r2 = 0.33, P < 0.0001). In the Sardinian population, Hb H disease needs regular monitoring for early detection and treatment of possible complications, such as worsening of anaemia that may require red cell transfusion, cholelithiasis and iron overload. PMID:17129226

  9. Comparative Haematological Screening of Urban and Rural Pregnant Women Attending Antenatal Clinics in Lagos and Its Environs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abidoye, R. O.; Olukoya, A. A.

    1993-01-01

    Compared blood screening data for 200 urban and rural pregnant women in Nigeria. Found that rural subjects had a greater incidence of moderate anemia than did urban subjects, and corpuscular hemoglobin concentrations fell with increased gestational age. No relationship was found between hemoglobin counts and nutrition habits. (HTH)

  10. Haematological complete remission by ponatinib and bortezomib in a patient with relapsed, Ph+ pre-B acute lymphoblastic leukaemia

    PubMed Central

    Robinson, Sara; Levy, Yair; Maisel, Christopher; Tong, Alex W

    2014-01-01

    A 74-year-old man was previously diagnosed with BCR-ABL1-positive pre-B cell acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (pre-B ALL) based on bone marrow cytology, flow cytometry, cytogenetics and fluorescent in situ hybridisation findings. Following a highly complicated hospital course, the patient achieved cytogenetic remission by consolidated chemotherapy and the tyrosine kinase inhibitor dasatinib. He subsequently presented with relapsed pre-B ALL after 3 years in remission. In consideration of his challenging clinical history, he was started on concurrent ponatinib (45 mg daily) and bortezomib (1.3 mg/m2 intravenous weekly). The major molecular response was achieved (<0.0893% BCR-ABL1 transcripts) after 3 months. Bone marrow now demonstrates a BCR-ABL1-negative, complete cytogenetic response. The patient continues to do well with mild thrombocytopenia and improved anaemia on bortezomib and 30 mg daily ponatinib. Our experience with a single patient suggests the feasibility of combined targeted therapy with ponatinib and bortezomib. This novel treatment approach achieved clinical remission with a manageable toxicity profile. PMID:24729118

  11. Single and cartel effect of pesticides on biochemical and haematological status of Clarias batrachus: A long-term monitoring.

    PubMed

    Narra, Madhusudan Reddy

    2016-02-01

    Pesticide mixtures are common in the streams of agricultural or urban catchments. Individual and cartel toxicity of four different pesticides, namely Endosulfan, Carbofuran, Methyl parathion and Cypermethrin were studied. Sub acute exposure (1/10th of LC50) for 1, 7, 15, 30 and 60 days in Clarias batrachus active tissues such as brain, gills, blood and liver were evaluated. Growth, hepatosomatic index and survival performance were decreased, inhibition of brain acetylcholinesterase, gills Na(+)/K(+) ATPase activities, and abnormal behavior are noticed. The characteristics of the blood respiratory burst activity, erythrocyte count, contents of hematocrit and hemoglobin are dwindled. Plasma total proteins and liver glycogen decreased whereas blood glucose and serum creatinine, triglycerides are elevated. The immunological attributes such as white blood cell count was elevated, whereas albumin, globulins and lysozyme activity significantly decreased. Hepatic superoxide dismutase, catalase and glutathione S-transferase activities and lipid peroxidation levels are elevated, whereas glutathione peroxidase and glutathione are reduced. Toxicity effect of pesticides reached to a crest on 30th day and showed a descent thereafter except in endosulfan which mounted its detrimental effect throughout the experimental period. Toxicity trends of the present study are determined to be highest in Mix group followed by cypermethrin, methyl parathion and carbofuran. Indiscriminate application of these chemicals pose a toxic threat to non-target organisms, damage the ecosystems and jeopardizes human health. PMID:26432990

  12. Spatial variation in mortality risk for haematological malignancies near a petrochemical refinery: a population-based case-control study

    PubMed Central

    Di Salvo, Francesca; Meneghini, Elisabetta; Vieira, Veronica; Baili, Paolo; Mariottini, Mauro; Baldini, Marco; Micheli, Andrea; Sant, Milena

    2015-01-01

    Introduction The study investigated the geographic variation of mortality risk for hematological malignancies (HMs) in order to identify potential high-risk areas near an Italian petrochemical refinery. Material and methods A population-based case-control study was conducted and residential histories for 171 cases and 338 sex- and age-matched controls were collected. Confounding factors were obtained from interviews with consenting relatives for 109 HM deaths and 267 controls. To produce risk mortality maps, two different approaches were applied. We mapped (1) adptive kernel density relative risk estimation (KDE) for case-control studies which estimates a spatial relative risk function using the ratio between cases and controls’ densities, and (2) estimated odds ratios for case-control study data using generalized additive models (GAMs) to smooth the effect of location, a proxy for exposure, while adjusting for confounding variables. Results No high-risk areas for HM mortality were identified among all subjects (men and women combined), by applying both approaches. Using the adaptive KDE approach, we found a significant increase in death risk only among women in a large area 2–6 km southeast of the refinery and the application of GAMs also identified a similarly-located significant high-risk area among women only (global p-value<0.025). Potential confounding risk factors we considered in the GAM did not alter the results. Conclusion Both approaches identified a high-risk area close to the refinery among women only. Those spatial methods are useful tools for public policy management to determine priority areas for intervention. Our findings suggest several directions for further research in order to identify other potential environmental exposures that may be assessed in forthcoming studies based on detailed exposure modeling. PMID:26073202

  13. The Effects of Probiotic Soymilk Fortified with Omega-3 on Blood Glucose, Lipid Profile, Haematological and Oxidative Stress, and Inflammatory Parameters in Streptozotocin Nicotinamide-Induced Diabetic Rats

    PubMed Central

    Mohammadi Sartang, Mohsen; Mazloomi, Seyed Mohammad; Tanideh, Nader; Rezaian Zadeh, Abbas

    2015-01-01

    Objective. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effects of probiotic soymilk fortified with omega-3 in diabetic rats. Methods. Soymilk (SM), fermented soymilk (FSM), and fermented soymilk fortified with omega-3 (FSM + omega-3) were prepared. Rats were randomly assigned to five groups of 13 animals per group. Diabetes was induced by a single injection of streptozotocin (STZ) 15 min after the intraperitoneal administration of nicotinamide (NA). Normal control (NC) and diabetic control (DC) rats received 1 mL/day of distilled water and three groups of diabetic rats were given 1 mL/day of SM, FSM, and FSM + omega-3 products by oral gavage for 28 days. Results. Three products significantly (P < 0.05) reduced blood glucose, total cholesterol (TC), triglyceride (TG), and malondialdehyde (MDA) concentrations compared to the DC group, with the maximum reduction seen in the FSM + omega-3 group. Body weight, red blood cells (RBC), haemoglobin (Hb), haematocrit, and superoxide dismutase (SOD) also significantly increased in the FSM + omega-3 group. In the FSM + omega-3 group, MDA level compared with the SM and FSM groups and high sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) concentrations compared with the DC and FSM groups were significantly lower (P < 0.05). Conclusion. Fermented soymilk fortified with omega-3 may be beneficial in diabetes. PMID:26347893

  14. Preventive effects of Egyptian sweet marjoram (Origanum majorana L.) leaves on haematological changes and cardiotoxicity in isoproterenol-treated albino rats.

    PubMed

    Ramadan, Gamal; El-Beih, Nadia M; Arafa, Nadia M S; Zahra, Mai M

    2013-06-01

    We made an attempt to evaluate/compare the cardioprotective activity of two different doses (50 and 100 mg/kg body weight, given orally for 30 consecutive days) of Egyptian sweet marjoram leaf powder (MLP) and marjoram leaf aqueous extract (MLE) against isoproterenol (ISO)-induced myocardial infarcted rats (150 mg/kg body weight, twice at an interval of 24 h on days 29 and 30). The present study showed (probably for the first time) that both MLP and MLE (especially the high dose) significantly alleviated (P < 0.05-0.001) erythrocytosis, granulocytosis, thrombocytosis, shortened clotting time, the increase in relative heart weight, myocardial oxidative stress and the leakage of heart enzymes (creatine phosphokinase (CPK), CPK-MB isoenzyme, lactate dehydrogenase and aminotransferase) in ISO-treated rats through reactivating non-enzymic (reduced glutathione) and enzymic (catalase, glutathione peroxidase, glutathione S-transferase, superoxide dismutase) antioxidant defence system and inhibiting the production of nitric oxide and lipid peroxidation in heart tissues. The modulatory effects of marjoram leaves shown in the present study were dose-dependent in most cases and much higher in MLE (4.3-20.3 % for all parameters taken together). In addition, the doses used in the present study were considered safe. In conclusion, this study may have a significant impact on myocardial infarcted patients. PMID:23054890

  15. Inaccuracy of haemoglobin A1c among HIV-infected men: effects of CD4 cell count, antiretroviral therapies and haematological parameters

    PubMed Central

    Slama, Laurence; Palella, Frank J.; Abraham, Alison G.; Li, Xiuhong; Vigouroux, Corinne; Pialoux, Gilles; Kingsley, Lawrence; Lake, Jordan E.; Brown, Todd T.; Margolick, Joseph B.; Crain, Barbara; Dobs, Adrian; Farzadegan, Homayoon; Gallant, Joel; Johnson-Hill, Lisette; Plankey, Michael; Sacktor, Ned; Selnes, Ola; Shepard, James; Thio, Chloe; Wolinsky, Steven M.; Phair, John P.; Badri, Sheila; O'Gorman, Maurice; Ostrow, David; Palella, Frank; Ragin, Ann; Detels, Roger; Martínez-Maza, Otoniel; Aronow, Aaron; Bolan, Robert; Breen, Elizabeth; Butch, Anthony; Jamieson, Beth; Miller, Eric N.; Oishi, John; Vinters, Harry; Wiley, Dorothy; Witt, Mallory; Yang, Otto; Young, Stephen; Zhang, Zuo Feng; Rinaldo, Charles R.; Kingsley, Lawrence A.; Becker, James T.; Cranston, Ross D.; Martinson, Jeremy J.; Mellors, John W.; Silvestre, Anthony J.; Stall, Ronald D.; Jacobson, Lisa P.; Munoz, Alvaro; Abraham, Alison; Althoff, Keri; Cox, Christopher; D'Souza, Gypsyamber; Golub, Elizabeth; Schollenberger, Janet; Seaberg, Eric C.; Su, Sol; Huebner, Robin E.; Dominguez, Geraldina

    2014-01-01

    Background There is limited evidence that among HIV-infected patients haemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) values may not accurately reflect glycaemia. We assessed HbA1c discordance (observed HbA1c − expected HbA1c) and associated factors among HIV-infected participants in the Multicenter AIDS Cohort Study (MACS). Methods Fasting glucose (FG) and HbA1c were measured at each semi-annual MACS visit since 1999. All HIV-infected and HIV-uninfected men for whom at least one FG and HbA1c pair measurement was available were evaluated. Univariate median regression determined the association between HbA1c and FG by HIV serostatus. The relationship between HbA1c and FG in HIV-uninfected men was used to determine the expected HbA1c. Generalized estimating equations determined factors associated with the Hb1Ac discordance among HIV-infected men. Clinically significant discordance was defined as observed HbA1c − expected HbA1c ≤−0.5%. Results Over 13 years, 1500 HIV-uninfected and 1357 HIV-infected men were included, with a median of 11 visits for each participant. At an FG of 125 mg/dL, the median HbA1c among HIV-infected men was 0.21% lower than among HIV-uninfected men and the magnitude of this effect increased with FG >126 mg/dL. Sixty-three percent of HIV-infected men had at least one visit with clinically significant HbA1c discordance, which was independently associated with: low CD4 cell count (<500 cells/mm3); a regimen containing a protease inhibitor, a non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor or zidovudine; high mean corpuscular volume; and abnormal corpuscular haemoglobin. Conclusion HbA1c underestimates glycaemia in HIV-infected patients and its use in patients with risk factors for HbA1c discordance may lead to under-diagnosis and to under-treatment of established diabetes mellitus. PMID:25096078

  16. Allogeneic stem cell transplantation for mantle cell lymphoma--final report from the prospective trials of the East German Study Group Haematology/Oncology (OSHO).

    PubMed

    Krüger, William H; Hirt, Carsten; Basara, Nadezda; Sayer, Herbert G; Behre, Gerhard; Fischer, Thomas; Grobe, Norbert; Maschmeyer, Georg; Niederwieser, Dietger; Dölken, Gottfried

    2014-09-01

    This study was conducted in order to evaluate allogeneic stem cell transplantation (alloSCT) as consolidation for patients with mantle cell lymphoma (MCL). Patients with MCL were included into two prospective trials OSHO #060 (refractory/relapsed) and #074 (de novo). Induction was rituximab and chemotherapy. Responding patients proceeded to alloSCT. Minimal residual disease was monitored by quantitative RT-PCR detecting either t(11;14) or clonospecific CDR-III regions. In case of circulating lymphoma cells, immunomodulation (cyclosporine A withdrawal, rituximab, donor lymphocyte infusion) was initiated. Thirty-three of 39 patients underwent alloSCT after myeloablative (n = 7) or toxicity-reduced (n = 26) conditioning. Leukocytes engrafted at day +16 (median, range 0-101) and platelets at day +14 (0-142). Acute graft-versus-host disease stages I-II occurred in 42 % and stages III-IV in 15 %. Five patients have relapsed after SCT. The overall mortality after SCT was 24 % (n = 8). Median follow-up after SCT was 2.8 years (range 0.0-10.9). Five-year progression-free survival was 67 %, and overall survival 73 % after SCT. The results were comparable for primary MCL and refractory/relapsed disease as well as for related vs. unrelated SCT. Younger patients had a significantly better outcome than the elderly. AlloSCT is a feasible and promising consolidation therapy for relapsed and refractory disease and an attractive option for young patients with de novo MCL of high risk. PMID:24782119

  17. Molecular characterization of the PK-LR gene in pyruvate kinase deficient Spanish patients. Red Cell Pathology Group of the Spanish Society of Haematology (AEHH).

    PubMed

    Zarza, R; Alvarez, R; Pujades, A; Nomdedeu, B; Carrera, A; Estella, J; Remacha, A; Sánchez, J M; Morey, M; Cortes, T; Pérez Lungmus, G; Bureo, E; Vives Corrons, J L

    1998-11-01

    The PK-LR gene has been studied in 12 unrelated patients with red cell pyruvate kinase deficiency and hereditary nonspherocytic haemolytic anaemia (CNSHA). The entire codifying region of the R-type PK gene and the flanking intronic regions were analysed by single-stranded conformation polymorphism (SSCP) followed by direct sequencing of abnormal DNA. 10 different mutations were identified in 22/24 alleles at risk. Eight of these were missense mutations that caused the following single amino acid changes: G514C (172Glu-Gln), G1010A (337Arg-Gln), G1015C (339Asp-Gln), T1070C (357Ile-Thr), C1223T (408Thr-Ile), G1291A (431Ala-Thr), C1456T (486Arg-Trp) and G1595A (532Arg-Gln). Two were nonsense mutations: G721T (241Glu-Stop) and C1675T (559Arg-Stop). 7/22 alleles demonstrated the same C1456 --> T mutation. The study of the polymorphic site at nucleotide (nt) 1705 performed in all cases disclosed a 1705 C/C mutation in 10 and a 1705 A/C mutation in three. This is the first report on the presence of several different L-type PK gene mutations within Spanish population. Furthermore, from the PK gene mutations found, six were unique and not previously described (1015C, 1070C, 1223T, 1291A, 1595A and 1675T) and one (C1456T) seems to be predominant in Spain. Interestingly, no case with the 1529A mutation commonly found in Northern European populations was present here. PMID:9827908

  18. Studies on Parasitologic and Haematologic Activities of an Enaminone Derivative of 4-Hydroxyquinolin-2(1H)-one Against Murine Schistosomiasis Mansoni

    PubMed Central

    El-Shennawy, Amal M.; Mohamed, Amira H.; Mohamed Abass

    2007-01-01

    The activity of a novel enaminone derivative of 4–hydroxyquinoline, BDHQ, was screened for its effectiveness against murine schistosomiasis by electron microscopy and parasitologic studies. The correlation of these studies with serum levels of IFN–gamma and IgE is described. Two groups of 10 mice each were treated with different doses of BDHQ, and their results were correlated with the control and praziquantel (PZQ)–treated groups. Parasitologic study revealed significant reduction in mature worms and tissue egg loads in BDHQ– and PZQ–treated groups, whereas immature worms revealed significant reduction in BDHQ groups only. The group treated with a higher dose of BDHQ showed significant reductions in intestinal ova count when compared with the PZQ–treated group. Ultrastructural examination of the worm revealed significant degeneration of the spines and tegument in all treated groups, while the genital system was affected in BDHQ–treated groups only. BDHQ showed considerable effect on cellular activation where serum levels of IFN–gamma were significantly increased in comparison to control, while anti–soluble worm antigen preparation (SWAP) IgE was significantly increased in comparison to both the control and PZQ–treated groups. Ultrastructural examination revealed cellular activation in buffy coat and the liver in both the BDHQ– and PZQ–treated groups in comparison to the untreated one, whereas in the bone marrow and spleen, evidence of cellular activation was remarkable in the BDHQ–treated groups. In conclusion, BDHQ exhibits high levels of activity against adult and juvenile stages of these parasites, which may be due to its mixed cellular and humoral immunologic mechanisms, as demonstrated by the significant increase of serum levels of IgE and IFN–gamma shown on electron microscopy. Therefore, our results support the comparative advantage that BDHQ has over PZQ. PMID:17435624

  19. Nature and nurture: a case of transcending haematological pre-malignancies in a pair of monozygotic twins adding possible clues on the pathogenesis of B-cell proliferations.

    PubMed

    Hansen, Marcus C; Nyvold, Charlotte G; Roug, Anne S; Kjeldsen, Eigil; Villesen, Palle; Nederby, Line; Hokland, Peter

    2015-05-01

    We describe a comprehensive molecular analysis of a pair of monozygotic twins, who came to our attention when one experienced amaurosis fugax and was diagnosed with JAK2+ polycythaemia vera. He (Twin A) was also found to have an asymptomatic B-cell chronic lymphocytic leukaemia (B-CLL). Although JAK2-, Twin B was subsequently shown to have a benign monoclonal B-cell lymphocytosis (MBL). Flow cytometric and molecular analyses of the B-cell compartments revealed different immunoglobulin light and heavy chain usage in each twin. We hypothesized that whole exome sequencing could help delineating the pattern of germline B-cell disorder susceptibility and reveal somatic mutations potentially contributing to the differential patterns of pre-malignancy. Comparing bone marrow cells and T cells and employing in-house engineered integrative analysis, we found aberrations in Twin A consistent with a myeloid neoplasm, i.e. in TET2, RUNX1, PLCB1 and ELF4. Employing the method for detecting high-ranking variants by extensive annotation and relevance scoring, we also identified shared germline variants in genes of proteins interacting with B-cell receptor signalling mediators and the WNT-pathway, including IRF8, PTPRO, BCL9L, SIT1 and SIRPB1, all with possible implications in B-cell proliferation. Similar patterns of IGHV-gene usage to those demonstrated here have been observed in inherited acute lymphoblastic leukaemia. Collectively, these findings may help in facilitating identification of putative master gene(s) involved in B-cell proliferations in general and MBL and B-CLL in particular. PMID:25752595

  20. Guidelines on selection of laboratory tests for monitoring the acute phase response. International Committee for Standardization in Haematology (expert panel on blood rheology).

    PubMed Central

    1988-01-01

    These guidelines refer to laboratory tests for monitoring changes in acute phase proteins in patients with an inflammatory response to tissue damage. Quantitative measurements of acute phase proteins are a valuable indicator of the presence, extent, and response of inflammation to treatment. When short term (less than 24 hours) changes in the inflammatory response are expected, quantitative assay of C reactive protein is the test of choice. The hyperproteinaemia that develops in response to a longer term (more than 24 hours) inflammatory response is complex and may vary from one disease to another. A test that is sensitive to the combined effect of several plasma proteins is therefore indicated, and appropriate tests include the erythrocyte sedimentation rate and plasma viscosity--the latter having several advantages. Tests for monitoring short term and long term changes in acute phase proteins are complementary and should be used for different clinical purposes; no one test is ideal for all clinical situations. A quality control programme is an essential component of laboratory tests for monitoring the acute phase response. PMID:2463272

  1. Diagnosis of invasive aspergillosis using bronchoalveolar lavage in haematology patients: influence of bronchoalveolar lavage human DNA content on real-time PCR performance.

    PubMed

    Fréalle, E; Decrucq, K; Botterel, F; Bouchindhomme, B; Camus, D; Dei-Cas, E; Costa, J M; Yakoub-Agha, I; Bretagne, S; Delhaes, L

    2009-03-01

    In order to improve invasive pulmonary aspergillosis (IPA) diagnosis, a real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay detecting Aspergillus spp. was developed. Its detection limit reached 2-20 conidia. The retrospective evaluation on 64 bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluids from 57 patients at risk for IPA, including 20 probable and five proven IPA patients, revealed a 88% or 38% sensitivity in direct examination (DE)/culture-positive or culture-negative BAL, respectively, whereas galactomannan (GM) sensitivity reached 88% or 58%, respectively. Influence on the Aspergillus-PCR yield of BAL fluid volume, cellular count and DNA content (evaluated by human beta-globin quantification) was assessed. Significantly higher beta-globin levels were detected in Aspergillus PCR-positive (median 5,112 pg/microl) than negative (median 1,332 pg/microl) BAL fluids, suggesting that the beta-globin level could reflect BAL yields and DNA extraction. Using beta-globin for the interpretation of fungal PCR could improve the negative predictive value of this test. PMID:18763000

  2. Effect of sulphurous mineral water in haematological and biochemical markers of muscle damage after an endurance exercise in well-trained athletes.

    PubMed

    Soria, Marisol; González-Haro, Carlos; Esteva, Santiago; Escanero, Jesús F; Pina, José R

    2014-01-01

    To investigate the effects of sulphurous mineral water (SMW) after a hydroponic treatment on muscle damage, antioxidant activity and peripheral blood changes induced by submaximal exercise. Thirty well-trained male triathletes were supplemented with SMW or placebo: 3 weeks of placebo, 30 days of wash out and 3 weeks of SMW. After both periods, participants ran for 2 h at 70% maximal aerobic speed. Antioxidant enzymes, lipid peroxidation, antioxidant capacity and blood cell markers were compared between placebo and SMW at pre-exercise (T0), immediately post-exercise (T1), 24 h post-exercise (T2) and 48 h post-exercise (T3). Total thiols decreased until T3 vs. T0 for both placebo and SMW; transient red blood cells, haemoglobin and haematocrit increased were shown at T1 vs. T0 and for leucocytes until T2 vs. T0, only for placebo group. Total thiols increased significantly in SMW vs. placebo at T0; Thiobarbituric acid reactive species was significantly higher at T0, T1, T2 and T3; catalase increased significantly at T1; creatine phosphokinase decreased significantly at T1, T2 and T3, although no significant differences were found at T0. Furthermore, red blood cells, haemoglobin and haematocrit were significantly higher and leucocytes were significantly lower at T0 and T1 in SMW group vs. placebo group. This study suggests that three weeks of SMW supplementation may protect from exercise-induced muscle damage. PMID:24499262

  3. Acute effects of chemically dispersed crude oil on gill ion regulation, plasma ion levels and haematological parameters in tambaqui (Colossoma macropomum).

    PubMed

    Duarte, Rafael Mendonça; Honda, Rubens Tomio; Val, Adalberto Luis

    2010-04-15

    The main goal of this study was to investigate the toxicological effects of the chemical dispersant Corexit 9500, crude oil and the combination of the two components in the form of chemically dispersed crude oil (CO+DIS) on the ion regulation of the tropical fish tambaqui (Colossoma macropomum). Gill ion regulation was evaluated on the basis of unidirectional flux measurements (influx-J(in), efflux-J(out) and net flux-J(net)) of Na(+), Cl(-) and K(+). Plasma ion composition, haematocrit, haemoglobin and glucose concentrations in the blood of tambaqui were determined by classical methods. The exposure of fish to chemically dispersed crude oil promoted a significant increase in J(out) Na(+) across the gills, which, together with the inability of fish to stimulate Na(+) uptake to compensate for these losses resulted in significantly higher J(net) Na(+) outward, particularly within the first 3h of exposure. Increased outward J(net) Cl(-) was also seen in fish that were exposed to dispersed crude oil, whereas outward J(net) K(+) was only increased at crude oil dispersed in higher concentration of Corexit 9500. Plasma Na(+) and Cl(-) concentrations decreased between 6 and 12h of exposure, whereas Ca(2+) concentrations remained significantly lower than those of the control group over the entire experimental period. There were significant increases in plasma K(+) concentrations and in the haematocrit after 6 and 24h of exposure to dispersed crude oil, suggesting significant changes in the permeability of the erythrocytic membrane. Collectively, our results suggest that chemically dispersed crude oil promotes a more extensive impairment of gill ion regulation, in addition to changes in plasma ion levels and blood parameters, in tambaqui compared with exposure to Urucu crude oil or Corexit 9500 alone. Thus, in the event of an oil spill in Amazonian waters, the chemical dispersion of Urucu crude oil could represent a great risk to tambaqui, challenging their ability to maintain ionic and osmotic gradients in native ion-poor waters. PMID:20097436

  4. Evaluation of Biochemical, Haematological, and Histopathological Responses and Recovery Ability of Common Carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) after Acute Exposure to Atrazine Herbicide

    PubMed Central

    Blahova, Jana; Modra, Helena; Sevcikova, Marie; Marsalek, Petr; Zelnickova, Lenka; Skoric, Misa; Svobodova, Zdenka

    2014-01-01

    The aim of study was to evaluate the effect of atrazine exposure (5, 15, 20, and 30 mg·L−1) on common carp and the ability of regeneration. During 96 h exposure we observed abnormal behavior in fish exposed to 20 and 30 mg·L−1. Mortality and histological alterations were noticed only in the group exposed to 30 mg·L−1. Most experimental groups showed significantly (P < 0.05) lower values of haemoglobin, haematocrit, leukocyte, and lymphocyte and significantly higher values of monocytes, segmented and band neutrophile granulocytes, and also metamyelocytes and myelocytes. A significantly lower (P < 0.05) leukocyte count was also recorded in experimental groups (5 and 15 mg·L−1) after recovery period. Statistically significant (P < 0.05) alterations in glucose, total protein, lactate, phosphorus, calcium, and biopterin as well as in activities of ALT, AST, ALP, and LDH were found in most experimental groups. These changes were most apparent in the groups exposed to 20 and 30 mg·L−1. Most of the indices were found to be restored after the 7-day recovery period with the exception of LDH, ALT, and lactate in the group exposed to 15 mg·L−1. Our results showed that atrazine exposure had a profound negative influence on selected indices and also on histological changes of common carp. PMID:24791011

  5. Consumption of brown onions (Allium cepa var. cavalier and var. destiny) moderately modulates blood lipids, haematological and haemostatic variables in healthy pigs.

    PubMed

    Ostrowska, Ewa; Gabler, Nicholas K; Sterling, Sam J; Tatham, Brendan G; Jones, Rodney B; Eagling, David R; Jois, Mark; Dunshea, Frank R

    2004-02-01

    Although garlic and onions have long been associated with putative cardiovascular health benefits, the effects of different commercially available onions and level of intake have not been studied. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to evaluate the potential health benefits of raw onions using the pig as a biomedical model. Twenty-five female (Large White x Landrace) pigs were used in a (2 x 2)+1 factorial experiment. Pigs were fed a standard grower diet supplemented with 100 g tallow/kg with the addition of Allium cepa var. cavalier or var. destiny at 0, 10 or 25 g/MJ digestible energy for 6 weeks. Overall, the consumption of onions resulted in significant reductions in plasma triacylglycerol; however, the reductions were most pronounced in pigs fed destiny onions (-26 %, P=0.042). Total plasma cholesterol and LDL:HDL ratios were not significantly different. Onion supplementation, regardless of the variety, resulted in dose-dependent reductions in erythrocyte counts and Hb levels, while the white blood cell concentrations, particularly lymphocytes, were increased in pigs that consumed onions. Furthermore, indices of blood clotting were largely unaffected by onion consumption. In conclusion, dietary supplementation with raw brown onions has moderate lipid-modulating and immunostimulatory properties. However, daily onion intake >25 g/MJ digestible energy could be detrimental to erythrocyte numbers. PMID:14756906

  6. Clinical characteristics of 15 children with juvenile myelomonocytic leukaemia who developed blast crisis: MDS Committee of Japanese Society of Paediatric Haematology/Oncology.

    PubMed

    Honda, Yuko; Tsuchida, Masahiro; Zaike, Yuji; Masunaga, Atsuko; Yoshimi, Ayami; Kojima, Seiji; Ito, Masafumi; Kikuchi, Akira; Nakahata, Tatsutoshi; Manabe, Atsushi

    2014-06-01

    Juvenile myelomonocytic leukaemia (JMML) is a rare haematopoietic stem cell disease of early childhood, which can progress to blast crisis in some children. A total of 153 children diagnosed with JMML were reported to the Myelodysplastic Syndrome Committee in Japan between 1989 and 2007; 15 of them (9·8%) had 20% or more blasts in the bone marrow (blast crisis) during the disease course. Blast crisis occurred during observation without therapy (n = 3) or with oral 6-mercaptopurine treatment (n = 9) and in relapse after haematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT; n = 3). Six patients had a complex karyotype (5 including monosomy 7) and an additional three patients had isolated monosomy 7 at blast crisis. Seven patients received HSCT after blast crisis and four of them achieved remission. Eleven out of the 15 patients died; the cause of death was disease progression in 10 patients and transplant-related complication in one patient. In summary, patients with blast crisis have poor prognosis and can be cured only by HSCT. The emergence of monosomy 7 and complex karyotype may be characteristic of blast crisis in a substantial subset of children. PMID:24588411

  7. Haematological effects of rhGM-CSF in dogs exposed to total-body irradiation with a dose of 2.4 Gy.

    PubMed

    Nothdurft, W; Selig, C; Fliedner, T M; Hintz-Obertreis, P; Kreja, L; Krumwieh, D; Kurrle, R; Seiler, F R; Weinsheimer, W

    1992-04-01

    It was the specific aim of this study to test the stimulatory effects of recombinant human GM-CSF (rhGM-CSF) on haemopoietic regeneration in dogs which had received total-body irradiation (TBI) with a dose of 2.4 Gy. In normal dogs rhGM-CSF given subcutaneously at 10 microgram/kg per day or 30 microgram/kg per day for 21 days caused strong but transient increases in the peripheral blood neutrophils. The monocyte counts also showed a transient rise during treatment in a dose-dependent fashion, whereas the lymphocyte counts increased only at the higher dose of rhGM-CSF and the platelet counts were transiently depressed during the course of the treatment. In the irradiated animals treatment with rhGM-CSF decreased the severity and shortened the duration of neutropenia but had no significant influence on monocyte or lymphocyte recovery. The granulocyte values showed a characteristic pattern of fluctuations with the first peak occurring at the same time (day 10 to day 13) when the abortive rise was observed in the untreated dogs. In contrast the GM-CFC in the peripheral blood remained depressed during the whole treatment course, similar to the untreated irradiated controls. These results indicate that treatment with GM-CSF can be an effective biological monotherapy for radiation-induced bone marrow failure, but that for higher radiation doses the number of GM-CSF responsive target cells will become a critical determinant of therapeutic efficacy. PMID:1349334

  8. Simple Blood Test May Predict a Blood Cancer's Return

    MedlinePlus

    ... number of European countries, said study author Dr. David Grimwade. He is a professor of molecular haematology ... the Children's Hospital of Wisconsin in Milwaukee. SOURCES: David Grimwade, M.D., Ph.D., professor, molecular haematology, ...

  9. Compliance with Home-based Fortification Strategies for Delivery of Iron and Zinc: Its Effect on Haematological and Growth Markers among 6-24 months Old Children in North India

    PubMed Central

    Dhingra, Pratibha; Dhingra, Usha; Gupta, Shilpi; Iyengar, Venkatesh; Menon, Venugopal P.; Sarkar, Archana; Black, Robert E.

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Compliance is a key component in successful implementation of the delivery of micronutrients among children. The present study evaluates the compliance with two home-based food fortification strategies (fortified complementary food or sprinkle) for providing iron and zinc among children aged 6-24 months. A total of 292 children were randomly allocated to receive either rice-based fortified complementary food and nutrition education (Cf=101), sprinkle and nutrition education (Mp=97), or nutrition education alone as control (Ed=94). All the enrolled children were breastfed at the beginning of the study and were advised to continue breastfeeding. Biweekly information on compliance and anthropometry was collected. Complete haemogram estimation was conducted at baseline and end of the study. Compliance with the fortified complementary food was higher compared to sprinkle (Cf=81%, Mp=64% child-days). Consumption of the fortified complementary food for 6 months resulted in a significant increase in mean haemoglobin in the intervention group compared to control group (Cf 1.29±1.6 g/dL; Ed 0.23±1.3 g/dL; p<0.001). Our results showed that fortified complementary food had higher compliance than sprinkle and is a suitable delivery mechanism for iron and zinc in preschool children. PMID:25076659

  10. Outcomes of haematopoietic stem cell transplantation for inherited metabolic disorders: a report from the Australian and New Zealand Children's Haematology Oncology Group and the Australasian Bone Marrow Transplant Recipient Registry.

    PubMed

    Mitchell, R; Nivison-Smith, I; Anazodo, A; Tiedemann, K; Shaw, P J; Teague, L; Fraser, C J; Carter, T L; Tapp, H; Alvaro, F; O'Brien, T A

    2013-09-01

    We report a retrospective analysis of 53 haematopoietic stem cell transplants for inherited metabolic disorders performed at ANZCHOG transplant centres between 1992 and 2008. Indications for transplant included Hurler syndrome, ALD, and MLD. The majority of transplants utilized unrelated donor stem cells (66%) with 65% of those being unrelated cord blood. Conditioning therapy was largely myeloablative, with Bu plus another cytotoxic agent used in 89% of recipients. Primary graft failure was rare, occurring in three patients, all of whom remain long-term survivors following the second transplant. The CI of grade II-IV and grade III-IV acute GVHD at day +100 was 39% and 14%, respectively. Chronic GVHD occurred in 17% of recipients. TRM was 12% at day +100 and 19% at one yr post-transplant. OS at five yr was 78% for the cohort, 73% for patients with ALD and 83% for patients with Hurler syndrome. There was no statistically significant difference in overall survival between unrelated marrow and unrelated cord blood donor groups. The development of interstitial pneumonitis was an independent variable shown to significantly impact on TRM and OS. In summary, we report a large cohort of patients with inherited metabolic disorders with excellent survival post-allogeneic transplant. PMID:23802616

  11. An initial investigation into the effects of isolation and enrichment on the welfare of labratory pigs housed in the PigTurn® system, assessed using tear staining, behaviour, physiology and haematology

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The pig is an increasingly important laboratory animal species. However, a laboratory often requires individual, sterile housing, which may impose stress. Our objective was to determine the effects of isolation and enrichment in pigs housed for 7 days within the PigTurn™ - a novel penning system wit...

  12. Improving outcome through two decades in childhood ALL in the Nordic countries: the impact of high-dose methotrexate in the reduction of CNS irradiation. Nordic Society of Pediatric Haematology and Oncology (NOPHO).

    PubMed

    Gustafsson, G; Schmiegelow, K; Forestier, E; Clausen, N; Glomstein, A; Jonmundsson, G; Mellander, L; Mäkipernaa, A; Nygaard, R; Saarinen-Pihkala, U M

    2000-12-01

    In this population-based material from the five Nordic countries (Denmark, Finland, Iceland, Norway and Sweden), 2860 children below 15 years of age were diagnosed with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) from July 1981 to June 1998. The annual incidence was 3.9/100,000 children and was stable throughout the study period. The development from regional or national protocols to common Nordic treatment protocols for all risk groups was completed in 1992 through a successive intensification with multidrug chemotherapy, including pulses of methotrexate in high doses and avoidance of cranial irradiation in most children. The overall event-free survival (EFS) at 5 years has increased from 56.5 +/- 1.7% in the early 1980s to 77.6 +/- 1.4% during the 1990s. The main improvements were seen in children with non-high risk leukemia. In high-risk patients, progress has been moderate, especially in children with high WBC (> or =100 x 10(9)/l) at diagnosis. During the last time period (January 1992-June 1998), only 10% of the patients have received cranial irradiation in first remission, while 90% of the patients have received pulses of high dose methotrexate (5-8 g/m2) isolated or combined with high-dose cytosine arabinoside (total dose 12 g/m2) plus multiple intrathecal injections of methotrexate as CNS-targeted treatment, not translating into increased cumulative incidence of CNS relapse. PMID:11187918

  13. Long-term survival and development of secondary malignancies in patients with acute myeloid leukemia treated with aclarubicin or daunorubicin plus cytosine arabinoside followed by intensive consolidation chemotherapy in a Danish national phase III trial. Danish Society of Haematology Study Group on AML.

    PubMed

    de Nully Brown, P; Hoffmann, T; Hansen, O P; Boesen, A M; Grønbaek, K; Hippe, E; Jensen, M K; Thorling, K; Storm, H H; Pedersen-Bjergaard, J

    1997-01-01

    In 1991 we reported the results from a prospective randomised phase 3 trial comparing 7 days continuous infusion of cytosine arabinoside (ara-C) combined with either daunorubicin (DNR) or aclarubicin (ACR) as direct i.v. injection for 3 days as induction chemotherapy (CT) for patients with de novo acute myeloid leukemia (AML) followed by early intensive consolidation CT with two alternating cycles of high-dose ara-C and two cycles of amsacrine plus etoposide, and finally 3 days of daunomycin plus 7 days of ara-C as administered for induction of remission. A total of 174 patients with de novo AML in the age group 17-65 years were included. The patients have now been followed till death or for at least 7 years, and an evaluation of the long-term survival and the risk of developing secondary neoplasms has been made. The overall survival rate 5-years after diagnosis was 23%, and after 10 years 19%. No difference was found between the two treatment regimens in overall survival or disease-free survival (DFS). For the subgroup of 99 patients who achieved complete remission after one or two induction courses, 5- and 10-year survival rates were 35% and 31% respectively, with the highest survival rates in the age group 17-39 years (57% at 5 years) as compared with 27% in patients aged 40-60 years (P= 0.007). Seven secondary neoplasms were diagnosed simultaneously with or after the diagnosis of AML indicating a standardized incidence ratio (SIR) of 3.41, (95% CI: 1.60-7.26). In three cases the secondary neoplasms were diagnosed simultaneously with the AML diagnosis and were for that reason completely unrelated to the chemotherapy administered for AML, as the psammomatous meningeoma diagnosed after only 8 months. The remaining three neoplasms which developed subsequently did not significantly exceed the expected number, with a SIR = 1.46 (0.47-4.57). Thus, no increased risk of solid tumors causally related to the intensive chemotherapy for de novo AML was observed. However, a generally increased risk of solid tumors in patients diagnosed simultaneously with the AML diagnosis seems likely. Over 20% of the patients were alive and in complete remission 5 years after the AML diagnosis, and they have a high probability of surviving the next 5-year period. PMID:9001416

  14. ANALYSIS OF THE VOLUME OF RED BLOOD CELLS: APPLICATION OF THE EXPECTATION-MAXIMIZATION ALGORITHM TO GROUPED DATA FROM THE DOUBLY-TRUNCATED LOGNORMAL DISTRIBUTION

    EPA Science Inventory

    In accordance with general principles recommended by the International Committee for Standardization in Haematology (1982, Journal of Clinical Pathology 35, 1320-1322), the authors have developed statistical methods for the analysis of red cell volume distributions. To select an ...

  15. Graves' disease mimicking beta-thalassemia trait.

    PubMed Central

    Akasheh, M. S.

    1994-01-01

    A case of Graves' disease associated with splenomegaly, lymphadenopathy, microcytic hypochromic anaemia, and a raised haemoglobin A2 is presented. The haematological indices returned to normal after conventional treatment with anti-thyroid medication. PMID:8183779

  16. Graves' disease mimicking beta-thalassemia trait.

    PubMed

    Akasheh, M S

    1994-04-01

    A case of Graves' disease associated with splenomegaly, lymphadenopathy, microcytic hypochromic anaemia, and a raised haemoglobin A2 is presented. The haematological indices returned to normal after conventional treatment with anti-thyroid medication. PMID:8183779

  17. Multiple toxicity studies of trehalose in mice by intragastric administration.

    PubMed

    Liu, Mingyuan; Zhang, Meishuo; Ye, Haiqing; Lin, Songyi; Yang, Yi; Wang, Liying; Jones, Gregory; Trang, Hung

    2013-01-15

    In the present study, aberration, body weight, food consumption, haematology, organ coefficients, and both gross and microscopic appearance of some histiocytes were compared between the test and control groups. A sperm abnormality test, bone marrow cell micronucleus test, and a haematology study were conducted at levels of 1.25 g/kg, 2.5 g/kg, and 5 g/kg of trehalose. In both the sperm abnormality test and bone marrow cell micronucleus test, statistically significant differences were observed between the positive control and treatment groups (P<0.05), while no statistical difference was observed among the negative control, high dose, moderate dose and low dose groups (P>0.05). In the haematology study, there was no significant difference found from the controls at P>0.05. The results obtained in the present study could support the conclusion that consumption of trehalose has no adverse effects for humans. PMID:23122088

  18. Hematological parameters in Polish mixed breed rabbits with addition of meat breed blood in the annual cycle.

    PubMed

    Tokarz-Deptuła, B; Niedźwiedzka-Rystwej, P; Adamiak, M; Hukowska-Szematowicz, B; Trzeciak-Ryczek, A; Deptuła, W

    2015-01-01

    In the paper we studied haematologic values, such as haemoglobin concentration, haematocrit value, thrombocytes, leucocytes: lymphocytes, neutrophils, basophils, eosinophils and monocytes in the pheral blood in Polish mixed-breeds with addition of meat breed blood in order to obtain the reference values which are until now not available for this animals. In studying this indices we took into consideration the impact of the season (spring, summer, autumn, winter), and sex of the animals. The studies have shown a high impact of the season of the year on those rabbits, but only in spring and summer. Moreover we observed that the sex has mean impact on the studied values of haematological parameters in those rabbits. According to our knowledge, this is the first paper on haematologic values in this widely used group of rabbits, so they may serve as reference values. PMID:26812808

  19. Conflicting HLA assignment by three different typing methods due to the apparent loss of heterozygosity in the MHC region.

    PubMed

    Linjama, T; Impola, U; Niittyvuopio, R; Kuittinen, O; Kaare, A; Rimpiläinen, J; Volin, L; Peräsaari, J; Jaatinen, T; Lauronen, J; Saarinen, T; Juvonen, E; Partanen, J; Koskela, S

    2016-05-01

    Loss of heterozygosity (LOH) has been reported to cause false human leukocyte antigen (HLA) homozygous typing results in pre-transplant patients suffering from haematological malignancies, who in fact are HLA heterozygous. This poses a challenge for histocompatibility testing, as a stem cell graft from a genuinely HLA homozygous donor to a mistyped patient may lead to acute life-threatening graft-vs-host disease. LOH in the HLA region on chromosome 6 is known to be quite common in solid tumours, helping malignant cells to escape T-cell surveillance, but the incidence in haematological malignancies is less well known and the estimates vary. Here we report LOH in the HLA region of five patients with haematological malignancy. We found considerable differences in sensitivity between the three different HLA typing methods used in our laboratory: SSP was clearly the most sensitive method for detecting the lost haplotype, followed by rSSO, while SBT was the least sensitive technique. A subsequent, retrospective genotyping of 65 HLA homozygous haematological patients by SSP method showed no mistyped LOH cases in our laboratory in the past 10 years. The frequency of HLA homozygosity was found to be similar between haematological patients and control groups. It is important for an HLA laboratory to be aware of the differences in various HLA typing techniques' sensitivity for detecting an under-represented haplotype between HLA typing techniques when genotyping patients with haematological diseases. It is advisable for HLA laboratories to have at least two different methods with different sensitivities in their repertoire to be able to retype samples when a false homozygous result is suspected. PMID:26969202

  20. Altitude exposure in sports: the Athlete Biological Passport standpoint.

    PubMed

    Sanchis-Gomar, Fabian; Pareja-Galeano, Helios; Brioche, Thomas; Martinez-Bello, Vladimir; Lippi, Giuseppe

    2014-03-01

    The Athlete Biological Passport (ABP) is principally founded on monitoring an athlete's biological variables over time, to identify abnormal biases on a longitudinal basis. Several factors are known to influence the results of these markers. However, the manner in which the altitude factor is taken into account still needs to be standardized. Causal relationships between haematological variables should be correctly integrated into ABP software. In particular, modifications of haematological parameters during and after exposure to different altitudes/hypoxic protocols need to be properly included within detection models. PMID:24115763

  1. [Guidelines for the treatment of invasive fungal disease by Aspergillus spp. and other fungi issued by the Spanish Society of Infectious Diseases and Clinical Microbiology (SEIMC). 2011 Update].

    PubMed

    Fortún, Jesús; Carratalá, Jordi; Gavaldá, Joan; Lizasoain, Manuel; Salavert, Miguel; de la Cámara, Rafael; Borges, Marcio; Cervera, Carlos; Garnacho, José; Lassaleta, Álvaro; Lumbreras, Carlos; Sanz, Miguel Ángel; Ramos, José T; Torre-Cisneros, Julián; Aguado, José M; Cuenca-Estrella, Manuel

    2011-01-01

    The guidelines on the treatment of invasive fungal disease by Aspergillus spp. and other fungi issued by the Spanish Society of Infectious Diseases and Clinical Microbiology (SEIMC) are presented. These recommendations are focused on four clinical categories: oncology-haematology patients, solid organ transplant recipients, patients admitted to intensive care units, and children. An extensive review is made of therapeutical advances and scientific evidence in these settings. These guidelines have been prepared according the SEIMC consensus rules by a working group composed of specialists in infectious diseases, clinical microbiology, critical care medicine, paediatrics and oncology-haematology. Specific recommendations on the prevention of fungal infections in these patients are included. PMID:21474210

  2. Complete system control: an object-oriented approach.

    PubMed

    Young, C J

    1990-01-01

    This paper discusses some of the principles for complete system control for automated multiparameter haematology instruments. A method of analysing the control requirements is used, object-oriented flow diagramming, that combines concepts and notation from object-oriented programming with graphical flow diagramming to produce a model of a haematology instrument's reagent and sample flow during sample analysis. The model is used to analyse the control materials and control mechanisms for components, subsystems and the integrated system. The steps in the method are illustrated using two examples: the cyanmethaemoglobin method and the Coulter VCS leukocyte differential counter. PMID:2282771

  3. Consensus Report of the XI Congress of the Spanish Society of Odontology for the Handicapped and Special Patients

    PubMed Central

    Cabrerizo-Merino, Carmen; Cutando-Soriano, Antonio; Giménez-Prats, María J.; Silvestre-Donat, Farncisco J.; Tomás-Carmona, Inmaculada

    2014-01-01

    This article summarizes the findings of consensus of the XI congress of the SEOEME. All of these conclusions are referring to the review articles responsible to the general rapporteurs in order to bringing up to date knowledge with regard to the use of implants in patients medically compromised and with special needs and, in the dental management of autism and cerebral palsy, in the dental treatment of patients with genetic and adquired haematological disorders, the dental implications of cardiovascular disease and hospital dentistry. Key words:Autism, cardiovascular diseases, cerebral palsy, dental implants, disabled patients, haematological disorders, hospital dentistry. PMID:24608224

  4. [Radioecological problems of aquatic ecosystems of the Chernobyl exclusion zone].

    PubMed

    Gudkov, D I; Kuz'menko, M I; Kireev, S I; Nazarov, A B; Shevtsova, N L; Dziubenko, E V; Kaglian, A E

    2009-01-01

    The results of radioactive contamination dynamics in the main components of aquatic ecosystems and the absorbed dose rate for hydrobionts within the Chernobyl accident exclusion zone was analysed. Some cytogenetical and haematological effects of long-term irradiation on aquatic organisms as well as damage of higher aquatic plants by parasitic fungi and gall-producing arthropods were considered. PMID:19507688

  5. [Veterinary aspects of the raising of mountain goats (Oreamnos americanus)].

    PubMed

    Seidel, B

    1991-03-01

    An empirical report outlines veterinary problems in Rocky Mountain Goats kept in climatic conditions of Central Europe. Described are therapeutic findings in the treatment of infections, parasitosis, disorders of the extremities, disturbances of reproduction, and injuries as well as haematological findings and experiences made during immobilization of Rocky Mountain Goats. PMID:2049057

  6. [Organisation of the haemato-oncology day hospital].

    PubMed

    Bernard, Marguerite; Gohier, Amélie; Laroche, Amandine; Trivino, Béatrice; Granjard-Goy, Florence

    2015-01-01

    A haematology day hospital service comprises numerous professionals, enabling a wide diversity of care procedures to be carried out. The child has specific needs to which the team attempts to respond within a few hours. The care management is global and personalised. PMID:26183095

  7. The toxicology of Amanita virosa: the destroying angel.

    PubMed

    Bonnet, M S; Basson, P W

    2004-10-01

    This paper examines the biology and medical consequences of ingesting the potentially lethal poisonous mushroom, Amanita virosa, the Destroying Angel. The fungus, its structure, distribution and toxic components are described. Symptoms of human poisoning by A. virosa are described, following the order of Homeopathic Repertories. Laboratory values for comparison with normal values of haematology, biochemistry and urine analyses are given. PMID:15532702

  8. Localized oral Fusarium infection in an AIDS patient with malignant lymphoma.

    PubMed

    Paugam, A; Baixench, M T; Frank, N; Bossi, P; de Pinieux, G; Tourte-Schaefer, C; Dupouy-Camet, J

    1999-09-01

    We report here a case of localized oral Fusarium infection in an AIDS patient who developed an ulceration in the soft palate. Fusarium solani was identified by histopathology and culture. We believe this to be the second reported case of oral Fusarium infection in a patient with haematological malignancy and the first reported association of oral Fusarium infection with AIDS. PMID:10609534

  9. Visceral Leishmaniasis in a UK Toddler following a Short Trip to a Popular Holiday Destination in Spain

    PubMed Central

    Ladhani, Shamez N.

    2014-01-01

    We herein present the case of a 15-month-old with visceral leishmaniasis diagnosed in the UK following a short trip to a popular holiday destination in Spain. Four months after the initial symptoms, the diagnosis was made incidentally on microscopy of a bone marrow biopsy taken for suspected haematological malignancy after the child developed hepatosplenomegaly, pancytopaenia, and Klebsiella pneumoniae septicaemia. PMID:25180113

  10. Raynaud's disease.

    PubMed Central

    Burns, E C; Dunger, D B; Dillon, M J

    1985-01-01

    We report five children who presented with Raynaud's disease in whom we could find no clinical, haematological, or immunological evidence of a collagen disorder. Oral phenoxybenzamine proved useful for maintenance treatment in most, with infusions of prostacyclin, nitroprusside, and ketanserin during acute attacks. PMID:3160308

  11. A rare adverse reaction to ethambutol: drug-induced haemolytic anaemia.

    PubMed

    Nicolini, A; Perazzo, A; Gatto, P; Piroddi, I M G; Barlascini, C; Karamichali, S; Strada, P

    2016-05-01

    Anti-tuberculosis drugs seldom cause serious haematological side effects. However, among these drugs, isoniazid and rifampicin, especially when administered intermittently, may very rarely be linked to acute autoimmune haemolytic anaemia. Ethambutol (EMB) can cause dose-related retrobulbar neuritis. In this paper, we present the first reported case of acute fatal autoimmune haemolytic anaemia due to EMB. PMID:27084828

  12. Changes in non-specific biomarkers in the Mediterranean barbel (Barbus meridionalis) exposed to sewage effluents in a Mediterranean stream (Catalonia, NE Spain).

    PubMed

    Maceda-Veiga, Alberto; Monroy, Mario; Viscor, Gins; De Sostoa, Adolfo

    2010-11-01

    The effluents from sewage treatment plants strongly influence the water quality and flow of Mediterranean streams. These effluents play a crucial role in maintaining the aquatic communities of these ecosystems, particularly in the absence of natural flow resulting from climate constraints or intensive water use. To detect the ecological effects of these effluents, we used non-lethal biomarkers in Barbus meridionalis and traditional assessment protocols in the Ripoll River (NE of Spain). Our results demonstrate the utility of haematological parameters. In comparison with fish at reference sites, we detected a decrease in haematocrit and haemoglobin, neutrophilia, lymphopenia, monocytosis, a rise in the nucleo-cytoplasmatic ratio of erythrocytes and an increase in the frequency of abnormal, immature and senescent erythrocytes. Many haematological parameters correlated significantly with the environmental parameters measured. In addition to these haematological alterations, histopathological examination also revealed damage in fish livers but no impact was detected by the regional index of biotic integrity using fish as bioindicators. To the best of our knowledge, this study is the first to report this battery of haematological parameters as biomarkers on a freshwater fish in a Mediterranean stream. In a region in which more than 50% of native fish species are classified as endangered or vulnerable, there is an urgent need to find biomarkers that do not harm the animals. PMID:20810176

  13. West Syndrome in an Infant with Vitamin B[subscript 12] Deficiency in the Absence of Macrocytic Anaemia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Erol, Ilknur; Alehan, Fusun; Gumus, Ayten

    2007-01-01

    Vitamin B[subscript 12] deficiency in infants often produces haematological and neurological deficits, including macrocytic anaemia, neurodevelopmental delay or regression, irritability, weakness, hypotonia, ataxia, apathy, tremor, and seizures. The diagnosis of vitamin B[subscript 12] deficiency can be difficult when the typical macrocytic…

  14. Hair Zinc Level in Down Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yenigun, Ayse; Ozkinay, Ferda; Cogulu, Ozgur; Coker, Canan; Cetiner, Nurten; Ozden, Gonca; Aksu, Oguz; Ozkinay, Cihangir

    2004-01-01

    Immunological, endocrinological, and haematological abnormalities are relatively common in people with Down syndrome (Cuadrado & Barrena, 1996; Decoq & Vincker, 1995; Hestnes et al., 1991; Sustrova & Strbak, 1994; Nespoli, Burgio, Ugazio & Maccario, 1993; Kempski, Chessells & Reeves, 1997; Kivivuori, Rajantie, & Siimes, 1996; David et al., 1996;…

  15. Drug-induced haemolysis, renal failure, thrombocytopenia and lactic acidosis in patients with HIV and cryptococcal meningitis: a diagnostic challenge.

    PubMed

    Camara-Lemarroy, Carlos R; Flores-Cantu, Hazael; Calderon-Hernandez, Hector J; Diaz-Torres, Marco A; Villareal-Velazquez, Hector J

    2015-12-01

    Patients with HIV are at risk of both primary and secondary haematological disorders. We report two cases of patients with HIV and cryptococcal meningitis who developed severe haemolytic anaemia, thrombocytopenia, renal failure and lactic acidosis while on treatment with amphotericin B and co-trimoxazole. PMID:25614519

  16. West Syndrome in an Infant with Vitamin B[subscript 12] Deficiency in the Absence of Macrocytic Anaemia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Erol, Ilknur; Alehan, Fusun; Gumus, Ayten

    2007-01-01

    Vitamin B[subscript 12] deficiency in infants often produces haematological and neurological deficits, including macrocytic anaemia, neurodevelopmental delay or regression, irritability, weakness, hypotonia, ataxia, apathy, tremor, and seizures. The diagnosis of vitamin B[subscript 12] deficiency can be difficult when the typical macrocytic

  17. Effects of social isolation and environmental enrichment on laboratory housed pigs

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The pig is becoming an increasingly important laboratory animal species. However, a laboratory setting often requires individual and sterile housing, which may impose stress. The objective of this study was to determine physiological, haematological and behavioral effects of isolation and environmen...

  18. Case Report. Prevention of Clozapine-Induced Granulocytopenia/Agranulocytosis with Granulocyte-Colony Stimulating Factor (G-CSF) in an Intellectually Disabled Patient with Schizophrenia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rajagopal, G.; Graham, J. G.; Haut, F. F. A.

    2007-01-01

    Background: While clozapine is an effective treatment for refractory schizophrenia, its use is limited by haematological side effects. Treatment options that allow continued prescription of clozapine by tackling these side effects will greatly aid patients for whom this medication is all too often their only hope of recovery. Method: In this case…

  19. Ground-breaking in more ways than one.

    PubMed

    Baillie, Jonathan

    2009-06-01

    A new cancer treatment and haematology centre which brings together into one modern, "cutting edge" facility oncology services from a diverse range of properties, many of them 1940s-built, at Oxford's Churchill Hospital, is claimed to be among the most eco-friendly, as well as technologically advanced, such units yet seen in Europe. Jonathan Baillie reports. PMID:19624041

  20. Malaria Diagnosis Using Automated Analysers: A Boon for Hematopathologists in Endemic Areas

    PubMed Central

    Narang, Vikram; Sood, Neena; Garg, Bhavna; Gupta, Vikram Kumar

    2015-01-01

    Background Haematological abnormalities are common in acute febrile tropical illnesses. Malaria is a major health problem in tropics. In endemic areas especially in the post monsoon season, it is not practical to manually screen all peripheral blood films (PBF) for malarial parasite. Automated analysers offer rapid, sensitive and cost effective screening of all samples. Aim The study was done to evaluate the usefulness of automated cell counters analysing their histograms, scatter-grams and the flaggings generated in malaria positive and negative cases. The comparison of other haematological parameters were also studied which could help to identify malaria parasite in peripheral blood smear. Materials and Methods The blood samples were analysed using Beckman coulter LH-750. The abnormal scatter grams and additional peaks in WBC histograms were observed diligently & compared with normal controls. Haematological abnormalities were also evaluated. Statistical Analysis Statistical analysis was done by using software Epi-Info version 7.1.4 freely available from CDC website. Fisher exact test was applied to calculate the p-value and value < 0.05 was considered as significant. Final identification of malarial parasite species was done independently by peripheral blood smear examination by two pathologists. Results Of all the 200 cases evaluated abnormal scatter grams were observed in all the cases of malaria while abnormal WBC histogram peaks were noted in 96% cases demonstrating a peak at the threshold of the histogram. The difference between number of slides positive for abnormal WBC scatter gram and abnormal WBC histogram peaks were statistically highly significant (p=0.007). So abnormal WBC scatter gram can better give idea of malarial parasite presence. Of the haematological parameters thrombocytopenia (92% cases) emerged as the strongest predictor of malaria. Conclusion It is recommended for haematopathologists to review the haematological data and the scatter plots on the analyser along with peripheral blood smear examination. PMID:26557525

  1. Distribution of Different PML/RARα bcr Isoforms in Indian Acute Promyelocytic Leukemia (APL) Patients and Clinicohematological Correlation

    PubMed Central

    Chatterjee, Tathagata; Gupta, Srishti; Sharma, Sanjeevan; Ganguli, Prosenjit

    2014-01-01

    Context Acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL), an AML subtype, is characterized morphologically by abnormal promyelocytes. Molecular studies show three possible bcr isoforms of PML-RARα fusion gene. This study undertakes analysis of PML-RARα bcr isoforms and their correlation with haematological parameters and response to treatment in Indian patients. Aims To study different PML-RARα bcr isoforms in Indian patients and to find any correlation with various haematological parameters and response to treatment Settings and Design Patients diagnosed as APL on morphology or flowcytometry and confirmed by RQ PCR were included in the study. Treated APL patients or patients with relapse and on follow-up were excluded from the study. Methods and Material Twenty patients over thirty one months period were included. The clinical, haematological & morphological features were analysed, the latter using routine & special cytochemical stains on blood and bone marrow. Flow cytometric evaluation using 4-color Beckman Coulter FC 500 and molecular studies using RT PCR Fusion Quant® kits for bcr-1, bcr-2 and bcr-3 of PML-RARα bcr isoforms on the instrument Rotor Gene™ 3000 were performed. Statistical analysis used Student t test was applied to correlate different bcr isoforms with various haematological parameters and response to treatment. Results In our study, M:F ratio was 1.5:1 with median age 42 years, Hb - 8.0 g/dl, TLC-7900/μl, and platelet – 35000/μl and varied clinical presentation. Four patients were microgranular variants, and the rest were hypergranular. MPO and CAE positivity were100% and for NSE it was 33.33%. Molecular analysis revealed PML-RARα isoforms of bcr1 in 42.85%, bcr2 in 14.28% and bcr3 in 38.09% patients. No correlation was found between PML-RARα bcr isoforms, different haematological parameters and response to treatment. Conclusions Higher incidence of PML-RARα bcr-1 isoform was found in Indian APL patients with no significant correlation between different haematological parameters and response to treatment. PMID:24455113

  2. Hematological parameters associated with parasitism in pike, Esox lucius caught from Anzali wetland.

    PubMed

    Fallah, Farzin Jamalzad; Khara, Hossein; Rohi, Javad Daghigh; Sayadborani, Mohammad

    2015-06-01

    This study involved 120 pike, Esox lucius, captured from Anzali wetland. Parasite fauna were identified in captured fish. Also, changes of haematological parameters were compared both infected and uninfected fish. Parasitological inspections revealed the following infestations: Skin: Lernea cyprinacea, Argulus foliaceus (Crustacean) and Tricodina sp. (Ciliatea). Gill: Dactylogyrus sp. (Digenea) and Tetraonchus monenteron (Monogenea). Eye: Diplostomum spathaceum (Digenea). Gut: Eustrongylides exises, Rhipdocotyle illense, Raphidascaris acus (Nematode), Corynosoma Strumosum (Acanthocephala). Most prevalence and intensity were related to Eustrongylides exises and Rhipdocotyle illense. Following haematological parameters were evaluated: haematocrit, haemoglobin concentration, erythrocyte and leukocyte counts, mean cell volume (MCV), mean cell haemoglobin, mean cell haemoglobin concentration lymphocytes, monocytes and eosinophils. Significant difference was found for MCV between infected and uninfected fish. PMID:26064009

  3. Bioaccumulation of heavy metals in blood and tissue of striped mullet in two Italian lakes.

    PubMed

    Fazio, Francesco; Piccione, Giuseppe; Tribulato, Katia; Ferrantelli, Vincenzo; Giangrosso, Giuseppe; Arfuso, Francesca; Faggio, Caterina

    2014-12-01

    Water and sediment from Faro and Ganzirri lakes were tested for cadmium, mercury, and lead. These heavy metals have been assessed in serum and muscles of Striped Mullet Mugil cephalus. A haemogram was performed to find effects of heavy metals on haematological variables. Student's t-test showed higher Pb levels in sediments of Ganzirri Lake than Faro Lake. Two-way analysis of variance showed higher Cd and Pb concentration in muscles samples of Striped Mullet from Ganzirri Lake than from Faro Lake. Significant differences were found among haematological parameters as well. Mullet from Ganzirri Lake had lower white and red blood cell and trombocyte counts and higher mean corpuscular haemoglobin and mean corpuscular haemoglobin concentration than those from Faro Lake. Our results indicate a significant presence of lead in the environmental produces an accumulation of this metal in fish muscles. PMID:25369146

  4. Time-dependent biodistribution, clearance and biocompatibility of magnetic fibrin nanoparticles: an in vivo study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prabu, Periyathambi; Vedakumari, Weslen S.; Sastry, Thotapalli P.

    2015-05-01

    Recently, bioretention and toxicity of injected nanoparticles in the body has drawn much attention in biomedical research. In the present study, 5 mg Fe per kg body weight of magnetic fibrin nanoparticles (MFNPs) were injected into mice intravenously and investigated for their blood clearance profile, biodistribution, haematology and pathology studies for a time period of 28 days. Moderately long circulation of MFNPs in blood was observed with probable degradation and excretion into the bloodstream via monoatomic iron forms. Inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES) and Prussian blue staining results showed increased accumulation of MFNPs in the liver, followed by spleen and other organs. Body weight, spleen/thymus indexes, haematology, serum biochemistry and histopathology studies demonstrated that MFNPs were biocompatible. These results suggest the feasibility of using MFNPs for drug delivery and imaging applications.

  5. Therapeutic activity of crude ethanolic extract of Artemisia herba alba against Trypanosoma evansi in rabbits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Awad, Fathy M.; Hasan, Zainal Abidin Abu; Osman, Abdinasir Yusuf; Ibrahim, Nazlina

    2013-11-01

    The present work was conducted to evaluate the antitrypanosomal efficacy of crude ethanolic extract (CEE) of the aerial parts of Artemisia herba alba against Trypanosoma evansi infection in an animal model. The results indicated low levels of parasitaemia in rabbits administered with crude ethanolic extract (CEE) compared to those from the negative control group. Similarly, there was also haematologically significant difference (p<0.05) where low mean levels of packed cell volume (PCV) was observed in Groups 1-4 respectively. In contrast, there was no statistically significant difference in almost all investigated parameters between positive control and treatment groups of animals. In conclusion, both CEE of A. herba-alba and Berenil® showed relatively a parasitaemia and normal haematological values in infected rabbits, thereby confirming their antiparasitic properties.

  6. Thirty-day mortality rate in women with cancer and venous thromboembolism. Findings from the RIETE Registry.

    PubMed

    Trujillo-Santos, Javier; Casas, José Manuel; Casa, José Manuel; Casado, Ignacio; Samperiz, Angel Luis; Quintavalla, Roberto; Sahuquillo, Joan Carles; Monreal, Manuel

    2011-02-01

    The influence of the site of cancer on outcome in cancer women with venous thromboembolism (VTE) is poorly understood. Reliable information on its influence might facilitate better use of prevention strategies. We assessed the 30-day outcome in all women with active cancer in the RIETE Registry, trying to identify if differences exist according to the tumor site. Up to May 2010, 2474 women with cancer and acute VTE had been enrolled. The most common sites were the breast (26%), colon (13%), uterus (9.3%), and haematologic (8.6%) cancers. During the 30-day study period, 329 (13%) patients died. Of them, 71 (2.9%) died of pulmonary embolism (PE), 22 (0.9%) died of bleeding. Fatal PE was more common in women with breast, colorectal, lung or pancreatic cancer (59% of the fatal PEs). Fatal bleeding was more frequent in women with colorectal, haematologic, ovarian cancer or carcinoma of unknown origin (55% of fatal bleedings). PMID:21262424

  7. Current clinical efficacy of chloroquine for the treatment of Plasmodium falciparum infections in urban Dar es Salaam, United Republic of Tanzania.

    PubMed Central

    Premji, Z.; Makwaya, C.; Minjas, J. N.

    1999-01-01

    Reported is the use of a 14-day WHO protocol, which takes into account the clinical, parasitological and haematological responses to antimalarial drugs, to determine the efficacy of chloroquine in the treatment of uncomplicated malaria in young children (n = 200) in urban Dar es Salaam. Chloroquine failure was found in 43% of the children. Of these, 12.5% were considered to be early treatment failures and were given a single dose of sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine. Fever subsided in all children treated with sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine and there were no parasitological failures. In addition, children treated with sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine because of early treatment failure with chloroquine had better haematological recovery than the chloroquine-sensitive group. It is concluded that chloroquine can no longer be considered an effective therapy for P. falciparum malaria in young children in Dar es Salaam. PMID:10534897

  8. The development of integrated haematopathology laboratories: a new approach to the diagnosis of leukaemia and lymphoma.

    PubMed

    Richards, S J; Jack, A S

    2003-12-01

    The diagnosis and monitoring of leukaemia and lymphoma requires the effective integration of a wide range of diagnostic techniques and expertise. The need to develop this type of service that crosses traditional boundaries of laboratory specialities is being recommended in national guidance. The Haematological Malignancy Diagnostic Service based within the Leeds Teaching Hospitals NHS Trust was established in 1993 to provide specialist laboratory services for the diagnosis of haematological malignancy for Yorkshire and Humberside in the UK. The department uses a wide range of methodologies including morphology, immunocytochemistry, flow cytometry and molecular genetics [fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) and polymerase chain reaction (PCR)] in a systematic and co-ordinated way. We describe how the department was established, its current working practices and highlight the advantages of an integrated laboratory for diagnosis of tumours of the haematopoietic system. PMID:14641135

  9. Moving Cages Further Offshore: Effects on Southern Bluefin Tuna, T. maccoyii, Parasites, Health and Performance

    PubMed Central

    Kirchhoff, Nicole T.; Rough, Kirsty M.; Nowak, Barbara F.

    2011-01-01

    The effects of offshore aquaculture on SBT health (particularly parasitic infections and haematology) and performance were the main aim of this study. Two cohorts of ranched Southern Bluefin tuna (SBT) (Thunnus maccoyii) were monitored throughout the commercial season, one maintained in the traditional near shore tuna farming zone and one maintained further offshore. SBT maintained offshore had reduced mortality, increased condition index at week 6 post transfer, reduced blood fluke and sealice loads, and haematological variables such as haemoglobin or lysozyme equal to or exceeding near shore maintained fish. The offshore cohort had no Cardicola forsteri and a 5% prevalence of Caligus spp., compared to a prevalence of 85% for Cardicola forsteri and 55% prevalence for Caligus spp. near shore at 6 weeks post transfer. This study is the first of its kind to examine the effects of commercial offshore sites on farmed fish parasites, health and performance. PMID:21901129

  10. Pathophysiology of white-nose syndrome in bats: a mechanistic model linking wing damage to mortality

    PubMed Central

    Warnecke, Lisa; Turner, James M.; Bollinger, Trent K.; Misra, Vikram; Cryan, Paul M.; Blehert, David S.; Wibbelt, Gudrun; Willis, Craig K. R.

    2013-01-01

    White-nose syndrome is devastating North American bat populations but we lack basic information on disease mechanisms. Altered blood physiology owing to epidermal invasion by the fungal pathogen Geomyces destructans (Gd) has been hypothesized as a cause of disrupted torpor patterns of affected hibernating bats, leading to mortality. Here, we present data on blood electrolyte concentration, haematology and acid–base balance of hibernating little brown bats, Myotis lucifugus, following experimental inoculation with Gd. Compared with controls, infected bats showed electrolyte depletion (i.e. lower plasma sodium), changes in haematology (i.e. increased haematocrit and decreased glucose) and disrupted acid–base balance (i.e. lower CO2 partial pressure and bicarbonate). These findings indicate hypotonic dehydration, hypovolaemia and metabolic acidosis. We propose a mechanistic model linking tissue damage to altered homeostasis and morbidity/mortality. PMID:23720520

  11. Frequent de novo mutations of the ANK1 gene mimic a recessive mode of transmission in hereditary spherocytosis: three new ANK1 variants: ankyrins Bari, Napoli II and Anzio.

    PubMed

    Randon, J; Miraglia del Giudice, E; Bozon, M; Perrotta, S; De Vivo, M; Iolascon, A; Delaunay, J; Morle, L

    1997-03-01

    A subset of spherocytosis cases associated with mutations of the ANK1 gene present an apparently recessive inheritance pattern on a clinical and haematological basis. We identified three novel out-of-frame deletions in the ANK1 gene: allele Bari (1361delG), Napoli II (2883delC) and Anzio (3032delCA) in three Italian patients, two of whom have been splenectomized. Analysis of the cDNA showed small or trace amounts of ankyrin mRNAs in Bari, Napoli II and Anzio. The parents were normal clinically and haematologically and did not carry the mutations exhibited by their children. We confirmed the de novo character of the HS mutations based on paternity testing. Recessive HS associated with the ANK1 gene is probably rarer than initially thought, and spherocytosis may often be due to de novo mutations. PMID:9054656

  12. Cerebral atrophy in a vitamin B12-deficient infant of a vegetarian mother.

    PubMed

    Kocaoglu, Celebi; Akin, Fatih; Caksen, Hüseyin; Böke, Saltuk Buğra; Arslan, Sükrü; Aygün, Serhat

    2014-06-01

    In developed countries, vitamin B12 (cobalamin) deficiency usually occurs in children, exclusively breastfed ones whose mothers are vegetarian, causing low body stores of vitamin B12. The haematologic manifestation of vitamin B12 deficiency is pernicious anaemia. It is a megaloblastic anaemia with high mean corpuscular volume and typical morphological features, such as hyperlobulation of the nuclei of the granulocytes. In advanced cases, neutropaenia and thrombocytopaenia can occur, simulating aplastic anaemia or leukaemia. In addition to haematological symptoms, infants may experience weakness, fatigue, failure to thrive, and irritability. Other common findings include pallor, glossitis, vomiting, diarrhoea, and icterus. Neurological symptoms may affect the central nervous system and, in severe cases, rarely cause brain atrophy. Here, we report an interesting case, a 12-month old infant, who was admitted with neurological symptoms and diagnosed with vitamin B12 deficiency. PMID:25076673

  13. Pathophysiology of white-nose syndrome in bats: a mechanistic model linking wing damage to mortality.

    PubMed

    Warnecke, Lisa; Turner, James M; Bollinger, Trent K; Misra, Vikram; Cryan, Paul M; Blehert, David S; Wibbelt, Gudrun; Willis, Craig K R

    2013-08-23

    White-nose syndrome is devastating North American bat populations but we lack basic information on disease mechanisms. Altered blood physiology owing to epidermal invasion by the fungal pathogen Geomyces destructans (Gd) has been hypothesized as a cause of disrupted torpor patterns of affected hibernating bats, leading to mortality. Here, we present data on blood electrolyte concentration, haematology and acid-base balance of hibernating little brown bats, Myotis lucifugus, following experimental inoculation with Gd. Compared with controls, infected bats showed electrolyte depletion (i.e. lower plasma sodium), changes in haematology (i.e. increased haematocrit and decreased glucose) and disrupted acid-base balance (i.e. lower CO2 partial pressure and bicarbonate). These findings indicate hypotonic dehydration, hypovolaemia and metabolic acidosis. We propose a mechanistic model linking tissue damage to altered homeostasis and morbidity/mortality. PMID:23720520

  14. Incontinentia pigmenti with ultrastructurally disordered leucocytes.

    PubMed

    Minić, S; Trpinac, D; Obradović, M; Novotny, G E K; Gabriel, H D; Kuhn, M

    2010-07-01

    Incontinentia pigmenti (IP) is a rare X-linked genodermatosis in which skin changes are combined with anomalies of other tissues, mainly of ectodermal origin. Mutations of the IKBKG gene are responsible for IP. Haematological disorders among IP patients are rare. Four female patients from a single family, with typical clinical characteristics of IP, are reported. In addition, all affected family members show a distinct haematological phenotype: hypogranular granulocytes, leucocytes with pseudoplatelets, and different anomalies of nuclei. Pseudoplatelets are a typical finding in patients with leukaemia. As there is dysfunction of the IKBKG gene in leukaemia, it is hypothesised that mis-regulation of the NEMO pathway may cause the appearance of pseudoplatelets in acute leukaemias as well as in IP. These observations suggest that IP may not be only linked to skin and organs of the ectodermal origin. PMID:20591917

  15. Pathophysiology of white-nose syndrome in bats: a mechanistic model linking wing damage to mortality

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Warnecke, Lisa; Turner, James M.; Bollinger, Trent K.; Misra, Vikram; Cryan, Paul M.; Blehert, David S.; Wibbelt, Gudrun; Willis, Craig K.R.

    2013-01-01

    White-nose syndrome is devastating North American bat populations but we lack basic information on disease mechanisms. Altered blood physiology owing to epidermal invasion by the fungal pathogen Geomyces destructans (Gd) has been hypothesized as a cause of disrupted torpor patterns of affected hibernating bats, leading to mortality. Here, we present data on blood electrolyte concentration, haematology and acid–base balance of hibernating little brown bats, Myotis lucifugus, following experimental inoculation with Gd. Compared with controls, infected bats showed electrolyte depletion (i.e. lower plasma sodium), changes in haematology (i.e. increased haematocrit and decreased glucose) and disrupted acid–base balance (i.e. lower CO2 partial pressure and bicarbonate). These findings indicate hypotonic dehydration, hypovolaemia and metabolic acidosis. We propose a mechanistic model linking tissue damage to altered homeostasis and morbidity/mortality.

  16. Cerebral Atrophy in a Vitamin B12-deficient Infant of a Vegetarian Mother

    PubMed Central

    Akin, Fatih; Çaksen, Hüseyin; Böke, Saltuk Buğra; Arslan, Şükrü; Aygün, Serhat

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT In developed countries, vitamin B12 (cobalamin) deficiency usually occurs in children, exclusively breastfed ones whose mothers are vegetarian, causing low body stores of vitamin B12. The haematologic manifestation of vitamin B12 deficiency is pernicious anaemia. It is a megaloblastic anaemia with high mean corpuscular volume and typical morphological features, such as hyperlobulation of the nuclei of the granulocytes. In advanced cases, neutropaenia and thrombocytopaenia can occur, simulating aplastic anaemia or leukaemia. In addition to haematological symptoms, infants may experience weakness, fatigue, failure to thrive, and irritability. Other common findings include pallor, glossitis, vomiting, diarrhoea, and icterus. Neurological symptoms may affect the central nervous system and, in severe cases, rarely cause brain atrophy. Here, we report an interesting case, a 12-month old infant, who was admitted with neurological symptoms and diagnosed with vitamin B12 deficiency. PMID:25076673

  17. Establishing the characteristics of an effective pharmacogenetic test for clozapine-induced agranulocytosis

    PubMed Central

    Verbelen, M; Collier, D A; Cohen, D; MacCabe, J H; Lewis, C M

    2015-01-01

    Clozapine is the only evidence-based therapy for treatment-resistant schizophrenia, but it induces agranulocytosis, a rare but potentially fatal haematological adverse reaction, in less than 1% of users. To improve safety, the drug is subject to mandatory haematological monitoring throughout the course of treatment, which is burdensome for the patient and one of the main reasons clozapine is underused. Therefore, a pharmacogenetic test is clinically useful if it identifies a group of patients for whom the agranulocytosis risk is low enough to alleviate monitoring requirements. Assuming a genotypic marker stratifies patients into a high-risk and a low-risk group, we explore the relationship between test sensitivity, group size and agranulocytosis risk. High sensitivity minimizes the agranulocytosis risk in the low-risk group and is essential for clinical utility, in particular in combination with a small high-risk group. PMID:25732907

  18. Isolated folate deficiency causing profound pancytopenia in pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Obaji, Samya Gwen; Al-Ismail, Saad

    2015-01-01

    New-onset pancytopenia in pregnancy is challenging in the clinical setting particularly as the management and outcome of pregnancy are entirely dependent on the underlying aetiology. In the absence of increased peripheral destruction, for example, hypersplenism, bone marrow (BM) failure should be considered as the cause of pancytopenia. Profound folate or B12 deficiency may result in BM failure and are relatively easy to diagnose and manage. Other causes include aplastic anaemia (AA), infiltration by a haematological malignancy and other non-haematological disorders. We report a 26-year-old woman presenting with severe pancytopenia due to folate deficiency with complete recovery observed after folic acid replacement. This case highlights the importance of recognising folate deficiency as a reversible cause of pancytopenia, since prompt replacement can lead to rapid normalisation of counts with no subsequent clinical sequelae. We also consider the indications for measuring serum folate in pregnancy. PMID:25666248

  19. Haemoglobin K Woolwich: a study of the family of a homozygote.

    PubMed Central

    Cabannes, R; Amegnizin, P; Sangare, A; Arne, D; Casey, R; Lehmann, H

    1980-01-01

    A family is described in which the proband is homozygous and several relatives are heterozygous for Hb K Woolwich (beta 130 [H10] Lys leads to Gln). These people are clinically and haematologically normal. The relationship between the presence of Hb K Woolwich and beta +-thalassaemia is discussed. The distribution of Hb K Woolwich in West Africa is discussed and it is seen to be closely associated with the Akan group. PMID:6249934

  20. Haemoglobin Belfast 15 (A12) tryptophan leading to arginine: a new unstable haemoglobin variant.

    PubMed

    Kennedy, C C; Blundell, G; Lorkin, P A; Lang, A; Lehmann, H

    1974-11-01

    A new unstable haemoglobin, alpha(2)beta(2)15 Trp--> Arg (Hb Belfast), with increased oxygen affinity has been found during the routine investigation of a long-stay psychiatric patient. It seemed to cause little haematological disorder. The reticulocytes synthesized normal and abnormal beta-chains at the same rate but in the circulating blood Hb Belfast amounted to only 27.5% of the total haemoglobin. PMID:4434089

  1. Variations in leucocyte profiles and plasma biochemistry are related to different aspects of parental investment in male and female Upland geese Chloephaga picta leucoptera.

    PubMed

    Gladbach, Anja; Gladbach, David Joachim; Quillfeldt, Petra

    2010-06-01

    The analysis of plasma biochemistry and haematology to monitor the condition of birds in the wild has been found a useful tool in ecological research. Despite biparental investment in most wild birds studied, some studies of condition indices found sex differences, and attributed these to the costs of egg formation or brooding in females or a higher contribution of males to chick rearing. We studied the natural variation of haematological and plasma biochemistry parameters (namely leucocyte, lymphocyte and heterophil counts, H/L ratio and plasma concentrations of proteins, triglycerides and carotenoids) in relation to the different measures of parental investment in males and females in the Upland goose (Chloephaga picta leucoptera), a socially monogamous species. We found no sex differences in haematological and most plasma biochemistry parameters, but a relation to different aspects of parental investment in breeding male and female Upland geese. H/L ratios were related to body condition and capture date in males while leucocyte counts, plasma protein and plasma carotenoid concentrations varied with clutch measures and hatching date in females. Higher H/L ratios of males in a low body condition and later in the year may reflect stress associated with the investment into the establishment and defence of the breeding territory. Females with higher clutch volumes had lower total leucocyte and lymphocyte numbers and higher levels of plasma protein. Earlier hatching dates were associated with lower numbers of all leucocyte types and higher values of plasma carotenoid concentrations. This indicates that differences in health state are reflected in reproductive performance in female Upland geese. We also found sexual differences in the repeatability of haematological and plasma biochemistry parameters between years and therefore suggest that their potential as a measure of individual quality differs between male and female Upland geese. Finally, numbers of leucocyte counts and plasma triglyceride concentrations of pair partners were significantly related. No study so far investigated these parameters in pair partners and we discuss possible reasons for our finding. PMID:20176125

  2. Practical experience with the implementation of an athlete's biological profile in athletics, cycling, football and swimming.

    PubMed

    Zorzoli, M; Pipe, A; Garnier, P Y; Vouillamoz, M; Dvorak, J

    2014-05-01

    The introduction of the athlete's biological passport (ABP) has been a milestone in the fight against doping. The ABP is a collection of measurements of different biological parameters influenced by the administration of doping agents through the time and for each athlete. Two different modules have been developed and validated so far: the haematological module, which aims to identify enhancement of oxygen transport, including use of erythropoiesis-stimulating agents and any form of blood transfusion or manipulation, which became effective in 2010; and the steroidal module, which intends to detect the use of endogenous anabolic androgenic steroids when administered exogenously and other anabolic agents, which was introduced in 2014. Prior to the implementation of the haematological module, it is important to define an athlete's testing pool on whom to collect blood and/or urine in-competition and out-of-competition (for the steroidal module, this is irrelevant because all collected urine samples will be subjected to analysis for the steroidal variables) and to be compliant with the strict requirements of the World Anti-Doping Agency ABP Operating Guidelines. The established individual profile can be used either to target traditional antidoping tests (recombinant erythropoietins, or homologous blood transfusion tests for the haematological module; isotope ratio mass spectrometry (IRMS) for the steroidal module) or to support an antidoping rule violation due to the use of a forbidden substance or method. In this article, we present the experience of four major International Federations which have implemented an ABP programme, focusing on the haematological module. They constitute examples which could be followed by other antidoping organisations wishing to introduce this new, efficient and innovative antidoping tool. PMID:24648438

  3. Partial splenectomy in cystic fibrosis patients with hypersplenism.

    PubMed

    Thalhammer, G H; Eber, E; Uranüs, S; Pfeifer, J; Zach, M S

    2003-02-01

    We report three cystic fibrosis (CF) patients with hypersplenism who underwent partial splenectomy. The postoperative course was uneventful in two patients; one patient developed a complication necessitating resection of the rest of the spleen. Haematological parameters improved and oesophageal varices regressed in all patients. On follow up, one patient showed a normal spleen, the other a normally functioning accessory spleen; the third patient again developed splenomegaly with hypersplenism. Partial splenectomy is a promising therapeutic option for CF patients with hypersplenism. PMID:12538318

  4. [A severe case of infectious mononucleosis associated with ciprofloxacin and salazopyrin administration].

    PubMed

    Miftode, Egidia; Leca, Daniela; Luca, V

    2008-01-01

    We report a case of rash probably induced by ciprofloxacin and/or salazopyrin administration in a patient with infectious mononucleosis. A 22 year woman developed a maculopapular and petechial eruption in the 3-rd day of ciprofloxacin (given for a genital tract infection) and the 32-nd day of salazopyrin (for a spondylodiscitis). Subsequently she developed a severe hepatitis, shock, and very severe leucocytosis (88 000/mmc) that occasioned haematological investigations for a lymphoproliferative syndrome. PMID:20201247

  5. Concomitant Guillain Barre Syndrome and Transverse Myelitis as Initial Neuropsychiatric Manifestation in a Case of Lupus: A Diagnostic Quandary

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Diwakar Kumar

    2016-01-01

    Neuropsychiatric manifestations of systemic lupus erythematosus are varied. Presently nineteen in number, they are classified as whether affecting the central or the peripheral compartments of the nervous system. Its diagnosis however remains difficult, more so when two or more of the syndromes are found concomitantly in the same patient and when they occur in absence of the more classical rash, serositis, and haematological manifestations. We present a case of lupus where myelopathy as well as demyelination existed simultaneously as the initial neurologic manifestation.

  6. [Diffuse alveolar pertussis with major hyperleukocytosis with "pseudocentrocytic" contingent].

    PubMed

    Cotton, J B; Bronner, J; Durra, A; Abeille, A; Barnouin, L; Berthier, J C

    1992-01-01

    A 21 month-old unvaccinated boy was admitted for an acute respiratory distress episode associated with major leukocytosis (maximum = 146 G/l). Transient heart failure and pneumomediastinum occurred but the outcome was favourable. Coughing attacks then occurred and the diagnosis of pertussis was serologically confirmed. This case report is reminiscent of the possible severity of pertussis pneumoniae, the mechanisms of haematologic abnormalities, and stresses to the benefit of pertussis vaccination. PMID:1319026

  7. Eosinophilia due to osteomyelitis in a dog.

    PubMed

    Dehghani, Seifollah N; Hajighahramani, Shahin

    2005-09-01

    A dog with a lesion in the left elbow area and presence of purulent materials was referred to hospital; history, clinical examination, laboratory test and radiological evaluation of the dog proved the presence of osteomyelitis. Eosinophilia was evident by haematologic test. Intensive antibiotic, anti-inflammatory medication, local wound management and restricted physical activity, improved osteomelitis condition and reduced eosinophil number. Therefore it seemed that osteomyelitis was the cause of eosinophilia in this dog. PMID:16131832

  8. Disseminated fusariosis by Fusarium proliferatum in a patient with aplastic anaemia receiving primary posaconazole prophylaxis - case report and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Ricna, Dita; Lengerova, Martina; Palackova, Martina; Hadrabova, Marketa; Kocmanova, Iva; Weinbergerova, Barbora; Pavlovsky, Zdenek; Volfova, Pavlina; Bouchnerova, Jana; Mayer, Jiri; Racil, Zdenek

    2016-01-01

    Disseminated fusariosis is a life-threatening, invasive, opportunistic infection in immunocompromised patients, especially those with haematological malignancies. The prognosis is poor because these fungi are resistant to many of the available antifungal agents. We present a case of disseminated fusariosis caused by Fusarium proliferatum in a patient with severe aplastic anaemia complicated by a secondary infection of Aspergillus flavus, with a fatal outcome. We also review the documented Fusarium infections in immunocompromised hosts. PMID:26661324

  9. Two cases of inv(8)(p11q13) in AML with erythrophagocytosis: a new cytogenetic variant.

    PubMed

    Coulthard, S; Chase, A; Orchard, K; Watmore, A; Vora, A; Goldman, J M; Swirsky, D M

    1998-03-01

    We describe two patients with acute myeloid leukaemia (AML) associated with erythrophagocytosis and a pericentric inversion of chromosome 8, inv(8)(p11q13). The haematological features were indistinguishable from those of patients with the t(8;16) syndrome and its variants. Our observations emphasize the importance of the breakpoint at 8p11 and the possible involvement of the MOZ gene in all these cases. PMID:9504640

  10. Platelets in pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    Juan, Piazze; Stefano, Gioia; Antonella, Spagnuolo; Albana, Cerekja

    2011-01-01

    As stated in this review, platelets functions and their important role in coagulabity in pregnancy must be well understood, not only in thrombosis related complications in pregnancy (i.e., hypertension, diabetes, thrombophilia). Clinical findings suggest that a periodical monitoring of haematological markers such as MPV and coagulation markers may be associated to Doppler velocimetry, keeping in mind also that the incidence of complications is increased in women who have heritable platelet function disorders. PMID:22905300

  11. Pancytopenia in Lyme disease

    PubMed Central

    Mehrzad, Raman; Bravoco, Joseph

    2014-01-01

    We present a 49-year-old man with subacute onset of fever, weakness, shortness of breath, unilateral lower extremity oedema and pancytopenia who was found to have positive serology for Lyme disease. The patient presented with an intravascular haemolytic pattern on laboratory findings where an extensive infectious disease and haematological workup ruled out ehrlichiosis, anaplasmosis, babesiosis, Rocky Mountain spotted fever, HIV, hepatitis B and other parasitic infections. This left a very atypical presentation of Lyme disease. PMID:24596410

  12. Correlation of Clinicohaematological Parameters in Paediatric Dengue: A Retrospective Study.

    PubMed

    Pai Jakribettu, Ramakrishna; Boloor, Rekha; Thaliath, Andrew; Yesudasan George, Sharanya; George, Thomas; Ponadka Rai, Manoj; Rafique Sheikh, Umran; Avabratha, Kadke Shreedhara; Baliga, Manjeshwar Shrinath

    2015-01-01

    Dengue is one of the arthropod-borne (arbo) viral diseases transmitted by female mosquito Aedes aegypti. Dengue fever has a wide spectrum of clinical presentation ranging from flu-like illness to severe complicated stage of dengue hemorrhagic fever leading to mortality. This was a retrospective study conducted in a tertiary care hospital in Coastal Karnataka, South India, to know the correlation between the clinical presentation and haematological parameters in the paediatric cases presented with dengue symptoms. A total of 163 paediatric cases who presented fever and dengue-like illness were included in the study. Of which, 69 were confirmed dengue patients. Critical analysis showed that there was a significant difference in the haematological parameters like total leucocyte count, percent differential leucocyte count, and platelets count, in the erythrocyte sedimentation rate (P < 0.05 to 0.0001). Additionally, when compared to nondengue patients, even the liver function and renal function parameters were significantly deranged (P < 0.05 to 0.0001). Stratification based on NS1, IgG, and IgM showed significant alterations in the haematological, hepatic, and renal parameters. With respect to the treatment a small percentage of patients, that is, 8% (4 patients), required platelet transfusion as their counts went below 20,000/μL. Two patients succumbed to their illness while three required ICU stay. PMID:26819620

  13. Correlation of Clinicohaematological Parameters in Paediatric Dengue: A Retrospective Study

    PubMed Central

    Pai Jakribettu, Ramakrishna; Boloor, Rekha; Thaliath, Andrew; Yesudasan George, Sharanya; George, Thomas; Ponadka Rai, Manoj; Rafique Sheikh, Umran; Avabratha, Kadke Shreedhara; Baliga, Manjeshwar Shrinath

    2015-01-01

    Dengue is one of the arthropod-borne (arbo) viral diseases transmitted by female mosquito Aedes aegypti. Dengue fever has a wide spectrum of clinical presentation ranging from flu-like illness to severe complicated stage of dengue hemorrhagic fever leading to mortality. This was a retrospective study conducted in a tertiary care hospital in Coastal Karnataka, South India, to know the correlation between the clinical presentation and haematological parameters in the paediatric cases presented with dengue symptoms. A total of 163 paediatric cases who presented fever and dengue-like illness were included in the study. Of which, 69 were confirmed dengue patients. Critical analysis showed that there was a significant difference in the haematological parameters like total leucocyte count, percent differential leucocyte count, and platelets count, in the erythrocyte sedimentation rate (P < 0.05 to 0.0001). Additionally, when compared to nondengue patients, even the liver function and renal function parameters were significantly deranged (P < 0.05 to 0.0001). Stratification based on NS1, IgG, and IgM showed significant alterations in the haematological, hepatic, and renal parameters. With respect to the treatment a small percentage of patients, that is, 8% (4 patients), required platelet transfusion as their counts went below 20,000/μL. Two patients succumbed to their illness while three required ICU stay. PMID:26819620

  14. Sequelae and survivorship in patients treated with 131I-MIBG therapy

    PubMed Central

    Sze, W C C; Grossman, A B; Goddard, I; Amendra, D; Shieh, S C C; Plowman, P N; Drake, W M; Akker, S A; Druce, M R

    2013-01-01

    Background: 131I-meta-iodobenzylguanidine (131I-MIBG) has been in therapeutic use since 1980s. Newer treatment modalities are emerging for neuroendocrine tumours (NETs) and chromaffin cell tumours (CCTs), but many of these do not yet have adequate long-term follow-up to determine their longer term efficacy and sequelae. Methods: Fifty-eight patients with metastatic NETs and CCTs who had received 131I-MIBG therapy between 2000 and 2011 were analysed. Survival and any long-term haematological or renal sequelae were investigated. Results: In the NET group, the overall median survival and median survival following the diagnosis of metastatic disease was 124 months. The median survival following the commencement of 131I-MIBG was 66 months. For the CCT group, median survival had not been reached. The 5-year survival from diagnosis and following the diagnosis of metastatic disease was 67% and 67.5% for NETs and CCTs, respectively. The 5-year survival following the commencement of 131I-MIBG therapy was 68%. Thirty-two patients had long-term haematological sequelae: 5 of these 32 patients developed haematological malignancies. Two patients developed a mild deterioration in renal function. Conclusion: Long follow up of 131I-MIBG therapy reveals a noteable rate of bone marrow toxicities and malignancy and long term review of all patients receiving radionuclide therapies is recommended. PMID:23860527

  15. Influence of capture method, habitat quality and individual traits on blood parameters of free-ranging lace monitors (Varanus varius).

    PubMed

    Scheelings, Tf; Jessop, Ts

    2011-09-01

    OBJECTIVE The aims of this study were to determine baseline reference intervals for haematological and serum biochemical parameters in lace monitors, and to examine whether such values were influenced by capture method, expected differences in habitat food resource availability and a lizard's body size and body condition. METHODS Thirty-three wild Victorian lace monitors (Varanus varius) of unknown age and sex were captured by noose pole or aluminium box trap from Cape Conran in East Gippsland, Victoria, Australia. RESULTS No statistical differences between the two capture methods were noted for haematology. There was a significant difference in the serum glucose concentrations between the two methods of capture (higher concentration in box-trapped animals) because of a physiological response to capture stress. Habitat food quality did not appear to influence haematology or serum biochemistry. The packed cell volume (PCV) for the lace monitors was 0.29-0.43 L/L. Lymphocytes were identified as the most common leucocyte. The haemoprotozoan parasite, Haemogregarina varanicola, was found in all 33 blood samples. No correlation could be made between parasite burden and PCV, serum globulins or serum proteins, but animals in poor body condition were more likely to harbour large numbers of parasites. CONCLUSION The results of this study may be used as a basis for evaluating health in lace monitors. PMID:21864309

  16. Praziquantel treatment for yellowtail kingfish (Seriola lalandi): dose and duration safety study.

    PubMed

    Forwood, James M; Bubner, Erin J; Landos, Matt; D'Antignana, Trent; Deveney, Marty R

    2016-02-01

    Regulatory approval is being sought to use praziquantel (PZQ) to treat flukes infecting yellowtail kingfish (YTK), but accurate safety data were not available. We investigated the effect of increased doses or prolonged exposure of orally administered PZQ on YTK by assessing changes in haematological and biochemical characteristics, and mortality. Fish were intubated daily for 3 days with 0, 100, 300 and 500 mg PZQ kg(-1) BW day(-1) or once daily for 9 days at 0 and 100 mg PZQ kg(-1) BW day(-1). Blood was taken 24 h after the cessation of treatment. There was no significant difference between any of the haematological or biochemical indices in YTK treated with PZQ and controls, indicating that PZQ is safe for use at 100 mg PZQ kg(-1) BW day(-1) in YTK and that exposure to high doses or prolonged duration does not have negative effects on the YTK haematological or biochemical parameters we measured. PMID:26314575

  17. A survey of feline leukaemia virus infection of domestic cats from selected areas in Harare, Zimbabwe.

    PubMed

    Muchaamba, Francis; Mutiringindi, Takudzwa H; Tivapasi, Musavenga T; Dhliwayo, Solomon; Matope, Gift

    2014-01-01

    A cross-sectional study was conducted to detect the feline leukaemia virus (FeLV) p27 antigen and to determine risk factors and the haematological changes associated with infection in domestic cats in Zimbabwe. Sera were collected for detection of the p27 antigen, urea, creatinine, alanine aminotransferase and gamma-glutamyl transferase levels, whilst whole blood was collected for haematology. FeLV p27 antigen was detected using a rapid enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) test kit. Data on risk factors were analysed using a logistic regression model. Of the 100 cats tested, 41% (95% CI: 31.19% - 50.81%) (41/100) were positive for the FeLV p27 antigen. Sex and health status of cats were not significantly (p > 0.05) associated with infection. Intact cats (OR = 9.73), those living in multicat housing (OR = 5.23) and cats that had access to outdoor life (OR = 35.5) were found to have higher odds of infection compared with neutered cats, those living in single-cat housing, and without access to outdoor life, respectively. Biochemistry and haematology revealed no specific changes. The results showed that FeLV infection was high in sampled cats, providing evidence of active infection. Thus, it would be prudent to introduce specific control measures for FeLV infection in Zimbabwe. PMID:25686080

  18. Bioavailability of iron in multiple fortified milk.

    PubMed

    Sachdeva, Bhawana; Kaushik, Ravinder; Arora, Sumit; Kapila, Suman

    2015-09-01

    The objectives of the study were to evaluate the bioavailability of iron in milk fortified with ferric pyrophosphate (FPP) soluble and vitamin A acetate and to establish the role of vitamin A in enhancement of iron absorption. Balance indices viz. apparent digestibility coefficient, % retention/intake of iron and haematological parameters viz. blood haemoglobin, plasma ferritin, plasma transferrin and iron content in rat livers were analyzed to evaluate iron bioavailability. Anaemia was induced in one group of rats to evaluate the effect of iron status of body on iron absorption from diet. The results of in vivo study showed that feeding of rats with lyophilates of milk fortified with FPP soluble and FPP soluble + vitamin A acetate had a significant effect on the balance indices of the iron as well as on the haematological parameters and iron liver status. The utilization of iron in the body, as indicated by the results of balance indices, haematological parameters and iron status of livers was significantly higher in anaemic rats compared to control group rats. Vitamin A appeared to be playing role in enhancement of iron absorption and utilization in body. PMID:26345022

  19. Masked polycythaemia vera: presenting features, response to treatment and clinical outcomes.

    PubMed

    Alvarez-Larrán, Alberto; Angona, Anna; Ancochea, Agueda; García-Pallarols, Francesc; Fernández, Concepción; Longarón, Raquel; Bellosillo, Beatriz; Besses, Carlos

    2016-01-01

    Masked polycythaemia vera (PV) has been proposed as a new entity with poorer outcome than overt PV. In this study, the initial clinical and laboratory characteristics, response to treatment and outcome of masked and overt PV were compared using red cell mass and haemoglobin or haematocrit levels for the distinction between both entities. Sixty-eight of 151 PV patients (45%) were classified as masked PV according to World Health Organisation diagnostic criteria, whereas 16 (11%) were classified as masked PV using the British Committee for Standards in Haematology (BCSH). In comparison with overt PV, a higher platelet count and a lower JAK2V617F allele burden at diagnosis were observed in masked PV. Patients with masked PV needed lower phlebotomies and responded faster to hydroxcarbamide than those with overt PV. Complete haematological response was more frequently achieved in masked than in overt PV (79% vs. 58%, P = 0.001). There were no significant differences in the duration of haematological response, the rate of resistance or intolerance to hydroxycarbamide and the probability of molecular response according to type of PV (masked vs. overt). Overall survival, rate of thrombosis and major bleeding, and probability of transformation was superimposable among patients with masked and overt PV. PMID:25810304

  20. [Secondary iron overload].

    PubMed

    Galactéros, F

    2000-05-01

    Secondary iron overload (SIO) constitutes a growing clinical problem, particularly in haematological diseases in which the improvements of life expectancy give the iron overload enough duration to play its own prognostic role. Iron may accumulate by two ways: transfusion and/(or) digestive hyperabsorption which is proportional to erythroïd plasma iron turnover. To properly evaluate the iron overloading one must be able to appreciate the cumulative red blood cell transfusion volumes. That is to say: weighting and counting red blood cell units. The magnitude of red blood cell precursor mass might be conveniently but indirectly evaluated by the measurement of the plasma transferrin receptor concentration. The group of haematological diseases, complicated by SIO to the contrary of primary haemochromatosis, is very heterogeneous. Some of them like hereditary dyserythropoiesis may not be obviously detectable on standard haematological observation. They can combine or not with hereditary haemochromatosis. A SIO must be treated when it may add a specific prognostic effect. In some cases, regular blood letting are usable without major problems. In all other cases iron chelation therapy is an effective way to reduce SIO, provided long term compliance is obtained. PMID:10865498

  1. Deferasirox chelation therapy in patients with transfusion-dependent MDS: a 'real-world' report from two regional Italian registries: Gruppo Romano Mielodisplasie and Registro Basilicata.

    PubMed

    Maurillo, Luca; Breccia, Massimo; Buccisano, Francesco; Voso, Maria Teresa; Niscola, Pasquale; Trapè, Giulio; Tatarelli, Caterina; D'Addosio, Ada; Latagliata, Roberto; Fenu, Susanna; Piccioni, Anna Lina; Fragasso, Alberto; Aloe Spiriti, Maria A; Refrigeri, Marco; Criscuolo, Marianna; Musto, Pellegrino; Venditti, Adriano

    2015-07-01

    Deferasirox (DFX) is an orally administered iron chelator approved for use in patients with transfusion-dependent iron overload due to myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS). The safety and efficacy of DFX has been explored in clinical trial settings, but there is little data on unselected patients with MDS. The aim of this study was to retrospectively evaluate the safety, compliance, efficacy and effect on haematopoiesis of DFX in a large 'real-world' MDS population. One hundred and eighteen patients with transfusion-dependent MDS were treated with DFX across 11 centres in Italy. Serum ferritin levels, haematological response, dosing, adverse events and transfusion dependence were recorded at baseline, 3, 6, 12 and 24 months following initiation of treatment. DFX reduced mean serum ferritin levels from 1790 to 1140 ng/mL (P < 0.001), with 7.1% of patients achieving transfusion independence. Significant haematological improvement was seen in erythroid (17.6%), platelet (5.9%) and neutrophil counts (7.1%). Adverse events were reported in 47.5% of patients, including gastrointestinal and renal toxicity. Regression analysis showed that higher starting doses of DFX are associated with transfusion independence at 24 months. DFX is a safe, effective treatment for transfusion-dependent MDS that can lead to transfusion independence and haematological improvement in a subset of patients. PMID:25764148

  2. Does Oral Ingestion of Piper sarmentosum Cause Toxicity in Experimental Animals?

    PubMed Central

    Zakaria, Zaiton; Megat Mohd Nordin, Nor Anita; Othman, Faizah

    2013-01-01

    The prevalence of diabetes mellitus has reached epidemic proportion in Malaysia and worldwide. Scientific studies have shown that herbal plant Piper sarmentosum exhibits an antidiabetic property. Despite the extensive usage and studies of this herb as alternative medicine, there is paucity of the literature on the safety information of this plant. Thus, the present study aimed to observe the subacute toxic effects of Piper sarmentosum aqueous extract (PSAE) on the haematological profile, liver, and kidney in rats. The extract was administered by oral gavage to 6 male and female Sprague Dawley rats in daily dose of 50 mg/kg, 300 mg/kg, and 2000 mg/kg for 28 consecutive days. The control group received normal saline. General behavior of the rats, adverse effects, and mortality were observed for 28 days. The haematological and biochemical parameters were determined at baseline and after the treatment. PSAE did not show abnormality on the body weight and gross observation of internal organs. The haematological, biochemical and histopathological profiles showed minimal changes and variation within normal clinical range except for significant increase in serum potassium level that suggests the need of regular monitoring. Nevertheless, these findings suggested that PSAE up to 2000 mg/kg/day did not show subacute toxicity in Sprague Dawley rats. PMID:24228062

  3. Hepcidin as a new biomarker for detecting autologous blood transfusion.

    PubMed

    Leuenberger, Nicolas; Barras, Laura; Nicoli, Raul; Robinson, Neil; Baume, Norbert; Lion, Niels; Barelli, Stefano; Tissot, Jean-Daniel; Saugy, Martial

    2016-05-01

    Autologous blood transfusion (ABT) is an efficient way to increase sport performance. It is also the most challenging doping method to detect. At present, individual follow-up of haematological variables via the athlete biological passport (ABP) is used to detect it. Quantification of a novel hepatic peptide called hepcidin may be a new alternative to detect ABT. In this prospective clinical trial, healthy subjects received a saline injection for the control phase, after which they donated blood that was stored and then transfused 36 days later. The impact of ABT on hepcidin as well as haematological parameters, iron metabolism, and inflammation markers was investigated. Blood transfusion had a particularly marked effect on hepcidin concentrations compared to the other biomarkers, which included haematological variables. Hepcidin concentrations increased significantly: 12 hr and 1 day after blood reinfusion, these concentrations rose by seven- and fourfold, respectively. No significant change was observed in the control phase. Hepcidin quantification is a cost-effective strategy that could be used in an "ironomics" strategy to improve the detection of ABT. Am. J. Hematol. 91:467-472, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26822428

  4. Guideline on aspects of cancer-related venous thrombosis.

    PubMed

    Watson, Henry G; Keeling, David M; Laffan, Mike; Tait, Robert Campbell; Makris, Mike

    2015-09-01

    The guideline was drafted by a writing group identified by the Haemostasis and Thrombosis Task Force of the British Committee for Standards in Haematology (BCSH). All the authors are consultants in haematology in the UK. A search was performed of PubMed and Embase using the term 'cancer' combined with 'thrombosis', 'treatment', 'prophylaxis' and 'clinical presentation'. The search covered articles published up until December 2014. Only human studies were included and articles not written in English were excluded. References in recent reviews were also examined. The writing group produced the draft guideline, which was subsequently revised by consensus by members of the Haemostasis and Thrombosis Task Force of the BCSH and the BCSH executive. The guideline was then reviewed by the sounding board of the British Society for Haematology (BSH). This comprises 50 or more members of the BSH who have reviewed the guidance and commented on the content and application to the UK setting. The 'GRADE' system was used to quote levels and grades of evidence, details of which can be found at: http://www.bcshguidelines.com/BCSH_PROCESS/EVIDENCE_LEVELS_AND_GRADES_OF_RECOMMENDATION/43_GRADE.html. The objective of this guideline is to provide healthcare professionals with clear guidance on the prevention and management of venous thromboembolism (VTE) in patients with cancer and to advise on an approach to screening for cancer in patients with unprovoked VTE in whom cancer was not initially suspected based on clinical grounds. PMID:26114207

  5. Incidence of distal bone metastases in patients treated for palliative radiotherapy and associations with primary tumour types

    PubMed Central

    Barnes, Mark; Tiwana, Manpreet S.; Kiraly, Andrew; Hutchison, Mitch; Olson, Robert A.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose This study assesses the incidence of distal bone metastases in palliative radiotherapy (RT) patients. Material and methods All courses of RT for bone metastases from 2007–2011 for patient living in British Columbia (BC) were identified in a provincial RT programme. Treated bone metastases (BoM) were categorized as distal if the BoM was located within or distal to the elbow or knee. Patients were grouped by primary tumour site as breast, lung, prostate gastrointestinal, haematological, melanoma, and other. The incidence of distal bone metastases and associations with primary tumour types were determined. Results From 2007 to 2011, 8008 patients were treated with 16,277 courses of RT, of which 425 (3%) were courses of RT for distal BoM. The incidence of distal BoM in decreasing order by primary tumour type was melanoma (5%), haematological (3%), lung (2%), other (2%), prostate (2%), breast (1%) and gastrointestinal (1%). Distal BoM where more commonly identified in the lower extremity (87%, p<0.001). Single fraction RT was used more commonly for distal vs non-distal BoM (66% vs. 49%; p<0.001). Conclusion The incidence of distal BoM among patients treated with palliative RT was 3% and most commonly identified in patients with melanoma and haematological malignancies. PMID:26730358

  6. Controversy on iron needs, intake levels, deficiency stigmata and benefits from iron supplementation

    PubMed Central

    Walker, Alexander R. P.

    1969-01-01

    At present there is considerable controversy over many aspects of iron nutrition, including: (1) iron needs and intake levels; (2) the bearing of iron intake on haematological levels; (3) iron deficiency anaemia and deficiency stigmata; and (4) iron therapy, prophylaxis, and the haematological and clinical benefits accruing. Differences of opinion prevail because of inadequacies of knowledge of the level of haemoglobin (or other parameter of iron status) below which unequivocal signs and symptoms of ill-health become manifest in the major proportion of those affected. Difficulties arise equally from lack of knowledge of the level of haemoglobin above which no clinical benefit, short-term or long-term, can be detected from iron supplementation. Clarification of the situation can be obtained only by carrying out the same meticulous and time-consuming procedures that have been used in respect of requirements and deficiency stigmata of other nutrients. Comprehensive iron depletion studies, real and simulated, and repletion studies, including the use of placebos, will be required. Epidemiological investigations bearing on haematological status and morbidity will also need to be undertaken, and include groups of subjects in both Western, and developing countries. PMID:4905446

  7. Nutritional status of children with congenital heart disease.

    PubMed Central

    Mitchell, I. M.; Logan, R. W.; Pollock, J. C.; Jamieson, M. P.

    1995-01-01

    OBJECTIVE--To assess the nutritional status of children with congenital heart disease. DESIGN--Six anthropometric, 24 biochemical, and five haematological markers of nutritional wellbeing were measured in children with congenital heart disease. SETTING--The west of Scotland. PATIENTS--48 children admitted consecutively for surgical correction of congenital heart disease. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES--Height, weight, and triceps and subscapular skin fold thicknesses were considered abnormal if they were below the third centile compared with standard reference data for age matched British children. Mid-arm circumference and arm muscle circumference were considered abnormal if they fell below the fifth centile compared with standard data. Biochemical and haematological data were compared with age matched and locally validated laboratory normals. RESULTS--A marked degree of undernutrition was evident in all children; 52% had weight less than the third centile, 37% were below the third centile for height, and 12.5% were below the third centile for triceps skin fold thickness and 18.8% for subscapular skin fold thickness. Mid-arm circumference and arm muscle circumference were below the fifth centile in 20.1% and 16.7% of children respectively. Five or more of the 29 biochemical and haematological measurements were abnormal in 83.3% of patients; 10 or more were abnormal in 12.5% of patients. CONCLUSIONS--Children with congenital heart disease are frequently undernourished, irrespective of the nature of cardiac defect and the presence or absence of cyanosis. PMID:7727190

  8. Influence of Protein Intake from Haem and Non-haem Animals and Plant Origin on Inflammatory Biomarkers among Apparently-healthy Adults in Greece

    PubMed Central

    Vallianou, Natalia G.; Bountziouka, Vassiliki P.; Georgousopoulou, Ekavi; Evangelopoulos, Angelos A.; Bonou, Maria S.; Vogiatzakis, Evangelos D.; Barbetseas, John D.; Avgerinos, Peter C.

    2013-01-01

    Intake of different types of protein may be associated with differences in biomarkers among various populations. This work investigated the influence of protein intake from haem and non-haem animals as well as protein from plants on haematological and biochemical parameters in inflammation among apparently-healthy adults living in Greece, a Mediterranean country. Four hundred and ninety apparently-healthy subjects (46±16 years, 40% men), who consecutively visited Polykliniki General Hospital for routine examinations, voluntarily agreed to participate in the study (participation rate 85%). Demographic, anthropometric and lifestyle characteristics were recorded. Participants completed a valid, semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire. Protein intake was classified into three sources: protein from haem animals, protein from non-haem animals, and protein from plant origin. Fasting blood samples were taken from all participants; uric acid, creatinine, lipids, cystatin C, haptoglobin, haemoglobin, haematocrit, iron, ferritin, white blood cells, monocytes, platelets, and C-reactive protein were measured. Protein intake from only haem animals was associated with increased haemoglobin and haematocrit levels (p<0.05) whereas intake of protein from non-haem animals and plant origin was not associated with the investigated haematological and biochemical markers of low-grade chronic inflammation when lifestyle factors and overall dietary habits were taken into account. Intake of protein from only haem animals seems to be consistently associated with haematological markers. The confounding role of dietary habits and lifestyle variables on the tested parameters deserves further attention in future research. PMID:24592585

  9. How does the greater white-toothed shrew, Crocidura russula, responds to long-term heavy metal contamination? -- A case study.

    PubMed

    Marques, Carla Cristina; Sánchez-Chardi, Alejandro; Gabriel, Sofia Isabel; Nadal, Jacint; Viegas-Crespo, Ana Maria; da Luz Mathias, Maria

    2007-04-15

    Heavy metals accumulation in parallel with the evaluation of physiological and biochemical effects resulting from continued metal exposure were considered here using for the first time the great white-toothed shrew Crocidura russula as an in vivo model. Shrews were originated from an abandoned lead/zinc mining area and from a reference area, both in Alentejo, southern Portugal. Hepatic contents of nickel, copper, zinc, cadmium, mercury and lead were quantified by Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometer (ICP-MS). Haematological parameters (white blood cells, red blood cells, haemoglobin and haematocrit) were obtained in a Coulter Counter Analyser and biochemical markers of the redox balance (glutathione S-transferase, glutathione peroxidase, and glutathione reductase) activities were measured spectrophotometrically using a Duo-50 spectrophotometer. Compared with control animals, significantly higher concentration of hepatic cadmium (9.29 vs. 1.18 micorg/g dry weight) and nickel (1.56 vs. 0.343 microg/g dry weight) were detected in the shrews collected in the mining area. However, no significant changes were observed on haematological or enzymatic parameters in animals exposed to metal pollution. The obtained results show that shrews are good bioaccumulators of toxic heavy metals, but very tolerant to their effects, revealing an interesting long-term adaptation to polluted environments. In addition, this study provides reference values for haematological parameters and antioxidant enzymes levels in C. russula, which may be relevant for comparative purposes in further studies. PMID:17321569

  10. Predictors of delay in diagnosis and treatment in diffuse large B-cell lymphoma and impact on survival.

    PubMed

    Nikonova, Anna; Guirguis, Hany R; Buckstein, Rena; Cheung, Matthew C

    2015-02-01

    There is a paucity of data on the impact of diagnostic and treatment delays on outcomes in haematological malignancies, particularly in patients with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL). Our database of patients treated for DLBCL between 2002 and 2010 was interrogated. Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed to determine the relationship between sociodemographic or disease-specific variables and delays. Cox Regression analysis was used to discern the impact of delays on survival. Patients (n = 278) waited a median of 4 weeks before seeking medical attention. It took a median of 8 weeks for a non-haematology physician to diagnose DLBCL and refer to a haematologist. A median of 3 weeks elapsed between specialist consultation and chemotherapy initiation. In multivariate logistic regression analysis, bone marrow involvement [odds ratio (OR) = 0·41, P = 0·018], Charlson comorbidity index (OR = 1·42, P = 0·017) and urgent inpatient chemotherapy (OR = 0·40, P = 0·012) were associated with diagnostic delays >6 weeks. Lack of pathological diagnosis at the time of haematology referral was the only factor that independently predicted for treatment delays >4 weeks (OR = 8·25, P < 0·01). Diagnostic or treatment delays did not impact survival or progression-free survival. In conclusion, selected disease and patient-related factors are associated with delays in management of DLBCL, but do not impact outcomes. PMID:25324181

  11. Obesity associated pathophysiological & histological changes in WNIN obese mutant rats

    PubMed Central

    Harishankar, Nemani; Kumar, Putcha Uday; Sesikeran, Boindala; Giridharan, Nappanveettil

    2011-01-01

    Background & objectives: WNIN/Ob (obese and euglycaemic) and WNIN/GR-Ob (obesity with impaired glucose tolerance), were isolated and established from Wistar rat stock (WNIN). Both strains showed physical, physiological and biochemical indices related to obesity. We present here haematology, histology and pathophysiological changes between the phenotypes of these strains, lean (+/+), carrier (+/-) and obese (-/-). Methods: A total of 72 animals of equal gender consisting of three phenotypes were used for the study. Haematology, organ weights were measured and histopathology of the tissues studied using standard procedures. In 12 lean and obese rats (equal gender) of WNIN/GR-Ob group morphometry of pancreatic islets was done immunohistochemically (IHC). Results: Obese rats of both the strains showed normal haematology (except low platelet count), but exhibited changes in the organ weights and in histopathology in organs like liver, kidney, brain and testis/ovary. Hyperplasia of adipocytes was seen in obese rats as compared to lean and carrier. IHC of obese rat pancreas showed that both islet density and volume were significantly (P<0.05) increased compared to lean littermates. Interpretation & conclusions: The histological and pathophysiological changes seen in these mutants were in tune with obese phenotype exhibited by these animals. PMID:21985816

  12. The histological diagnosis of metastases to the breast from extramammary malignancies

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Andrew H S

    2007-01-01

    This study aims to review histological and immunohistochemical features that are useful in the diagnosis of metastases to the breast. Histological features were compared between non‐haematological metastases to the breast and 100 consecutive core biopsy specimens of primary invasive carcinomas of the breast. 18 non‐haematological metastases to the breast were diagnosed over a 10‐year period (0.3% of malignant mammary tumours). Elastosis and carcinoma in situ were seen only in primary mammary cancers. Two‐thirds of tumours had features raising the possibility of metastasis, such as clear cell carcinoma suggestive of renal origin and small cell carcinoma suggestive of pulmonary origin. The features observed in haematological metastases are also described. Immunohistochemical panels to distinguish mammary carcinoma (oestrogen receptor, gross cystic fluid protein‐15) from common metastases to the breast, including carcinoma of the lung (thyroid transcription factor‐1), malignant melanoma (S100, HMB45, melan‐A) and ovarian serous papillary carcinoma (Wilms' tumour 1), are discussed. The pathologist has a key role in considering the diagnosis of metastasis to the breast if the histological features are unusual for a primary mammary tumour. The clinical history is vital in some cases. Immunohistochemistry plays a useful supplementary role. PMID:18042689

  13. The haemotoxicity of mitomycin in a repeat dose study in the female CD-1 mouse

    PubMed Central

    Molyneux, Gemma; Gibson, Frances M; Gordon-Smith, Edward C; Pilling, Andrew M; Liu, Kai Chiu; Rizzo, Sian; Sulsh, Susan; Turton, John A

    2005-01-01

    Mitomycin (MMC), like many antineoplastic drugs, induces a predictable, dose-related, bone marrow depression in man and laboratory animals; this change is generally reversible. However, there is evidence that MMC may also cause a late-stage or residual bone marrow injury. The present study in female CD-1 mice investigated the haematological and bone marrow changes induced by MMC in a repeat dose study lasting 50 days. Control and MMC-treated mice were dosed intraperitoneally on eight occasions over 18 days with vehicle, or MMC at 2.5 mg/kg, autopsied (n = 6–12) at 1, 7, 14, 28, 42 and 50 days after the final dose and haematological changes investigated. Femoral nucleated bone marrow cell counts and levels of apoptosis were also evaluated and clonogenic assays carried out; serum levels of FLT3 ligand (FL) were assessed. At day 1 post-dosing, MMC induced significant reductions in RBC, Hb and haematocrit (HCT) values, and there were decreases in reticulocyte, platelet, and femoral nucleated cell counts (FNCC); neutrophil, lymphocyte and monocyte values were also significantly reduced. On days 7 and 14 post-dosing, all haematological parameters showed evidence of a return towards normal values, but at these times, and at day 28, values for RBC and FNCC remained significantly reduced in comparison with controls. At days 42 and 50 post-dosing, many haematological parameters in MMC-treated mice had returned to control levels; however, there remained evidence of late-stage effects on RBC, Hb and HCT values, and FNCC also continued to be significantly decreased. Results for granulocyte-macrophage colony-forming units and erythroid colonies showed a profound decrease immediately post-dosing, but a return to normal values was evident at day 50. Serum FL concentrations demonstrated very significant increases in the immediate post-dosing period, but a return to normal was seen at day 50 post-dosing; a relatively similar pattern was seen in the number of apoptotic femoral marrow nucleated cells. The histopathological examination of kidney tissues from MMC animals at day 42 and 50 post-dosing showed evidence of hydronephrosis with cortical glomerular/tubular atrophy and degeneration. It is therefore concluded that MMC administered on eight occasions over 18 days to female CD-1 mice at 2.5 mg/kg induced profound changes in haematological and bone marrow parameters in the immediate post-dosing period with a return to normal levels at day 50 post-dosing; however, there was evidence of mild but significant late-stage/residual effects on RBC and FNCC, and on cells of the erythroid lineage in the bone marrow. PMID:16309546

  14. No evidence of dehydration with moderate daily coffee intake: a counterbalanced cross-over study in a free-living population.

    PubMed

    Killer, Sophie C; Blannin, Andrew K; Jeukendrup, Asker E

    2014-01-01

    It is often suggested that coffee causes dehydration and its consumption should be avoided or significantly reduced to maintain fluid balance. The aim of this study was to directly compare the effects of coffee consumption against water ingestion across a range of validated hydration assessment techniques. In a counterbalanced cross-over design, 50 male coffee drinkers (habitually consuming 3-6 cups per day) participated in two trials, each lasting three consecutive days. In addition to controlled physical activity, food and fluid intake, participants consumed either 4×200 mL of coffee containing 4 mg/kg caffeine (C) or water (W). Total body water (TBW) was calculated pre- and post-trial via ingestion of Deuterium Oxide. Urinary and haematological hydration markers were recorded daily in addition to nude body mass measurement (BM). Plasma was analysed for caffeine to confirm compliance. There were no significant changes in TBW from beginning to end of either trial and no differences between trials (51.5±1.4 vs. 51.4±1.3 kg, for C and W, respectively). No differences were observed between trials across any haematological markers or in 24 h urine volume (2409±660 vs. 2428±669 mL, for C and W, respectively), USG, osmolality or creatinine. Mean urinary Na(+) excretion was higher in C than W (p = 0.02). No significant differences in BM were found between conditions, although a small progressive daily fall was observed within both trials (0.4±0.5 kg; p<0.05). Our data show that there were no significant differences across a wide range of haematological and urinary markers of hydration status between trials. These data suggest that coffee, when consumed in moderation by caffeine habituated males provides similar hydrating qualities to water. PMID:24416202

  15. Pharmacologic effects of ospemifene in rhesus macaques: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Wurz, Gregory T; Hellmann-Blumberg, Utha; DeGregorio, Michael W

    2008-06-01

    Ospemifene (Ophena) is a new selective oestrogen receptor modulator currently in phase III clinical development for treatment of post-menopausal vulvar and vaginal atrophy. In the present study, we examined the pharmacokinetics, toxicity, and DNA adduct forming potential of ospemifene in the liver and endometrium of rhesus macaques following single and subchronic dosing schedules to better understand the potential toxicologic effects of ospemifene. During single weekly dosing, six macaques were administered 35 mg/kg/week ospemifene orally for 3 weeks. Pharmacokinetics, haematologic toxicity, uterotrophic effects and serum cholesterol levels were monitored. Additionally, two animals were subchronically dosed with 60 mg ospemifene for 9 weeks, followed by 12 mg/day for 3 weeks. Serum cholesterol and pharmacokinetics were monitored, and serial liver and endometrial biopsies were collected during and after treatment to evaluate DNA adduct formation. Following single weekly dosing, no significant haematologic toxicities or uterotrophic effects associated with ospemifene were observed. Peak absorption was 4-5 hr, and the elimination half-life was approximately 22 hr. Serum low-density lipoprotein and triglyceride levels trended lower while no other effects on serum lipids were observed. Subchronic dosing resulted in no haematologic toxicity, a lowering of low-density lipoprotein and triglyceride levels, and an increase in high-density lipoprotein levels that were reversed following cessation of dosing. No clinically relevant uterine or endometrial effects were observed, and no DNA adducts were detected in the liver or endometrial biopsies. The results of our pilot study show that ospemifene may lack genotoxic and toxic effects while having a favourable pharmacokinetic profile. PMID:18346046

  16. Coverage and accuracy of myeloproliferative and myelodysplastic neoplasms in the Finnish Cancer Registry.

    PubMed

    Leinonen, Maarit K; Rantanen, Matti; Pitkäniemi, Janne; Malila, Nea

    2016-06-01

    Background Registration of haematological malignancies presents specific challenges, and a wide range of data is required to ensure case ascertainment and proper classification of these diseases. We studied the data quality of myeloproliferative and myelodysplastic neoplasms in the Finnish Cancer Registry (FCR), comparing information with hospital discharges. Material and methods Hospital discharges (HILMO) in 2007-2013 including diagnostic codes of myeloproliferative and myelodysplastic neoplasms were extracted. Patients were individually linked to the FCR database for all haematological malignancies registered in 1953-2013. Coverage and accuracy of the FCR and agreement between registers was estimated. Results In total 5289 individuals were retrieved from two registers. Of these, 1406 were common, 1080 only found in the FCR and 2803 only in the HILMO. Coverage of myeloproliferative and myelodysplastic neoplasms in the FCR was 47.0% (95% CI 45.7-48.4%). Almost one quarter of the registrations in the FCR was based on a death certificate only. The accuracy of diagnosis was 51.4% (95% CI 49.4-53.3%), but it varied substantially by disease category. Kappa statistic for agreement between registers was excellent (0.83, 95% CI 0.80-0.85) for common cases. 7.6% of cases in the HILMO was registered as leukaemias in the FCR. Conclusions More than half of the patients found in the HILMO were entirely missing from the FCR. However, some of the diagnoses in HILMO may be preliminary and this represents the maximal number of missing cases. Cancer registers benefit from supplementary data sources, such as hospital discharges, to increase coverage and accuracy of register data on haematological malignancies. PMID:26767306

  17. Reticulocyte maturity as an indicator for estimating qualitative abnormality of erythropoiesis.

    PubMed Central

    Watanabe, K; Kawai, Y; Takeuchi, K; Shimizu, N; Iri, H; Ikeda, Y; Houwen, B

    1994-01-01

    AIMS--To determine the maturity of reticulocytes in patients with anaemia as a result of various haematological disorders including those with qualitative abnormalities such as ineffective erythropoiesis or dyserythropoiesis. METHODS--The number of mature reticulocytes was measured with flow cytometry in venous blood samples from 122 patients with haematological disorders and 100 healthy controls. Reticulocytes were classified into three categories by the fluorescence intensity of auramin O staining: low fluorescence ratio (LFR), medium fluorescence ratio (MFR), and high fluorescence ratio (HFR). Immature reticulocytes were determined as the aggregate of MFR and HFR (%). RESULTS--The mean (2SD) number of immature reticulocytes in 100 normal subjects was 9.0 (7.0)%. Significantly high mean values of immature reticulocytes with a normal or reduced reticulocyte count were shown in 90 patients with dyserythropoietic or ineffective erythropoietic conditions, such as acute myeloid leukaemia (AML) (n = 37), myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) (n = 35), aplastic anaemia (AA) (n = 8), or megaloblastic anaemia (MA), (n = 6). Reticulocyte ratios returned to normal after successful treatment of patients with AML (n = 10) and MA (n = 3). However, high percentages of immature reticulocytes with increased reticulocyte counts were consistently observed in patients with enhanced erythropoiesis such as those with acquired autoimmune haemolytic anaemias (AIHA) (n = 4) or acute blood loss (ABL) (n = 4). Reticulocyte maturity was within the normal range in patients with reduced erythropoiesis such as occurs in chronic renal failure (CRF) (n = 11), or in iron deficiency anaemia (IDA) (n = 13). CONCLUSIONS--The evaluation of reticulocyte maturity with total reticulocyte count seems to be clinically useful for estimating the qualitative impairment of erythropoiesis, and so could help differentiate haematological disorders. Images PMID:7962628

  18. Vinflunine–gemcitabine versus vinflunine–carboplatin as first-line chemotherapy in cisplatin-unfit patients with advanced urothelial carcinoma: results of an international randomized phase II trial (JASINT1)†

    PubMed Central

    De Santis, M.; Wiechno, P. J.; Bellmunt, J.; Lucas, C.; Su, W.-C.; Albiges, L.; Lin, C.-C.; Senkus-Konefka, E.; Flechon, A.; Mourey, L.; Necchi, A.; Loidl, W. C.; Retz, M. M.; Vaissière, N.; Culine, S.

    2016-01-01

    Background There is no standard first-line chemotherapy for advanced urothelial carcinoma (aUC) in cisplatin-ineligible (cisplatin-unfit) patients. The study assessed the efficacy and tolerability profile of two vinflunine-based cytotoxic regimens in this setting. Patients and methods Patients with aUC a creatinine clearance (CrCl) of <60 but ≥30 ml/min, performance status 0 or 1 and no prior chemotherapy for advanced disease were randomized (1 : 1). They received vinflunine 250 or 280 mg/m2 (based on baseline CrCl) on day 1, plus either gemcitabine [750 mg/m2 escalated to 1000 mg/m2 in cycle 2 if no toxicity grade (G) ≥2 on days 1 and 8 (VG) or plus carboplatin area under the curve 4.5 day 1 (VC) every 21 days]. To detect a 22% improvement in each arm compared with H0 (41%) in the primary end point, disease control rate (DCR = complete response + partial response + stable disease), 31 assessable patients per arm were required (α = 5%, β = 20%). Results Sixty-nine patients were enrolled (34 VG, 35 VC). Less G3/4 haematological adverse events (AEs) were reported with VG: neutropaenia was seen in 38% (versus 68% with VC) and febrile neutropaenia in 3% (versus 14% with VC) of patients. No major differences were observed for non-haematological AEs. DCR was 77% in both groups; overall response rate (ORR) was 44.1% versus 28.6%, with a median progression-free survival of 5.9 versus 6.1 months and median OS of 14.0 versus 12.8 months with VG and VC, respectively. Conclusion Both vinflunine-based doublets offer a similar DCR, ORR and OS. The better haematological tolerance favours the VG combination, which warrants further study. ClinicalTrials.gov protocol identifier NCT 01599013. PMID:26673352

  19. National survey on intra-laboratory turnaround time for some most common routine and stat laboratory analyses in 479 laboratories in China

    PubMed Central

    Fei, Yang; Zeng, Rong; Wang, Wei; He, Falin; Zhong, Kun

    2015-01-01

    Introduction To investigate the state of the art of intra-laboratory turnaround time (intra-TAT), provide suggestions and find out whether laboratories accredited by International Organization for Standardization (ISO) 15189 or College of American Pathologists (CAP) will show better performance on intra-TAT than non-accredited ones. Materials and methods 479 Chinese clinical laboratories participating in the external quality assessment programs of chemistry, blood gas, and haematology tests organized by the National Centre for Clinical Laboratories in China were included in our study. General information and the median of intra-TAT of routine and stat tests in last one week were asked in the questionnaires. Results The response rate of clinical biochemistry, blood gas, and haematology testing were 36% (479 / 1307), 38% (228 / 598), and 36% (449 / 1250), respectively. More than 50% of laboratories indicated that they had set up intra-TAT median goals and almost 60% of laboratories declared they had monitored intra-TAT generally for every analyte they performed. Among all analytes we investigated, the intra-TAT of haematology analytes was shorter than biochemistry while the intra-TAT of blood gas analytes was the shortest. There were significant differences between median intra-TAT on different days of the week for routine tests. However, there were no significant differences in median intra-TAT reported by accredited laboratories and non-accredited laboratories. Conclusions Many laboratories in China are aware of intra-TAT control and are making effort to reach the target. There is still space for improvement. Accredited laboratories have better status on intra-TAT monitoring and target setting than the non-accredited, but there are no significant differences in median intra-TAT reported by them. PMID:26110033

  20. Neoplastic Meningitis: How MRI and CSF Cytology Are Influenced by CSF Cell Count and Tumor Type

    PubMed Central

    Prömmel, P.; Pilgram-Pastor, S.; Sitter, H.; Buhk, J.-H.; Strik, H.

    2013-01-01

    Background. Although CSF cytology and MRI are standard methods to diagnose neoplastic meningitis (NM), this complication of neoplastic disease remains difficult to detect. We therefore reevaluated the sensitivity of gadolinium (GD)-enhanced MRI and cerebrospinal-fluid (CSF)-cytology and the relevance of tumor type and CSF cell count. Methods. We retrospectively identified 111 cases of NM diagnosed in our CSF laboratory since 1990 with complete documentation of both MRI and CSF cytology. 37 had haematological and 74 solid neoplasms. CSF cell counts were increased in 74 and normal in 37 patients. Results. In hematological neoplasms, MRI was positive in 49% and CSF cytology in 97%. In solid tumors, the sensitivity of MRI was 80% and of cytology 78%. With normal CSF cell counts, MRI was positive in 59% (50% hematological, 72% solid malignancies) and CSF cytology in 76% (92% in hematological, 68% in solid neoplasms). In cases of elevated cell counts, the sensitivity of MRI was 72% (50% for hematological, 83% for solid malignancies) and of CSF cytology 91% (100% for haematological and 85% for solid neoplasms). 91% of cytologically positive cases were diagnosed at first and another 7% at second lumbar puncture. Routine protein analyses had a low sensitivity in detecting NM. Conclusions. The high overall sensitivity of MRI was only confirmed for NM from solid tumors and for elevated CSF cell counts. With normal cell counts and haematological neoplasms, CSF-cytology was superior to MRI. None of the analysed routine CSF proteins had an acceptable sensitivity and specificity in detecting leptomeningeal disease. PMID:24453817

  1. Mutation screening for thalassaemia in the Jino ethnic minority population of Yunnan Province, Southwest China

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Shiyun; Zhang, Rong; Xiang, Guangxin; Li, Yang; Hou, Xuhong; Jiang, Fusong; Jiang, Feng; Hu, Cheng; Jia, Weiping

    2015-01-01

    Objectives This study aimed to detect α- and β-thalassaemia mutations in the Jino ethnic minority population of Yunnan Province, Southwest China. Design A total of 1613 Jino adults were continuously recruited from February 2012 to April 2012. Fasting venous blood samples were obtained to determine haematological variables. Haemoglobin analysis was conducted using high-performance liquid chromatography. Participants with hypochromic microcytic anaemia or positive haemoglobin analysis profiles were confirmed by α- and β-globin genetic testing, including DNA microarray analysis, direct sequencing methods and multiplex gap-PCR assays. Setting Shanghai Diabetes Institute, Shanghai Key Laboratory of Diabetes Mellitus, Shanghai Jiao Tong University Affiliated Sixth People's Hospital. Results We found 363 suspected cases by primary screening of haematological variables and haemoglobin analysis. After further genetic testing, four types of α- and β-thalassaemia mutation were detected in 203 out of 363 individuals. Both α0- and α+-thalassaemia mutations, --SEA and -α3.7, were identified. β-Thalassaemia mutations included CD17 (HBB:c.52A>T) and CD26 (HbE or HBB:c.79G>A). In addition, 13 HbE carriers had coexisting α0- or α+-thalassaemia deletions. Clinical haematological variables indicated that, in this study, carriers of all thalassaemic genotypes had more severe hypochromic microcytic anaemia than non-thalassaemic individuals. Conclusions Our results provide information on the Jino ethnic minority that may be useful for further genetic counselling, prenatal screening and clinical diagnosis of thalassaemia in this region. PMID:26715484

  2. Inhibition of histone deacetylases in cancer therapy: lessons from leukaemia.

    PubMed

    Ceccacci, Elena; Minucci, Saverio

    2016-03-15

    Histone deacetylases (HDACs) are a key component of the epigenetic machinery regulating gene expression, and behave as oncogenes in several cancer types, spurring the development of HDAC inhibitors (HDACi) as anticancer drugs. This review discusses new results regarding the role of HDACs in cancer and the effect of HDACi on tumour cells, focusing on haematological malignancies, particularly acute myeloid leukaemia. Histone deacetylases may have opposite roles at different stages of tumour progression and in different tumour cell sub-populations (cancer stem cells), highlighting the importance of investigating these aspects for further improving the clinical use of HDACi in treating cancer. PMID:26908329

  3. [Radioecological studies of freshwater mollusks in the Chernobyl accident exclusion zone].

    PubMed

    Gudkov, D I; Nazarov, A B; Dziubenko, E V; Kaglian, A E; Klenus, V G

    2009-01-01

    Species-specificity and dynamics of 90Sr, 137Cs and some transuranic elements accumulation in bivalve and gastropod freshwater molluscs of the Chernobyl exclusion zone during 1997-2008 was analyzed. The results of radiation dose and chromosome aberration rate estimation and the analysis of hemolymph composition of freshwater snail (Lymnaea stagnalis L.) was produced. The absorbed dose rate was registered in the range of 0.3-85.0 microGy/h. In closed water bodies the heightened chromosome aberration rate (up to 27%) in embryo tissues, and also the change of haematological indexes for the adult individuals of snails was registered. PMID:20143583

  4. A two-layered classifier based on the radial basis function for the screening of thalassaemia.

    PubMed

    Masala, G L; Golosio, B; Cutzu, R; Pola, R

    2013-11-01

    The thalassaemias are blood disorders with hereditary transmission. Their distribution is global, with particular incidence in areas affected by malaria. Their diagnosis is mainly based on haematologic and genetic analyses. The aim of this study was to differentiate between persons with the thalassaemia trait and normal subjects by inspecting characteristics of haemochromocytometric data. The paper proposes an original method that is useful in screening activity for thalassaemia classification. A complete working system with a friendly graphical user interface is presented. A unique feature of the presented work is the adoption of a two-layered classification system based on Radial basis function, which improves the performance of the system. PMID:24209918

  5. Multiple myeloma and bone disease: pathogenesis and current therapeutic approaches.

    PubMed

    Papadopoulou, E C; Batzios, S P; Dimitriadou, M; Perifanis, V; Garipidou, V

    2010-04-01

    Multiple myeloma is a haematologic malignancy caused by clonal expansion of malignant plasma cells and associated with bone disease and hypercalcaemia. Myeloma cells are in close proximity to sites of active bone resorption and the interactions between those cells, osteoblasts and osteoclasts, are crucial not only for the bone distraction but for the proliferation of bone marrow cells as well. Recent studies have revealed that numerous regulating factors of osteoblast and osteoclast activity interfere with the pathogenesis of multiple myeloma's bone disease and that the understanding of the pathophysiological pathways involved is the first step towards discovering novel potential therapeutic approaches. PMID:20596260

  6. Arsenic poisoning in dairy cattle from naturally occurring arsenic pyrites.

    PubMed

    Hopkirk, R G

    1987-10-01

    An outbreak of arsenic poisoning occurred in which most of a 200 cow dairy herd were affected and six died. The source of the arsenic was naturally occurring arsenic pyrites from the Waiotapu Stream, near Rotorua. Arsenic levels in the nearby soil were as high as 6618 ppm. There was little evidence to suggest that treatment affected the course of the disease. Haematology was of little use in diagnosis, post-mortem signs were not always consistent and persistence of the element in the liver appeared short. Control of further outbreaks have been based on practical measures to minimise the intake of contaminated soil and free laying water by the stock. PMID:16031332

  7. Natural cytotoxicity impairment in familial haemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis.

    PubMed Central

    Aricò, M; Nespoli, L; Maccario, R; Montagna, D; Bonetti, F; Caselli, D; Burgio, G R

    1988-01-01

    Ten children with the characteristic clinical and haematological features of haemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis are reported. Four patients treated with a combination of drugs comprising etoposide, methotrexate, and steroids were in complete remission after 10 to 30 months. Natural cytotoxic mechanisms including natural killer cell activity, antibody dependent cell mediated cytotoxicity, lymphokine activated killer cell activity, and natural killer cell like activity were persistently absent or severely impaired in these four patients despite their clinical remission. Their parents and one healthy sibling also had impaired natural cytotoxic mechanisms. Constitutional impairment of natural cytotoxic mechanisms could be important in the pathogenesis of haemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis. PMID:3355209

  8. Severe thrombocytopenia soon after drug-eluting stent implantation in ST-elevation myocardial infarction.

    PubMed

    Łebek-Szatańska, Agnieszka; Pośnik-Kisło, Anna; Błaszak-Ciećwierska, Wiesława; Dąbrowski, Marek

    2015-01-01

    Thrombocytopenia is among the most frequent haematological issues in patients hospitalised with myocardial infarction. We discuss the case of a 77-year-old male who was admitted to hospital on the 4(th) hour of ST-elevation myocardial infarction of the anterior wall. A percutaneous coronary intervention to critically stenoted initial segment of the anterior descending branch was performed. A few days later he started developing symptomatic thrombocytopenia. On the course of his long hospitalization we faced many important problems, concerning both diagnosis and treatment of these co-existing conditions. PMID:26677393

  9. Haemoglobin content modulated deformation dynamics of red blood cells on a compact disc.

    PubMed

    Kar, Shantimoy; Ghosh, Uddipta; Maiti, Tapas Kumar; Chakraborty, Suman

    2015-12-21

    We investigate the deformation characteristics of red blood cells (RBCs) on a rotating compact disc platform. Our study brings out the interplay between haemoglobin content and RBC deformability in a centrifugally actuated microfluidic environment. We reveal that RBC deformations follow the similar trend of principal stress distributed throughout the radial direction, rendering an insight into the mechano-physical processes involved. This study can be used as a diagnostic marker to determine haematological disorders in diseased blood samples tested on compact disc based microfluidic platforms. PMID:26502076

  10. Direct and two-step bioorthogonal probes for Bruton's tyrosine kinase based on ibrutinib: a comparative study.

    PubMed

    Liu, Nora; Hoogendoorn, Sascha; van de Kar, Bas; Kaptein, Allard; Barf, Tjeerd; Driessen, Christoph; Filippov, Dmitri V; van der Marel, Gijsbert A; van der Stelt, Mario; Overkleeft, Herman S

    2015-05-14

    Ibrutinib is a covalent and irreversible inhibitor of Bruton's tyrosine kinase (BTK) and has been approved for the treatment of haematological malignancies, such as chronic lymphocytic leukaemia, mantle cell lymphoma and Waldenström's macroglobulinemia. The covalent and irreversible nature of its molecular mode of action allows identification and monitoring of its target in an activity-based protein profiling (ABPP) setting. Fluorescent and biotinylated ibrutinib derivatives have appeared in the literature in recent years to monitor BTK in vitro and in situ. The work described here complements this existing methodology and pertains a comparative study on the efficacy of direct and two-step bioorthogonal ABPP of BTK. PMID:25849561

  11. Castor bean (Ricinus communis) toxicosis in a sheep flock.

    PubMed

    Aslani, M R; Maleki, M; Mohri, M; Sharifi, K; Najjar-Nezhad, V; Afshari, E

    2007-03-01

    This paper describes clinical, laboratory and pathological findings of sheep, which is intoxicated with castor bean. The source of intoxication was a miscellaneous garden waste. Forty-five animals showed clinical toxicosis and 17 died. The clinical signs included weakness, salivation, profuse watery diarrhoea, dehydration, mydriasis, teeth grinding, hypothermia and recumbency. The most significant haematological and biochemical findings were a high haematocrit, high concentration of serum BUN, creatinine and phosphorus and high activity of serum CK and AST. Pathology revealed severe gastroenteritis, cardiac haemorrhage and necrosis, hepatic necrosis and acute tubular necrosis in kidneys. Treatment included symptomatic and supportive care with fluid therapy and cathartic administration. PMID:17157890

  12. Acute appendicitis presenting as pneumoperitoneum in a teenage boy undergoing chemotherapy.

    PubMed

    Wong, C W Y; Chung, P H Y; Lan, L C L; Wong, K K Y

    2015-01-01

    Chemotherapy of paediatric haematological malignancies can induce infectious complications of the gastrointestinal tract, with predilection of the ileocaecal region. Common causes of right lower abdominal pain in the febrile patient with neutropaenia include acute appendicitis, typhlitis, ileus and intussusception. In this case report, we describe a teenage boy with acute appendicitis presenting with pneumoperitoneum during his course of chemotherapy. The incidence, aetiology, diagnosis, investigations and management of this uncommon presentation in a common disease are discussed. The controversial topic of the management of acute appendicitis in a febrile patient with neutropaenia is also reviewed and discussed. PMID:26443090

  13. Sperm concentrations and quality in beta-thalassaemia major.

    PubMed

    Jensen, C E; Abdel-Gadir, A; Cox, C; Tuck, S M; Wonke, B

    1996-12-01

    We report semen analyses in eight patients with beta-thalassaemia major, with poor results in all but the youngest. The causation is multi-factorial, with iron deposition in the pituitary gland resulting from life-long dependence on blood transfusions being a major factor. We speculate on other contributing causes, but further research is required to elucidate these. Improving haematological care means that these men are increasingly surviving to adult life. Relevant techniques to enable them to achieve their desire for fatherhood are considered. PMID:9051422

  14. Iliopsoas abscess with iliac and femoral vein thrombosis in an adult Siberian husky.

    PubMed

    Grösslinger, K; Lorinson, D; Hittmair, K; Konar, M; Weissenböck, H

    2004-02-01

    A nine-year-old, male Siberian husky was presented with fever, decreased appetite and activity, non-weightbearing lameness, and oedematous swelling of the right inguinal and preputial area and the right hindlimb. An abscess within the right iliopsoas muscle, with severe thrombosis of the iliac and femoral vein, was diagnosed by haematology and diagnostic imaging. The abscess and adjoining lymph node were removed surgically through a median coellotomy. The isolated pathogen was Staphylococcus intermedius. Clinical signs resolved completely after surgery. Antimicrobial therapy was continued for four weeks. Within the follow-up period of six months, no recurrence of the clinical signs was detected. PMID:14984156

  15. Vanadium induced impairment of haem synthesis.

    PubMed Central

    Missenard, C; Hansen, G; Kutter, D; Kremer, A

    1989-01-01

    Biochemical and haematological profiles of workers exposed to vanadium were compared with those of non-exposed age matched subjects. A significantly positive and dose related correlation between serum vanadium and zinc protoporphyrin (ZPP) was observed. Normal lead concentrations excluded this heavy metal as a possible cause. Inhibition of the reduction of Fe to Fe++ by vanadium is discussed as the possible cause of interference of vanadium with haem synthesis. Iron and iron binding capacity were found to be significantly lower and ferritin significantly higher in the population exposed to vanadium. Strong inter-individual variations do not allow an explanation of this interference with iron metabolism. PMID:2818962

  16. Micro-orchestrating differentiation in cancer.

    PubMed

    Taulli, Riccardo; Bersani, Francesca; Ponzetto, Carola

    2010-03-01

    Differentiation involves repression of genes governing proliferation and self-renewal, and transcriptional activation of lineage-specific genes. The mechanisms underlying these changes are epigenetic. In cancer cells differentiation genes are locked into a transcriptionally inactive state. Recent results show that in spite of the diversity of the genetic lesions leading to a cancerous phenotype, it may still be possible to release this block and to force differentiation. The key may be microRNAs (miRNAs) which directly or indirectly target epigenetic modifiers. These miRNAs could allow to apply to solid tumors the non-toxic differentiative approach currently adopted in some haematologic malignancies. PMID:20160508

  17. Giemsa-stained wet mount based method for reticulocyte quantification: a viable alternative in resource limited or malaria endemic settings.

    PubMed

    Lee, Wenn-Chyau; Russell, Bruce; Lau, Yee-Ling; Fong, Mun-Yik; Chu, Cindy; Sriprawat, Kanlaya; Suwanarusk, Rossarin; Nosten, Francois; Renia, Laurent

    2013-01-01

    The quantity of circulating reticulocytes is an important indicator of erythropoietic activity in response to a wide range of haematological pathologies. While most modern laboratories use flow cytometry to quantify reticulocytes, most field laboratories still rely on 'subvital' staining. The specialist 'subvital' stains, New Methylene Blue (NMB) and Brilliant Crésyl Blue are often difficult to procure, toxic, and show inconsistencies between batches. Here we demonstrate the utility of Giemsa's stain (commonly used microbiology and parasitology) in a 'subvital' manner to provide an accurate method to visualize and count reticulocytes in blood samples from normal and malaria-infected individuals. PMID:23565221

  18. [Femoral osteolytic lesions with soft tissue tumors and hypercalcemia as presentation form of a B-cell lymphoma].

    PubMed

    Hernández Hernández, J L; Olmos Martínez, J M; Figols Ladrón de Guevara, J; Riancho Moral, J A; González Macías, J

    2000-05-01

    Hypercalcemia associated with haematological neoplasms account for 15 to 20% of hipercalcemia in malignancy, and occurs usually in patients with multiple myeloma. However, its incidence in patients with linfoma is low, and it is observed usually in T-cell linfomas. Bone affectation is also uncommon in patients with non-Hodgkin linfoma. It usually is seen as a late manifestation of the disease, and its occurrence as the form of presentation is exceptional. We hereby report a patient with a B-cell non-Hodgkin linfoma presenting with hypercalcemia and femoral osteolytic lesions. PMID:10859829

  19. Imaging findings of upper abdominal involvement by acute megakaryoblastic leukaemia.

    PubMed

    Amemiya, Shiori; Akahane, Masaaki; Takita, Junko; Igarashi, Takashi; Ohtomo, Kuni

    2008-04-01

    Acute megakaryoblastic leukaemia (AMKL), a relatively rare type of acute myeloid leukaemia, is characterized by frequent involvement of the liver, spleen and lymph nodes in addition to myelofibrosis in children. Diagnosis is difficult both clinically and pathologically, and the hepatic or lymph node involvement is not uncommonly misinterpreted as solid tumour. We report the imaging findings of upper abdominal involvement by AMKL in an infant. The hepatic lesion, initially suspected to be hepatoblastoma, showed a distinctive appearance on MRI suggesting its infiltrative nature. With the association of splenic lesion and lymphadenopathy, the imaging findings were considered indicative of a haematological disorder. PMID:18172635

  20. Autoimmune pernicious anaemia as a cause of collapse, heart failure and marked panyctopaenia in a young patient.

    PubMed

    Carey, Justin; Hack, Ebru

    2012-01-01

    A 35-year-old woman with a history of vitiligo, hypothyroidism and amenorrhoea presented with collapse and clinical features of cardiac failure. Laboratory investigations revealed pancytopaenia, the cause of which was found to be vitamin B12 deficiency due to pernicious anaemia. Treatment with intramuscular hydroxycobalamin was commenced and the patient improved steadily with concomitant improvement in her haematological indices. Clinical features of pernicious anaemia which can include marked pancytopaenia, diagnostic approach, associated conditions and approach to treatment are discussed. The importance of surveillance for gastrointestinal malignancy is emphasised. PMID:22605831

  1. Invasive rhinosinusitis by Exserohilum rostratum in an immunocompetent child

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Ayush; Xess, Immaculata; Sharma, S C; Mallick, Saumyaranjan

    2014-01-01

    Exserohilum is a saprophytic fungal pathogen responsible for a wide spectrum of infections in humans. It causes life-threatening acute invasive infections in the immunocompromised individuals, particularly those having haematological disorders. We report a proven case of chronic invasive rhinosinusitis with orbital involvement by Exserohilum rostratum in an immunocompetent child. The patient responded well to endoscopic sinus surgery followed by oral itraconazole. An aggressive surgical approach is required for improving the outcome of patients with invasive infections. A microbiological diagnosis may help in deciding the systemic antifungal agent in fungal rhinosinusitis. PMID:24711469

  2. Primary progressive aphasia as the initial manifestation of corticobasal degeneration. A "three in one " syndrome?

    PubMed

    Ioannides, Panos; Karacostas, Dimitris; Hatzipantazi, Maria; Ioannis, Milonas

    2005-01-01

    In 1994, the term "Pick complex" was proposed to indicate significant clinical and pathological overlapping between primary progressive aphasia, frontal lobe dementia and corticobasal degeneration. We report the case of a 60-year-old man, who initially presented progressive non-fluent aphasia with orofacial apraxia, and subsequently, over a period of 3 years, developed mutism, pathological laughter, extrapyramidal rigidity, dystonia, alien hand syndrome and bulbar signs. An extensive haematological, immunological and biochemical work up was normal. The results of neuroimaging studies and neuropsychological tests, along with the clinical evolution, finally led us to the ?three in one? diagnosis, supporting the concept of Pick complex. PMID:16324238

  3. The metabolic consequences of infusing emulsions containing medium chain triglycerides for parenteral nutrition: a comparative study with conventional lipid.

    PubMed Central

    Dennison, A. R.; Ball, M.; Crowe, P. J.; White, K.; Hands, L.; Watkins, R. M.; Kettlewell, M.

    1986-01-01

    In order to test the hypothesis that medium chain triglycerides (MCT's) are a safe and potentially superior energy source during parenteral nutrition 13 patients were entered into a randomised cross over trial. They received either a long chain triglyceride emulsion (LCT) or a 50% medium chain (MCT)/50% LCT mixture as part of their energy supply. Nitrogen balance was significantly better when MCT/LCT was infused and the greater levels of plasma ketones and lower plasma triglyceride levels suggested that MCT was more readily metabolised in these patients. Routine haematology, biochemistry and liver function tests gave no indication of harmful side effects from MCT. PMID:3089123

  4. Extrahepatic manifestations of hepatitis E virus.

    PubMed

    Kamar, Nassim; Marion, Olivier; Abravanel, Florence; Izopet, Jacques; Dalton, Harry R

    2016-04-01

    Hepatitis E virus can cause acute, fulminant and chronic hepatitis and has been associated with a range of extrahepatic manifestations. Guillain-Barré syndrome, neuralgic amyotrophy and encephalitis are the main neurological manifestations associated with acute and chronic hepatitis E virus infection. Renal injuries have been also reported, including membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis with or without cryoglobulinemia and membranous glomerulonephritis. Acute pancreatitis, haematological disorders and other autoimmune extrahepatic manifestations of hepatitis E virus, such as myocarditis and thyroiditis, have been also reported. In this comprehensive article, we review all published reports describing hepatitis E virus-associated extrahepatic manifestations. PMID:27005692

  5. ACTH-adrenal system and exogenous steroids.

    PubMed

    Palmieri, G; Perego, M; Alkabes, M; Palmieri, R

    1979-01-01

    The results obtained from a research on 100 patients of both sexes affected with bronchial asthma, chronic obstructive bronchopathy, rheumatoid arthritis, haematological disorders and some other pathological forms, all depending on steroid therapy, are reported in this paper. The treatment was carried out using a new chronopluricorticoid (Dutimelan 8 15). The clinical efficiency is comparable to that obtained by the traditional steroid treatment with the advantage that symptoms of hypercorticism were absent or insignificant. The authors believe that such excellent results are to be attributed to the particular chronopharmacological characteristics of this preparation. PMID:232569

  6. Moynihan Lecture, 1980. Major surgery in haemophilia.

    PubMed Central

    Rudowski, W. J.

    1981-01-01

    The experience of the Department of Surgery of the Institute of Haematology, Warsaw, in surgery in haemophilic patients is discussed. From 1961 to 1980 131 surgical procedures were carried out on 110 patients with a mortality of 4.5%. The principles of replacement therapy, advantages of factor VIII concentrates, and factors influencing the haemorrhagic complications are described. The management of patients with inhibitors of factor VIII and the effect of the 'Feiba' preparation is discussed. Finally the importance of new work on an antihaemophilic globulin-liposome compound for oral administration to haemophilic patients is emphasised. PMID:6787973

  7. [Case report: lymphosarcoma in a cow].

    PubMed

    Schell, M; Heckert, H P; Müller, K E

    2004-01-01

    A case of sporadic lymphosarcoma in a cow is described. The animal showed a tumorous mass in the area of the right orbita accompanied by conjunctival oedema. Clinical investigation showed an enlargement of a number of internal and external lymph nodes. Haematological and clinicochemical investigations revealed no alterations besides a slight shift to the right in the white blood picture. Blood serum was negative for antibodies directed against bovine leucosis virus. Necropsy showed leucotic and tumorous alterations in a number of organs. PMID:14983754

  8. Leucine-rich repeat protein PRAME: expression, potential functions and clinical implications for leukaemia

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    PRAME/MAPE/OIP4 is a germinal tissue-specific gene that is also expressed at high levels in haematological malignancies and solid tumours. The physiological functions of PRAME in normal and tumour cells are unknown, although a role in the regulation of retinoic acid signalling has been proposed. Sequence homology and structural predictions suggest that PRAME is related to the leucine-rich repeat (LRR) family of proteins, which have diverse functions. Here we review the current knowledge of the structure/function of PRAME and its relevance in leukaemia. PMID:20799951

  9. Unusual manifestation of Salmonella enterica serotype enteritidis infection in a case of Langerhans cell histiocytosis.

    PubMed

    Praharaj, I; Sujatha, S; Parija, S C; Mahadevan, S

    2013-01-01

    Nontyphoidal Salmonella (NTS) are established foodborne pathogens, most commonly reported in cases of gastroenteritis. These pathogens are however, increasingly being implicated in cases of bacteraemia and other extraintestinal manifestations. We report a case of a scalp abscess due to Salmonella enterica serotype Enteritidis, which is a serotype of NTS, in a child suffering from a haematologic malignancy. The child was on steroid and anticancer chemotherapy and developed the abscess secondary to bacteraemia with Salmonella Enteritidis. The abscess was drained and resolved following a course of intravenous antibiotic treatment. PMID:24064654

  10. Pycnodysostosis with novel gene mutation and severe obstructive sleep apnoea: management of a complex case

    PubMed Central

    Girbal, Ins; Nunes, Teresa; Medeira, Ana; Bandeira, Teresa

    2013-01-01

    Pycnodysostosis is a rare genetic disease. Impaired osteoclastic function is the basis for typical phenotypic features and bone fragility. The main differential diagnosis is osteopetrosis, also associated with altered bone remodelling, but with a more severe prognosis. We describe the case of an 8-year-old boy who presented life-threatening obstructive sleep apnoea successfully managed with non-invasive ventilation. Haematological overlap phenotype included anaemia and altered bone marrow, more common in osteopetrosis. Molecular analysis of the CTSK gene revealed a mutation not previously described in the literature. PMID:24057333

  11. Does bacteriology laboratory automation reduce time to results and increase quality management?

    PubMed

    Dauwalder, O; Landrieve, L; Laurent, F; de Montclos, M; Vandenesch, F; Lina, G

    2016-03-01

    Due to reductions in financial and human resources, many microbiological laboratories have merged to build very large clinical microbiology laboratories, which allow the use of fully automated laboratory instruments. For clinical chemistry and haematology, automation has reduced the time to results and improved the management of laboratory quality. The aim of this review was to examine whether fully automated laboratory instruments for microbiology can reduce time to results and impact quality management. This study focused on solutions that are currently available, including the BD Kiestra™ Work Cell Automation and Total Lab Automation and the Copan WASPLab(®). PMID:26577142

  12. Pulmonary hypertension in patients with chronic myeloproliferative disorders.

    PubMed

    Adir, Yochai; Elia, Davide; Harari, Sergio

    2015-09-01

    Pulmonary hypertension (PH) is a major complication of several haematological disorders. Chronic myeloproliferative diseases (CMPDs) associated with pulmonary hypertension have been included in group five of the clinical classification for pulmonary hypertension, corresponding to pulmonary hypertension for which the aetiology is unclear and/or multifactorial. The aim of this review is to discuss the epidemiology, pathogenic mechanism and treatment approaches of the more common forms of pulmonary hypertension in the context of CMPD's: chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension, precapillary pulmonary hypertension and drug-induced PH. PMID:26324801

  13. A study on gender-related differences in laboratory characteristics of dengue fever.

    PubMed

    Chakravarti, A; Roy, P; Malik, S; Siddiqui, O; Thakur, P

    2016-01-01

    Studies have reported significant gender-related differences in serological tests for detection of NS1 antigen and IgM antibody used for diagnosing dengue fever. However, no such study has been undertaken in India though dengue fever is endemic in this country. Therefore, this study was planned to study the association of serological findings with gender in 700 patients suspected to be suffering from dengue fever in the Indian setting. Haematological parameters of seropositive patients were also studied. Seropositivity and haemorrhagic findings were significantly associated with the female gender. Positive NS1 antigen and IgM antibody results were significantly associated with females and males, respectively. PMID:26776124

  14. Monoclonal Antibodies in Cancer Therapy: Mechanisms, Successes and Limitations

    PubMed Central

    Coulson, A; Levy, A; Gossell-Williams, M

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Rituximab was the first chemotherapeutic monoclonal antibody (CmAb) approved for clinical use in cancer therapeutics in 1997 and has significantly improved the clinical outcomes in non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. Since then, numerous CmAbs have been developed and approved for the treatment of various haematologic and solid human cancers. In this review, the classification, efficacy and significantly reduced toxicity of CmAbs available for use in the United States of America are presented. Finally, the limitations of CmAbs and future considerations are explored. PMID:25803383

  15. An Ashkenazi Jewish woman presenting with favism

    PubMed Central

    Lim, F; Vulliamy, T; Abdalla, S H

    2005-01-01

    The case of a 44 year old Ashkenazi Jewish woman of Russian origin who presented with a typical clinical and haematological picture of favism is reported. There was initial difficulty in confirming glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency because the enzyme concentrations were normal at presentation, but later fell to a concentration compatible with heterozygosity for the Mediterranean type of G6PD deficiency. The diagnosis was also later confirmed by gene analysis. The reasons for the difficulties in the initial confirmation of the diagnosis and the normal G6PD enzyme activity at presentation are discussed. PMID:15735168

  16. An Ashkenazi Jewish woman presenting with favism.

    PubMed

    Lim, F; Vulliamy, T; Abdalla, S H

    2005-03-01

    The case of a 44 year old Ashkenazi Jewish woman of Russian origin who presented with a typical clinical and haematological picture of favism is reported. There was initial difficulty in confirming glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency because the enzyme concentrations were normal at presentation, but later fell to a concentration compatible with heterozygosity for the Mediterranean type of G6PD deficiency. The diagnosis was also later confirmed by gene analysis. The reasons for the difficulties in the initial confirmation of the diagnosis and the normal G6PD enzyme activity at presentation are discussed. PMID:15735168

  17. Monitoring of biological markers indicative of doping: the athlete biological passport.

    PubMed

    Saugy, Martial; Lundby, Carsten; Robinson, Neil

    2014-05-01

    The athlete biological passport (ABP) was recently implemented in anti-doping work and is based on the individual and longitudinal monitoring of haematological or urine markers. These may be influenced by illicit procedures performed by some athletes with the intent to improve exercise performance. Hence the ABP is a valuable tool in the fight against doping. Actually, the passport has been defined as an individual and longitudinal observation of markers. These markers need to belong to the biological cascade influenced by the application of forbidden hormones or more generally, affected by biological manipulations which can improve the performance of the athlete. So far, the haematological and steroid profile modules of the ABP have been implemented in major sport organisations, and a further module is under development. The individual and longitudinal monitoring of some blood and urine markers are of interest, because the intraindividual variability is lower than the corresponding interindividual variability. Among the key prerequisites for the implementation of the ABP is its prospect to resist to the legal and scientific challenges. The ABP should be implemented in the most transparent way and with the necessary independence between planning, interpretation and result management of the passport. To ensure this, the Athlete Passport Management Unit (APMU) was developed and the WADA implemented different technical documents associated to the passport. This was carried out to ensure the correct implementation of a profile which can also stand the challenge of any scientific or legal criticism. This goal can be reached only by following strictly important steps in the chain of production of the results and in the management of the interpretation of the passport. Various technical documents have been then associated to the guidelines which correspond to the requirements for passport operation. The ABP has been completed very recently by the steroid profile module. As for the haematological module, individual and longitudinal monitoring have been applied and the interpretation cascade is also managed by a specific APMU in a similar way as applied in the haematological module. Thus, after exclusion of any possible pathology, specific variation from the individual norms will be then considered as a potential misuse of hormones or other modulators to enhance performance. PMID:24659506

  18. A comparative study of branch retinal vein occlusion and central vein occlusion amongst Malaysian patients.

    PubMed

    Teoh, S L; Amarjeet, K

    1993-12-01

    A retrospective study of 95 patients with retinal vein occlusion was carried out to determine the clinical presentation and pattern of distribution in the local Malaysian population. There was no significant difference found in its distribution with regards to sex. In comparing branch retinal vein occlusion with central retinal vein occlusion, no significant differences were found in its racial distribution. Branch retinal vein occlusion occurred more commonly among the older patients whereas the converse is true for central retinal vein occlusion. Reduced vision represents the commonest mode of presentation. Hypertension, diabetes mellitus, hyperlipidaemia and haematological disorders are important associated systemic conditions. PMID:8183164

  19. Inhibition of histone deacetylases in cancer therapy: lessons from leukaemia

    PubMed Central

    Ceccacci, Elena; Minucci, Saverio

    2016-01-01

    Histone deacetylases (HDACs) are a key component of the epigenetic machinery regulating gene expression, and behave as oncogenes in several cancer types, spurring the development of HDAC inhibitors (HDACi) as anticancer drugs. This review discusses new results regarding the role of HDACs in cancer and the effect of HDACi on tumour cells, focusing on haematological malignancies, particularly acute myeloid leukaemia. Histone deacetylases may have opposite roles at different stages of tumour progression and in different tumour cell sub-populations (cancer stem cells), highlighting the importance of investigating these aspects for further improving the clinical use of HDACi in treating cancer. PMID:26908329

  20. Chlorpyrifos chronic toxicity in broilers and effect of vitamin C

    PubMed Central

    Kammon, A.M.; Brar, R.S.; Sodhi, S.; Banga, H.S.; Singh, J.; Nagra, N.S.

    2011-01-01

    An experiment was conducted to study chlorpyrifos chronic toxicity in broilers and the protective effect of vitamin C. Oral administration of 0.8 mg/kg body weight (bw) (1/50 LD50) chlorpyrifos (Radar), produced mild diarrhea and gross lesions comprised of paleness, flaccid consistency and slightly enlargement of liver. Histopathologically, chlorpyrifos produced degenerative changes in various organs. Oral administration of 100 mg/kg bw vitamin C partially ameliorated the degenerative changes in kidney and heart. There was insignificant alteration in biochemical and haematological profiles. It is concluded that supplementation of vitamin C reduced the severity of lesions induced by chronic chlorpyrifos toxicity in broilers. PMID:26623275

  1. 5-year follow-up of cytotoxic chemotherapy as an adjuvant to surgery in carcinoma of the bronchus.

    PubMed Central

    Stott, H.; Stephens, R. J.; Fox, W.; Roy, D. C.

    1976-01-01

    This report gives the 5-year findings of a double-blind study of long-term cytotoxic chemotherapy as an adjuvant to surgery in patients receiving busulphan or cyclophosphamide for carcinoma of the bronchus compared with a group receiving a placebo. Of 243 patients initially allocated busulphan, 234 cyclophosphamide and 249 placebo, 28%, 27% and 34% respectively were alive at 5 years. There were significant associations between mortality from bronchial carcinoma and histological involvement of the resected intrathoracic nodes and the histology of the tumour. Haematological toxicity, especially thrombocytopenia, was frequent and severe in the busulphan series, and low platelet counts continued long after chemotherapy was stopped. PMID:786362

  2. Severe Hb S-beta zero-thalassaemia with a T----C substitution in the donor splice site of the first intron of the beta-globin gene.

    PubMed

    Gonzalez-Redondo, J M; Stoming, T A; Kutlar, F; Kutlar, A; McKie, V C; McKie, K M; Huisman, T H

    1989-01-01

    Through direct sequencing and dot-blot analyses with synthetic oligonucleotide probes of amplified DNA, a new nucleotide substitution was discovered in a Black teenager with severe Hb S-beta zero-thalassaemia. The substitution involved a T----C replacement at the second position of the donor splice site of the first intervening sequence of the beta-globin gene. The clinical and haematological observations made in Black subjects with Hb S-beta zero-thalassaemia, with different types of thalassaemia, suggest severe disease resembling sickle cell anaemia. Only an occasional patient had a milder clinical course, perhaps because of a greatly increased production of fetal haemoglobin. PMID:2917118

  3. Don't forget methylmalonic acid quantification in symptomatic exclusively breast-fed infants.

    PubMed

    Van Noolen, L; Nguyen-Morel, M A; Faure, P; Corne, C

    2014-08-01

    Vitamin B12 deficiency can lead to serious haematological and neurological signs in infants. The reported clinical cases of vitamin B12 deficiency were found in exclusively breast-fed infants whose asymptomatic mothers were diagnosed later with pernicious anaemia. For the infants, the diagnosis required urinary methylmalonic acid quantification (grossly elevated in these two cases) and treatment rapidly improved the clinical signs. These cases underline the serious consequences of vitamin B12 deficiency in infants and the helpful role of early methylmalonic acid quantification for diagnosis. PMID:24781684

  4. A cross sectional study of employees with potential occupational exposure to ethylene oxide.

    PubMed Central

    Currier, M F; Carlo, G L; Poston, P L; Ledford, W E

    1984-01-01

    A cross sectional study was conducted on 84 employees potentially exposed to ethylene oxide (EO) to determine whether they had a higher prevalence of abnormalities of the haematopoietic, hepatic, or renal systems than a control group individually matched on age, hire date, race, smoking habits, alcohol history, and date of examination. Potential exposures were estimated to be generally below the current threshold limit value of 10 ppm, with most below 1 ppm. Results of the haematological and biochemical studies were similar in the two groups. A statistically significant (p = 0.035) increase in the prevalence of proteinuria was noted among the EO group which warrants further investigation. PMID:6333892

  5. Monoclonal antibodies for medical oncology: a few critical perspectives.

    PubMed

    Belda-Iniesta, Cristóbal; Ibáñez de Cáceres, Inmaculada; de Castro, Javier

    2011-02-01

    Incorporation of antibodies as weapons for cancer therapy has meant a turning point in the survival, clinical and radiological response of many oncology patients. These drugs are effective, well designed missiles that either alone or in combination with chemotherapy are unavoidable weapons for breast, lung and colon cancer as well as for haematological tumours. In addition, incoming monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) and folder-like proteins will be incorporated into clinical practice in the near future. This review aims to discuss a few imminent indications of current mAbs that are used for solid tumours and to briefly introduce future mAbs to the reader. PMID:21324795

  6. Sympathetic nervous system regulation of the tumour microenvironment

    PubMed Central

    Cole, Steven W.; Nagaraja, Archana S.; Lutgendorf, Susan K.; Green, Paige A.; Sood, Anil K.

    2016-01-01

    The peripheral autonomic nervous system (ANS) is known to regulate gene expression in primary tumours and their surrounding microenvironment. Activation of the sympathetic division of the ANS in particular modulates gene expression programs that promote metastasis of solid tumours by stimulating macrophage infiltration, inflammation, angiogenesis, epithelial-mesenchymal transition, and tumour invasion, and by inhibiting cellular immune responses and programmed cell death. Haematological cancers are modulated by sympathetic nervous system (SNS) regulation of stem cell biology and hematopoietic differentiation programs. In addition to identifying a molecular basis for physiologic stress effects on cancer, these findings have also identified new pharmacologic strategies to inhibit cancer progression in vivo. PMID:26299593

  7. Cyclic chemotherapy in acute lymphoblastic leukaemia of childhood

    PubMed Central

    Vowels, M. R.; Willoughby, M. L. N.

    1973-01-01

    Of 31 children with acute lymphoblastic leukaemia treated with a cyclical scheme of chemotherapy, 19% survived for over 5 years, 16% remained in continuing haematological remission for 5 years, and 13% remained leukaemia free for 5 years. These findings are relevant to potential cure, unlike the median remission duration, which is a measure of palliation. A relation between the percentage of PAS-positive blast cells at diagnosis and duration of control of the disease still pertains for the long-term results in this series of patients. PMID:4514541

  8. [High-cost therapy. Ethical principles of allocation of scarce resources].

    PubMed

    Norheim, O F

    1992-10-10

    This article raises some ethical problems concerning high-cost therapy for malignant haematological diseases. The problem of setting priorities is discussed within the framework of utilitarianism, right-based theories and the contractarian theory of John Rawls. It is argued that utilitarianism can provide precise answers, based on the principle of allocative efficiency. However, this is not the only objective of a public health care system. The right-based approach is discussed, but sufficiently precise definitions seem hard to formulate. The contractarian approach is regarded as interesting, since it tries to address the question of trade-offs between objectives of allocative efficiency and distributive fairness. PMID:1471091

  9. Antitumour activity of Prosopis cineraria (L.) Druce against Ehrlich ascites carcinoma-induced mice.

    PubMed

    Robertson, Stellaa; Narayanan, N; Raj Kapoor, B

    2011-04-01

    The antitumour activity of the hydroalcoholic extract of the leaf (PCL) and stem bark (PCB) of Prosopis cineraria (L.) in Swiss albino mice was evaluated against an Ehrlich ascites carcinoma (EAC) tumour model. The activity was assessed using survival time, peritoneal cells, haematological studies, lipid peroxidation, antioxidant enzymes such as superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase, glutathione S-transferase, solid tumour mass and in vitro cytotoxicity. PCL and PCB were found to be potent and possessed significant cytotoxicity towards EAC tumour cells. PMID:21462080

  10. Brief Tale of a Bacteraemia by Rhodococcus equi, With Concomitant Lung Mass: What Came First, the Chicken or The Egg?

    PubMed Central

    Savini, Vincenzo; Salutari, Prassede; Sborgia, Marco; Mancini, Iole; Masciarelli, Gioviana; Catavitello, Chiara; Astolfi, Daniela; D’Amario, Claudio; Fioritoni, Giuseppe; Spadaro, Antonio; D’Antonio, Domenico

    2011-01-01

    Rhodococcus equi is an uncommon Gram positive, variably acid-fast pathogen, that appears as hard to treat mostly owing to the establishment of intracellular niches. Lack of interpretive criteria for susceptibility testing may lead to under-reporting or overestimation of resistances, whereas knowledge about this pathogen’s clinical impact may be affected by erroneous phenotype-based characterization at a genus and species level. We present the case of a bacteraemia with a concomitant lung mass in a lymphoma patient, that further highlights the emergence of rhodococcal diseases as a matter for concern in the fields of infectious diseases and haematology. PMID:21625310

  11. The Role of Suppressors of Cytokine Signalling in Human Neoplasms

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Anup K.; Mokbel, Kefah

    2014-01-01

    Suppressors of cytokine signalling 17 (SOCS17) and cytokine-inducible SH2-containing protein (CIS) are a group of intracellular proteins that are well known as JAK-STAT and several other signalling pathways negative feedback regulators. More recently several members have been identified as tumour suppressors and dysregulation of their biological roles in controlling cytokine and growth factor signalling may contribute to the development of many solid organ and haematological malignancies. This review explores their biological functions and their possible tumour suppressing role in human neoplasms. PMID:24757565

  12. Listeria meningitis and paté.

    PubMed

    Cumber, P M; Mumar-Bashi, W; Palmer, S; Hutton, R D

    1991-04-01

    Listeria meningitis occurred in a 63 year old man who was in complete haematological remission following chemotherapy for acute myeloid leukaemia. The patient had followed Department of Health advice to immunocompromised patients and had avoided soft cheeses, cook-chill meals, and salads. He had, however, recently eaten paté produced in Belgium. This was no longer available for examination but a coincidental survey of paté in the Cardiff area found Listeria monocytogenes in 16 out of 73 samples. Paté should be included in the list of foods to be avoided by immunocompromised patients. PMID:2030156

  13. Preliminary Characterization of Erythrocytes Deformability on the Entropy-Complexity Plane

    PubMed Central

    Korol, Ana M; D’Arrigo, Mabel; Foresto, Patricia; Pérez, Susana; Martín, Maria T; Rosso, Osualdo A

    2010-01-01

    We present an application of wavelet-based Information Theory quantifiers (Normalized Total Shannon Entropy, MPR-Statistical Complexity and Entropy-Complexity plane) on red blood cells membrane viscoelasticity characterization. These quantifiers exhibit important localization advantages provided by the Wavelet Theory. The present approach produces a clear characterization of this dynamical system, finding out an evident manifestation of a random process on the red cell samples of healthy individuals, and its sharp reduction of randomness on analyzing a human haematological disease, such as β-thalassaemia minor. PMID:21611139

  14. Immunophenotyping of leukaemias by flow cytometry and APAAP: a two-year comparative analysis in hospital practice.

    PubMed

    Sewell, H F; Milton, J I; MacKenzie, R; King, D J; Dawson, A A; Lessels, S E; Bennett, B; Davidson, R L; Walker, F

    1988-01-01

    Using a panel of monoclonal antibodies for the immunophenotyping of haematological malignancies, we have made a direct comparison of the usefulness of indirect immunofluorescence using flow cytometry (IFC) alongside the alkaline phosphatase-anti-alkaline phosphatase (APAAP) immunoenzyme method. Analysis of 400 consecutive patient samples (blood and bone marrow) over a 2-year period, resulted in unequivocal phenotyping agreement by both methods in 98 per cent of cases. The positive results accounting for 2 per cent discordance were obtained by the APAAP method. The value of the technique in the clinical management of patients with leukaemia is documented together with guidelines for clinical laboratories. PMID:3069283

  15. Treatment-related deaths in second complete remission in childhood acute myeloid leukaemia.

    PubMed

    Molgaard-Hansen, Lene; Möttönen, Merja; Glosli, Heidi; Jónmundsson, Guðmundur K; Abrahamsson, Jonas; Hasle, Henrik

    2011-03-01

    The frequency and causes of treatment-related deaths (TRD) in second complete remission (CR2) in acute myeloid leukaemia (AML) were investigated in a historical, prospective cohort study of 429 children included in the Nordic Society of Paediatric Haematology and Oncology (NOPHO)-AML-88 and -93 trials. Relapse occurred in 158 children (39%). Seventeen (18%) of the 96 patients entering CR2 suffered TRD. The main causes were infection (59%) and complications from graft-versus-host disease (22%). Fourteen (82%) of 17 TRDs occurred in children undergoing haematopoietic stem cell transplantations (HSCT). Optimal supportive care after HSCT is essential, and studies on risk factors for TRD are needed. PMID:21241281

  16. [Posterior reversible encephalopathy in a girl with systemic lupus erythematosus: Report of a case].

    PubMed

    Marín, Gustavo R

    2015-10-01

    Posterior reversible encephalopathy is a rare disease in children. Clinical manifestations include headache, seizures, visual disturbances and altered consciousness associated with typical magnetic resonance images of the nervous system. The syndrome usually manifests in patients with eclampsia, solid organ transplantation, haematologic, renal and autoimmune diseases among other less common causes and it is often triggered after a hypertensive crisis or use of immunosuppressive drugs. Less common pathogenic factors as blood transfusion, use of immunoglobulins or an underlying infection can be associated. In this case a girl with systemic lupus erythematosus and exposed to multiple etiopathogenic factors developed posterior reversible encephalopathy. PMID:26294160

  17. Drug therapy during pregnancy: implications for dental practice.

    PubMed

    Ouanounou, A; Haas, D A

    2016-04-22

    Pregnancy is accompanied by various physiological and physical changes, including those found in the cardiovascular, respiratory, gastrointestinal, renal and haematological systems. These alterations in the pregnant patient may potentially affect drug pharmacokinetics. Also, pharmacotherapy presents a unique matter due to the potential teratogenic effects of certain drugs. Although medications prescribed by dentists are generally safe during pregnancy, some modifications may be needed. In this article we will discuss the changes in the physiology during pregnancy and its impact on drug therapy. Specific emphasis will be given to the drugs commonly given by dentists, namely, local anaesthetics, analgesics, antibiotics and sedatives. PMID:27103292

  18. Gastrointestinal mucormycosis in immunocompromised hosts.

    PubMed

    Dioverti, M Veronica; Cawcutt, Kelly A; Abidi, Maheen; Sohail, M Rizwan; Walker, Randall C; Osmon, Douglas R

    2015-12-01

    Invasive mucormycosis is a rare fungal infection in immunocompromised hosts, but it carries a high mortality rate. Primary gastrointestinal disease is the least frequent form of presentation. Early diagnosis and treatment are critical in the management; however, symptoms are typically non-specific in gastrointestinal disease, leading to delayed therapy. To describe the clinical presentation, diagnosis, treatment and outcomes of gastrointestinal mucormycosis in immunocompromised hosts, we reviewed all cases of primary gastrointestinal mucormycosis in immunocompromised hosts reported in English literature as well as in our Institution from January 1st 1991 to December 31st 2013 for a total of 31 patients. About 52% of patients underwent solid organ transplant (SOT), while the rest had an underlying haematologic malignancy. Abdominal pain was the most common presenting symptom, followed by gastrointestinal bleeding and fever. Gastric disease was more common in SOT, whereas those with haematologic malignancy presented with intestinal disease (P = 0.002). Although gastrointestinal mucormycosis remains an uncommon condition in immunocompromised hosts, it carries significant morbidity and mortality, particularly in cases with intestinal involvement. A high index of suspicion is of utmost importance to institute early and appropriate therapy and improve outcomes. PMID:26456920

  19. Invasive Fusarium infections: a retrospective survey of 31 cases. The French 'Groupe d'Etudes des Mycoses Opportunistes' GEMO.

    PubMed

    Hennequin, C; Lavarde, V; Poirot, J L; Rabodonirina, M; Datry, A; Aractingi, S; Dupouy-Camet, J; Caillot, D; Grange, F; Kures, L; Morin, O; Lebeau, B; Bretagne, S; Guigen, C; Basset, D; Grillot, R

    1997-01-01

    A retrospective study was conducted in France to investigate Fusarium infections which are now recognized as emerging opportunistic infections. The clinical and mycological findings for 31 cases diagnosed between 1984 and 1993 by members of the French Groupe d'Etudes des Mycoses Opportunistes were analysed. All suffered from haematological disease, most often acute leucaemia (n = 19). Twenty-two had received cytostatic chemotherapy and ten had undergone bone marrow transplantation. Prolonged aplasia and pancytopenia were present in 18 and 11 patients, respectively. Skin (61%) and blood (42%) were the sites most frequently involved. Fusarium solani (n = 7), Fusarium oxysporum (n = 7), Fusarium verticilloides (n = 7) were the species most frequently isolated. Nine antifungal treatments were used, associated with colony-stimulating factors in five cases. None was unambiguously superior to all the others. The overall mortality was 51.6% with a specific mortality > or = 25.8%. The disseminated form of the infection was associated with poor prognosis (P < 0.02) whereas improving granulocyte count improved prognosis (P < 0.001). More aggressive cytostatic regimens used for patients with haematological malignancies have favoured the emergence of Fusarium infections. As prognosis is closely correlated with neutrophil recovery, the promising results obtained with the use of colony-stimulating factors should be further evaluated. PMID:9147270

  20. Toxicity of cadmium and protective effect of bee honey, vitamins C and B complex.

    PubMed

    Abdelaziz, I; Elhabiby, M I; Ashour, A A

    2013-04-01

    The present work aimed to study the toxic effect of cadmium (Cd) on rabbits' blood indices, as well as the therapeutic effect of the antioxidant agents, vitamins C and B complex and bee honey on Cd intoxicated rabbits. Cadmium chloride (CdCl2) was injected subcutaneously at a dose of 3 mg/kg of body weight. The results showed a significant increase in serum glucose, triglycerides, cholesterol, total protein, albumin, globulin, urea and creatinine, compared to the control group. In addition, CdCl2 intoxication increased the levels of uric acid, aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, alkaline phosphatase and bilirubin. Concerning haematological parameters, the more obvious changes were an increase in mean corpuscular volume and a decrease in white blood cells count, platelets, lymphocytes, heamatocrit, haemoglobin and red blood cells count. Treatment of CdCl2-intoxicated animals with vitamins C and B complex and bee honey showed a decrease in the harmful effects of Cd by restoring haematological and biochemical changes. Bee honey treatment was the most effective in providing recoveries in the altered blood parameters. PMID:23111883

  1. Dental Treatment in Patients with Leukemia

    PubMed Central

    Meurer, Maria Inês; Grando, Liliane Janete; Gonzaga Del Moral, Joanita Ângela; da Silva Rath, Inês Beatriz; Schaefer Tavares, Silvia

    2015-01-01

    Dental treatment of patients with leukemia should be planned on the basis of antineoplastic therapy which can be chemotherapy with or without radiotherapy and bone marrow transplantation. Many are the oral manifestations presented by these patients, arising from leukemia and/or treatment. In addition, performing dental procedures at different stages of treatment (before, during, or after) must follow certain protocols in relation to the haematological indices of patients, aimed at maintaining health and contributing to the effectiveness of the results of antineoplastic therapy. Through a literature review, the purpose of this study was to report the hematological abnormalities present in patients with leukemia, trying to correlate them with the feasibility of dental treatment at different stages of the disease. It is concluded in this paper that dental treatment in relation to haematological indices presented by patients with leukemia must follow certain protocols, mainly related to neutrophil and platelet counts, and the presence of the dentist in a multidisciplinary team is required for the health care of this patient. PMID:25784937

  2. Immune checkpoint inhibition in lymphoid disease.

    PubMed

    Eyre, Toby A; Collins, Graham P

    2015-08-01

    It has long been understood that the immune system has intrinsic anti-tumour activity in humans, and that a key mechanism of tumour progression is the ability of a tumour to escape this immune surveillance. A number of attempts have been made to harness this anti-tumour immunity in both solid tumour oncology and haematological malignancies with variable success. Examples include the use of allogeneic stem cell transplantation and donor lymphocyte infusion in haematological cancer and vaccine studies in solid tumours. Enhanced signalling of the Programmed cell death-1 (PDCD1, PD-1)/cytotoxic T-lymphocyte-associated protein 4 (CTLA4) 'immune checkpoint' pathway has emerged recently as a critical mechanism by which tumours can escape the natural anti-tumour immune response. As such, novel therapies have been developed to help enhance this natural immunity by switching off the PDCD1/CTLA4 immune checkpoint pathway. The following review will discuss the pathobiology of these pathways and the exciting new data now available in lymphoid malignancies. PMID:25824455

  3. The role of JAK/STAT signalling in the pathogenesis, prognosis and treatment of solid tumours.

    PubMed

    Thomas, S J; Snowden, J A; Zeidler, M P; Danson, S J

    2015-07-28

    Aberrant activation of intracellular signalling pathways confers malignant properties on cancer cells. Targeting intracellular signalling pathways has been a productive strategy for drug development, with several drugs acting on signalling pathways already in use and more continually being developed. The JAK/STAT signalling pathway provides an example of this paradigm in haematological malignancies, with the identification of JAK2 mutations in myeloproliferative neoplasms leading to the development of specific clinically effective JAK2 inhibitors, such as ruxolitinib. It is now clear that many solid tumours also show activation of JAK/STAT signalling. In this review, we focus on the role of JAK/STAT signalling in solid tumours, examining the molecular mechanisms that cause inappropriate pathway activation and their cellular consequences. We also discuss the degree to which activated JAK/STAT signalling contributes to oncogenesis. Studies showing the effect of activation of JAK/STAT signalling upon prognosis in several tumour types are summarised. Finally, we discuss the prospects for treating solid tumours using strategies targeting JAK/STAT signalling, including what can be learned from haematological malignancies and the extent to which results in solid tumours might be expected to differ. PMID:26151455

  4. Investigation of diseases through red blood cells' shape using photoacoustic response technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biswas, Deblina; Gorey, Abhijeet; Chen, Goerge C. K.; Sharma, Norman; Vasudevan, Srivathsan

    2015-03-01

    Photoacoustic (PA) imaging is a non-invasive real-time technique, widely applied to many biomedical imaging studies in the recent years. While most of these studies have been focussed on obtaining an image after reconstruction, various features of time domain signal (e.g. amplitude, width, rise and relaxation time) would provide very high sensitivity in detecting morphological changes in cells during a biological study. Different haematological disorders (e.g., sickle cell anaemia, thalassemia) exhibit significant morphological cellular changes. In this context, this study explores the possibility of utilizing the developed photoacoustic response technique to apply onto blood samples. Results of our preliminary study demonstrate that there is a significant change in signal amplitude due to change in concentration of the blood. Thus it shows the sensitivity of the developed photoacoustic technique towards red blood cell count (related to haematological disease like anaemia). Subsequently, morphological changes in RBC (i.e. swollen and shrunk compared to normal RBC) induced by hypotonic and hypertonic solutions respectively were also experimented. The result shows a distinct change in PA signal amplitude. This would serve as a diagnostic signature for many future studies on cellular morphological disorders.

  5. Ixazomib: First Global Approval.

    PubMed

    Shirley, Matt

    2016-03-01

    Ixazomib (Ninlaro(®)) is an orally bioavailable, reversible proteasome inhibitor developed by Millennium Pharmaceuticals, Inc. (now Takeda Oncology). Ixazomib acts by binding to and inhibiting the β5 subunit of the 20S proteasome. In November 2015, the US FDA approved ixazomib for use in combination with lenalidomide and dexamethasone for the treatment of patients with multiple myeloma who have received at least one prior therapy. Ixazomib is under regulatory review for this indication in the EU. Phase III development of ixazomib is underway worldwide for newly-diagnosed multiple myeloma (in patients who are not eligible for stem cell transplant, or as maintenance therapy) and for relapsed or refractory systemic light chain (AL) amyloidosis. Ixazomib is also under phase I-II development for the treatment of several other haematological and non-haematological malignancies, graft-versus-host disease and lupus nephritis. This article summarizes the milestones in the development of ixazomib leading to this first approval for multiple myeloma. PMID:26846321

  6. Minimal disease activity in Gaucher disease: criteria for definition.

    PubMed

    Di Rocco, Maja; Andria, Generoso; Bembi, Bruno; Carubbi, Francesca; Giona, Fiorina; Giuffrida, Gaetano; Linari, Silvia; Sibilio, Michelina; Spina, Vincenzo; Cappellini, Maria Domenica

    2012-11-01

    Gaucher disease type I is a metabolic disorder caused by a genetic deficiency of lysosomal ?-glucocerebrosidase that leads to accumulation of glucocerebroside in macrophages, thus causing damage in different organ systems. Enzyme replacement therapy with imiglucerase improves organ impairment and clinical manifestations, but patients differ in response to treatment. While clinical remission is the most desirable therapeutic outcome, a more realistic goal in patients with high disease burden is reasonably good clinical status despite persistence of residual biochemical or imaging abnormalities. Therefore, the concept of minimal disease activity--used in certain haematological or rheumatologic conditions--needs to be introduced in Gaucher disease, with a level of disease activity that patients and physicians consider a useful treatment target. In this paper, we propose specific parameters and criteria for defining minimal disease activity in Gaucher disease and its stability over time, based on three major systemic domains typically involved: haematological, visceral, and skeletal. Biomarker parameters were not included as criteria, because currently they do not adequately reflect disease evolution in individual patients. Neurological and respiratory domains were also excluded, as their involvement per se indicates severe disease unlikely to respond to enzyme replacement therapy and achieve minimal disease status. Our goal in defining minimal disease activity and stability is to identify a tool to facilitate treatment decisions in clinical practice. PMID:22954583

  7. Therapy with low-dose azacitidine for MDS in children and young adults: a retrospective analysis of the EWOG-MDS study group.

    PubMed

    Cseh, Annamaria M; Niemeyer, Charlotte M; Yoshimi, Ayami; Catala, Albert; Frühwald, Michael C; Hasle, Henrik; van den Heuvel-Eibrink, Mary M; Lauten, Melchior; De Moerloose, Barbara; Smith, Owen P; Bernig, Toralf; Gruhn, Bernd; Kulozik, Andreas E; Metzler, Markus; Olcay, Lale; Suttorp, Meinolf; Furlan, Ingrid; Strahm, Brigitte; Flotho, Christian

    2016-03-01

    Low-dose azacitidine is efficient and safe in the therapy of malignant myeloid disorders in adults but data in children are lacking. We present a retrospective analysis of 24 children and young adults with myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) who received azacitidine at the time of first diagnosis or relapse after allotransplant (2 children were treated with azacitidine both initially and for relapse). Diagnoses were refractory cytopenia of childhood (N = 4), advanced primary MDS (N = 9) and secondary MDS (N = 11). The median duration of treatment was four cycles. Azacitidine was well tolerated, but cytopenias led to dose reduction in five cases. Treatment was discontinued in one child because of impaired renal function. Sixteen MDS patients were treated with azacitidine at first diagnosis. One complete clinical remission was observed and one child showed complete marrow remission; six children experienced stable disease with haematological improvement. Ten children received azacitidine for relapsed MDS after transplant: of these, seven experienced stable disease for 2-30 cycles (median 3), including one patient with haematological improvement for seven cycles. In summary, azacitidine is effective in some children with MDS and appears to be a non-toxic option in palliative situations to prolong survival. PMID:26766110

  8. Double staining immunofluorescence procedure for enumeration of cells containing cytoplasmic immunoglobulin in human bone marrow: 40 selected cases.

    PubMed Central

    Ayliffe, M J

    1985-01-01

    A double staining immunofluorescence method was developed that allowed the reliable differential counting of cells containing cytoplasmic immunoglobulin in human bone marrow. These cells were stained with a polyspecific antihuman immunoglobulin serum conjugated with rhodamine. In separate preparations subpopulations of cells containing each heavy chain class and light chain type were identified by prior staining with isotype specific fluorescein conjugated antihuman immunoglobulin sera. A standardised counting procedure was adopted to indicate the degree of plasma cell infiltration and to establish the percentage of cells containing each type of immunoglobulin. A series of 122 patients requiring haematological investigation of the bone marrow for various disorders but without evidence of paraproteinaemia was tested to provide results for a nonmyelomatous reference group. These results were compared with those from 40 patients with paraproteins of various classes in their serum. The procedure described here clearly differentiated the two groups. When combined with serum paraprotein assays and conventional haematological cytology of bone marrow these counts provided useful additional information in cases of diagnostic difficulty and in the assessment of individual patients before, during, and after treatment. PMID:3930576

  9. Protection against experimental visceral leishmaniasis by immunostimulation with herbal drugs derived from Withania somnifera and Asparagus racemosus.

    PubMed

    Kaur, Sukhbir; Chauhan, Kalpana; Sachdeva, Heena

    2014-10-01

    Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is a vector-borne parasitic disease targeting tissue macrophages. It is among the most neglected infectious diseases. As available therapeutics for treatment of this disease have many side effects, there is a need for safer alternatives. One of the immunopathological consequences of active visceral leishmaniasis is suppression of protective T-helper (Th)-1 cells and induction of disease-promoting Th-2 cells, and thus the treatment of VL relies on immunomodulation. In the current study, herbal drugs derived as whole-plant extracts of Asparagus racemosus and Withania somnifera were used to treat Leishmania donovani-infected BALB/c mice. Keeping the scenario of immunosuppression during VL in mind, the potential of these drugs in the restoration of murine Th-1-type protective immune responses was evaluated. To investigate the propensity of these drugs to treat VL, liver parasite load, delayed-type hypersensitivity responses and parasite-specific immunoglobulin levels were studied. Various biochemical and haematological tests were also carried out. A positive-control group used the standard drug treatment of sodium stibogluconate. Treatment of infected mice with A. racemosus and W. somnifera in combination at the higher dose of 200 mg (kg body weight)(-1) not only resulted in a successful reduction in parasite load but also generated protective Th1-type immune responses with normalization of biochemical and haematological parameters, suggesting their potential as potent anti-leishmanial agents. PMID:25082945

  10. Inhibition of Ehrlich ascites carcinoma by Manilkara zapota L. stem bark in Swiss albino mice

    PubMed Central

    Osman, M Abu; Rashid, M Mamunur; Aziz, M Abdul; Habib, M Rowshahul; karim, M Rezaul

    2011-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the antitumor activity of Manilkara zapota (M. zapota) L. stem bark against Ehrlich ascites carcinoma (EAC) in Swiss albino mice. Methods The in vivo antitumour activity of the ethyl acetate extract of stem bark of M. zapota L. (EASM) was evaluated at 50, 100 and 200 mg/kg bw against EAC using mean survival time. After administration of the extract of M. zapota, viable EAC cell count and body weight in the EAC tumour hosts were observed. The animal was also observed for improvement in the haematological parameters (e.g., heamoglobin content, red and white blood cells count and differential cell count) after EASM treatment. Results Intraperitoneal administration of EASM reduced viable EAC cells, increased the survival time, and restored altered haematological parameters. Significant efficacy was observed for EASM at 100 mg/kg dose (P<0.05). Conclusions It can be concluded that the ethyl acetate extract of stem bark of M. zapota L. possesses significant antitumour activity. PMID:23569811

  11. Toxicopathological Evaluation of Hydroethanol Extract of Dianthus basuticus in Wistar Rats

    PubMed Central

    Ashafa, Anofi Omotayo Tom; Kazeem, Mutiu Idowu

    2015-01-01

    Background. Dianthus basuticus is a commonly used medicinal plant in Basotho traditional medicine for the treatment of diabetes, but there is no report on its safety or toxicity. Therefore, we evaluated the toxicity profile of the hydroethanol whole plant extract of Dianthus basuticus in Wistar rats. Methods. Acute toxicity test was performed with single oral administration of 100–3200 mg/kg body weight of D. basuticus extract to rats and the animals were observed for 14 days for signs of toxicity. The subacute toxicity experiment was conducted by oral administration of graded doses (200, 400, and 800 mg/kg) of D. basuticus extract daily for 28 days. Behavioural changes as well as haematological, biochemical, and histological parameters were then evaluated. Results. There was no observable sign of toxicity in the acute toxicity test. There were significant decreases (P < 0.05) in the feed and water intake as well as total cholesterol and triglycerides of the D. basuticus extract-treated rats in subacute toxicity study. There were no treatment related differences in the haematological, biochemical, and histopathological evaluations. Conclusions. Administration of hydroethanol extract of D. basuticus may be safe at the dosages tested in this study but its continuous usage can cause anorexia. PMID:26504473

  12. Safety Evaluation of Unani Formulation: Capsule Shaqeeqa in Albino Wistar Rats

    PubMed Central

    Ghazanfar, Khalid; Ahmad Dar, Showkat; Akbar, Seema; Nazir, Tazeen; Hamdani, Mariya; Siddiqui, Khalid M.; Kumar, Pawan; Masood, Akbar

    2016-01-01

    Capsule Shaqeeqa, Unani formulation, is prescribed for the clinical treatment of diseases like sinusitis, headache, and migraine. The safety evaluation data of it is not available; in order to provide the safety data the present study was carried out. The study was carried out on four groups of rats (n = 5). Two groups (one male and one female group) as normal controls were orally given water while the other two groups were orally given daily doses of drug at the dose level of 150 mg/kg of body weight for duration of 90 days. Physiological parameters like body weight, feed consumption, water consumption, and clinical signs were regularly monitored and recorded. Organs were collected, examined, and weighed and specimens were taken for histopathological studies. The results showed that the drug did not alter the physiological parameters. There was no mortality or any morbidity found in drug treated rats. There was no statistical significant change found in any haematological or biochemical parameter of rats orally fed with Shaqeeqa. A statistically insignificant association verified that haematological and biochemical parameters were rendered unaffected by the drug. Moreover histological investigations of essential key organs demonstrated that the drug did not prompt any histopathological change. These observations demonstrate the safety of Capsule Shaqeeqa at the studied dosage levels. PMID:27190679

  13. First report of Polycystic kidney disease occurrence in Persian cats in Serbia.

    PubMed

    Vucicevic, Milos; Slijepcevic, Dajana; Davitkov, Darko; Avdalovic, Vladimir; Aleksic-Kovacevic, Sanja; Stevanovic, Jevrosima; Stanimirovic, Zoran

    2016-03-31

    Polycystic kidney disease (PKD) is an inherited autosomal disorder in cats, mostly diagnosed in Persian cats. Renal cysts can be diagnosed by ultrasound, but cats must be at least 16 weeks old. The goals of this study were to assess the occurrence of PKD in Serbia using a randomly selected group of Persian cats, to compare the diagnostic e cacy of ultrasound and genetic tests, and to measure haematological and selected biochemical parameters. We examined 70 cats of Persian breed, between 4 months and 8 years of age. Complete blood count and selected biochemical parameters were measured, renal ultrasound was performed. Swabs of the oral cavity were obtained for genetic testing. Percentage of PKD positive cats identi ed by genetic testing was 48.6%, whilst only 18.6% were detected through ultrasound. Animals that were polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) positive and ultrasound negative ranged from 4 months to 3.5 years. All haematological and biochemical parameters were within the the normal range values in all examined cats. Genetic methods proved to be the most e ective for reliable and early diagnosis of PKD in Persian cats. DNA analysis can be used right after birth, and excludes the need for other diagnostic procedures, such as ultrasound. PMID:27033530

  14. Cryopreservation of Human Stem Cells for Clinical Application: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Hunt, Charles J.

    2011-01-01

    Summary Stem cells have been used in a clinical setting for many years. Haematopoietic stem cells have been used for the treatment of both haematological and non-haematological disease; while more recently mesenchymal stem cells derived from bone marrow have been the subject of both laboratory and early clinical studies. Whilst these cells show both multipotency and expansion potential, they nonetheless do not form stable cell lines in culture which is likely to limit the breadth of their application in the field of regenerative medicine. Human embryonic stem cells are pluripotent cells, capable of forming stable cell lines which retain the capacity to differentiate into cells from all three germ layers. This makes them of special significance in both regenerative medicine and toxicology. Induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells may also provide a similar breadth of utility without some of the confounding ethical issues surrounding embryonic stem cells. An essential pre-requisite to the commercial and clinical application of stem cells are suitable cryopreservation protocols for long-term storage. Whilst effective methods for cryopreservation and storage have been developed for haematopoietic and mesenchymal stem cells, embryonic cells and iPS cells have proved more refractory. This paper reviews the current state of cryopreservation as it pertains to stem cells and in particular the embryonic and iPS cell. PMID:21566712

  15. Subclinical anaplasmosis in camel (Camelus dromedarius) and its successful therapeutic management.

    PubMed

    Sudan, Vikrant; Sharma, R L; Borah, M K

    2014-06-01

    On the Indian sub continent, dromedarian camel -'the ship of the desert' is an important constituent of the socio economic life style of nomadic owners in the semi arid to arid ecosystems. The animal suffers from a few parasitic diseases viz. surra, coccidiosis, sarcocystis, gastro intestinal concurrent metazoan infections, mange, nasal bots and ticks infestations. However, anaplasmosis in camel has not been reported so far from the Indian subcontinent. Systematic investigations of a 7 year male Jaisalmeri camel, with a clinical history of dullness, progressive loss of condition and stamina revealed subclinical Anaplasma marginale infection. The animal had depressed haematological indices, dry and constipated bowels, pale and icteric conjunctiva suggestive of anaemia. The animal positively responded to the specific integrated therapy. Reexamination of the animal on day 21 post-therapy revealed depressed haematological indices restored to normal levels and the erythrocytes were free from the pathogen. Neglected attention, poor and/or underreporting of camel diseases vis-a-vis economic significance of the versatile animal has been discussed. This appears to be the pioneer documentation of anaplasmosis in camels from Indian subcontinent. PMID:24808644

  16. Physicochemical characterization and in vivo evaluation of triamcinolone acetonide-loaded hydroxyapatite nanocomposites for treatment of rheumatoid arthritis.

    PubMed

    Jafari, Samira; Maleki-Dizaji, Nasrin; Barar, Jaleh; Barzegar-Jalali, Mohammad; Rameshrad, Maryam; Adibkia, Khosro

    2016-04-01

    The current study was aimed to investigate the anti-inflammatory effect of triamcinolone acetonide-loaded hydroxyapatite (TA-loaded HAp) nanocomposites in the arthritic rat model. The HAp nanocomposites were synthesized through a chemical precipitation method and the drug was subsequently incorporated into the nanocomposites using an impregnation method. The physicochemical properties as well as cytotoxicity of the prepared nanoformulation were examined as well. To evaluate the therapeutic efficacy of the prepared nanoformulation, the various parameters such as paw volume, haematological parameters and histological studies were assessed in the arthritic rats. The nanocomposites with the particle size of 70.45nm, pore size of 2.71nm and drug loading of 41.94% were obtained in this study. The specific surface area (aBET) as well as the volume of nitrogen adsorbed on one gram of HAp to complete the monolayer adsorption (Vm) were decreased after the drug loading process. The prepared nanoformulation revealed the slower drug release profile compared to the pure drug. Furthermore, the obtained data from MTT assay showed that the TA-loaded nanocomposites had a lower cytotoxic effect on NIH-3T3 and CAOV-4 cell lines as compared to the pure drug. Furthermore, TA-loaded HAp nanocomposites demonstrated favorable effects on the paw volume as well as the haematological and histopathological abnormalities in the adjuvant-induced arthritic rats. Therefore, TA-loaded HAp nanocomposites are potentially suggested for treatment of rheumatoid arthritis after further required evaluations. PMID:26764105

  17. Mobilization and collection of peripheral blood stem cells in healthy donors: risks, adverse events and follow-up.

    PubMed

    Moalic, V

    2013-04-01

    Allogeneic haematopoietic stem cell transplantation is the choice treatment for many haematological malignancies. Granulocyte-colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) has been widely used to mobilize stem cells into the peripheral blood from healthy siblings or volunteer unrelated donors. To a large extent, the use of mobilized peripheral blood haematopoietic stem cells has replaced marrow-derived stem cells as the preferred source of donor haematopoietic stem cells. Clinicians have been aware since the first clinical use, that administration of G-CSF, even in a single short course, could possibly be a risk for healthy donors either in short-term or as a delayed effect. The immediate side effects of G-CSF have been established for a long time, most of them are frequent but transient, self-limited and without long-term consequences. Questions have been raised about potential long-term adverse effects such as an elevated risk of haematological malignancies after G-CSF administration. More long-term safety data from registries are needed to adequately evaluate such a relationship. Our objective in this article is to provide an in-depth review of reported adverse events associated with the use of G-CSF in healthy donors and to focus attention on unanswered questions related to their long-term follow-up. PMID:23199456

  18. A phase II trial of lenalidomide, dexamethasone and cyclophosphamide for newly diagnosed patients with systemic immunoglobulin light chain amyloidosis.

    PubMed

    Cibeira, Maria T; Oriol, Albert; Lahuerta, Juan J; Mateos, Maria-Victoria; de la Rubia, Javier; Hernández, Miguel T; Granell, Miquel; Fernández de Larrea, Carlos; San Miguel, Jesús F; Bladé, Joan

    2015-09-01

    Immunomodulatory drugs have been shown to be of benefit in relapsed/refractory immunoglobulin light-chain (AL) amyloidosis. We designed a prospective, multicentre phase II trial of lenalidomide, dexamethasone and cyclophosphamide for newly diagnosed patients with AL amyloidosis not eligible for autologous stem-cell transplantation. Twenty-eight patients were included in the study. Cardiac involvement was present in 23 patients; 14 of them had cardiac stage III. The overall haematological response rate was 46%, including complete and very good partial responses in 25% and 18% of patients respectively. Haematological response was mainly associated with absence of cardiac stage III and lower tumour burden. Organ response was observed in 46% of patients. After a median follow-up of 24 months, median progression-free and overall survival have not been reached, both being significantly longer in responders (P < 0·001 and P = 0·001 respectively). Seventeen patients have discontinued treatment, mostly due to amyloid-related death, disease progression or lack of response. Only 14% of the patients discontinued treatment due to therapy-related adverse events. Our results support the efficacy of this regimen, with high quality responses and prolonged survival, as well as its tolerability, in patients with AL amyloidosis not eligible for stem cell transplant and without advanced cardiac involvement (clinicaltrials.gov identifier: NCT01194791). PMID:25974382

  19. The iron chelator deferasirox affects redox signalling in haematopoietic stem/progenitor cells.

    PubMed

    Tataranni, Tiziana; Agriesti, Francesca; Mazzoccoli, Carmela; Ruggieri, Vitalba; Scrima, Rosella; Laurenzana, Ilaria; D'Auria, Fiorella; Falzetti, Franca; Di Ianni, Mauro; Musto, Pellegrino; Capitanio, Nazzareno; Piccoli, Claudia

    2015-07-01

    The iron chelator deferasirox (DFX) prevents complications related to transfusional iron overload in several haematological disorders characterized by marrow failure. It is also able to induce haematological responses in a percentage of treated patients, particularly in those affected by myelodysplastic syndromes. The underlying mechanisms responsible for this feature, however, are still poorly understood. In this study, we investigated the effect of DFX-treatment in human haematopoietic/progenitor stem cells, focussing on its impact on the redox balance, which proved to control the interplay between stemness maintenance, self-renewal and differentiation priming. Here we show, for the first time, that DFX treatment induces a significant diphenyleneiodonium-sensitive reactive oxygen species (ROS) production that leads to the activation of POU5F1 (OCT4), SOX2 and SOX17 gene expression, relevant in reprogramming processes, and the reduction of the haematopoietic regulatory proteins CTNNB1 (β-Catenin) and BMI1. These DFX-mediated events were accompanied by decreased CD34 expression, increased mitochondrial mass and up-regulation of the erythropoietic marker CD71 (TFRC) and were compound-specific, dissimilar to deferoxamine. Our findings would suggest a novel mechanism by which DFX, probably independently on its iron-chelating property but through ROS signalling activation, may influence key factors involved in self-renewal/differentiation of haematopoietic stem cells. PMID:25825160

  20. Cadmium induced pathophysiology: prophylactic role of edible jute (Corchorus olitorius) leaves with special emphasis on oxidative stress and mitochondrial involvement.

    PubMed

    Dewanjee, Saikat; Gangopadhyay, Moumita; Sahu, Ranabir; Karmakar, Sarmila

    2013-10-01

    The present study was undertaken to evaluate the protective effect of aqueous extract of Corchorus olitorius leaves (AECO) against CdCl₂ intoxication. In vitro bioassay on isolated mice hepatocytes confirmed dose dependent cytoprotective effect of AECO. The CdCl₂ (30 μM) exhibited a significantly increased levels of lipid peroxidation, protein carbonylation along with the reduction of antioxidant enzymes and reduced glutathione levels in hepatocytes. AECO (200 and 400 μg/ml) + CdCl₂ (30 μM) could significantly restore the aforementioned oxidation parameters in hepatocytes. Beside this, AECO could significantly reduce Cd-induced increase in Bad/Bcl-2 ratio and the over-expression of NF-κB, caspase 3 and caspase 9. In in vivo assay, CdCl₂ (4 mg/kg body weight, for 6 days) treated rats exhibited a significantly increased intracellular Cd accumulation, oxidative stress and DNA fragmentation in the organs. In addition, the haematological parameters were significantly altered in the CdCl₂ treated rats. Simultaneous administration of AECO (50 and 100 mg/kg body weight), could significantly restore the biochemical, antioxidant and haematological parameters near to the normal status. Histological studies of the organs supported the protective role of jute leaves. Presence of substantial quantity of phenolic compounds and flavonoids in extract may be responsible for overall protective effect. PMID:23891759

  1. Guidelines for supportive care in multiple myeloma 2011.

    PubMed

    Snowden, John A; Ahmedzai, Sam H; Ashcroft, John; D'Sa, Shirley; Littlewood, Timothy; Low, Eric; Lucraft, Helen; Maclean, Rhona; Feyler, Sylvia; Pratt, Guy; Bird, Jennifer M

    2011-07-01

    Supportive care plays an increasingly important role in the modern management of multiple myeloma. While modern treatments have significantly prolonged overall and progression free survival through improved disease control, the vast majority of patients remain incurable, and live with the burden of the disease itself and the cumulative side effects of treatments. Maintenance of quality of life presents challenges at all stages of the disease from diagnosis through the multiple phases of active treatment to the end of life. Written on behalf of the British Committee for Standards in Haematology (BCSH) and the UK Myeloma Forum (UKMF), these evidence based guidelines summarize the current national consensus for supportive and symptomatic care in multiple myeloma in the following areas; pain management, peripheral neuropathy, skeletal complications, infection, anaemia, haemostasis and thrombosis, sedation, fatigue, nausea, vomiting, anorexia, constipation, diarrhoea, mucositis, bisphosphonate-induced osteonecrosis of the jaw, complementary therapies, holistic needs assessment and end of life care. Although most aspects of supportive care can be supervised by haematology teams primarily responsible for patients with multiple myeloma, multidisciplinary collaboration involving specialists in palliative medicine, pain management, radiotherapy and surgical specialities is essential, and guidance is provided for appropriate interdisciplinary referral. These guidelines should be read in conjunction with the BCSH/UKMF Guidelines for the Diagnosis and Management of Multiple Myeloma 2011. PMID:21517805

  2. Paraneoplastic hypertrophic osteopathy in 30 dogs.

    PubMed

    Withers, S S; Johnson, E G; Culp, W T N; Rodriguez, C O; Skorupski, K A; Rebhun, R B

    2015-09-01

    Paraneoplastic hypertrophic osteopathy (pHO) is known to occur in both canine and human cancer patients. While the pathology of pHO is well-described in the dog, very little information exists regarding the true clinical presentation of dogs affected with pHO. The primary objective of this study was to provide a more comprehensive clinical picture of pHO. To this end, we retrospectively identified 30 dogs and recorded data regarding presenting complaints and physical examination (PE) findings on the date of pHO diagnosis. As a secondary objective, any blood test results were also collected from the computerized records. The most common clinical signs included leg swelling, ocular discharge and/or episcleral injection, lameness, and lethargy. The most common haematological and serum biochemical abnormalities included anaemia, neutrophilia and elevated alkaline phosphatase. In addition to presenting a more detailed clinical description of pHO in the dog, these data support the previously described haematological, serum biochemical and PE abnormalities published in individual case reports. PMID:23489591

  3. In vivo study of human Plasmodium knowlesi in Macaca fascicularis.

    PubMed

    Anderios, F; Noorrain, A; Vythilingam, I

    2010-02-01

    Plasmodium knowlesi is a malaria parasite of Old World monkeys and is infectious to humans. In this study Macaca fascicularis was used as a model to understand the host response to P. knowlesi using parasitological and haematological parameters. Three M. fascicularis of either sex were experimentally infected with P. knowlesi erythrocytic parasites from humans. The pre-patent period for P. knowlesi infection in M. fascicularis ranged from seven to 14 days. The parasitemia observed was 13,686-24,202 parasites per microL of blood for asexual stage and 88-264 parasites per microL of blood for sexual stage. Periodicity analysis adopted from microfilaria periodicity technique of asexual stage showed that the parasitemia peak at 17:39h while the sexual stage peaked at 02:36 h. Mathematical analysis of the data indicates that P. knowlesi gametocytes tend to display periodicity with a peak (24:00-06:00) that coincides with the peak biting activity (19:00-06:00) of the local vector, Anopheles latens. The morphology of P. knowlesi resembled P. falciparum in early trophozoite and P. malariae in late trophozoite. However, it may be distinguishable by observing the appliqué appearance of the cytoplasm and the chromatin lying inside the ring. Haematological analysis on macaques with knowlesi malaria showed clinical manifestations of hypoglycaemia, anaemia and hyperbilirubinemia. Gross examination of spleen and liver showed malaria pigments deposition in both organs. PMID:19765587

  4. Role of gemcitabine in metastatic breast cancer patients: a short review.

    PubMed

    Silvestris, Nicola; Cinieri, Saverio; La Torre, Ignazia; Pezzella, Giuseppe; Numico, Gianmauro; Orlando, Laura; Lorusso, Vito

    2008-06-01

    Many active cytotoxic drugs, given according to a number of different regimens are approved for the treatment of metastatic breast cancer patients. However, these therapies have not changed the outcome of patients affected by this malignancy. As a consequence, the balance between chemotherapy-induced side effects and relief of cancer-related symptoms must be carefully considered in this setting. Gemcitabine is an antimetabolite that is incorporated as a triphosphate into DNA. As a single agent, it yields responses rates ranging from 14% to 37% in chemotherapy-naïve patients and from 12% to 30% in patients previously treated with anthracyclines and/or taxanes. In combination with paclitaxel, it produces a significantly higher response rate (41.4% vs. 26.2%), longer time to progression (6.1 vs. 4 months) and significantly higher overall survival (18.6 vs. 15.8 months) than paclitaxel alone. In addition, a phase III study revealed that gemcitabine plus docetaxel is as effective as capecitabine plus docetaxel, but causes significantly less non-haematologic toxicity. Lastly, in another phase III trial, progression free survival was significantly longer with the combination of gemcitabine plus vinorelbine than with vinorelbine alone (6 vs. 4 months), but without a significant difference in overall survival; the incidence of haematologic toxicity was higher in the group treated with combined therapy. Novel gemcitabine combinations are being investigated in phase II studies. PMID:18037292

  5. Antifungal pre-emptive strategy for high-risk neutropenic patients: why the story is still ongoing.

    PubMed

    Cordonnier, C; Robin, C; Alanio, A; Bretagne, S

    2014-06-01

    Neutropenic patients with haematological malignancies are at high risk of invasive fungal disease (IFD). Due to limitations in specific procedures to establish an early diagnosis of IFD, two historical unpowered studies suggested, three decades ago, that giving an empirical antifungal treatment to patients with persistent or recurrent fever under broad-spectrum antibacterials, could reduce the risk of IFD. For cost and toxicity reasons, this strategy became debated when modern imaging and indirect biological markers became available. Different pre-emptive strategies, either based on lung imaging, galactomannan antigenaemia, fungal PCR, or a combination of several parameters, were designed with the goal of restricting the administration of antifungals to the more at-risk patients with early signs of IFD. Almost all pre-emptive studies showed or suggested a reduction of administration and cost of antifungals during neutropenic phases. However, the clinical pertinence and safety of the strategy, and mainly its optimal design, are still pending. This paper reviews the evolution of these strategies and how they may be implemented in the haematology ward. PMID:24283975

  6. Multicenter phase II study of irinotecan plus bolus fluorouracil/l-leucovorin for metastasic colorectal cancer.

    TOXLINE Toxicology Bibliographic Information

    Mishima H; Ikenaga M; Ishida H; Iwamoto S; Morimoto T; Narahara H; Kato T; Tsujie M; Kitai T; Fukunaga M; Nakanishi M; Tsujinaka T; Furukawa H; Taguchi T; Osaka Gastrointestional Cancer Chemotherapy Study Group

    2007-03-01

    PATIENTS AND METHODS: In a multicentre Phase II study, irinotecan (100 mg/m2), 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) (500 mg/m2), and l-leucovorin (l-LV) (250 mg/m2) were administered on days 1, 8, and 15 of a five-week cycle. Forty-five patients were enrolled.RESULTS: The objective response rate was 26.7%. The median survival time was 21.8 months and the one-year survival rate was 73.3%. The median number of cycles was 4.0, with a median relative dose intensity of 83.3% for both irinotecan and 5-FU. Grade 3 or 4 haematological toxicities were anaemia in four patients, leukopaenia in six patients, and neutropaenia in 15 patients, while non-haematological toxicities were diarrhoea in three patients, and nausea, vomiting, anorexia and increased transaminases in two patients each. No treatment-related deaths occurred.CONCLUSION: Irinotecan plus 5-FU/l-LV can be used to treat metastatic colorectal cancer on an outpatient basis.

  7. Toxicological study of the hepatotherapeutic herbal formula, Chunggan extract, in beagle dogs

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Woo-Jin; Shin, Jang-Woo; Son, Jin-Young; Seo, Dong-Seok; Park, Hark-Soo; Han, Seung-Hyun; Sung, Ha-Jung; Cho, Jung-Hyo; Cho, Chong-Kwan; Yoo, Hwa-Seung; Lee, Yeon-Weol; Son, Chang-Gue

    2006-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate the pharmaceutical safety of a Chinese herbal formula, Chunggan extract (CGX), traditionally prescribed as a hepatotherapeutic drug via systemic acute and subacute toxicological study. METHODS: Twenty male dogs and 20 female dogs were fed doses 50 times and 4 times greater than the clinically-recommended drug dosages in an acute and a subacute toxicological study, respectively. Adverse effects were examined by comparing the differences between normal and drug-administered groups using clinical signs, necropsies, histopathologic findings, haematology, urinalysis, and biochemical analysis. RESULTS: In the acute study no change in the body weight, diarrhoea, apetite, mortality rate and histopathology of major organs was observed in male or female dogs with a single administration of CGX at 5 g/kg. No drug-induced abnormalities at analysis of histopathology, haematology, urinalysis, and biochemistry were found with any dose of this drug. CONCLUSION: CGX is supposed to be very safe when used in a clinical application with a wide therapeutic index. PMID:17167840

  8. Glucocorticoid-induced apoptosis of healthy and malignant lymphocytes

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Lindsay K.; Cidlowski, John A.

    2016-01-01

    Glucocorticoids exert a wide range of physiological effects, including the induction of apoptosis in lymphocytes. The progression of glucocorticoid-induced apoptosis is a multi-component process requiring contributions from both genomic and cytoplasmic signaling events. There is significant evidence indicating that the transactivation activity of the glucocorticoid receptor is required for the initiation of glucocorticoid-induced apoptosis. However, the rapid cytoplasmic effects of glucocorticoids may also contribute to the glucocorticoid-induced apoptosis-signaling pathway. Endogenous glucocorticoids shape the T-cell repertoire through both the induction of apoptosis by neglect during thymocyte maturation and the antagonism of T-cell receptor (TCR)-induced apoptosis during positive selection. Owing to their ability to induce apoptosis in lymphocytes, synthetic glucocorticoids are widely used in the treatment of haematological malignancies. Glucocorticoid chemotherapy is limited, however, by the emergence of glucocorticoid resistance. The development of novel therapies designed to overcome glucocorticoid resistance will dramatically improve the efficacy of glucocorticoid therapy in the treatment of haematological malignancies. PMID:20541659

  9. Haematobiochemical parameters of goats fed tannin rich Psidium guajava and Carissa spinarum against Haemonchus contortus infection in India.

    PubMed

    Jan, Owais Qadir; Kamili, Neyaz; Ashraf, Ajmal; Iqbal, Asif; Sharma, R K; Rastogi, Ankur

    2015-03-01

    The antihelminthic properties of tannin-rich plants are being explored as an alternative to chemical drugs to minimise the effects of gastro intestinal nematodes (GIN). The present study was, therefore, conducted to investigate the effect of condensed tannins (CT), obtained from regional tanniferous tree leaves, in the Haemonchus contortus infected goats on the heamatobiochemical parameters to assess the goat health. Twelve adult male goats were randomly divided into three equal groups, namely negative control, infected control and treatment. H. contortus infected goats were allocated into infected control and treatment groups and their feeds contained 0 and 1.96 % of CT, respectively. Feeding trial was conducted for the duration of 90 days during which haematological and serum biochemical parameters were monitored on fortnightly basis. The animals ingesting the CT-rich leaf meal mixture had increased levels of haemoglobin, packed cell volume, total protein, globulin, glucose and calcium, and decreased levels of blood urea; indicating a beneficial effect of CT supplementation at the selected level. However, the phosphorus balance, serum albumin levels and serum enzyme activity were not affected significantly. The study revealed that inclusion of CT in the diets of the adult male goats did not pose any threat to the health of the goats. Further, the CT based diet had beneficial impact on the haematological parameters and could therefore be included in small ruminant diets to minimize the impact of GIN. PMID:25698858

  10. Toxic effects of lead exposure in Wistar rats: involvement of oxidative stress and the beneficial role of edible jute (Corchorus olitorius) leaves.

    PubMed

    Dewanjee, Saikat; Sahu, Ranabir; Karmakar, Sarmila; Gangopadhyay, Moumita

    2013-05-01

    Lead (Pb) is considered to be a multi-target toxicant. The present study was undertaken to evaluate the protective effect of aqueous extract of Corchorus olitorius leaves against Pb-acetate induced toxic manifestation in blood, liver, kidney, brain and heart of Wistar rats. The Pb-acetate (5mg/kg body weight) treated rats exhibited a significant inhibition of co-enzymes Q, antioxidant enzymes and reduced glutathione levels in the tissues. In addition, the extent of lipid peroxidation, DNA fragmentation and haematological parameters were significantly altered in the Pb-acetate treated rats as compared to control. Simultaneous administration of test extract (25, 50 and 100mg/kg body weight), could significantly restore the biochemical and haematological parameters near to the normal status through antioxidant activity and/or by preventing bioaccumulation of Pb within the tissues of experimental rats. Presence of substantial quantity of phenolics and flavonoids in the extract may be responsible for the observed protective role against Pb-intoxication. PMID:23291325

  11. Low frequency of anti-D alloimmunization following D+ platelet transfusion: the Anti-D Alloimmunization after D-incompatible Platelet Transfusions (ADAPT) study.

    PubMed

    Cid, Joan; Lozano, Miguel; Ziman, Alyssa; West, Kamille A; O'Brien, Kerry L; Murphy, Michael F; Wendel, Silvano; Vázquez, Alejandro; Ortín, Xavier; Hervig, Tor A; Delaney, Meghan; Flegel, Willy A; Yazer, Mark H

    2015-02-01

    The reported frequency of D alloimmunization in D- recipients after transfusion of D+ platelets varies. This study was designed to determine the frequency of D alloimmunization, previously reported to be an average of 5 ± 2%. A primary anti-D immune response was defined as the detection of anti-D ≥ 28 d following the first D+ platelet transfusion. Data were collected on 485 D- recipients of D+ platelets in 11 centres between 2010 and 2012. Their median age was 60 (range 2-100) years. Diagnoses included: haematological (203/485, 42%), oncological (64/485, 13%) and other diseases (218/485, 45%). Only 7/485 (1·44%; 95% CI 0·58-2·97%) recipients had a primary anti-D response after a median serological follow-up of 77 d (range: 28-2111). There were no statistically significant differences between the primary anti-D formers and the other patients, in terms of gender, age, receipt of immunosuppressive therapy, proportion of patients with haematological/oncological diseases, transfusion of whole blood-derived or apheresis platelets or both, and total number of transfused platelet products. This is the largest study with the longest follow-up of D alloimmunization following D+ platelet transfusion. The low frequency of D alloimmunization should be considered when deciding whether to administer Rh Immune Globulin to D- males and D- females without childbearing potential after transfusion of D+ platelets. PMID:25283094

  12. Polymorphisms of uridine glucuronosyltransferase gene and irinotecan toxicity: low dose does not protect from toxicity

    PubMed Central

    Tziotou, Marianna; Kalotychou, Vassiliki; Ntokou, Anna; Tzanetea, Revekka; Armenis, Iakovos; Varsou, Marianna; Konstantopoulos, Konstantinos; Tsavaris, Nicolas; Rombos, Yannis

    2014-01-01

    Uridine glucuronosyltransferase (UGT) gene polymorphisms have been linked to irinotecan toxicity. Our purpose was to study the association between UGT1A1*28, UGT1A7*2, and UGT1A7*3 polymorphisms and irinotecan toxicity in Greek patients receiving low-dose weekly irinotecan. Blood samples were collected for 46 patients. DNA was extracted and UGT1A1 promoter and UGT1A7 exon 1 genotyping was carried out. Laboratory tests and physical examination were performed on regular basis for the assessment of toxicity. UGT1A1*28 was significantly correlated with both haematologic and non-haematologic toxicity. Moreover, patients carrying UGT1A7 polymorphisms had significant incidence of toxicity. To conclude, UGT polymorphisms play a role in the toxicity of irinotecan, even if the drug is administered in low doses. The genotyping test may be a useful tool for the management of patients who are going to receive irinotecan. PMID:24834123

  13. The role of JAK/STAT signalling in the pathogenesis, prognosis and treatment of solid tumours

    PubMed Central

    Thomas, S J; Snowden, J A; Zeidler, M P; Danson, S J

    2015-01-01

    Aberrant activation of intracellular signalling pathways confers malignant properties on cancer cells. Targeting intracellular signalling pathways has been a productive strategy for drug development, with several drugs acting on signalling pathways already in use and more continually being developed. The JAK/STAT signalling pathway provides an example of this paradigm in haematological malignancies, with the identification of JAK2 mutations in myeloproliferative neoplasms leading to the development of specific clinically effective JAK2 inhibitors, such as ruxolitinib. It is now clear that many solid tumours also show activation of JAK/STAT signalling. In this review, we focus on the role of JAK/STAT signalling in solid tumours, examining the molecular mechanisms that cause inappropriate pathway activation and their cellular consequences. We also discuss the degree to which activated JAK/STAT signalling contributes to oncogenesis. Studies showing the effect of activation of JAK/STAT signalling upon prognosis in several tumour types are summarised. Finally, we discuss the prospects for treating solid tumours using strategies targeting JAK/STAT signalling, including what can be learned from haematological malignancies and the extent to which results in solid tumours might be expected to differ. PMID:26151455

  14. Assessing the Systemic Toxicity in Rabbits after Sub Acute Exposure to Ocular Irritant Chemicals

    PubMed Central

    Sruthi, Sudhakaran; Syama, Santhakumar; Gayathri, Vishwanath; Mohanan, Parayanthala Valappil

    2015-01-01

    Eye is a highly vascularised organ. There are chances that a foreign substance can enter the systemic circulation through the eye and cause oxidative stress and evoke immune response. Here the eyes of rabbits were exposed, for a period of 7 days, to 5 known ocular irritants: Cetyl pyridinium chloride (CPC), sodium salicylate (SS), imidazole (IMI), acetaminophen (ACT) and nicotinamide (NIC). The eyes were scored according to the draize scoring. Blood collected from the treated rabbit were analyzed for haematological and biochemical parameters. After sacrifice, histological analysis of the eye and analysis of pro-inflammatory biomarkers (IL-1?, IL-1?, IL-8 and TNF-?) in the cornea using ELISA was carried out. Spleen was collected and the proliferation capacities of spleenocytes were analyzed. Liver and brain were collected and assessed for oxidative stress. The eye irritation potential of the chemicals was evident from the redness and swelling of the conjunctiva and cornea. Histopathological analysis and ELISA assay showed signs of inflammation in the eye. However, the haematological and biochemical parameters showed no change. Spleenocyte proliferations showed only slight alterations which were not significant. Also oxidative stress in the brain and liver were negligible. In conclusion, chemicals which cause ocular irritation and inflammation did not show any systemic side-effects in the present scenario. PMID:25874033

  15. Hypolipidaemic effect of crude extract from Carpobrotus rossii (pigface) in healthy rats.

    PubMed

    Pirie, Adam D; Davies, Noel W; Ahuja, Kiran D K; Adams, Murray J; Shing, Cecilia M; Narkowicz, Christian; Jacobson, Glenn A; Geraghty, Dominic P

    2014-04-01

    Carpobrotus rossii (CR) was used by the Aboriginal population and early European settlers both as a food and therapeutic agent. Based on the presence of flavonoids in CR and results from our previous in vitro investigations, this study aimed to determine whether consumption of CR crude leaf extract: (a) affected lipoprotein profile, resting glucose, systolic blood pressure and vascular function, and (b) produced toxic effects (haematological measures, organ weight) in healthy rats. Male Hooded-Wistar rats (~230 g) were supplemented for 4 weeks with CR extract in their drinking water (35 mg/kg body weight daily). CR extract produced a significant decrease (18%, p=0.033) in atherogenic lipoproteins (but not high density lipoprotein). CR supplemented animals showed no signs of haematological toxicity and body and organ weight, daily fluid and food consumption and in vitro vascular responsiveness were similar for both groups. CR also increased (40%, p=0.049) the renal concentration of 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaric acid (HMG), consistent with HMG-containing CR flavonoids being bioavailable, and therefore possessing the potential to interfere with cholesterol synthesis pathways. CR extract appears to be safe to ingest and may reduce cardiovascular risk. PMID:24480043

  16. Determination of Oxidative Stress Related Toxicity on Repeated Dermal Exposure of Hydroxyapatite Nanoparticles in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Parayanthala Valappil, Mohanan; Santhakumar, Syama; Arumugam, Sabareeswaran

    2014-01-01

    Hydroxyapatite nanoparticles (HANPs) have numerous applications, such as substitute for bone grafting, bone fillers, bioceramic coating, and dental fillings. The toxicity of these nanomaterials is of growing concern despite their significant scientific interest and promising potential in many applications. In this study, an in-house synthesized, characterized HANP of size <50 nm was investigated for the dermal toxicity. A paste of HANPs was prepared in water and applied on the dorsal side of the rats for 28 days. At the end of 28 days, blood was subjected to haematological and biochemical analysis. Gross necropsy was conducted and major organs were collected for histopathological observations. Liver from the animals was evaluated for lipid peroxidation, reduced glutathione, and antioxidant enzymes activity. It was observed that none of the animals showed any abnormality during the experimental period. Gross examination of carcasses did not reveal any abnormality in the organs examined. The results also demonstrated that there was no significant fluctuation in the level of antioxidant defense mechanisms, lipid peroxidation, and haematological and biochemical parameters. There was no histopathological lesion observed in any of the organs. Hence, it can be concluded that the synthesized HANPs were nontoxic at cellular level, when exposed dermally to rats. PMID:25587279

  17. Continuing clozapine treatment with lithium in schizophrenic patients with neutropenia or leukopenia: brief review of literature with case reports

    PubMed Central

    Aydin, Memduha; Ilhan, Bilge Cetin; Calisir, Saliha; Yildirim, Seda; Eren, Ibrahim

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Clozapine is a second-generation antipsychotic used for treatment-resistant schizophrenia. Despite its effectiveness, clozapine is largely underused due to serious side effects such as leukopenia or neutropenia. We aimed to review whether to continue, discontinue or rechallenge clozapine treatment after such haematological side effects. Methods: We reviewed and summarized the literature on the use of clozapine, how to deal with its side effects, and suitable options in case of any haematological problems. Then, we described several cases successfully treated with clozapine and lithium after development of neutropenia or leukopenia Results: We present three patients with treatment-resistant schizophrenia. While they had demonstrated poor response to multiple antipsychotic trials, clozapine was started. Clozapine induced neutropenia; or leukopenia developed in some cases that was successfully reversed after lithium onset. Increased serious side effects related with coprescription of lithium and clozapine were not observed. Conclusion: Lithium increases neutrophil and total white blood cell count as a side effect that may be useful in patients who develop neutropenia or leukopenia while being treated with clozapine. PMID:26913176

  18. Acute DNA damage activates the tumour suppressor p53 to promote radiation-induced lymphoma

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Chang-Lung; Castle, Katherine D.; Moding, Everett J.; Blum, Jordan M.; Williams, Nerissa; Luo, Lixia; Ma, Yan; Borst, Luke B.; Kim, Yongbaek; Kirsch, David G.

    2015-01-01

    Genotoxic cancer therapies, such as chemoradiation, cause haematological toxicity primarily by activating the tumour suppressor p53. While inhibiting p53-mediated cell death during cancer therapy ameliorates haematologic toxicity, whether it also impacts carcinogenesis remains unclear. Here we utilize a mouse model of inducible p53 short hairpin RNA (shRNA) to show that temporarily blocking p53 during total-body irradiation (TBI) not only ameliorates acute toxicity, but also improves long-term survival by preventing lymphoma development. Using KrasLA1 mice, we show that TBI promotes the expansion of a rare population of thymocytes that express oncogenic KrasG12D. However, blocking p53 during TBI significantly suppresses the expansion of KrasG12D-expressing thymocytes. Mechanistically, bone marrow transplant experiments demonstrate that TBI activates p53 to decrease the ability of bone marrow cells to suppress lymphoma development through a non-cell-autonomous mechanism. Together, our results demonstrate that the p53 response to acute DNA damage promotes the development of radiation-induced lymphoma. PMID:26399548

  19. Iron Deficiency among Jamaican Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Mason, K; Gibson, F; Hambleton, I; Serjeant, B; Serjeant, G

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objectives: To raise awareness of significant iron deficiency anaemia occurring in Jamaican secondary school students. Methods: Haematological screening of 15 592 students in the fifth and sixth forms of 14 secondary schools in the parishes of Manchester and Clarendon, Jamaica, was done. Samples were subject to haemoglobin electrophoresis, examination of haematological indices, and haemoglobin, alpha 2 (HbA2) levels where indicated. Results: Of 13 172 students with normal haemoglobin (AA) genotype aged 15–19 years, haemoglobin levels below 10 g/dL occurred in 0.36% of males and in 3.79% females. These subjects had low mean red cell volumes, low mean cell haemoglobin and high red cell distribution width, characteristic of iron deficiency, which was confirmed by dramatic increases in haemoglobin level following iron supplementation. Most revealed classic symptoms, histories of poor diets and pica, which generally resolved on iron supplementation. Conclusions: Iron deficiency, even in the absence of anaemia, is known to limit physical and mental functions and may impair intellectual performance in these high school students. Significant anaemia could be detected by incorporating a blood test into the school medical assessments performed on entry to secondary schools. There is a need for simple oral iron medications to be available at health centres. PMID:25803394

  20. Evaluation of phosphine genotoxicity at occupational levels of exposure in New South Wales, Australia.

    PubMed Central

    Barbosa, A; Bonin, A M

    1994-01-01

    Phosphine has been claimed to cause chromosomal damage at exposures close to the current time weighted average exposure standard of 0.3 ppm (0.4 mg/m3). The current study involved 31 phosphine fumigators and 21 controls during the high fumigation season. All were volunteers and were evaluated for genotoxicity variables, including micronuclei in peripheral blood lymphocytes and urine mutagenicity. In parallel, all fumigators and 17 controls were evaluated for full haematology, multiple biochemical analysis, whole blood organochlorines, and whole blood and serum cholinesterase activity. The results for micronuclei showed no significant differences between fumigators and controls, but detected a strong association between age and increased frequency of micronuclei. Measurement of urine mutagenicity did not show any significant difference between fumigators and controls, but did show increased excretion of mutagens in smokers. All haematological and biochemical variables were within normal ranges, except for some non-specific changes in biochemistry. At monitored occupational exposures of < 2.4 ppm/h our results show no association between phosphine exposure and genotoxic or toxicological effects in fumigators. PMID:8000496