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Sample records for haematology

  1. Haematology and neurology

    PubMed Central

    Austin, Steven; Cohen, Hannah; Losseff, Nick

    2007-01-01

    This review aims to update the reader on advances in the understanding of haematological conditions that may arise in neurological practice. Thrombophilia, antiphospholipid antibody syndrome, thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura, sickle cell and clonal disorders associated with neuropathy are discussed. PMID:17369588

  2. Radionuclides in haematology

    SciTech Connect

    Lewis, S.M.; Bayly, R.J.

    1986-01-01

    This book contains the following chapters: Some prerequisites to the use of radionuclides in haematology; Instrumentation and counting techniques; In vitro techniques; Cell labelling; Protein labelling; Autoradiography; Imaging and quantitative scanning; Whole body counting; Absorption and excretion studies; Blood volume studies; Plasma clearance studies; and Radionuclide blood cell survival studies.

  3. Haematological abnormalities in mitochondrial disorders

    PubMed Central

    Finsterer, Josef; Frank, Marlies

    2015-01-01

    INTRODUCTION This study aimed to assess the kind of haematological abnormalities that are present in patients with mitochondrial disorders (MIDs) and the frequency of their occurrence. METHODS The blood cell counts of a cohort of patients with syndromic and non-syndromic MIDs were retrospectively reviewed. MIDs were classified as ‘definite’, ‘probable’ or ‘possible’ according to clinical presentation, instrumental findings, immunohistological findings on muscle biopsy, biochemical abnormalities of the respiratory chain and/or the results of genetic studies. Patients who had medical conditions other than MID that account for the haematological abnormalities were excluded. RESULTS A total of 46 patients (‘definite’ = 5; ‘probable’ = 9; ‘possible’ = 32) had haematological abnormalities attributable to MIDs. The most frequent haematological abnormality in patients with MIDs was anaemia. 27 patients had anaemia as their sole haematological problem. Anaemia was associated with thrombopenia (n = 4), thrombocytosis (n = 2), leucopenia (n = 2), and eosinophilia (n = 1). Anaemia was hypochromic and normocytic in 27 patients, hypochromic and microcytic in six patients, hyperchromic and macrocytic in two patients, and normochromic and microcytic in one patient. Among the 46 patients with a mitochondrial haematological abnormality, 78.3% had anaemia, 13.0% had thrombopenia, 8.7% had leucopenia and 8.7% had eosinophilia, alone or in combination with other haematological abnormalities. CONCLUSION MID should be considered if a patient’s abnormal blood cell counts (particularly those associated with anaemia, thrombopenia, leucopenia or eosinophilia) cannot be explained by established causes. Abnormal blood cell counts may be the sole manifestation of MID or a collateral feature of a multisystem problem. PMID:26243978

  4. Haematological manifestations of lupus

    PubMed Central

    Fayyaz, Anum; Igoe, Ann; Kurien, Biji T; Danda, Debashish; James, Judith A; Stafford, Haraldine A; Scofield, R Hal

    2015-01-01

    Our purpose was to compile information on the haematological manifestations of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), namely leucopenia, lymphopenia, thrombocytopenia, autoimmune haemolytic anaemia (AIHA), thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura (TTP) and myelofibrosis. During our search of the English-language MEDLINE sources, we did not place a date-of-publication constraint. Hence, we have reviewed previous as well as most recent studies with the subject heading SLE in combination with each manifestation. Neutropenia can lead to morbidity and mortality from increased susceptibility to infection. Severe neutropenia can be successfully treated with granulocyte colony-stimulating factor. While related to disease activity, there is no specific therapy for lymphopenia. Severe lymphopenia may require the use of prophylactic therapy to prevent select opportunistic infections. Isolated idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura maybe the first manifestation of SLE by months or even years. Some manifestations of lupus occur more frequently in association with low platelet count in these patients, for example, neuropsychiatric manifestation, haemolytic anaemia, the antiphospholipid syndrome and renal disease. Thrombocytopenia can be regarded as an important prognostic indicator of survival in patients with SLE. Medical, surgical and biological treatment modalities are reviewed for this manifestation. First-line therapy remains glucocorticoids. Through our review, we conclude glucocorticoids do produce a response in majority of patients initially, but sustained response to therapy is unlikely. Glucocorticoids are used as first-line therapy in patients with SLE with AIHA, but there is no conclusive evidence to guide second-line therapy. Rituximab is promising in refractory and non-responding AIHA. TTP is not recognised as a criteria for classification of SLE, but there is a considerable overlap between the presenting features of TTP and SLE, and a few patients with SLE have concurrent TTP. Myelofibrosis is an uncommon yet well-documented manifestation of SLE. We have compiled the cases that were reported in MEDLINE sources. PMID:25861458

  5. Bone biopsy in haematological disorders.

    PubMed Central

    Burkhardt, R; Frisch, B; Bartl, R

    1982-01-01

    Bone marrow biopsies are now widely used in the investigation and follow-up of many diseases. Semi-thin sections of 8216 undecalcified biopsies of patients with haematological disorders were studied. Observations were made on the cytopenias and the myelodysplastic syndromes, the acute leukaemias the myeloproliferative disorders, Hodgkin's disease and the malignant lymphomas including multiple myeloma, hairy cell leukaemia and angioimmunoblastic lymphadenopathy. Bone marrow biopsies are essential for the differential diagnosis of most cytopenias and for the early recognition of fibrosis which most frequently occurred as a consequence of megakaryocytic proliferation in the myeloproliferative disorders. Different patterns of bone marrow involvement were found in the lymphoproliferative disorders and both their type and extent constituted factors of prognostic significance. A survey of the literature is given and the conclusion is drawn that bone marrow biopsies provide indispensible information for the diagnostic evaluation and the follow-up of patients with haematological disorders. Images PMID:7040489

  6. Primary immunoglobulin deficiency and haematological disorders.

    PubMed Central

    French, M. A.; Dawkins, R. L.; Jackson, J. M.

    1983-01-01

    Nine patients with immunoglobulin deficiency and various haematological disorders are presented. In all patients, recurrent infections had antedated the onset of the haematological disorder but, in most, the possibility of primary immunodeficiency had not been considered until after the haematological diagnosis had been established. The recognition of immunodeficiency is important since such patients may require steroids, immunosuppressive therapy or splenectomy. Gammaglobulin would appear to be the appropriate therapy in this situation. Infections were reduced in all 6 patients so treated. PMID:6878102

  7. The haematology of indigenous Australians.

    PubMed

    Erber, W N; Buck, A M; Threlfall, T J

    2004-01-01

    Prior to European settlement indigenous Australians were hunter-gatherers who lived in geographically isolated small clan groups, also separated by elaborate totemic rules. Today they still reside in isolated communities throughout Australia but many have moved to the cities. They share a high incidence of a range of health problems including cardiovascular disease, renal disease and infectious diseases largely attributed to a change to a more sedentary lifestyle. This paper reviews the haematology of indigenous Australians, including blood count, frequency and causes of anaemia, inherited risk factors for thrombophilia, blood groups and the incidence and types of haematological malignancies. There are some significant genetic differences between indigenous and non-indigenous Australians particularly in the frequency of blood groups, factor V Leiden and prothrombin mutations and presence of -alpha3.7 kb thalassaemia. These findings may have practical therapeutic implications (e.g. HPA phenotype for transfusion therapy and pregnancy risk) and in predicting disease risk. Other differences are acquired, related to lifestyle and living conditions (e.g. eosinophilia secondary to parasitic infections; iron and folate deficiencies), and are largely preventable. PMID:15763972

  8. Kidney diseases associated with haematological cancers.

    PubMed

    Ganguli, Anirban; Sawinski, Deirdre; Berns, Jeffrey S

    2015-08-01

    Advances in chemotherapy for haematological malignancies, resulting from a greater understanding of the complex pathophysiology of these diseases, have improved the survival of patients with these disorders. Clinicians must now, therefore, be more aware of the issues related to fluid, electrolyte, and acid-base disorders, as well as acute and chronic kidney injuries that can develop in such patients as a result of the underlying malignancy and its treatment. Patients with acute kidney injury associated with haematological malignancy have a worse prognosis than do other patients with acute kidney injury. Glomerular diseases associated with haematological malignancies are thought to be paraneoplastic syndromes with variable histological presentations. Some of the newest therapeutic agents used to treat haematological malignancies have adverse renal effects that can preclude continuation of treatment, often leading to difficult clinical decisions when patients have advanced disease and alternative treatment options are limited. Haematopoietic stem cell transplantation has an expanding role as a therapy for haematological malignancies but is also associated with important renal complications. Here, we review the literature that examines the incidences, aetiologies, mechanisms and treatment options for renal disorders associated with haematological malignancies. PMID:26035773

  9. [Massage and sophrology workshops for haematology professionals].

    PubMed

    Bannier, Christine; Sachot, Claudine; Simon, Armelle

    2014-04-01

    In haematology, the caregivers are confronted with the death of patients and the distress of their families. It is a working environment in which it is essential for the professionals to be taken care of in order to optimise the care provided to patients. At Nantes general hospital, massage and sophrology workshops enable the caregivers to recharge their batteries. PMID:24881242

  10. Haematological and Immunological Data Data set n Input

    E-print Network

    Roberts, Stephen

    Haematological and Immunological Data Data set n Input 1 WBC 2 Hgb Haematology 3 MCV 4 Plat 5 Lymph 6 Neut 1 PanT% 2 CD4% Immunology 3 CD8% 4 PanT 5 CD4 6 CD8 slide­1 #12; Data Type Data set KS+ (class 1) KS-- (class 3) Haematology Training 24 82 Test 4 10 Immunology Training 24 81 Test 4 10 KS

  11. [Zygomycosis (mucormycosis) in patients with haematologic malignancy].

    PubMed

    Jensen, Eva Magrethe Precht; Clemmensen, Stine; Bjřrndal, Kristine; Krogdahl, Annelise

    2011-01-31

    Zygomycosis is an invasive and increasingly emerging life-threatening infection. Diabetes is the most common risk factor; however, zygomycosis has increased among patients with haematologic malignancy, which is now the second most common risk factor with an incidence of 16%. Rapid diagnosis and treatment are essential for patient survival. In the Danish literature, only a few cases have been reported. We present two cases of zygomycosis, both with a fatal outcome, and we discuss the pathogenesis and treatment of invasive zygomycosis. PMID:21276400

  12. Gaucher disease: haematological presentations and complications.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Alison S; Mehta, Atul; Hughes, Derralynn A

    2014-05-01

    Gaucher disease (GD) is an autosomal recessive lysosomal storage disease, caused by deficiency of the enzyme glucocerebrosidase, required for the degradation of glycosphingolipids. Clinical manifestations include hepatosplenomegaly, thrombocytopenia, bone disease and a bleeding diathesis, frequently resulting in presentation to haematologists. Historically managed by splenectomy, transfusions and orthopaedic surgery, the development of specific therapy in the form of intravenous enzyme replacement therapy in the 1990s has resulted in dramatic improvements in haematological and visceral disease. Recognition of complications, including multiple myeloma and Parkinson disease, has challenged the traditional macrophage-centric view of the pathophysiology of this disorder. The pathways by which enzyme deficiency results in the clinical manifestations of this disorder are poorly understood; altered inflammatory cytokine profiles, bioactive sphingolipid derivatives and alterations in the bone marrow microenvironment have been implicated. Further elucidating these pathways will serve to advance our understanding not only of GD, but of associated disorders. PMID:24588457

  13. Haematological studies on Indian pashmina goats.

    PubMed

    Somvanshi, R; Biswas, J C; Sharma, B; Koul, G L

    1987-01-01

    Haematological studies were conducted on 61 clinically normal pashmina producing goats of the Cheghu breed, acclimatised to the temperate, humid climatic condition of Mukteswar, about 2400 m above sea level. The experimental goats comprised four age groups (birth to one month, six to nine months, three to five years and six to 10 years) of both sexes. The overall values, irrespective of age and sex, for the parameters examined were: red blood cells, 14.17 +/- 1.96 X 10(12) litre-1; haemoglobin, 7.46 +/- 0.79 g dl-1; packed cell volume, 0.31 +/- 0.04 litres litre-1; mean corpuscular volume, 21.62 +/- 2.46 fl; mean corpuscular haemoglobin concentration, 23.72 +/- 1.80 g dl-1; mean corpuscular haemoglobin, 5.11 +/- 0.67 pg; erythrocyte sedimentation rate, 0.00 mm at one hour; plasma protein 6.58 +/- 0.78 g dl-1; icterus index, 9.15 +/- 2.92 units; white blood cells 12.26 +/- 2.66 X 10(9) litre-1; absolute count of lymphocytes, 4.62 +/- 1.40; neutrophils, 5.91 +/- 2.84; monocytes, 0.38 +/- 0.15; eosinophils, 0.32 +/- 0.17 and basophils, 0.05 +/- 0.05 (X 10(9) litre-1). The sex of the animal did not affect the haematological parameters but the effect of age was evident. In newborn kids the haemoglobin, mean corpuscular haemoglobin and packed cell volume values were higher and the total leucocyte count was lower than in other age groups. As the kids grew older lymphocyte numbers decreased while neutrophils increased. PMID:3823626

  14. Zygomycosis in Immunocompromised non-Haematological Patients

    PubMed Central

    Petrikkos, George; Drogari-Apiranthitou, Miranda

    2011-01-01

    Zygomycoses caused by fungi of the mucorales order (mucormycoses) are emerging fungal diseases with a high fatality rate. The most important risk factors include neutropenia or functional neutropenia, diabetic ketoacidosis, iron overload, major trauma, prolonged use of corticosteroids, illicit intravenous drug (ID) use, neonatal prematurity, malnourishment, and maybe a previous exposure to antifungal agents with no activity against zygomycetes, such as voriconazole and echinocandins. A high index of suspicion is crucial for the diagnosis, as prompt and appropriate management can considerably reduce morbidity and mortality. Suspicion index can be increased through recognition of the differential patterns of clinical presentation. In the non- haematological immunocompromised patients, mucormycosis can manifest in various clinical forms, depending on the underlying condition: mostly as rhino-orbital or rhino-cerebral in diabetes patients, pulmonary infection in patients with malignancy or solid organ transplantation, disseminated infection in iron overloaded or deferoxamine treated patients, cerebral - with no sinus involvement - in ID users, gastrointestinal in premature infants or malnourishment, and cutaneous after direct inoculation in immunocompetent individuals with trauma or burns. Treating a patient’s underlying medical condition and reducing immunosuppression are essential to therapy. Rapid correction of metabolic abnormalities is mandatory in cases such as uncontrolled diabetes, and corticosteroids or other immunosuppressive drugs should be discontinued where feasible. AmphotericinB or its newer and less toxic lipid formulations are the drugs of choice regarding antifungal chemotherapy, while extensive surgical debridement is essential to reduce infected and necrotic tissue. A high number of cases could be prevented through measures including diabetes control programmes and proper pre- and post-surgical hygiene. PMID:21625316

  15. Zygomycosis in Immunocompromised non-Haematological Patients.

    PubMed

    Petrikkos, George; Drogari-Apiranthitou, Miranda

    2011-01-01

    Zygomycoses caused by fungi of the mucorales order (mucormycoses) are emerging fungal diseases with a high fatality rate. The most important risk factors include neutropenia or functional neutropenia, diabetic ketoacidosis, iron overload, major trauma, prolonged use of corticosteroids, illicit intravenous drug (ID) use, neonatal prematurity, malnourishment, and maybe a previous exposure to antifungal agents with no activity against zygomycetes, such as voriconazole and echinocandins.A high index of suspicion is crucial for the diagnosis, as prompt and appropriate management can considerably reduce morbidity and mortality. Suspicion index can be increased through recognition of the differential patterns of clinical presentation. In the non- haematological immunocompromised patients, mucormycosis can manifest in various clinical forms, depending on the underlying condition: mostly as rhino-orbital or rhino-cerebral in diabetes patients, pulmonary infection in patients with malignancy or solid organ transplantation, disseminated infection in iron overloaded or deferoxamine treated patients, cerebral - with no sinus involvement - in ID users, gastrointestinal in premature infants or malnourishment, and cutaneous after direct inoculation in immunocompetent individuals with trauma or burns.Treating a patient's underlying medical condition and reducing immunosuppression are essential to therapy. Rapid correction of metabolic abnormalities is mandatory in cases such as uncontrolled diabetes, and corticosteroids or other immunosuppressive drugs should be discontinued where feasible. AmphotericinB or its newer and less toxic lipid formulations are the drugs of choice regarding antifungal chemotherapy, while extensive surgical debridement is essential to reduce infected and necrotic tissue. A high number of cases could be prevented through measures including diabetes control programmes and proper pre- and post-surgical hygiene. PMID:21625316

  16. [The treatment of leukaemia in paediatric haematology day hospital].

    PubMed

    Héritier, Sébastien; Morand, Karine; Courcoux, Mary-France; Leverger, Guy

    2015-01-01

    The paediatric haematology day hospital administers almost all types of chemotherapy used to treat acute lymphoblastic leukaemia. Blood transfusions, myelograms and lumbar punctures are also performed there. The prevention of pain and anxiety generated by the care is a priority. PMID:26183094

  17. [Management of treatment-induced pain in paediatric haematology].

    PubMed

    Ben Hamadi, Donia; Calvet, Clémence

    2015-01-01

    Invasive procedures are frequent and painful in children treated in paediatric haematology. It is therefore essential to take into consideration and anticipate the pain induced by these procedures. The caregiver has various effective methods of providing a high quality care management. PMID:26183097

  18. Clinical and Haematological Effects of Hydroxyurea in ?-Thalassemia Intermedia Patients

    PubMed Central

    Yousefi, Homayon; Bahadoram, Mohammad

    2015-01-01

    Introduction It is well known that hydroxyurea (HU) impacts on clinical and haematologic indices in thalassemia. We aimed to evaluate the effect of hydroxyurea on clinical and haematological improvement in children with thalassemia intermedia. Materials and Methods After the patients’ enrollment in the study their data such as transfusion, hospitalization, spleen size, visit, total Hb, HbF levels, MCV and MCH were compared before and after treatment with HU 10 mg/kg/day/for one year. Results In patients with thalassemia intermedia, HU significantly diminished the rate of transfusion, hospitalization, spleen size and significantly increased Hb MCH, HbF and MCV. Moreover HU was well tolerated in our patients and we got no remarkable adverse effect. Conclusion We divulged hydroxyurea 10 mg/kg/day during one year. This significantly increased HbF, total haemoglobin, MCV, MCH, without any remarkable adverse events. PMID:26557561

  19. Lipid peroxidation in Nigerians affected with haematological malignancies.

    PubMed

    Akinlolu, A; Akingbola, T; Salau, B

    2012-12-01

    This study investigated Lipid peroxidation status in twenty Nigerians; five (5) healthy subjects and 15 (fifteen) Haematological cancer patients; 5 affected with Chronic Myeloid leukaemia (CML), 5 (five) with Non-Hodgkin's Lymphoma and 5 (five) with Multiple Myeloma. Consents were sought and received from all participants used in the study. 10 mls of blood samples were collected in lithium heparin bottles from all subjects used in the study. Free plasma Malondialdehyde (MDA) quantification was used to assess lipid peroxidation in all subjects. MDA levels were increased in CML and Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma patients compared with that of control subjects at P < 0.001. However, a decreased non-significant free plasma MDA level was observed in multiple myeloma patients compared with control subjects. Increase in lipid peroxidation status in Nigerians affected with Haematological malignancies may be associated with a dysregulation of antioxidant system. Lipid peroxidation status could be used as clinical clue for diagnosis, prognosis and treatment of patients affected with haematological malignancies. PMID:23678650

  20. The application of haematological values in a water quality index

    SciTech Connect

    Vuren, J.H.J. van; Weponer, V.; Preez, H.H. du

    1995-12-31

    The introduction of many relatively toxic metal cations into an aquatic environment causes multiple changes in the internal dynamics of aquatic organisms, even at sublethal levels. Fish have for many years been regarded as excellent indicators of water quality, Hydrological variables, such as alkalinity, dissolved oxygen, hardness, pH, temperature, exposure time and particular stage in the fish life cycle greatly influence the lethal effects of metals. Death was taken as the only measurable effect to establish the toxicity levels of different metal pollutants. To determine the toxicity of metal pollution on aquatic organisms, the detrimental effects induced by sublethal concentrations on fish physiology, certain physiological and specifically haematological and biochemical variables, have to be monitored before the fish die. The use of haematological variables as indicators of sublethal effects of stress can provide information on the physiological effects in fish during change of the environment. By taking both the water chemistry and the physiological response by the fish into account, toxic levels of pollutants are established scientifically. In the field of water management, scientists, engineers and managers are confronted with a large array of data that can be totally overwhelming. Add to that additional information on sublethal effects of pollutants on the haematology of fish. Instead of confusing the issue further, the information on sublethal effects of pollutants should be incorporated with other relevant water quality data into a water quality index. The index incorporating all relevant data could be UBW by officials responsible for water management to assess water quality. Results obtained from literature and personal experimentation is interpreted in a simplified manner through the index to bridge the gap between the extremes of establishing the effects of metals on fish and reporting.

  1. Whole body MRI and PET/CT in haematological malignancies

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Chieh; Luciani, Alain; Itti, Emmanuel; Haioun, Corinne

    2007-01-01

    Abstract The usefulness of whole body magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and positron emission tomography (PET)/computed tomography (CT) in haematological malignancies is reviewed. PET/CT combining functional and anatomical information is currently a valuable tool in the management of patients with lymphoma, especially in the assessment of early treatment response. MRI is advantageous in evaluating bone marrow involvement and therefore plays an important role in clinical decision making for patients with myeloma. The development of whole body functional MR studies is underway and can potentially complement the PET/CT for better patient care. PMID:17921084

  2. A retrospective series of gut aspergillosis in haematology patients.

    PubMed

    Kazan, E; Maertens, J; Herbrecht, R; Weisser, M; Gachot, B; Vekhoff, A; Caillot, D; Raffoux, E; Fagot, T; Reman, O; Isnard, F; Thiebaut, A; Bretagne, S; Cordonnier, C

    2011-04-01

    Gut invasive aspergillosis is an extremely rare infection in immunocompromised patients. The goal of this retrospective multicentre study is to report on cases of gut aspergillosis in haematology patients, including clinical presentation, risk factors, and outcome. Twenty-one patients from nine centres were identified. Eight had isolated gut aspergillosis, with no evidence of other infected sites, and 13 had disseminated aspergillosis. Thirteen patients had acute leukaemia. Nine were allogeneic stem cell transplant recipients. Clinical symptoms and imaging were poorly specific. The galactomannan antigenaemia test result was positive in 16/25 (64%) patients, including in four of the eight cases of isolated gut aspergillosis. Five of 21 patients had a dietary regimen rich in spices, suggesting that, in these cases, food could have been the source of gut colonization, and then of a primary gut Aspergillus lesion. The diagnosis was made post-mortem in six patients. The mortality rate in the remaining patients at 12 weeks was 7/15 (47%). Gut aspergillosis is probably misdiagnosed and underestimated in haematology patients, owing to the poor specificity of symptoms and imaging. Patients with a persistently positive galactomannan antigenaemia finding that is unexplained by respiratory lesions should be suspected of having gut aspergillosis in the presence of abdominal symptoms, and be quickly investigated. In the absence of severe abdominal complications leading to surgery and resection of the lesions, the optimal treatment is not yet defined. PMID:20636423

  3. Long Non-Coding RNAs in Haematological Malignancies

    PubMed Central

    Garitano-Trojaola, Andoni; Agirre, Xabier; Prósper, Felipe; Fortes, Puri

    2013-01-01

    Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) are functional RNAs longer than 200 nucleotides in length. LncRNAs are as diverse as mRNAs and they normally share the same biosynthetic machinery based on RNA polymerase II, splicing and polyadenylation. However, lncRNAs have low coding potential. Compared to mRNAs, lncRNAs are preferentially nuclear, more tissue specific and expressed at lower levels. Most of the lncRNAs described to date modulate the expression of specific genes by guiding chromatin remodelling factors; inducing chromosomal loopings; affecting transcription, splicing, translation or mRNA stability; or serving as scaffolds for the organization of cellular structures. They can function in cis, cotranscriptionally, or in trans, acting as decoys, scaffolds or guides. These functions seem essential to allow cell differentiation and growth. In fact, many lncRNAs have been shown to exert oncogenic or tumor suppressor properties in several cancers including haematological malignancies. In this review, we summarize what is known about lncRNAs, the mechanisms for their regulation in cancer and their role in leukemogenesis, lymphomagenesis and hematopoiesis. Furthermore, we discuss the potential of lncRNAs in diagnosis, prognosis and therapy in cancer, with special attention to haematological malignancies. PMID:23887658

  4. Haemodynamic and haematologic effects of Acanthaster planci venom in dogs.

    PubMed

    Shiroma, N; Noguchi, K; Matsuzaki, T; Ojiri, Y; Hirayama, K; Sakanashi, M

    1994-10-01

    This study was designed to examine haemodynamic and haematologic effects of the crown-of-thorns starfish venom (Acanthaster planci venom: APV) in dogs. Severe systemic hypotension, thrombocytopenia and leukopenia were induced by APV (1.0 mg protein/kg i.v.), followed by gradual return to the baseline level within 60 min. Hypotension was presumably caused by two factors: an early decrease in systemic vascular resistance and the large reduction in cardiac output due to reduced ventricular filling. Indomethacin, a cyclooxygenase inhibitor, remarkably suppressed systemic hypotension induced by APV. The peak reduction in systemic pressure was associated with concomitant rise of plasma 6-keto-PGF1 alpha, a major stable metabolite of prostacyclin. Thus, the hypotensive effect of APV may be caused primarily by prostacyclin and/or some vasodilating prostaglandins. In contrast, thrombocytopenia and leukopenia were not affected by cyclooxygenase inhibitor, 5-lipoxygenase inhibitor or platelet activating factor (PAF) receptor antagonist. When APV was administered repeatedly, tachyphylaxis was developed in haemodynamic effects, but not in haematologic effects. These findings suggest that APV-induced hypotensive effects may occur mainly through endogenous production of vasodilating prostaglandins including prostacyclin, although APV-induced thrombocytopenia and leukopenia may be caused by other mechanism(s) unrelated to arachidonate metabolites and/or PAF. PMID:7846692

  5. Haematology in the Republic of Macedonia: present situation and brief history.

    PubMed

    Panovska-Stavridis, I; Cevreska, L

    2013-01-01

    (Full text is available at http://www.manu.edu.mk/prilozi). The development of clinical haematology in Macedonia has taken place over the past nine decades. The greatest expansion of its development took place in the second half of the 20th century. The oficial start of clinical haematology dates from 1956, when the Department of Haematology was founded within the fra-mework of the Internal Medicine Clinic in Skopje. In the beginning, haematology represented a form of virtual sub-specialty, but its expansion was so progressive and rapid that it reached the highest peaks of Yugoslav haematology in those times. The period from 1968 to 1979 was a period of integral development of haema-tology and blood-transfusion science in Macedonia. Nowadays, the autonomous Public Health Institution, the University Hematology Clinic, is a unique healthcare, educational and scientific establishment in the Republic of Macedonia in its field of work. The diagnostics algorithm comprises cyto-morphologic and cyto-chemical analysis, through immunologic characterization with the assistance of a flow cytometer, to sophisticated molecular analysis for detecting genetic abnormalities. The therapeutic approach is based upon modern poly-haemotherapeutic protocols, application of monoclonal antibodies, immuno-modulatory agents, molecular target therapy and the use of alogeneic and autologous transplantation of fresh bone-marrow and frozen haemopoietic stem-cells. The current motto of the Haematology Clinic is: always help those who seek help, provide precise and early diagnostics, and apply all up-to-date therapeutic strategies, scientific research, continual education and day-to-day implementation of the latest achievements in the field of haematology in daily practice. Key words: haematology, history, chemotherapy, flow-cytometry, molecular analysis, stem cell transplant, target therapy, immuno-modulatory agents. PMID:23921481

  6. [Blood isolates epidemiology in a clinical haematology department].

    PubMed

    Elmaataoui, A; Elghazouani, M; Eric, N Akwa; Doghmi, K; Mikdame, M; Elhamzaoui, S; Elouennass, M

    2009-01-01

    Cancer chemotherapy is responsible for infections by decreasing the phagocytosis and chemotaxis of polymorphonuclear. We conducted a retrospective analysis during the period from 18/10/2006 to 21/05/2008, on all bacteria isolated from blood cultures performed in the department of clinical hematology at the hospital military instruction Mohamed V. One hundred and sixty two blood isolates were selected; Gram positive cocci (CGP) accounted for 60.34% and Gram negative bacilli (GNB) for 24.14%. Coagulase negative staphylococci (SNA) and S. aureus presented a resistance to methicilline respectively 54.55% and 22.22%. Prevalence of Gram positive cocci is consistent with the results of the EORTC (International Antimicrobial Therapy Cooperative Group). Analysis of resistance patterns of all species, except for staphylococci, showed phenotypes essentially community, sometimes wild. In conclusion probabilistic antibiotic treatement of bacteraemia in the haematology department should focus among other staphylococci resistant to methicilline. PMID:19411231

  7. Complications associated with central venous catheters in a haematology unit.

    PubMed Central

    Sharpe, P. C.; Morris, T. C.

    1994-01-01

    The use of central venous catheters in patients suffering from haematological disorders has brought enormous benefits, but has been associated with an increase in septicaemia. We have reviewed septic and other complications in 43 patients who received one of three different forms of central venous catheters (type A-Hickman, type B-Portacath, type C-Pasport) during 1991. All complications were reviewed up to 18 months following insertion. The total complication rate was 31% (0.97 per 100 catheter days), and the total sepsis complication rate was 18.8% (0.49 per 100 catheter days). Type A catheters had the greatest sepsis complication rate of 29.5% (0.84 per 100 catheter days), with type B 15% (0.39 per 100 catheter days) and type C 9.9% (0.32 per 100 catheter days). Prophylactic antibiotics on the day of catheter insertion did not reduce the sepsis rate or prolong catheter survival. PMID:8650826

  8. Complications associated with central venous catheters in a haematology unit.

    PubMed

    Sharpe, P C; Morris, T C

    1994-10-01

    The use of central venous catheters in patients suffering from haematological disorders has brought enormous benefits, but has been associated with an increase in septicaemia. We have reviewed septic and other complications in 43 patients who received one of three different forms of central venous catheters (type A-Hickman, type B-Portacath, type C-Pasport) during 1991. All complications were reviewed up to 18 months following insertion. The total complication rate was 31% (0.97 per 100 catheter days), and the total sepsis complication rate was 18.8% (0.49 per 100 catheter days). Type A catheters had the greatest sepsis complication rate of 29.5% (0.84 per 100 catheter days), with type B 15% (0.39 per 100 catheter days) and type C 9.9% (0.32 per 100 catheter days). Prophylactic antibiotics on the day of catheter insertion did not reduce the sepsis rate or prolong catheter survival. PMID:8650826

  9. Biochemical and haematological profile of pheasant hens during the laying period.

    PubMed

    Schumann, J; Bedanova, I; Voslarova, E; Hrabcakova, P; Chloupek, J; Pistekova, V

    2014-01-01

    The present paper provides new experimental data on the biochemical and haematological profile of blood in pheasant hens, and points out the changes in both biochemical and haematological parameters that occur during the laying period. Significant effects of egg laying on both the biochemical and the haematological blood parameters of pheasant hens were found. Biochemical analyses revealed a significant increase in the metabolites cholesterol, uric acid, lactate, the enzyme aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and the minerals calcium and phosphorous, as well as a significant decrease in total protein, albumin and glucose in the course of the laying period. Haematological analyses revealed a significant increase in the count of leukocytes, lymphocytes, eosinophils, basophils and monocytes due to egg laying. In addition, the erythrocyte count and haemoglobin content significantly decreased in the middle of the laying period and then rebounded at the end of the laying period. The haematocrit content gradually decreased till the end of the laying period. All together, the results of this study underline the impact of the reproduction status of pheasant hens on basic blood parameters. The biochemical and haematological values presented in this study may be of help in assessing disease conditions in laying pheasant hens. PMID:24724469

  10. Basic haematological values in carnivores--II. The Felidae.

    PubMed

    Pospísil, J; Kase, F; Váhala, J

    1987-01-01

    1. Basic haematological values in 34 animals of eight carnivorous species are reported. 2. In four Northern lynxs (Lynx lynx lynx), two male and two female animals, the mean values are given: erythrocyte counts 8.51 X 10(12)/l, haematocrit 0.392/l, haemoglobin content 148.0 g/l and leukocyte count 7.92 X 10(9)/l. 3. In six male pumas (Puma concolor missolensis) the mean values estimated are: erythrocyte count 9.35 X 10(12)/l, haematocrit 0.43/l, haemoglobin content 163.9 g/l and leukocyte count 7.73 X 10(9)/l. Individual values in one female puma are also given. 4. In six jaguars (Panthera onca), three male and three female animals, the mean values are given: erythrocyte count 8.27 X 10(12)/l, haematocrit 0.37/l, haemoglobin content 137.1 g/l and leukocyte count 15.15 X 10(9)/l. 5. Only individual values are reported in one clouded leopard (Neofelis nebulosa), in one leopard (Panthera pardus saxicolor), in one Corbett's tiger (Panthera tigris Corbetti) and in one Altaic tiger (Panthera tigris Altaica). 6. In four lions (Panthera leo leo), two male and two female animals, the mean estimated values are: erythrocyte count 10.14 X 10(12)/l, haematocrit 0.462/l, haemoglobin content 159.0 g/l and leukocyte count 11.05 X 10(9)/l. In six female cheetahs (Acinonox jubatus jubatus) the mean values estimated are: erythrocyte count 7.86 X 10(12)/l, haematocrit 0.373/l, haemoglobin content 142.8 g/l and leukocyte count 8.65 X 10(9)/l. For three male cheetahs only individual values are reported. 8. All results achieved are compared with those abstracted from the literature and discussed. PMID:2886279

  11. Haematological response of curimbas Prochilodus lineatus, naturally infected with Neoechinorhynchus curemai.

    PubMed

    Belo, M A A; Souza, D G F; Faria, V P; Prado, E J R; Moraes, F R; Onaka, E M

    2013-04-01

    This study evaluated the haematological response of curimbas Prochilodus lineatus, naturally infected with Neoechinorhynchus curemai (Acanthocephala: Neoechinorhynchidae). Thirty-seven fish were captured in October 2010 from the Mogi Guaçu River, Porto Ferreira, SP, Brazil. Infected fish presented increased mean corpuscular volume of erythrocytes, and lower thrombocyte and higher monocyte counts than uninfected fish. PMID:23557315

  12. Haematological and biochemical reference intervals for free-ranging brown bears (Ursus arctos) in Sweden

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Establishment of haematological and biochemical reference intervals is important to assess health of animals on individual and population level. Reference intervals for 13 haematological and 34 biochemical variables were established based on 88 apparently healthy free-ranging brown bears (39 males and 49 females) in Sweden. The animals were chemically immobilised by darting from a helicopter with a combination of medetomidine, tiletamine and zolazepam in April and May 2006–2012 in the county of Dalarna, Sweden. Venous blood samples were collected during anaesthesia for radio collaring and marking for ecological studies. For each of the variables, the reference interval was described based on the 95% confidence interval, and differences due to host characteristics sex and age were included if detected. To our knowledge, this is the first report of reference intervals for free-ranging brown bears in Sweden. Results The following variables were not affected by host characteristics: red blood cell, white blood cell, monocyte and platelet count, alanine transaminase, amylase, bilirubin, free fatty acids, glucose, calcium, chloride, potassium, and cortisol. Age differences were seen for the majority of the haematological variables, whereas sex influenced only mean corpuscular haemoglobin concentration, aspartate aminotransferase, lipase, lactate dehydrogenase, ?-globulin, bile acids, triglycerides and sodium. Conclusions The biochemical and haematological reference intervals provided and the differences due to host factors age and gender can be useful for evaluation of health status in free-ranging European brown bears. PMID:25139149

  13. Sample stability for complete blood cell count using the Sysmex XN haematological analyser

    PubMed Central

    Daves, Massimo; Zagler, Elmar M.; Cemin, Roberto; Gnech, Flora; Joos, Alexandra; Platzgummer, Stefan; Lippi, Giuseppe

    2015-01-01

    Background Sample stability is a crucial aspect for the quality of results of a haematology laboratory. This study was conducted to investigate the reliability of haematological testing using Sysmex XN in samples stored for up to 24 h at different temperatures. Materials and methods Haematological tests were performed on whole blood samples collected from 16 ostensibly healthy outpatients immediately after collection and 3 h, 6 h or 24 h afterwards, with triple aliquots kept at room temperature, 4 °C or 37 °C. Results No meaningful bias was observed after 3 h under different storage conditions, except for red blood cell distribution width (RDW) and platelet count (impedance technique, PLT-I) at 37 °C. After 6 h, meaningful bias was observed for mean corpuscular haemoglobin (MCH) and mean corpuscular volume (MCV) at room temperature, red blood cell (RBC) count, mean corpuscular haemoglobin concentration (MCHC), MCH, MCV and PLT-I at 4 °C, and RBC, RDW, MCHC, MCH and PLT-I at 37 °C. After 24 h, a meaningful bias was observed for MCHC, MCV, platelet count (fluorescent technique, PLT-F) and mean platelet volume (MPV) at room temperature, MCHC, MCV, PLT-I and MPV at 4 °C, and all parameters except RBC count and MPV at 37 °C. Discussion Great caution should be observed when analysing results of haematological tests conducted more than 3 h after sample collection. PMID:26057491

  14. Evaluation of the QBC Star centrifugal three-part differential haematology system.

    PubMed

    Erhabor, O; Richardson, G; Mohammed, I; Thornton, C; Bark, J; Hurst, M; Hamer, D; Kinsella, P

    2013-01-01

    The QBC Star haematology system includes the QBC Star centrifugal analytical analyser and the QBC Star tube system. Together, they are capable of producing a haematology profile on venous or capillary whole blood. The aim of this study is to compare full blood count (FBC) including differential white cell count performance between the QBC Star analyser and a gold standard Sysmex XE-2100 haematology analyser. The FBC performance was evaluated according to the National Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards (NCCLS) document H20-A. Imprecision, correlation and linearity studies all showed excellent results. Overall, the haemoglobin, haematocrit, white cell count (WCC) and platelet count parameters showed excellent correlation. Mean corpuscular haemoglobin concentration (MCHC) results showed poor comparability. The white cell differential parameters showed good correlation within certain clinically significant limits. Imprecision for haemoglobin, haematocrit, WCC, MCHC and platelet count was considered acceptable. The re-read function was found to be stable over the five-hour testing period under the authors' laboratory environmental conditions. The subjective assessment by biomedical scientist staff demonstrated that the system was user friendly, required little maintenance, and no user calibration was required. Staff considered the user manual to be excellent. Overall, the QBC Star appears to be an excellent point-of-care (POC) dry haematology analyser that delivers clinically significant nine-parameter complete blood count and will make a good POC analyser for use in field hospitals, research, screening programmes, GP surgeries as well as in emergency and intensive care units. It is a health and safety-friendly analyser considering the fact that it uses dry haematology reagents instead of the bulky wet reagents that are often associated with liquid biohazard waste. PMID:23888608

  15. Biochemical and haematological changes in HIV subjects receiving winniecure antiretroviral drug in Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Hematological and biochemical abnormalities are among the most common clinicopathological manifestations of HIV patients on ART. Consequently, the development and assessment of indigenous antiretroviral drugs with minimal abnormalities becomes a necessity. The objective of this investigation was to assess potential haematological and biochemical abnormalities that may be associated with the administration of Winniecure ART in HIV patients undergoing treatment in Nigeria. Fifty (50) confirmed HIV positive ART naďve patients aged 36?±?10 were observed for haematological and biochemical responses for 12 weeks. Haematological responses were assessed thrice at 6 weeks interval using coulter Ac-T differential analyser and biochemical indicators (bilirubin, creatine, urea, amylase, ALT, ALP, AST, albumin) assayed spectrophotometrically. Results The biochemical parameters ALP (P??0.002). Haematological results showed consistent reduction of ESR, eosinophil, absolute and differential lymphocytes, granulocytes and total WBC in the test subjects throughout the assessment period. Conversely, haemoglobin, platelet and PCV increased significantly (P?haematological abnormalities and normal kidney function was unaffected though there were signs of possible abnormal levels of hepatic enzymes beyond 12 weeks of treatment. PMID:24099597

  16. Ultrasonography-guided central venous catheterisation in haematological patients with severe thrombocytopenia

    PubMed Central

    Napolitano, Mariasanta; Malato, Alessandra; Raffaele, Francesco; Palazzolo, Manuela; Iacono, Giorgio Lo; Pinna, Roberto; Geraci, Girolamo; Modica, Giuseppe; Saccullo, Giorgia; Siragusa, Sergio; Cajozzo, Massimo

    2013-01-01

    Background Cannulation of the internal jugular vein (CVC) is a blind surface landmark-guided technique that could be potentially dangerous in patients with very low platelet counts. In such patients, ultrasonography (US)-guided CVC may be a valid approach. There is a lack of published data on the efficacy and safety of urgent US-guided CVC performed in haematological patients with severe thrombocytopenia. Materials and methods We retrospectively studied the safety of urgent CVC procedures in haematological patients including those with severe thrombocytopenia (platelet count <30×109/L). From January 1999 to June 2009, 431 CVC insertional procedures in 431 consecutive patients were evaluated. Patients were included in the study if they had a haematological disorder and required urgent CVC insertion. Patients were placed in Trendelenburg's position, an 18-gauge needle and guide-wire were advanced under real-time US guidance into the last part of the internal jugular vein; central venous cannulation of the internal jugular vein was performed using the Seldinger technique in all the procedures. Major and minor procedure-related complications were recorded. Results All 431 patients studied had haematological disorders: 39 had severe thrombocytopenia, refractory to platelet transfusion (group 1), while 392 did not have severe thrombocytopenia (group 2). The general characteristics of the patients in the two groups differed only for platelet count. The average time taken to perform the procedure was 4 minutes. Success rates were 97.4% and 97.9% in group 1 and group 2, respectively. No major complications occurred in either group. Discussion US-guided CVC is a safe and effective approach in haematological patients with severe thrombocytopenia requiring urgent cannulation for life support, plasma-exchange, chemotherapy and transfusion. PMID:23399356

  17. Occupational exposures and haematological abnormalities among ordnance factory workers: a case control study.

    PubMed

    West, R R; Stafford, D A

    1997-07-01

    The lifetime exposures to an extensive list of chemical and other potentially toxic hazards were estimated for all available employees at an ordnance factory by questionnaire-based interview. Exposure histories of 32 (of 33) previously diagnosed as haematologically abnormal (cases) were compared with 322 (of 345) normals (controls). Among 'ordnance factory chemicals', modestly increased odds ratios were observed for men for acetic anhydride (2.8), stearic acid (2.8), and possibly for resorcinol (2.9), TNT (2.4) and hydroxy terminated polybutadene (HTPB) (2.4). Increased odds ratios were also observed in exposures not directly related to ordnance manufacture, including mineral acids, welding fumes, exhaust gases and insecticides. While, small numbers in the case group limit the statistical significance of reported odds ratios, one should be cautious about committing a type II error. These findings may partly explain the previously reported unusual prevalence of haematological abnormalities within the factory. PMID:9301689

  18. Biosimilar Epoetin Zeta in Oncology and Haematology: Development and Experience following 6 Years of Use.

    PubMed

    Michallet, Mauricette; Losem, Christoph

    2016-01-01

    Chemotherapy-induced anaemia is frequent in cancer patients, with severity depending on the extent of the disease and intensity of treatment. Clinical guidelines recommend erythropoietin therapy to treat or prevent anaemia in some oncology/haematology patients being treated with chemotherapy. The patent expiry of the first-generation erythropoietins has led to the development of biosimilar products, i.e. therapeutic proteins exhibiting comparable quality, safety and efficacy to an existing reference biological medicine, the patent of which has expired. This review summarises the available data set supporting the use of one such biosimilar product, epoetin zeta (Retacrit™) in oncology/haematology. The body of evidence supporting the use of epoetin zeta continues to grow, with post-marketing clinical studies underway to evaluate its longer-term clinical efficacy and safety. Biosimilar medicines have the potential to offer cost savings to health care providers, with the assurance of ongoing risk management programmes to ensure patient safety. PMID:26426164

  19. Effects of lichen extracts on haematological parameters of rats with experimental insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Colak, Suat; Geyiko?lu, Fatime; Aslan, Ali; Deniz, Gül?ah Y?ld?z

    2014-11-01

    The prevalence of diabetes mellitus in the world is steadily increasing. Oxidative stress contributes to the development of diabetic complications, including diabetic haematological changes. Lichens are used as food supplements and are also used as possible natural antioxidant, antimicrobial and anticancer agents. We hypothesized that antioxidant activity of lichens may decrease hyperglycaemia-induced oxidative stress and prevent the development of diabetic complications, including abnormality in haematological condition. Therefore, the effects of Cetraria islandica water extract (CIWE) and Pseudevernia furfuracea water extract (PFWE) on the haematological parameters of rats with type 1 DM were investigated for the first time in the present study. Control Sprague-Dawley or streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats were either untreated or treated with water lichen extracts (5-500 mg/kg body weight (bw)/day) for 2 weeks, starting at 72 h after STZ injection. On day 14, animals were anaesthetized and haematological and metabolic parameters were determined between control and experimental groups. In addition, the total oxidative stress (TOS), a specific indicator of oxidative stress, and the total antioxidant capacity (TAC) were measured by biochemical studies. In diabetic rats, CIWE of 250-500 mg/kg bw dose showed more prominent results when compared with doses of PFWE for TAC. The results obtained in the present study suggested that the antioxidant activities of lichens might be the possible reason behind the observed antihaematological status. However, the protective effect of lichen extracts were inadequate on diabetes-induced microcytic hypochromic anaemia. In addition, the extracts have no effect on metabolic complications. Our experimental data showed that high doses of CIWE and PFWE alone have no detrimental effect on blood cells and TOS status of plasma. Hence, they are safe and suitable for different administration routes. PMID:23114377

  20. Outbreak of cutaneous zygomycosis associated with the use of adhesive tape in haematology patients.

    PubMed

    Lalayanni, C; Baliakas, P; Xochelli, A; Apostolou, C; Arabatzis, M; Velegraki, A; Anagnostopoulos, A

    2012-07-01

    We report an outbreak of cutaneous Rhizopus oryzae infection associated with adhesive polyethylene tapes used to stabilize peripheral venous catheters in four patients. All patients were suffering from haematological diseases; the infection severity was proportional to the duration of neutropenia. Intervention with systemic antifungal treatment and surgical debridement was required for resolution of the infection. The entire batch of tapes was withdrawn and the outbreak subsided. PMID:22633275

  1. The Prognostic Significance of HbF in Childhood Haematological Malignancies.

    PubMed

    Mallick, Debjani; Karmakar, Rupam; Barui, Gopinath; Gon, Sonia; Chakrabarti, Sudipta

    2015-03-01

    The degree of increase in foetal haemoglobin (HbF) synthesis in haematological malignancies may be associated with the degree of malignancy. The aim of the present study was to quantify HbF levels in various childhood haematological malignancies and also, to ascertain its prognostic significance by comparing the results with the already established standard prognostic factors. Newly diagnosed cases of haematological malignancies in the paediatric age group were included in the study. HbF levels were estimated in each case of the study group along with HbF levels of control group comprising healthy children of same age group. The estimation was done by HPLC and Modified Betke's method. 50 cases of newly diagnosed haematological malignancies were studied out of which most of the cases were of acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL) [n = 30(60 %)] followed by acute myeloid leukaemia (AML) [n = 8(16 %)], Hodgkin's lymphoma [n = 7(14%)], non-Hodgkin's lymphoma [n = 5(10 %)]. Raised HbF levels were found in 43.3 % cases of ALL (13/30) and 37.5 % cases of AML (3/8). No significant rise in HbF level was found in cases of lymphomas. There was correlation between raised HbF level and poor prognostic factors in cases of ALL but no such correlation was found in cases of AML. HbF levels are often elevated in childhood leukaemias as compared to childhood lymphomas. Thus, the concentration of HbF in acute childhood leukaemia may be considered as a prognostic factor. PMID:25548456

  2. KIR Genes and Patterns Given by the A Priori Algorithm: Immunity for Haematological Malignancies

    PubMed Central

    Rodríguez-Escobedo, J. Gilberto; García-Sepúlveda, Christian A.; Cuevas-Tello, Juan C.

    2015-01-01

    Killer-cell immunoglobulin-like receptors (KIRs) are membrane proteins expressed by cells of innate and adaptive immunity. The KIR system consists of 17 genes and 614 alleles arranged into different haplotypes. KIR genes modulate susceptibility to haematological malignancies, viral infections, and autoimmune diseases. Molecular epidemiology studies rely on traditional statistical methods to identify associations between KIR genes and disease. We have previously described our results by applying support vector machines to identify associations between KIR genes and disease. However, rules specifying which haplotypes are associated with greater susceptibility to malignancies are lacking. Here we present the results of our investigation into the rules governing haematological malignancy susceptibility. We have studied the different haplotypic combinations of 17 KIR genes in 300 healthy individuals and 43 patients with haematological malignancies (25 with leukaemia and 18 with lymphomas). We compare two machine learning algorithms against traditional statistical analysis and show that the “a priori” algorithm is capable of discovering patterns unrevealed by previous algorithms and statistical approaches. PMID:26495028

  3. Haematological and biochemical parameters during the laying period in common pheasant hens housed in enhanced cages.

    PubMed

    Hrab?áková, Petra; Voslá?ová, Eva; Bedá?ová, Iveta; Pišt?ková, Vladimíra; Chloupek, Jan; Ve?erek, Vladimír

    2014-01-01

    The development of selected haematological and biochemical parameters during the laying period was monitored in common pheasant hens housed in an enhanced cage system. The cages were enhanced by the addition of two perches and a shelter formed by strips of cloth hanging in the corner of the cage. The results showed significant changes in the haematological and biochemical parameters monitored during egg laying. At the time when laying capacity approached a maximum, a decrease was observed (P < 0.05) in haematocrit, erythrocytes, and haemoglobin values, whereas monocytes, eosinophils, the heterophil/lymphocyte ratio, phosphorus, and calcium exhibited an increase (P < 0.05). At the end of the laying period, an increase (P < 0.05) was recorded in the count of leukocytes, heterophils, lymphocytes and basophils, the heterophil to lymphocyte ratio, and the concentrations of aspartate aminotransferase, cholesterol, phosphorus, and calcium, whereas lower values (P < 0.05) were recorded for haematocrit and plasma total protein in comparison with the values of the indicators at the beginning of the laying period. The results provide new information about dynamic changes in selected haematological and biochemical parameters in clinically healthy common pheasant hens during the laying period. PMID:25121117

  4. Fertility preservation in patients with haematological disorders: a retrospective cohort study.

    PubMed

    Senapati, Suneeta; Morse, Christopher B; Sammel, Mary D; Kim, Jayeon; Mersereau, Jennifer E; Efymow, Brenda; Gracia, Clarisa R

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the factors associated with utilization of fertility preservation and the differences in treatments and outcomes by prior chemotherapy exposure in patients with haematological diseases. This study included all 67 women with haematological diseases seen for fertility preservation consultation at two university hospitals between 2006 and 2011. Of the total, 49% had lymphoma, 33% had leukaemia, 7% had myelodysplastic syndrome and 4% had aplastic anaemia; 46% had prior chemotherapy; and 33% were planning for bone marrow transplantation, 33% pursued ovarian stimulation and 7% used ovarian tissue banking; and 48% of patients did not pursue fertility preservation treatment. All five cycle cancellations were in the post-chemotherapy group: three patients with leukaemia and two with lymphoma. Patients with prior chemotherapy had lower baseline antral follicle count (10 versus 22) and received more gonadotrophins to achieve similar peak oestradiol concentrations, with no difference in oocyte yield (10.5 versus 10) after adjustment for age. Embryo yield was similar between those who had prior chemotherapy and those who had not. Half of the patients with haematological diseases who present for fertility preservation have been exposed to chemotherapy. While ovarian reserve is likely impaired in this group, oocyte yield may be acceptable. PMID:24140311

  5. Fertility preservation in patients with haematological disorders: a retrospective cohort study?

    PubMed Central

    Senapati, Suneeta; Morse, Christopher B; Sammel, Mary D; Kim, Jayeon; Mersereau, Jennifer E; Efymow, Brenda; Gracia, Clarisa R

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the factors associated with utilization of fertility preservation and the differences in treatments and outcomes by prior chemotherapy exposure in patients with haematological diseases. This study included all 67 women with haematological diseases seen for fertility preservation consultation at two university hospitals between 2006 and 2011. Of the total, 49% had lymphoma, 33% had leukaemia, 7% had myelodysplastic syndrome and 4% had aplastic anaemia; 46% had prior chemotherapy; and 33% were planning for bone marrow transplantation, 33% pursued ovarian stimulation and 7% used ovarian tissue banking; and 48% of patients did not pursue fertility preservation treatment. All five cycle cancellations were in the post-chemotherapy group: three patients with leukaemia and two with lymphoma. Patients with prior chemotherapy had lower baseline antral follicle count (10 versus 22) and received more gonadotrophins to achieve similar peak oestradiol concentrations, with no difference in oocyte yield (10.5 versus 10) after adjustment for age. Embryo yield was similar between those who had prior chemotherapy and those who had not. Half of the patients with haematological diseases who present for fertility preservation have been exposed to chemotherapy. While ovarian reserve is likely impaired in this group, oocyte yield may be acceptable. PMID:24140311

  6. The Efficacy of Nardostachys Jatamansi Against The Radiation Induced Haematological Damage In Rats

    PubMed Central

    Gowda, Damodara K M; Shetty, Lathika; A P, Krishna; Kumari, Suchetha N; Sanjeev, Ganesh; P, Naveen

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: Radiation is increasingly being used for medical purposes and it is an established weapon in the diagnosis and the therapy of cancer. An exposure to 1-2 Gys causes the NVD (Nausea, vomiting, diarrhoea) syndrome, whereas an exposure to 2-6 Gys causes the haematopoietic syndrome. The aim of the present study was to investigate the protective effect of the Nardostachys jatamansi root extract (NJE) on the radiation induced haematological damage in rats. Materials and Methods: EBR was performed at the Microtron Centre, Mangalore University, India. Rats were treated with NJE once daily for 15 days before and after the irradiation. After the irradiation, blood was collected for determining the peripheral blood counts (RBC and WBC), haemoglobin, the platelet count and the packed cell volume (PCV) at 6 hours, 12 hours, 24 hours, 48 hours and 5, 10 and 15 days post irradiation. The data was analyzed by one way ANOVA, followed by the Tukey’s test for multiple comparisons. Result: NJE provided protection against the radiation induced haematological disorders. The rats treated with NJE exhibited a time dependent significant elevation in all the haematological parameters which were studied and its modulation upto the near normal level was recorded. Conclusion: From this study, we concluded that, NJE provides protection by modulating the radiation induced damage on the haematopoietic system. PMID:23905085

  7. Candiduria in haematologic malignancy patients without a urinary catheter: nothing more than a frailty marker?

    PubMed

    Georgiadou, Sarah P; Tarrand, Jeffrey; Sipsas, Nikolaos V; Kontoyiannis, Dimitrios P

    2013-05-01

    There is scarcity of data regarding significance of candiduria in patients with haematologic malignancies and its association with invasive candidiasis. To that end, we retrospectively evaluated all hospitalised, non-intensive care unit patients with haematologic malignancies and candiduria during a 10-year period (2001-2011). To decrease the possibility of bladder colonisation and sample contamination, we excluded all patients with candiduria who had urinary catheters and those with concomitant bacteriuria. Twenty-four such patients (21 females) were identified, with median age at diagnosis 62?years (range, 20-82?years). Acute leukaemia was the most common underlying disease (54%); 62% of these cases were not in remission. Twenty-nine percent of the patients had diabetes mellitus and 25% were neutropenic. The most common isolated Candida species was Candida glabrata (37%), followed by C. albicans (29%). Only 8% of them had urinary tract infection symptoms. However, 88% received systemic antifungals. Candidemia and crude mortality rates at 4?weeks were low (4% and 12% respectively). Isolated candiduria in patients with haematologic malignancies has risk factors similar to those in other hospitalised patients, and it does not seem to be a strong predictor of subsequent invasive candidiasis. PMID:23170870

  8. Establishment of baseline haematology and biochemistry parameters in wild adult African penguins (Spheniscus demersus).

    PubMed

    Parsons, Nola J; Schaefer, Adam M; van der Spuy, Stephen D; Gous, Tertius A

    2015-01-01

    There are few publications on the clinical haematology and biochemistry of African penguins (Spheniscus demersus) and these are based on captive populations. Baseline haematology and serum biochemistry parameters were analysed from 108 blood samples from wild, adult African penguins. Samples were collected from the breeding range of the African penguin in South Africa and the results were compared between breeding region and sex. The haematological parameters that were measured were: haematocrit, haemoglobin, red cell count and white cell count. The biochemical parameters that were measured were: sodium, potassium, chloride, calcium, inorganic phosphate, creatinine, cholesterol, serum glucose, uric acid, bile acid, total serum protein, albumin, aspartate transaminase and creatine kinase. All samples were serologically negative for selected avian diseases and no blood parasites were detected. No haemolysis was present in any of the analysed samples. Male African penguins were larger and heavier than females, with higher haematocrit, haemoglobin and red cell count values, but lower calcium and phosphate values. African penguins in the Eastern Cape were heavier than those in the Western Cape, with lower white cell count and globulin values and a higher albumin/globulin ratio, possibly indicating that birds are in a poorer condition in the Western Cape. Results were also compared between multiple penguin species and with African penguins in captivity. These values for healthy, wild, adult penguins can be used for future health and disease assessments. PMID:26016391

  9. The impact of co-infections on the haematological profile of East African Short-horn Zebu calves.

    PubMed

    Van Wyk, Ilana Conradie; Goddard, Amelia; de C Bronsvoort, B Mark; Coetzer, Jacobus A W; Handel, Ian G; Hanotte, Olivier; Jennings, Amy; Lesosky, Maia; Kiara, Henry; Thumbi, Sam M; Toye, Phil; Woolhouse, Mark W; Penzhorn, Banie L

    2014-03-01

    The cumulative effect of co-infections between pathogen pairs on the haematological response of East African Short-horn Zebu calves is described. Using a longitudinal study design a stratified clustered random sample of newborn calves were recruited into the Infectious Diseases of East African Livestock (IDEAL) study and monitored at 5-weekly intervals until 51 weeks of age. At each visit samples were collected and analysed to determine the infection status of each calf as well as their haematological response. The haematological parameters investigated included packed cell volume (PCV), white blood cell count (WBC) and platelet count (Plt). The pathogens of interest included tick-borne protozoa and rickettsias, trypanosomes and intestinal parasites. Generalized additive mixed-effect models were used to model the infectious status of pathogens against each haematological parameter, including significant interactions between pathogens. These models were further used to predict the cumulative effect of co-infecting pathogen pairs on each haematological parameter. The most significant decrease in PCV was found with co-infections of trypanosomes and strongyles. Strongyle infections also resulted in a significant decrease in WBC at a high infectious load. Trypanosomes were the major cause of thrombocytopenia. Platelet counts were also affected by interactions between tick-borne pathogens. Interactions between concomitant pathogens were found to complicate the prognosis and clinical presentation of infected calves and should be taken into consideration in any study that investigates disease under field conditions. PMID:24553080

  10. A probable role of blood lead levels on some haematological parameters in traffic police, Lahore, Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Khan, Shafaat Yar; Arshad, Muhammad; Arshad, Najma; Shafaat, Shazia; Tahir, Hafiz Muhammad

    2013-12-01

    The impact of elevated blood lead level on some haematological parameters was studied in the field force of Lahore traffic police, in Pakistan. The blood samples were tested for total leucocytes count (TLC) and differential leucocytes count in the persons with high and low blood lead levels. The TLC and percentage of neutrophils and eosinophils were observed as being significantly elevated in the policemen. No significant change was observed in the percentage of lymphocytes, while the percentage of monocytes was observed as being significantly less in the field force of traffic police. PMID:24311624

  11. Long driving time is associated with haematological markers of increased cardiovascular risk in taxi drivers

    PubMed Central

    Chen, J; Chen, Y; Chang, W; Christiani, D

    2005-01-01

    Aims: To examine the association between driving time and changes in haematological markers of increased risks for cardiovascular diseases (CVD). Methods: The authors conducted a cross sectional analysis of baseline data from the Taxi Drivers' Health Study cohort in Taipei, Taiwan. They retrieved information on comorbidity, laboratory tests, age, and anthropometric measures from medical records of 1157 subjects (mean age 44.6 (SD 8.6) years). Whole blood cell (WBC) count was used as the primary haematological marker for increased CVD risk, and platelet count and haematocrit as the secondary markers. Standardised questionnaires were implemented to collect information on demographics, lifestyle, work related physical and psychosocial factors, and driving time profiles. Multiple regression was used to estimate the adjusted effects of driving time on three haematological markers. Results: The mean measured hematological marker was 6656 (SD 1656) cells x106/l for WBC, 47.2 (SD 3.5) % for hematocrit, and 243 (SD 52) cells x109/l for platelets. The driving time was 264 (SD 76) hours/month. Compared with drivers who drove ?208 hours/month (1st quartile cut off), drivers who drove >208 hours/month had a higher WBC count (by 317 x106/l; 95% CI 99 to 535), haematocrit (by 0.8%; 95% CI 0.3 to 1.2), and platelets (7.9 x109/l; 95% CI 1.0 to 14.8). After adjusting for conventional CVD risk factors (age, sex, smoking, hypertension, diabetes, and hypercholesterolaemia), obesity, alcohol drinking, regular exercise, and sociodemographics (education, marital status, income, and so on), long driving time was still associated with significant increases in WBC and platelets, whereas the effect on haematocrit was diminished and became statistically non-significant. Additional controls for physical workload, self-perceived job stress, and job dissatisfaction did not alter the associations with increased WBC and platelets. Conclusions: Longitudinal studies are needed to confirm the observed cross sectional association and to further examine the specific occupational exposures accountable for the association between driving time and haematological markers of systemic inflammation and haemostatic alteration. PMID:16299099

  12. An experimental meat-free diet maintained haematological characteristics in sprint-racing sled dogs.

    PubMed

    Brown, Wendy Y; Vanselow, Barbara A; Redman, Andrew J; Pluske, John R

    2009-11-01

    A dog's nutrient requirements can theoretically be met from a properly balanced meat-free diet; however, proof for this is lacking. Exercise places additional demands on the body, and dogs fed a meat-free diet may be at increased risk of developing sports anaemia. We hypothesised that exercising dogs would remain in good health and not develop anaemia when fed a nutritionally balanced meat-free diet. To this end, twelve sprint-racing Siberian huskies were fed either a commercial diet recommended for active dogs (n 6), or a meat-free diet formulated to the same nutrient specifications (n 6). The commercial diet contained 43 % poultry meal, whereas soyabean meal and maize gluten made up 43 % of the meat-free diet, as the main protein ingredients. Dogs were fed these diets as their sole nutrient intake for 16 weeks, including 10 weeks of competitive racing. Blood samples were collected at weeks 0, 3, 8 and 16, and veterinary health checks were conducted at weeks 0, 8 and 16. Haematology results for all dogs, irrespective of diet, were within normal range throughout the study and the consulting veterinarian assessed all dogs to be in excellent physical condition. No dogs in the present study developed anaemia. On the contrary, erythrocyte counts and Hb values increased significantly over time (P < 0.01) in both groups of dogs. The present study is the first to demonstrate that a carefully balanced meat-free diet can maintain normal haematological values in exercising dogs. PMID:19480731

  13. Inside the Redbox: applications of haematology in wildlife monitoring and ecosystem health assessment.

    PubMed

    Maceda-Veiga, Alberto; Figuerola, Jordi; Martínez-Silvestre, Albert; Viscor, Ginés; Ferrari, Nicola; Pacheco, Mário

    2015-05-01

    Blood analyses have great potential in studies of ecology, ecotoxicology and veterinary science in wild vertebrates based on advances in human and domestic animal medicine. The major caveat for field researchers, however, is that the 'rules' for human or domestic animal haematology do not always apply to wildlife. The present overview shows the strengths and limitations of blood analyses in wild vertebrates, and proposes a standardisation of pre-analytical procedures plus some suggestions for a more systematic examination of blood smears to increase the diagnostic value of blood data. By discussing the common problems that field researchers face with blood variables, we also aim to highlight common ground enabling new researchers in the field to accurately collect blood samples and interpret and place their haematological findings into the overall picture of an ecological or eco-toxicological study. Besides showing the practicality and ecological relevance of simple blood variables, this study illustrates the suitability of blood samples for the application of cutting-edge analytical procedures for expanding the current repertoire of diagnostic tools in wildlife monitoring and ecosystem health assessment. PMID:25668285

  14. Haematology and plasma chemistry of the red top ice blue mbuna cichlid (Metriaclima greshakei).

    PubMed

    Snellgrove, Donna L; Alexander, Lucille G

    2011-10-01

    Clinical haematology and blood plasma chemistry can be used as a valuable tool to provide substantial diagnostic information for fish. A wide range of parameters can be used to assess nutritional status, digestive function, disease identification, routine metabolic levels, general physiological status and even the assessment and management of wild fish populations. However to evaluate such data accurately, baseline reference intervals for each measurable parameter must be established for the species of fish in question. Baseline data for ornamental fish species are limited, as research is more commonly conducted using commercially cultured fish. Blood samples were collected from sixteen red top ice blue cichlids (Metriaclima greshakei), an ornamental freshwater fish, to describe a range of haematology and plasma chemistry parameters. Since this cichlid is fairly large in comparison with most tropical ornamental fish, two independent blood samples were taken to assess a large range of parameters. No significant differences were noted between sample periods for any parameter. Values obtained for a large number of parameters were similar to those established for other closely related fish species such as tilapia (Oreochromis spp.). In addition to reporting the first set of blood values for M. Greshakei, to our knowledge, this study highlights the possibility of using previously established data for cultured cichlid species in studies with ornamental cichlid fish. PMID:22005416

  15. Effect of ingested heavy metals (Cd, Pb and Hg) on haematology and serum biochemistry in rabbits.

    PubMed

    Bersényi, A; Fekete, S Gy; Szöcs, Z; Berta, Erzsébet

    2003-01-01

    In order to investigate the effects of exposure to possible environmental pollutants such as Cd, Pb and Hg on haematological and serum biochemistry values, New Zealand White female rabbits were treated orally with distilled water solutions of CdSO4 x H2O, Pb(NO3)2 and HgCl2 (n = 4/treatment) in concentrations of 2.3, 4.1, and 30 mg/kg dry matter, respectively, for 28 days. The initial concentrations of Cd, Pb, and Hg in serum were significantly increased by the treatment. Exposure to Pb significantly decreased the red blood cell (RBC) count, haemoglobin (Hgb) concentration and the haematocrit (Hct) value. The Zn-protoporphyrin concentration did not change as a result of Pb exposure. Pb and Hg loading significantly increased the aspartate aminotransferase (AST) activity. Alanine aminotransferase (ALT) activity was also increased by both Hg and Cd exposure. Comparing the treated and the control rabbits, all the trace elements studied significantly reduced the activity of enzymes in the pancreatic tissues. The haematological results indicate that hyperchromic macrocytic anaemia developed in rabbits treated with Pb. The increased activities of both AST and ALT indicate pathophysiological changes of the liver parenchyma, which was verified by focal fatty infiltration seen histopathologically. Cd exposure could exert a toxic effect on the kidneys, although the slight tubulonephrosis developed would not possibly affect the renal function. The reduced activities of amylase, trypsin, protease and lipase induced by Cd, Pb and Hg suggest toxicity to the pancreas. PMID:14516158

  16. Haematological parameters do senesce in the wild: evidence from different populations of a long-lived mammal.

    PubMed

    Jégo, M; Lemaître, J-F; Bourgoin, G; Capron, G; Warnant, C; Klein, F; Gilot-Fromont, E; Gaillard, J-M

    2014-12-01

    Increasing evidence of senescence has been reported from long-term studies of wild populations. However, most studies have focused on life-history traits like survival, reproduction or body mass, generally from a single intensively monitored population. However, variation in the intensity of senescence across populations, and to a lesser extent between sexes, is still poorly understood. In addition, the pattern of age-specific changes in haematological parameters remains virtually unknown to date for any population of vertebrate living in the wild. Using repeated blood samples collected from known-aged (2-15 years of age) roe deer (Capreolus capreolus) from two populations facing highly different environmental conditions, we filled the gap. In particular, we investigated age-specific changes in haematocrit, albumin and creatinine. We reported clear evidence of senescence in all haematological parameters. Moreover, senescence patterns differed between sexes and populations. The rate of senescence was higher in males than in females for haematocrit with no site difference. On the other hand, the rate of senescence in creatinine was higher at Trois Fontaines than at Chizé with no sex difference. Our findings provide a first demonstration of age-specific declines in haematological parameters in wild populations of large herbivores and show that the process of senescence in vertebrates is not restricted to body mass or fitness components. We also demonstrate that the senescence pattern of haematological parameters is context dependent and varies both between sexes and according to environmental conditions. PMID:25358546

  17. Effect of Sweet Orange Fruit Waste Diets and Acidifier on Haematology and Serum Chemistry of Weanling Rabbits

    PubMed Central

    Daudu, Oluremi Martha; Sani, Rahamatu Usman; Adedibu, Iyetunde Ifeyori; Ademu, Lawrence Anebi; Bawa, Gideon Shaibu; Olugbemi, Taiye Sunday

    2014-01-01

    A total of thirty-five mixed breed (35) rabbits of average weight of 700?g aged 5-6 weeks were allocated to seven treatments in a completely randomised design to investigate the effect of sweet orange fruit waste (SOFW) and acidomix acidifier on haematology and serum chemistry. The diets were 0% SOFW, 10% SOFW with 0.5% acidomix, 10% SOFW with 0.7 acidomix, 15% SOFW with 0.5% acidifier, 15% SOFW with 0.7% acidifier, 20% SOFW with 0.5% acidifier, and 20% SOFW with 0.7% acidifier. Blood samples were analyzed for haemoglobin (hb) concentration, white blood cells (WBC), red blood cells (RBC), differential WBC count (lymphocyte, basophil, eosinophil, monocyte, and neutrophil), alanine amino transferase (ALT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), aspartate amino transferase (AST), total protein, albumin, and globulin. There was no interaction between SOFW and acidifier for the haematological and most of the serum chemistry parameters but significant difference was observed in ALT; however the values were within the normal range. SOFW had no significant effect on all haematological and serum chemistry parameters. Acidomix had significant effect (P < 0.05) on haemoglobin concentration; rabbits fed 0.5% acidomix diets had higher values which were within the normal range. It is therefore concluded that SOFW with acidifier up to 20% had no detrimental effect on serum chemistry and haematology. PMID:26464931

  18. Tales from the Jazz ASH: highlights from the 2013 American Society of Haematology meeting

    PubMed Central

    Mazzarella, Luca

    2014-01-01

    The 55th annual ASH meeting was held in pleasant New Orleans and was the largest in its history, with 22,495 participants coming from 113 nations. A ‘bench-to-bedside and back’ attitude characterises haematology probably more than any other discipline in medicine and, as usual, this was reflected in the extremely wide breadth of the topics covered, including the last results from clinical trials and cutting-edge advancements in basic science. This year, the balance was arguably skewed: few truly clinical practice-changing results were presented. On the other hand, a great number of basic and translational studies significantly increased our understanding of the biology of numerous malignancies and heralded the coming of age of disruptive technologies. Namely, above all, next generation sequencing and T cell engineering-based cell therapy. PMID:24678345

  19. Genetic and clinical studies of serum beta 2-microglobulin levels in haematological malignancies.

    PubMed Central

    Nakao, Y; Matsumoto, H; Miyazaki, T; Watanabe, S; Masaoka, T; Takatsuki, K; Kishihara, M; Kobayashi, N; Hattori, M; Fujita, T

    1981-01-01

    Sera from 244 patients with haematological malignancies were examined for beta 2-microglobulin (beta 2m) levels. There were 142 leukaemias, 32 malignant lymphomas, three immunoblastic lymphomas, two pseudolymphomas and 65 multiple myelomas. Culture supernatants from various established cell lines were also tested. The phenotype facilitating beta 2m shedding from the cell surface appeared to be independent of the specific IgG heavy chain allotypes; however, a myeloma group with normal serum beta 2m levels showed a significant association with the specific Gm allotypes. The determination of serum beta 2m levels can provide valuable information on the proliferative stage of the disorders, the effectiveness of chemotherapy, and be a diagnostic aid for blastic crisis in chronic myelocytic leukaemias, and for subtyping lymphoid malignancies. PMID:6175458

  20. Haematological parameters in Umbrina cirrosa (Teleostei, Sciaenidae): a comparison between diploid and triploid specimens.

    PubMed

    Ballarin, Loriano; Dall'Oro, Manuela; Bertotto, Daniela; Libertini, Angelo; Francescon, Antonia; Barbaro, Alvise

    2004-05-01

    Haematological features were compared between diploid and triploid specimens of the ray-finned fish Umbrina cirrosa. No significant differences between diploids and triploids were reported in haematocrit and total haemoglobin concentration, but erythrocytes and thrombocytes were significantly greater in size in triploids. Glycaemia was significantly lower in diploids, whereas triploid erythrocytes were more resistant to osmotic stress. In triploids, a greater fraction of leukocytes was positive for alkaline phosphatase activity, when stimulated with Bacillus clausii spores, otherwise no significant increase of oxygen consumption was observed in triploid leukocytes after stimulation, based on assays for superoxide anions. Triploids were characterized by a lower concentration of circulating blood cells with a lower surface/volume ratio when compared with diploids. These features may lead to a general disadvantage of triploids in withstanding stress conditions: a situation that needs to be taken into account in aquaculture practice. PMID:15165570

  1. Haematological and biochemical changes in experimental Trypanosoma evansi infection in rabbits.

    PubMed

    Sivajothi, S; Rayulu, V C; Sudhakara Reddy, B

    2015-06-01

    New Zealand white rabbits (N = 4) were challenged with the local strain of Trypanosoma evansi. Each rabbit was infected with 5 × 10(5) trypanosomes subcutaneously. The infection was characterized by intermittent pyrexia, undulating parasitaemia, anorexia and emaciation. The infected rabbits were examined daily for development of clinical signs and infection status by wet blood-films made from the ear veins. Thick and thin blood smears were also examined daily until the end of the experiment for description of blood cells. Differential leukocyte count (DLC) was also done. The parasite was observed in the blood during the acute phase only. Leukocytosis in the acute phase followed by leukopenia during the chronic phase was recognized. Haematological studies revealed reduced TEC, Hb and PCV. The main changes in the erythrocytes were macrocytes, hypochromic cells, Howell-Jolly bodies, target cells, stomatocytes and burr cells. Serum chemistry revealed hypoproteinemia, hypocholesterolaemia, hypoglycemia, hyperbilirubinemia, elevated creatinine, BUN, increased AST and ALT. PMID:26064003

  2. Effects of two diets on the haematology, plasma chemistry and intestinal flora of budgerigars (Melopsittacus undulatus).

    PubMed

    Fischer, I; Christen, C; Lutz, H; Gerlach, H; Hässig, M; Hatt, J-M

    2006-10-01

    Two groups of 22 budgerigars (Melopsittacus undulatus) were housed for 12 months under identical conditions. One group was fed a commercial seed mixture plus carrots and a mineral supplement, and the other group was fed a commercially formulated diet plus carrots. Samples of blood and faeces were collected initially and after three, six, nine and 12 months. There were no significant differences between the haematological values of the two groups. The group fed the seed mixture had significantly higher concentrations of glucose, albumin, triglycerides and uric acid, and higher activity of aspartate aminotransferase, but the values were within the published reference ranges for normal birds. There were no significant differences between the faecal samples from the two groups, except that the fungus Macrorhabdus ornithogaster was identified in 48.3 per cent of the samples from the group fed the commercially formulated diet but from only 3.4 per cent of the samples from the group fed the seed mixture. PMID:17028249

  3. First report of blood parasites in fishes from Kashmir and their effect on the haematological profile

    PubMed Central

    Shahi, N.; Yousuf, A.R.; Rather, M.I.; Ahmad, F.; Yaseen, T.

    2013-01-01

    Cyprinus carpio communis Linnaeus, Carassius carassius Linnaeus, Schizothorax curvifrons Heckel and Triplophysa marmorata species of fishes were captured from Anchar Lake and river Jhelum of Kashmir Himalaya for hematological and parasitological analysis. During the investigation haemoflagellates from the genus Babesiosoma and Trypanosoma were recorded in the blood smears. Trypanosomes were present in all the species except C. carpio, whereas Babesiosoma were only found in T. marmorata. Haematological analysis revealed a significant (p<0.01) reduction in red blood cell count in the fishes infected with Babesiosoma and Trypanosoma. A significant decrease (p<0.05) was recorded in haemoglobin value and packed cell volume in the infected fishes in comparison to the non-infected fishes.

  4. Haematological, inflammatory, and immunological responses in elite judo athletes maintaining high training loads during Ramadan.

    PubMed

    Chaouachi, Anis; Coutts, Aaron J; Wong, Del P; Roky, Rachida; Mbazaa, Abderraouf; Amri, Mohamed; Chamari, Karim

    2009-10-01

    During Ramadan, Muslims abstain from food and fluid intake from dawn to sunset for 1 month. These behavioural changes that accompany Ramadan may impact upon Muslim athletes who continue to train intensely. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of Ramadan intermittent fasting (RIF) on the haematological, inflammatory, and immunological measures in elite judo athletes maintaining their usual high training loads. Haematological markers of inflammation, hormones, and immune status were studied in 15 elite male judo athletes before, during, and after Ramadan. The RIF produced small but significant changes in inflammatory, hormonal, and immunological profiles in judo athletes. Serum C-reactive protein increased from 2.93 +/- 0.26 mg.L-1 pre-Ramadan to 4.60 +/- 0.51 mg.L-1 at the end of Ramadan. Haptoglobin and antitrypsin also significantly increased at different phases during Ramadan, whereas homocysteine and prealbumin remained relatively unchanged. Albumin decreased slightly by mid-Ramadan, then recovered. Immunoglobulin Aincreased from 1.87 +/- 0.56 g.L-1 before Ramadan to 2.49 +/- 0.75 g.L-1 at the end, and remained high 3 weeks after. There were no changes in the leucocyte cell counts throughout the study. The mean blood level of thyroid-stimulating hormone and free thyroxine increased significantly during RIF. Most of these changes were within the normal ranges. These results suggest that athletes who continue to train intensely during Ramadan are liable to experience a myriad of small fluctuations in hormones, immunoglobulins, antioxidants, and inflammatory responses. PMID:19935853

  5. Effects of nitrite exposure on haematological parameters, oxidative stress and apoptosis in juvenile turbot (Scophthalmus maximus).

    PubMed

    Jia, Rui; Han, Cen; Lei, Ji-Lin; Liu, Bao-Liang; Huang, Bin; Huo, Huan-Huan; Yin, Shu-Ting

    2015-12-01

    Nitrite (NO2(-)) is commonly present as contaminant in aquatic environment and toxic to aquatic organisms. In the present study, we investigated the effects of nitrite exposure on haematological parameters, oxidative stress and apoptosis in juvenile turbot (Scophthalmus maximus). Fish were exposed to various concentrations of nitrite (0, 0.02, 0.08, 0.4 and 0.8mM) for 96h. Fish blood and gills were collected to assay haematological parameters, oxidative stress and expression of genes after 0, 24, 48 and 96h of exposure. In blood, the data showed that the levels of methemoglobin (MetHb), triglyceride (TG), potassium (K(+)), cortisol, heat shock protein 70 (HSP70) and glucose significantly increased in treatments with higher concentrations of nitrite (0.4 and/or 0.8mM) after 48 and 96h, while the levels of haemoglobin (Hb) and sodium (Na(+)) significantly decreased in these treatments. In gills, nitrite (0.4 and/or 0.8mM) apparently reduced the levels of superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), catalase (CAT) and glutathione (GSH), increased the formation of malondialdehyde (MDA), up-regulated the mRNA levels of c-jun amino-terminal kinase (JUK1), p53, caspase-3, caspase-7 and caspase-9 after 48 and 96h of exposure. The results suggested caspase-dependent and JUK signaling pathways played important roles in nitrite-induced apoptosis in fish. Further, this study provides new insights into how nitrite affects the physiological responses and apoptosis in a marine fish. PMID:26476021

  6. Haematology and Serum Biochemistry Parameters and Variations in the Eurasian Beaver (Castor fiber).

    PubMed

    Girling, Simon J; Campbell-Palmer, Roisin; Pizzi, Romain; Fraser, Mary A; Cracknell, Jonathan; Arnemo, Jon; Rosell, Frank

    2015-01-01

    Haematology parameters (N = 24) and serum biochemistry parameters (N = 35) were determined for wild Eurasian beavers (Castor fiber), between 6 months - 12 years old. Of the population tested in this study, N = 18 Eurasian beavers were from Norway and N = 17 originating from Bavaria but now living extensively in a reserve in England. All blood samples were collected from beavers via the ventral tail vein. All beavers were chemically restrained using inhalant isoflurane in 100% oxygen prior to blood sampling. Results were determined for haematological and serum biochemical parameters for the species and were compared between the two different populations with differences in means estimated and significant differences being noted. Standard blood parameters for the Eurasian beaver were determined and their ranges characterised using percentiles. Whilst the majority of blood parameters between the two populations showed no significant variation, haemoglobin, packed cell volume, mean cell haemoglobin and white blood cell counts showed significantly greater values (p<0.01) in the Bavarian origin population than the Norwegian; neutrophil counts, alpha 2 globulins, cholesterol, sodium: potassium ratios and phosphorus levels showed significantly (p<0.05) greater values in Bavarian versus Norwegian; and potassium, bile acids, gamma globulins, urea, creatinine and total calcium values levels showed significantly (p<0.05) greater values in Norwegian versus Bavarian relict populations. No significant differences were noted between male and female beavers or between sexually immature (<3 years old) and sexually mature (?3 years old) beavers in the animals sampled. With Eurasian beaver reintroduction encouraged by legislation throughout Europe, knowledge of baseline blood values for the species and any variations therein is essential when assessing their health and welfare and the success or failure of any reintroduction program. This is the first study to produce base-line blood values and their variations for the Eurasian beaver. PMID:26066344

  7. Haematology and Serum Biochemistry Parameters and Variations in the Eurasian Beaver (Castor fiber)

    PubMed Central

    Girling, Simon J.; Campbell-Palmer, Roisin; Pizzi, Romain; Fraser, Mary A.; Cracknell, Jonathan; Arnemo, Jon; Rosell, Frank

    2015-01-01

    Haematology parameters (N = 24) and serum biochemistry parameters (N = 35) were determined for wild Eurasian beavers (Castor fiber), between 6 months – 12 years old. Of the population tested in this study, N = 18 Eurasian beavers were from Norway and N = 17 originating from Bavaria but now living extensively in a reserve in England. All blood samples were collected from beavers via the ventral tail vein. All beavers were chemically restrained using inhalant isoflurane in 100% oxygen prior to blood sampling. Results were determined for haematological and serum biochemical parameters for the species and were compared between the two different populations with differences in means estimated and significant differences being noted. Standard blood parameters for the Eurasian beaver were determined and their ranges characterised using percentiles. Whilst the majority of blood parameters between the two populations showed no significant variation, haemoglobin, packed cell volume, mean cell haemoglobin and white blood cell counts showed significantly greater values (p<0.01) in the Bavarian origin population than the Norwegian; neutrophil counts, alpha 2 globulins, cholesterol, sodium: potassium ratios and phosphorus levels showed significantly (p<0.05) greater values in Bavarian versus Norwegian; and potassium, bile acids, gamma globulins, urea, creatinine and total calcium values levels showed significantly (p<0.05) greater values in Norwegian versus Bavarian relict populations. No significant differences were noted between male and female beavers or between sexually immature (<3 years old) and sexually mature (?3 years old) beavers in the animals sampled. With Eurasian beaver reintroduction encouraged by legislation throughout Europe, knowledge of baseline blood values for the species and any variations therein is essential when assessing their health and welfare and the success or failure of any reintroduction program. This is the first study to produce base-line blood values and their variations for the Eurasian beaver. PMID:26066344

  8. EMQN Best Practice Guidelines for molecular and haematology methods for carrier identification and prenatal diagnosis of the haemoglobinopathies

    PubMed Central

    Traeger-Synodinos, Joanne; Harteveld, Cornelis L; Old, John M; Petrou, Mary; Galanello, Renzo; Giordano, Piero; Angastioniotis, Michael; De la Salle, Barbara; Henderson, Shirley; May, Alison

    2015-01-01

    Haemoglobinopathies constitute the commonest recessive monogenic disorders worldwide, and the treatment of affected individuals presents a substantial global disease burden. Carrier identification and prenatal diagnosis represent valuable procedures that identify couples at risk for having affected children, so that they can be offered options to have healthy offspring. Molecular diagnosis facilitates prenatal diagnosis and definitive diagnosis of carriers and patients (especially ‘atypical' cases who often have complex genotype interactions). However, the haemoglobin disorders are unique among all genetic diseases in that identification of carriers is preferable by haematological (biochemical) tests rather than DNA analysis. These Best Practice guidelines offer an overview of recommended strategies and methods for carrier identification and prenatal diagnosis of haemoglobinopathies, and emphasize the importance of appropriately applying and interpreting haematological tests in supporting the optimum application and evaluation of globin gene DNA analysis. PMID:25052315

  9. The Effect of Cement Dust Exposure on Haematological Parameters of Cement Factory workers in Nalagonda, Andhra Pradesh.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guguloth, Mohan Rao.; Sambanaik, A.; srinivasnaik, L.; Mude, Jagadishnaik.

    2012-10-01

    This study was measured on haematological parameters in workers exposed to cement dust in order to test the the hypothesis and to identify a simple, readily available, cost effective screening test that could help in identifying the presence of disease, its severity, that Cement dust exposure may perturb these functions related to their workplace.Assesment of haematological parameters were performed in 100exposed workers occupationally exposed to cement dust and 50 matched unexposed controls with ages ranging from 20-35, 35-50, 50-65 years. The blood samples were taken from them and percentage of hemoglobin, Lymphocytes / monocytes count were analysed.The hemoglobin percentage of exposed workers were significantly lower(P<0.05).Lymphocytes/Monocytes counts of exposed workers was insignificant (P<0.05).These results suggest that long term occupational exposure to cement dust may perturb haemopoietic function.

  10. Health assessment of free-ranging endangered Australian sea lion (Neophoca cinerea) pups: effect of haematophagous parasites on haematological parameters.

    PubMed

    Marcus, Alan D; Higgins, Damien P; Gray, Rachael

    2015-06-01

    Evaluation of the health status of free-ranging populations is important for understanding the impact of disease on individuals and on population demography and viability. In this study, haematological reference intervals were developed for free-ranging endangered Australian sea lion (Neophoca cinerea) pups within the context of endemic hookworm (Uncinaria sanguinis) infection and the effects of pathogen, host, and environment factors on the variability of haematological parameters were investigated. Uncinaria sanguinis was identified as an important agent of disease, with infection causing regenerative anaemia, hypoproteinaemia, and a predominantly lymphocytic-eosinophilic systemic inflammatory response. Conversely, the effects of sucking lice (Antarctophthirus microchir) were less apparent and infestation in pups appears unlikely to cause clinical impact. Overall, the effects of U. sanguinis, A. microchir, host factors (standard length, body condition, pup sex, moult status, and presence of lesions), and environment factors (capture-type and year of sampling) accounted for 26-65% of the total variance observed in haematological parameters. Importantly, this study demonstrated that anaemia in neonatal Australian sea lion pups is not solely a benign physiological response to host-environment changes, but largely reflects a significant pathological process. This impact of hookworm infection on pup health has potential implications for the development of foraging and diving behaviour, which would subsequently influence the independent survival of juveniles following weaning. The haematological reference intervals developed in this study can facilitate long-term health surveillance, which is critical for the early recognition of changes in disease impact and to inform conservation management. PMID:25724096

  11. Prevalence of Plasmodium falciparum Parasitaemia and Its Correlation with Haematological Parameters among HIV-Positive Individuals in Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Ojurongbe, Olusola; Oyeniran, Oluwatoyin Adeola; Alli, Oyebode Armstrong Terry; Taiwo, Sunday Samuel; Ojurongbe, Taiwo Adetola; Olowe, Adekunle Olugbenga; Opaleye, Oluyinka Oladele; Adeyeba, Oluwaseyi Adegboyega

    2014-01-01

    Malaria and HIV are the two most important health challenges of our time. Haematologic abnormalities are features in Plasmodium falciparum infection, and anaemia is a well-known outcome. The prevalence and haematological impact of P. falciparum parasitaemia were determined among HIV-infected individuals in Nigeria. Parasite detection was carried out using microscopy and Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR). Haemoglobin concentration was determined using an automated machine while CD4+ T-cells count was analyzed using flow cytometer. Thirty-seven (18.5%) out of the 200 HIV individuals enrolled had malaria parasites detected in their blood. All the positive cases were detected by PCR while only 20 (10%) were detected by thick blood microscopy. The mean haemoglobin concentration and packed cell volume (PCV) of HIV individuals with malaria parasitaemia were lower compared to those without malaria parasitaemia but the difference was not statistically significant. Also no significant difference was observed in malaria positivity in respect to sex and mean CD4+ cell count. The study highlights the effects of P. falciparum parasitaemia on the haematologic and immune components of HIV individuals. PMID:24729787

  12. Prevalence of Plasmodium falciparum Parasitaemia and Its Correlation with Haematological Parameters among HIV-Positive Individuals in Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Ojurongbe, Olusola; Oyeniran, Oluwatoyin Adeola; Alli, Oyebode Armstrong Terry; Taiwo, Sunday Samuel; Ojurongbe, Taiwo Adetola; Olowe, Adekunle Olugbenga; Opaleye, Oluyinka Oladele; Adeyeba, Oluwaseyi Adegboyega

    2014-01-01

    Malaria and HIV are the two most important health challenges of our time. Haematologic abnormalities are features in Plasmodium falciparum infection, and anaemia is a well-known outcome. The prevalence and haematological impact of P. falciparum parasitaemia were determined among HIV-infected individuals in Nigeria. Parasite detection was carried out using microscopy and Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR). Haemoglobin concentration was determined using an automated machine while CD4+ T-cells count was analyzed using flow cytometer. Thirty-seven (18.5%) out of the 200 HIV individuals enrolled had malaria parasites detected in their blood. All the positive cases were detected by PCR while only 20 (10%) were detected by thick blood microscopy. The mean haemoglobin concentration and packed cell volume (PCV) of HIV individuals with malaria parasitaemia were lower compared to those without malaria parasitaemia but the difference was not statistically significant. Also no significant difference was observed in malaria positivity in respect to sex and mean CD4+ cell count. The study highlights the effects of P. falciparum parasitaemia on the haematologic and immune components of HIV individuals. PMID:24729787

  13. Iron requirements based upon iron absorption tests are poorly predicted by haematological indices in patients with inactive inflammatory bowel disease

    PubMed Central

    Lomer, Miranda CE; Cook, William B; Jan-Mohamed, Hamid Jan B; Hutchinson, Carol; Liu, Ding Yong; Hider, Robert C; Powell, Jonathan J

    2012-01-01

    Iron deficiency (ID) and iron deficiency anaemia (IDA) are common in patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Traditional clinical markers of iron status can be skewed in the presence of inflammation meaning that a patient’s iron status can be misinterpreted. Additionally, iron absorption is known to be down-regulated in patients with active IBD. However, whether this is the case for quiescent or mildly active disease has not been formally assessed. This study aimed to investigate the relationship between iron absorption, iron requirements and standard haematological indices in IBD patients without active disease. Twenty nine patients with quiescent or mildly active IBD and 28 control subjects undertook an iron absorption test which measured sequential rises in serum iron over four hours following ingestion of 200 mg ferrous sulphate. At baseline, serum iron, transferrin saturation, non-transferrin bound iron (NTBI), ferritin and soluble transferrin receptor were all measured. Thereafter (30-240 minutes) only serum iron and NTBI were measured. Iron absorption did not differ between the two groups (P=0.9; RM-ANOVA). In control subjects baseline haematological parameters predicted iron absorption (i.e. iron requirements) but this was not the case for patients with IBD. Iron absorption is normal in quiescent or mildly active IBD patients but standard haematological parameters do not accurately predict iron requirements. PMID:22152498

  14. Outbreak of Multi-Drug Resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa Bloodstream Infection in the Haematology Unit of a South African Academic Hospital

    PubMed Central

    Mudau, Maanda; Jacobson, Rachael; Minenza, Nadia; Kuonza, Lazarus; Morris, Vida; Engelbrecht, Heather; Nicol, Mark P.; Bamford, Colleen

    2013-01-01

    Objective To describe an outbreak of multi-resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa bloodstream infections (MRPA-BSI) that occurred in the haematology ward of a tertiary academic hospital in Cape Town, South Africa, and determine risk factors for acquisition of MRPA-BSI. Methods The outbreak investigation included a search for additional cases, review of patient records, environmental and staff screening, molecular typing using pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) and Multi-locus sequencing (MLST) and a retrospective case-control study. Results Ten MRPA-BSI cases occurred in the haematology ward between January 2010 and January 2011. The case fatality rate was 80%. Staff screening specimens were negative for MRPA and an environmental source was not identified. PFGE showed that 9/10 isolates were related. MLST showed that 3 of these 9 isolates belonged to Sequence type (ST) 233 while the unrelated isolate belonged to ST260. Conclusion We have described an outbreak of MRPA-BSI occurring over an extended period of time among neutropenic haematology patients. Molecular typing confirms that the outbreak was predominantly due to a single strain. The source of the outbreak was not identified, but the outbreak appears to have been controlled following intensive infection control measures. PMID:23516393

  15. Effects of triploidy on the Caspian salmon Salmo trutta caspius haematology.

    PubMed

    Dorafshan, Salar; Kalbassi, Mohammad Reza; Pourkazemi, Mohammad; Amiri, Bagher Mojazi; Karimi, Sahel Soltan

    2008-09-01

    The aim of this study was a comparison of key haematological features of diploid (2n) and triploid (3n) Caspian salmon (Salmo trutta caspius). Morphometric indices of erythrocytes were determined on blood smears by light microscopy. Triploidy significantly (P < 0.001) increased all morphometric indices measured in the erythrocytes including cell size, cell surface area, and cell volume. The increase in cell size was larger for the major (27%) axis than for the minor (22%) axis, thus making erythrocytes of 3n Caspian salmon more ellipsoidal. The estimated increase in erythrocyte nuclear volume (87%) was bigger than the theoretical expected 50% increase. Haematological indices were measured manually by hemocytometry. Triploids had lower numbers of red blood cells (RBC: 1,120,000 cells/mL in 2n vs. 700,000 cells/mL in 3n; P < 0.001) but they were larger in size (mean erythrocytic volume [MEV]: 363.1 nm3 in 2n vs. 483.3 nm3 in 3n; P < 0.001). The decrease in RBC number was not compensated by the increase in MEV and, thus, triploidy affected the haematocrit (Hct: 38.8% in 2n vs. 33.06% in 3n; P < 0.05). Total blood hemoglobin concentration was lower in triploid fish (Hb: 9.9 g/dL in 2n vs. 8.9 g/dL in 3n; P < 0.05). In contrast, mean erythrocytic hemoglobin (MEH: 95 mug in 2n vs. 133.2 mug in 3n; P < 0.001) was higher for 3n Caspian salmon as a result of their larger erythrocytes, although MEH concentration (MEHC: 0.26 g/dL in 2n vs. 0.27 g/dL in 3n) did not significantly differ (P > 0.05). White blood cell (WBC) counts (lymphocytes and neutrophiles) were measured and WBC/RBC ratios were calculated. There were no significant differences in WBC (15,710 cells/mL in 2n vs. 12,683 cells/mL in 3n; P > 0.05), lymphocytes, and neutrophils as %WBC as well as WBC/RBC ratios between two ploidy levels (P > 0.05). Triploid Caspian salmon showed higher erythrocyte abnormalities such as 'twisted', 'tailed', and 'anucleated' cells as well as high portions of immature RBC in blood smears in comparison with diploids (P < 0.001). PMID:18665456

  16. Multivitamin supplementation improves haematologic status in children born to HIV-positive women in Tanzania

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Enju; Duggan, Christopher; Manji, Karim P; Kupka, Roland; Aboud, Said; Bosch, Ronald J; Kisenge, Rodrick R; Okuma, James; Fawzi, Wafaie W

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Anaemia is prevalent among children born to HIV-positive women, and it is associated with adverse effects on cognitive and motor development, growth, and increased risks of morbidity and mortality. Objective To examine the effect of daily multivitamin supplementation on haematologic status and mother-to-child transmission (MTCT) of HIV through breastfeeding. Methods A total of 2387 infants born to HIV-positive women from Dar es Salaam, Tanzania were enrolled in a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial, and provided a daily oral supplement of multivitamins (vitamin B complex, C and E) or placebo at age 6 weeks for 24 months. Among them, 2008 infants provided blood samples and had haemoglobin concentrations measured at baseline and during a follow-up period. Anaemia was defined as haemoglobin concentrations<11 g/dL and severe anaemia<8.5 g/dL. Results Haemoglobin concentrations among children in the treatment group were significantly higher than those in the placebo group at 12 (9.77 vs. 9.64 g/dL, p=0.03), 18 (9.76 vs. 9.57 g/dL, p=0.004), and 24 months (9.93 vs. 9.75 g/dL, p=0.02) of follow-up. Compared to those in the placebo group, children in the treatment group had a 12% lower risk of anaemia (hazard ratio (HR): 0.88; 95% CI: 0.79–0.99; p=0.03). The treatment was associated with a 28% reduced risk of severe anaemia among children born to women without anaemia (HR: 0.72; 95% CI: 0.56–0.92; p=0.008), but not among those born to women with anaemia (HR: 1.10; 95% CI: 0.79–1.54; p=0.57; p for interaction=0.007). One thousand seven hundred fifty three infants who tested HIV-negative at baseline and had HIV testing during follow-up were included in the analysis for MTCT of HIV. No association was found between multivitamin supplements and MTCT of HIV. Conclusions Multivitamin supplements improve haematologic status among children born to HIV-positive women. Further trials focusing on anaemia among HIV-exposed children are warranted in the context of antiretroviral therapy. PMID:23948440

  17. Inflammatory and Haematological Markers in the Maternal, Umbilical Cord and Infant Circulation in Histological Chorioamnionitis

    PubMed Central

    Howman, Rebecca A.; Charles, Adrian K.; Jacques, Angela; Doherty, Dorota A.; Simmer, Karen; Strunk, Tobias; Richmond, Peter C.; Cole, Catherine H.; Burgner, David P.

    2012-01-01

    Background The relationship between histological chorioamnionitis and haematological and biochemical markers in mothers and infants at delivery, and in infants postnatally, is incompletely characterised. These markers are widely used in the diagnosis of maternal and neonatal infection. Our objective was to investigate the effects of histological chorioamnionitis (HCA) on haematological and biochemical inflammatory markers in mothers and infants at delivery, and in infants post-delivery. Methods Two hundred and forty seven mothers, delivering 325 infants, were recruited at the only tertiary perinatal centre in Western Australia. Placentae were assessed for evidence of HCA using a semi-quantitative scoring system. Maternal high sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP), procalcitonin, and umbilical cord hsCRP, procalcitonin, white cell count and absolute neutrophil count were measured at delivery. In infants where sepsis was clinically suspected, postnatal CRP, white cell count and absolute neutrophil count were measured up to 48 hours of age. The effect of HCA on maternal, cord and neonatal markers was evaluated by multivariable regression analysis. Results The median gestational age was 34 weeks and HCA was present in 26 of 247 (10.5%) placentae. Mothers whose pregnancies were complicated by HCA had higher hsCRP (median 26 (range 2–107) versus 5.6 (0–108) mg/L; P<0.001). Histological chorioamnionitis was associated with higher umbilical cord hsCRP (75th percentile 2.91 mg/L (range 0–63.9) versus 75th percentile 0 mg/L (0–45.6); P<0.001) and procalcitonin (median 0.293 (range 0.05–27.37) versus median 0.064 (range 0.01–5.24) ug/L; P<0.001), with a sustained increase in neonatal absolute neutrophil count (median 4.5 (0.1–26.4)×109/L versus 3.0 (0.1–17.8)×109/L), and CRP up to 48 hours post-partum (median 10 versus 6.5 mg/L) (P<0.05 for each). Conclusion Histological chorioamnionitis is associated with modest systemic inflammation in maternal and cord blood. These systemic changes may increase postnatally, potentially undermining their utility in the diagnosis of early-onset neonatal infection. PMID:23272177

  18. Assessment of haematological parameters in HIV-infected and uninfected Rwandan women: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Munyazesa, Elisaphane; Emile, Ivan; Mutimura, Eugene; Hoover, Donald R; Shi, Qiuhu; McGinn, Aileen P; Musiime, Stephenson; Muhairwe, Fred; Rutagengwa, Alfred; Dusingize, Jean Claude; Anastos, Kathryn

    2012-01-01

    Objectives Although haematological abnormalities are common manifestations of HIV infection, few studies on haematological parameters in HIV-infected persons have been undertaken in sub-Saharan Africa. The authors assessed factors associated with haematological parameters in HIV-infected antiretroviral-naďve and HIV-uninfected Rwandan women. Study design Cross-sectional analysis of a longitudinal cohort. Setting Community-based women's associations. Participants 710 HIV-infected (HIV+) antiretroviral-naďve and 226 HIV-uninfected (HIV?) women from the Rwanda Women's Interassociation Study Assessment. Haematological parameters categorised as (abnormal vs normal) were compared by HIV status and among HIV+ women by CD4 count category using proportions. Multivariate logistic regression models using forward selection were fit. Results Prevalence of anaemia (haemoglobin (Hb) <12.0?g/dl) was higher in the HIV+ group (20.5% vs 6.3%; p<0.001), and increased with lower CD4 counts: ?350 (7.6%), 200–349 (16%) and <200 cells/mm3 (32.2%). Marked anaemia (Hb <10.0?g/dl) was found in 4.2% of HIV+ and none of the HIV? women (p<0.001), and was highest in HIV+ women with CD4 <200 cells/mm3 (8.4%). The HIV+ were more likely than HIV? women (4.2 vs 0.5%, respectively, p=0.002) to have moderate neutropenia with white blood cells <2.0×103 cells/mm3 and 8.4% of HIV+ women with CD4 <200 cells/mm3 had moderate neutropenia. In multivariate logistic regression analysis, BMI (OR 0.87/kg/m2, 95% CI 0.82 to 0.93; p<0.001), CD4 200–350 vs HIV? (OR 3.59, 95% CI 1.89 to 6.83; p<0.001) and CD4 <200 cells/mm3 vs HIV? (OR 8.09, 95% CI 4.37 to 14.97; <0.001) had large independent associations with anaemia. There were large independent associations of CD4 <200 cells/mm3 vs HIV? (OR 7.18, 95% CI 0.78 to 65.82; p=0.081) and co-trimoxazole and/or dapsone use (OR 5.69, 95% CI 0.63 to 51.45; p=0.122) with moderate neutropenia. Conclusions Anaemia was more common than neutropenia or thrombocytopenia in the HIV-infected Rwandan women. Future comparisons of haematological parameters in HIV-infected patients before and after antiretroviral therapy initiation are warranted. PMID:23169875

  19. Analysis of the effects of malaria chemoprophylaxis in children on haematological responses, morbidity and mortality.

    PubMed Central

    Geerligs, Paul D. Prinsen; Brabin, Bernard J.; Eggelte, Teunis A.

    2003-01-01

    This paper reviews the evidence for beneficial effects of malaria chemoprophylaxis on haematological responses, morbidity, mortality, health service utilization and rebound immunity in children. As anaemia may play an important role in childhood mortality, it is important to assess evidence from controlled trials of the potential of chemoprophylaxis to reduce childhood anaemia. An analysis of trials found good evidence that malaria chemoprophylaxis improves mean haemoglobin levels and reduces severe anaemia, clinical malaria attacks, parasite and spleen rates. Significant reductions in outpatient attendance and hospital admissions have been achieved, and substantial evidence from Gambian studies shows reductions in mortality. Chemoprophylaxis in children does not seem to produce any sustained impairment of immunity to malaria, although rebound effects may be greater in children who receive prophylaxis during infancy. Short periods of targeted prophylaxis are likely to be preferable to continuous drug administration. Evidence of the protective efficacy of malaria chemoprophylaxis in children shows that this strategy could be considered within integrated health programmes for specific time periods. Intermittent routine combination therapy early in childhood may be appropriate for those living under holoendemic conditions. Large-scale studies over a number of years are needed to address this issue and the impact of this approach on health service utilization, mortality, and the emergence of drug-resistant parasites. PMID:12764517

  20. Chronic Lymphocytic Leukaemia: Census of Patients Treated in Italian Haematology Units

    PubMed Central

    Salvi, Gianfranco; Innocenti, Idanna; Autore, Francesco; Laurenti, Luca

    2015-01-01

    This study was conducted by contacting the population of the Italian haematology units and collecting from 68% of them data concerning the number of patients with chronic lymphocytic leukaemia visited over the previous 12 months, with the aim of obtaining an overview of the treatment of this disease and comparing the results with the prevalence estimates found in literature. The projection obtained (about 17,000 patients visited in the previous 12 months) is probably overestimated because of double-counting of patients who may have been treated at two different facilities during the year, although it is also underestimated since the internal medicine units were not involved. The balance of these two opposite factors is not known. It is important to bear in mind the approximation with which the count was performed in facilities for which no official data were available. Albeit with these limits, the results obtained are in line with some existing prevalence data and make it possible to determine the portion of patients at different Binet stages and in the various age ranges, identifying the corresponding therapeutic treatments. Use of the CIRS scale to classify patients as FIT and UNFIT was seen to be still somewhat limited. PMID:26543525

  1. Clinical, haematological, cytokine and acute phase protein changes during experimental Babesia gibsoni infection of beagle puppies.

    PubMed

    Brown, A L; Shiel, R E; Irwin, P J

    2015-10-01

    Babesia gibsoni is a haemoprotozoan parasite of emerging global importance. The clinical presentation of babesial infections is diverse and the systemic inflammatory response induced by infection is considered to be a major feature of the pathophysiology of canine babesiosis. An experimental case-controlled longitudinal study was conducted to assess the clinical, haematological, cytokine and acute phase protein changes that occur during experimental B. gibsoni infection of beagle puppies. Infected dogs became transiently pyrexic and anaemic, intermittently neutropenic and transiently, but profoundly, thrombocytopenic, although this had no apparent adverse clinical effect. Experimental B. gibsoni infection also induced an acute phase response, characterised by a marked increase in the concentration of C-reactive protein, which was delayed in onset following infection but preceded the detection of peripheral parasitaemia. Experimental B. gibsoni infection was also associated with marked increases in the concentration of multiple cytokines which were also delayed in onset following infection and occurred subsequent to the detection of peripheral parasitaemia and the acute phase response. This study furthers our understanding of the immune response that occurs during babesial infections and the role that systemic inflammation plays in the pathophysiology of canine babesiosis. PMID:26297954

  2. Haematological changes and antibody response in trypanotolerant sheep and goats following experimental Trypanosoma congolense infection.

    PubMed

    Goossens, B; Osaer, S; Kora, S; Ndao, M

    1998-11-27

    Ten West African Dwarf (WAD) female goats and twelve Djallonké ewes were artificially infected with a West African strain of Trypanosoma congolense and monitored during 36 weeks over an acute phase (weeks 0-12) and chronic phase (weeks 13-36) to evaluate their haematological and immunological response. Parasitaemia, packed cell volume, red blood cells, haemoglobin, white blood cells and trypanosomal antibodies were assessed. Mean corpuscular volume and mean corpuscular haemoglobin concentration were calculated. The infected animals showed a persistent parasitaemia together with a chronic anaemia and significantly lower packed cell volume, red blood cell count and haemoglobin. The infected sheep developed a macrocytic, hypochromic anaemia during the acute phase changing to normocytic, hypochromic during the chronic phase, whereas, the infected goats developed a normocytic, normochromic anaemia during the acute phase and normocytic, hypochromic during the chronic phase. A significant increase in WBC counts was observed only in the infected sheep during the chronic phase. Trypanosomal antibody titres were significantly higher in the infected sheep than in the infected goats. Both species are regarded as trypanotolerant but Djallonké sheep mount a better haematopoietic and immunological response to infection with T. congolense than WAD goats. PMID:9831952

  3. Chronic diclofenac (DCF) exposure alters both enzymatic and haematological profile of African catfish, Clarias gariepinus.

    PubMed

    Ajima, Malachy N O; Ogo, Ogo A; Audu, Bala S; Ugwoegbu, Kyrian C

    2015-10-01

    Pharmaceuticals are used extensively in human and veterinary medicine to eradicate or prevent diseases. The residues of these drugs have been detected in aquatic ecosystem; nevertheless, their toxicological effects on Clarias gariepinus have not been critically investigated. In this study, the toxic effects of diclofenac (DCF), a non-steroid anti-inflammatory drug, were studied in C. gariepinus by acute and chronic static renewable bioassay. The 96?h LC50 of DCF to C. gariepinus was 25.12?mg/L. Exposure to acute toxicity resulted in abnormal behavior and mortality of some fish. Compared with the control, chronic exposure of the fish to concentration (1.57, 3.14 and 6.28?mg/L) showed significantly higher mean corpuscular haemoglobin concentration (MCHC), mean corpuscular volume (MCV) and white blood cell (WBC), with significantly lower haemoglobin (Hb), haematocrit, red blood cell (RBC) and mean corpuscular haemoglobin (MCH) with increase in the concentration of the drug. Furthermore, the levels of alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and glucose values significantly increased while protein levels were reduced (p?haematological changes in the fish and recommends that these parameters be used as potential biomarkers for assessing residual pharmaceuticals available in aquatic ecosystem. PMID:25367777

  4. Lead poisoning: clinical, biochemical, and haematological aspects of a recent outbreak.

    PubMed Central

    Pagliuca, A; Mufti, G J; Baldwin, D; Lestas, A N; Wallis, R M; Bellingham, A J

    1990-01-01

    The clinical, biochemical, and haematological aspects of a recent outbreak of lead poisoning, in which exposure was related to the oxyacetylene cutting of red lead painted ironwork, were investigated. Initial suspicion was raised when a blood film showed punctate basophilia which remains a simple and useful method of picking up lead toxicity. Estimations of blood lead concentration and conventional laboratory data confirmed the diagnosis. Although there was prominent punctate basophilia, spectrophotometric analysis showed only negligible accumulation of pyrimidine-5'-nucleotides despite severe suppression of pyrimidine-5'-nucleotidase activity. The pattern of the red cell glycolytic intermediates, investigated for the first time, suggested that lead may also affect glycolysis at the hexokinase step. Once the diagnosis was made intravenous chelation treatment was begun with a rapid improvement in symptoms. Long term follow up is required to assess any sequelae of intoxication. These cases emphasise the classic features of lead poisoning, and despite the currently available diagnostic tests, lead intoxication may still go unrecognised unless a thorough occupational history is taken. Images PMID:2341563

  5. Haematological Changes Associated with Aspergillus fumigatus Infection in Experimental Mycotic Abortion of Sheep

    PubMed Central

    Day, C. A.; Corbel, M. J.

    1974-01-01

    The haematological changes specifically associated with Aspergillus fumigatus infection were studied in experimentally inoculated pregnant sheep. No significant changes in relation to infection were observed in the haemoglobin concentration, erythrocyte sedimentation rate, packed cell volume, mean corpuscular haemoglobin concentration or erythrocyte morphology of inoculated sheep. There was little evidence of changes in total leucocyte count in most sheep in the first few weeks following inoculation, although those animals receiving larger inocula showed signs of an increasing leucocytosis at the terminal phase of gestation. This increase was even more pronounced at the time of lambing or abortion. Compared with uninoculated pregnant controls, the mean relative neutrophil counts of the inoculated sheep tended to increase during the later stages of gestation and showed highly significant increases at the time of lambing or abortion. Both total leucocyte and relative neutrophil counts were significantly higher in those sheep showing signs of placental infection than in those inoculated animals with no evidence of placentitis. There was some evidence of a relationship between the dose of A. fumigatus conidia inoculated and the severity of infection as indicated by the number of animals aborting, extent of placental involvement and reduction in mean gestation period. Irrespective of inoculum size, only a proportion of inoculated animals developed detectable placentitis. PMID:4611461

  6. Reductions in immunosuppression after haematological or solid organ cancer diagnosis in kidney transplant recipients.

    PubMed

    Hope, Christopher M; Krige, Alice J; Barratt, Alex; Carroll, Robert P

    2015-11-01

    Few data exist on how immunosuppression is altered in kidney transplant recipients (KTR) following a diagnosis of cancer. This study investigated how immunosuppression was altered in KTR after cancer diagnosis and its effect on patient and graft survival. All KTR diagnosed with cancer at our centre from 1990 to 2012 were assessed. Drug regime and serum creatinine levels were recorded 1 year before, at time of, and 1 year after cancer diagnosis. Of 87 KTR who developed cancer (7.3% of transplanted population, n = 1189), 30 developed haematological malignancies and 57 developed solid organ cancers (SOC). In total, 38% of KTR presented with nodal or metastatic disease and 23 of 87 (26%) KTR died within 6 months of cancer diagnosis. Fifty-five KTR had records of pre- and postcancer diagnosis drug regimes. Thirty-six KTR had a (>50%) dose reduction or cessation of 1 or more immunosuppressive agents, and 19 no reduction in immunosuppression. In total, 2 of 36 (6%) of KTR who underwent a dose reduction suffered acute rejection that was reversed with methylprednisolone. Dose reduction/cessation of immunosuppression did not impair graft function, but also did not affect cancer free survival. Further larger prospective studies are needed to determine whether dose reduction alters relapse free cancer survival in KTR. PMID:26174703

  7. A case/control study of adult haematological malignancies in relation to overhead powerlines.

    PubMed Central

    Youngson, J. H.; Clayden, A. D.; Myers, A.; Cartwright, R. A.

    1991-01-01

    A population based case control study of adult haematological malignancy and distance from, and magnetic fields associated with, overhead (OH) power lines has been carried out in the North West and Yorkshire regions of England. Three-thousand, one hundred and forty-four cases with histologically proven disease were entered into the study. One control per case, matched for age, sex, year of diagnosis and health district of residence, was selected from hospital discharges. Seven per cent of cases and controls lived near to OH power lines as defined by the study protocol. The measure of exposure used was the calculated magnetic field strength at each of these addresses due to maximum load currents carried by OH power lines in the 5 years preceding diagnosis. The odds ratio (OR) for living within 50 m of an OH line was 1.29 with a 95% Confidence Interval (CI) of 0.99-1.68 but a chi 2 test for trend with distance was not statistically significant. The analysis of calculated magnetic fields, did not produce any statistically odds ratios. The OR for magnetic fields greater than or equal to 0.1 mG was 1.03 (95% CI 0.81 1.32). Analysis of magnetic fields greater than or equal to 3.0 mG gave an OR of 1.87 (95% CI 0.79 4.42), but this result is based on small numbers. No evidence was found for confounding by the type of dwelling which was used as a partial surrogate for socio-economic status. PMID:2069855

  8. Mortality due to haematological cancer in cities close to petroleum refineries in Spain.

    PubMed

    Cirera, Lluís; Cirarda, Francisco; Palčncia, Laia; Estarlich, Marisa; Montes-Martínez, Agustín; Lorenzo, Pedro; Daponte-Codina, Antonio; López-Abente, Gonzalo

    2013-01-01

    Controversy exists as to whether working or living in the vicinity of a petroleum refinery (RF) increases the risk of haematological cancer (HC). The European Pollutant Release and Transfer Register obliges petroleum refineries to notify their emissions of toxic substances which include carcinogenic substances. Our objective is to determine if living in the proximity of an RF is associated with a greater risk of mortality due to HC in the census tracts (CTs) of the Spanish cities of Bilbao, Cartagena, Castellón, La Coruńa, Huelva, and Santa Cruz de Tenerife. This is an ecological study of mortality in the years 1996-2007 which includes 968 CTs with 1,263,371 inhabitants. Exposure has been measured as the distance from the centroid of each CT to the RF. The Besag-York-Mollié autoregressive spatial model has been fitted by R-INLA to estimate the relative risk (RR) and 95 % credible intervals (95 % CrI) for distance in quintiles. The most distant quintile has been taken as the reference. A total of 2,574 persons died of HC. The distances from the CTs to RFs ranged from 0.5 to 22.5 km (median = 7.6 km). All of the RRs for the quintiles of distances in Huelva were greater than 1. Statistically significant excess risk was shown in Cartagena in the nearest CT (1.8 to 6.8 km; RR = 1.43, 95 % CrI 1.02 to 2.02). Radial effects have not been detected between the CT of residence and the petroleum RF in mortality due to HC in any of the cities. PMID:22996818

  9. The evolving role of biosimilars in haematology-oncology: a practical perspective.

    PubMed

    Gascon, Pere

    2015-12-01

    The loss of patents covering many biopharmaceutical/biological agents in the mid 1990s led to the introduction of a new generation of drugs: biosimilars. These new agents, produced by living cells just as the originator drugs, are chemically highly similar to endogenous human proteins; characterized by three-dimensionally complex, high molecular weight compounds. Among the first biosimilars used in haematology-oncology were erythropoietin and granulocyte colony-stimulating factor. After five years of use in clinical practice, the efficacy and safety profile of biosimilars approved by the European Medicines Agency is excellent. Over the next year or two, biosimilar monoclonal antibodies (MoAbs) will become available; the first will be rituximab and trastuzumab. Not only are MoAbs more complex in terms of molecular weight and number of amino acids than the first biosimilars, but they are also anticancer drugs, not merely supportive treatments like their predecessors. This opens up important questions. How are regulatory agencies to assess their clinical efficacy, immunogenicity and safety? Is the neoadjuvant clinical setting the best to evaluate them? What will regulatory agencies decide in terms of switching an originator molecule for a biosimilar or extrapolating efficacy results from one pathology to another? Once biosimilars of rituximab and trastuzumab are approved, several challenging issues will need to be addressed such as how to maintain appropriate pharmacovigilance, how to extrapolate across indications, and issues concerning automatic substitution. There is currently no consensus in any of these areas. This review addresses all these issues: new challenges that the oncology community will face in the near future. PMID:26622996

  10. Haematological parameters in postpartum women and their babies in Poland - comparison of urban and rural areas.

    PubMed

    Wojty?a, Cezary; Bili?ski, Przemys?aw; Paprzycki, Piotr; Warzocha, Krzysztof

    2011-12-01

    Anaemia is a serious health problem in the contemporary world which aff ects 24.8% of the total human population. It is especially frequent among pregnant women and children. Anaemia is considered as a risk factor of an unfavourable outcome of pregnancy. More than a half of the cases of anaemia, especially among pregnant women, are caused by iron deficiency. The prevalence of anaemia worldwide is especially high among the rural population. It is estimated that the incidence of anaemia after delivery is 4-27%. Anaemia occurring in pregnant women is the cause of anaemia in newborns after birth. The objective of the study was analysis of the haematological parameters of postpartum women and newborns, with particular consideration of the comparison between urban and rural areas. The studies were conducted with the use of questionnaire forms based on the project undertaken in the USA: Pregnancy Risk Assessment Monitoring System (PRAMS). The survey was carried out on a single day, during the period 9-13 August 2010, in all hospitals in Poland where mothers were hospitalized with their newborns. The presented study was based on the replies concerning the results of whole blood count tests in mothers and their babies. The results of the study did not confirm any significant differences between Hct, Hb and RBC values between urban and rural mothers. In both cases, the Hct levels were at the lower limit of normal. Also, no differences with respect to the above-mentioned values were noted among the newborns, although the babies of urban mothers had a higher Hb level. The results of the studies indicate the lack of differences in the health of mothers and their newborn babies with respect to the urban or rural place of residence. Despite this, anaemia is associated with complications which are life-threatening for the mother and the baby; therefore, efforts should be undertaken in order to minimize this problem. PMID:22216816

  11. The evolving role of biosimilars in haematology–oncology: a practical perspective

    PubMed Central

    Gascon, Pere

    2015-01-01

    The loss of patents covering many biopharmaceutical/biological agents in the mid 1990s led to the introduction of a new generation of drugs: biosimilars. These new agents, produced by living cells just as the originator drugs, are chemically highly similar to endogenous human proteins; characterized by three-dimensionally complex, high molecular weight compounds. Among the first biosimilars used in haematology–oncology were erythropoietin and granulocyte colony-stimulating factor. After five years of use in clinical practice, the efficacy and safety profile of biosimilars approved by the European Medicines Agency is excellent. Over the next year or two, biosimilar monoclonal antibodies (MoAbs) will become available; the first will be rituximab and trastuzumab. Not only are MoAbs more complex in terms of molecular weight and number of amino acids than the first biosimilars, but they are also anticancer drugs, not merely supportive treatments like their predecessors. This opens up important questions. How are regulatory agencies to assess their clinical efficacy, immunogenicity and safety? Is the neoadjuvant clinical setting the best to evaluate them? What will regulatory agencies decide in terms of switching an originator molecule for a biosimilar or extrapolating efficacy results from one pathology to another? Once biosimilars of rituximab and trastuzumab are approved, several challenging issues will need to be addressed such as how to maintain appropriate pharmacovigilance, how to extrapolate across indications, and issues concerning automatic substitution. There is currently no consensus in any of these areas. This review addresses all these issues: new challenges that the oncology community will face in the near future. PMID:26622996

  12. The effects of a novel "fluid loading" strategy on cardiovascular and haematological responses to orthostatic stress.

    PubMed

    Easton, Chris; Calder, Alyson; Prior, Frank; Dobinson, Sarah; I'Anson, Rebecca; MacGregor, Rhona; Mohammad, Yaser; Kingsmore, David; Pitsiladis, Yannis P

    2009-04-01

    Water drinking reduces the occurrence of syncope in healthy volunteers but the effects of hyperhydration are unknown. This study assessed the effects of combined creatine (Cr) and glycerol (Gly) induced hyperhydration on the cardiovascular and haematological responses to postural change. Subjects in all trials lay supine for 30 min before being tilted head-up to 70 degrees for a further 30 min or until the limit of their tolerance. Following 2 baseline trials, 19 subjects were matched for body mass and assigned to ingest either 20 g Cr and 2 g Gly kg(-1) body mass (BM) plus 2 l of water or 2 l of water alone (Pl) each day for 6 days and once more 5 h prior to the experimental trial. Subjects ingested 500 ml of water prior to all trials to ensure euhydration. During baseline trials, 3 subjects in the Cr/Gly group and 2 in the Pl group experienced presyncope during head-up tilt. Following Cr/Gly supplementation, BM increased by (mean +/- S.D.) 0.9 +/- 0.3 and total body water (TBW) increased by 0.7 +/- 0.2 l with no change in the Pl group. Cr/Gly supplementation resulted in a significant increase in systolic (11 mmHg) and diastolic (7 mmHg) blood pressure during head-up tilt with no change following Pl supplementation. Cr/Gly. Following Cr/Gly supplementation the number of subjects who became presyncopal was reduced from 3 to 1, with no change in the Pl group. These data suggest that hyperhydration mediated by Cr and Gly can enhance orthostatic tolerance in healthy individuals. PMID:19142656

  13. Impact of age on haematological markers pre- and post-marathon running.

    PubMed

    Martin, Thomas G; Pata, Rachel W; D'Addario, Johanna; Yuknis, Lauren; Kingston, Rebecca; Feinn, Richard

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated whether haematological markers differ between young and masters marathon participants, running at similar performance levels. Nine young (31.89 ± 4.96 years) and eight masters (63.13 ± 4.61 years) runners participated. At five time points (pre-race through 54 h post-race), a complete blood cell count, basic metabolic panel and creatine kinase (CK) isoenzyme panel were assessed. Race performance was standardised using the World Masters Association Age Grading Performance Tables. Total CK levels were elevated for all participants at all time points post-race (P < 0.001). The CK-isoenzyme MB% was elevated across groups at 6, 30 and 54 h post-race (P < 0.01, P < 0.01 and P < 0.05), with masters runners having a higher CK-MB% at 30 and 54 h (P < 0.05, P < 0.05). Total white blood cell and neutrophil counts were elevated through 6 h post-race (P < 0.001), with higher levels found in younger runners (P < 0.001). When considering all blood work, masters runners had a higher number of abnormal values at 6, 30 and 54 h post-race (P < 0.05, P < 0.01 and P < 0.05). In conclusion, masters runners demonstrated sustained CK-MB elevation, which may suggest greater cardiac stress. However, future studies using additional cardiac markers should be completed to confirm these findings. In addition, masters runners showed an increased number of laboratory values outside normal range, indicating the body's reduced capacity to respond to marathon running. PMID:25789424

  14. Effects of sex and season in haematological parameters and cellular composition of spleen and head kidney of pejerrey (Odontesthes bonariensis).

    PubMed

    Vigliano, Fabricio A; Araujo, Adolfo M; Marcaccini, Andrés J; Marengo, María V; Cattaneo, Eliana; Peirone, Carina; Dasso, Lucrecia G M

    2014-04-01

    Phylogenetic diversity in fish determines high interspecific variability in morphology as well as in physiological parameters. Moreover, several haematological variables and the organ composition of haemolymphopoietic sites may vary according to sex or season. The aim of this study was to establish the haematological parameters and the cellular composition of haemolymphopoietic organs in Odontesthes bonariensis, a commercially valuable fish species in Argentina, and also to determine gender or seasonal variations. Haematocrit exhibited the highest value in summer, while haemoglobin concentration was greater in summer and autumn. Erythrocyte count was higher in spring than autumn and winter, but did not differ with summer. The increase in these variables in seasons with higher water temperatures might be a compensatory mechanism to compensate the lower level of oxygen in the environment. Leucocyte formula and blast haemolymphopoietic cells in spleen and head kidney also showed annual variations since cells related to specific immune response, i.e., lymphocytes and thrombocytes, decrease in winter, whereas cells of the non-specific immune pathways, such as granulocyte, rise. The elevation of a particular type of circulating leucocyte was preceded by an increase in values of its precursor in blood in the previous season. Both, spleen and head kidney were active in haemolymphopoiesis, although with some differences in their activity during different seasons. Males showed higher values of circulating lymphoblasts and granulocytes than females, whereas females exhibited higher values of thrombocytes. This study corroborates the high interspecific variations in haematological parameters in fish that underlines the needing of basic studies in order to assess fish health status in new promising species for aquaculture. PMID:23982334

  15. Are published standards for haematological indices in pregnancy applicable across populations: an evaluation in healthy pregnant Jamaican women

    PubMed Central

    James, Tameika R; Reid, Harvey L; Mullings, Anthony M

    2008-01-01

    Background The haematological profile of the pregnant woman has an impact on the outcome of the pregnancy. Published guidelines indicate acceptable levels for haematological indices in pregnancy but they are population specific. Indicators of haemoglobin concentration are the most commonly utilized of the indices. These published international norms are used across populations, however, there is no evidence confirming their applicability to a population such as the Jamaican pregnant woman. This study was therefore undertaken with the intent of documenting the haematological profile of pregnant primigravid Jamaican women and comparing these to the established norms to determine whether the norms apply or whether there was a need to establish local norms. Methods This was a longitudinal study done on a cohort of 157 healthy primigravid women ages 15 to 25 and without anaemia, and who were recruited from the antenatal clinic of the University Hospital of the West Indies, Kingston, Jamaica. The haemoglobin concentration, packed cell volume, mean cell volume, mean cell haemoglobin, mean cell haemoglobin concentration, white blood cell count, red blood cell count and platelet count were measured on samples of blood obtained from each consenting participant during each of the three trimesters. The results were analysed using SPSS for windows (Version 11) and the data expressed as means ± S.D. Means were compared using the student's paired t-test. Comparison was then made with the international norms as recommended by the United States Center for Disease Control (1989). Ethical approval for this study was obtained from the University Hospital of the West Indies/University of the West Indies Ethics Committee. Results The results showed changes by trimester in all measured variables. For most of the indices the changes achieved levels of significance across trimesters. These changes were however in keeping with the expected physiological response in pregnancy and the values were similar to the published international norms. Conclusion The findings suggest that the international norms for haematological indices in pregnancy are applicable across populations and to the pregnant Jamaican primigravid woman. This finding may be reassuring to others with a similar population and stage of development as Jamaica. PMID:18307810

  16. The Survivor Unmet Needs Survey (SUNS) for haematological cancer survivors: a cross-sectional study assessing the relevance and psychometric properties

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Relevant and psychometrically sound needs assessment tools are necessary for accurate assessment of haematological cancer survivors unmet needs. No previous study has developed nor psychometrically evaluated a comprehensive needs assessment tool for use with population-based samples of haematological cancer survivors. This study aimed to assess the validity and reliability of the Survivor Unmet Needs Survey (SUNS) with haematological cancer survivors. Methods The relevance, content and face validity of the SUNS to haematological cancer survivors was assessed using qualitative interviews. Psychometric evaluation was conducted using data collected from haematological cancer survivors, aged 18–80 years at recruitment and recruited from four Australian cancer registries. Construct, convergent and discriminant validity; internal reliability and floor and ceiling effects were assessed. A second survey was completed by a sub-sample of survivors recruited from two of the four registries to assess test-retest reliability. Results Results from 17 qualitative interviews confirmed the relevance, face and content validity of the original items of the SUNS for use with haematological cancer survivors. Overall, 1,957 eligible haematological cancer survivors were contacted by the cancer registries. Of these 1,280 were sent a survey, and 715 returned a survey (37% of eligible survivors contacted and 56% of survivors sent a survey). A total of 529 survivors completed all 89 items of the SUNS and were included in the exploratory factor analysis. Exploratory factor analysis supported the original five-factor structure of the SUNS. Evidence for convergent validity was established, with all five domains of the SUNS illustrating a moderate positive correlation with all three subscales of the Depression Anxiety and Stress Scale (DASS-21). All Cronbach’s alpha values were above 0.9 and all corrected item-total correlations were acceptable (>0.2). Criteria for discriminant validity was not met, with only 10 of the 15 (67%) a-priori hypotheses supported. Test-retest reliability was acceptable for 40 of the 89 items (45%) and for three of the five domains. Significant floor effects were evident for all five domains. Conclusions The SUNS demonstrates evidence for multiple features of validity and reliability as a measure of unmet needs for haematological cancer survivors. However, evidence supporting some psychometric properties was limited. PMID:24886475

  17. Mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) inhibitors: potential uses and a review of haematological adverse effects.

    PubMed

    Sofroniadou, Sofia; Goldsmith, David

    2011-02-01

    Mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) inhibitors (mTORis) constitute a relatively new category of immunosuppressive and antineoplastic drugs. These share a unique mechanism of action that is focused on the inhibition of the mTOR. Their clinical applications have recently expanded significantly to cover a wide spectrum of immune and non-immune-mediated disorders, including, apart from solid organ transplantation, various solid organ and haematological malignancies, rheumatological and auto-immune diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis, systemic lupus erythematosus, fibrotic conditions, e.g. pulmonary and hepatic fibrosis, and even metabolic problems such as diabetes mellitus and obesity. The most challenging and frequent adverse effects of the mTORis are the haematological ones, especially anaemia, leukopenia and thrombocytopenia. A unique characteristic of mTORi-induced anaemia is concurrent marked microcytosis. Recently, mechanisms have been proposed to explain the microcytic appearance of this anaemia; these include globin production defect, erythropoietin resistance, chronic inflammation, dysregulation of cellular iron metabolism and hepcidin-mediated iron homeostasis interference. As the differential diagnosis of microcytic anaemia includes pure iron deficiency, functional iron deficiency and haemoglobinopathies, characterization of the anaemia requires significant investigation, time and costs. Therefore, understanding of the likely interaction between mTORis and patients is valuable in clinical practice. Moreover, this could expand the drugs' therapeutic applications to other disorders, and suggest novel targets for further research. PMID:21247219

  18. Risk Factors and Scoring System for Predicting Bacterial Resistance to Cefepime as Used Empirically in Haematology Wards

    PubMed Central

    El Maaroufi, Hicham; Goubard, Agathe; Redjoul, Rabah; Legrand, Patrick; Pautas, Cécile; Mikdame, Mohamed; Doghmi, Kamal; Toma, Andréa; Maury, Sébastien; Schwarzinger, Michael; Cordonnier, Catherine

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. Bacterial resistance is of growing concern in haematology wards. As the inappropriate administration of empirical antibacterial may alter survival, we studied risk factors for resistance to our usual empirical first-line antibacterial therapy, cefepime. Methods. We retrospectively studied 103 first episodes of bacteraemia recorded in our haematology department over 2.5 years. Risk factors for cefepime-resistance were identified by multivariate logistic regression with backward selection (P < 0.05). A scoring system for predicting cefepime-resistance was built on independent factor, with an internal validation by the bootstrap resampling technique. Results. 38 (37%) episodes were due to Gram-negative bacteria. Fifty (49%) were due to bacteria resistant to cefepime. Cefepime resistance was significantly associated with a decreased survival at day 30 (P < 0.05). Three risk factors were independently associated with cefepime-resistance: acute lymphoblastic leukaemia; ?18 days since hospital admission; and receipt of any ?-lactam in the last month. Patients with ?2 of these risk factors had a probability of 86% (CI 95%, 25 to 100%) to carry a cefepime-resistant strain. Conclusion. Using our scoring system should reduce the indication of very broad antibacterial regimens in the empirical, first-line treatment of febrile hematology patients in more than 80% of the cases. PMID:26075276

  19. Preliminary study of the fungal ecology at the haematology and medical-oncology ward in Bamako, Mali.

    PubMed

    Niaré-Doumbo, Safiatou; Normand, Anne Cécile; Diallo, Yacouba Lazarre; Dembelé, Abdoul Karim; Thera, Mahamadou A; Diallo, Dapa; Piarroux, Renaud; Doumbo, Ogobara; Ranque, Stéphane

    2014-08-01

    Data on fungal epidemiology in sub-Saharan African countries are scarce. This exploratory study aimed to characterize the fungal flora at the Onco-Haematology ward of the National Teaching Hospital of Point G in Bamako, Mali. A cross-sectional survey was conducted in the dry and in the rainy seasons. Nasal swab and sputum samples were collected from the hospitalized patients while airborne fungal spores were collected using electrostatic dust-fall collectors. Fungi were identified by their morphological characteristics and MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry. Candida albicans was the most frequent yeast species colonizing patients; Aspergillus species were isolated in 86 % of the patients and were the main airborne environmental contaminants. Overall, airborne fungal contamination rates increased from 33.8 % in the dry to 66.2 % in the rainy season (p < 0.001). The most frequent Aspergillus species were Aspergillus niger (36.6 %) and Aspergillus flavus (32.92 %). In contrast, Aspergillus fumigatus (5.43 %) was relatively rare. This high level of fungal exposure raises concern regarding the management of at-risk patients in this Onco-Haematology ward and stresses the need for strengthening the mycological diagnostic capacities to accompany the implementation of adapted fungal infection prevention and management policies. PMID:24889723

  20. Haematological and serum biochemical parameters of West African Dwarf goats fed dried cassava leaves-based concentrate diets.

    PubMed

    Oni, Adebayo Olusoji; Arigbede, Oluwasanmi Moses; Sowande, Olusiji Sunday; Anele, Uchenna Young; Oni, Oluwakemi Oluremilekun; Onwuka, Chryss Friday Ijeoma; Onifade, Olufemi Sunday; Yusuf, Kafayat Omowumi; Dele, Peter Aniwe; Aderinboye, Ronke Yemisi

    2012-03-01

    The study was conducted to investigate the effects of feeding different levels of dried cassava leaves at 0%, 20%, 40% and 60%, respectively, using guinea grass as basal feed, on the haematological and serum biochemical parameters of West African Dwarf (WAD) goats. The study lasted for 116 days during which haematological and serum biochemical parameters were monitored in 40 male goats before and after, using a completely randomized design. At the start of the experiment, packed cell volume (PCV) ranged from 21.5% to 25.5% while haemoglobin concentration (Hb) and RBC significantly (P??0.05). Lymphocyte reduced significantly (P??0.05) at the 0% to 40% levels and reduced at the 60% level of dried cassava leaves inclusion. At the start of the experiment, values for glucose significantly (P?haematological and serum biochemical parameters of WAD goats and could therefore be included in ruminant diets up to 60%. PMID:21744028

  1. The effects of short term dietary restriction on haematological responses and leukocyte gene expression of anovulatory and ovulatory beef heifers.

    PubMed

    Matthews, Daragh; Waters, Sinéad M; Diskin, Michael G; Kenny, David A; Morris, Dermot G; Earley, Bernadette

    2015-02-01

    The study objective was to characterise the impact of negative energy balance (NEB) on immune-stress responsiveness in beef heifers. A short term (18-day) dietary restriction model was used. Dietary restriction (0.4 maintenance (Mn) energy requirements) induced abrupt onset of anoestrus in nine heifers (Restricted Anovulatory; RA) while nineteen heifers maintained oestrous cyclicity (Restricted Ovulatory; RO). In addition a control (C) group of 12 heifers received a higher level of feeding (1.2?Mn). Haematological related biomarkers of husbandry stress, leukocyte gene expression of seven cytokine genes and five immunological biomarkers were investigated. After 18 days of differential feeding of the heifers alterations in eosinophil and monocyte numbers and altered expression of CXCL8, IL2 and TNF? could be attributed to diet restriction. More specifically, changes in these five variables were found in heifers that became anovulatory (RA) and are therefore considered to be more sensitive biomarkers to an energy deficit. PMID:25496833

  2. Are there any new insights for G-CSF and/or AMD3100 in chemotherapy of haematological malignants?

    PubMed

    Shen, Zhao-Hua; Zeng, Dong-Feng; Ma, Ying-Ying; Zhang, Xi; Zhang, Cheng; Kong, Pei-Yan

    2015-12-01

    AML is a common life-threatening blood system malignancy. The treatment of AML continues to face greater challenges. An abnormal haematopoietic niche with high adhesion and proliferation might be the root cause of resistance and relapse. Most leukaemia cells are stored in the endosteal niche and recess in the G0 phase, and they are not sensitive to varieties of radiotherapies and chemotherapies. G-CSF and AMD3100 are increasingly used in priming chemotherapy. G-CSF can promote leukaemia cells to the cell cycle, which improves the complete remission rate of leukaemia patients. AMD3100, the novel CXCR4 antagonist, could also potentially promote leukaemia cells to cell cycle and improve the susceptibility of leukaemia cells to chemotherapeutic agents. The combination of them enhances anti-leukaemia effect. So in this review, we explore the function of G-CSF and/or AMD3100 in the priming chemotherapy of haematological malignants. PMID:26526720

  3. Haematological and biochemical measurements in healthy, adult, free-ranging golden jackals (Canis aureus syriacus) held in captivity.

    PubMed

    Aroch, I; Shpigel, N Y; Avidar, Y; Yakobson, B; King, R; Shamir, M

    2005-09-10

    Blood from 31 healthy, free-ranging golden jackals held in captivity for seven days was collected while they were anaesthetised. Haematological and serum biochemical measurements were analysed and the 95 per cent confidence interval for each variable was compared with the reference value for domestic dogs. The measurements of their red blood cells were within the reference interval for dogs, but the jackals had higher white blood cell counts and eosinophil counts than dogs. The male jackals had a higher haematocrit, red blood cell count, mean corpuscular volume and mean corpuscular haemoglobin concentration, and a lower red blood cell distribution width than the female jackals. High activities of muscle enzymes were detected in many of the jackals, in several of which the activity of creatine kinase exceeded 5000 U/l; these were considered abnormal. PMID:16155240

  4. Description of outcomes of experimental infection with feline haemoplasmas: Copy numbers, haematology, Coombs’ testing and blood glucose concentrations

    PubMed Central

    Tasker, Séverine; Peters, Iain R.; Papasouliotis, Kostas; Cue, Simon M.; Willi, Barbara; Hofmann-Lehmann, Regina; Gruffydd-Jones, Timothy J.; Knowles, Toby G.; Day, Michael J.; Helps, Chris R.

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare blood copy, haematological and glucose values between cats experimentally infected with either Mycoplasma haemofelis (Group HF: 10 cats), ‘Candidatus M. haemominutum’ (Group HM: 3 cats) or ‘Candidatus M. turicensis’ (Group TU: 3 cats). Blood samples were collected regularly up to 85 days post-infection (DPI) for haemoplasma real-time quantitative PCR, haematology, Coombs’ testing and blood glucose measurement. Statistical analysis was performed using a general linear model (ANOVA) appropriate for a repeated measures experiment with significance set as P < 0.05. Cats in Group TU had significantly lower blood copy numbers than cats in Group HF (P < 0.001) and HM (P < 0.001). All Group HF cats developed anaemia (often severe), macrocytosis and evidence of erythrocyte-bound antibodies whereas Groups HM and TU cats did not. Group HF had significantly lower PCVs, haemoglobin concentrations and red blood cell counts, and significantly higher mean cell volumes, than Groups HM and TU. In Group HF, erythrocyte-bound antibodies reactive at 4 °C (both IgM and IgG) appeared between 8 and 22 DPI and persisted for two to four weeks, whereas those reactive at 37 °C (primarily IgG) appeared between 22 and 29 DPI and persisted for one to five weeks. In most cats antibodies appeared after the fall in haemoglobin started. Although Group TU had significantly lower glucose concentrations than Groups HF (P = 0.006) and HM (P = 0.027), mean blood glucose concentrations remained within the reference range in all groups. This study demonstrates that M. haemofelis infection, in contrast to ‘Candidatus M. haemominutum’ and ‘Candidatus M. turicensis’ infection, can result in a severe macrocytic anaemia and the development of cold and warm reactive erythrocyte-bound antibodies. PMID:19615832

  5. Description of outcomes of experimental infection with feline haemoplasmas: copy numbers, haematology, Coombs' testing and blood glucose concentrations.

    PubMed

    Tasker, Séverine; Peters, Iain R; Papasouliotis, Kostas; Cue, Simon M; Willi, Barbara; Hofmann-Lehmann, Regina; Gruffydd-Jones, Timothy J; Knowles, Toby G; Day, Michael J; Helps, Chris R

    2009-11-18

    The aim of this study was to compare blood copy, haematological and glucose values between cats experimentally infected with either Mycoplasma haemofelis (Group HF: 10 cats), 'Candidatus M. haemominutum' (Group HM: 3 cats) or 'Candidatus M. turicensis' (Group TU: 3 cats). Blood samples were collected regularly up to 85 days post-infection (DPI) for haemoplasma real-time quantitative PCR, haematology, Coombs' testing and blood glucose measurement. Statistical analysis was performed using a general linear model (ANOVA) appropriate for a repeated measures experiment with significance set as P<0.05. Cats in Group TU had significantly lower blood copy numbers than cats in Group HF (P<0.001) and HM (P<0.001). All Group HF cats developed anaemia (often severe), macrocytosis and evidence of erythrocyte-bound antibodies whereas Groups HM and TU cats did not. Group HF had significantly lower PCVs, haemoglobin concentrations and red blood cell counts, and significantly higher mean cell volumes, than Groups HM and TU. In Group HF, erythrocyte-bound antibodies reactive at 4 degrees C (both IgM and IgG) appeared between 8 and 22 DPI and persisted for two to four weeks, whereas those reactive at 37 degrees C (primarily IgG) appeared between 22 and 29 DPI and persisted for one to five weeks. In most cats antibodies appeared after the fall in haemoglobin started. Although Group TU had significantly lower glucose concentrations than Groups HF (P=0.006) and HM (P=0.027), mean blood glucose concentrations remained within the reference range in all groups. This study demonstrates that M. haemofelis infection, in contrast to 'Candidatus M. haemominutum' and 'Candidatus M. turicensis' infection, can result in a severe macrocytic anaemia and the development of cold and warm reactive erythrocyte-bound antibodies. PMID:19615832

  6. A non-randomised trial of an art therapy intervention for patients with haematological malignancies to support post-traumatic growth.

    PubMed

    Singer, Susanne; Götze, Heide; Buttstädt, Marianne; Ziegler, Corinna; Richter, Robert; Brown, Anna; Niederwieser, Dietger; Dorst, Jana; Jäkel, Nadja; Geue, Kristina

    2013-07-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the effect of art therapy on post-traumatic growth in patients with haematological malignancies in a non-randomised trial (n = 36, intervention group; n = 129, control group). Art therapy was administered over a period of 22 weeks in small groups. Post-traumatic growth was measured with the Stress-Related Growth Scale. After controlling for the effect of potential confounders, no difference in post-traumatic growth was observed between the intervention and control groups after 22 weeks. There was no evidence for an effect of weekly group sessions with art therapy on post-traumatic growth in patients with haematological malignancies. PMID:23027781

  7. Ethanol versus heparin locks for the prevention of central venous catheter-associated bloodstream infections: a randomized trial in adult haematology patients with Hickman devices.

    PubMed

    Worth, L J; Slavin, M A; Heath, S; Szer, J; Grigg, A P

    2014-09-01

    The effectiveness of ethanol locks for prevention of central venous catheter (CVC)-associated bloodstream infection (CLABSI) in adult haematology patients has not been thoroughly evaluated. This study aimed to compare prospectively heparinized saline with 70% ethanol locks using 2 h dwell time in patients with tunnelled CVCs. In saline (N = 43) and ethanol (N = 42) groups, CLABSI rates were 6.0 [95% confidence interval (CI): 3.4-9.8] and 4.1 (95% CI: 1.9-7.7) per 1000 CVC days, respectively (P = 0.42). In the ethanol group, two exit-site infections and one tunnel/pocket infection were observed. Reduction in device-associated infection was not achieved with prophylactic 70% ethanol locks in patients with haematological malignancy and tunnelled CVCs. PMID:25063013

  8. [Investigations on the influence of selected compulsory measures on clinically relevant haematological and blood-chemical parameters of racing pigeons (Columba livia f. dom.)].

    PubMed

    Krautwald-Junghanns, M E; Bartels, T; Richter, A; Pees, M

    2006-10-01

    In the presented study the influence of stress and environmental factors on selected haematological and blood-chemical parameters in racing pigeons was examined. Blood was taken at three defined days and haematological as well as blood-chemical parameters of clinical relevance were determined. In comparison to reference values published for pigeons, the majority of the values obtained in this study were within physiological borders. The daily handling of the pigeons did not have any significant effect on the examined parameters. Also the heterophile/lymphocyte ratio did not show any changes characteristic of a stress reaction. In contrast, after change of the housing dies with pigeons originating normally from a flock, the first blood sampling should be performed after a 4 or 5-day lasting period of acclimatisation to the the individual housing conditions. PMID:17078530

  9. The effect of fasting during Ramadan on parameters of the haematological and steroidal modules of the athletes biological passport - a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Alsaadi, K; Voss, S C; Kraiem, S; Alwahaibi, A; Alyazedi, S; Dbes, N; Goebel, R; Mohamed-Ali, V; Alsowaidi, S; Seyam, A M; Bashraheel, A S; Alsayrafi, M; Georgakopoulos, C

    2015-12-01

    This study investigated the effect of Ramadan on the haematological and steroid module of the Athletes Biological Passport (ABP) of the World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA). Nine healthy physically active subjects were tested in the morning and afternoon for two days before and three days during Ramadan. Sample collection and all analyses were performed according to WADA technical documents. Although there were significant changes in the haemoglobin concentration during Ramadan, especially during the first fasting week, none of the subjects in this study exceeded the individually calculated thresholds of the ABP. No significant effects on testosterone/epitestosterone (T/E) ratio were observed but only the afternoon specific gravity (SG) of the urine was elevated. Thus, when urinary steroid concentrations are required, SG corrections need to be performed. The haematological and the steroid module of the ABP can be reliably applied during Ramadan as the observed changes are only marginal. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:26695489

  10. Effects of age and season on haematological parameters of donkeys during the rainy and cold-dry seasons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zakari, Friday Ocheja; Ayo, Joseph Olusegun; Rekwot, Peter Ibrahim; Kawu, Mohammed Umar

    2015-04-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate the effects of age and season on haematological parameters of donkeys at rest during the rainy and cold-dry seasons. Thirty healthy donkeys divided into three groups based on their age served as the subjects. During each season, blood sample was collected from each donkey thrice, 2 weeks apart, for haematological analysis, and the dry-bulb temperature (DBT), relative humidity (RH) and temperature-humidity index (THI) were obtained thrice each day during the experimental period using standard procedures. During the rainy season, the mean DBT (33.05 ± 0.49 °C), RH (73.63 ± 1.09 %) and THI (84.39 ± 0.71) were higher (P < 0.0001) than the corresponding values of 24.00 ± 0.44 °C, 36.80 ± 0.92 % and 64.80 ± 0.62, during the cold-dry season. Packed cell volume (PCV), erythrocyte count [red blood cell (RBC)], haemoglobin concentration (Hb), mean corpuscular volume (MCV), mean corpuscular haemoglobin (MCH), platelet count (PLT), leucocyte count [white blood cell (WBC)], lymphocyte count (LYM) and neutrophil/lymphocyte ratio (N/L) were higher (P < 0.05) in adults than foals during the rainy season. The MCV, MCH, WBC, NEU, LYM and PLT of adult and yearling donkeys were higher (P < 0.05) during the rainy than the cold-dry season. The PCV, RBC, Hb, MCV, MCH, and NEU of foals were higher in the rainy than the cold-dry season. The N/L of adult and foal donkeys were higher (P < 0.05) in the rainy than in the cold-dry season. In conclusion, PCV, RBC, Hb and LYM were considerably higher in foals than yearlings or adults during the rainy season, while erythrocytic indices and platelet counts were higher in adults or yearlings than in foals in both seasons. Erythrocytic indices, PLT and N/L were higher in the rainy than the cold-dry season in adults, yearlings and foals.

  11. Time-to-diagnosis and symptoms of myeloma, lymphomas and leukaemias: a report from the Haematological Malignancy Research Network

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Prior to diagnosis, patients with haematological cancers often have multiple primary care consultations, resulting in diagnostic delay. They are less likely to be referred urgently to hospital and often present as emergencies. We examined patient perspectives of time to help-seeking and diagnosis, as well as associated symptoms and experiences. Methods The UK’s Haematological Malignancy Research Network (http://www.hmrn.org) routinely collects data on all patients newly diagnosed with myeloma, lymphoma and leukaemia (>2000 annually; population 3.6 million). With clinical agreement, patients are also invited to participate in an on-going survey about the circumstances leading to their diagnosis (presence/absence of symptoms; type of symptom(s) and date(s) of onset; date medical advice first sought (help-seeking); summary of important experiences in the time before diagnosis). From 2004–2011, 8858 patients were approached and 5038 agreed they could be contacted for research purposes; 3329 requested and returned a completed questionnaire. The duration of the total interval (symptom onset to diagnosis), patient interval (symptom onset to help-seeking) and diagnostic interval (help-seeking to diagnosis) was examined by patient characteristics and diagnosis. Type and frequency of symptoms were examined collectively, by diagnosis and compared to UK Referral Guidelines. Results Around one-third of patients were asymptomatic at diagnosis. In those with symptoms, the median patient interval tended to be shorter than the diagnostic interval across most diseases. Intervals varied markedly by diagnosis: acute myeloid leukaemia being 41 days (Interquartile range (IQR) 17–85), diffuse large B-cell lymphoma 98 days (IQR 53–192) and myeloma 163 days (IQR 84–306). Many symptoms corresponded to those cited in UK Referral Guidelines, but some were rarely reported (e.g. pain on drinking alcohol). By contrast others, absent from the guidance, were more frequent (e.g. stomach and bowel problems). Symptoms such as tiredness and pain were common across all diseases, although some specificity was evident by sub-type, such as lymphadenopathy in lymphoma and bleeding and bruising in acute leukaemia. Conclusions Pathways to diagnosis are varied and can be unacceptably prolonged, particularly for myeloma and some lymphomas. More evidence is needed, along with interventions to reduce time-to-diagnosis, such as public education campaigns and GP decision-making aids, as well as refinement of existing Referral Guidelines. PMID:24238148

  12. Effects of age and season on haematological parameters of donkeys during the rainy and cold-dry seasons.

    PubMed

    Zakari, Friday Ocheja; Ayo, Joseph Olusegun; Rekwot, Peter Ibrahim; Kawu, Mohammed Umar

    2015-12-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate the effects of age and season on haematological parameters of donkeys at rest during the rainy and cold-dry seasons. Thirty healthy donkeys divided into three groups based on their age served as the subjects. During each season, blood sample was collected from each donkey thrice, 2 weeks apart, for haematological analysis, and the dry-bulb temperature (DBT), relative humidity (RH) and temperature-humidity index (THI) were obtained thrice each day during the experimental period using standard procedures. During the rainy season, the mean DBT (33.05?±?0.49 °C), RH (73.63?±?1.09 %) and THI (84.39?±?0.71) were higher (P?

  13. The Effect of Mycotoxin Deoxynivalenol on Haematological and Biochemical Indicators and Histopathological Changes in Rainbow Trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)

    PubMed Central

    Modra, Helena; Blahova, Jana; Franc, Ales; Fictum, Petr; Sevcikova, Marie; Svobodova, Zdenka

    2014-01-01

    Deoxynivalenol (DON), produced by the Fusarium genus, is a major contaminant of cereal grains used in the production of fish feed. The effect of mycotoxin deoxynivalenol on rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) was studied using a commercial feed with the addition of DON in a dose of 2?mg/kg feed. The fish (n = 40) were exposed to the mycotoxin for 23 days. The trout were divided into two groups, control and experimental groups. Control groups were fed a commercial feed naturally contaminated with a low concentration of DON (225??g/kg feed); experimental groups were fed a commercial feed with the addition of DON (1964??g/kg feed). Plasma biochemical and haematological indices, biometric parameters, and histopathological changes were assessed at the end of the experiment. The experimental groups showed significantly lower values in MCH (P < 0.05). In biochemical indices, after 23-day exposure, a significant decrease in glucose, cholesterol (P < 0.05), and ammonia (P < 0.01) was recorded in the experimental group compared to the control group. Our assessment showed no significant changes in biometric parameters. The histopathological examination revealed disorders in the caudal kidney of the exposed fish. The obtained data show the sensitivity of rainbow trout (O. mykiss) to deoxynivalenol. PMID:24729967

  14. Effect of dystocia and treatment with oxytocin on neonatal calf vitality and acid-base, electrolyte and haematological status.

    PubMed

    Vannucchi, C I; Rodrigues, J A; Silva, L C G; Lúcio, C F; Veiga, G A L

    2015-02-01

    Under adverse obstetrical conditions, appropriate supervision and assistance during the immediate neonatal period are of the utmost importance, especially for weak calves. The aim of this study was to establish the effects of dystocia and oxytocin infusion on neonatal vitality, acid-base balance, and electrolyte and haematological homeostasis of dairy calves. Data were collected for 30 Holstein calves which were allocated to three groups: normal calving (n?=?10); dystocia with mild to severe obstetric assistance (n?=?10); and uterine inertia treated with oxytocin (n?=?10). All 30 calves exhibited normothermia at birth, but had a significant decrease in body temperature after 60?min. Dystocic calves had lower Apgar scores than calves in the other two groups, and had respiratory and metabolic acidosis. Calves from normal calvings had normal blood pH, but base excess below the reference range. The mean partial pressure (Pa) of oxygen of calves whose dam had been treated with oxytocin was lower than that of calves from normal calvings. In all experimental groups, there was improvement in metabolic status in the first 60?min postpartum as PaCO2 values significantly decreased. All calves had normonatraemia, normokalaemia and normochloridaemia during the study period, but calves born to dams treated with oxytocin had a higher sodium concentration than those in the two other groups. PMID:25599899

  15. The effect of mycotoxin deoxynivalenol on haematological and biochemical indicators and histopathological changes in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss).

    PubMed

    Matejova, Iveta; Modra, Helena; Blahova, Jana; Franc, Ales; Fictum, Petr; Sevcikova, Marie; Svobodova, Zdenka

    2014-01-01

    Deoxynivalenol (DON), produced by the Fusarium genus, is a major contaminant of cereal grains used in the production of fish feed. The effect of mycotoxin deoxynivalenol on rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) was studied using a commercial feed with the addition of DON in a dose of 2 mg/kg feed. The fish (n=40) were exposed to the mycotoxin for 23 days. The trout were divided into two groups, control and experimental groups. Control groups were fed a commercial feed naturally contaminated with a low concentration of DON (225? ?g/kg feed); experimental groups were fed a commercial feed with the addition of DON (1964? ?g/kg feed). Plasma biochemical and haematological indices, biometric parameters, and histopathological changes were assessed at the end of the experiment. The experimental groups showed significantly lower values in MCH (P<0.05). In biochemical indices, after 23-day exposure, a significant decrease in glucose, cholesterol (P<0.05), and ammonia (P<0.01) was recorded in the experimental group compared to the control group. Our assessment showed no significant changes in biometric parameters. The histopathological examination revealed disorders in the caudal kidney of the exposed fish. The obtained data show the sensitivity of rainbow trout (O. mykiss) to deoxynivalenol. PMID:24729967

  16. Toxicity of anthraquinones: differential effects of rumex seed extracts on rat organ weights and biochemical and haematological parameters.

    PubMed

    Islam, Rabigul; Mamat, Yultuz; Ismayil, Ilyar; Yan, Ming; Kadir, Mahsutjan; Abdugheny, Abdujilil; Rapkat, Haximjan; Niyaz, Mardan; Ali, Yusupjan; Abay, Sirapil

    2015-05-01

    The genus Rumex and related species such as Rheum and Polygonum are widely used as medicinal herbs and foods. They contain anthraquinones (AQ) such as emodin and chrysophanol as active ingredients, and there is concern about the toxicity of these compounds. This study evaluated the chronic effects of Rumex patientia seed aqueous and ethanolic extracts, in male and female rats separately, on organ weights and over 30 haematological, biochemical and histological parameters, immediately after 14-week administration and after a further period of 15?days without drug treatment. Adverse changes were associated with long-term AQ administration, and these focussed on the liver, lung and kidney, but after 15-day convalescence, most had reverted to normal. In general, male rats appeared to be more susceptible than female rats at similar doses. The water extract produced no irreversible changes, which may reflect the lower dose of the AQ constituents or the presence of different ancillary compounds, and supports the traditional method of extracting Rumex seeds with water. In conclusion, ethanolic extracts of R. patientia caused irreversible pathological changes at very high doses (4000mg/kg), but lower doses and aqueous extracts produced either non-significant or reversible changes. Long-term administration of high doses of AQ extracts over a long period of time should be avoided until further assurances can be given, and given other existing reports of reproductive toxicity, should be avoided altogether during pregnancy. PMID:25753342

  17. Blood antioxidant enzymes (SOD, GPX), biochemical and haematological parameters in pigs naturally infected with porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus.

    PubMed

    Stukelj, M; Toplak, I; Svete, A Nemec

    2013-01-01

    Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS) has become one of the most economically important diseases for the swine industry worldwide. The objective of the study was to determine selected blood antioxidant enzymes (glutathione peroxidase (GPX), superoxide dismutase (SOD)), biochemical and haematological parameters in PRRS positive and negative pigs of three different categories, mainly to test oxidative stress hypothesis in pigs naturally infected with PRRS virus. Ninety PRRS positive and 90 PRRS negative pigs were included in the study. The presence of PRRS was confirmed by serological detection of antibodies against PRRS virus (PRRSV) and detection of PRRS viral RNA by RT-PCR. Pigs were further divided into three groups of 30: piglets just before weaning (weaners), fatteners and finishers. Blood samples for determining selected blood parameters were collected from the vena cava cranialis. Significantly (P < 0.05) higher activities of SOD in weaners and fatteners and of GPX in weaners were determined in PRRS positive pigs than in corresponding groups of PRRS negative pigs. In contrast, significantly (P < 0.05) lower GPX activity was observed in finishers of PRRS positive pigs than in the corresponding group of PRRS negative pigs. Concentrations of serum total protein in PRRS positive weaners and fatteners were significantly (P < 0.05) higher than those found in PRRS negative pigs. Leukopenia was observed in all three groups of PRRS positive pigs. It has been demonstrated, for the first time, that oxidative stress might be increased in PRRSV naturally infected pigs, especially in weaners. PMID:23971206

  18. Effect of xylan oligosaccharides generated from corncobs on food acceptability, growth performance, haematology and immunological parameters of Dicentrarchus labrax fingerlings.

    PubMed

    Abdelmalek, Baha Eddine; Driss, Dorra; Kallel, Fatma; Guargouri, Molka; Missaoui, Hechmi; Chaabouni, Semia Ellouz; Ayadi, Mohamed Ali; Bougatef, Ali

    2015-12-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the effect of two levels of inclusion of xylan oligosaccharides (XOS) extracted from corncob on growth, feed utilization, immune status and disease resistance of Mediterranean sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax) fingerlings. Specimens of 4.75 ± 0.69 g at initial density of 2.7 ± 0.13 kg/m(3) were fed during 12 weeks at 0 g kg(-1) diet, 5 g kg(-1) diet and 10 g kg(-1) diet, dietary XOS level of inclusion in a commercial sea bass diet. Feeding the fish at both XOS dietary inclusion levels significantly increased weight gain, protein efficiency ratio and feed conversion ratio. Feeding of supplemented diets to fish led to reducing mortalities after challenging with A. hydrophila. The haematological and immunological parameters were assayed in both pre-challenged and post-challenged groups. There was an increased trend in red blood corpuscles, white blood corpuscles, pack cell volume, haemoglobin (Hb %) and serum protein content in treated groups over the control as time elapsed with the feeding trials. The serum immunoglobulin level and lysozyme activity showed an increased trend in the fed groups. Histological features of the liver showed lower lipid vacuolization and regular-shaped morphology of hepatocytes around the sinusoidal spaces denoting a better utilization of dietary nutrients supported with the morphometric data. In conclusion, XOS added at a designated dose (5 g kg(-1) diet) in the diet improves growth and stimulates the immunity and makes D. labrax fingerlings more resistant to infection by A. hydrophila. PMID:26242460

  19. Haematological and serum biochemical responses of rabbit does to crude Moringa oleifera leaf extract at gestation and lactation.

    PubMed

    Ewuola, Emmanuel Olubisi; Sokunbi, Olujide Adedamola; Sanni, Kafayat Modupeola; Oyedemi, Oluwaseyi Margaret; Lawal, Temitope Tawakalit

    2015-04-01

    As the plant Moringa oleifera is used in herbal medicines for animals, an experiment was carried out to assess the effects of crude M. oleifera leaf extract (CMOLE) on the blood profile of rabbit does during gestation and lactation. Twenty-four mature does (mean weight 2200 g) housed individually were assigned to four treatments in a completely randomised design. The animals in treatments 2, 3 and 4 were orally given 100, 200 and 300 mL/L CMOLE, respectively, at 2.5 mL/kg body weight at 48 h intervals for 9 weeks. The control animals (treatment 1) were given with water only. All the does were mated with untreated bucks 2 weeks into the experiment. Blood samples were collected at 3rd trimester (day 25 of gestation) and 2nd week of lactation. During gestation, levels of erythrocytes, leukocytes, haematocrit, haemoglobin, lymphocytes, monocytes and eosinophils were not significantly different among the treatments. However, animals on treatment 2 had the highest platelets (148.8?×?10(9)/L), not significantly different from those on treatments 3 (141.5?×?10(9)/L) and 4 (135.0?×?10(9)/L), but higher (p?Haematological parameters during lactation were not significantly different among the treatments. Of the serum biochemical variables examined during gestation, only urea was higher (p?

  20. Haematological profile of 21 patients with hairy cell leukaemia in a tertiary care centre of north India

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Arvind Kumar; Sachdeva, Man Updesh Singh; Ahluwalia, Jasmina; Das, Reena; Naseem, Shano; Sharma, Prashant; Kumar, Narender; Malhotra, Pankaj; Varma, Neelam; Varma, Subhash

    2015-01-01

    Background & objectives: Hairy cell leukaemia (HCL) is a B cell neoplasm which constitutes around 2 per cent of all the lymphoid leukaemias. It has a characteristic morphology and immunophenotypic profile. It is important to distinguish HCL from other B cell lymphoproliferative disorders due to availability of different chemotherapeutic agents. This study presents clinical, haematological and immunophenotypic profile of patients with HCL seen over a period of four years in a tertiary care hospital in north India. Methods: Twenty one cases of hairy cell leukaemia were analyzed for their clinical details, haemogram, bone marrow examination and immunophenotypic findings. Results: Age of the patients ranged from 28-76 yr with male predominance. Weakness and fever were commonest presentations. Splenomegaly, hepatomegaly, lymphadenopathy were seen in decreasing order of frequency. Anaemia was noted in all 21 patients, leukopenia in 15 and thrombocytopenia in 19 cases. Fourteen patients were pancytopenic. Bone marrow examination showed typical hairy cells in all cases. Immunophenotyping showed expression of CD19, CD20, CD103, CD25 and CD11c in all cases, while positivity was seen for CD79b in 93.7 per cent, kappa light chain restriction in 60 per cent and lambda in 40 per cent cases. Notably, 20 per cent showed CD10 and 12 per cent showed CD23 expression. Interpretation & conclusions: This study reveals some unusual findings in otherwise classical disease entity, like absence of palpable spleen, presence of lymphadenopathy, normal or elevated leukocyte counts, expression of CD10, which at times could be diagnostically challenging. PMID:26609034

  1. Effects of iron supplementation twice a week on attention score and haematologic measures in female high school students

    PubMed Central

    Rezaeian, Akram; Ghayour-Mobarhan, Majid; Mazloum, Seyed Reza; Yavari, Mehri; Jafari, Seyed-Ali

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCTION Iron deficiency, associated with a decline in cognitive function, is the most common nutritional deficiency globally. The present study aimed to identify the impact of weekly iron supplements on the attention function of female students from a high school in North Khorasan Province, Iran. METHODS This was a blind, controlled, clinical trial study, involving 200 female students who were chosen using the stratified randomised sampling method. First, laboratory studies were performed to detect iron consumption limitations. Next, the 200 students were divided randomly and equally into case and control groups. The case group was treated with 50 mg of ferrous sulfate twice a week for 16 weeks. We compared both groups’ data on attention, iron status and erythrocyte indices. Questionnaires were used to collect demographic data, while clinical data was collected using complete blood count and Toulouse-Piéron tests. Data was analysed using descriptive statistics, as well as paired and independent t-tests. RESULTS The mean attention scores of the case and control groups were 104.8 ± 7.0 and 52.7 ± 9.6, respectively (p < 0.001). The mean haemoglobin levels of the two groups were 12.5 ± 0.9 and 11.2 ± 1.0, respectively (p < 0.001). Compared to the control group, the attention scores and haemoglobin concentrations of the case group were found to be improved by approximately 90% and 10%, respectively. CONCLUSION Oral iron supplements (50 mg twice a week for 16 weeks) were able to improve the attention span and haematologic indices of female high school students. PMID:25631970

  2. Safety of intra-cerebrospinal fluid chemotherapy in onco-haematological patients: a retrospective analysis of 627 interventions.

    PubMed

    Pardo-Moreno, Javier; Fernández, Cristina; Arroyo, Rafael; Ruiz-Ocańa, Carlos; Aláez, Concepción; Cuadrado, María-Luz

    2015-11-01

    Intra-cerebrospinal fluid chemotherapy (ICC) is used widely to treat or prevent neoplastic meningitis (NM), although its safety has not been thoroughly assessed. We aimed to analyse the incidence, severity and cause of the adverse reactions provoked by ICC in a cohort of onco-haematological patients. We retrospectively reviewed all the adverse reactions related to ICC procedures performed by the same researcher over a 5-year period. We classified them according to their severity and cause, and examined their association with certain characteristics of the patients and interventions. A total of 627 procedures were performed on 124 patients, in which 59 adverse reactions were documented (9.4 %). Thirty-two (54 %) of these were considered severe and 30 (51 %) were due to the drug itself. NM was associated with a higher incidence of adverse reactions (p = 0.002) and severe adverse reactions (p < 0.001). Adverse reactions were more common (p = 0.028) and more often severe (p = 0.008) when an Ommaya reservoir was used, as opposed to the lumbar puncture procedure. The use of liposomal cytarabine was also associated with a higher incidence of adverse reactions (p < 0.001) and serious adverse reactions (p < 0.001) than immediate-release drugs. Liposomal cytarabine provoked more adverse reactions attributable to the drug when administered by lumbar puncture (p = 0.192), whereas the remaining drugs had higher risk when administered via Ommaya reservoir (p = 0.015). ICC seems a relatively safe procedure. Adverse reactions appear to be more frequent when NM is already present. Lumbar puncture seems to be safer than the Ommaya reservoir, except when liposomal cytarabine is administered. PMID:26342710

  3. Mortality, morbidity, and haematological results from a cohort of long-term workers involved in 1,3-butadiene monomer production.

    PubMed Central

    Cowles, S R; Tsai, S P; Snyder, P J; Ross, C E

    1994-01-01

    A retrospective mortality analysis and prospective morbidity and haematological analyses were performed for Shell Deer Park Manufacturing Complex (DPMC) male employees who worked in jobs with potential exposure to 1,3-butadiene from 1948 to 1989. 614 employees qualified for the mortality study (1948-89), 438 of those were still employed during the period of the morbidity study (1982-9), and 429 of those had haematological data available for analysis. Industrial hygiene data from 1979 to 1992 showed that most butadiene exposures did not exceed 10 ppm (eight-hour time weighted average (8 hour TWA)), and most were below 1 ppm, with an arithmetic mean of 3.5 ppm. 24 deaths occurred during the mortality study period. For all causes of death, the standardised mortality ratio (SMR) was 48 (95% confidence interval (95% CI) = 31-72), and the all cancer SMR was 34 (95% CI = 9-87). There were only two deaths due to lung cancer (SMR 42, 95% CI = 5-151) and none due to lymphohaematopoietic cancer (expected = 1.2). Morbidity (illness absence) events of six days or more for the 438 butadiene employees were compared with the rest of the complex. No cause of morbidity was in excess for this group; the all cause standardised morbidity ratio (SMbR) was 85 (95% CI = 77-93) and the all neoplasms SMbR was 51 (95% CI = 22-100). Haematological results for the 429 with laboratory data were compared with results for the rest of the complex. No significant differences occurred between the two groups and the distributions of results between butadiene and non-butadiene groups were virtually identical. These results suggest that butadiene exposures at concentrations common at DPMC in the past 10-20 years do not pose a health hazard to employees. PMID:8199682

  4. The use of body condition and haematology to detect widespread threatening processes in sleepy lizards (Tiliqua rugosa) in two agricultural environments

    PubMed Central

    Smyth, Anita K.; Smee, Elizabeth; Godfrey, Stephanie S.; Crowther, Mathew; Phalen, David

    2014-01-01

    Agricultural practices, including habitat alteration and application of agricultural chemicals, can impact wildlife resulting in their decline. Determining which of these practices are contributing to declines is essential if the declines are to be reversed. In this study, the health of two geographically separated sleepy lizard (Tiliqua rugosa) populations was compared between a rangeland environment and cropping environment using linear body size index (LBSI) and haematology. Animals in the cropping site were smaller, suggesting genetic differences as the result of geographical isolation. The animals in the cropping site had a lower LBSI and many were experiencing a regenerative anaemia. The anaemia was postulated to be the cause of the low LBSI. The anaemia appeared to be the result of haemolysis and was likely to be caused by exposure to agricultural chemicals applied in the cropping site but not the rangeland site. Elevated white blood cell counts in lizards in the rangeland site suggested that they were experiencing an inflammatory disease of possible ecological significance. Together, these results demonstrate the value of combining physical and haematological parameters when studying the impact of agricultural practices on wildlife. They also show that reptiles may be useful as sentinel species for livestock and humans. PMID:26064571

  5. Facilitating Surveillance of Pulmonary Invasive Mold Diseases in Patients with Haematological Malignancies by Screening Computed Tomography Reports Using Natural Language Processing

    PubMed Central

    Ananda-Rajah, Michelle R.; Martinez, David; Slavin, Monica A.; Cavedon, Lawrence; Dooley, Michael; Cheng, Allen; Thursky, Karin A.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Prospective surveillance of invasive mold diseases (IMDs) in haematology patients should be standard of care but is hampered by the absence of a reliable laboratory prompt and the difficulty of manual surveillance. We used a high throughput technology, natural language processing (NLP), to develop a classifier based on machine learning techniques to screen computed tomography (CT) reports supportive for IMDs. Patients and Methods We conducted a retrospective case-control study of CT reports from the clinical encounter and up to 12-weeks after, from a random subset of 79 of 270 case patients with 33 probable/proven IMDs by international definitions, and 68 of 257 uninfected-control patients identified from 3 tertiary haematology centres. The classifier was trained and tested on a reference standard of 449 physician annotated reports including a development subset (n?=?366), from a total of 1880 reports, using 10-fold cross validation, comparing binary and probabilistic predictions to the reference standard to generate sensitivity, specificity and area under the receiver-operating-curve (ROC). Results For the development subset, sensitivity/specificity was 91% (95%CI 86% to 94%)/79% (95%CI 71% to 84%) and ROC area was 0.92 (95%CI 89% to 94%). Of 25 (5.6%) missed notifications, only 4 (0.9%) reports were regarded as clinically significant. Conclusion CT reports are a readily available and timely resource that may be exploited by NLP to facilitate continuous prospective IMD surveillance with translational benefits beyond surveillance alone. PMID:25250675

  6. Effect of feeding cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) root meal on growth performance, hydrocyanide intake and haematological parameters of broiler chicks.

    PubMed

    Akapo, Abiola Olajetemi; Oso, Abimbola Oladele; Bamgbose, Adeyemi Mustapha; Sanwo, Kehinde A; Jegede, Adebayo Vincent; Sobayo, Richard Abayomi; Idowu, Olusegun Mark; Fan, Juexin; Li, Lili; Olorunsola, Rotimi A

    2014-10-01

    The effect of feeding cassava root meal on growth performance, hydrocyanide intake, haematological indices and serum thiocyanate concentration of broiler chicks was investigated using 300-day-old male broilers. There were five dietary treatments arranged in a 2?×?2?+?1 factorial arrangement of two processing methods of cassava root (peeled and unpeeled) included at two levels (100 and 200 g/kg) plus a control diet (maize-based diet, containing no cassava root). Each treatment was replicated six times with ten birds per replicate. The feeding trial lasted for 28 days. Control-fed birds had the highest overall (P?

  7. White Blood Cell Count in Women: Relation to Inflammatory Biomarkers, Haematological Profiles, Visceral Adiposity, and Other Cardiovascular Risk Factors

    PubMed Central

    Farhangi, Mahdieh Abbasalizad; Keshavarz, Seyyed-Ali; Eshraghian, Mohammadreza; Ostadrahimi, Alireza

    2013-01-01

    The role of white blood cell (WBC) count in pathogenesis of diabetes, cardiovascular disease, and obesity-related disorders has been reported earlier. Recent studies revealed that higher WBC contributes to atherosclerotic progression and impaired fasting glucose. However, it is unknown whether variations in WBC and haematologic profiles can occur in healthy obese individuals. The aim of this study is to further evaluate the influence of obesity on WBC count, inflammatory biomarkers, and metabolic risk factors in healthy women to establish a relationship among variables analyzed. The sample of the present study consisted of 84 healthy women with mean age of 35.56±6.83 years. They were categorized into two groups based on their body mass index (BMI): obese group with BMI >30 kg/m2 and non-obese group with BMI <30 kg/m2. We evaluated the relationship between WBC and platelet count (PLT) with serum interleukin 6 (IL-6), C-reactive protein (CRP), angiotensin ? (Ang ?), body fat percentage (BF %), waist-circumference (WC), and lipid profile. WBC, PLT, CRP, and IL-6 in obese subjects were significantly higher than in non-obese subjects (p< 0.05). The mean WBC count in obese subjects was 6.4±0.3 (×109/L) compared to 4.4±0.3 (×109/L) in non-obese subjects (p=0.035). WBC correlated with BF% (r=0.31, p=0.004), CRP (r=0.25, P=0.03), WC (r=0.22, p=0.04), angiotensin ? (r=0.24, p=0.03), triglyceride (r=0.24, p=0.03), and atherogenic index of plasma (AIP) levels (r=0.3, p=0.028) but not with IL-6. Platelet count was also associated with WC and waist-to-hip ratio (p<0.05). Haemoglobin and haematocrit were in consistent relationship with LDL-cholesterol (p<0.05). In conclusion, obesity was associated with higher WBC count and inflammatory parameters. There was also a positive relationship between WBC count and several inflammatory and metabolic risk factors in healthy women. PMID:23617205

  8. The Socio-Demographic and Clinical Factors Associated with Quality of Life among Patients with Haematological Cancer in a Large Government Hospital in Malaysia

    PubMed Central

    Priscilla, Das; Hamidin, Awang; Azhar, Md Zain; Noorjan, Kon; Salmiah, Md Said; Bahariah, Khalid

    2011-01-01

    Background: The paper examined the quality of life of haematological cancer patients according to their socio-demographic profiles and clinical diagnoses. Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted at the tertiary referral centre of Ampang Hospital, Kuala Lumpur, involving 105 patients. The European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer Quality of Life (EORTC QLQ-C30) questionnaire was used to measure their quality of life. Results: The study involved patients diagnosed with all types of haematological cancer, including non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL), acute myelogenous leukaemia (AML), acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL), Hodgkin lymphoma (HL), and multiple myeloma (MM), with a response rate of 83.3%. The patients with ALL, HL, without NHL, and without MM were younger than other patients. There were significant differences in quality of life scores in different socio-demographic groups and types of cancer diagnosis. The global quality of life of the female patients was much better than that of the male patients. Patients who were 40 years old or younger had a better global quality of life and physical functioning, as well as fewer symptoms of constipation, nausea, and vomiting. Employed patients were in less pain but showed greater impairments of cognitive function than did unemployed patients. Patients who earned a monthly wage of RM1000 or less had reduced physical function, more symptoms of pain, and more financial difficulties compared with patients who earned more. Patients with AML tended to have better physical functioning than did patients with MM, whose physical functioning was impaired. Comparatively, more symptoms of dyspnoea were found in ALL and HL patients than in other types of lymphoma. Compared with other patients, those with ALL had a greater loss of appetite, and other lymphoma patients had fewer symptoms of pain. Patients with NHL had impaired role functioning and more constipation compared with other patients. The results were all statistically significant (P < 0.05). Conclusion: The quality of life of haematological cancer patients is affected by socio-demographic factors and clinical diagnoses. Efforts should be made to improve the overall quality of life of these patients. PMID:22135601

  9. Inhibition of bromodomain and extra-terminal proteins (BET) as a potential therapeutic approach in haematological malignancies: emerging preclinical and clinical evidence

    PubMed Central

    Chaidos, Aristeidis; Caputo, Valentina

    2015-01-01

    Post-translational modifications of the nucleosomal histone proteins orchestrate chromatin organization and gene expression in normal and cancer cells. Among them, the acetylation of N-terminal histone tails represents the fundamental epigenetic mark of open structure chromatin and active gene transcription. The bromodomain and extra-terminal (BET) proteins are epigenetic readers which utilize tandem bromodomains (BRD) modules to recognize and dock themselves on the acetylated lysine tails. The BET proteins act as scaffolds for the recruitment of transcription factors and chromatin organizers required in transcription initiation and elongation. The recent discovery of small molecules capable of blocking their lysine-binding pocket is the first paradigm of successful pharmacological inhibition of epigenetic readers. JQ1 is a prototype benzodiazepine molecule and a specific BET inhibitor with antineoplastic activity both in solid tumours and haematological malignancies. The quinolone I-BET151 and the suitable for clinical development I-BET762 benzodiazepine were introduced in parallel with JQ1 and have also shown potent antitumour activity in preclinical studies. I-BET762 is currently being tested in early phase clinical trials, along with a rapidly growing list of other BET inhibitors. Unlike older epigenetic therapies, the study of BET inhibitors has offered substantial, context-specific, mechanistic insights of their antitumour activity, which will facilitate optimal therapeutic targeting in future. Here, we review the development of this novel class of epigenetic drugs, the biology of BET protein inhibition, the emerging evidence from preclinical work and early phase clinical studies and we discuss their potential role in the treatment of haematological malignancies. PMID:26137204

  10. Comparative study of growth traits and haematological parameters of Anak and Nigerian heavy ecotype chickens fed with graded levels of mango seed kernel (Mangifera indica) meal.

    PubMed

    Mbunwen, Ndofor-Foleng Harriet; Ngongeh, Lucas Atehmengo; Okolie, Peter Nzeribe; Okoli, Emeka Linus

    2015-08-01

    One hundred fifty Anak and 120 Nigerian heavy local ecotype (NHLE) chickens were used to study the effects of feeding graded levels of mango seed kernel meal (MKM) replacing maize diet on growth traits and haematological parameters. A 2?×?5 factorial arrangement was employed: two breeds and five diets. The birds were randomly allocated to five finisher diets formulated such that MKM replaced maize at 0, 10, 20, 30 and 40% (T1, T2, T3, T4 and T5) inclusion levels, respectively. The effect of breed and dietary treatments on growth performance and blood characteristics were determined. The results showed a significant (P?haematological indices (RBC, Hb, MCV, MCH and MCHC count) were not significant (P?>?0.05) when the breeds and treatments were compared. It was concluded that inclusion of dietary MKM below 30% could replace maize in the diets of Anak and NHLE growing chickens without adverse effect on growth performance and blood constituents. This work suggests that genetic differences exist in growth traits of these breeds of chickens. This advantage could be useful in breed improvement programmes and better feeding managements of the NHLE and Anak chickens. PMID:25939914

  11. Impact of portable air filtration units on exposure of haematology-oncology patients to airborne Aspergillus fumigatus spores under field conditions.

    PubMed

    Engelhart, S; Hanfland, J; Glasmacher, A; Krizek, L; Schmidt-Wolf, I G H; Exner, M

    2003-08-01

    We undertook a one-year study to investigate the impact of the NSA model 7100A/B portable air filtration unit on exposure of haematology-oncology patients to airborne Aspergillus fumigatus spores under field conditions. Weekly measurements for airborne A. fumigatus were conducted in indoor and outdoor air, and surveillance for invasive aspergillosis was based on a combination of ward liaison, targeted chart review and consultation with the medical staff. The mean indoor A. fumigatus counts (8.1 cfu/m3; range, <0.8 to 42 cfu/m3) reflected the fungal load of outdoor air (9.4 cfu/m3; range, <0.8 to 50 cfu/m3), and were reduced by only about one third in rooms with portable air filtration units (5.3 cfu/m3; range, <0.8 to 41 cfu/m3). During the study period, a total of five cases (incidence density, 0.8 per 1000 patient-days) of invasive aspergillosis (one proven case, four suspected cases; case fatality rate 40%) were recorded. None of these five patients was allocated to a room with portable air filtration unit, however, the difference between incidence densities in rooms with and without portable air filtration units was non-significant (Fisher's exact test, P=0.33). Due to the noise level and thermal discomfort, patient compliance with the air filtration units was poor. We conclude that under field conditions this air filtration unit cannot be recommended for prevention of invasive aspergillosis in neutropenic haematology-oncology patients. PMID:12919761

  12. Inhibition of bromodomain and extra-terminal proteins (BET) as a potential therapeutic approach in haematological malignancies: emerging preclinical and clinical evidence.

    PubMed

    Chaidos, Aristeidis; Caputo, Valentina; Karadimitris, Anastasios

    2015-06-01

    Post-translational modifications of the nucleosomal histone proteins orchestrate chromatin organization and gene expression in normal and cancer cells. Among them, the acetylation of N-terminal histone tails represents the fundamental epigenetic mark of open structure chromatin and active gene transcription. The bromodomain and extra-terminal (BET) proteins are epigenetic readers which utilize tandem bromodomains (BRD) modules to recognize and dock themselves on the acetylated lysine tails. The BET proteins act as scaffolds for the recruitment of transcription factors and chromatin organizers required in transcription initiation and elongation. The recent discovery of small molecules capable of blocking their lysine-binding pocket is the first paradigm of successful pharmacological inhibition of epigenetic readers. JQ1 is a prototype benzodiazepine molecule and a specific BET inhibitor with antineoplastic activity both in solid tumours and haematological malignancies. The quinolone I-BET151 and the suitable for clinical development I-BET762 benzodiazepine were introduced in parallel with JQ1 and have also shown potent antitumour activity in preclinical studies. I-BET762 is currently being tested in early phase clinical trials, along with a rapidly growing list of other BET inhibitors. Unlike older epigenetic therapies, the study of BET inhibitors has offered substantial, context-specific, mechanistic insights of their antitumour activity, which will facilitate optimal therapeutic targeting in future. Here, we review the development of this novel class of epigenetic drugs, the biology of BET protein inhibition, the emerging evidence from preclinical work and early phase clinical studies and we discuss their potential role in the treatment of haematological malignancies. PMID:26137204

  13. R306465 is a novel potent inhibitor of class I histone deacetylases with broad-spectrum antitumoral activity against solid and haematological malignancies

    PubMed Central

    Arts, J; Angibaud, P; Mariën, A; Floren, W; Janssens, B; King, P; van Dun, J; Janssen, L; Geerts, T; Tuman, R W; Johnson, D L; Andries, L; Jung, M; Janicot, M; van Emelen, K

    2007-01-01

    R306465 is a novel hydroxamate-based histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitor with broad-spectrum antitumour activity against solid and haematological malignancies in preclinical models. R306465 was found to be a potent inhibitor of HDAC1 and -8 (class I) in vitro. It rapidly induced histone 3 (H3) acetylation and strongly upregulated expression of p21waf1,cip1, a downstream component of HDAC1 signalling, in A2780 ovarian carcinoma cells. R306465 showed class I HDAC isotype selectivity as evidenced by poor inhibition of HDAC6 (class IIb) confirmed by the absence of downregulation of Hsp90 chaperone c-raf protein expression and tubulin acetylation. This distinguished it from other HDAC inhibitors currently in clinical development that were either more potent towards HDAC6 (e.g. vorinostat) or had a broader HDAC inhibition spectrum (e.g. panobinostat). R306465 potently inhibited cell proliferation of all main solid tumour indications, including ovarian, lung, colon, breast and prostate cancer cell lines, with IC50 values ranging from 30 to 300?nM. Haematological cell lines, including acute lymphoblastic leukaemia, acute myeloid leukaemia, chronic lymphoblastic leukaemia, chronic myeloid leukaemia, lymphoma and myeloma, were potently inhibited at a similar concentration range. R306465 induced apoptosis and inhibited angiogenesis in cell-based assays and had potent oral in vivo antitumoral activity in xenograft models. Once-daily oral administration of R306465 at well-tolerated doses inhibited the growth of A2780 ovarian, H460 lung and HCT116 colon carcinomas in immunodeficient mice. The high activity of R306465 in cell-based assays and in vivo after oral administration makes R306465 a promising novel antitumoral agent with potential applicability in a broad spectrum of human malignancies. PMID:18000499

  14. A therapeutic-only versus prophylactic platelet transfusion strategy for preventing bleeding in patients with haematological disorders after myelosuppressive chemotherapy or stem cell transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Crighton, Gemma L; Estcourt, Lise J; Wood, Erica M; Trivella, Marialena; Doree, Carolyn; Stanworth, Simon

    2015-01-01

    Background Platelet transfusions are used in modern clinical practice to prevent and treat bleeding in thrombocytopenic patients with bone marrow failure. Although considerable advances have been made in platelet transfusion therapy in the last 40 years, some areas continue to provoke debate, especially concerning the use of prophylactic platelet transfusions for the prevention of thrombocytopenic bleeding. This is an update of a Cochrane review first published in 2004 and updated in 2012 that addressed four separate questions: therapeutic-only versus prophylactic platelet transfusion policy; prophylactic platelet transfusion threshold; prophylactic platelet transfusion dose; and platelet transfusions compared to alternative treatments. We have now split this review into four smaller reviews looking at these questions individually; this review is the first part of the original review. Objectives To determine whether a therapeutic-only platelet transfusion policy (platelet transfusions given when patient bleeds) is as effective and safe as a prophylactic platelet transfusion policy (platelet transfusions given to prevent bleeding, usually when the platelet count falls below a given trigger level) in patients with haematological disorders undergoing myelosuppressive chemotherapy or stem cell transplantation. Search methods We searched for randomised controlled trials (RCTs) in the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (Cochrane Library 2015, Issue 6), MEDLINE (from 1946), Embase (from 1974), CINAHL (from 1937), the Transfusion Evidence Library (from 1950) and ongoing trial databases to 23 July 2015. Selection criteria RCTs involving transfusions of platelet concentrates prepared either from individual units of whole blood or by apheresis, and given to prevent or treat bleeding in patients with malignant haematological disorders receiving myelosuppressive chemotherapy or undergoing HSCT. Data collection and analysis We used standard methodological procedures expected by The Cochrane Collaboration. Main results We identified seven RCTs that compared therapeutic platelet transfusions to prophylactic platelet transfusions in haematology patients undergoing myelosuppressive chemotherapy or HSCT. One trial is still ongoing, leaving six trials eligible with a total of 1195 participants. These trials were conducted between 1978 and 2013 and enrolled participants from fairly comparable patient populations. We were able to critically appraise five of these studies, which contained separate data for each arm, and were unable to perform quantitative analysis on one study that did not report the numbers of participants in each treatment arm. Overall the quality of evidence per outcome was low to moderate according to the GRADE approach. None of the included studies were at low risk of bias in every domain, and all the studies identified had some threats to validity. We deemed only one study to be at low risk of bias in all domains other than blinding. Two RCTs (801 participants) reported at least one bleeding episode within 30 days of the start of the study. We were unable to perform a meta-analysis due to considerable statistical heterogeneity between studies. The statistical heterogeneity seen may relate to the different methods used in studies for the assessment and grading of bleeding. The underlying patient diagnostic and treatment categories also appeared to have some effect on bleeding risk. Individually these studies showed a similar effect, that a therapeutic-only platelet transfusion strategy was associated with an increased risk of clinically significant bleeding compared with a prophylactic platelet transfusion policy. Number of days with a clinically significant bleeding event per participant was higher in the therapeutic-only group than in the prophylactic group (one RCT; 600 participants; mean difference 0.50, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.10 to 0.90; moderate-quality evidence). There was insufficient evidence to determine whether there was any difference in the number of participants with severe or life-threat

  15. Antiviral prophylaxis in patients with solid tumours and haematological malignancies--update of the Guidelines of the Infectious Diseases Working Party (AGIHO) of the German Society for Hematology and Medical Oncology (DGHO).

    PubMed

    Sandherr, Michael; Hentrich, Marcus; von Lilienfeld-Toal, Marie; Massenkeil, Gero; Neumann, Silke; Penack, Olaf; Biehl, Lena; Cornely, Oliver A

    2015-09-01

    Reactivation of viral infections is common in patients with solid tumour or haematological malignancy. Incidence and severity depend on the extent of cellular immunosuppression. Antiviral prophylaxis may be effective to prevent viral reactivation. In 2006, the Infectious Diseases Working Party of German Society for Hematology and Medical Oncology (DGHO) published guidelines for antiviral prophylaxis in these patient populations. Here, we present an update of these guidelines for patients with solid and haematological malignancies undergoing antineoplastic treatment but not allogeneic stem cell transplantation. Relevant literature for reactivation of different viruses (herpes simplex virus (HSV), varicella zoster virus (VZV), hepatitis B virus (HBV) and respiratory viruses) is discussed to provide evidence-based recommendations for clinicians taking care of this patient population. We recommend a risk-adapted approach with (val)acyclovir against HSV and VZV in patients treated with alemtuzumab, bortezomib or purine analogues. Seasonal vaccination against influenza is recommended for all patients with solid or haematological malignancies regardless of antineoplastic therapy. Hepatitis B screening is recommended in lymphoproliferative disorders, acute leukaemia, and breast cancer, and during treatment with monoclonal anti-B-cell antibodies, anthracyclines, steroids and in autologous stem cell transplantation. In those with a history of hepatitis B prophylactic lamivudine, entecavir or nucleotide analogues as adefovir are recommended to prevent reactivation. PMID:26193852

  16. Prediction of central venous catheter-related bloodstream infections (CRBSIs) in patients with haematologic malignancies using a modified Infection Probability Score (mIPS).

    PubMed

    Schalk, Enrico; Hanus, Lynn; Färber, Jacqueline; Fischer, Thomas; Heidel, Florian H

    2015-09-01

    The aim of this study was to predict the probability of central venous catheter-related bloodstream infections (CRBSIs) in patients with haematologic malignancies using a modified version of the Infection Probability Score (mIPS). In order to perform a prospective, mono-centric surveillance of complications in clinical routine due to short-term central venous catheters (CVCs) in consecutive patients receiving chemotherapy from March 2013 to September 2014, IPS was calculated at CVC insertion and removal (mIPSin and mIPSex, respectively). We used the 2012 Infectious Diseases Working Party of the German Society of Haematology and Medical Oncology (AGIHO/DGHO) criteria to define CRBSI. In total, 143 patients (mean 59.5 years, 61.4 % male) with 267 triple-lumen CVCs (4044 CVC days; mean 15.1 days, range 1-60 days) were analysed. CVCs were inserted for therapy of acute leukaemia (53.2 %), multiple myeloma (24.3 %) or lymphoma (11.2 %), and 93.6 % were inserted in the jugular vein. A total of 66 CRBSI cases (24.7 %) were documented (12 definite/13 probable/41 possible). The incidence was 16.3/1000 CVC days (2.9/3.1/10.1 per 1000 CVC days for definite/probable/possible CRBSI, respectively). In CRBSI cases, the mIPSex was higher as compared to cases without CRBSI (13.1 vs. 7.1; p?

  17. Haematological and biochemical reference intervals for three species of hydrophiine sea snakes (Hydrophis curtus, H. elegans and H. peronii) in Australia.

    PubMed

    Gillett, Amber K; Flint, Mark; Hulse, Lyndal; Hanger, Jon; Mills, Paul C

    2015-06-01

    This study presents the first set of comprehensive reference intervals (RIs) for plasma biochemistry and haematology for three species of sea snakes common to the Indo-Pacific waters of Australia. In total 98 snakes, composed of Hydrophis curtus (n=?60), H. elegans (n?=?27) and H. peronii (n?=?11), were captured, clinically examined and had venous blood samples collected. All snakes were deemed healthy and in good to excellent body condition with snout to vent lengths of 40.7-73.9?cm (H. curtus), 68.9-131.4?cm (H. elegans) and 55.0-83.0?cm (H. peronii), respectively. Lymphocyte numbers, alkaline phosphatase, alanine aminotransferase, creatine kinase and lactate dehydrogenase levels were species-dependent. All other parameters are presented as a single range for the three species. Gender ratio was evenly distributed for H. curtus and H. elegans, but 8/11 (73%) of H. peronii were males. No significant differences were detected between males and females for any of the measured blood parameters. Lymph contamination was considered and accounted for. Although only three species of sea snakes are represented in this study, the RIs generated may be useful in the clinical assessment of other sea snake species. PMID:25933825

  18. Haematological and immunological adaptations of non-pregnant, non-lactating dairy cows to a high-energetic diet containing mycotoxins.

    PubMed

    Dänicke, Sven; Meyer, Ulrich; Winkler, Janine; Ulrich, Sebastian; Frahm, Jana; Kersten, Susanne; Valenta, Hana; Rehage, Jürgen; Häussler, Susanne; Sauerwein, Helga; Locher, Lena

    2016-02-01

    Diet change and fatness are supposed to challenge the immune system of the cow. Therefore, immunological and haematological consequences of adaptation to and continued feeding of a high-energy diet were studied in eight non-pregnant, non-lactating Holstein cows over 16 weeks. Blood haptoglobin concentration remained unaltered, suggesting that an acute phase reaction was not induced. Stimulation ability of peripheral blood mononuclear cells and stimulated oxidative burst capacity of granulocytes increased significantly in the course of the experiment after an initial drop. While total leucocyte counts increased, the proportion of granulocytes increased and that of lymphocytes decreased at the same time as the ratio of CD4(+)/CD8(+) lymphocytes did. Capability of rumen microbes to detoxify the immune-modulating mycotoxin deoxynivalenol (DON) was not compromised as indicated by the exclusive presence of de-DON as the detoxified DON metabolite in blood. In conclusion, both diet change and prolonged positive energy balance influenced the bovine immune system. PMID:26654380

  19. Comparison of selected haematological and biochemical indices and behaviour patterns of pheasant hens kept in different housing systems during the laying period.

    PubMed

    Voslarova, Eva; Bedanova, Iveta; Radisavljevic, Katarina; Hrabcakova, Petra; Marsalek, Petr; Vecerek, Vladimir

    2015-01-01

    Selected haematological and biochemical indices and behaviour patterns were monitored in cage-housed pheasant hens during the peak-of-lay egg laying period. Lower counts of monocytes (p = 0.035) and concentrations of plasma biopterin (p = 0.020) and higher concentrations of plasma neopterin (p = 0.005) and plasma phosphorus (p = 0.025) were found in spectacles-fitted pheasant hens kept in conventional cages compared to non-spectacled hens kept in enriched cages. Even more pronounced effects of the housing system were revealed by analysis of the behaviour of pheasant hens: spectacles-fitted pheasant hens kept in conventional cages exhibited higher occurrences of movement (p = 0.045), stereotyped behaviour (p = 0.039), and aggression (p = 0.004), and lower rates of feeding (p = 0.009), drinking (p < 0.001), defecation (p = 0.038), preening (p = 0.013), and feather pecking (p < 0.001). Our results show that the relatively easy and inexpensive enrichment of the cage environment (two perches, a simple hideout) where breeding groups of common pheasants are housed during the laying period can significantly contribute to the health and welfare (including the ability to express natural behaviour patterns) of pheasants kept in commercial cage systems. PMID:26591380

  20. Effects of doxycycline on haematology, blood chemistry and peripheral blood lymphocyte subsets of healthy dogs and dogs naturally infected with Ehrlichia canis.

    PubMed

    Villaescusa, A; García-Sancho, M; Rodríguez-Franco, F; Tesouro, M Á; Sainz, Á

    2015-06-01

    Canine monocytic ehrlichiosis (CME), caused by Ehrlichia canis, is a vector-borne disease with a worldwide distribution. It has been proposed that the pathogenesis, clinical severity and outcome of disease caused by Ehrlichia spp. can be attributed to the immune response rather than to any direct rickettsial effect. Moreover, doxycycline, the antimicrobial of choice for the treatment of CME, has immunomodulatory and anti-inflammatory properties associated with blood leukocyte proliferation function, cytokine synthesis, and matrix metalloproteinase activity. In order to assess the potential effects of doxycycline, dependent and independent of its antimicrobial activity, the present study compared changes in haematology, blood chemistry and circulating lymphocyte subpopulations in 12 healthy dogs and 20 dogs with CME after doxycycline therapy. Some changes were recorded only in the CME affected dogs, probably due to the antimicrobial effect of doxycycline. However, increases in mean corpuscular haemoglobin, mean corpuscular haemoglobin concentration, platelet count and ?2-globulins, and decreased plasma creatinine were observed in both healthy and CME affected dogs. The absolute count of B lymphocytes (CD21(+)) increased initially, but then decreased until the end of the study period in both groups. A potential effect of doxycycline unrelated to its antimicrobial activity against E.?canis is suggested, taking into account the results observed both in healthy dogs and in dogs with CME. PMID:25957920

  1. Serum haematological and biochemical indices of oxidative stress and their relationship with DNA damage and homocysteine in Pakistani type II diabetic patients.

    PubMed

    Bukhari, Shazia Anwer; Javed, Sadia; Ali, Muhammad; Shahzadi, Andleeb; Rehman, Mahmoodur

    2015-05-01

    Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a heterogeneous metabolic disorder characterized by chronic hyperglycaemia, higher glycated hemoglobin (HbA1C) as well as protein. Oxidative stress can cause damage to leukocytic DNA and enhancement of homocysteine (Hcy) level in sera of type 2 diabetic patients. Haematological and biochemical parameters are severely affected by oxidative stress, which results in damages to DNA and Hcy in these patients. Eighty DM patients and 80 normal subjects, after having their consent, were selected for the present study. Leukocytes were characterized for DNA damage by comet assay kit while, blood plasma was taken into account for biochemical indices using commercial test kits. Results indicated that DNA damage was strongly linked with erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) (P<0.01), glycated hemoglobin (HbA1C) (P<0.0001), glycated serum protein (P<0.005), cholesterol (P<0.011), triglycerides (P<0.001), albumin (P<0.001), creatinine (P<0.006), urea (P<0.007) and ALT (P<0.02), and negatively associated with packed cell volume (PCV) (P<0.002) and hemoglobin (P<0.001). Homocysteine was strongly linked with ESR, HbA1C, glycated protein (P<0.002), cholesterol (P<0.016), triglycerides (P<0.0001), albumin, creatinine, urea, ALT and AST in diabetic patients. Hyc and DNA damages both were negatively linked with total hemoglobin and PCV. Both of these even in their normal range may have a role in the endothelium damage. Nutritional intervention to lower down Hyc and DNA damages in the Pakistani population may mitigate their effect and guarantee in maintenance of a healthy nation. PMID:26004721

  2. The effects of inulin supplementation of diets with or without hydrolysed protein sources on digestibility, faecal characteristics, haematology and immunoglobulins in dogs.

    PubMed

    Verlinden, A; Hesta, M; Hermans, J M; Janssens, G P J

    2006-11-01

    Dogs with food allergy are often treated by giving a diet with hydrolysed protein sources. Prebiotics might also be successful in prevention and treatment of allergic disease through their effect on the colonic microflora, analogous to studies on probiotics in allergic children. The present study was set up to investigate the effect of supplementing inulin (IN) to commercial hypoallergenic dog diets on apparent nutrient digestibility, faecal characteristics, haematology and Ig in dogs. Supplementation of 3 % IN did not affect faecal pH, food and water intake and urine production. Compared with the intact protein diet with a limited number of ingredients (L), the diet with a hydrolysed protein source (H) resulted in an increased water intake (P<0.001), which could be due to the osmotic effect of free amino acids. Faeces production was increased by IN due to increased faecal moisture content. Increased faeces production on the H diet was mainly due to a higher DM excretion. Subsequently, the apparent digestibility coefficient (ADC) of DM was lower in the H diet group. A similar result was noted for ADC of diethyl ether extract and crude ash. The ADC of crude protein was higher in the H diet group, whereas IN decreased the ADC of crude protein. Differences in the ADC of crude protein among the different diets disappeared after correction for a higher faecal biomass, except for the dogs fed the L+IN diet. Total faecal IgA concentrations were lower in the H group (P<0.05) because of lower antigenic stimulation of hydrolysed protein, which implies that hydrolysed protein is really hypoallergenic. The present study indicates that the use of hydrolysed protein diets for canine food allergy treatment can affect digestibility and that combination with IN affected apparent protein digestibility but not IgA response. PMID:17092385

  3. A prospective, randomized study comparing cefepime and imipenem-cilastatin in the empirical treatment of febrile neutropenia in patients treated for haematological malignancies.

    PubMed

    Cherif, Honar; Björkholm, Magnus; Engervall, Per; Johansson, Peter; Ljungman, Per; Hast, Robert; Kalin, Mats

    2004-01-01

    A prospective, open label, randomized, multicentre study was conducted, comparing the efficacy and safety of cefepime with that of imipenem-cilastatin for the management of febrile neutropenia in patients with haematological malignancies. Furthermore, the safety of early discontinuation of antibiotic therapy in patients with fever of undetermined origin (FUO) was assessed. A total of 180 patients with 207 febrile episodes were randomized at start of fever (105 episodes for cefepime and 102 episodes for imipenem). The 2 groups were comparable in terms of age, gender, underlying malignancy, prior transplantation, and presence of central venous catheters. All patients were neutropenic at inclusion with median absolute neutrophil count (ANC) 0.1 x 10(9)/l(range 0-1 x 10(9)/l), and ANC < or = 0.1 x 10(9)/l in 77% of included patients. The mean duration of neutropenia, with ANC < 0.5 x 10(9)/l was 6.2 d. Febrile episodes were classified as microbiologically documented infection (47%), FUO (43%), or clinically documented infection (10%). At final evaluation 1-2 weeks after completion of antibiotic therapy, monotherapy success rates were 40% and 51% in the cefepime and imipenem-cilastatin groups respectively (p = 0.33). The 4-week overall mortality rate was 5%. Three (2%) of the cefepime treated patients and 4 (3%) of the imipenem-cilastatin treated patients died as a result of infection. Adverse events directly related to antibiotic treatment were uncommon and did not differ between groups. Early discontinuation of antibiotic therapy in 31 patients with FUO 48 h after defervescence was not associated with an increased rate of fever relapse or mortality compared with a subgroup of 29 patients where therapy was continued. PMID:15370671

  4. Comparative effects of using black seed (Nigella sativa), cumin seed (Cuminum cyminum), probiotic or prebiotic on growth performance, blood haematology and serum biochemistry of broiler chicks.

    PubMed

    Alimohamadi, K; Taherpour, K; Ghasemi, H A; Fatahnia, F

    2014-06-01

    A 42-day trial was conducted to compare the effects of the following seven experimental diets, which varied in black seed, cumin seed, probiotic or prebiotic concentrations, on the broiler chicks: control (no additives), diet BS1 (4 g/kg black seed), diet BS2 (8 g/kg black seed), diet CS1 (4 g/kg cumin seed), diet CS2 (8 g/kg cumin seed), diet Pro (1 g/kg probiotic Primalac(®)) and diet Pre (2 g/kg prebiotic Fermacto(®)). A total of 420 1-day-old male broiler chicks, initially weighing an average of 43 g, were distributed into 28 floor pens at a stocking density of 15 birds per pen. At 28 day of age, the body weight in the birds fed diets BS2, CS2 and Pro was significantly higher than in the control group, but final body weight was not affected. Additionally, the birds fed diets BS2, Pro and Pre exhibited better feed conversion ratio than control birds from 0 to 42 day of age. Diets BS2, CS2 and Pro also statistically increased the relative weight of thymus and bursa of Fabricius, whereas only diet Pro decreased the abdominal fat percentage compared with control diet. Regarding the haematological parameters, feeding diet BS2 yielded a significant increase in red blood cell count, haemoglobin concentration and haematocrit percentage compared with control diet. Serum total cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels in the birds fed diets BS2, Pro and Pre were also significantly lower than in the birds fed the control diet. Without exception, no diets affected feed intake, internal organs weights, carcass characteristics, antibody titres against Newcastle and influenza viruses and leucocyte subsets. In general, current study showed promising results regarding the use of spice additives as growth and health promoters, especially at higher levels of their incorporation in the diets, which were comparable to the probiotic- or prebiotic-containing diets. PMID:23909469

  5. Effects of iron-glycine chelate on growth, carcass characteristic, liver mineral concentrations and haematological and biochemical blood parameters in broilers.

    PubMed

    Kwiecie?, M; Samoli?ska, W; Bujanowicz-Hara?, B

    2015-12-01

    Studies were carried out to determine the effect of additive iron-glycine chelate on the production performance, slaughter yield, mineral deposition in the liver and the metabolic blood panel in broiler chickens. A total of 250 one-day-old Ross 308 chicks were allotted into five groups with five replicates of 10 birds each. Diets were supplemented with the organic form iron (Fe-Gly at the rate of 25%, 50% or 100% of the total requirements of the elements) and inorganic Fe (FeSO4 at the rate of 50% or 100%). In the experiment, iron was added to the premix (containing no Fe) in an amount of 40 or 20 mg per kg of basal diet, in groups I and II, in the form of FeSO4 , and in an amount of 40, 20 or 10 mg per kg of basal diet, in groups III, IV and V, in the form of Fe-Gly. The study covering the period from the first to the 42nd day of breeding revealed that the production performance and slaughter yield were not dependent on the form and amount of added Fe. In the experimental groups with the addition of Fe-Gly of 20 or 10 mg/kg, there were no deaths of chickens during the whole fattening period. As a result, introducing an organic form of iron covering 50% and 25% of the birds' requirement increased the effectiveness of chicken fattening (European Efficiency Index) (p < 0.01). An organic Fe compound (40, 20 or 10 mg/kg) added to mixtures contributed to significant changes in the level of biochemical and haematological indicators in blood. The study demonstrated that an addition of Fe-Gly to mixtures for broilers can be fully effective in terms of production and health performance even if the suggested requirement for this element is 50% or 25% covered. PMID:25865671

  6. Do We Know Why We Make Errors in Morphological Diagnosis? An Analysis of Approach and Decision-Making in Haematological Morphology

    PubMed Central

    Brereton, Michelle; De La Salle, Barbara; Ardern, John; Hyde, Keith; Burthem, John

    2015-01-01

    Summary Background The laboratory interpretation of blood film morphology is frequently a rapid, accurate, and cost-effective final-stage of blood count analysis. However, the interpretation of findings often rests with a single individual, and errors can carry significant impact. Cell identification and classification skills are well supported by existing resources, but the contribution and importance of other skills are less well understood. Methods The UK external quality assurance group in haematology (UK NEQAS(H)) runs a Continued Professional Development scheme where large digital-images of abnormal blood smears are presented using a web-based virtual microscope. Each case is answered by more than 800 individuals. Morphological feature selection and prioritisation, as well as diagnosis and proposed action, are recorded. We analysed the responses of participants, aiming to identify successful strategies as well as sources of error. Findings The approach to assessment by participants depended on the affected cell type, case complexity or skills of the morphologist. For cases with few morphological abnormalities, we found that accurate cell identification and classification were the principle requirements for success. For more complex films however, feature recognition and prioritisation had primary importance. Additionally however, we found that participants employed a range of heuristic techniques to support their assessment, leading to associated bias and error. Interpretation A wide range of skills together allow successful morphological assessment and the complexity of this process is not always understood or recognised. Heuristic techniques are widely employed to support or reinforce primary observations and to simplify complex findings. These approaches are effective and are integral to assessment; however they may also be a source of bias or error. Improving outcomes and supporting diagnosis require the development of decision-support mechanisms that identify and support the benefits of heuristic strategies while identifying or avoiding associated biases. Funding The CPD scheme is funded by participant subscription. PMID:26501122

  7. Cost analysis of voriconazole versus liposomal amphotericin B for primary therapy of invasive aspergillosis among patients with haematological disorders in Germany and Spain

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The current healthcare climate demands pharmacoeconomic evaluations for different treatment strategies incorporating drug acquisition costs, costs incurred for hospitalisation, drug administration and preparation, diagnostic and laboratory testing and drug-related adverse events (AEs). Here we evaluate the pharmacoeconomics of voriconazole versus liposomal amphotericin B as first-line therapies for invasive aspergillosis (IA) in patients with haematological malignancy and prolonged neutropenia or who were undergoing haematopoietic stem-cell transplantation in Germany or Spain. Methods A decision analytic model based on a decision tree was constructed to estimate the potential treatment costs of voriconazole versus liposomal amphotericin B. Each model pathway was defined by the probability of an event occurring and the costs of clinical outcomes. Outcome probabilities and cost inputs were derived from the published literature, clinical trials, expert panels and local database costs. In the base case, patients who failed to respond to first-line therapy were assumed to experience a single switch between comparator drugs or the other drug was added as second-line treatment. Base-case evaluation included only drug-management costs and additional hospitalisation costs due to severe AEs associated with first- and second-line therapies. Sensitivity analyses were conducted to assess the robustness of the results. Cost estimates were inflated to 2011 euros (€). Results Based on clinical trial success rates of 52.8% (voriconazole) and 50.0% (liposomal amphotericin B), voriconazole had lower total treatment costs compared with liposomal amphotericin B in both Germany (€12,256 versus €18,133; length of therapy [LOT]?=?10-day intravenous [IV]?+?5-day oral voriconazole and 15-day IV liposomal amphotericin B) and Spain (€8,032 versus €10,516; LOT?=?7-day IV?+?8-day oral voriconazole and 15-day IV liposomal amphotericin B). Assuming the same efficacy (50.0%) in first-line therapy, voriconazole maintained a lower total treatment cost compared with liposomal amphotericin B. Cost savings were primarily due to the lower drug acquisition costs and shorter IV LOT associated with voriconazole. Sensitivity analyses showed that the results were sensitive to drug price, particularly the cost of liposomal amphotericin B. Conclusions Voriconazole is likely to be cost-saving compared with liposomal amphotericin B when used as a first-line treatment for IA in Germany and Spain. PMID:25253630

  8. BiOsimilaRs in the management of anaemia secondary to chemotherapy in HaEmatology and Oncology: results of the ORHEO observational study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The approval of epoetin biosimilars in the European Union requires extensive scientific evaluation and stringent regulatory procedures, including post-marketing studies. The ORHEO (place of biOsimilaRs in the therapeutic management of anaemia secondary to chemotherapy in HaEmatology and Oncology) study was an observational, longitudinal, multicentre study performed in France to evaluate the efficacy and safety of biosimilar epoetins for the treatment of chemotherapy-induced anaemia (CIA) in the clinical setting. Methods Patients >18 years with CIA (haemoglobin [Hb] <11 g/dL) in association with solid tumours, lymphoma or myeloma and eligible for treatment with an epoetin biosimilar were included in this study. Patient characteristics were recorded at baseline along with anaemia-related information, such as observed and target Hb (as chosen by the treating clinician), brand and dose of epoetin biosimilar prescribed, and details of any other treatments. Patients were then followed-up at 3 and 6 months. The primary endpoint was Hb response (defined as Hb reaching ?10 g/dL, an increase of Hb ?1 g/dL since inclusion visit or reaching physician-defined target Hb, with no blood transfusions in the 3 weeks prior to measurement). Other endpoints included adverse events, achievement of target Hb and associated treatments. Results Overall, 2333 patients >18 years (mean age 66.5 years) with CIA (haemoglobin [Hb] <11 g/dL) in association with solid tumours, lymphoma or myeloma and eligible for biosimilar epoetin treatment were included. 99.9% of patients received epoetin zeta (median dose 30,000 IU/week). Mean baseline Hb was 9.61 g/dL, with 35.6% of patients having moderate anaemia (Hb 8–9.5 g/dL). Hb response was achieved in 81.6% and 86.5% of patients at 3 and 6 months, respectively. Overall mean change in Hb level was 1.52?±?1.61 and 1.72?±?1.61 g/dL at 3 and 6 months, respectively. Transfusion and thromboembolic event rates were 9.4% and 2.4% at 3 months, and 5.8% and 1.5% at 6 months, respectively. Conclusions Epoetin zeta was effective and well tolerated in the management of CIA in patients with solid tumours, lymphoma and myeloma. Trial registration Trial registration number: NCT02140736 (date of registration: 14 May 2014). PMID:25011615

  9. Long-term complete haematological and molecular remission after allogeneic bone marrow transplantation in a patient with a stem cell myeloproliferative disorder associated with t(8;13)(p12;q12).

    PubMed

    Suzan, Florence; Guasch, Géraldine; Terre, Christine; Garcia, Isabel; Bastie, Jean-Noël; Maarek, Odile; Ribaud, Patricia; Gluckman, Eliane; Daniel, Marie-Thérčse; Pébusque, Marie-Josčphe; Castaigne, Sylvie

    2003-04-01

    A rare atypical myeloproliferative disorder (aMPD) associated with chromosomal translocations involving the short arm of chromosome 8, region p11-p12 has been described. In most patients, the cytogenetic abnormality is a t(8;13)(p12;q12) that fuses fibroblast growth factor receptor 1, the 8p12 key gene, to FIM/ZNF198 gene. Prognosis is poor with frequent evolution to acute myeloid leukaemia within 1 year of diagnosis. We report a new patient with aMPD with a t(8;13) translocation. Complete haematological, cytogenetic and molecular remission was demonstrated 39 months after allogeneic bone marrow transplantation. This is the first report to demonstrate a molecular remission in this disorder. PMID:12694254

  10. Adaptive Evolution Coupled with Retrotransposon Exaptation Allowed for the Generation of a Human-Protein-Specific Coding Gene That Promotes Cancer Cell Proliferation and Metastasis in Both Haematological Malignancies and Solid Tumours: The Extraordinary Case of MYEOV Gene

    PubMed Central

    Papamichos, Spyros I.; Margaritis, Dimitrios; Kotsianidis, Ioannis

    2015-01-01

    The incidence of cancer in human is high as compared to chimpanzee. However previous analysis has documented that numerous human cancer-related genes are highly conserved in chimpanzee. Till date whether human genome includes species-specific cancer-related genes that could potentially contribute to a higher cancer susceptibility remains obscure. This study focuses on MYEOV, an oncogene encoding for two protein isoforms, reported as causally involved in promoting cancer cell proliferation and metastasis in both haematological malignancies and solid tumours. First we document, via stringent in silico analysis, that MYEOV arose de novo in Catarrhini. We show that MYEOV short-isoform start codon was evolutionarily acquired after Catarrhini/Platyrrhini divergence. Throughout the course of Catarrhini evolution MYEOV acquired a gradually elongated translatable open reading frame (ORF), a gradually shortened translation-regulatory upstream ORF, and alternatively spliced mRNA variants. A point mutation introduced in human allowed for the acquisition of MYEOV long-isoform start codon. Second, we demonstrate the precious impact of exonized transposable elements on the creation of MYEOV gene structure. Third, we highlight that the initial part of MYEOV long-isoform coding DNA sequence was under positive selection pressure during Catarrhini evolution. MYEOV represents a Primate Orphan Gene that acquired, via ORF expansion, a human-protein-specific coding potential. PMID:26568894

  11. Psychiatric consultations in clinical haematology1

    PubMed Central

    Clarke, M G; Hutchinson, R M; Wood, J K

    1982-01-01

    A psychiatrist's role in the management of patients with malignant blood disorders being treated by clinical haematologists is described. Twenty-seven patients were seen, the majority (21) for an initial assessment only, and many (21) within three months of diagnosis or their death. Seventeen were referred for assessment of abnormal mood or behaviour and the others for a variety of problems which affected their management. A small group (4) had organic psychosyndromes; the majority (15) were suffering from understandable adjustment reactions, with another 5 having morbid neurotic or depressive reactions. Family and hospital factors were important and a description of these is included in an account of the consultation process. PMID:7108881

  12. Experiences of living with incurable haematological malignancy: a research portfolio 

    E-print Network

    Caldwell, Ellie M.

    2014-07-01

    This thesis follows the research portfolio format and is carried out in part fulfilment of the academic component of the Doctorate in Clinical Psychology at the University of Edinburgh. An abstract provides an overview ...

  13. Image analysis of cell natural fluorescence: diagnostic applications in haematology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Monici, Monica; Agati, Giovanni; Mazzinghi, Piero; Fusi, Franco; Bernabei, Pietro A.; Landini, Stefano; Ferrini, Pierluigi R.; Pratesi, Riccardo

    1996-11-01

    Haematic cells, excited with radiation of suitable wavelength, give rise to a natural fluorescence (NF) emission. This paper investigates NF to develop new techniques for applications in both basic research and medical diagnostics. Results show that the cell populations examined exhibit peculiar emission bands. The intracellular fluorescence pattern reveals that flouresence is mainly located at cytoplasmic-level, thus related to the metabolic processes of the cells. The photophysical properties of cells appear different among the normal populations and between normal and leukaemic ones. Therefore the recognition of the various cellular elements, according to their fluorescence emission, is possible.

  14. Effects of electroplating effluent on haematological parameters of Oreochromis mossambicus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Navaraj, P. S.; Kumaraguru, A. K.

    2003-05-01

    Fresh water fish, Oreochromis mossambicus was exposed to Electroplating effluent with a view to check the hematological changes as a function of time and effluent concentration. Increase in time and concentration always produced a declining value of RBC, Hb, Ht and WBC. This level is statistically significant in most of the test concentrations and in the experimental duration. The calculated MCV, MCH and MCHC also exhibit the same trend in all the selected sub lethal concentrations of the effluent, which is also found to be time and dose dependent.

  15. Biosimilar agents in oncology/haematology: from approval to practice

    PubMed Central

    Niederwieser, Dietger; Schmitz, Stephan

    2011-01-01

    The regulation of biosimilars is a process that is still developing. In Europe, guidance regarding the approval and use of biosimilars has evolved with the products under consideration. It is now more than 3 years since the first biosimilar agents in oncology support, erythropoiesis-stimulating agents, were approved in the EU. More recently, biosimilar granulocyte colony-stimulating factors have received marketing approval in Europe. This review considers general issues surrounding the introduction of biosimilars and highlights current specific issues pertinent to their use in clinical practice in oncology. Information on marketing approval, extrapolation, labelling, substitution, immunogenicity and traceability of each biosimilar product is important, especially in oncology where patients are treated in repeated therapy courses, often with complicated protocols, and where biosimilars are not used as a unique therapy for replacement of e.g. growth hormone or insulin. While future developments in the regulation of biosimilars will need to address multiple issues, in the interim physicians should remain aware of the inherent differences between biosimilar and innovator products. PMID:21175852

  16. Adoptive T-cell therapy for fungal infections in haematology patients

    PubMed Central

    Deo, Shivashni S; Gottlieb, David J

    2015-01-01

    The prolonged immune deficiency resulting from haematopoietic stem cell transplant and chemotherapy predisposes to a high risk of invasive fungal infections. Despite the recent advances in molecular diagnostic testing, early initiation of pre-emptive antifungal therapy and the use of combination pharmacotherapy, mortality from invasive mould infections remain high among recipients of allogeneic stem cell transplant. The increasing incidences of previously rare and drug-resistant strains of fungi present a further clinical challenge. Therefore, there is a need for novel strategies to combat fungal infections in the immunocompromised. Adoptive therapy using in vitro-expanded fungus-specific CD4 cells of the Th-1 type has shown clinical efficacy in murine studies and in a small human clinical study. Several techniques for the isolation and expansion of fungus-specific T cells have been successfully applied. Here we discuss the incidence and changing patterns of invasive fungal diseases, clinical evidence supporting the role of T cells in fungal immunity, methods to expand fungus-specific T cells in the laboratory and considerations surrounding the use of T cells for fungal immunotherapy. PMID:26366286

  17. [The role of the nurse and child health nurse in a haematology day hospital].

    PubMed

    Perray, Stéphanie; Costes, Élodie; Héritier, Sébastien

    2015-01-01

    The paediatric haemato-oncology nurse and the child health nurse in a day hospital have specific technical skills and in-depth knowledge in order to be able to provide global care for children with leukaemia. Close collaboration between the different professionals working in this care unit is essential. PMID:26183096

  18. Notch signalling in T cell lymphoblastic leukaemia/lymphoma and other haematological malignancies

    PubMed Central

    Aster, Jon C.; Blacklow, Stephen C.; Pear, Warren S.

    2010-01-01

    Notch receptors participate in a highly conserved signalling pathway that regulates normal development and tissue homeostasis in a context- and dose-dependent manner. Deregulated Notch signalling has been implicated in many diseases, but the clearest example of a pathogenic role is found in T cell lymphoblastic leukaemia/lymphoma (T-LL), in which the majority of human and murine tumours have acquired mutations that lead to aberrant increases in Notch1 signalling. Remarkably, it appears that the selective pressure for Notch mutations is virtually unique among cancers to T-LL, presumably reflecting a special context-dependent role for Notch in normal T cell progenitors. Nevertheless, there are some recent reports suggesting that Notch signalling has subtle yet important roles in other forms of hematologic malignancy as well. Here, we review the role of Notch signalling in various blood cancers, focusing on T-LL with an eye toward targeted therapeutics. PMID:20967796

  19. Alfred Francois Donné (1801-78): a pioneer of microscopy, microbiology and haematology.

    PubMed

    Diamantis, Aristidis; Magiorkinis, Emmanouil; Androutsos, George

    2009-05-01

    Alfred François Donné is widely known in the scientific community as the discoverer of Trichomonas vaginalis, since he was the first to illustrate the parasite that later was recognized to cause vaginal infections. However, his other, less-known findings are equally important: he was also the inventor of the photoelectric microscope, with the assistance of his student Léon Foucault, as well as the first to apply photography to microscopic preparations (Daguerreotype). His research in microscopy extended to almost all human fluids that could be investigated and culminated in his famous Atlas, which was illustrated with numerous photographs. Donné was also the first to describe the microscopic appearances of leukaemia based on blood preparations acquired from patients. Finally, his work in the hygiene of child upbringing and nutrition is very significant. PMID:19401511

  20. Prevalence of mange among West African Dwarf sheep and goats and associated haematological and biochemical parameters.

    PubMed

    Ogundiyi, Alex I; Bemji, Martha Nchang; Adebambo, Olufunmilayo A; Dipeolu, Morenike A; Onagbesan, Okanlawon M; James, Ikechwuku J; Osinowo, Olusegun A

    2012-08-01

    This study was carried out to assess the prevalence of mange in sheep and goats in five local government areas (LGAs) of Ogun State in South Western Nigeria. A total of 4,973 sheep and 7,902 goats of West African Dwarf breeds were sampled of which only 4 (0.08%) of sheep and 42 (0.53%) of goats were confirmed positive for mange infestation. In all the LGAs sampled, Odeda LGA had the highest concentration of sheep (39%) and goats (51%) while Abeokuta South had the least percentage of sheep (1%) and goats (1%). All the mange-infested cases in sheep were recorded in just one LGA (Ewekoro) which constituted 0.24% of the population within the location. For goats, three out of five LGAs namely: Obafemi Owode, Ewekoro and Abeokuta North had prevalence of 1.46%, 0.53% and 0.72% respectively. There was no significant (P > 0.05) difference between non-infested and infested animals in terms of packed cell volume (31.79 ± 0.87% vs. 31.41 ± 1.13%), haemoglobin (10.51 ± 0.21 g/100 ml vs. 10.28 ± 0.37 g/100 ml) and red blood cells (8.71 ± 0.29 × 10(12)/l vs. 9.40 ± 0.37 × 10(12)/l). The infested group however showed significantly (P < 0.01) higher white blood cells count (7.60 ± 0.22 × 10(9)/l) than the non-infested animals (6.81 ± 0.17 × 10(9)/l). Neutrophil, eosinophil, basophil and monocyte as well as chloride were not significantly affected by the health status of the animals. There existed significant (P < 0.01) difference between non-infested and infested animals in terms of total protein (5.42 ± 0.16 vs. 4.75 ± 0.20 g/dl), sodium (137.98 ± 1.53 vs. 128.92 ± 1.92 mEq/l) and potassium (4.04 ± 0.14 vs. 3.46 ± 0.18 mEq/l). It can be concluded from this study that the prevalence of mange mite infestation varied with location and was generally low or absent in some of the LGAs considered. Goats were particularly more susceptible to mange infestation than sheep. More concerted effort is needed to control mange in order to avoid spread since it is a contagious disease. PMID:22246540

  1. Pre-operative haematological assessment in patients scheduled for major surgery.

    PubMed

    Muńoz, M; Gómez-Ramírez, S; Kozek-Langeneker, S

    2016-01-01

    Peri-operative anaemia, blood loss and allogeneic blood transfusion are associated with increased postoperative morbidity and mortality, and prolonged hospital stay. A multidisciplinary, multimodal, individualised strategy, collectively termed 'patient blood management', may reduce or eliminate allogeneic blood transfusion and improve outcomes. This approach has three objectives: the detection and treatment of peri-operative anaemia; the reduction of peri-operative bleeding and coagulopathy; and harnessing and optimising the physiological tolerance of anaemia. This review focuses on the pre-operative evaluation of erythropoiesis, coagulation status and platelet function. Where possible, evidence is graded systematically and recommended therapies follow recently published consensus guidance. PMID:26620143

  2. Some selected haematological indices in Wistar rats in the vanadium-ethanol interaction.

    PubMed

    Zaporowska, H; Wasilewski, W

    1990-01-01

    1. Wistar rats of both sexes daily received an ethanol solution of ammonium metavanadate (AMV) of 0.3 mg V/cm3 5% ethanol concentration as sole drinking liquid, for a period of 4 weeks. 2. The reference groups received for drinking aqueous AMV solution, or 5% ethanol, or water. 3. In animals drinking both water and ethanol AMV solution a decrease in the erythrocyte count and haemoglobin level was noted together with an increase of the percentage of reticulocytes and polychromatophilic erythrocytes in the peripheral blood. 4. A small rise of the percentage of polychromatophilic and orthochromatic erythroblasts was at the same time noted in the bone marrow of animals receiving ethanol AMV solution. 5. In the group of animals drinking 5% ethanol a fall of the erythrocyte count was observed and a rise of the leukocyte count, particularly of lymphocytes. 6. Substitution of water by 5% ethanol solution as solvent for AMV did not have any distinct influence on the toxicity of the tested compound. PMID:1980881

  3. Haematology and Plasma Biochemistry of Wild Black Flying-Foxes, (Pteropus alecto) in Queensland, Australia

    PubMed Central

    McMichael, Lee; Edson, Daniel; McLaughlin, Amanda; Mayer, David; Kopp, Steven; Meers, Joanne; Field, Hume

    2015-01-01

    This paper establishes reference ranges for hematologic and plasma biochemistry values in wild Black flying-foxes (Pteropus alecto) captured in South East Queensland, Australia. Values were found to be consistent with those of other Pteropus species. Four hundred and forty-seven animals were sampled over 12 months and significant differences were found between age, sex, reproductive and body condition cohorts in the sample population. Mean values for each cohort fell within the determined normal adult reference range, with the exception of elevated levels of alkaline phosphatase in juvenile animals. Hematologic and biochemistry parameters of injured animals showed little or no deviation from the normal reference values for minor injuries, while two animals with more severe injury or abscessation showed leucocytosis, anaemia, thrombocytosis, hyperglobulinemia and hypoalbuminemia. PMID:25938493

  4. Lymphoma incidence, survival and prevalence 2004–2014: sub-type analyses from the UK's Haematological Malignancy Research Network

    PubMed Central

    Smith, A; Crouch, S; Lax, S; Li, J; Painter, D; Howell, D; Patmore, R; Jack, A; Roman, E

    2015-01-01

    Background: Population-based information about cancer occurrence and survival are required to inform clinical practice and research; but for most lymphomas data are lacking. Methods: Set within a socio-demographically representative UK population of nearly 4 million, lymphoma data (N=5796) are from an established patient cohort. Results: Incidence, survival (overall and relative) and prevalence estimates for >20 subtypes are presented. With few exceptions, males tended to be diagnosed at younger ages and have significantly (P<0.05) higher incidence rates. Differences were greatest at younger ages: the <15 year male/female rate ratio for all subtypes combined being 2.2 (95% CI 1.3–3.4). These gender differences impacted on prevalence; most subtype estimates being significantly (P<0.05) higher in males than females. Outcome varied widely by subtype; survival of patients with nodular lymphocyte predominant Hodgkin lymphoma approached that of the general population, whereas less than a third of those with other B-cell (e.g., mantle cell) or T-cell (e.g., peripheral-T) lymphomas survived for ?5 years. No males/female survival differences were detected. Conclusions: Major strengths of our study include completeness of ascertainment, world-class diagnostics and generalisability. The marked variations demonstrated confirm the requirement for ‘real-world' data to inform aetiological hypotheses, health-care planning and the future monitoring of therapeutic changes. PMID:25867256

  5. Integrated Haematological Profiles of Redox Status, Lipid, and Inflammatory Protein Biomarkers in Benign Obesity and Unhealthy Obesity with Metabolic Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Lubrano, Carla; Valacchi, Giuseppe; Specchia, Palma; Gnessi, Lucio; Rubanenko, Elizaveta P.; Shuginina, Elena A.; Trukhanov, Arseny I.; Korkina, Liudmila G.; De Luca, Chiara

    2015-01-01

    The pathogenesis of obesity (OB) and metabolic syndrome (MetS) implies free radical-, oxidized lipid- (LOOH-), and inflammatory cytokine-mediated altered pathways in target organs. Key elements of the transition from benign OB to unhealthy OB+MetS remain unclear. Here, we measured a panel of redox, antioxidant, and inflammation markers in the groups of OB patients (67 with, 45 without MetS) and 90 controls. Both OB groups displayed elevated levels of adipokines and heavy oxidative stress (OS) evidenced by reduced levels of glutathione, downregulated glutathione-S-transferase, increased 4-hydroxynonenal-protein adducts, reactive oxygen species, and membrane-bound monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA). Exclusively in OB+MetS, higher-than-normal glutathione peroxidase activity, tumor necrosis factor-?, and other proinflammatory cytokines/chemokines/growth factors were observed; a combination of high adipokine plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 and MUFA was consistent with increased cardiovascular risk. The uncomplicated OB group showed features of adaptation to OS such as decreased levels of vitamin E, activated superoxide dismutase, and inhibited catalase, suggesting H2O2 hyperproduction. Proinflammatory cytokine pattern was normal, except few markers like RANTES, a suitable candidate for therapeutic approaches to prevent a setting of MetS by inhibition of LOOH-primed leukocyte chemotaxis/recruitment to target tissues. PMID:26090072

  6. Folic acid supplemented goat milk has beneficial effects on hepatic physiology, haematological status and antioxidant defence during chronic Fe repletion.

    PubMed

    Alférez, María J M; Rivas, Emilio; Díaz-Castro, Javier; Hijano, Silvia; Nestares, Teresa; Moreno, Miguel; Campos, Margarita S; Serrano-Reina, Jose A; López-Aliaga, Inmaculada

    2015-02-01

    The aim of the current study was to asses the effect of goat or cow milk-based diets, either normal or Fe-overloaded and folic acid supplement on some aspects of hepatic physiology, enzymatic antioxidant defence and lipid peroxidation in liver, brain and erythrocyte of control and anaemic rats after chronic Fe repletion. 160 male Wistar rats were placed on 40 d in two groups, a control group receiving normal-Fe diet and the Fe-deficient group receiving low Fe diet. Lately, the rats were fed with goat and cow milk-based diets during 30 d, with normal-Fe content or Fe-overload and either with normal folic or folic acid supplemented. Fe-overload increased plasma alanine transaminase and aspartate transaminase levels when cow milk was supplied. Dietary folate supplementation reduced plasma transaminases levels in animals fed goat milk with chronic Fe overload. A remarkable increase in the superoxide dismutase activity was observed in the animals fed cow milk. Dietary folate supplement lead to a decrease on the activity of this enzyme in all the tissues studied with both milk-based diets. A concomitant increment in catalase was also observed. The increase in lipid peroxidation products levels in rats fed cow milk with Fe-overload, suggest an imbalance in the functioning of the enzymatic antioxidant defence. In conclusion, dietary folate-supplemented goat milk reduces both plasma transaminases levels, suggesting a hepatoprotective effect and has beneficial effects in situation of Fe-overload, improving the antioxidant enzymes activities and reducing lipid peroxidation. PMID:25394837

  7. The effects of ACTH, prednisolone and Escherichia coli endotoxin on some clinical haematological and blood biochemical parameters in dwarf goats.

    PubMed

    van Miert, A S; van Duin, C T; Wensing, T

    1986-07-01

    ACTH (microgram kg-1 i.v.) and prednisolone (1 microgram-1 i.v.) caused a moderate but statistically significant inhibition of rumen contractions, whereas no effects on heart rate and body temperature were observed. Both hormones induced hyperglycaemia and leucocytosis, characterised by moderate lymphopenia and a profound increase in the number of circulating neutrophils. A significant decrease in plasma iron and increase in plasma zinc concentrations were observed. After 3 daily i.m. injections of ACTH (10 micrograms-1 day-1) decreases were seen in both serum Alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity and plasma trace metal concentrations; heart rate was significantly higher. Intraveneous injection of E. coli endotoxin (0.1 microgram kg-1) caused shivering, fever, inhibition of rumen contractions, changes in heart rate, lymphopenia, neutropenia followed by neutrophilic leucocytosis, hypoferraemia, hypozincaemia, hypoglycaemia and a decline in serum ALP activity. ACTH, given i.m. for 3 days, reduced the febrile responses to E. coli endotoxin, modified the changes in heart rate, intensified the inhibition of rumen contractions, and induced a more marked decrease in the number of circulating neutrophils. ACTH pretreatment did not affect the endotoxin-induced decrease in blood glucose concentrations nor the drop in plasma zinc and iron values. These results suggest that glucocorticosteroids are not primarily involved in the fall in plasma iron and zinc concentrations during E. coli endotoxin-induced fever, the effects of endotoxin released glucocorticosteroids on white blood cells and blood glucose are masked by some other effect(s) of endotoxin, and in dwarf goats, ACTH has antipyretic properties without influencing normal body temperature. This effect is probably not dependent on adrenal cortical activity. PMID:3018991

  8. Single and cartel effect of pesticides on biochemical and haematological status of Clarias batrachus: A long-term monitoring.

    PubMed

    Narra, Madhusudan Reddy

    2016-02-01

    Pesticide mixtures are common in the streams of agricultural or urban catchments. Individual and cartel toxicity of four different pesticides, namely Endosulfan, Carbofuran, Methyl parathion and Cypermethrin were studied. Sub acute exposure (1/10th of LC50) for 1, 7, 15, 30 and 60 days in Clarias batrachus active tissues such as brain, gills, blood and liver were evaluated. Growth, hepatosomatic index and survival performance were decreased, inhibition of brain acetylcholinesterase, gills Na(+)/K(+) ATPase activities, and abnormal behavior are noticed. The characteristics of the blood respiratory burst activity, erythrocyte count, contents of hematocrit and hemoglobin are dwindled. Plasma total proteins and liver glycogen decreased whereas blood glucose and serum creatinine, triglycerides are elevated. The immunological attributes such as white blood cell count was elevated, whereas albumin, globulins and lysozyme activity significantly decreased. Hepatic superoxide dismutase, catalase and glutathione S-transferase activities and lipid peroxidation levels are elevated, whereas glutathione peroxidase and glutathione are reduced. Toxicity effect of pesticides reached to a crest on 30th day and showed a descent thereafter except in endosulfan which mounted its detrimental effect throughout the experimental period. Toxicity trends of the present study are determined to be highest in Mix group followed by cypermethrin, methyl parathion and carbofuran. Indiscriminate application of these chemicals pose a toxic threat to non-target organisms, damage the ecosystems and jeopardizes human health. PMID:26432990

  9. Corprological and haematological parameters of albino mice (Mus musculus) concurrently infected with Heligmosomoides bakeri and Trypanosoma brucei

    PubMed Central

    Onyeabor, A.I.; Wosu, M.I.; Ohaeri, C.C.

    2013-01-01

    The effect of concurrent infection with Trypanosoma brucei (T. brucei) and Heligmosomoides bakeri (H. bakeri) was investigated in this study. Thirty adult male albino mice were used for the study. The mice were divided into six groups of five mice each. Group 1 served as uninfected control, Groups 2 and 3 were infected with H. bakeri and T. brucei respectively, Group 4 received both T. brucei and H. bakeri on the same day, Group 5 was experimentally infected with H. bakeri three days after T. brucei infection, while Group 6 was infected with T. brucei three days after H. bakeri infection. Blood and faecal samples were collected and analyzed weekly to determine the faecal egg counts (FEC), packed cell volume (PCV) and level of parasitaemia (LP). Weekly body weights (BW) were also recorded. FEC and parasitaemia increased in all the infected groups during the study, but these were significantly (p<0.05) higher in the multiple-infection (groups 4, 5 and 6) than those with the single infection (groups 2 and 3). The same trend was also observed in the BW and PCV (p<0.05). The level of infection produced by single infection with T. brucei and H. bakeri respectively were similar (p<0.05). All treatment groups were significantly (p<0.05) different from the control group. From the results, it was concluded that concurrent helminth and protozoan parasite infections produced more deleterious effect on the host when compared with single infection with either parasite. However, the pathology produced by concurrent infection was more severe when the host was exposed to the protozoan parasite before the helminth parasite.

  10. Comparative Haematological Screening of Urban and Rural Pregnant Women Attending Antenatal Clinics in Lagos and Its Environs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abidoye, R. O.; Olukoya, A. A.

    1993-01-01

    Compared blood screening data for 200 urban and rural pregnant women in Nigeria. Found that rural subjects had a greater incidence of moderate anemia than did urban subjects, and corpuscular hemoglobin concentrations fell with increased gestational age. No relationship was found between hemoglobin counts and nutrition habits. (HTH)

  11. Consensus guidelines for diagnosis, prophylaxis and management of Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia in patients with haematological and solid malignancies, 2014.

    PubMed

    Cooley, L; Dendle, C; Wolf, J; Teh, B W; Chen, S C; Boutlis, C; Thursky, K A

    2014-12-01

    Pneumocystis jirovecii infection (PJP) is a common cause of pneumonia in patients with cancer-related immunosuppression. There are well-defined patients who are at risk of PJP due to the status of their underlying malignancy, treatment-related immunosuppression and/or concomitant use of corticosteroids. Prophylaxis is highly effective and should be given to all patients at moderate to high risk of PJP. Trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole is the drug of choice for prophylaxis and treatment, although several alternative agents are available. PMID:25482745

  12. Spatial variation in mortality risk for haematological malignancies near a petrochemical refinery: a population-based case-control study

    PubMed Central

    Di Salvo, Francesca; Meneghini, Elisabetta; Vieira, Veronica; Baili, Paolo; Mariottini, Mauro; Baldini, Marco; Micheli, Andrea; Sant, Milena

    2015-01-01

    Introduction The study investigated the geographic variation of mortality risk for hematological malignancies (HMs) in order to identify potential high-risk areas near an Italian petrochemical refinery. Material and methods A population-based case-control study was conducted and residential histories for 171 cases and 338 sex- and age-matched controls were collected. Confounding factors were obtained from interviews with consenting relatives for 109 HM deaths and 267 controls. To produce risk mortality maps, two different approaches were applied. We mapped (1) adptive kernel density relative risk estimation (KDE) for case-control studies which estimates a spatial relative risk function using the ratio between cases and controls’ densities, and (2) estimated odds ratios for case-control study data using generalized additive models (GAMs) to smooth the effect of location, a proxy for exposure, while adjusting for confounding variables. Results No high-risk areas for HM mortality were identified among all subjects (men and women combined), by applying both approaches. Using the adaptive KDE approach, we found a significant increase in death risk only among women in a large area 2–6 km southeast of the refinery and the application of GAMs also identified a similarly-located significant high-risk area among women only (global p-value<0.025). Potential confounding risk factors we considered in the GAM did not alter the results. Conclusion Both approaches identified a high-risk area close to the refinery among women only. Those spatial methods are useful tools for public policy management to determine priority areas for intervention. Our findings suggest several directions for further research in order to identify other potential environmental exposures that may be assessed in forthcoming studies based on detailed exposure modeling. PMID:26073202

  13. The haematological values of European badgers (Meles meles) in health and in the course of tuberculosis infection.

    PubMed Central

    Mahmood, K. H.; Stanford, J. L.; Machin, S.; Watts, M.; Stuart, F. A.; Pritchard, D. G.

    1988-01-01

    Captive, healthy, adult badgers have blood containing haemoglobin at 13.3 g/dl, and 8.4 x 10(12)/l red cells with an MCV of 46.2 fl and an MCH of 15.6 pg. They have 5.1 x 10(9) white cells/l of which 3.29 x 10(9) are polymorphs, 1.49 x 10(9) are lymphocytes, 0.26 x 10(9) are monocytes, 0.07 x 10(9) are eosinophils and 0.01 x 10(9) are basophils. These values are somewhat less in adult animals just trapped from the wild, and are lower still in wild cubs. Changes associated with tuberculosis are a rise, and then a fall in red blood count and white blood count, an increase in the proportion of polymorphs and monocytes and a fall in lymphocytes late in the disease. This picture is similar to that seen in widespread, disseminated, tuberculin negative, tuberculosis in humans, a type of disease similar to that occurring in many badgers. BCG vaccination of badgers did not produce any measurable change in the blood picture. PMID:3181308

  14. The Effects of Exposure to Petrol Vapours on Growth, Haematological Parameters and Oxidative Markers in Sprague-Dawley Male Rats

    PubMed Central

    ABUBAKAR, Murtala Bello; ABDULLAH, Wan Zaidah; SULAIMAN, Siti Amrah; ANG, Boon Suen

    2015-01-01

    Background: Petrol is known to be hazardous to human health and is associated with various health effects, such as haematotoxicity and oxidative stress. Although Malaysia has adopted the European fuel quality standards in recent years in order to reduce petroleum pollutants and to improve air quality, gasoline with research octane number 95 (RON95), believed to contain benzene and other toxic substances, is still widely used all over the country. This study assessed the effect of RON95 gasoline on haemtological parameters of rats after 11 weeks of exposure. Methods: A total of 16 male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into two groups: control (exposed to ambient air daily) and gasoline exposed (exposed to petrol fumes at 11.13 ± 1.1cm3/h for 6h daily, 6 days/week) groups. Body weight was monitored daily. At the end of 11 weeks, the rats were sacrificed, bone marrow was extracted for cytological examination, and blood samples were collected for a full blood picture examination, full blood counts and oxidative markers. Results: The results show that gasoline inhalation was associated with a significant (P < 0.05) reduction in the rate of weight gain and a reduction in mean corpuscular haemoglobin concentration and red cell distribution width. It was also observed that the inhalation of gasoline was associated with changes in the nuclei of megakaryocytes, hence causing an increase in the percentage of abnormal megakaryocytes with detached nuclei, hypo-lobulation and/or disintegration. However, the inhalation of gasoline did not cause significant changes in oxidative markers in the erythrocytes. Conclusion: This study shows that 11 weeks of inhaling RON95 petrol vapours caused adverse effects on weight gain, blood cell indices and bone marrow megakaryocytes, but did not cause significant changes in oxidative markers in erythrocytes. The definitive effects of these changes on health require further confirmation. PMID:25892947

  15. Acute effects of chemically dispersed crude oil on gill ion regulation, plasma ion levels and haematological parameters in tambaqui (Colossoma macropomum).

    PubMed

    Duarte, Rafael Mendonça; Honda, Rubens Tomio; Val, Adalberto Luis

    2010-04-15

    The main goal of this study was to investigate the toxicological effects of the chemical dispersant Corexit 9500, crude oil and the combination of the two components in the form of chemically dispersed crude oil (CO+DIS) on the ion regulation of the tropical fish tambaqui (Colossoma macropomum). Gill ion regulation was evaluated on the basis of unidirectional flux measurements (influx-J(in), efflux-J(out) and net flux-J(net)) of Na(+), Cl(-) and K(+). Plasma ion composition, haematocrit, haemoglobin and glucose concentrations in the blood of tambaqui were determined by classical methods. The exposure of fish to chemically dispersed crude oil promoted a significant increase in J(out) Na(+) across the gills, which, together with the inability of fish to stimulate Na(+) uptake to compensate for these losses resulted in significantly higher J(net) Na(+) outward, particularly within the first 3h of exposure. Increased outward J(net) Cl(-) was also seen in fish that were exposed to dispersed crude oil, whereas outward J(net) K(+) was only increased at crude oil dispersed in higher concentration of Corexit 9500. Plasma Na(+) and Cl(-) concentrations decreased between 6 and 12h of exposure, whereas Ca(2+) concentrations remained significantly lower than those of the control group over the entire experimental period. There were significant increases in plasma K(+) concentrations and in the haematocrit after 6 and 24h of exposure to dispersed crude oil, suggesting significant changes in the permeability of the erythrocytic membrane. Collectively, our results suggest that chemically dispersed crude oil promotes a more extensive impairment of gill ion regulation, in addition to changes in plasma ion levels and blood parameters, in tambaqui compared with exposure to Urucu crude oil or Corexit 9500 alone. Thus, in the event of an oil spill in Amazonian waters, the chemical dispersion of Urucu crude oil could represent a great risk to tambaqui, challenging their ability to maintain ionic and osmotic gradients in native ion-poor waters. PMID:20097436

  16. Nature and nurture: a case of transcending haematological pre-malignancies in a pair of monozygotic twins adding possible clues on the pathogenesis of B-cell proliferations.

    PubMed

    Hansen, Marcus C; Nyvold, Charlotte G; Roug, Anne S; Kjeldsen, Eigil; Villesen, Palle; Nederby, Line; Hokland, Peter

    2015-05-01

    We describe a comprehensive molecular analysis of a pair of monozygotic twins, who came to our attention when one experienced amaurosis fugax and was diagnosed with JAK2+ polycythaemia vera. He (Twin A) was also found to have an asymptomatic B-cell chronic lymphocytic leukaemia (B-CLL). Although JAK2-, Twin B was subsequently shown to have a benign monoclonal B-cell lymphocytosis (MBL). Flow cytometric and molecular analyses of the B-cell compartments revealed different immunoglobulin light and heavy chain usage in each twin. We hypothesized that whole exome sequencing could help delineating the pattern of germline B-cell disorder susceptibility and reveal somatic mutations potentially contributing to the differential patterns of pre-malignancy. Comparing bone marrow cells and T cells and employing in-house engineered integrative analysis, we found aberrations in Twin A consistent with a myeloid neoplasm, i.e. in TET2, RUNX1, PLCB1 and ELF4. Employing the method for detecting high-ranking variants by extensive annotation and relevance scoring, we also identified shared germline variants in genes of proteins interacting with B-cell receptor signalling mediators and the WNT-pathway, including IRF8, PTPRO, BCL9L, SIT1 and SIRPB1, all with possible implications in B-cell proliferation. Similar patterns of IGHV-gene usage to those demonstrated here have been observed in inherited acute lymphoblastic leukaemia. Collectively, these findings may help in facilitating identification of putative master gene(s) involved in B-cell proliferations in general and MBL and B-CLL in particular. PMID:25752595

  17. In vivo effects of microcystins and complex cyanobacterial biomass on rats (Rattus norvegicus var. alba): changes in immunological and haematological parameters.

    PubMed

    Palikova, Miroslava; Ondrackova, Petra; Mares, Jan; Adamovsky, Ondrej; Pikula, Jiri; Kohoutek, Jiri; Navratil, Stanislav; Blaha, Ludek; Kopp, Radovan

    2013-10-01

    Toxic cyanobacteria represent a serious health and ecological problem in drinking and recreational waters worldwide. Some previous toxicological studies investigated effects of isolated microcystins on laboratory rodents including mice and rats. However, much less attention has been paid to more realistic exposure situations such as the effects of MCs accumulated in food. The objectives of the present study were to provide a simple model simulation of the food chain in order to evaluate impacts of microcystins (MCs) on rat immune and haematologicalparameters. Impacts of feeding experimental rats with a diet containing fish meat with and without microcystins and complex toxic biomass have been studied during a 28 day exposure. Red blood cell parameters (RBC counts, haematocrit values, MCH, MCV and MCHC) showed significant differences in experimental groups (p ? 0.05, p ? 0.01) in comparison with the control group. We also detected an immunomodulatory effect in the experimental groups. NK cells and ??+ T lymphocytes were significantly increased in peripheral blood in the group exposed to isolated microcystin in the food. Significant change in the ratio of CD4+ and CD8+ cells (increase of CD4+ and a drop in CD8+) was found in the group with added cyanobacterial biomass with low concentration of MCs. The greatest changes in lymphoid organs were observed in the same groups. There was an increase of spleen subpopulations of ??+ T lymphocytes as well as of IgM+ lymphocytes (B lymphocytes) and CD8+ T lymphocytes. Indeed, the modulation of CD4+ and CD8+ of peripheral lymphocytes was associated with similar changes in thymic lymphocytic subpopulations. In summary, food containing fish meat with considerable doses of microcystins (or toxic cyanobacterial biomass) induces significant changes in RBC parameters and influence preferably innate part of the immune system represented by NK cells and by gamma-delta T cells, which are known to play role as a bridge between adaptive and innate immune response. PMID:23831285

  18. The Effects of Probiotic Soymilk Fortified with Omega-3 on Blood Glucose, Lipid Profile, Haematological and Oxidative Stress, and Inflammatory Parameters in Streptozotocin Nicotinamide-Induced Diabetic Rats

    PubMed Central

    Mohammadi Sartang, Mohsen; Mazloomi, Seyed Mohammad; Tanideh, Nader; Rezaian Zadeh, Abbas

    2015-01-01

    Objective. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effects of probiotic soymilk fortified with omega-3 in diabetic rats. Methods. Soymilk (SM), fermented soymilk (FSM), and fermented soymilk fortified with omega-3 (FSM + omega-3) were prepared. Rats were randomly assigned to five groups of 13 animals per group. Diabetes was induced by a single injection of streptozotocin (STZ) 15 min after the intraperitoneal administration of nicotinamide (NA). Normal control (NC) and diabetic control (DC) rats received 1 mL/day of distilled water and three groups of diabetic rats were given 1 mL/day of SM, FSM, and FSM + omega-3 products by oral gavage for 28 days. Results. Three products significantly (P < 0.05) reduced blood glucose, total cholesterol (TC), triglyceride (TG), and malondialdehyde (MDA) concentrations compared to the DC group, with the maximum reduction seen in the FSM + omega-3 group. Body weight, red blood cells (RBC), haemoglobin (Hb), haematocrit, and superoxide dismutase (SOD) also significantly increased in the FSM + omega-3 group. In the FSM + omega-3 group, MDA level compared with the SM and FSM groups and high sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) concentrations compared with the DC and FSM groups were significantly lower (P < 0.05). Conclusion. Fermented soymilk fortified with omega-3 may be beneficial in diabetes. PMID:26347893

  19. Ivermectin treatment of free-ranging endangered Australian sea lion (Neophoca cinerea) pups: effect on hookworm and lice infection status, haematological parameters, growth, and survival.

    PubMed

    Marcus, Alan D; Higgins, Damien P; Gray, Rachael

    2015-07-01

    A placebo-controlled study was used to investigate the effectiveness of ivermectin to treat hookworm (Uncinaria sanguinis) and lice (Antarctophthirus microchir) infections in free-ranging Australian sea lion (Neophoca cinerea) pups and to test the hypotheses that these parasitic infections cause anaemia, systemic inflammatory responses, and reduced growth, and contribute towards decreased pup survival. Ivermectin was identified as an effective and safe anthelmintic in this species. Pups administered ivermectin had significantly higher erythrocyte counts and significantly lower eosinophil counts compared to controls at 1-2 months post-treatment, confirming that U. sanguinis and/or A. microchir are causatively associated with disease and demonstrating the positive effect of ivermectin treatment on clinical health parameters. Higher growth rates were not seen in ivermectin-treated pups and, unexpectedly, relatively older pups treated with ivermectin demonstrated significantly reduced growth rates when compared to matched saline-control pups. Differences in survival were not identified between treatment groups; however, this was attributed to the unexpectedly low mortality rate of recruited pups, likely due to the unintended recruitment bias towards pups >1-2 months of age for which mortality due to hookworm infection is less likely. This finding highlights the logistical and practical challenges associated with treating pups of this species shortly after birth at a remote colony. This study informs the assessment of the use of anthelmintics as a tool for the conservation management of free-ranging wildlife and outlines essential steps to further the development of strategies to ensure the effective conservation of the Australian sea lion and its parasitic fauna. PMID:25911163

  20. The role of telomeres and telomerase complex in haematological neoplasia: the length of telomeres as a marker of carcinogenesis and prognosis of disease.

    PubMed

    Gancarcíková, M; Zemanová, Z; Brezinová, J; Berková, A; Vcelíková, S; Smigová, J; Michalová, K

    2010-01-01

    Human telomeres (discovery of telomere structure and function has been recently awarded The Nobel Prize) consist of approximately 5-12 kb of tandem repeated sequences (TTAGGG)n and associated proteins capping chromosome ends which prevent degradation, loss of genetic information, end-to-end fusion, senescence and apoptosis. Due to the end-replication problem, telomere repeats are lost with each cell division, eventually leading to genetic instability and cellular senescence when telomeres become critically short. Stabilization of the telomeric DNA through telomerase activation, unique reverse transcriptase, or activation of the alternative mechanism of telomere maintenance is essential if the cells are to survive and proliferate indefinitely. Telomerase is expressed during early development and remains fully active in specific germline cells, but is undetectable in most normal somatic cells. High level of telomerase activity is detected in almost 90% of human tumours and immortalized cell lines. The hematopoietic compartment may develop genetic instability as a consequence of telomere erosion, resulting in aplastic anaemia (AA) and increased risk of myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) and acute myeloid leukaemia (AML). Genetic instability associated with telomere dysfunction (i.e. short telomeres) is an early event in carcinogenesis. The molecular cytogenetic method telomere/centromere fluorescence in situ hybridization (T/C-FISH) can be used to characterize the telomere length of hematopoietic cells. This review describes recent advances in the molecular characterization of telomere system, the regulation of telomerase activity in cancer pathogenesis and shows that the telomeric length could be a potential clinical marker of hematologic neoplasia and prognosis of disease. PMID:20653999

  1. Evaluation of Biochemical, Haematological, and Histopathological Responses and Recovery Ability of Common Carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) after Acute Exposure to Atrazine Herbicide

    PubMed Central

    Blahova, Jana; Modra, Helena; Sevcikova, Marie; Marsalek, Petr; Zelnickova, Lenka; Skoric, Misa; Svobodova, Zdenka

    2014-01-01

    The aim of study was to evaluate the effect of atrazine exposure (5, 15, 20, and 30?mg·L?1) on common carp and the ability of regeneration. During 96?h exposure we observed abnormal behavior in fish exposed to 20 and 30?mg·L?1. Mortality and histological alterations were noticed only in the group exposed to 30?mg·L?1. Most experimental groups showed significantly (P < 0.05) lower values of haemoglobin, haematocrit, leukocyte, and lymphocyte and significantly higher values of monocytes, segmented and band neutrophile granulocytes, and also metamyelocytes and myelocytes. A significantly lower (P < 0.05) leukocyte count was also recorded in experimental groups (5 and 15?mg·L?1) after recovery period. Statistically significant (P < 0.05) alterations in glucose, total protein, lactate, phosphorus, calcium, and biopterin as well as in activities of ALT, AST, ALP, and LDH were found in most experimental groups. These changes were most apparent in the groups exposed to 20 and 30?mg·L?1. Most of the indices were found to be restored after the 7-day recovery period with the exception of LDH, ALT, and lactate in the group exposed to 15?mg·L?1. Our results showed that atrazine exposure had a profound negative influence on selected indices and also on histological changes of common carp. PMID:24791011

  2. Physiological and haematological indices suggest superior heat tolerance of white-coloured West African Dwarf sheep in the hot humid tropics.

    PubMed

    Fadare, Adelodun O; Peters, Sunday O; Yakubu, Abdulmojeed; Sonibare, Adekayode O; Adeleke, Matthew A; Ozoje, Michael O; Imumorin, Ikhide G

    2013-01-01

    Coat colour contributes to physiological adaptation in mammals and mediates response to thermal stress. Twenty-four adult West African Dwarf sheep of both sexes and with different coat colour types were used in this study. We measured rectal temperature (RT), respiratory rate (RR) and pulse rate (PR) before sunrise and sunset during the late dry season (January-March) and early rainy season (April-June) as well as packed cell volume (PCV), red blood cell (RBC) count, white blood cell (WBC) count, plasma sodium (Na(+)) and potassium (K(+)). Animals with black coat colour had the highest (P < 0.05) mean values of 38.92 ± 0.03 °C, 65.09 ± 1.06 breaths/min, 81.35 ± 0.78 beats/min, 1.70 ± 0.01 for RT, RR, PR and heat stress index (HSI), respectively, followed by brown mouflon and brown with extensive white, while the Badger Face coloured sheep had the least mean values. There were significant (P < 0.05) differences between male and female sheep for RT, RR, PR and HSI. Season had a significant (P < 0.05) effect on RT, RR, PR and HSI. Coat colour and sex also significantly (P < 0.01) affected RBC, WBC, Na(+) and K(+). Seasonal variation (P < 0.05) in all the blood parameters was observed, with the exception of PCV. Interaction effect of coat colour and sex was significant (P < 0.05) on RT and HSI. Correlation coefficients among the measured traits ranged from positive to negative values. These results indicate that selection of white-coloured sheep to attenuate heat stress is desirable in the hot humid tropics. PMID:22639037

  3. Bull Math Biol (2015) 77:735738 DOI 10.1007/s11538-015-0065-9

    E-print Network

    Maini, Philip K.

    2015-01-01

    to a Hopf bifurcation in the dynamics of the haematological stem cells that leads to oscillations the origins of the periodic haematological disease cyclical neutropenia (CN). Through a combination in the treatment of this disease. They finally show how

  4. Foundations for Canada's Prosperity

    E-print Network

    Toronto, University of

    Engineering · Toxicology · Public Environmental & Occupational Health · Dentistry · Oral Surgery & Medicine Health Policy & Services · Haematology · Orthopaedics · Surgery · Biochemistry & Molecular Biology

  5. Monitoring gastric lymphoma in peripheral blood by quantitative IgH allele-specific oligonucleotide real-time PCR

    E-print Network

    Allen, Judith

    , Nijmegen, 2 Department of Pathology, Leiden University Medical Centre, Leiden, 3 Department of Haematology and the Central Haematology Laboratory, Radboud University Nijmegen Medical Centre, Nijmegen, 4 Department-specific-polym- erase chain reaction. short report Ş 2005 Blackwell Publishing Ltd, British Journal of Haematology, 131

  6. An initial investigation into the effects of isolation and enrichment on the welfare of labratory pigs housed in the PigTurn® system, assessed using tear staining, behaviour, physiology and haematology

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The pig is an increasingly important laboratory animal species. However, a laboratory often requires individual, sterile housing, which may impose stress. Our objective was to determine the effects of isolation and enrichment in pigs housed for 7 days within the PigTurn™ - a novel penning system wit...

  7. Outcomes of haematopoietic stem cell transplantation for inherited metabolic disorders: a report from the Australian and New Zealand Children's Haematology Oncology Group and the Australasian Bone Marrow Transplant Recipient Registry.

    PubMed

    Mitchell, R; Nivison-Smith, I; Anazodo, A; Tiedemann, K; Shaw, P J; Teague, L; Fraser, C J; Carter, T L; Tapp, H; Alvaro, F; O'Brien, T A

    2013-09-01

    We report a retrospective analysis of 53 haematopoietic stem cell transplants for inherited metabolic disorders performed at ANZCHOG transplant centres between 1992 and 2008. Indications for transplant included Hurler syndrome, ALD, and MLD. The majority of transplants utilized unrelated donor stem cells (66%) with 65% of those being unrelated cord blood. Conditioning therapy was largely myeloablative, with Bu plus another cytotoxic agent used in 89% of recipients. Primary graft failure was rare, occurring in three patients, all of whom remain long-term survivors following the second transplant. The CI of grade II-IV and grade III-IV acute GVHD at day +100 was 39% and 14%, respectively. Chronic GVHD occurred in 17% of recipients. TRM was 12% at day +100 and 19% at one yr post-transplant. OS at five yr was 78% for the cohort, 73% for patients with ALD and 83% for patients with Hurler syndrome. There was no statistically significant difference in overall survival between unrelated marrow and unrelated cord blood donor groups. The development of interstitial pneumonitis was an independent variable shown to significantly impact on TRM and OS. In summary, we report a large cohort of patients with inherited metabolic disorders with excellent survival post-allogeneic transplant. PMID:23802616

  8. N Ph.D SCHOOL DIRECTOR COURSES Ancient Topography

    E-print Network

    Di Pillo, Gianni

    Landscape and Environment Astronomy Chemical Sciences Earth Sciences Mathematics Physics International" in Astronomical, Chemical, Earth, Mathematical and Physical Sciences Prof. Paolo Piazza 4 Civil Engineering Genetics and Molecular Biology Human Biology and Medical Genetics Immunological and Haematological Sciences

  9. ANALYSIS OF THE VOLUME OF RED BLOOD CELLS: APPLICATION OF THE EXPECTATION-MAXIMIZATION ALGORITHM TO GROUPED DATA FROM THE DOUBLY-TRUNCATED LOGNORMAL DISTRIBUTION

    EPA Science Inventory

    In accordance with general principles recommended by the International Committee for Standardization in Haematology (1982, Journal of Clinical Pathology 35, 1320-1322), the authors have developed statistical methods for the analysis of red cell volume distributions. To select an ...

  10. Contrasting roles of histone 3 lysine 27 demethylases in acute lymphoblastic leukaemia

    E-print Network

    Ntziachristos, Panagiotis

    T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (T-ALL) is a haematological malignancy with a dismal overall prognosis, including a relapse rate of up to 25%, mainly because of the lack of non-cytotoxic targeted therapy options. Drugs ...

  11. Hypertrophic osteopathy in a cat with a concurrent injection site sarcoma

    E-print Network

    Salgüero, Raquel; Demetriou, Jackie; Constantino-Casas, Fernando; Herrtage, Michael

    2015-07-06

    . Haematology showed a marked neutrophilia and monocytosis. Tru-cut biopsies were taken and histopathology was consistent with a high-grade soft tissue sarcoma. Thoracic radiographs and abdominal ultrasound revealed no abnormalities. Moderate mixed...

  12. A comparative study of RNA-seq analysis strategies

    E-print Network

    Jänes, Jürgen; Hu, Fengyuan; Lewin, Alexandra; Turro, Ernest

    2015-03-18

    /plain; charset=UTF-8 A comparative study of RNA-seq analysis strategies Ju¨rgen Ja¨nes*, Fengyuan Hu*, Alexandra Lewin and Ernest Turro Corresponding author. Ernest Turro, Department of Haematology, University of Cambridge and MRC Biostatistics Unit. Tel... programme. Fengyuan Hu is a scientific programmer in the Department of Haematology, University of Cambridge. Alexandra Lewin is a Lecturer in Biostatistics at the Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Imperial College London. Ernest Turro is a Senior...

  13. Rule based processing of the CD4000, CD3200 and CD Sapphire analyser output using the Cerner Discern Expert Module.

    PubMed

    Burgess, P; Robin, H; Langshaw, M; Kershaw, G; Pathiraja, R; Yuen, S; Coad, C; Xiros, N; Mansy, G; Coleman, R; Brown, R; Gibson, J; Holman, R; Hubbard, J; Wick, V; Lammers, M; Johnson, R; Huffman, K; Bell, J; Ibrahim, A; Estepa, F; Lovegrove, J; Joshua, D

    2009-12-01

    The latest version of our Laboratory Information System haematology laboratory expert system that handles the output of Abbott Cell-Dyn Sapphires, CD4000s and a CD3200 full blood count analyser in three high-volume haematology laboratories is described. The three hospital laboratories use Cerner Millennium Version 2007.02 software and the expert system uses Cerner Millennium Discern Expert rules and some small Cerner Command Language in-house programs. The entire expert system is totally integrated with the area-wide database and has been built and maintained by haematology staff members, as has the haematology database. Using patient demographic data, analyser numeric results, analyser error and morphology flags and previous results for the patient, this expert system decides whether to validate the main full blood count indices and white cell differential, or if the analyser results warrant further operator intervention/investigation before verifying, whether a blood film is required for microscopic review and if abnormal results require phoning to the staff treating the patient. The principles of this expert system can be generalized to different haematology analysers and haematology laboratories that have different workflows and different software. PMID:18691345

  14. Specific treatment for cancer-associated thrombosis.

    PubMed

    Laffan, Mike

    2015-11-01

    Mike Laffan speaks to Gemma Westcott, Commissioning Editor: Michael Laffan is Professor of Haemostasis and Thrombosis in the Department of Haematology at Imperial College, London, UK, and Director of the Hammersmith Hospital Haemophilia Centre. He trained in medicine at Oxford University and hematology at the Hammersmith and Royal Free hospitals in London. His principal research interests are the structure-function relationship of von Willebrand factor, in particular the role of glycosylation, and the mechanisms and regulation of thrombin generation. He has published extensively on hemostasis and recently edited the 11th edition of Practical Haematology. He also served on NEQAS and the British Committee for Standards in Haematology Task force on Haemostasis and Thrombosis. PMID:26467092

  15. Consensus Report of the XI Congress of the Spanish Society of Odontology for the Handicapped and Special Patients

    PubMed Central

    Cabrerizo-Merino, Carmen; Cutando-Soriano, Antonio; Giménez-Prats, María J.; Silvestre-Donat, Farncisco J.; Tomás-Carmona, Inmaculada

    2014-01-01

    This article summarizes the findings of consensus of the XI congress of the SEOEME. All of these conclusions are referring to the review articles responsible to the general rapporteurs in order to bringing up to date knowledge with regard to the use of implants in patients medically compromised and with special needs and, in the dental management of autism and cerebral palsy, in the dental treatment of patients with genetic and adquired haematological disorders, the dental implications of cardiovascular disease and hospital dentistry. Key words:Autism, cardiovascular diseases, cerebral palsy, dental implants, disabled patients, haematological disorders, hospital dentistry. PMID:24608224

  16. Comparison of Pigeon Guillemot, Cepphus columba, Blood Parameters

    E-print Network

    McGuire, A. David

    Comparison of Pigeon Guillemot, Cepphus columba, Blood Parameters from Oiled and Unoiled Areas the haematological and plasma biochemical pro®les among populations of pigeon guille- mots, Cepphus columba, in areas), Alaska. Pigeon guillemot populations in PWS were injured by EVOS and have not returned to pre

  17. Training of pathologists in countries belonging to the European Economic Community.

    PubMed Central

    Rinsler, M G

    1977-01-01

    The regulations and procedures for the training and assessment of pathologists engaged in morbid anatomy and histology, medical microbiology, haematology, and clinical chemistry in the countries of the European Economic Community are reviewed. Differences in the terminology used in the description of pathological disciplines are noted. Suggestions are made by which harmonisation of training, which is an EEC objective, could be achieved. PMID:334802

  18. LETTER TO THE EDITOR Clinical Walk a mile in the moccasins of people with haemophilia

    E-print Network

    Ponder, Katherine P.

    * and A. SRIVASTAVA *Departments of Internal Medicine and Biochemistry and Molecular Biophysics, Washington University School of Medicine, St Louis, MO, USA; and Department of Haematology, Christian Medical College, Vellore, Tamil Nadu, India The ethics of haemophilia gene therapy research This issue

  19. Effect of pre-warming EDTA blood samples to 37oC on platelet count measured by Sysmex XT-2000iV in dogs, cats and horses

    E-print Network

    Williams, Tim L.; Archer, Joy

    2015-01-01

    Background: Pseudothrombocytopenia secondary to platelet clumping is a common cause of pre-analytical error for platelet counts in dogs, cats and horses. In humans, it is suggested that pre-warming blood samples to 37oC prior to haematology analysis...

  20. Effects of social isolation and environmental enrichment on laboratory housed pigs

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The pig is becoming an increasingly important laboratory animal species. However, a laboratory setting often requires individual and sterile housing, which may impose stress. The objective of this study was to determine physiological, haematological and behavioral effects of isolation and environmen...

  1. West Syndrome in an Infant with Vitamin B[subscript 12] Deficiency in the Absence of Macrocytic Anaemia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Erol, Ilknur; Alehan, Fusun; Gumus, Ayten

    2007-01-01

    Vitamin B[subscript 12] deficiency in infants often produces haematological and neurological deficits, including macrocytic anaemia, neurodevelopmental delay or regression, irritability, weakness, hypotonia, ataxia, apathy, tremor, and seizures. The diagnosis of vitamin B[subscript 12] deficiency can be difficult when the typical macrocytic…

  2. Global variability in gene expression and alternative splicing is modulated by mitochondrial content

    E-print Network

    Guantes, Raúl

    Global variability in gene expression and alternative splicing is modulated by mitochondrial, Spain; 3 MRC Molecular Haematology Unit, Weatherall Institute of Molecular Medicine, John Radcliffe and activities. Moreover, we find that mitochondrial levels have a large impact on alternative splicing, thus

  3. Submitted/ In Press Whiting, S.D, Guinea, M.L., Fomiatti, K., Flint, M, and Limpus, C.J. (Accepted). Plasma biochemical

    E-print Network

    Hill, Jeffrey E.

    of marine turtle mortality in Queensland. XII International Congress of Parasitology. Editor: VG Verdi. pp and haematological reference intervals to identify unhealthy green sea turtles (Chelonia mydas). The Veterinary populations: a review of common pathological findings and protocols. Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic

  4. Red blood cell phenotypes in the alpha + thalassaemias from early childhood to maturity.

    PubMed

    Williams, T N; Maitland, K; Ganczakowski, M; Peto, T E; Clegg, J B; Weatherall, D J; Bowden, D K

    1996-11-01

    The alpha+ thalassaemias are the most common single gene disorders of humans, yet little is known about their haematological characteristics in childhood. Blood samples have been collected randomly from more than 2000 individuals in village communities in Vanuatu in the South West Pacific and analysed for alpha thalassaemia and associated haematological changes. Here we describe the haematological effects of the alpha+ thalassaemias from early childhood through to maturity in this population. Mean cell volume (MCV) and mean cell haemoglobin (MCH) levels in individuals of normal, heterozygous and homozygous genotype differed significantly from one another throughout the entire age range (2P < 0.05). In contrast, haemoglobin levels in heterozygous and homozygous individuals were well maintained throughout development. Adults of normal genotype attain Hb levels which are indistinguishable from Caucasian reference values, a finding made all the more remarkable given the high frequency of clinical malaria in this population. It is clear from these findings that haematological data are valuable in screening for carriers of alpha+ thalassaemia in this population. MCH is clearly the most sensitive discriminator. None of the homozygous adults tested had an MCH of > 27 pg, whereas < 10% of normals had a value of < 27 pg. These data provide reference values for areas in which the alpha+ thalassaemias are common and often confused with iron-deficiency anaemia. PMID:8904880

  5. Drug-induced haemolysis, renal failure, thrombocytopenia and lactic acidosis in patients with HIV and cryptococcal meningitis: a diagnostic challenge.

    PubMed

    Camara-Lemarroy, Carlos R; Flores-Cantu, Hazael; Calderon-Hernandez, Hector J; Diaz-Torres, Marco A; Villareal-Velazquez, Hector J

    2015-12-01

    Patients with HIV are at risk of both primary and secondary haematological disorders. We report two cases of patients with HIV and cryptococcal meningitis who developed severe haemolytic anaemia, thrombocytopenia, renal failure and lactic acidosis while on treatment with amphotericin B and co-trimoxazole. PMID:25614519

  6. Click Chemistry in Generation of Mammalian Acetylome to Study Shwachman-Diamond Syndrome 

    E-print Network

    Sibley, Robert

    2011-08-08

    ) Orthodontics and Craniofacial Research 10, 88-95 17 18. Walne, A. J. (2009) British Journal of Haematology 145, 164-172 19. Notarangelo, L. D. (2008) Current Opinion in Allergy and Clinical Immunology 8, 534-539 20. Mitchell, J. R., and Collins...

  7. Hair Zinc Level in Down Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yenigun, Ayse; Ozkinay, Ferda; Cogulu, Ozgur; Coker, Canan; Cetiner, Nurten; Ozden, Gonca; Aksu, Oguz; Ozkinay, Cihangir

    2004-01-01

    Immunological, endocrinological, and haematological abnormalities are relatively common in people with Down syndrome (Cuadrado & Barrena, 1996; Decoq & Vincker, 1995; Hestnes et al., 1991; Sustrova & Strbak, 1994; Nespoli, Burgio, Ugazio & Maccario, 1993; Kempski, Chessells & Reeves, 1997; Kivivuori, Rajantie, & Siimes, 1996; David et al., 1996;…

  8. Malaria Diagnosis Using Automated Analysers: A Boon for Hematopathologists in Endemic Areas

    PubMed Central

    Narang, Vikram; Sood, Neena; Garg, Bhavna; Gupta, Vikram Kumar

    2015-01-01

    Background Haematological abnormalities are common in acute febrile tropical illnesses. Malaria is a major health problem in tropics. In endemic areas especially in the post monsoon season, it is not practical to manually screen all peripheral blood films (PBF) for malarial parasite. Automated analysers offer rapid, sensitive and cost effective screening of all samples. Aim The study was done to evaluate the usefulness of automated cell counters analysing their histograms, scatter-grams and the flaggings generated in malaria positive and negative cases. The comparison of other haematological parameters were also studied which could help to identify malaria parasite in peripheral blood smear. Materials and Methods The blood samples were analysed using Beckman coulter LH-750. The abnormal scatter grams and additional peaks in WBC histograms were observed diligently & compared with normal controls. Haematological abnormalities were also evaluated. Statistical Analysis Statistical analysis was done by using software Epi-Info version 7.1.4 freely available from CDC website. Fisher exact test was applied to calculate the p-value and value < 0.05 was considered as significant. Final identification of malarial parasite species was done independently by peripheral blood smear examination by two pathologists. Results Of all the 200 cases evaluated abnormal scatter grams were observed in all the cases of malaria while abnormal WBC histogram peaks were noted in 96% cases demonstrating a peak at the threshold of the histogram. The difference between number of slides positive for abnormal WBC scatter gram and abnormal WBC histogram peaks were statistically highly significant (p=0.007). So abnormal WBC scatter gram can better give idea of malarial parasite presence. Of the haematological parameters thrombocytopenia (92% cases) emerged as the strongest predictor of malaria. Conclusion It is recommended for haematopathologists to review the haematological data and the scatter plots on the analyser along with peripheral blood smear examination. PMID:26557525

  9. Secondary Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia after Hodgkin's Lymphoma or a Coincidental Association of Two Hematological Malignancies?

    PubMed Central

    TEVET, Mihaela; DRAGAN, Cornel; SAGUNA, Carmen; BARBU, Doina; LUPU, Anca Roxana

    2013-01-01

    ABSTRACT Secondary acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (sALL), defined as acute lymphoblastic leukaemia following another malignancy, irrespective of previous treatment, is a rare disease, and its biological characteristics have not been accurately described. We report the case of a 24-year old patient followed for Hodgkin's lymphoma at our clinic, who develops and is diagnosed, less than a year after obtaining complete remission, as having pro-B acute lymphoblastic leukaemia This case has been a real diagnostic and treatment challenge, as sALL following another haematological malignancy is quite rare. Conclusion: It is necessary to better identify the prognostic factors of haematological malignancies in order to prevent the appearance of sALL. PMID:24790671

  10. Pathophysiology of white-nose syndrome in bats: a mechanistic model linking wing damage to mortality

    PubMed Central

    Warnecke, Lisa; Turner, James M.; Bollinger, Trent K.; Misra, Vikram; Cryan, Paul M.; Blehert, David S.; Wibbelt, Gudrun; Willis, Craig K. R.

    2013-01-01

    White-nose syndrome is devastating North American bat populations but we lack basic information on disease mechanisms. Altered blood physiology owing to epidermal invasion by the fungal pathogen Geomyces destructans (Gd) has been hypothesized as a cause of disrupted torpor patterns of affected hibernating bats, leading to mortality. Here, we present data on blood electrolyte concentration, haematology and acid–base balance of hibernating little brown bats, Myotis lucifugus, following experimental inoculation with Gd. Compared with controls, infected bats showed electrolyte depletion (i.e. lower plasma sodium), changes in haematology (i.e. increased haematocrit and decreased glucose) and disrupted acid–base balance (i.e. lower CO2 partial pressure and bicarbonate). These findings indicate hypotonic dehydration, hypovolaemia and metabolic acidosis. We propose a mechanistic model linking tissue damage to altered homeostasis and morbidity/mortality. PMID:23720520

  11. Pathophysiology of white-nose syndrome in bats: a mechanistic model linking wing damage to mortality

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Warnecke, Lisa; Turner, James M.; Bollinger, Trent K.; Misra, Vikram; Cryan, Paul M.; Blehert, David S.; Wibbelt, Gudrun; Willis, Craig K.R.

    2013-01-01

    White-nose syndrome is devastating North American bat populations but we lack basic information on disease mechanisms. Altered blood physiology owing to epidermal invasion by the fungal pathogen Geomyces destructans (Gd) has been hypothesized as a cause of disrupted torpor patterns of affected hibernating bats, leading to mortality. Here, we present data on blood electrolyte concentration, haematology and acid–base balance of hibernating little brown bats, Myotis lucifugus, following experimental inoculation with Gd. Compared with controls, infected bats showed electrolyte depletion (i.e. lower plasma sodium), changes in haematology (i.e. increased haematocrit and decreased glucose) and disrupted acid–base balance (i.e. lower CO2 partial pressure and bicarbonate). These findings indicate hypotonic dehydration, hypovolaemia and metabolic acidosis. We propose a mechanistic model linking tissue damage to altered homeostasis and morbidity/mortality.

  12. [Plasma lipoprotein levels in relation to dietary habits].

    PubMed

    Seu, A; Carbini, L; D'Antonio, C; Pellegrini, R; Rocchitta, A

    1980-10-15

    We carried out a nutritional and haematological survey on 130 pupils of a boarding school in Cagliari in order to determine the relationship between plasma lipoprotein and nutritional habits, particularly, we determined beta/alpha ratio of lipoprotein comparing it with plasma values in hospitalized patients, suffering from metabolic and cardiovascular disease. The results allowed us to observe that 92% of hospitalized patients and 17% of subjects, presumably in good health, showed beta/alpha ratio greater than 2,5. The latter, apparently insignificant, is very important because it was detected in young subjects; as their diet was high-fat and high-carbohydrate, a nutritional and haematological survey will be always necessary in order to prevent illnesses. PMID:7193038

  13. Current clinical efficacy of chloroquine for the treatment of Plasmodium falciparum infections in urban Dar es Salaam, United Republic of Tanzania.

    PubMed Central

    Premji, Z.; Makwaya, C.; Minjas, J. N.

    1999-01-01

    Reported is the use of a 14-day WHO protocol, which takes into account the clinical, parasitological and haematological responses to antimalarial drugs, to determine the efficacy of chloroquine in the treatment of uncomplicated malaria in young children (n = 200) in urban Dar es Salaam. Chloroquine failure was found in 43% of the children. Of these, 12.5% were considered to be early treatment failures and were given a single dose of sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine. Fever subsided in all children treated with sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine and there were no parasitological failures. In addition, children treated with sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine because of early treatment failure with chloroquine had better haematological recovery than the chloroquine-sensitive group. It is concluded that chloroquine can no longer be considered an effective therapy for P. falciparum malaria in young children in Dar es Salaam. PMID:10534897

  14. Thirty-day mortality rate in women with cancer and venous thromboembolism. Findings from the RIETE Registry.

    PubMed

    Trujillo-Santos, Javier; Casas, José Manuel; Casa, José Manuel; Casado, Ignacio; Samperiz, Angel Luis; Quintavalla, Roberto; Sahuquillo, Joan Carles; Monreal, Manuel

    2011-02-01

    The influence of the site of cancer on outcome in cancer women with venous thromboembolism (VTE) is poorly understood. Reliable information on its influence might facilitate better use of prevention strategies. We assessed the 30-day outcome in all women with active cancer in the RIETE Registry, trying to identify if differences exist according to the tumor site. Up to May 2010, 2474 women with cancer and acute VTE had been enrolled. The most common sites were the breast (26%), colon (13%), uterus (9.3%), and haematologic (8.6%) cancers. During the 30-day study period, 329 (13%) patients died. Of them, 71 (2.9%) died of pulmonary embolism (PE), 22 (0.9%) died of bleeding. Fatal PE was more common in women with breast, colorectal, lung or pancreatic cancer (59% of the fatal PEs). Fatal bleeding was more frequent in women with colorectal, haematologic, ovarian cancer or carcinoma of unknown origin (55% of fatal bleedings). PMID:21262424

  15. Ultrasound: a new tool for precisely locating posterior iliac crests to obtain adequate bone marrow trephine biopsy specimen.

    PubMed

    Islam, Anwarul

    2013-08-01

    Ultrasound imaging has evolved as a very useful tool in medical science. However, the technique of ultrasound-guided bone marrow trephine biopsy (BMTB) has not been routinely used by haematologists and oncologists to help locate the posterior iliac crest during the BMTB procedure. We have used the technique of ultrasound-guided BMTB in 20 patients diagnosed with various haematological and non-haematological malignant conditions. We found the technique simple and useful in precisely locating the posterior iliac crest. As a result, it facilitates the extraction of a satisfactory core sample or aspiration biopsy and is more surgically precise than when access to the target bone is based only on external landmarks and blind biopsy. PMID:23493477

  16. Angina bullosa haemorrhagica

    PubMed Central

    Shoor, Hitesh; Mutalik, Sunil; Pai, Keerthilatha M

    2013-01-01

    A woman in her early 40s presented with a painless ulceration on the right side of the posterior palate, she had an earlier history of similar lesions after the rupturing of blood filled blisters in the oral cavity. On examination, a diffuse erythematous area and ulcers covered with necrotic slough were noticed on the right and left side of the posterior palate and on the right buccal mucosa. On follow-up visit, a large blood filled blister was noticed in the buccal vestibule. We advised routine haematological investigations to rule out any bleeding disorders and direct immunofluorescence of the affected tissue and perilesional areas to rule out autoimmune blistering conditions. Haematological investigations revealed no abnormalities and immunofluorescence testing was negative. A diagnosis of angina bullosa haemorrhagica was made by excluding all other conditions. Symptomatic treatment was given, patient was educated about the condition and reassured. PMID:24334011

  17. Time-dependent biodistribution, clearance and biocompatibility of magnetic fibrin nanoparticles: an in vivo study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prabu, Periyathambi; Vedakumari, Weslen S.; Sastry, Thotapalli P.

    2015-05-01

    Recently, bioretention and toxicity of injected nanoparticles in the body has drawn much attention in biomedical research. In the present study, 5 mg Fe per kg body weight of magnetic fibrin nanoparticles (MFNPs) were injected into mice intravenously and investigated for their blood clearance profile, biodistribution, haematology and pathology studies for a time period of 28 days. Moderately long circulation of MFNPs in blood was observed with probable degradation and excretion into the bloodstream via monoatomic iron forms. Inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES) and Prussian blue staining results showed increased accumulation of MFNPs in the liver, followed by spleen and other organs. Body weight, spleen/thymus indexes, haematology, serum biochemistry and histopathology studies demonstrated that MFNPs were biocompatible. These results suggest the feasibility of using MFNPs for drug delivery and imaging applications.

  18. Cerebral atrophy in a vitamin B12-deficient infant of a vegetarian mother.

    PubMed

    Kocaoglu, Celebi; Akin, Fatih; Caksen, Hüseyin; Böke, Saltuk Bu?ra; Arslan, Sükrü; Aygün, Serhat

    2014-06-01

    In developed countries, vitamin B12 (cobalamin) deficiency usually occurs in children, exclusively breastfed ones whose mothers are vegetarian, causing low body stores of vitamin B12. The haematologic manifestation of vitamin B12 deficiency is pernicious anaemia. It is a megaloblastic anaemia with high mean corpuscular volume and typical morphological features, such as hyperlobulation of the nuclei of the granulocytes. In advanced cases, neutropaenia and thrombocytopaenia can occur, simulating aplastic anaemia or leukaemia. In addition to haematological symptoms, infants may experience weakness, fatigue, failure to thrive, and irritability. Other common findings include pallor, glossitis, vomiting, diarrhoea, and icterus. Neurological symptoms may affect the central nervous system and, in severe cases, rarely cause brain atrophy. Here, we report an interesting case, a 12-month old infant, who was admitted with neurological symptoms and diagnosed with vitamin B12 deficiency. PMID:25076673

  19. Hematological parameters associated with parasitism in pike, Esox lucius caught from Anzali wetland.

    PubMed

    Fallah, Farzin Jamalzad; Khara, Hossein; Rohi, Javad Daghigh; Sayadborani, Mohammad

    2015-06-01

    This study involved 120 pike, Esox lucius, captured from Anzali wetland. Parasite fauna were identified in captured fish. Also, changes of haematological parameters were compared both infected and uninfected fish. Parasitological inspections revealed the following infestations: Skin: Lernea cyprinacea, Argulus foliaceus (Crustacean) and Tricodina sp. (Ciliatea). Gill: Dactylogyrus sp. (Digenea) and Tetraonchus monenteron (Monogenea). Eye: Diplostomum spathaceum (Digenea). Gut: Eustrongylides exises, Rhipdocotyle illense, Raphidascaris acus (Nematode), Corynosoma Strumosum (Acanthocephala). Most prevalence and intensity were related to Eustrongylides exises and Rhipdocotyle illense. Following haematological parameters were evaluated: haematocrit, haemoglobin concentration, erythrocyte and leukocyte counts, mean cell volume (MCV), mean cell haemoglobin, mean cell haemoglobin concentration lymphocytes, monocytes and eosinophils. Significant difference was found for MCV between infected and uninfected fish. PMID:26064009

  20. Therapeutic activity of crude ethanolic extract of Artemisia herba alba against Trypanosoma evansi in rabbits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Awad, Fathy M.; Hasan, Zainal Abidin Abu; Osman, Abdinasir Yusuf; Ibrahim, Nazlina

    2013-11-01

    The present work was conducted to evaluate the antitrypanosomal efficacy of crude ethanolic extract (CEE) of the aerial parts of Artemisia herba alba against Trypanosoma evansi infection in an animal model. The results indicated low levels of parasitaemia in rabbits administered with crude ethanolic extract (CEE) compared to those from the negative control group. Similarly, there was also haematologically significant difference (p<0.05) where low mean levels of packed cell volume (PCV) was observed in Groups 1-4 respectively. In contrast, there was no statistically significant difference in almost all investigated parameters between positive control and treatment groups of animals. In conclusion, both CEE of A. herba-alba and Berenil® showed relatively a parasitaemia and normal haematological values in infected rabbits, thereby confirming their antiparasitic properties.

  1. Vitamin B12 deficiency - A 21st century perspective?.

    PubMed

    Shipton, Michael J; Thachil, Jecko

    2015-04-01

    Vitamin B12 deficiency is a common condition which can present with non-specific clinical features, and in severe cases with neurological or haematological abnormalities. Although classically caused by pernicious anaemia, this condition now accounts for a minority of cases and vitamin B12 deficiency occurs most often due to food-bound cobalamin malabsorption. Since missing the diagnosis can result in potentially severe complications, including degeneration of the spinal cord and pancytopaenia, vitamin B12 deficiency must be diagnosed early and managed appropriately. Intramuscular injections have been the mainstay of treatment, but oral replacement therapy can be effective in many cases. There is accumulating evidence that high vitamin B12 levels (values varied from 350-1,200 pmol/l) are associated with haematological and hepatic disorders, in particular with malignancy. This review focuses on the developments in the clinical features and management of vitamin B12 deficiency over the last decade. PMID:25824066

  2. Book reviews.

    PubMed

    1994-01-01

    A Textbook of Pharmaceutical Medicine: Current Practice Edited by: R. D. Mann, M. D. Rawlins and R. M. Auty, Parthenon Publishing Group, London, 1900. 461 pages. Price Ł85 Clinical Application of Leukocyte Depletion S. Sekiguchi (Editor) Blackwell Scientific Publication, London, 1993. Price Ł35 Self-Assessment in Clinical Haematology J. A. Holmes, S. E. Kinsey, C. A. Ludlam, D. K. Webb, J. A. Whittaker. Wolfe Publishing Ltd, 136 pages. Price Ł18.95. PMID:21043644

  3. Effect of chronic FIV infection, and efficacy of marbofloxacin treatment, on Mycoplasma haemofelis infection.

    PubMed

    Tasker, Séverine; Caney, Sarah M A; Day, Michael J; Dean, Rachel S; Helps, Chris R; Knowles, Toby G; Lait, Philippa J P; Pinches, Mark D G; Gruffydd-Jones, Timothy J

    2006-10-31

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of chronic feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) infection, and efficacy of marbofloxacin treatment, on Mycoplasma haemofelis infection. Six cats chronically infected with FIV-Glasgow8 (Group X) and six FIV-free cats (Group Y) were infected with M. haemofelis on Day 0 by intravenous blood inoculation. From Day 0 until Day 86 post-infection (pi), blood samples were collected for M. haemofelis and FIV provirus quantitative real-time PCR and haematology. Three of the six cats in each of Groups X and Y were randomly selected to receive marbofloxacin treatment (2 mg/kg PO q24 h) from Day 16 to 43 pi, with the remaining cats being untreated controls with no antibiotic treatment. The M. haemofelis copy numbers and haematological data were compared between Groups X and Y, and between marbofloxacin-treated and control cats using a Mann-Whitney U-test. M. haemofelis infection was associated with development of macrocytic hypochromic anaemia. In some cats, marked variation in M. haemofelis copy number over time (>100,000-fold difference within 48 h in some cats) and/or cycling of copy number was seen. No correlation was found between FIV provirus copy number and M. haemofelis copy number or haematological variables. No significant effect of chronic FIV infection on M. haemofelis copy number kinetics or haematological changes due to M. haemofelis infection was found, other than MCHC (P=0.03). Marbofloxacin treatment was associated with a significant decrease in M. haemofelis copy number (P=0.002), although consistent clearance of infection was not demonstrated. This study reveals the presence of marked fluctuations in M. haemofelis copy number kinetics in vivo and a significant response to marbofloxacin antibiotic treatment. PMID:16876338

  4. Partial splenectomy in cystic fibrosis patients with hypersplenism.

    PubMed

    Thalhammer, G H; Eber, E; Uranüs, S; Pfeifer, J; Zach, M S

    2003-02-01

    We report three cystic fibrosis (CF) patients with hypersplenism who underwent partial splenectomy. The postoperative course was uneventful in two patients; one patient developed a complication necessitating resection of the rest of the spleen. Haematological parameters improved and oesophageal varices regressed in all patients. On follow up, one patient showed a normal spleen, the other a normally functioning accessory spleen; the third patient again developed splenomegaly with hypersplenism. Partial splenectomy is a promising therapeutic option for CF patients with hypersplenism. PMID:12538318

  5. Primary invasive aspergillosis with disseminated intravascular coagulation as a presenting feature of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma.

    PubMed

    Balsitis, Margaret; Elgoweini, Maha; Martin, Sarah J; Shankland, Gillian S; Paxton, Jane; Bal, Abhijit M

    2015-09-01

    Invasive aspergillosis (IA) is a life-threatening infection. IA is usually seen in severely immunocompromised patients. However, IA as a presenting feature of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma is rare. The patient we describe had no signs or symptoms of lymphoma prior to hospital admission. A. fumigatus was isolated from respiratory tract specimens on the day of admission and fungal elements were detected on autopsy. Isolation of Aspergillus in patients with severe sepsis should trigger a search haematological malignancy. PMID:26199867

  6. Hypereosinophilic syndrome with large intracardiac thrombus

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Kian-Guan; Chuah, Matthew Bingfeng; Tang, Hak-Chiaw; Chua, Terrance Siang Jin

    2014-01-01

    As the nonspecific clinical presentation of hypereosinophilic syndrome (HES) may mimic many multisystemic diseases, it often presents as a diagnostic challenge. Herein, we report the case of a 60-year-old man who presented with progressive heart failure symptoms and eosinophilia. Despite extensive diagnostic evaluation, no underlying cause was found. Transthoracic echocardiography revealed a large left ventricular thrombus, which is suggestive of hypereosinophilic cardiac involvement. The patient was started on steroids and responded clinically and haematologically. PMID:25189313

  7. Failure of laboratory and radiological studies to predict jejunal mucosal atrophy.

    PubMed Central

    Sanderson, M C; Davis, L R; Mowat, A P

    1975-01-01

    Of 58 children with suspected malabsorption, 27 were shown to have subtotal or partial atrophy, and 31 had normal mucosal histology. Oral glucose tolerance tests, faecal fat excretion, D-xylose excretion tests, Prosparol absorption studies, haematological investigations, and radiological examination of the small bowel failed to distinguish these two groups and frequently gave misleading results. It is concluded that in suspected coeliac disease small intestinal biopsy should be performed as a primary investigation. PMID:170871

  8. Successful treatment of aplastic anaemia associated with HIV infection with eltrombopag: implications for a possible immunomodulatory role.

    PubMed

    Bart-Smith, Emily E; Kordasti, Shahram; Kulasekararaj, Austin G; Richardson, Daniel; Mufti, Ghulam J; Marsh, Judith C W

    2014-11-28

    We report the first successful treatment with the thrombopoietin receptor mimetic eltrombopag in a patient with severe aplastic anaemia (SAA) associated with HIV infection, thereby avoiding the use of standard immunosuppressive agents for treatment of SAA. Eltrombopag induced a trilineage haematological response. We also show that eltrombopag had an immunomodulatory role with a decrease in proinflammatory T helpers (Th1 and Th17 cells) with increased T-regulatory cell/T-helper ratio, thus contributing to recovery of haemopoiesis. PMID:25333665

  9. Disseminated fusariosis by Fusarium proliferatum in a patient with aplastic anaemia receiving primary posaconazole prophylaxis - case report and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Ricna, Dita; Lengerova, Martina; Palackova, Martina; Hadrabova, Marketa; Kocmanova, Iva; Weinbergerova, Barbora; Pavlovsky, Zdenek; Volfova, Pavlina; Bouchnerova, Jana; Mayer, Jiri; Racil, Zdenek

    2016-01-01

    Disseminated fusariosis is a life-threatening, invasive, opportunistic infection in immunocompromised patients, especially those with haematological malignancies. The prognosis is poor because these fungi are resistant to many of the available antifungal agents. We present a case of disseminated fusariosis caused by Fusarium proliferatum in a patient with severe aplastic anaemia complicated by a secondary infection of Aspergillus flavus, with a fatal outcome. We also review the documented Fusarium infections in immunocompromised hosts. PMID:26661324

  10. Serum ferritin in juvenile chronic polyarthritis.

    PubMed Central

    Craft, A W; Eastham, E J; Bell, J I; Brigham, K

    1977-01-01

    Six children with juvenile chronic polyarthritis were studied and their disease activity correlated with haematological values including serum ferritin. The latter is often raised above reference values, but even when within them appears to fluctuate significantly and correlates more closely with disease activity than any of the other parameters measured. We conclude that the serial measurement of serum ferritin may be a useful guide to the management of such children. PMID:879866

  11. Effect of occupation on lipid peroxidation and antioxidants' status in masons.

    PubMed

    Mallika, R; Srinivasan, K N; Pugalendi, K V

    2000-01-01

    Effect of occupation on haematological factors, lipid peroxidation and antioxidants' status was studied in masons and compared with normal subjects. Red blood corpuscles (RBC), haemoglobin (Hb), Vitamin C, Vitamin E, beta-carotene levels and glutathione peroxidase (GSHPx), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) activities decreased. Thiobarbituric acid reacting substances (TBARS) level increased. Occupational exposure to cement increased lipid peroxidation but decreased antioxidants' levels in masons. Increased lipid peroxidation seems to be responsible for the reduction in RBC and Hb. PMID:10919101

  12. Practical experience with the implementation of an athlete's biological profile in athletics, cycling, football and swimming.

    PubMed

    Zorzoli, M; Pipe, A; Garnier, P Y; Vouillamoz, M; Dvorak, J

    2014-05-01

    The introduction of the athlete's biological passport (ABP) has been a milestone in the fight against doping. The ABP is a collection of measurements of different biological parameters influenced by the administration of doping agents through the time and for each athlete. Two different modules have been developed and validated so far: the haematological module, which aims to identify enhancement of oxygen transport, including use of erythropoiesis-stimulating agents and any form of blood transfusion or manipulation, which became effective in 2010; and the steroidal module, which intends to detect the use of endogenous anabolic androgenic steroids when administered exogenously and other anabolic agents, which was introduced in 2014. Prior to the implementation of the haematological module, it is important to define an athlete's testing pool on whom to collect blood and/or urine in-competition and out-of-competition (for the steroidal module, this is irrelevant because all collected urine samples will be subjected to analysis for the steroidal variables) and to be compliant with the strict requirements of the World Anti-Doping Agency ABP Operating Guidelines. The established individual profile can be used either to target traditional antidoping tests (recombinant erythropoietins, or homologous blood transfusion tests for the haematological module; isotope ratio mass spectrometry (IRMS) for the steroidal module) or to support an antidoping rule violation due to the use of a forbidden substance or method. In this article, we present the experience of four major International Federations which have implemented an ABP programme, focusing on the haematological module. They constitute examples which could be followed by other antidoping organisations wishing to introduce this new, efficient and innovative antidoping tool. PMID:24648438

  13. [A severe case of infectious mononucleosis associated with ciprofloxacin and salazopyrin administration].

    PubMed

    Miftode, Egidia; Leca, Daniela; Luca, V

    2008-01-01

    We report a case of rash probably induced by ciprofloxacin and/or salazopyrin administration in a patient with infectious mononucleosis. A 22 year woman developed a maculopapular and petechial eruption in the 3-rd day of ciprofloxacin (given for a genital tract infection) and the 32-nd day of salazopyrin (for a spondylodiscitis). Subsequently she developed a severe hepatitis, shock, and very severe leucocytosis (88 000/mmc) that occasioned haematological investigations for a lymphoproliferative syndrome. PMID:20201247

  14. Predictors of delay in diagnosis and treatment in diffuse large B-cell lymphoma and impact on survival.

    PubMed

    Nikonova, Anna; Guirguis, Hany R; Buckstein, Rena; Cheung, Matthew C

    2015-02-01

    There is a paucity of data on the impact of diagnostic and treatment delays on outcomes in haematological malignancies, particularly in patients with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL). Our database of patients treated for DLBCL between 2002 and 2010 was interrogated. Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed to determine the relationship between sociodemographic or disease-specific variables and delays. Cox Regression analysis was used to discern the impact of delays on survival. Patients (n = 278) waited a median of 4 weeks before seeking medical attention. It took a median of 8 weeks for a non-haematology physician to diagnose DLBCL and refer to a haematologist. A median of 3 weeks elapsed between specialist consultation and chemotherapy initiation. In multivariate logistic regression analysis, bone marrow involvement [odds ratio (OR) = 0·41, P = 0·018], Charlson comorbidity index (OR = 1·42, P = 0·017) and urgent inpatient chemotherapy (OR = 0·40, P = 0·012) were associated with diagnostic delays >6 weeks. Lack of pathological diagnosis at the time of haematology referral was the only factor that independently predicted for treatment delays >4 weeks (OR = 8·25, P < 0·01). Diagnostic or treatment delays did not impact survival or progression-free survival. In conclusion, selected disease and patient-related factors are associated with delays in management of DLBCL, but do not impact outcomes. PMID:25324181

  15. Deferasirox chelation therapy in patients with transfusion-dependent MDS: a 'real-world' report from two regional Italian registries: Gruppo Romano Mielodisplasie and Registro Basilicata.

    PubMed

    Maurillo, Luca; Breccia, Massimo; Buccisano, Francesco; Voso, Maria Teresa; Niscola, Pasquale; Trapč, Giulio; Tatarelli, Caterina; D'Addosio, Ada; Latagliata, Roberto; Fenu, Susanna; Piccioni, Anna Lina; Fragasso, Alberto; Aloe Spiriti, Maria A; Refrigeri, Marco; Criscuolo, Marianna; Musto, Pellegrino; Venditti, Adriano

    2015-07-01

    Deferasirox (DFX) is an orally administered iron chelator approved for use in patients with transfusion-dependent iron overload due to myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS). The safety and efficacy of DFX has been explored in clinical trial settings, but there is little data on unselected patients with MDS. The aim of this study was to retrospectively evaluate the safety, compliance, efficacy and effect on haematopoiesis of DFX in a large 'real-world' MDS population. One hundred and eighteen patients with transfusion-dependent MDS were treated with DFX across 11 centres in Italy. Serum ferritin levels, haematological response, dosing, adverse events and transfusion dependence were recorded at baseline, 3, 6, 12 and 24 months following initiation of treatment. DFX reduced mean serum ferritin levels from 1790 to 1140 ng/mL (P < 0.001), with 7.1% of patients achieving transfusion independence. Significant haematological improvement was seen in erythroid (17.6%), platelet (5.9%) and neutrophil counts (7.1%). Adverse events were reported in 47.5% of patients, including gastrointestinal and renal toxicity. Regression analysis showed that higher starting doses of DFX are associated with transfusion independence at 24 months. DFX is a safe, effective treatment for transfusion-dependent MDS that can lead to transfusion independence and haematological improvement in a subset of patients. PMID:25764148

  16. Influence of Protein Intake from Haem and Non-haem Animals and Plant Origin on Inflammatory Biomarkers among Apparently-healthy Adults in Greece

    PubMed Central

    Vallianou, Natalia G.; Bountziouka, Vassiliki P.; Georgousopoulou, Ekavi; Evangelopoulos, Angelos A.; Bonou, Maria S.; Vogiatzakis, Evangelos D.; Barbetseas, John D.; Avgerinos, Peter C.

    2013-01-01

    Intake of different types of protein may be associated with differences in biomarkers among various populations. This work investigated the influence of protein intake from haem and non-haem animals as well as protein from plants on haematological and biochemical parameters in inflammation among apparently-healthy adults living in Greece, a Mediterranean country. Four hundred and ninety apparently-healthy subjects (46±16 years, 40% men), who consecutively visited Polykliniki General Hospital for routine examinations, voluntarily agreed to participate in the study (participation rate 85%). Demographic, anthropometric and lifestyle characteristics were recorded. Participants completed a valid, semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire. Protein intake was classified into three sources: protein from haem animals, protein from non-haem animals, and protein from plant origin. Fasting blood samples were taken from all participants; uric acid, creatinine, lipids, cystatin C, haptoglobin, haemoglobin, haematocrit, iron, ferritin, white blood cells, monocytes, platelets, and C-reactive protein were measured. Protein intake from only haem animals was associated with increased haemoglobin and haematocrit levels (p<0.05) whereas intake of protein from non-haem animals and plant origin was not associated with the investigated haematological and biochemical markers of low-grade chronic inflammation when lifestyle factors and overall dietary habits were taken into account. Intake of protein from only haem animals seems to be consistently associated with haematological markers. The confounding role of dietary habits and lifestyle variables on the tested parameters deserves further attention in future research. PMID:24592585

  17. Incidence of distal bone metastases in patients treated for palliative radiotherapy and associations with primary tumour types

    PubMed Central

    Barnes, Mark; Tiwana, Manpreet S.; Kiraly, Andrew; Hutchison, Mitch; Olson, Robert A.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose This study assesses the incidence of distal bone metastases in palliative radiotherapy (RT) patients. Material and methods All courses of RT for bone metastases from 2007–2011 for patient living in British Columbia (BC) were identified in a provincial RT programme. Treated bone metastases (BoM) were categorized as distal if the BoM was located within or distal to the elbow or knee. Patients were grouped by primary tumour site as breast, lung, prostate gastrointestinal, haematological, melanoma, and other. The incidence of distal bone metastases and associations with primary tumour types were determined. Results From 2007 to 2011, 8008 patients were treated with 16,277 courses of RT, of which 425 (3%) were courses of RT for distal BoM. The incidence of distal BoM in decreasing order by primary tumour type was melanoma (5%), haematological (3%), lung (2%), other (2%), prostate (2%), breast (1%) and gastrointestinal (1%). Distal BoM where more commonly identified in the lower extremity (87%, p<0.001). Single fraction RT was used more commonly for distal vs non-distal BoM (66% vs. 49%; p<0.001). Conclusion The incidence of distal BoM among patients treated with palliative RT was 3% and most commonly identified in patients with melanoma and haematological malignancies.

  18. Retrospective study of clinical and hematological aspects associated with dogs naturally infected by Hepatozoon canis in Ludhiana, Punjab, India

    PubMed Central

    Chhabra, Sushma; Uppal, Sanjeev Kumar; Singla, Lachhman Das

    2013-01-01

    Objective To evaluate clinical and hematological aspects of dogs naturally infected with Hepatozoon canis (H. canis) presented at the Small Animal Clinics of Guru Angad Dev Veterinary and Animal Sciences University, Ludhiana. Methods Blood films of 34 naturally infected dogs were examined for haematological alterations and parasitaemia. Signalment and clinical signs were recorded from the animals. Clinical histories were filled out during the consultation. Results Of the 34 positive dogs by Giemsa stained peripheral blood films, 88.23% presented parasitaemia by H. canis only, while 11.77% had the combination of H. canis, Babesia sp. and Ehrlichia sp. Young male dogs less than one-year-old, of non-descript breed, were the most commonly affected. And 26.47% were presented with anorexia/inappetence as the only clinical symptom. Other clinical symptoms were mild to moderate fever, pale mucosae and lethargy; a few were also showing the signs of vomiting and diarrhoea. Haematological alterations showed mainly normochromic-normocytic anaemia, leukocytosis and neutrophilia. Conclusions The findings of this study substantiate that H. canis caused clinical and haematological alterations of the varied intensity in dogs, even with low parasitaemia, should be taken into consideration. PMID:23730562

  19. Inappropriate use of laboratory services: long term combined approach to modify request patterns.

    PubMed Central

    Bareford, D; Hayling, A

    1990-01-01

    OBJECTIVE--To see whether changes in request patterns for haematological tests could be influenced in the long term by information released from a haematology department. DESIGN--Analysis of request patterns by hospital divisions before and after intervention and of costs of intervention and savings achieved. SETTING--Haematology laboratory of an inner city district general hospital. INTERVENTIONS--Monthly release of a comparison of clinicians' workload statistics, issue of on call guidelines, and promulgation of information (by seminars and factsheets) on appropriate use of tests. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES--Request patterns before and after intervention. RESULTS--During the year after intervention requests fell by at least a fifth, and the reduction persisted over the next two years. The reduction was most pronounced in relation to inpatients within the division of medicine, for whom requests fell from an average of 4.0 per patient in the six months before intervention to 2.9 per patient in the six months after. CONCLUSIONS--A definite and sustained reduction in inappropriate requests for laboratory investigations may be achieved by an ongoing policy of intervention including issuing guidelines and factsheets and holding seminars, but a positive attitude among senior consultant staff is crucial. PMID:2271854

  20. Epidemiology of candidaemia in a tertiary care university hospital: 10-year experience with 381 candidaemia episodes between 2001 and 2010.

    PubMed

    Alp, Sehnaz; Arikan-Akdagli, Sevtap; Gulmez, Dolunay; Ascioglu, Sibel; Uzun, Omrum; Akova, Murat

    2015-08-01

    Defining the epidemiology of and risk factors for candidaemia is necessary to guide empirical treatment. The objectives of this study were to determine the ranking of Candida among positive blood cultures, to define the epidemiology of candidaemia and to investigate patient characteristics and their relationship with C. albicans vs. non-albicans Candida (NAC) candidaemia. Candidaemia episodes between January 2001 and December 2010 were evaluated retrospectively. Patient characteristics were compared across Candida species. Candida ranked as the fifth most frequently isolated pathogen. Among 381 candidaemia episodes, 58.3% were due to C. albicans, followed by C. parapsilosis (15.2%), C. tropicalis (13.4%) and C. glabrata (6.8%). No statistically significant difference was observed in the distribution of C. albicans vs. NAC (P = 0.432). Patients with NAC had significantly higher rates of haematological disorders (P < 0.001) and neutropenia (P = 0.003), and were older (P = 0.024) than patients with C. albicans, whereas patients with urinary catheters had higher rates of C. albicans (P = 0.007). On species basis, C. tropicalis was more frequently isolated from patients with haematological disorders (P < 0.001) and neutropenia (P = 0.008). Patients with urinary catheters were less likely to have C. parapsilosis (P = 0.043). C. glabrata was most prevalent among patients with solid organ tumours (P = 0.038), but not evident in patients with haematological disorders. Local epidemiological features and risk factors may have important implications for the management of candidaemia. PMID:26155849

  1. Nutritional status of children with congenital heart disease.

    PubMed Central

    Mitchell, I. M.; Logan, R. W.; Pollock, J. C.; Jamieson, M. P.

    1995-01-01

    OBJECTIVE--To assess the nutritional status of children with congenital heart disease. DESIGN--Six anthropometric, 24 biochemical, and five haematological markers of nutritional wellbeing were measured in children with congenital heart disease. SETTING--The west of Scotland. PATIENTS--48 children admitted consecutively for surgical correction of congenital heart disease. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES--Height, weight, and triceps and subscapular skin fold thicknesses were considered abnormal if they were below the third centile compared with standard reference data for age matched British children. Mid-arm circumference and arm muscle circumference were considered abnormal if they fell below the fifth centile compared with standard data. Biochemical and haematological data were compared with age matched and locally validated laboratory normals. RESULTS--A marked degree of undernutrition was evident in all children; 52% had weight less than the third centile, 37% were below the third centile for height, and 12.5% were below the third centile for triceps skin fold thickness and 18.8% for subscapular skin fold thickness. Mid-arm circumference and arm muscle circumference were below the fifth centile in 20.1% and 16.7% of children respectively. Five or more of the 29 biochemical and haematological measurements were abnormal in 83.3% of patients; 10 or more were abnormal in 12.5% of patients. CONCLUSIONS--Children with congenital heart disease are frequently undernourished, irrespective of the nature of cardiac defect and the presence or absence of cyanosis. PMID:7727190

  2. Guideline on aspects of cancer-related venous thrombosis.

    PubMed

    Watson, Henry G; Keeling, David M; Laffan, Mike; Tait, Robert Campbell; Makris, Mike

    2015-09-01

    The guideline was drafted by a writing group identified by the Haemostasis and Thrombosis Task Force of the British Committee for Standards in Haematology (BCSH). All the authors are consultants in haematology in the UK. A search was performed of PubMed and Embase using the term 'cancer' combined with 'thrombosis', 'treatment', 'prophylaxis' and 'clinical presentation'. The search covered articles published up until December 2014. Only human studies were included and articles not written in English were excluded. References in recent reviews were also examined. The writing group produced the draft guideline, which was subsequently revised by consensus by members of the Haemostasis and Thrombosis Task Force of the BCSH and the BCSH executive. The guideline was then reviewed by the sounding board of the British Society for Haematology (BSH). This comprises 50 or more members of the BSH who have reviewed the guidance and commented on the content and application to the UK setting. The 'GRADE' system was used to quote levels and grades of evidence, details of which can be found at: http://www.bcshguidelines.com/BCSH_PROCESS/EVIDENCE_LEVELS_AND_GRADES_OF_RECOMMENDATION/43_GRADE.html. The objective of this guideline is to provide healthcare professionals with clear guidance on the prevention and management of venous thromboembolism (VTE) in patients with cancer and to advise on an approach to screening for cancer in patients with unprovoked VTE in whom cancer was not initially suspected based on clinical grounds. PMID:26114207

  3. No evidence of dehydration with moderate daily coffee intake: a counterbalanced cross-over study in a free-living population.

    PubMed

    Killer, Sophie C; Blannin, Andrew K; Jeukendrup, Asker E

    2014-01-01

    It is often suggested that coffee causes dehydration and its consumption should be avoided or significantly reduced to maintain fluid balance. The aim of this study was to directly compare the effects of coffee consumption against water ingestion across a range of validated hydration assessment techniques. In a counterbalanced cross-over design, 50 male coffee drinkers (habitually consuming 3-6 cups per day) participated in two trials, each lasting three consecutive days. In addition to controlled physical activity, food and fluid intake, participants consumed either 4×200 mL of coffee containing 4 mg/kg caffeine (C) or water (W). Total body water (TBW) was calculated pre- and post-trial via ingestion of Deuterium Oxide. Urinary and haematological hydration markers were recorded daily in addition to nude body mass measurement (BM). Plasma was analysed for caffeine to confirm compliance. There were no significant changes in TBW from beginning to end of either trial and no differences between trials (51.5±1.4 vs. 51.4±1.3 kg, for C and W, respectively). No differences were observed between trials across any haematological markers or in 24 h urine volume (2409±660 vs. 2428±669 mL, for C and W, respectively), USG, osmolality or creatinine. Mean urinary Na(+) excretion was higher in C than W (p?=?0.02). No significant differences in BM were found between conditions, although a small progressive daily fall was observed within both trials (0.4±0.5 kg; p<0.05). Our data show that there were no significant differences across a wide range of haematological and urinary markers of hydration status between trials. These data suggest that coffee, when consumed in moderation by caffeine habituated males provides similar hydrating qualities to water. PMID:24416202

  4. No Evidence of Dehydration with Moderate Daily Coffee Intake: A Counterbalanced Cross-Over Study in a Free-Living Population

    PubMed Central

    Killer, Sophie C.; Blannin, Andrew K.; Jeukendrup, Asker E.

    2014-01-01

    It is often suggested that coffee causes dehydration and its consumption should be avoided or significantly reduced to maintain fluid balance. The aim of this study was to directly compare the effects of coffee consumption against water ingestion across a range of validated hydration assessment techniques. In a counterbalanced cross-over design, 50 male coffee drinkers (habitually consuming 3–6 cups per day) participated in two trials, each lasting three consecutive days. In addition to controlled physical activity, food and fluid intake, participants consumed either 4×200 mL of coffee containing 4 mg/kg caffeine (C) or water (W). Total body water (TBW) was calculated pre- and post-trial via ingestion of Deuterium Oxide. Urinary and haematological hydration markers were recorded daily in addition to nude body mass measurement (BM). Plasma was analysed for caffeine to confirm compliance. There were no significant changes in TBW from beginning to end of either trial and no differences between trials (51.5±1.4 vs. 51.4±1.3 kg, for C and W, respectively). No differences were observed between trials across any haematological markers or in 24 h urine volume (2409±660 vs. 2428±669 mL, for C and W, respectively), USG, osmolality or creatinine. Mean urinary Na+ excretion was higher in C than W (p?=?0.02). No significant differences in BM were found between conditions, although a small progressive daily fall was observed within both trials (0.4±0.5 kg; p<0.05). Our data show that there were no significant differences across a wide range of haematological and urinary markers of hydration status between trials. These data suggest that coffee, when consumed in moderation by caffeine habituated males provides similar hydrating qualities to water. PMID:24416202

  5. National survey on intra-laboratory turnaround time for some most common routine and stat laboratory analyses in 479 laboratories in China

    PubMed Central

    Fei, Yang; Zeng, Rong; Wang, Wei; He, Falin; Zhong, Kun

    2015-01-01

    Introduction To investigate the state of the art of intra-laboratory turnaround time (intra-TAT), provide suggestions and find out whether laboratories accredited by International Organization for Standardization (ISO) 15189 or College of American Pathologists (CAP) will show better performance on intra-TAT than non-accredited ones. Materials and methods 479 Chinese clinical laboratories participating in the external quality assessment programs of chemistry, blood gas, and haematology tests organized by the National Centre for Clinical Laboratories in China were included in our study. General information and the median of intra-TAT of routine and stat tests in last one week were asked in the questionnaires. Results The response rate of clinical biochemistry, blood gas, and haematology testing were 36% (479 / 1307), 38% (228 / 598), and 36% (449 / 1250), respectively. More than 50% of laboratories indicated that they had set up intra-TAT median goals and almost 60% of laboratories declared they had monitored intra-TAT generally for every analyte they performed. Among all analytes we investigated, the intra-TAT of haematology analytes was shorter than biochemistry while the intra-TAT of blood gas analytes was the shortest. There were significant differences between median intra-TAT on different days of the week for routine tests. However, there were no significant differences in median intra-TAT reported by accredited laboratories and non-accredited laboratories. Conclusions Many laboratories in China are aware of intra-TAT control and are making effort to reach the target. There is still space for improvement. Accredited laboratories have better status on intra-TAT monitoring and target setting than the non-accredited, but there are no significant differences in median intra-TAT reported by them. PMID:26110033

  6. Concurrent intra-arterial carboplatin administration and radiation therapy for the treatment of advanced head and neck squamous cell carcinoma: short term results

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background The aim of the present study was to evaluate the survival, efficacy and safety of a modified RADPLAT-like protocol using carboplatin instead of cisplatin. Methods Fifty-six patients with primary head and neck squamous cell carcinoma received 4 cycles of intra-arterial carboplatin (350 mg/m2 per cycle every 2 weeks), with concurrent three-dimensional conformal radiation therapy. Results Two major and 4 minor complications were observed. Forty-five of the 56 patients (80%) completed the protocol, while 11 (20%) patients had to discontinue the intra-arterial infusions due to the occurrence of severe haematological toxicity, but were able to complete radiotherapy. Forty-four (98%) of the 45 patients who completed the protocol and 10 (91%) of the 11 who did not, were free of disease at the end of the treatment, for a comprehensive 96% of CR overall. After a median 23.55 months (range: 2 to 58 months) of follow-up, 40 patients (71%) are alive and disease-free, 1 (2%) is alive but affected by disease and 15 (27%) have died of the disease or other causes. Conclusion Intra-arterial carboplatin administration with concurrent three-dimensional conformal radiation therapy seems to be a promising alternative to RADPLAT in the treatment of advanced head and neck tumours. Haematological and non-haematological toxicities are virtually similar, but carboplatin has the advantage in that it is not nephrotoxic and can be used at very high doses without any significant increase in the extent of side effects. PMID:19732449

  7. Treatment of muscle haematomas in haemophiliacs with special emphasis on percutaneous drainage.

    PubMed

    De la Corte-Rodriguez, Hortensia; Rodriguez-Merchan, E Carlos

    2014-12-01

    Between 10 and 23% of bleeding episodes in the musculoskeletal system of haemophilia patients occur in the muscles. Until now, the most widely accepted treatment for muscle haematomas in patients with haemophilia has been a combination of rehabilitation and intravenous infusion of replacement clotting factor, until the haematoma completely disappears. The only way to prevent muscle bleeds in haemophilia is primary haematological prophylaxis (from cradle to college). Home treatment is currently the standard of care for patients with severe haemophilia. When a muscle bleed is suspected, confirmation must be achieved by means of imaging tests (ultrasound, MRI, CT). Then, immediate (early) enhanced on-demand haematological treatment must be started until the full disappearance of the haematoma. If untreated, muscle bleeds can cause complications such as nerve injury, compartment syndrome, myositis ossificans, pseudotumour, and even infection (abscess). Currently, the literature for muscle hematomas in the nonhaemophiliac population suggests that ultrasound-guided percutaneous drainage, or surgical drainage performed as open surgery if percutaneous drainage fails, could be beneficial in terms of achieving better and faster symptom relief. Ultrasound-guided haematoma evacuation is a well tolerated procedure. However, the proportion of unsuccessful evacuations and hematoma recurrence is substantial (13%). Such a rate of unsuccessful evacuation is because of excessive density and/or viscosity of the content. Ideally, haematoma evacuation must be performed before 3-5 days since the beginning of the muscular bleed. Although we have not found publications about ultrasound-guided decompression of muscle haematomas in haemophilia, the current status of progress in both the haematological and ultrasound fields leads us to think that this technique should be increasingly considered for the treatment of haemophilia patients, especially in the case of large haematomas in the liquid phase. PMID:24914744

  8. Monoclonal Antibodies in Cancer Therapy: Mechanisms, Successes and Limitations

    PubMed Central

    Coulson, A; Levy, A; Gossell-Williams, M

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Rituximab was the first chemotherapeutic monoclonal antibody (CmAb) approved for clinical use in cancer therapeutics in 1997 and has significantly improved the clinical outcomes in non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. Since then, numerous CmAbs have been developed and approved for the treatment of various haematologic and solid human cancers. In this review, the classification, efficacy and significantly reduced toxicity of CmAbs available for use in the United States of America are presented. Finally, the limitations of CmAbs and future considerations are explored. PMID:25803383

  9. The Prognosis of MYC Translocation Positive Diffuse Large B-Cell Lymphoma Depends on The Second Hit

    E-print Network

    Clipson, Alexandra; Barrans, Sharon; Zeng, Naiyan; Crouch, Simon; Grigoropoulos, Nicholas F.; Liu, Hongxiang; Kocialkowski, Sylvia; Wang, Ming; Huang, Yuanxue; Worrillow, Lisa; Goodlad, John; Buxton, Jenny; Neat, Michael; Fields, Paul; Wilkins, Bridget; Grant, John W.; Wright, Penny; EI-Daly, Hesham; Follows, George A.; Roman, Eve; Watkins, A. James; Johnson, Peter W. M.; Jack, Andrew; Du, Ming-Qing

    2015-01-08

    the immunoglobulin heavy chain gene locus predict better sur- vival in gastric diffuse large B-cell lymphoma. Clin Cancer Res 2008; 14: 3002–3010. 31. Horn H, Ziepert M, Becher C, et al. MYC status in concert with BCL2 and BCL6 expression predicts outcome in diffuse... , Epidemiology and Cancer Statistics Group, University of York, York, UK 4 Department of Haematology, Addenbrooke’s Hospital, Cambridge University Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust, Cambridge, UK 5 Department of Histopathology, Addenbrooke’s Hospital, Cambridge...

  10. Risk factors for alloimmunisation in the general patient population.

    PubMed

    Eccles, S; Crispin, P; Vanniasinkam, T

    2015-02-01

    For hospitals providing services to regional populations, difficulties are associated with transferred patients with poorly communicated medical history and a risk of alloimmunisation. Identification of patients at risk would assist in treatment planning. A retrospective study of alloimmunised patients was undertaken, comparing the demographics and diagnoses of this population with a control patient population. A preponderance of diagnoses of Sepsis, Haematological Malignancy, GIT Bleeds and Renal Failure was demonstrated in the alloimmunised population. Consistent with prior studies, RhD negative patients and female patients were over-represented in the study group, which was also on average significantly older. PMID:25661276

  11. Preliminary Characterization of Erythrocytes Deformability on the Entropy-Complexity Plane

    PubMed Central

    Korol, Ana M; D’Arrigo, Mabel; Foresto, Patricia; Pérez, Susana; Martín, Maria T; Rosso, Osualdo A

    2010-01-01

    We present an application of wavelet-based Information Theory quantifiers (Normalized Total Shannon Entropy, MPR-Statistical Complexity and Entropy-Complexity plane) on red blood cells membrane viscoelasticity characterization. These quantifiers exhibit important localization advantages provided by the Wavelet Theory. The present approach produces a clear characterization of this dynamical system, finding out an evident manifestation of a random process on the red cell samples of healthy individuals, and its sharp reduction of randomness on analyzing a human haematological disease, such as ?-thalassaemia minor. PMID:21611139

  12. Health studies on the Indian house crow (Corvus splendens).

    PubMed

    Cooper, J E

    1996-06-01

    Fifteen Indian house crows (Corvus splendens) were obtained from a live-trap in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. Two died soon after arrival. The remainder were examined clinically prior to euthanasia. All birds were examined post-mortem and a limited number of laboratory investigations was performed. None of the birds showed significant clinical signs or pathological lesions. Lice were found on one. Only Escherichia coli and Proteus spp. were isolated from the rectum. Coccidia were detected in three birds and cestodes in one. Haematological values were low. No blood parasites were seen. More extensive studies are warranted on the possible role of this species in the dissemination of pathogens. PMID:18645865

  13. Cobalamin E defect, a rare inborn error of vitamin B12 metabolism: value of early diagnosis and treatment.

    PubMed

    Kandula, Tejaswi; Peters, Heidi; Fahey, Michael

    2014-10-01

    Cobalamin and its metabolites play a crucial role in DNA synthesis and cellular energy metabolism. Disorders of cobalamin metabolism are rare, autosomal recessive, conditions that present with neurological dysfunction of varying severity. We report a child with cobalamin E defect presenting in early infancy with vertical nystagmus, developmental delay, deceleration in head growth, status epilepticus and leukoencephalopathy, with only mild haematological abnormalities. Resolution of seizures and subsequent improvement in development and head growth was observed following early treatment with parenteral hydroxocobalamin, betaine, folate and methionine, emphasising the importance of early diagnosis and treatment in these conditions. PMID:24844621

  14. Chlorpyrifos chronic toxicity in broilers and effect of vitamin C

    PubMed Central

    Kammon, A.M.; Brar, R.S.; Sodhi, S.; Banga, H.S.; Singh, J.; Nagra, N.S.

    2011-01-01

    An experiment was conducted to study chlorpyrifos chronic toxicity in broilers and the protective effect of vitamin C. Oral administration of 0.8 mg/kg body weight (bw) (1/50 LD50) chlorpyrifos (Radar®), produced mild diarrhea and gross lesions comprised of paleness, flaccid consistency and slightly enlargement of liver. Histopathologically, chlorpyrifos produced degenerative changes in various organs. Oral administration of 100 mg/kg bw vitamin C partially ameliorated the degenerative changes in kidney and heart. There was insignificant alteration in biochemical and haematological profiles. It is concluded that supplementation of vitamin C reduced the severity of lesions induced by chronic chlorpyrifos toxicity in broilers.

  15. Haemoglobin content modulated deformation dynamics of red blood cells on a compact disc.

    PubMed

    Kar, Shantimoy; Ghosh, Uddipta; Maiti, Tapas Kumar; Chakraborty, Suman

    2015-12-21

    We investigate the deformation characteristics of red blood cells (RBCs) on a rotating compact disc platform. Our study brings out the interplay between haemoglobin content and RBC deformability in a centrifugally actuated microfluidic environment. We reveal that RBC deformations follow the similar trend of principal stress distributed throughout the radial direction, rendering an insight into the mechano-physical processes involved. This study can be used as a diagnostic marker to determine haematological disorders in diseased blood samples tested on compact disc based microfluidic platforms. PMID:26502076

  16. Quality of Life and Supportive Care in Multiple Myeloma

    PubMed Central

    Cömert, Melda; Güne?, Ajda Ersoy; ?ahin, Fahri; Saydam, Güray

    2013-01-01

    Multiple myeloma is the second most common haematological malignancy. Novel therapies have led to improvement in survival. Current myeloma management is matching the progress made in improved survival through disease control while optimising quality of life with effective supportive care. Supportive treatment is an essential part of the therapeutic management of myeloma patients because it is directed towards improving the patient’s quality of life and also can improve survival. The aim of this review is to highlight the relationship among life of quality, supportive care, and improvement in survival. Conflict of interest:None declared. PMID:24385802

  17. Feasibility of conducting the micronucleus test in circulating erythrocytes from different mammalian species: an anatomical perspective.

    PubMed

    Udroiu, Ion

    2006-12-01

    The in vivo mammalian micronucleus test can be conducted easily on peripheral blood samples since the maturation of erythrocytes involves the loss of the major nucleus. In addition, mature erythrocytes are relatively long-lived, so that the test potentially can detect genotoxic damage caused by chronic exposures. However, some species have spleens that remove micronuclei from the peripheral circulation, making such measurements problematical. This report summarises haematological and mutagenesis studies dealing with this subject and provides an anatomical interpretation of the phenomenon. Anatomical features can be used to identify those species in which micronuclei are removed by the spleen. PMID:17111424

  18. Arsenic poisoning in dairy cattle from naturally occurring arsenic pyrites.

    PubMed

    Hopkirk, R G

    1987-10-01

    An outbreak of arsenic poisoning occurred in which most of a 200 cow dairy herd were affected and six died. The source of the arsenic was naturally occurring arsenic pyrites from the Waiotapu Stream, near Rotorua. Arsenic levels in the nearby soil were as high as 6618 ppm. There was little evidence to suggest that treatment affected the course of the disease. Haematology was of little use in diagnosis, post-mortem signs were not always consistent and persistence of the element in the liver appeared short. Control of further outbreaks have been based on practical measures to minimise the intake of contaminated soil and free laying water by the stock. PMID:16031332

  19. Delirium as a result of vitamin B12 deficiency in a vegetarian female patient.

    PubMed

    Mavrommati, K; Sentissi, O

    2013-09-01

    Vitamin B12 deficiency can manifest with haematological, gastrointestinal and neuropsychiatric signs. The neuropsychiatric symptoms may be concurrent or precede the other symptoms. The reported case is a clinical case of delirium due to vitamin B12 deficiency in a female vegetarian patient. The patient was treated with vitamin B12 supplementation. Initially, it was difficult to diagnose this patient, who presented with delirium that could have been due to multiple causes. The finding underlines the importance of conducting a complete laboratory test panel for delirium, including the blood levels of vitamin B12. PMID:23859997

  20. Radioimmunotherapy: a brief overview

    PubMed Central

    Ng, DCE

    2006-01-01

    With the advent of biotechnological advances and knowledge of molecular and cellular biology, radioimmunotherapy (RIT) has become a highly promising oncologic therapeutic modality with established clinically efficacy, particularly in non-Hodgkin’s lymphomas. This paper provides a short survey of the basic science of RIT and the various monoclonal antibodies and radionuclides used. A brief review of the published literature on the clinical applications of radioimmunotherapy, particularly in non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma, is provided. New research data indicate many potential areas of development of this modality, including haematological and solid-organ radioimmunotherapy as well as new radionuclidic approaches and clinical protocols. PMID:21614238

  1. Lower extremity deep vein thrombosis after heavy exertion

    PubMed Central

    Tak, Sandeep; Tak, Shubhanjali

    2013-01-01

    A young woman leading a sedentary life, travelled on foot for a distance of 25?km in a day. The following day she noticed pain and swelling of left foot and left leg. She got no relief with analgesics and her orthopaedic evaluation was normal. Her clinical examination was normal except for local swelling, oedema and tender calf. Her haematological and biochemical examination was normal except for mild elevation of creatine phosphokinase. A Doppler ultrasound revealed the thrombosis of anterior tibial vein and popliteal vein. PMID:24248321

  2. Subacute combined degeneration of the cord due to folate deficiency: response to methyl folate treatment.

    PubMed Central

    Lever, E G; Elwes, R D; Williams, A; Reynolds, E H

    1986-01-01

    Subacute combined degeneration of the cord is a rare complication of folate deficiency. Disturbance of methylation reactions in nervous tissue probably underlie subacute combined degeneration of the cord arising from folate as well as vitamin B12 deficiency. Methyl tetrahydrofolate is the form in which folic acid is transported into the CNS. Therefore methyl tetrahydrofolate treatment of the neurological and psychiatric manifestations of folate deficiency would seem to be theoretically advantageous. A case of subacute combined degeneration of the cord due to dietary folate deficiency and associated with an organic brain syndrome is reported. There was striking haematological, neurological and psychiatric response to methyl folate treatment. PMID:3783183

  3. Eculizumab and drug-induced haemolytic–uraemic syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Faguer, Stanislas; Huart, Antoine; Frémeaux-Bacchi, Véronique; Ribes, David; Chauveau, Dominique

    2013-01-01

    The monoclonal anti-C5 antibody eculizumab has been successfully tested in atypical haemolytic-uraemic syndrome (aHUS), with or without mutations in the regulatory proteins of the alternative pathway of the complement, and less convincingly in enterohaemorrhagic Escherichia coli-associated HUS. Here, we report a patient with mitomycin-C-induced HUS unresponsive to plasma exchanges. Eculizumab infusion was followed by a dramatic improvement of haematological parameters and renal function, suggesting a role of complement blockade in the management of refractory, drug-related HUS. PMID:26120441

  4. Synchronous Thyroid Involvement in Plasma Cell Leukemia Masquerading as Hashimoto's Thyroiditis: Role of Ancillary Cytology Techniques in Diagnostic Workup.

    PubMed

    Tandon, Ashwani; Paul, T Roshni; Singh, Rekha; Narendra, A M V R

    2015-12-01

    Neoplastic plasma cell involvement of thyroid is an uncommon condition, and it may involve thyroid in multiple myeloma or solitary plasmacytoma. Its clinical and pathological features are not well understood. We present a rare case of synchronous thyroid involvement in plasma cell leukemia presenting as thyroid nodule with primary hypothyroidism. Simultaneous cytology, immunocytochemistry, FISH analysis with 13q14.3 and TP53 on cytology smears and haematology workup were performed to diagnose and to understand disease pathobiology with poor outcome. PMID:26330190

  5. Selective Histone Deacetylase Inhibitors with Anticancer Activity.

    PubMed

    Ma, Nan; Luo, Ying; Wang, Ying; Liao, Chenzhong; Ye, Wen-Cai; Jiang, Sheng

    2016-01-01

    HDAC inhibitors (HDACIs), which can be used to kill cancer cells through inhibiting histone deacetylase activity or altering the structure of chromatin, have emerged as efficacious agents in the treatment of cancer. With SAHA, FK228, belinostat and panobinostat approved by the FDA, displaying satisfying activity in both haematological and solid tumors of various tissues, efforts to create selective HDACIs have been attracted attention over the past several years. Herein, we mainly review the progress of selective HDAC inhibitors including class-selective and isoform-selective HDAC inhibitors. PMID:26268343

  6. Platinum compounds and sodium metabolism in children with diencephalic glioma.

    PubMed

    Puma, N; Ruggiero, A; Scalzone, M; Coccia, P; Triarico, S; Trombatore, G; Mastrangelo, S; Riccardi, R

    2013-10-01

    In this brief report we have described eight children affected by optic pathway/hypothalamus gliomas and treated with carboplatin and/or cisplatin, which developed a derangement of sodium and water metabolism, due to diabetes insipidus (DI) or to syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone secretion (SIADH) after surgical resection. In four out of these eight patients the treatment with platinum compounds produced prolonged haematological toxicity and in five out of them it caused neurosensorial bilateral hypoacusia. In addition cisplatin worsened electrolytes disturbances. Hence children with DI or SIADH should be carefully monitored before, during and after the treatment with platinum compounds. PMID:23839227

  7. Micro-orchestrating differentiation in cancer.

    PubMed

    Taulli, Riccardo; Bersani, Francesca; Ponzetto, Carola

    2010-03-01

    Differentiation involves repression of genes governing proliferation and self-renewal, and transcriptional activation of lineage-specific genes. The mechanisms underlying these changes are epigenetic. In cancer cells differentiation genes are locked into a transcriptionally inactive state. Recent results show that in spite of the diversity of the genetic lesions leading to a cancerous phenotype, it may still be possible to release this block and to force differentiation. The key may be microRNAs (miRNAs) which directly or indirectly target epigenetic modifiers. These miRNAs could allow to apply to solid tumors the non-toxic differentiative approach currently adopted in some haematologic malignancies. PMID:20160508

  8. Severe thrombocytopenia soon after drug-eluting stent implantation in ST-elevation myocardial infarction

    PubMed Central

    Po?nik-Kis?o, Anna; B?aszak-Cie?wierska, Wies?awa; D?browski, Marek

    2015-01-01

    Thrombocytopenia is among the most frequent haematological issues in patients hospitalised with myocardial infarction. We discuss the case of a 77-year-old male who was admitted to hospital on the 4th hour of ST-elevation myocardial infarction of the anterior wall. A percutaneous coronary intervention to critically stenoted initial segment of the anterior descending branch was performed. A few days later he started developing symptomatic thrombocytopenia. On the course of his long hospitalization we faced many important problems, concerning both diagnosis and treatment of these co-existing conditions.

  9. [Femoral osteolytic lesions with soft tissue tumors and hypercalcemia as presentation form of a B-cell lymphoma].

    PubMed

    Hernández Hernández, J L; Olmos Martínez, J M; Figols Ladrón de Guevara, J; Riancho Moral, J A; González Macías, J

    2000-05-01

    Hypercalcemia associated with haematological neoplasms account for 15 to 20% of hipercalcemia in malignancy, and occurs usually in patients with multiple myeloma. However, its incidence in patients with linfoma is low, and it is observed usually in T-cell linfomas. Bone affectation is also uncommon in patients with non-Hodgkin linfoma. It usually is seen as a late manifestation of the disease, and its occurrence as the form of presentation is exceptional. We hereby report a patient with a B-cell non-Hodgkin linfoma presenting with hypercalcemia and femoral osteolytic lesions. PMID:10859829

  10. Acute myeloid leucaemia presenting as a rapidly progressive polyradiculoneuropathy.

    PubMed

    Hirst, Claire L; Willis, Mark; Hussain, Hussain; Powell, Rob

    2015-01-01

    Neurological involvement at onset in acute myeloid leucaemia (AML) is rare, with only a few isolated case reports. We present the case of a 46-year-old man with rapidly progressive polyradiculoneuropathy as the presenting feature of AML. The proposed mechanism for this is postulated to be direct intraneural infiltration, although a paraneoplastic, autoimmune-related phenomenon could be possible. Despite chemotherapeutic intervention, the patient died 1?month after initial presentation. Although rare, neurological manifestations of AML do occur and it is important to include haematological malignancies in the differential diagnosis in patients presenting with neurological symptoms. PMID:26581698

  11. Successful treatment of myelodysplastic syndrome-induced pyoderma gangrenosum.

    PubMed

    Koca, E; Duman, A E; Cetiner, D; Buyukasik, Y; Haznedaroglu, I C; Uner, A; Demirhan, B; Kerimoglu, U; Barista, I; Calguneri, M; Ozcebe, O I

    2006-12-01

    We report successful treatment of a refractory myelodysplastic syndrome-associated pyoderma gangrenosum with the combination of thalidomide and interferon-alpha2a in a single patient. A non-healing wound developed on a 40-year-old woman's left thumb after minor trauma. Massive ulcerovegetative lesions developed after reconstruction surgery. Histopathological examination of the bone marrow and cytogenetic studies revealed an atypical myeloproliferative/myelodysplastic syndrome. The skin lesions resolved dramatically after two months of thalidomide and interferon-alpha2a combination therapy and the haematological status improved. PMID:17179573

  12. Contamination of the River Ganga and its toxic implication in the blood parameters of the major carp Labeo rohita (Ham).

    PubMed

    Vaseem, Huma; Banerjee, T K

    2013-08-01

    A field study was conducted to examine different physicochemical properties of water and various haematological and biochemical parametres of the fish Labeo rohita collected from the Ganga River (National river of India) at Varanasi district, India. The water was found to be greatly contaminated with a number of dissolved metals (Fe, Cr, Zn, Cu, Mn, Ni and Pb) whose concentrations were above the safe limits suggested by Bureau of Indian Standard (BIS 1991) for drinking water (Fe, 1,353.33 %; Cr, 456 %; Mn, 553.33 %; Ni, 4,490 % and Pb, 1,410 %). The metal accumulation in the fish blood was very high (Fe, 2,408 %; Cr, 956.57 %; Zn, 464.90 %; Cu, 310.57 %; Mn, 1,115.48 %) in comparison to the control fish maintained under strict quality control. Lower values of the various haematological parameters (total erythrocytes count, haemoglobin, haematocrit, mean corpuscular volume and O2-carrying capacity) in the river fish in comparison to the control indicate toxic manifestation exerted by the contaminated river water on the fish. The higher level of total leucocytes count further illustrates stressed condition of the river fish. The toxic impact of the Ganga water is also expressed in the fish by the presence of higher levels of cholesterol, glucose, elevated activities of the enzymes aspartate amino transferase and alanine amino transferase, and lowered protein concentration. PMID:23456946

  13. Short-term assessment of toxicological aspects, oxidative and inflammatory response to dietary melon superoxide dismutase in rats.

    PubMed

    Carillon, Julie; Fouret, Gilles; Feillet-Coudray, Christine; Lacan, Dominique; Cristol, Jean-Paul; Rouanet, Jean-Max

    2013-05-01

    The protective effects of SODB, a gastro-resistant encapsulated melon superoxide dismutase, on haematological and biochemical parameters and inflammatory and oxidative status, were evaluated in the blood and liver tissue. The study consisted in a 28-day experiment on rats supplemented with three doses (10, 40 and 160USOD/day) of SODB-M, SODB-D or SODB-S, different depending on the nature of the coating (palm oil, shellac or gum Arabic respectively). No mortality, abnormal clinical signs, behavioural changes or macroscopic findings were observed whatever the groups. Haematological parameters (total red blood cell count, haemoglobin content, haematocrit, red cell indices, white blood cell count and platelets count) were not modified in SODB treated-groups. No marked change was recorded in biochemical parameters (plasma urea, creatinine, lipids, electrolytes, bilirubin, transaminases and gamma-glutamyl transferase). The liver endogenous antioxidant enzymes (copper/zinc and manganese superoxide dismutase) expressions were significantly increased in the rats receiving the highest dose of SODB (160USOD/day) whatever the coating. Moreover, interleukin-6, a marker of inflammation, was significantly decreased in these high dose-treated-groups. The present study indicates that dietary supplementation of SODB on rats has no harmful side effects and could be beneficial especially at high doses. PMID:23369932

  14. A phase II trial of lenalidomide, dexamethasone and cyclophosphamide for newly diagnosed patients with systemic immunoglobulin light chain amyloidosis.

    PubMed

    Cibeira, Maria T; Oriol, Albert; Lahuerta, Juan J; Mateos, Maria-Victoria; de la Rubia, Javier; Hernández, Miguel T; Granell, Miquel; Fernández de Larrea, Carlos; San Miguel, Jesús F; Bladé, Joan

    2015-09-01

    Immunomodulatory drugs have been shown to be of benefit in relapsed/refractory immunoglobulin light-chain (AL) amyloidosis. We designed a prospective, multicentre phase II trial of lenalidomide, dexamethasone and cyclophosphamide for newly diagnosed patients with AL amyloidosis not eligible for autologous stem-cell transplantation. Twenty-eight patients were included in the study. Cardiac involvement was present in 23 patients; 14 of them had cardiac stage III. The overall haematological response rate was 46%, including complete and very good partial responses in 25% and 18% of patients respectively. Haematological response was mainly associated with absence of cardiac stage III and lower tumour burden. Organ response was observed in 46% of patients. After a median follow-up of 24 months, median progression-free and overall survival have not been reached, both being significantly longer in responders (P < 0·001 and P = 0·001 respectively). Seventeen patients have discontinued treatment, mostly due to amyloid-related death, disease progression or lack of response. Only 14% of the patients discontinued treatment due to therapy-related adverse events. Our results support the efficacy of this regimen, with high quality responses and prolonged survival, as well as its tolerability, in patients with AL amyloidosis not eligible for stem cell transplant and without advanced cardiac involvement (clinicaltrials.gov identifier: NCT01194791). PMID:25974382

  15. Toxicity of cadmium and protective effect of bee honey, vitamins C and B complex.

    PubMed

    Abdelaziz, I; Elhabiby, M I; Ashour, A A

    2013-04-01

    The present work aimed to study the toxic effect of cadmium (Cd) on rabbits' blood indices, as well as the therapeutic effect of the antioxidant agents, vitamins C and B complex and bee honey on Cd intoxicated rabbits. Cadmium chloride (CdCl2) was injected subcutaneously at a dose of 3 mg/kg of body weight. The results showed a significant increase in serum glucose, triglycerides, cholesterol, total protein, albumin, globulin, urea and creatinine, compared to the control group. In addition, CdCl2 intoxication increased the levels of uric acid, aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, alkaline phosphatase and bilirubin. Concerning haematological parameters, the more obvious changes were an increase in mean corpuscular volume and a decrease in white blood cells count, platelets, lymphocytes, heamatocrit, haemoglobin and red blood cells count. Treatment of CdCl2-intoxicated animals with vitamins C and B complex and bee honey showed a decrease in the harmful effects of Cd by restoring haematological and biochemical changes. Bee honey treatment was the most effective in providing recoveries in the altered blood parameters. PMID:23111883

  16. Phase I Clinical Trial of Oral Rigosertib in Patients with Myelodysplastic Syndromes

    PubMed Central

    Komrokji, Rami S.; Raza, Azra; Lancet, Jeffrey E.; Ren, Chen; Taft, David; Maniar, Manoj; Wilhelm, Francois; List, Alan F.

    2015-01-01

    Summary The multi-kinase inhibitor rigosertib (ON 01910.Na) induces mitotic arrest and apoptosis in myeloblasts, while sparing normal cells. The purpose of this study was to determine the pharmacokinetic profile, maximum-tolerated dose (MTD), safety, and clinical activity of an oral formulation of rigosertib in patients with myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS). For pharmacokinetic studies, patients received rigosertib in single escalating weekly doses. To determine the MTD, patient cohorts received escalating doses of rigosertib twice daily for 14 days of a 21-day cycle. Overall, 37 patients were treated. Rigosertib exposure increased with escalating oral doses. Mean absolute oral bioavailability ranged from 13.9% (fed) to 34.8% (fasting) in 12 patients treated at the 560 mg dose level. Dose-limiting toxicity (grade 3 dysuria and shortness of breath) occurred at the 700 mg b.i.d. dose. Five patients experienced grade 3 non-haematological toxicity, including symptoms of urothelial inflammation, hypotension and syncope, fatigue and abdominal pain. Encouraging signs of clinical activity included 2 bone marrow complete remissions in refractory anaemia with excess blasts type 1 patients previously treated with azacitidine. In addition, 4 patients each achieved transfusion independence and haematological improvements. In conclusion, oral rigosertib is bioavailable and well tolerated, and has clinical activity in patients with MDS. PMID:23789936

  17. Dose-dense epirubicin and paclitaxel with G-CSF: a study of decreasing intervals in metastatic breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    Lalisang, R I; Voest, E E; Wils, J A; Nortier, J W; Erdkamp, F L; Hillen, H F; Wals, J; Schouten, H C; Blijham, G H

    2000-01-01

    Anthracyclines and taxanes are very effective drugs in the treatment of advanced breast cancer. With G-CSF support, the dose-intensity of this combination can be increased by reducing the interval between chemotherapy cycles, the so-called ‘shortening of cycle time’. We treated 36 patients with advanced breast cancer in a multicentre phase I/II study. The treatment regimen consisted of epirubicin 75 mg m?2followed by paclitaxel 135 mg m?2(3 h) in combination with G-CSF. At least six patients were treated in each cohort and were evaluated over the first three cycles. Starting at an interval of 14 days, in subsequent cohorts of patients the interval could be shortened to 10 days. An 8-day interval was not feasible due mainly to incomplete neutrophil recovery at the day of the next scheduled cycle. In the 10-day interval cohort it was feasible to increase the paclitaxel dose to 175 mg m?2. The haematological and non-haematological toxicity was relatively mild. No cumulative myelosuppression was observed over at least three consecutive cycles. In combination with G-CSF, epirubicin 75 mg m?2and paclitaxel 175 mg m?2could be safely administered every 10 days over at least three cycles, enabling a dose intensity of 52 and 122 mg m?2per week, respectively. © 2000 Cancer Research Campaign PMID:10864197

  18. Protection against experimental visceral leishmaniasis by immunostimulation with herbal drugs derived from Withania somnifera and Asparagus racemosus.

    PubMed

    Kaur, Sukhbir; Chauhan, Kalpana; Sachdeva, Heena

    2014-10-01

    Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is a vector-borne parasitic disease targeting tissue macrophages. It is among the most neglected infectious diseases. As available therapeutics for treatment of this disease have many side effects, there is a need for safer alternatives. One of the immunopathological consequences of active visceral leishmaniasis is suppression of protective T-helper (Th)-1 cells and induction of disease-promoting Th-2 cells, and thus the treatment of VL relies on immunomodulation. In the current study, herbal drugs derived as whole-plant extracts of Asparagus racemosus and Withania somnifera were used to treat Leishmania donovani-infected BALB/c mice. Keeping the scenario of immunosuppression during VL in mind, the potential of these drugs in the restoration of murine Th-1-type protective immune responses was evaluated. To investigate the propensity of these drugs to treat VL, liver parasite load, delayed-type hypersensitivity responses and parasite-specific immunoglobulin levels were studied. Various biochemical and haematological tests were also carried out. A positive-control group used the standard drug treatment of sodium stibogluconate. Treatment of infected mice with A. racemosus and W. somnifera in combination at the higher dose of 200 mg (kg body weight)(-1) not only resulted in a successful reduction in parasite load but also generated protective Th1-type immune responses with normalization of biochemical and haematological parameters, suggesting their potential as potent anti-leishmanial agents. PMID:25082945

  19. Preclinical antitumor activity of ST7612AA1: a new oral thiol-based histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitor

    PubMed Central

    Milazzo, Ferdinando Maria; De Santis, Rita; Gaudio, Eugenio; Kwee, Ivo; Rinaldi, Andrea; Pace, Silvia; Carollo, Valeria; Giannini, Giuseppe; Bertoni, Francesco

    2015-01-01

    ST7612AA1 (property of Sigma-Tau), a thioacetate-? (?-lactam amide) derivative, is a potent, second generation, oral pan-histone deacetylase inhibitor (HDACi). Aim of the study was to assess the efficacy of ST7612AA1 in solid and haematological tumors, and to characterize its mechanism of action. In vitro, ST7612AA1 potently inhibited different class I and class II HDACs, leading to restore the balance of both histone and non-histone protein acetylation. In vivo, it induced significant anti-tumor effects in xenograft models of lung, colon, breast and ovarian carcinomas, leukemia and lymphoma. This was likely due to the modulation of different HDAC substrates and induction of transcriptional changes with respect to several genes involved in key processes, such as cell cycle regulation, DNA damage checkpoints, immune response, cell adhesion and epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition. PK analysis confirmed the pro-drug nature of ST7612AA1, which is rapidly absorbed and converted to ST7464AA1 after a single oral dose in mice. ST7612AA1 was selected from a novel generation of oral HDAC inhibitors. Its high efficacy correlated with its potent and selective inhibitory activity of HDAC and was combined with a favorable pharmacodynamics profile. These aspects support a clinical development of ST7612AA1 towards a broad spectrum of human solid and haematologic malignancies. PMID:25671299

  20. Tanespimycin monotherapy in relapsed multiple myeloma: results of a phase 1 dose-escalation study

    PubMed Central

    Richardson, Paul G.; Chanan-Khan, Asher A.; Alsina, Melissa; Albitar, Maher; Berman, David; Messina, Marianne; Mitsiades, Constantine S.; Anderson, Kenneth C.

    2011-01-01

    Summary Tanespimycin, a heat shock protein 90 (HSP90) inhibitor, induces apoptosis in drug-sensitive and -resistant MM cell lines and in tumour cells from patients with relapsed MM. In this phase 1 dose-escalation study, the safety, plasma pharmacokinetics, and biological/antitumour activity of tanespimycin were evaluated in heavily pretreated patients with relapsed/refractory MM. Tanespimycin (150–525 mg/m2) was given on days 1, 4, 8, and 11 of each 3-week cycle for up to 8 cycles. Non-haematological AEs included diarrhoea (59%), back pain (35%), fatigue (38%), and nausea (35%); haematological AEs included anaemia (24%) and thrombocytopenia (21%). One patient (3%) achieved minimal response (MR), with a progression-free survival (PFS) of 3 months, a 41% decrease from baseline in urine M protein, and a 33% decrease from baseline in serum M protein. Fifteen patients (52%) achieved SD with a median PFS of 2·1 months; 5/15 had reductions in serum M protein ranging from 7% to 38% and in urine M protein ranging from 6% to 91%. Mean HSP70 levels increased from day 1 h 0 to day 1 h 4 with further increases on day 11 h 0 and day 11 h 4, consistent with a therapeutic treatment effect. Tanespimycin monotherapy was well tolerated and demonstrated activity across all doses tested. PMID:20618337

  1. Expanded safety experience with lenalidomide plus dexamethasone in relapsed or refractory multiple myeloma

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Christine; Reece, Donna E; Siegel, David; Niesvizky, Ruben; Boccia, Ralph V; Stadtmauer, Edward A; Abonour, Rafat; Richardson, Paul; Matous, Jeffrey; Kumar, Shaji; Bahlis, Nizar J; Alsina, Melissa; Vescio, Robert; Coutre, Steven E; Pietronigro, Dennis; Knight, Robert D; Zeldis, Jerome B; Rajkumar, Vincent

    2009-01-01

    Lenalidomide gained Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approval for treatment of patients with relapsed or refractory multiple myeloma (MM) in combination with dexamethasone in June 2006. In April 2005, the FDA and patient advocacy groups requested an expanded access programme to both provide lenalidomide to patients likely to benefit and obtain additional safety information. Relapsed/refractory MM patients received lenalidomide 25 mg/d (days 1–21) and dexamethasone 40 mg/d (days 1–4, 9–12, and 17–20 of cycles 1–4; days 1–4 only from cycle 5 onwards), in 4-week cycles until disease progression, study drug discontinuation, or lenalidomide approval. Of the 1438 patients enrolled, ?60% were male, median age was 64 years, and 61·7% had Durie-Salmon stage III disease. Median time on study was 15·4 weeks (range: 0·1–49·1) and median dose was 25 mg. The most common adverse events (AEs) were haematological (49%), gastrointestinal (59%), and fatigue (55%). The most common grade ?3 AEs were haematological (45%), fatigue (10%), and pneumonia (7%). The most common serious AEs were pneumonia (8%), pyrexia (4%), and deep-vein thrombosis (3%). Primary cause of death was disease progression (10%). Safety data confirmed known AEs of lenalidomide plus dexamethasone therapy in patients with relapsed/refractory MM. PMID:19545290

  2. Leukaemogenesis, gene interplay, and the role of the haemopoietic environment.

    PubMed

    Lawler, M

    1997-01-01

    Malignant initiation, leukaemic transformation, and disease progression in haematological malignancies involves a series of mutational events in genes involved in normal housekeeping functions of the cell. These acquired genetic changes can lead to either increased proliferation or a decreased rate of apoptosis, thus allowing expansion of the malignant clone. Although leukaemia can arise as a de novo disease, it has become increasingly clear that therapies, including the use of irradiation and/or chemotherapy, can give rise to malignancy. Therapy-associated myelodysplasia (t-MDS) and therapy-associated acute myeloid leukaemia (t-AML) account for 10-20% of new cases of these diseases. Although these secondary malignancies have been recognised as a clinical entity for nearly 30 years, molecular studies are now pinpointing various regions of the genome that are susceptible to DNA damage by these chemotherapeutic/radiotherapeutic strategies. The detection of new malignancies (both solid tumours and haematological tumours) following allogeneic bone marrow transplantation (BMT) is also providing us with some clues to the nature of leukaemogenesis, particularly with the observation that leukaemia can occur in donor cells postallogeneic BMT. PMID:9303075

  3. Toxicopathological Evaluation of Hydroethanol Extract of Dianthus basuticus in Wistar Rats

    PubMed Central

    Ashafa, Anofi Omotayo Tom; Kazeem, Mutiu Idowu

    2015-01-01

    Background. Dianthus basuticus is a commonly used medicinal plant in Basotho traditional medicine for the treatment of diabetes, but there is no report on its safety or toxicity. Therefore, we evaluated the toxicity profile of the hydroethanol whole plant extract of Dianthus basuticus in Wistar rats. Methods. Acute toxicity test was performed with single oral administration of 100–3200?mg/kg body weight of D. basuticus extract to rats and the animals were observed for 14 days for signs of toxicity. The subacute toxicity experiment was conducted by oral administration of graded doses (200, 400, and 800?mg/kg) of D. basuticus extract daily for 28 days. Behavioural changes as well as haematological, biochemical, and histological parameters were then evaluated. Results. There was no observable sign of toxicity in the acute toxicity test. There were significant decreases (P < 0.05) in the feed and water intake as well as total cholesterol and triglycerides of the D. basuticus extract-treated rats in subacute toxicity study. There were no treatment related differences in the haematological, biochemical, and histopathological evaluations. Conclusions. Administration of hydroethanol extract of D. basuticus may be safe at the dosages tested in this study but its continuous usage can cause anorexia. PMID:26504473

  4. Haematobiochemical parameters of goats fed tannin rich Psidium guajava and Carissa spinarum against Haemonchus contortus infection in India.

    PubMed

    Jan, Owais Qadir; Kamili, Neyaz; Ashraf, Ajmal; Iqbal, Asif; Sharma, R K; Rastogi, Ankur

    2015-03-01

    The antihelminthic properties of tannin-rich plants are being explored as an alternative to chemical drugs to minimise the effects of gastro intestinal nematodes (GIN). The present study was, therefore, conducted to investigate the effect of condensed tannins (CT), obtained from regional tanniferous tree leaves, in the Haemonchus contortus infected goats on the heamatobiochemical parameters to assess the goat health. Twelve adult male goats were randomly divided into three equal groups, namely negative control, infected control and treatment. H. contortus infected goats were allocated into infected control and treatment groups and their feeds contained 0 and 1.96 % of CT, respectively. Feeding trial was conducted for the duration of 90 days during which haematological and serum biochemical parameters were monitored on fortnightly basis. The animals ingesting the CT-rich leaf meal mixture had increased levels of haemoglobin, packed cell volume, total protein, globulin, glucose and calcium, and decreased levels of blood urea; indicating a beneficial effect of CT supplementation at the selected level. However, the phosphorus balance, serum albumin levels and serum enzyme activity were not affected significantly. The study revealed that inclusion of CT in the diets of the adult male goats did not pose any threat to the health of the goats. Further, the CT based diet had beneficial impact on the haematological parameters and could therefore be included in small ruminant diets to minimize the impact of GIN. PMID:25698858

  5. The iron chelator deferasirox affects redox signalling in haematopoietic stem/progenitor cells.

    PubMed

    Tataranni, Tiziana; Agriesti, Francesca; Mazzoccoli, Carmela; Ruggieri, Vitalba; Scrima, Rosella; Laurenzana, Ilaria; D'Auria, Fiorella; Falzetti, Franca; Di Ianni, Mauro; Musto, Pellegrino; Capitanio, Nazzareno; Piccoli, Claudia

    2015-07-01

    The iron chelator deferasirox (DFX) prevents complications related to transfusional iron overload in several haematological disorders characterized by marrow failure. It is also able to induce haematological responses in a percentage of treated patients, particularly in those affected by myelodysplastic syndromes. The underlying mechanisms responsible for this feature, however, are still poorly understood. In this study, we investigated the effect of DFX-treatment in human haematopoietic/progenitor stem cells, focussing on its impact on the redox balance, which proved to control the interplay between stemness maintenance, self-renewal and differentiation priming. Here we show, for the first time, that DFX treatment induces a significant diphenyleneiodonium-sensitive reactive oxygen species (ROS) production that leads to the activation of POU5F1 (OCT4), SOX2 and SOX17 gene expression, relevant in reprogramming processes, and the reduction of the haematopoietic regulatory proteins CTNNB1 (?-Catenin) and BMI1. These DFX-mediated events were accompanied by decreased CD34 expression, increased mitochondrial mass and up-regulation of the erythropoietic marker CD71 (TFRC) and were compound-specific, dissimilar to deferoxamine. Our findings would suggest a novel mechanism by which DFX, probably independently on its iron-chelating property but through ROS signalling activation, may influence key factors involved in self-renewal/differentiation of haematopoietic stem cells. PMID:25825160

  6. First case of Anaplasma platys infection in a dog from Croatia

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background It is known that Anaplasma (A.) platys, the causative agent of infectious canine cyclic thrombocytopenia, is endemic in countries of the Mediterranean basin. However, few reports are available from the Balkans. This case report describes a dog, which was imported from Croatia to Germany in May 2010. One month later the dog was presented to a local veterinarian in Germany due to intermittent/recurrent diarrhoea. Diagnostic tests were performed to identify infections caused by Anaplasma spp., Ehrlichia spp., Hepatozoon canis, Babesia spp., Leishmania spp., Borrelia burgdorferi and/or Dirofilaria immitis. Findings Haematological examination of a blood smear revealed basophilic inclusions in thrombocytes, which were confirmed as A. platys with a species-specific real-time PCR. Additionally, an infection with Babesia (B.) vogeli was also detected (PCR and serology). No specific antibodies against Anaplasma antigen were detectable. Although the dog showed no specific clinical signs, thrombocytopenia, anaemia and elevated C-reactive protein (CRP) were observed. Sequencing of a 1,348-bp partial ribosomal RNA gene revealed highest homology to A. platys sequences from Thailand, Japan and France. Conclusions A. platys was detected for first time in a dog imported from Croatia. As the dog was also co-infected by B. vogeli, unique serological and haematological findings were recorded. Thrombocytopenia, anaemia and elevated values of C-reactive protein were the laboratory test abnormalities observed in this case. A. platys infections should be considered in dogs coming from Croatia and adjacent regions. PMID:22401583

  7. Production, composition and toxicology studies of Enzogenol® Pinus radiata bark extract.

    PubMed

    Frevel, Mathias A E; Pipingas, Andrew; Grigsby, Warren J; Frampton, Chris M; Gilchrist, Nigel L

    2012-12-01

    Enzogenol® pine bark extract is a dietary supplement and food ingredient produced by water extraction of Pinus radiata. We present production method, composition, and safety data from rat and dog toxicological and human clinical studies. The dry powder contains proanthocyanidins (>80%), taxifolin (1-2%), other flavonoids and phenolic acids (up to 8%), and carbohydrates (5-10%). Reverse mutation assays showed lack of mutagenic activity. Single and 14-day repeat dosing in rats and dogs had no influence on body weight, feed consumption, blood chemistry, and haematology at any dose level. There were no treatment related findings on gross and detailed necroscopy, organ weights, organ weight ratios and histology. The only adverse events were emesis and diarrhoea in dogs occurring mainly in un-fed condition and at the highest dose level in a total of 18% of applications. The MTD and NOAEL in the present rat and dog studies were 2500 and 750 mg/kg/day, respectively. Consumption of 480 mg/day for 6 months and 960 mg/day for 5 weeks in two human studies showed Enzogenol® had no adverse influence on liver and kidney function, haematology, and did not cause any adverse events. Our studies indicate lack of toxicity of Enzogenol® and support safe use as a food ingredient. PMID:22982471

  8. [Selected parasitic and infectious diseases in persons returning from the tropics].

    PubMed

    Jeske, J; Bergiel, A; Kamerys, J; Malinowska, B; Malowiejska, M

    1999-01-01

    Due to dramatic development of modern means of transport, exotic countries located on distant continents are today within a few-hour reach by a jet. Every year several million people travelled by air in business or as a tourists. This results in easy transmission of parasitic and infectious factors from continent to continent or from country to country. Plasmodium vivax infection: diagnosis concerned 6 men who had returned from Thailand, India, Senegal and Zaire. The parasitosis was detected as a result of thin smear of periferal blond tests - there were found P. vivax trophozoites an shizontes in erythrocytes. In the patients we found haematologic and termoregulation disturbances as well as hapepatosplenomegaly. Halfan was applied in therapy. Plasmodium falciparum infection: the infection was found in a man and a women after return from Kenya and Sudan. The parasitosis was detected as a result of thin smear of peripheral blond test - there found trophozoites of the parasite in erthorocytes. The course of malaria in the woman was very severe with cerebral malaria, DIC syndrome and blond circulation disturbances, hepatocellular and nephrocellular damage. Entamoeba histolytica, HAV and Candida albicans mixed infections: found in men who had returned from India. Severe E. histolytica infection: diagnosed in a women after return from Greece. There were found massive lesion of large intestine mucosa and high-degree disturbances. Leptospirosis icterohaemorrhagiae infection: found in a man after return from Belarus. Haematologic disturbance and hepatocellular and nephrocellular damage were observed. PMID:16886451

  9. Observational study on the efficacy of the supplementation with a preparation with several minerals and vitamins in improving mood and behaviour of healthy puerperal women.

    PubMed

    Paoletti, Anna Maria; Orrů, Marisa Margherita; Marotto, Maria Francesca; Pilloni, Monica; Zedda, Pierina; Fais, Maria Francesca; Piras, Bruno; Piano, Camilla; Pala, Silvia; Lello, Stefano; Coghe, Ferdinando; Sorge, Roberto; Melis, Gian Benedetto

    2013-08-01

    We investigated whether a formulation containing vitamins and minerals (vit&min) could improve the worsening of mood changes occurring after delivery ("a.d."). The study was performed in 552 healthy non-anaemic puerperal women ("p.w") without risk factors for puerperal depression ("p.d"). They were at their first full-term pregnancy, and spontaneously delivered healthy newborns. The Edinburgh Depression Postnatal scale (EPDS) evaluates the psychological status of "p.w". EPDS was administered the 3rd (visit 1), 15th (visit 2) and 30th (visit 3) day "a.d.". An EPDS >12 indicates a major susceptibility to "p.d". At the same time intervals, haemoglobin, iron and ferritin (haematological parameters) levels were evaluated. After visit 1, the subjects were randomized to vit&min treatment (group A; N.274) or to calcium/vitamin D3 treatment (group B; N.278). In both groups haematological parameters significantly increased without differences between the groups. EPDS score improved in both groups, but in the group A, the EPDS decrease was significantly larger (p < 0.05) in comparison to the group B. This effect is mainly evident in subjects with a basal EPDS ? 12. An early examination of psychological condition could select "p.w." with a high susceptibility to neuronal changes occurring postpartum. Vit&min favourably modulates brain functions antagonizing the evolution to "p.d". PMID:23782001

  10. Distribution of alpha thalassaemia gene variants in diverse ethnic populations in malaysia: data from the institute for medical research.

    PubMed

    Ahmad, Rahimah; Saleem, Mohamed; Aloysious, Nisha Sabrina; Yelumalai, Punithawathy; Mohamed, Nurul; Hassan, Syahzuwan

    2013-01-01

    Alpha thalassaemia is highly prevalent in the plural society of Malaysia and is a public health problem. Haematological and molecular data from 5016 unrelated patients referred from various hospitals to the Institute for Medical Research for ? thalassaemia screening from 2007 to 2010 were retrieved. The aims of this retrospective analysis were to describe the distribution of various alpha thalassaemia alleles in different ethnic groups, along with their genotypic interactions, and to illustrate the haematological changes associated with each phenotype. Amongst the patients, 51.2% (n = 2567) were diagnosed with ? thalassaemia. Of the 13 ? thalassaemia determinants screened, eight different deletions and mutations were demonstrated: three double gene deletions, --(SEA), --(THAI), --(FIL); two single-gene deletions, ?-ł·? and -??·˛; and three non-deletion mutations, Cd59G > A (haemoglobin [Hb] Adana), Cd125T > C (Hb Quong Sze) and Cd142 (Hb Constant Spring). A high incidence of ?-ł·? deletion was observed in Malays, Indians, Sabahans, Sarawakians and Orang Asli people. However, the --SEA deletion was the most common cause of alpha thalassaemia in Chinese, followed by the ?-ł·? deletion. As many as 27 genotypic interactions showed 1023 ? thalassaemia silent carriers, 196 homozygous ?? thalassaemia traits, 973 heterozygous ?? thalassaemia carriers and 375 patients with Hb H disease. Statistical analysis showed a significant difference in the distribution of ? thalassaemia determinants amongst the various ethnic groups. Hence, the heterogeneous distribution of common determinants indicated that the introduction of an ethnicity-targeted hierarchical ? thalassaemia screening approach in this multi-ethnic Malaysian population would be effective. PMID:24025420

  11. Assessing the Systemic Toxicity in Rabbits after Sub Acute Exposure to Ocular Irritant Chemicals

    PubMed Central

    Sruthi, Sudhakaran; Syama, Santhakumar; Gayathri, Vishwanath; Mohanan, Parayanthala Valappil

    2015-01-01

    Eye is a highly vascularised organ. There are chances that a foreign substance can enter the systemic circulation through the eye and cause oxidative stress and evoke immune response. Here the eyes of rabbits were exposed, for a period of 7 days, to 5 known ocular irritants: Cetyl pyridinium chloride (CPC), sodium salicylate (SS), imidazole (IMI), acetaminophen (ACT) and nicotinamide (NIC). The eyes were scored according to the draize scoring. Blood collected from the treated rabbit were analyzed for haematological and biochemical parameters. After sacrifice, histological analysis of the eye and analysis of pro-inflammatory biomarkers (IL-1?, IL-1?, IL-8 and TNF-?) in the cornea using ELISA was carried out. Spleen was collected and the proliferation capacities of spleenocytes were analyzed. Liver and brain were collected and assessed for oxidative stress. The eye irritation potential of the chemicals was evident from the redness and swelling of the conjunctiva and cornea. Histopathological analysis and ELISA assay showed signs of inflammation in the eye. However, the haematological and biochemical parameters showed no change. Spleenocyte proliferations showed only slight alterations which were not significant. Also oxidative stress in the brain and liver were negligible. In conclusion, chemicals which cause ocular irritation and inflammation did not show any systemic side-effects in the present scenario. PMID:25874033

  12. Alpha-thalassemia changes the cell density profile in sickle cell anaemia.

    PubMed

    Tejuca, M; Martinez, G; Ferreira, R; Hernández, A; Ferrer, L; Goicochea, A; Hernández, A C; Coyula, R; Wade, M; Colombo, B

    1989-01-01

    Several factors are implied in the haematological and clinical picture of sickle cell anaemia. Attention has been focused on the concomitant presence of -alpha-thalassemia and high levels of HbF, but contradictory results have been reported in different populations. We compared the blood cell density profile, obtained by the phtalate esther method, of normal subjects with those of patients with sickle cell anaemia - with or without heterozygous alpha-thalassemia. We found that the density profile of both groups of patients differs from normal subjects, and that a difference can also be demonstrated between normal alpha genotype patients with sickle cell anaemia and patients with heterozygous alpha-thalassemia. These results are in agreement with the findings obtained in other countries in which a gene from Caucasian to African populations have been demonstrated, and are different from the results obtained in populations of more pure African ancestry. It can be suggested, therefore, that these data, in addition with findings of other authors in different geographical areas, support the hypothesis that the genetic make up plays an important role in the haematologic and clinical picture of sickle cell anaemia. PMID:2583597

  13. Dental Treatment in Patients with Leukemia

    PubMed Central

    Meurer, Maria Inęs; Grando, Liliane Janete; Gonzaga Del Moral, Joanita Ângela; da Silva Rath, Inęs Beatriz; Schaefer Tavares, Silvia

    2015-01-01

    Dental treatment of patients with leukemia should be planned on the basis of antineoplastic therapy which can be chemotherapy with or without radiotherapy and bone marrow transplantation. Many are the oral manifestations presented by these patients, arising from leukemia and/or treatment. In addition, performing dental procedures at different stages of treatment (before, during, or after) must follow certain protocols in relation to the haematological indices of patients, aimed at maintaining health and contributing to the effectiveness of the results of antineoplastic therapy. Through a literature review, the purpose of this study was to report the hematological abnormalities present in patients with leukemia, trying to correlate them with the feasibility of dental treatment at different stages of the disease. It is concluded in this paper that dental treatment in relation to haematological indices presented by patients with leukemia must follow certain protocols, mainly related to neutrophil and platelet counts, and the presence of the dentist in a multidisciplinary team is required for the health care of this patient. PMID:25784937

  14. Role of gemcitabine in metastatic breast cancer patients: a short review.

    PubMed

    Silvestris, Nicola; Cinieri, Saverio; La Torre, Ignazia; Pezzella, Giuseppe; Numico, Gianmauro; Orlando, Laura; Lorusso, Vito

    2008-06-01

    Many active cytotoxic drugs, given according to a number of different regimens are approved for the treatment of metastatic breast cancer patients. However, these therapies have not changed the outcome of patients affected by this malignancy. As a consequence, the balance between chemotherapy-induced side effects and relief of cancer-related symptoms must be carefully considered in this setting. Gemcitabine is an antimetabolite that is incorporated as a triphosphate into DNA. As a single agent, it yields responses rates ranging from 14% to 37% in chemotherapy-naďve patients and from 12% to 30% in patients previously treated with anthracyclines and/or taxanes. In combination with paclitaxel, it produces a significantly higher response rate (41.4% vs. 26.2%), longer time to progression (6.1 vs. 4 months) and significantly higher overall survival (18.6 vs. 15.8 months) than paclitaxel alone. In addition, a phase III study revealed that gemcitabine plus docetaxel is as effective as capecitabine plus docetaxel, but causes significantly less non-haematologic toxicity. Lastly, in another phase III trial, progression free survival was significantly longer with the combination of gemcitabine plus vinorelbine than with vinorelbine alone (6 vs. 4 months), but without a significant difference in overall survival; the incidence of haematologic toxicity was higher in the group treated with combined therapy. Novel gemcitabine combinations are being investigated in phase II studies. PMID:18037292

  15. A chronic toxicity study of the ground root bark of Capparis erythrocarpus (Cappareceae) in male Sprague-Dawley rats.

    PubMed

    Martey, O N K; Armah, G E; Sittie, A A; Okine, L K N

    2013-12-01

    The safety evaluation of Capparis erythrocarpus (CE) on chronic administration at 18 and 180 mg kg(-1) body weight for 6 months was investigated in male Sprague-Dawley rats. The effects of CE on certain serum biochemical, haematological, urine and histopathological determinations were used as indices of organ specific toxicity. Also the effects of CE on rat blood clotting time and pentobarbital-induced sleeping time were determined. Results indicate that CE had no effect on urine, haematological and serum biochemical indices at termination of treatment with the exception of serum ALT level which was significantly (p < 0.05) attenuated in a dose-dependent fashion (21-35%). There were also no differences in blood clotting time and pentobarbital-induced sleeping time between CE-treated and control animals. Histopathological studies showed that CE did not adversely affect the morphology of the liver, kidney and heart tissues. However, lungs of CE-treated animals showed slight but insignificant inflammatory response in alveolar areas and Clara cell hyperplasia without the thickening of alveolar septa and bronchiolar epithelial wall. Organ weights were not adversely affected by CE treatment. There were significant (p < 0.05) changes in weight of CE-treated animals with duration of treatment compared to control. These results suggest that there is no organ specific toxicity associated with chronic administration of CE in rats and its ability to reduce body weight may be useful for slimming in obese persons. PMID:24506037

  16. Iron Deficiency among Jamaican Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Mason, K; Gibson, F; Hambleton, I; Serjeant, B; Serjeant, G

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objectives: To raise awareness of significant iron deficiency anaemia occurring in Jamaican secondary school students. Methods: Haematological screening of 15 592 students in the fifth and sixth forms of 14 secondary schools in the parishes of Manchester and Clarendon, Jamaica, was done. Samples were subject to haemoglobin electrophoresis, examination of haematological indices, and haemoglobin, alpha 2 (HbA2) levels where indicated. Results: Of 13 172 students with normal haemoglobin (AA) genotype aged 15–19 years, haemoglobin levels below 10 g/dL occurred in 0.36% of males and in 3.79% females. These subjects had low mean red cell volumes, low mean cell haemoglobin and high red cell distribution width, characteristic of iron deficiency, which was confirmed by dramatic increases in haemoglobin level following iron supplementation. Most revealed classic symptoms, histories of poor diets and pica, which generally resolved on iron supplementation. Conclusions: Iron deficiency, even in the absence of anaemia, is known to limit physical and mental functions and may impair intellectual performance in these high school students. Significant anaemia could be detected by incorporating a blood test into the school medical assessments performed on entry to secondary schools. There is a need for simple oral iron medications to be available at health centres. PMID:25803394

  17. Long-term control of central nervous system leukaemia.

    PubMed Central

    Gribbin, M A; Hardisty, R M; Chessells, J M

    1977-01-01

    Seventy-four children with acute lymphoblastic leukaemia had one or more episodes of central nervous system (CNS) leukaemia. 5 children had CNS involvement at diagnosis; 4 survived for less than one year. In 35 children who had not had a previous bone marrow relapse on treatment and who received combination chemotherapy, the median duration of haematological remission from the time of first CNS relapse was almost 3 years. 5 children received full dose (2400 rads) craniospinal irradiation after their first CNS relapse; 4 have remained in CNS and haematological remission for 2 1/2 years or more. 18 children who had a CNS relapse after irradiation received 4-weekly intrathecal methotrexate; in 8 children this was given via an intraventricular reservoir. The median duration of CNS remission in children receiving intrathecal methotrexate was 2 years. Systemic and intrathecal treatment was stopped in 7 children after 2 1/2 years in continuous remission and in 2 children after 2 years. 4 of these 9 children remain in remission at intervals from 41 to 69 weeks off treatment but one is severely retarded. These results show that CNS disease is compatible with prolonged survival, but illustrate the difficulties of eradicating established CNS leukaemia. PMID:411425

  18. Acute DNA damage activates the tumour suppressor p53 to promote radiation-induced lymphoma

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Chang-Lung; Castle, Katherine D.; Moding, Everett J.; Blum, Jordan M.; Williams, Nerissa; Luo, Lixia; Ma, Yan; Borst, Luke B.; Kim, Yongbaek; Kirsch, David G.

    2015-01-01

    Genotoxic cancer therapies, such as chemoradiation, cause haematological toxicity primarily by activating the tumour suppressor p53. While inhibiting p53-mediated cell death during cancer therapy ameliorates haematologic toxicity, whether it also impacts carcinogenesis remains unclear. Here we utilize a mouse model of inducible p53 short hairpin RNA (shRNA) to show that temporarily blocking p53 during total-body irradiation (TBI) not only ameliorates acute toxicity, but also improves long-term survival by preventing lymphoma development. Using KrasLA1 mice, we show that TBI promotes the expansion of a rare population of thymocytes that express oncogenic KrasG12D. However, blocking p53 during TBI significantly suppresses the expansion of KrasG12D-expressing thymocytes. Mechanistically, bone marrow transplant experiments demonstrate that TBI activates p53 to decrease the ability of bone marrow cells to suppress lymphoma development through a non-cell-autonomous mechanism. Together, our results demonstrate that the p53 response to acute DNA damage promotes the development of radiation-induced lymphoma. PMID:26399548

  19. The role of JAK/STAT signalling in the pathogenesis, prognosis and treatment of solid tumours.

    PubMed

    Thomas, S J; Snowden, J A; Zeidler, M P; Danson, S J

    2015-07-28

    Aberrant activation of intracellular signalling pathways confers malignant properties on cancer cells. Targeting intracellular signalling pathways has been a productive strategy for drug development, with several drugs acting on signalling pathways already in use and more continually being developed. The JAK/STAT signalling pathway provides an example of this paradigm in haematological malignancies, with the identification of JAK2 mutations in myeloproliferative neoplasms leading to the development of specific clinically effective JAK2 inhibitors, such as ruxolitinib. It is now clear that many solid tumours also show activation of JAK/STAT signalling. In this review, we focus on the role of JAK/STAT signalling in solid tumours, examining the molecular mechanisms that cause inappropriate pathway activation and their cellular consequences. We also discuss the degree to which activated JAK/STAT signalling contributes to oncogenesis. Studies showing the effect of activation of JAK/STAT signalling upon prognosis in several tumour types are summarised. Finally, we discuss the prospects for treating solid tumours using strategies targeting JAK/STAT signalling, including what can be learned from haematological malignancies and the extent to which results in solid tumours might be expected to differ. PMID:26151455

  20. The role of JAK/STAT signalling in the pathogenesis, prognosis and treatment of solid tumours

    PubMed Central

    Thomas, S J; Snowden, J A; Zeidler, M P; Danson, S J

    2015-01-01

    Aberrant activation of intracellular signalling pathways confers malignant properties on cancer cells. Targeting intracellular signalling pathways has been a productive strategy for drug development, with several drugs acting on signalling pathways already in use and more continually being developed. The JAK/STAT signalling pathway provides an example of this paradigm in haematological malignancies, with the identification of JAK2 mutations in myeloproliferative neoplasms leading to the development of specific clinically effective JAK2 inhibitors, such as ruxolitinib. It is now clear that many solid tumours also show activation of JAK/STAT signalling. In this review, we focus on the role of JAK/STAT signalling in solid tumours, examining the molecular mechanisms that cause inappropriate pathway activation and their cellular consequences. We also discuss the degree to which activated JAK/STAT signalling contributes to oncogenesis. Studies showing the effect of activation of JAK/STAT signalling upon prognosis in several tumour types are summarised. Finally, we discuss the prospects for treating solid tumours using strategies targeting JAK/STAT signalling, including what can be learned from haematological malignancies and the extent to which results in solid tumours might be expected to differ. PMID:26151455

  1. Toxic effects of lead exposure in Wistar rats: involvement of oxidative stress and the beneficial role of edible jute (Corchorus olitorius) leaves.

    PubMed

    Dewanjee, Saikat; Sahu, Ranabir; Karmakar, Sarmila; Gangopadhyay, Moumita

    2013-05-01

    Lead (Pb) is considered to be a multi-target toxicant. The present study was undertaken to evaluate the protective effect of aqueous extract of Corchorus olitorius leaves against Pb-acetate induced toxic manifestation in blood, liver, kidney, brain and heart of Wistar rats. The Pb-acetate (5mg/kg body weight) treated rats exhibited a significant inhibition of co-enzymes Q, antioxidant enzymes and reduced glutathione levels in the tissues. In addition, the extent of lipid peroxidation, DNA fragmentation and haematological parameters were significantly altered in the Pb-acetate treated rats as compared to control. Simultaneous administration of test extract (25, 50 and 100mg/kg body weight), could significantly restore the biochemical and haematological parameters near to the normal status through antioxidant activity and/or by preventing bioaccumulation of Pb within the tissues of experimental rats. Presence of substantial quantity of phenolics and flavonoids in the extract may be responsible for the observed protective role against Pb-intoxication. PMID:23291325

  2. Cadmium induced pathophysiology: prophylactic role of edible jute (Corchorus olitorius) leaves with special emphasis on oxidative stress and mitochondrial involvement.

    PubMed

    Dewanjee, Saikat; Gangopadhyay, Moumita; Sahu, Ranabir; Karmakar, Sarmila

    2013-10-01

    The present study was undertaken to evaluate the protective effect of aqueous extract of Corchorus olitorius leaves (AECO) against CdCl? intoxication. In vitro bioassay on isolated mice hepatocytes confirmed dose dependent cytoprotective effect of AECO. The CdCl? (30 ?M) exhibited a significantly increased levels of lipid peroxidation, protein carbonylation along with the reduction of antioxidant enzymes and reduced glutathione levels in hepatocytes. AECO (200 and 400 ?g/ml) + CdCl? (30 ?M) could significantly restore the aforementioned oxidation parameters in hepatocytes. Beside this, AECO could significantly reduce Cd-induced increase in Bad/Bcl-2 ratio and the over-expression of NF-?B, caspase 3 and caspase 9. In in vivo assay, CdCl? (4 mg/kg body weight, for 6 days) treated rats exhibited a significantly increased intracellular Cd accumulation, oxidative stress and DNA fragmentation in the organs. In addition, the haematological parameters were significantly altered in the CdCl? treated rats. Simultaneous administration of AECO (50 and 100 mg/kg body weight), could significantly restore the biochemical, antioxidant and haematological parameters near to the normal status. Histological studies of the organs supported the protective role of jute leaves. Presence of substantial quantity of phenolic compounds and flavonoids in extract may be responsible for overall protective effect. PMID:23891759

  3. Effect of Euphorbia hirta plant leaf extract on immunostimulant response of Aeromonas hydrophila infected Cyprinus carpio

    PubMed Central

    Sukumaran, NatarajaPillai

    2014-01-01

    The main objective of the present study is to improve the immune power of Cyprinus carpio by using Euphorbia hirta plant leaf extract as immunostimulants. The haematological, immunological and enzymatic studies were conducted on the medicated fish infected with Aeromonas hydrophila pathogen. The results obtained from the haematological studies show that the RBC count, WBC count and haemoglobin content were increased in the infected fish at higher concentration of leaf extract. The feeds with leaf extract of Euphorbia hirta were able to stimulate the specific immune response by increasing the titre value of antibody. It was able to stimulate the antibody production only up to the 5th day, when fed with higher concentrations of (25 g and 50 g) plant leaf extract. The plant extract showed non-specific immune responses such as lysozyme activity, phagocytic ratio, NBT assay, etc. at higher concentration (50 g) and in the same concentration (50 g), the leaf extract of Euphorbia hirta significantly eliminated the pathogen in blood and kidney. It was observed that fish have survival percentage significantly at higher concentration (50 g) of Euphorbia hirta, when compared with the control. The obtained results are statistically significant at P < 0.05 and P < 0.01 levels. This research work suggests that the plant Euphorbia hirta has immunostimulant activity by stimulating both specific and non-specific immunity at higher concentrations. PMID:25405077

  4. Low frequency of anti-D alloimmunization following D+ platelet transfusion: the Anti-D Alloimmunization after D-incompatible Platelet Transfusions (ADAPT) study.

    PubMed

    Cid, Joan; Lozano, Miguel; Ziman, Alyssa; West, Kamille A; O'Brien, Kerry L; Murphy, Michael F; Wendel, Silvano; Vázquez, Alejandro; Ortín, Xavier; Hervig, Tor A; Delaney, Meghan; Flegel, Willy A; Yazer, Mark H

    2015-02-01

    The reported frequency of D alloimmunization in D- recipients after transfusion of D+ platelets varies. This study was designed to determine the frequency of D alloimmunization, previously reported to be an average of 5 ± 2%. A primary anti-D immune response was defined as the detection of anti-D ? 28 d following the first D+ platelet transfusion. Data were collected on 485 D- recipients of D+ platelets in 11 centres between 2010 and 2012. Their median age was 60 (range 2-100) years. Diagnoses included: haematological (203/485, 42%), oncological (64/485, 13%) and other diseases (218/485, 45%). Only 7/485 (1·44%; 95% CI 0·58-2·97%) recipients had a primary anti-D response after a median serological follow-up of 77 d (range: 28-2111). There were no statistically significant differences between the primary anti-D formers and the other patients, in terms of gender, age, receipt of immunosuppressive therapy, proportion of patients with haematological/oncological diseases, transfusion of whole blood-derived or apheresis platelets or both, and total number of transfused platelet products. This is the largest study with the longest follow-up of D alloimmunization following D+ platelet transfusion. The low frequency of D alloimmunization should be considered when deciding whether to administer Rh Immune Globulin to D- males and D- females without childbearing potential after transfusion of D+ platelets. PMID:25283094

  5. Investigation of diseases through red blood cells' shape using photoacoustic response technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biswas, Deblina; Gorey, Abhijeet; Chen, Goerge C. K.; Sharma, Norman; Vasudevan, Srivathsan

    2015-03-01

    Photoacoustic (PA) imaging is a non-invasive real-time technique, widely applied to many biomedical imaging studies in the recent years. While most of these studies have been focussed on obtaining an image after reconstruction, various features of time domain signal (e.g. amplitude, width, rise and relaxation time) would provide very high sensitivity in detecting morphological changes in cells during a biological study. Different haematological disorders (e.g., sickle cell anaemia, thalassemia) exhibit significant morphological cellular changes. In this context, this study explores the possibility of utilizing the developed photoacoustic response technique to apply onto blood samples. Results of our preliminary study demonstrate that there is a significant change in signal amplitude due to change in concentration of the blood. Thus it shows the sensitivity of the developed photoacoustic technique towards red blood cell count (related to haematological disease like anaemia). Subsequently, morphological changes in RBC (i.e. swollen and shrunk compared to normal RBC) induced by hypotonic and hypertonic solutions respectively were also experimented. The result shows a distinct change in PA signal amplitude. This would serve as a diagnostic signature for many future studies on cellular morphological disorders.

  6. Initial effects of the grounding of the tanker Braer on health in Shetland. The Shetland Health Study Group.

    PubMed Central

    Campbell, D; Cox, D; Crum, J; Foster, K; Christie, P; Brewster, D

    1993-01-01

    OBJECTIVE--To determine if the oil spillage from the tanker Braer had any immediate health effects on the exposed resident population. DESIGN--Cohort study with a comparison against controls, exposure status being assigned on the basis of geographical location. SETTING--Rural Shetland. SUBJECTS--All those resident on or after 5 January 1993 (day 0) within 4.5 km of the site of tanker's grounding. Controls matched for sex and age were drawn from a general practice list 95 km distant. OUTCOME MEASURES--Demographic details; smoking and alcohol consumption; perception of health and reported presence or absence of specific symptoms; peak expiratory flow; results of haematology, liver and renal function tests, and blood and urine toxicology. RESULTS--Of subjects contacted, 420 (66%) exposed people and 92 (68%) controls were studied; 56 non-attenders were surveyed. Principal health effects arose on days 1 and 2 and were headache, throat irritation, and itchy eyes. No significant differences between those exposed and controls were found for any of the biological markers. Toxicological studies did not show any exposures that are known to affect human health. CONCLUSIONS--The study confirmed the anecdotal reports of certain acute symptoms. No evidence of pulmonary, haematological, renal, or hepatic damage was detected at the population level. Toxicological samples from exposed people did not find levels known to affect human health. Further studies are required to ascertain whether there have been any long term effects on the population. PMID:8281057

  7. Haematopoietic cancer mortality among vehicle mechanics.

    PubMed Central

    Hunting, K L; Longbottom, H; Kalavar, S S; Stern, F; Schwartz, E; Welch, L S

    1995-01-01

    OBJECTIVE AND METHODS--This historical cohort study investigated causes of death among car and mobile equipment mechanics in the District of Columbia's Department of Public Works. Men who were employed for at least one year between 1977 and 1989 were eligible for inclusion in the cohort; follow up was up to the end of 1991. Three cases of leukaemia (index cases) had been reported among these workers before the inception of this study. This research was undertaken to estimate the relative risk of haematological cancer among mechanics working for the District of Columbia. RESULTS--Among the 335 male fleet maintenance workers, the all cause standardised mortality ratio (SMR) was 0.50 (33 observed deaths, 95% confidence interval (95% CI) 0.35-0.70), and the all cancer SMR was 0.55 (nine deaths, 95% CI 0.25-1.05). Three deaths from lymphatic and haematopoietic cancer were observed; the SMR was 3.63 (95% CI 0.75-10.63). In the subgroup with highest potential for exposure to fuels and solvents, the SMR for leukaemia and aleukaemia was 9.26 (two deaths, 95% CI 1.12-33.43), and the SMR for other lymphatic and haematopoietic neoplasms was 2.57 (one death from malignant lymphoma, 95% CI 0.06-14.27). All three lymphatic and haematopoietic cancer deaths were among car and mobile equipment mechanics (one was an index case). The two additional index cases were a fourth mechanic who died of leukaemia in 1992, after mortality follow up ended, and a fifth mechanic who was diagnosed with leukaemia in 1988 and is still alive. CONCLUSION--Many garage mechanics in this cohort regularly used petrol to clean parts and to wash their hands; some workers would occasionally siphon petrol by mouth. Benzene, a recognised cause of haematological cancer, is a component of petrol. Previous research indicates that garage mechanics may be at risk of leukaemia and other haematological cancers, presumably due to exposure to petrol; this study supports those findings. PMID:7489058

  8. Ingestion of colostrum from specific cows induces Bovine Neonatal Pancytopenia (BNP) in some calves

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Since 2006, cases of haemorrhagic diathesis in young calves have been observed with a much higher incidence than previously known. The syndrome, now uniformly called Bovine Neonatal Pancytopenia (BNP), is characterized by multiple (external and internal) haemorrhages, thrombocytopenia, leukocytopenia, and bone marrow depletion. Although various infectious and toxicological causes of bleeding disorders in calves have been ruled out, the aetiology of BNP remains unknown. However, field observations have led to the hypothesis that the aetiological principle may be transmitted to calves via colostrum. The objective of the present study was to verify whether ingestion of colostrum from dams of known BNP calves can elicit signs of BNP and typical haematological findings in conveniently selected neonatal calves. Six such calves received one feeding of colostrum (or a mixture of colostrum batches) from dams of known BNP calves. As controls, another six conveniently selected calves from herds which had never had a BNP case received one feeding of colostrum from their own dams. Haematological and clinical parameters were monitored. Results One of the six experimental calves never showed any haematological, clinical or pathological evidence of BNP. In the other five calves, thrombocyte and leukocyte counts dropped within a few hours following ingestion of colostrum. Of those, three calves developed clinical signs of BNP, their post-mortem examination revealed bone marrow depletion. Of the remaining two calves, a pair of mixed twins, marked thrombocytopenia and recurrent leukocytopenia was evident in one, in which only slight changes in the bone marrow were detected, while in the other thrombocyte counts dropped, but rebounded later, and no bone marrow changes were noted. Thrombocyte counts of the experimental calves were statistically significantly lower than those of the control calves at 2 hours post ingestion of colostrum and at every sampling point between 9 hours and 8 days postcolostral. Leucocyte counts of the experimental calves were statistically significantly lower than those of control calves at 2 hours post ingestion of colostrum and 3-7 days postcolostral. Conclusions BNP can be induced in some calves by ingestion of colostrum from cows that have given birth to BNP calves. PMID:21333009

  9. Etoposide dosage and pharmacodynamics.

    PubMed

    Joel, S P; Shah, R; Slevin, M L

    1994-01-01

    Etoposide is a schedule-dependent cytotoxic drug with high single agent activity in small-cell lung cancer and lymphoma. Despite its clear dose-dependent myelosuppressive activity, dose-dependent evidence of its anti-tumour activity is harder to demonstrate. A number of reports have correlated haematological toxicity with pharmacokinetic and physiological parameters, which explains some of the variability in dynamic effects that exists between patients. Recent reports have also suggested that anti-tumour response may be related to plasma etoposide concentration. In our own studies we have investigated factors that influence the pharmacodynamic effects of etoposide, principally with regard to haematological toxicity, and these studies have highlighted a number of patient groups who are at risk. Impaired renal function causes a reduction in clearance of etoposide, resulting in increased systemic exposure and more profound myelotoxicity. A 30% dose reduction in this group is recommended to normalise the area under the plasma concentration-time curve (AUC). Patients with low serum albumin concentrations (< 35 g/l) also showed significantly worse haematological toxicity, but with no apparent change in total drug pharmacokinetics. There was, however, an increase in the free drug fraction in this group due to decreased protein binding, such that the free drug AUC was similar to that found in patients with renal dysfunction. This would also indicate that a dose reduction of around 30%-40% is required in this patient group. Patients with normal albumin levels but liver enzyme values (aspartate transaminase or gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase) more than 3 times the upper limit of normal also had a less marked but significant increase in neutropenia. In patients with normal organ function, age was the only significant factor in predicting the degree of leukopenia/neutropenia, and increasing age was also associated with decreasing drug clearance and an increase in drug AUC. A small dose reduction and/or careful monitoring is required in this patient group. Further studies are required to elucidate further the relationship between the pharmacokinetics of etoposide and its pharmacodynamics, particularly with regard to anti-tumor activity, and to determine the role of individualised therapy, based on a pharmacokinetic parameter, in reducing the dynamic variability and optimising the use of this drug. PMID:8070031

  10. ECIL-3 classical diagnostic procedures for the diagnosis of invasive fungal diseases in patients with leukaemia.

    PubMed

    Arendrup, M C; Bille, J; Dannaoui, E; Ruhnke, M; Heussel, C-P; Kibbler, C

    2012-08-01

    Invasive fungal diseases (IFDs) continue to cause considerable morbidity and mortality in patients with haematological malignancy. Diagnosis of IFD is difficult, with the sensitivity of the gold standard tests (culture and histopathology) often reported to be low, which may at least in part be due to sub-optimal sampling or subsequent handling in the routine microbiological laboratory. Therefore, a working group of the European Conference in Infections in Leukaemia was convened in 2009 with the task of reviewing the classical diagnostic procedures and providing recommendations for their optimal use. The recommendations were presented and approved at the ECIL-3 conference in September 2009. Although new serological and molecular tests are examined in separate papers, this review focuses on sample types, microscopy and culture procedures, antifungal susceptibility testing and imaging. The performance and limitations of these procedures are discussed and recommendations are provided on when and how to use them and how to interpret the results. PMID:22231461

  11. Causes of ischaemic stroke in the young.

    PubMed Central

    Martin, P. J.; Enevoldson, T. P.; Humphrey, P. R.

    1997-01-01

    The causes of ischaemic stroke in young adults are many and diverse. Such patients usually require more extensive investigations in order to find an underlying cause than more elderly patients. It is important that a comprehensive search is made since many of the underlying disorders are treatable. Principal causes are extracranial arterial dissection, cardioembolism, premature atherosclerosis, haematological and immunological disorders and migraine. Drug abuse is becoming increasingly important but the risk of stroke in pregnancy remains unclear. Isolated angiitis of the central nervous system, heritable disorders of connective tissue and other genetically determined disorders (mitochondrial cytopathies, CA-DASIL) account for a small proportion of ischaemic strokes in the young. Management is probably best undertaken by a physician with a specialist interest and, if full investigation fails to elucidate a definite cause, the risk of future stoke is low. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 PMID:9039403

  12. Tolerance studies with brotizolam in hospitalized patients

    PubMed Central

    von Delbrück, Orla; Goetzke, Edda; Nagel, Cornelia

    1983-01-01

    1 A long-term study of brotizolam (minimum 4 weeks: maximum 26 weeks) was carried out in hospitalized patients (29 to 95 years) who complained of sleep disturbance. 3.0% of the patients used 0.125 mg, 86.4% used 0.25 mg, and 10.0% used 0.5 mg daily. During the trial there was no evidence of tolerance. 2 There were no symptoms of overdosage, physical and psychological dependency or withdrawal, and there were no interactions with the concurrently prescribed drugs. 3 There were no changes in vital functions, haematology, or in the biochemical investigations of blood or urine which could be attributed to the drug. PMID:6362697

  13. Angiogenic factors in chronic lymphocytic leukaemia (CLL): Where do we stand?

    PubMed

    Aguirre Palma, Luis Mario; Gehrke, Iris; Kreuzer, Karl-Anton

    2015-03-01

    The role of angiogenesis in haematological malignancies such as chronic lymphocytic leukaemia (CLL) is difficult to envision, because leukaemia cells are not dependent on a network of blood vessels to support basic physiological requirements. Regardless, CLL cells secrete high levels of major angiogenic factors, such as vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF), and platelet derived growth factor (PDGF). Nonetheless, it remains unclear how most angiogenic factors regulate accumulation and delayed apoptosis of CLL cells. Angiogenic factors such as leptin, granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF), follistatin, angiopoietin-1 (Ang1), angiogenin (ANG), midkine (MK), pleiotrophin (PTN), progranulin (PGRN), proliferin (PLF), placental growth factor (PIGF), and endothelial locus-1 (Del-1), represent novel therapeutic targets of future CLL research but have remained widely overlooked. This review aims to outline our current understanding of angiogenic growth factors and their relationship with CLL, a still uncured haematopoietic malignancy. PMID:25459668

  14. Wnt/?-catenin pathway regulates MGMT gene expression in cancer and inhibition of Wnt signalling prevents chemoresistance

    PubMed Central

    Wickström, Malin; Dyberg, Cecilia; Milosevic, Jelena; Einvik, Christer; Calero, Raul; Sveinbjörnsson, Baldur; Sandén, Emma; Darabi, Anna; Siesjö, Peter; Kool, Marcel; Kogner, Per; Baryawno, Ninib; Johnsen, John Inge

    2015-01-01

    The DNA repair enzyme O6-methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase (MGMT) is commonly overexpressed in cancers and is implicated in the development of chemoresistance. The use of drugs inhibiting MGMT has been hindered by their haematologic toxicity and inefficiency. As a different strategy to inhibit MGMT we investigated cellular regulators of MGMT expression in multiple cancers. Here we show a significant correlation between Wnt signalling and MGMT expression in cancers with different origin and confirm the findings by bioinformatic analysis and immunofluorescence. We demonstrate Wnt-dependent MGMT gene expression and cellular co-localization between active ?-catenin and MGMT. Pharmacological or genetic inhibition of Wnt activity downregulates MGMT expression and restores chemosensitivity of DNA-alkylating drugs in mouse models. These findings have potential therapeutic implications for chemoresistant cancers, especially of brain tumours where the use of temozolomide is frequently used in treatment. PMID:26603103

  15. Wnt/?-catenin pathway regulates MGMT gene expression in cancer and inhibition of Wnt signalling prevents chemoresistance.

    PubMed

    Wickström, Malin; Dyberg, Cecilia; Milosevic, Jelena; Einvik, Christer; Calero, Raul; Sveinbjörnsson, Baldur; Sandén, Emma; Darabi, Anna; Siesjö, Peter; Kool, Marcel; Kogner, Per; Baryawno, Ninib; Johnsen, John Inge

    2015-01-01

    The DNA repair enzyme O6-methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase (MGMT) is commonly overexpressed in cancers and is implicated in the development of chemoresistance. The use of drugs inhibiting MGMT has been hindered by their haematologic toxicity and inefficiency. As a different strategy to inhibit MGMT we investigated cellular regulators of MGMT expression in multiple cancers. Here we show a significant correlation between Wnt signalling and MGMT expression in cancers with different origin and confirm the findings by bioinformatic analysis and immunofluorescence. We demonstrate Wnt-dependent MGMT gene expression and cellular co-localization between active ?-catenin and MGMT. Pharmacological or genetic inhibition of Wnt activity downregulates MGMT expression and restores chemosensitivity of DNA-alkylating drugs in mouse models. These findings have potential therapeutic implications for chemoresistant cancers, especially of brain tumours where the use of temozolomide is frequently used in treatment. PMID:26603103

  16. Anti-Cancer Potential of a Novel SERM Ormeloxifene

    PubMed Central

    Gara, Rishi Kumar; Sundram, Vasudha; Chauhan, Subhash C.; Jaggi, Meena

    2014-01-01

    Ormeloxifene is a non-steroidal Selective Estrogen Receptor Modulator (SERM) that is used as an oral contraceptive. Recent studies have shown its potent anti-cancer activities in breast, head and neck, and chronic myeloid leukemia cells. Several in vivo and clinical studies have reported that ormeloxifene possesses an excellent therapeutic index and has been well-tolerated, without any haematological, biochemical or histopathological toxicity, even with chronic administration. A reasonably long period of time and an enormous financial commitment are required to develop a lead compound into a clinically approved anti-cancer drug. For these reasons and to circumvent these obstacles, ormeloxifene is a promising candidate on a fast track for the development or repurposing established drugs as anti-cancer agents for cancer treatment. The current review summarizes recent findings on ormeloxifene as an anti-cancer agent and future prospects of this clinically safe pharmacophore. PMID:23895678

  17. CAR T-cell immunotherapy: The path from the by-road to the freeway?

    PubMed

    Whilding, Lynsey M; Maher, John

    2015-12-01

    Chimeric antigen receptors are genetically encoded artificial fusion molecules that can re-program the specificity of peripheral blood polyclonal T-cells against a selected cell surface target. Unparallelled clinical efficacy has recently been demonstrated using this approach to treat patients with refractory B-cell malignancy. However, the approach is technically challenging and can elicit severe toxicity in patients. Moreover, solid tumours have largely proven refractory to this approach. In this review, we describe the important structural features of CARs and how this may influence function. Emerging clinical experience is summarized in both solid tumours and haematological malignancies. Finally, we consider the particular challenges imposed by solid tumours to the successful development of CAR T-cell immunotherapy, together with a number of innovative strategies that have been developed in an effort to reverse the balance in favour of therapeutic benefit. PMID:26563646

  18. Second-generation tyrosine kinase inhibitors in first-line treatment of chronic myeloid leukaemia (CML).

    PubMed

    Abruzzese, Elisabetta; Breccia, Massimo; Latagliata, Roberto

    2014-02-01

    Tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) have contributed to marked improvements in survival in patients with chronic myeloid leukaemia (CML). This article discusses the place of the second-generation TKIs dasatinib and nilotinib in the first-line treatment of CML and is based on published literature. The new agents are more potent and effective than imatinib. Data from pivotal clinical trials indicate that response to dasatinib and nilotinib is greater and more rapid than that to imatinib, resulting in a higher probability of patients achieving an optimal response to treatment. Differences between the newer agents with respect to patient groups for whom caution is advised, drug interaction potential, haematological toxicity, pulmonary toxicity, changes in the immune system and effects on laboratory parameters are discussed. With similar levels of efficacy, the choice of second-generation agents should be guided by the characteristics of the individual patient and the most suitable dosing regimen. PMID:24043361

  19. [What is the role of other complementary examination in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis?].

    PubMed

    Tranchant, C

    2006-06-01

    Amotrophic lateral sclerosis diagnosis is based on clinical and electrophysiological findings. Transcranial magnetic stimulation and MRI can show abnormalities which are not specific, but which can confirm upper motor neuron involvement. The other tests are performed to exclude differential diagnosis. Tests which should be performed in every cases are: medullar MRI, blood counts, erythrocyte sedimentation, serum protein electrophoresis, calcium, phosphore, serological tests for HIV, siphylis, Lyme disease. Other tests are made in some clinical circonstances to exclude genetical disease or metabolic disorders (SMN gene, Kennedy gene, Hexosaminidase A, very long chaine fatty acids), haematological or paraneoplasic disorders (anti-neurons antibodies, PSA, CT of chest and abdomen, mammography, bone marrow biopsy) or inclusion myositis (muscle biopsy). PMID:17128090

  20. An ACE diagnosis

    PubMed Central

    Nasher, Omar; Gupta, Anindya

    2013-01-01

    Gaucher's disease is not commonly considered in the differential diagnosis of adult patients with hepatosplenomegaly and increased serum ACE. A 19-year-old girl presented with recurrent epigastric and left hypochondrial pain over a period of 9?years, associated with episodes of nausea and diarrhoea. She was extensively investigated and found to have splenomegaly and raised serum ACE. A screen for haematological disorders was negative. She reported an insect bite during an overseas holiday preceding her symptoms. She was therefore also screened for infectious causes of hepatosplenomegaly but without success. Later on in life, she reported joint pain and discomfort. Sarcoidosis was thought to be the putative cause on more than one occasion. However, the presence of splenomegaly and her relatively young age, led the rheumatologist to the correct diagnosis. PMID:23417380

  1. Absence of dihydropteroate synthase gene mutations in Pneumocystis jirovecii isolated from Swedish patients.

    PubMed

    Beser, Jessica; Dini, Leigh; Botero-Kleiven, Silvia; Krabbe, Margareta; Lindh, Johan; Hagblom, Per

    2012-04-01

    Pneumocystis jirovecii remains an important cause of pneumonia in the immunocompromised host, with the largest group of patients at risk for P. jirovecii pneumonia (PCP) in Sweden being those with haematological diseases. Widespread prophylaxis and treatment for P. jirovecii with sulfa-containing drugs have effectively decreased the incidence of PCP, but concerns have been raised about the possible emergence of P. jirovecii isolates that are resistant to these drugs. Two point mutations in the gene coding for the dihydropteroate synthase enzyme (DHPS) in P. jirovecii have been shown to be associated with prior exposure to sulfa drugs. We retrospectively studied the occurrence of P. jirovecii DHPS mutations in isolates recovered from 103 Swedish patients. The DHPS gene, including the polymorphic positions 165 and 171, were amplified and sequenced by pyrosequencing technology. All the clinical specimens showed a wild-type pattern indicating that the occurrence of P. jirovecii DHPS mutations in Sweden is very low or absent. PMID:21732748

  2. What is the significance of a positive Propionibacterium acnes culture around a joint replacement?

    PubMed

    Dramis, A; Aldlyami, E; Grimer, R J; Dunlop, D J; O'Connell, N; Elliott, T

    2009-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to show the significance of a positive Propionibacterium acnes sample around a joint replacement. Records from the microbiology laboratory data over a 3-year period were reviewed to identify patients with prosthetic joints from whom Propionibacterium acnes was isolated at least once. The medical records of all those patients were retrieved and the demographic, clinical, microbiological and haematological data were collected and examined. The preoperative values of erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) and C-reactive protein (CRP) were recorded. Fifty patients underwent a routine revision of a joint arthroplasty; six patients had a joint aspiration. Only one patient had further revision surgery for infection. The preoperative values of ESR and CRP were very variable. The presence of a positive sample around a joint arthroplasty is of uncertain significance. Further studies are needed in order to establish uniform criteria for the diagnosis of infection caused by Propionibacterium acnes. PMID:18327582

  3. The opposing roles of NOTCH signalling in head and neck cancer: a mini review.

    PubMed

    Yap, L F; Lee, D; Khairuddin, Anm; Pairan, M F; Puspita, B; Siar, C H; Paterson, I C

    2015-10-01

    NOTCH signalling can exert oncogenic or tumour suppressive effects in both solid and haematological malignancies. Similar to T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (T-ALL), early studies suggested a pro-tumorigenic role of NOTCH in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC), mainly based on the increased expression levels of the genes within the pathway. Recently, data from exome sequencing analyses unexpectedly pointed to a tumour suppressor role for NOTCH in HNSCC by identifying loss-of-function mutations in the NOTCH1 gene in a significant proportion of patients. These data have questioned the accepted role of NOTCH in HNSCC and the possible rationale of targeting NOTCH in this disease. This review summarises the current information on NOTCH signalling in HNSCC and discusses how this pathway can apparently exert opposing effects within the same disease. PMID:25580884

  4. Primary Gallbladder Lymphoma in a Male Patient with No Risk Factors Detected Incidentally by CT Colonography

    PubMed Central

    Karia, Monil; Mitsopoulos, Grigorios; Patel, Ketan; Rafique, Akkib; Sheth, Hemant

    2015-01-01

    Primary gallbladder lymphoma, although rare, usually presents in females with symptoms mimicking cholecystitis. We present a rare case of primary gallbladder in an 81-year-old male with no risk factors whose only symptom was weight loss. Routine blood tests including liver function tests were unremarkable. A CT colonography was carried out to exclude colonic malignancy. Unilateral gallbladder wall thickening and lymphadenopathy were incidentally detected and confirmed by ultrasound and a decision for the patient to undergo laparoscopic cholecystectomy and intraoperative cholangiogram was made. Histology confirmed extranodal marginal zone lymphoma with follow-up staging and biopsy of the bone marrow not demonstrating spread. Cholecystectomy was therefore deemed curative and no adjuvant therapy was necessary. Thickening of the gallbladder wall on any imaging with or without symptoms should not be ignored or assumed to be cholecystitis, even in males with no risk factors. In these patients urgent cholecystectomy with intraoperative cholangiogram is indicated with histology and haematology follow-up. PMID:26587306

  5. PERIPHERAL BLOOD FILM - A REVIEW

    PubMed Central

    Adewoyin, AS; Nwogoh, B.

    2014-01-01

    The peripheral blood film (PBF) is a laboratory work-up that involves cytology of peripheral blood cells smeared on a slide. As basic as it is, PBF is invaluable in the characterization of various clinical diseases. This article highlights the basic science and art behind the PBF. It expounds its laboratory applications, clinical indications and interpretations in the light of various clinical diseases. Despite advances in haematology automation and application of molecular techniques, the PBF has remained a very important diagnostic test to the haematologist. A good quality smear, thorough examination and proper interpretation in line with patient's clinical state should be ensured by the haemato-pathologist. Clinicians should be abreast with its clinical utility and proper application of the reports in the management of patients. PMID:25960697

  6. Radiopharmacy and radiopharmacology yearbook

    SciTech Connect

    Cox, P.H.

    1984-01-01

    This book presents reviews and abstracts of important radiopharmaceutical trends and up-to-the-minute radiopharmacological techniques, including news of the latest pharmaceuticals for in vivo use. Topics considered include applications of nuclear medicine techniques for the development of pharmaceutical formulation's; sterility testing of radiopharmaceuticals; the role of HPLC in the development and quality control of radiopharmaceuticals; adverse reactions and drug effects; recent developments in technetium chemistry as applied to the generation of new radiopharmaceuticals; the radiopharmacology of iodinated compounds; aerosols for inhalation imaging; polymers in radiopharmacy; 99m Tc labelled radiopharmaceuticals for thrombophleboscintigraphy; the effects on drugs and therapy; CNS; endodoctrinology; gastroenterology; haematology; locomotory; system oncology; radiation dose; radionuclides; respiratory system; therapy; urogenital system; and new radiopharmaceuticals.

  7. Long-term effects of arsenic accumulation in rainbow trout, Salmo gairdneri

    SciTech Connect

    Oladimeji, A.A.; Qadri, S.U.; deFreitas, A.S.W.

    1984-06-01

    The toxicity of arsenic and its compounds to aquatic organisms is well documented. Acute exposure has been shown to result in reduced growth or increased mortality in aquatic organisms. Acute toxicity levels have been established for several species of fish. A number of studies have been carried out on the effects on fish of long-term exposure to sublethal concentrations of various forms of arsenical herbicides. However, very little has been done on the long-term effects of toxicity of arsenic ingested with the diet in spite of many reports that indicated a contamination of aquatic food chain by arsenic. The primary objective of this study was to determine the accumulation kinetics of arsenic and its effect on certain physiological parameters such as growth and haematology.

  8. Isolation of a new triterpene derivative and in vitro and in vivo anticancer activity of ethanolic extract from root bark of Zizyphus nummularia Aubrev.

    PubMed

    Ray, Sarbani Dey; Dewanjee, Saikat

    2015-01-01

    The various parts of Zizyphus nummularia has been used traditionally in several disease conditions. However, its anticancer activity and mechanism of action remain to be elucidated. Considering this, the objective of this study was to isolate, identify and screen for possible anticancer activity in vitro and in vivo of the ethanolic extract (EE) and isolated identified compound (IC) from Z. nummularia root bark. The in vitro activity against human breast cancer, leukaemia, ovarian cancer, colon adenocarcinoma and human kidney carcinoma cell lines was determined. The in vivo activity in female Swiss albino mice against Ehrlich ascites carcinoma (EAC) was determined. The isolated compound is a new triterpene derivative. EE/IC showed cytotoxicity against different cell lines. The administration of EE/IC decreased tumour parameters such as tumour volume, viable tumour cell count and increased body weight, haematological parameters and life span in comparison to the EAC control mice. PMID:25422165

  9. Diagnosis and management of folate deficiency in low birthweight infants.

    PubMed Central

    Strelling, M K; Blackledge, D G; Goodall, H B

    1979-01-01

    Significant folate deficiency in 14 out of 37 preterm infants of birthweights 2.0 kg or less was found to be reliably and most conveniently diagnosed by abnormal morphological changes in peripheral blood and confirmed by the response to folic acid. Deficiency appeared to be more common in light-for-dates infants including the smaller of twins. Neither the clinical status nor the levels of haemoglobin or erythrocyte folate was a reliable guide to the presence of megaloblastic erythropoiesis in the very young preterm infant. 100-200 microgram folic acid a day, orally or IM, may be required to ensure an optimal haematological response, and this would be appropriate for therapeutic trial if the diagnosis is in doubt. This amount would also replenish tissue folate stores; larger doses are likely to exceed the requirements of small infants. PMID:453910

  10. Diagnosis and management of folate deficiency in low birthweight infants.

    PubMed

    Strelling, M K; Blackledge, D G; Goodall, H B

    1979-04-01

    Significant folate deficiency in 14 out of 37 preterm infants of birthweights 2.0 kg or less was found to be reliably and most conveniently diagnosed by abnormal morphological changes in peripheral blood and confirmed by the response to folic acid. Deficiency appeared to be more common in light-for-dates infants including the smaller of twins. Neither the clinical status nor the levels of haemoglobin or erythrocyte folate was a reliable guide to the presence of megaloblastic erythropoiesis in the very young preterm infant. 100-200 microgram folic acid a day, orally or IM, may be required to ensure an optimal haematological response, and this would be appropriate for therapeutic trial if the diagnosis is in doubt. This amount would also replenish tissue folate stores; larger doses are likely to exceed the requirements of small infants. PMID:453910

  11. [Interphasic in situ fluorescent hybridization (FISH) in 4 cases of myeloid neoplasias with chromosome 7 changes].

    PubMed

    Arranz, E; Renedo, M; Ramos, C; Martínez, B; Prieto, E; Benítez, J

    1994-12-01

    The use of FISH as a complement to the conventional cytogenetic studies is of great help in attaining a better characterisation of the chromosome anomalies present in haematological malignancies, such as chromosome 7 monosomy. A study was carried out in three cases of acute non-lymphoblastic leukaemia and a myelodysplastic syndrome with chromosome 7 involvement, as shown by conventional cytogenetic studies. The Cocktail probe for chromosome 7 (DZ1, DZ2) was used (Oncor) in performing in situ hybridation. A monosomic cell line for chromosome 7, undetected by conventional techniques, was disclosed with this procedure in two of the cases. In the remaining two patients the monosomy of chromosome 7 was confirmed, although at percentages different from those attained with the conventional methods. PMID:7855698

  12. NOTE: Use of a blood glucose meter for radiochromic film analysis in blood irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheung, Tsang; Butson, Martin J.; Yu, Peter K. N.

    2002-10-01

    The use of a diabetic blood glucose meter for radiochromic film dosimetry in blood irradiation using x-ray beams on a medical linear accelerator has been investigated. The glucose meter provides optical density analysis in the visible and infrared region using a reflectance measurement technique. By comparing the 'blood sugar' level output with standard calibration gafchromic films a calibration curve is produced for quantitative analysis. Results show that a reproducible dose to meter output curve can be fitted using a second order polynomial function and that blood irradiation doses in vitro were measured to within 7.9% mean error (as compared to ionization chamber results) using the blood glucose meter. This level of accuracy falls below that measured with a standard densitometer (4.3%) however, results show that the blood glucose meter, which would be available in any haematology department, produces an adequate measure of gafchromic film optical density for blood irradiation dosimetry.

  13. Resveratrol, a polyphenol phytoalexin, protects against doxorubicin-induced cardiotoxicity

    PubMed Central

    Gu, Jun; Hu, Wei; Zhang, Da-dong

    2015-01-01

    Doxorubicin is the mainstay of treatment for various haematological malignancies and solid tumours. However, its clinical application may be hampered by dose-dependent cardiotoxicity. The mechanism of doxorubicin-induced cardiotoxicity may involve various signalling pathways including free radical generation, peroxynitrite formation, calcium overloading, mitochondrial dysfunction and alteration in apoptosis and autophagy. Interestingly, the use of resveratrol in combination with doxorubicin has been reported to prevent cardiac toxicity as well as to exert a synergistic effect against tumour cells both in vivo and in vitro. Thus, the aim of this review is to summarize current knowledge and to elucidate the protective effect of resveratrol in doxorubicin-induced cardiotoxicity. PMID:26177159

  14. Acquired haemophilia A presenting at a District General Hospital.

    PubMed

    Freeman, Amy

    2015-01-01

    We report a case of a 64-year-old man presented to A&E with a 2-week to 4-month history of right hip pain, right leg weakness and fasciculations, extensive bruising and a vesicular skin rash. He had a CT of the chest/abdomen/pelvis, which revealed multiple extensive haematomas including an iliopsoas haematoma causing a lumbar plexopathy and resulting in the right hip and leg symptoms. He had clotting studies showing a prolonged activated partial thromboplastin time. Haematology review together with mixing studies suggested a diagnosis of acquired haemophilia A. He was treated at the local tertiary centre with activated prothrombin complex concentrate and steroids and made a full recovery. PMID:25691577

  15. The development of peripheral T-cell lymphoma after successful treatment for diffuse large B-cell lymphoma in a patient with suspected adult onset immunodeficiency: more questions than answers?

    PubMed Central

    Kilner, Mari Frances; Merante, Serena; Svec, Alexandr

    2013-01-01

    We present the case of a 60-year-old woman who developed peripheral T-cell lymphoma following successful treatment for high-grade B-cell non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. We consider the possible aetiology of this unusual occurrence. We hypothesise that this case represents one of the undiagnosed adult-onset immunodeficiency, in which the pathogenesis of the patient's T-cell lymphoma may have been in part iatrogenic, namely related to previous immunotherapy with rituximab. We feel this case highlights the importance of rebiopsy in patients with recurrent lymphadenopathy and a history of haematological malignancy and hence acts as an important aide memoir in the investigation of such cases. PMID:24343800

  16. Laboratory aid to the diagnosis and therapy of infection in the neonate

    PubMed Central

    Chirico, Gaetano; Loda, Cristina

    2011-01-01

    Despite the advances in perinatal and neonatal care and use of newer potent antibiotics, the incidence of neonatal sepsis remains high and the outcome is still severe. For years, investigators have sought a test or panel of tests able to identify septic neonates accurately and rapidly in order to obtain an early diagnosis and develop a specific effective treatment for a successful outcome. In addition to the standard procedures (blood, CSF, and urine cultures), such panels have included a combination of haematological investigations (total, differential and immature cell counts), and levels of acute-phase reactants (principally CRP and procalcitonin), and cytokines (such as IL-6 or neutrophil CD64). Furthermore, the science of proteomics and genomics has been applied to the search for bio-markers, production of protein profiles and genetic polymorphisms that can rapidly help the prediction, early diagnosis, and treatment of human diseases, but, for now, data are as yet insufficient to confirm their validity. PMID:21647274

  17. An intriguing case of locked jaw secondary to melioidosis.

    PubMed

    Vaid, Tejasvini; Rao, Karthik; Hande, Handattu Manjunath

    2015-01-01

    A 56-year-old woman presented with fever, pain and restriction of movement of the right temporomandibular joint. She was premorbidly diagnosed to have type 2 diabetes mellitus and rheumatoid arthritis. Local examination revealed a poorly demarcated severely tender, erythematous swelling in the right preauricular region. All haematological and biochemical investigations were within normal limits. MRI of the neck revealed the presence of a masticator space infection with intramuscular abscess involving the masseter and the temporalis muscles along with intracranial extension. Osteomyelitic changes were detected in the right mandibular condyle, temporal bone and in the temporomandibular joint. Melioidosis was suspected due to this unique clinical presentation of an abscess at an unusual and atypical site. Blood cultures identified the Gram-negative bacilli Burkholderia pseudomallei, which established the diagnosis of Melioidosis. Remarkable improvement was attained with antibiotics meropenem and cotrimoxazole, deferring the need for any surgical intervention. PMID:26628312

  18. Subacute oral toxicity study of benzyl isothiocyanate in rats.

    PubMed

    Lewerenz, H J; Bleyl, D W; Plass, R

    1992-01-01

    The subacute toxicity of benzyl isothiocyanate (BITC) was investigated in male rats given oral doses of 0, 50, 100 and 200 mg/kg body weight/day for 4 weeks. Body weight gain and food consumption were decreased with increasing doses of BITC. Haematological changes of toxicological relevance were observed in the highest dose group. BITC administration resulted in increased serum cholesterol level in all treatment groups and decreased serum triglycerides level at 200 mg/kg. Renal dysfunction was indicated by reduced urine volume, proteinuria and enhanced urinary lactate dehydrogenase activity. BITC exposure also affected the weights of various organs and caused histological changes in the ductus choledochus, liver, ileum and mesenteric lymph nodes. PMID:1608430

  19. [Animal experimento-toxicologic studies of protein isolates in sunflower seeds].

    PubMed

    Hoernicke, E; Lewerenz, H J; Mieth, G

    1988-01-01

    Safety evaluations of sunflower protein isolates (SPI) obtained by various processes were performed in subchronic (90-day) feeding studies using male and female rats as experimental animals. General appearance, food consumption and efficiency, haematology, kidney function and urine analysis, serum chemistry including determinations of enzyme activities, organ weights and macro- and microscopic pathology were used as criteria to disclose adverse effects. Feeding graded levels of SPI as supplements up to 75% of the total protein of the diet revealed no morphologic and functional changes attributable to toxic effects of the test product at daily intakes up to 13 g/kg body weight. The evaluations of the SPI-variants tested were similar. PMID:3231256

  20. Short-term toxicity study of allyl isothiocyanate in rats.

    PubMed

    Lewerenz, H J; Plass, R; Bleyl, D W; Macholz, R

    1988-01-01

    Allyl isothiocyanate (AITC) was given in doses of 0, 10, 20, or 40 mg/kg (5 days/week) by oral intubation to male rats for up to 6 weeks. The highest dosage level caused a decrease in body weight, thymus weight, blood glucose and serum globulin levels. Haematological examination revealed an increased percentage of neutrophils and a decreased percentage of lymphocytes after treatment for 2 weeks. Increased liver and adrenal weights were found in all test groups. Renal dysfunction was indicated by increased urinary aspartate amino-transferase activity, reduced urine volume and changes in the specific gravity of the urine. Histopathological changes were observed in the kidneys of animals at dosages of 20 and 40 mg/kg and in the livers of animals at the highest dosage level. PMID:3231258

  1. [The subacute toxicity of glucosylthiazolidine-4-carbonic acid in rats].

    PubMed

    Lewerenz, H J; Plass, R; Bleyl, D W; Macholz, R; Zeise, S; Kroh, L

    1990-01-01

    Glucosylthiazolidine-4-carbonic acid, an intermediate of the Maillard reaction between D-glucose and L-cysteine, was given in doses of 0, 25, 50 or 100 mg/kg b.w. by oral intubation to male and female rats for 21 days. General appearance, growth, food consumption, haematology, urine analysis and serum chemistry including determinations of enzyme activities, organ weights and macroscopic and microscopic pathology were used as criteria for adverse effects. Effects on the kidneys were indicated by oliguria and decreased specific gravity of the urine in males and histopathological changes of the proximal tubules in females. The no-effect dose established from this study is 25 mg/kg b.w. PMID:2089262

  2. Toxicological evaluation of rapeseed products in a subacute feeding study in rats.

    PubMed

    Plass, R; Bleyl, D W; Lewerenz, H J; Kroll, J

    1992-01-01

    Groups of 15 male rats were fed ad libitum for 4 weeks standard diet containing 0, 2.5, 5 or 10% rapeseed protein isolate (RPI), 2.5, 5 or 10% rapeseed extraction residue (RER) or 10% casein. Body weight gain and food intake were recorded weekly. Clinical chemistry analyses, haematology, urinalysis, organ weights and histology were performed terminally. Serum alanine aminotransferase was decreased by RPI, RER and casein, while serum albumin only increased in rats fed RER. Microscopic examinations revealed abnormalities in liver and kidneys of animals at the 10% RPI, RER and casein levels. The absolute liver weights showed increases in the 5 and 10% RER groups and in the 10% RPI group. The relative kidney weights were reduced at all RER levels and in the 2.5% RPI group. Antithyroid activity of the rapeseed products were not noted. PMID:1501675

  3. Metaphyseal osteopathy in a British Shorthair cat.

    PubMed

    Adagra, Carl; Spielman, Derek; Adagra, Angela; Foster, Darren J

    2015-04-01

    Metaphyseal osteopathy, otherwise known as hypertrophic osteodystrophy, is a disease that causes pyrexia and lethargy accompanied by pain in the thoracic and pelvic limbs of rapidly growing large-breed dogs. While metaphyseal osteopathy has been descibed in association with slipped capital femoral epiphysis in cats, it has not previously been reported as a cause of limb pain and pyrexia in this species. A 7-month-old British Shorthair cat presented with a 1 month history of pyrexia, lethargy and pain in all limbs. Investigation included radiographs of the limbs and chest, abdominal ultrasound, serum biochemical analysis, haematology, bone biopsy, joint fluid aspiration and cytology. Findings were consistent with a diagnosis of metaphyseal osteopathy. The cat's clinical signs resolved following the administration of prednisolone. Symptoms recurred 1 month after the cessation of prednisolone therapy, but resolved when administration was resumed. PMID:24899051

  4. Umbilical cord cell banking: an issue of self-interest versus altruism.

    PubMed

    Gunning, Jennifer

    2007-12-01

    Stem cells from umbilical cord blood probably now form one of the most commonly banked types of human tissue. Originally stored for the treatment of haematological disorders these stem cells have now been found to be more versatile, even pluripotent, with potential for use in the treatment of a broader range of disorders and diseases and may be particularly valuable in cell therapy and regenerative medicine. This has led to the promotion of private storage of cord blood cells for autologous or family use and a rapidly growing private sector involvement. There is a growing tension between public and private banking and a number of ethical issues continue to be debated involving questions of regulation and quality assurance, ownership and commercialisation, and patenting. This paper aims to investigate some of these issues. PMID:18284116

  5. Co-Incidence or Co-Existence? Acute Lymphoblastic Leukaemia in HbE-alpha Thalassaemia: A Case Report with Review of Literature.

    PubMed

    Rajendran, Rithika; Suman, Febe Renjitha; Rajendran, Aruna; Scott, Julius Xavier

    2015-11-01

    Haemoglobin E (HbE) is a Haemoglobin variant that commonly occurs in many places in Asia. As ? thalassaemia and ? thalassaemia also occur in the same regions, the co-inheritance of these conditions leads to various phenotypic forms. HbE ? thalassaemia is less common and of a milder phenotype than HbE ? thalassaemia. Though malignancies are one of the complications in thalassaemia, occurrence of leukaemia is a rare event. Here we present a case of a two-year-old male child co-presenting with pre B acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL) with MLL rearrangement and HbE alpha thalassaemia. The child is on remission 12 months post-therapy with standard ALL high risk protocol with no minimal residual disease (MRD). Haematological and oncological conditions coexisting at presentation is a challenge to therapy. This case is described for its rarity. Informed consent has been obtained from the parents. PMID:26672845

  6. State of Oral Mucosa as an Additional Symptom in the Course of Primary Amyloidosis and Multiple Myeloma Disease

    PubMed Central

    Czerniuk, Maciej R.; Jurczyszyn, Artur; Charlinski, Grzegorz

    2014-01-01

    Multiple myeloma (myeloma multiplex (MM)) is a malignant non-Hodgkin's lymphoma derived from B cell. Its essence is a malignant clone of plasma cells synthesizing growth of monoclonal immunoglobulin, which infiltrate the bone marrow, destroy the bone structure, and prevent the proper production of blood cells components. The paper presents a case of 62-year-old patient who developed symptoms in addition to neurological and haematological changes in the oral mucosa in the course of multiple myeloma. The treatment resulted in partial improvement. The authors wish to draw attention not only to nonspecificity and rarity of changes in the mouth which can meet the dentist but also to the complexity of the multidisciplinary therapy patients diagnosed with MM. PMID:25013412

  7. Leukemoid reaction as a paraneoplastic syndrome in hypopharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma with cutaneous metastasis: an exceedingly rare occurrence.

    PubMed

    Subramaniam, Narayana; Hiremath, Bharati

    2015-01-01

    Head and neck squamous cell carcinoma is considered a locoregional disease, with a distinct chance of metastasis, however, skin is an unusual site. Haematological paraneoplastic syndromes are even rarer, and may be the only presenting feature in these malignancies, producing diagnostic confusion. Cutaneous metastasis, in addition to signifying poor response to treatment and prognosis, can cause diagnostic difficulty if the metastasis is located with an occult primary, and is associated with a higher incidence of multiple synchronous primaries. This article describes a 52-year-old patient with multiple swellings on the left side of the neck and hoarseness of voice. On evaluation, the multiple swellings were found to be cutaneous metastasis from a hypopharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma, with a leukemoid reaction. He opted for palliative radiotherapy and succumbed to his illness within 3?months of presentation. This article discusses the importance of this unusual presentation and diagnostic difficulties associated with it. PMID:26670890

  8. A study of the health of Malaysian plantation workers with particular reference to paraquat spraymen.

    PubMed Central

    Howard, J K; Sabapathy, N N; Whitehead, P A

    1981-01-01

    Tests of pulmonary function (FVC, FEV1, FEV 1%, and single breath CO diffusion), renal function (serum creatinine and BUN), liver function (serum ALT, AST, and ALKP) and a full haematological screen were performed on 27 paraquat spraymen (mean spraying time 5.3 years; mean individual annual quantity of paraquat handled, 67.2 kg as paraquat ion) and on two control groups. One of the control groups consisted of 24 general plantation workers with minimal exposure to paraquat arising from occasional work in recently sprayed areas, and the second consisted of 23 latex factory workers with no known occupational exposure to paraquat. The results showed no significant differences as a consequence of occupational exposure to paraquat. Long-term paraquat spraying at the concentrations used produced to quantifiable harmful effects on health as measured by the indices selected for this study. PMID:7236534

  9. Fluoxymesterone-induced gynaecomastia in a patient with childhood aplastic anaemia.

    PubMed

    Lo, Tom Edward Ngo; Andal, Zillien C; Lantion-Ang, Frances Lina

    2015-01-01

    Gynaecomastia is a benign condition characterised by enlargement of the male breast. Drug-induced gynaecomastia merits deep consideration as it may account for as many as 25% of all cases of gynaecomastia in adults. Although the mechanism is not fully clear, some mechanisms include oestrogen-like activities, stimulation of testicular production of oestrogens, inhibition of testosterone synthesis or blockade of androgen action. Anabolic steroids, in particular when used during the pubertal stage, may cause significant irreversible gynaecomastia. We report a case of 28-year-old Filipino man with persistent gynaecomastia from fluoxymesterone used for aplastic anaemia during his prepubertal stage. Hormonal work ups for gynaecomastia all turned out normal, thus isolating the drug as the cause. The patient was unable to undergo breast reconstruction surgery due to haematological contraindications, but eventually referred to psychiatry for counselling. This case will highlight the paradoxical effect of androgenic steroid used during childhood on male breast proliferation during puberty. PMID:25948845

  10. Aspicularis tetraptera Induced Hematological Parameters in Infected and Vaccinated Mice

    PubMed Central

    Gaherwal, S; Solanki, S; Prakash, M M; Wast, N

    2012-01-01

    Background The present study deals with the effect of helminthic infection as Nematode parasite like Aspiculuris tetraptera on the haematological parameters of infected and vaccinated mice. Methods Totally 15 mice were used. Five mice were used for positive control, 5 mice used for negative control and 5 mice used for experiment. The hematological parameters were studied viz. RBC, Hb, and serum protein values. Results The mice carrying heavy infection showed decrease in the Hb, RBC, and serum protein but in the vaccinated mice, all studied parameters were become on normal range. The level of immune response was assessed based on above studied hematological parameters in infected and vaccinated mice with Aspiculuris tetraptera. Conclusion The increased value of RBC, Hb and Serum protein in infected and vaccinated mice compared to infected and non vaccinated suggested the involvement of blood parameters in immune response. This study also proves that somatic antigen of A. tetraptera was effective in imparting immunity in mice PMID:23109947

  11. Perfect endings: a review of subtelomeric probes and their use in clinical diagnosis

    PubMed Central

    Knight, S.; Flint, J.

    2000-01-01

    Chromosomal rearrangements involving the ends of chromosomes (telomeres) are emerging as an important cause of human genetic diseases. This review describes the development of first and second generation sets of telomere specific clones, together with advances in fluorescence in situ hybridisation (FISH) technology, which have made the prospect of screening for telomeric rearrangements a realistic goal. Initial FISH studies using the telomere specific clones indicate that they will be a valuable diagnostic tool for the investigation of mental retardation, the characterisation of known abnormalities detected by conventional cytogenetic analysis, spontaneous recurrent miscarriages, infertility, haematological malignancies, and preimplantation diagnosis, as well as other fields of clinical interest. In addition, they may help investigate telomere structure and function and can be used in the identification of dosage sensitive genes involved in human genetic disease.???Keywords: subtelomeric probes; telomeres; FISH PMID:10851249

  12. Chronic lymphocytic leukaemia during pregnancy: management and thoughts

    PubMed Central

    Winckler, Patricia; Vanazzi, Anna; Bozzo, Maddalena; Scarfone, Giovanna; Peccatori, Fedro A

    2015-01-01

    Chronic lymphocytic leukaemia (CLL) is the most common leukaemia in the Western world. Despite this fact, its coexistence with pregnancy is extremely rare, with few cases reported in the literature. Given the rarity of this event, it is difficult to conduct large prospective trials to evaluate diagnostic, management, and outcome aspects. The existing evidence is limited to the few published cases and scarce data from reviews on haematological malignancies and pregnancy. Here, we report a case of a 36-year-old patient who had already finished treatment for CLL and was under surveillance when she got pregnant. We describe the evolution of the pregnancy and of the disease’s behaviour as well as the oncological and obstetrical management. Being an indolent disease, CLL during pregnancy can be usually followed up without treatment, but infectious and autoimmune complications might have a significant impact on the pregnancy outcome. Therefore, pregnancy must be closely monitored in specialised centres. PMID:26635896

  13. [Von Willebrand and his factor].

    PubMed

    van Gijn, Jan; Gijselhart, Joost P

    2011-01-01

    Erik Adolf von Willebrand (1870-1949) studied medicine in Helsinki, where he subsequently joined the staff at the Deaconess Hospital. Haematological disorders were his main interest. In 1924 he was consulted about 5-year-old Hjördis S. She suffered from a severe bleeding disorder, as did six of her ten siblings; three of her sisters had died. In a Finnish article in a Journal in 1926 (in the Swedish language) he plotted the family pedigree (bleeding disorder in three preceding generations, on the part of both parents). Von Willebrand also distinguished the disorder from haemophilia and thrombopathies with purpura. His conjecture that the disorder was a special form of thrombocyte dysfunction would eventually be borne out, though the key factor is severe deficiency of a specific plasma protein. In milder, autosomal dominant forms of the disease, the protein is partly deficient or abnormal. PMID:21329541

  14. Hedgehog Signaling in the Maintenance of Cancer Stem Cells

    PubMed Central

    Cochrane, Catherine R.; Szczepny, Anette; Watkins, D. Neil; Cain, Jason E.

    2015-01-01

    Cancer stem cells (CSCs) represent a rare population of cells with the capacity to self-renew and give rise to heterogeneous cell lineages within a tumour. Whilst the mechanisms underlying the regulation of CSCs are poorly defined, key developmental signaling pathways required for normal stem and progenitor functions have been strongly implicated. Hedgehog (Hh) signaling is an evolutionarily-conserved pathway essential for self-renewal and cell fate determination. Aberrant Hh signaling is associated with the development and progression of various types of cancer and is implicated in multiple aspects of tumourigenesis, including the maintenance of CSCs. Here, we discuss the mounting evidence suggestive of Hh-driven CSCs in the context of haematological malignancies and solid tumours and the novel strategies that hold the potential to block many aspects of the transformation attributed to the CSC phenotype, including chemotherapeutic resistance, relapse and metastasis. PMID:26270676

  15. Experimental furazolidone toxicosis in broiler chicks: effect of dosage, duration and age upon clinical signs and some blood parameters.

    PubMed

    Zaman, Q; Khan, M Z; Islam, N; Muhammad, G

    1995-01-01

    Groups of broiler chicks of one day and three weeks of age were given feeds containing 0, 400, 800 and 1000 mg furazolidone (Fz)/kg for three weeks. The age of the birds and the dose and duration of Fz treatment significantly (P < or = 0.05) influenced the parameters studied. Clinical signs of Fz toxicosis included ascites, leg weakness and nervous derangement like convulsions and torticollis. The body weight also decreased. Ascites and nervous derangement was not observed in birds fed 400 mg Fz from one day of age. Fz-fed birds developed anaemia and had lower plasma total protein and albumin levels than those fed no Fz. The decrease in body weight was related to reduced feed intake. Decreases found in the haematological parameters and plasma proteins showed no correlation with the chicks' age but were related to the dose and duration of Fz treatment. PMID:7491876

  16. Efficacy of Ficus spp. on renal injury induced by hypercholesterolaemia.

    PubMed

    Awad, Nagwa E; Hamed, Manal A; Seida, Ahmed A; Elbatanony, Marwa M

    2012-01-01

    The ethanol and hexane extracts of Ficus microcarpa, Ficus religiosa and Ficus mysorensis leaves were evaluated against renal injury induced by hypercholesterolaemia. Phytochemical screening of the investigated plants was undertaken. For the in vivo study, all rats were orally given cholesterol (30?mg?kg?ą body weight, BW) and leaves extract (500?mg?kg?ą BW) five times per week for 9 weeks. Hypercholesterolaemic rats showed significant increases in urea nitrogen and creatinine while serum protein and albumin levels, nitric oxide (NO), Na?-K?-ATPase and phospholipids in kidney tissue were all decreased. Treatment with leaves extract improved kidney function indices (urea nitrogen, creatinine, serum protein and albumin), kidney disorder biochemical parameters (NO, Na?-K?-ATPase and phospholipids), haematological profile (haemoglobin, RBCs and WBCs) and kidney histopathology. In conclusion, Ficus spp. succeeded in improving renal injury induced by hypercholesterolaemia, with the most potent effects seen while using Ficus microcarpa hexane extract. PMID:22432976

  17. A Rare SOL of the Liver: Diagnostic and Management Dilemma

    PubMed Central

    Balachandar, Tirupporur Govindaswamy; Sahu, Diwaker; Ramamurthy, Anand; Reddy, Prasanna Kumar

    2015-01-01

    Aetiology and clinical presentation of space occupying lesions (SOL) of liver are varied. It can be solid, cystic or heterogenous. Usually liver abscess presents as a symptomatic cystic SOL in a sick patient. Here, we are reporting a case of giant liver abscess presenting as simple benign cyst with corroborative image findings of simple cyst. He had significant co-morbid illness and jaundice on clinical evaluation. Liver abscess was not a differential diagnosis from clinical history. None of the haematological and biochemical parameters were suggestive of liver abscess. It was an intra-operative surprise to find such a huge liver abscess with 2 liters of pus, which was drained. We report this case because of its unusual presentation and associated findings. PMID:26266166

  18. A Rare SOL of the Liver: Diagnostic and Management Dilemma.

    PubMed

    Swain, Sudeepta Kumar; Balachandar, Tirupporur Govindaswamy; Sahu, Diwaker; Ramamurthy, Anand; Reddy, Prasanna Kumar

    2015-06-01

    Aetiology and clinical presentation of space occupying lesions (SOL) of liver are varied. It can be solid, cystic or heterogenous. Usually liver abscess presents as a symptomatic cystic SOL in a sick patient. Here, we are reporting a case of giant liver abscess presenting as simple benign cyst with corroborative image findings of simple cyst. He had significant co-morbid illness and jaundice on clinical evaluation. Liver abscess was not a differential diagnosis from clinical history. None of the haematological and biochemical parameters were suggestive of liver abscess. It was an intra-operative surprise to find such a huge liver abscess with 2 liters of pus, which was drained. We report this case because of its unusual presentation and associated findings. PMID:26266166

  19. Neuroregression as an initial manifestation in a toddler with acquired pernicious anaemia.

    PubMed

    Yoganathan, Sangeetha; Thomas, Maya Mary; Mathai, Sarah; Ghosh, Urmi

    2015-01-01

    The aetiology spectrum for neuroregression in infants and toddlers is diverse. Vitamin B12 deficiency-mediated neuroregression is less commonly considered as a differential. Prevalence of pernicious anaemia in the general population is 0.1% and is extremely rare in children. We describe a 35-month-old toddler with neuroregression, seizures, coarse tremors, bleating cry and neuropathy. His clinical symptomatology mimicked grey matter degenerative illness and infantile tremor syndrome, a nutritional deficiency-mediated movement disorder. His vitamin B12 level was low and serum homocysteine level was elevated. Haematological manifestations were not overt and anti-intrinsic factor antibody was positive. With parenteral vitamin B12 therapy, there was a dramatic response with clinical and laboratory translation. This report emphasises the need for a high index of suspicion and screening for markers of vitamin B12 deficiency in all children with unexplained acute or subacute neuroregression, seizures and movement disorders as it is potentially reversible. PMID:26678841

  20. [Eosinophilic gastroenteritis and ascites. Clinical case].

    PubMed

    Ottobrelli, A; Lagget, M; Arrigoni, A; Gindro, T; Bosio, C; Balbo, G; Rizzetto, M

    1991-01-01

    We report the case of a patient with recurrent subocclusive episodes and diarrhea (no malabsorption) associated with ascites, in the absence or liver, kidney or heart disease. The demonstration of hypereosinophilia in the peripheral blood and in the ascites fluid and the failure to identify parasitic or haematological disorders have led to a through examination of the stomach (Endoscopy, Echoendoscopy), small bowel (X-rays and Computerized Axial Tomography) and colon (colonoscopy) in a search for parietal lesions. The absence of segmental lesions and the observation of CAT images of diffuse, regular thickening of the ileum and of the mesentery, coupled with the monotonous clinical history spanning over three decades, have led to a diagnosis of eosinophilic gastroenteritis with involvement of the serosal layer. Serosal involvement is rare in eosinophilic disease of the gut; in analogy with other cases reported in the literature, steroids have improved clinical symptoms and normalized the hematological picture. PMID:1742398

  1. Transsplenic portal scintigraphy using 99mTc-pertechnetate for the diagnosis of portosystemic shunts in cats: a retrospective review of 12 patients.

    PubMed

    Vandermeulen, Eva; Combes, Anaďs; de Rooster, Hilde; Polis, Ingeborgh; de Spiegeleer, Bart; Saunders, Jimmy; Peremans, Kathelijne

    2013-12-01

    Portosystemic shunts (PSS), congenital or acquired, occur uncommonly in the feline population. The diagnostic approach is similar to one in dogs suspected of a PSS based on the clinical signs and haematological and biochemical changes. Diagnostic imaging, however, is key for the confirmation of a PSS. Although abdominal ultrasound is the first-choice diagnostic imaging modality, the results are not always unequivocal. Transsplenic portal scintigraphy (TSPS) using (99m)Tc-pertechnetate is a well-established technique in canine medicine, providing relatively fast and easy confirmation of the presence or absence of a PSS. As the prevalence of PSS is much lower in the feline population, this technique has not been widely used in cats. This retrospective study of 12 cases gives an overview of the potential of TSPS in the diagnostic work-up of PSS in cats (2005-2012). PMID:23677934

  2. A Semantic Web-based System for Mining Genetic Mutations in Cancer Clinical Trials.

    PubMed

    Priya, Sambhawa; Jiang, Guoqian; Dasari, Surendra; Zimmermann, Michael T; Wang, Chen; Heflin, Jeff; Chute, Christopher G

    2015-01-01

    Textual eligibility criteria in clinical trial protocols contain important information about potential clinically relevant pharmacogenomic events. Manual curation for harvesting this evidence is intractable as it is error prone and time consuming. In this paper, we develop and evaluate a Semantic Web-based system that captures and manages mutation evidences and related contextual information from cancer clinical trials. The system has 2 main components: an NLP-based annotator and a Semantic Web ontology-based annotation manager. We evaluated the performance of the annotator in terms of precision and recall. We demonstrated the usefulness of the system by conducting case studies in retrieving relevant clinical trials using a collection of mutations identified from TCGA Leukemia patients and Atlas of Genetics and Cytogenetics in Oncology and Haematology. In conclusion, our system using Semantic Web technologies provides an effective framework for extraction, annotation, standardization and management of genetic mutations in cancer clinical trials. PMID:26306257

  3. Blood phagocyte activity after race training sessions in Thoroughbred and Arabian horses.

    PubMed

    Cywinska, Anna; Szarska, Ewa; Degorski, Andrzej; Guzera, Maciej; Gorecka, Renata; Strzelec, Katarzyna; Kowalik, Sylwester; Schollenberger, Antoni; Winnicka, Anna

    2013-10-01

    Intensive exercise and exertion during competition promote many changes that may result in the impairment of immunity and increased susceptibility to infections. The aim of this study was to evaluate the activity of "the first line of defense": neutrophils and monocytes in racing Thoroughbred and Arabian horses after routine training sessions. Twenty-three (12 Thoroughbred and 11 Arabian) horses were examined. Routine haematological (number of red blood cells - RBC, haemoglobin concentration - HGB, haematocrit - HCT, total number of white blood cells - WBC), biochemical (creatine phosphokinase activity - CPK and total protein concentration - TP) parameters, cortisol concentration as well as phagocytic and oxidative burst activity of neutrophils and monocytes were determined. The values of basic parameters and the activity of phagocytes differed between breeds and distinct patterns of exercise-induced changes were observed. The training sessions did not produce the decrease in phagocyte activity that might lead to the suppression of immunity. PMID:23664016

  4. A Semantic Web-based System for Mining Genetic Mutations in Cancer Clinical Trials

    PubMed Central

    Priya, Sambhawa; Jiang, Guoqian; Dasari, Surendra; Zimmermann, Michael T.; Wang, Chen; Heflin, Jeff; Chute, Christopher G.

    2015-01-01

    Textual eligibility criteria in clinical trial protocols contain important information about potential clinically relevant pharmacogenomic events. Manual curation for harvesting this evidence is intractable as it is error prone and time consuming. In this paper, we develop and evaluate a Semantic Web-based system that captures and manages mutation evidences and related contextual information from cancer clinical trials. The system has 2 main components: an NLP-based annotator and a Semantic Web ontology-based annotation manager. We evaluated the performance of the annotator in terms of precision and recall. We demonstrated the usefulness of the system by conducting case studies in retrieving relevant clinical trials using a collection of mutations identified from TCGA Leukemia patients and Atlas of Genetics and Cytogenetics in Oncology and Haematology. In conclusion, our system using Semantic Web technologies provides an effective framework for extraction, annotation, standardization and management of genetic mutations in cancer clinical trials. PMID:26306257

  5. High frequency of low serum levels of vitamin 12 among patients attending Jordan University Hospital.

    PubMed

    Barghouti, F F; Younes, N A; Halaseh, L J; Said, T T; Ghraiz, S M

    2009-01-01

    This study aimed to estimate the status of serum vitamin B12 level in patients attending Jordan University Hospital in Amman, and to examine the relationship with demographic data, chronic illness, dietary habits, haematological parameters and symptoms related to vitamin B12 levels. A total of 838 patients completed a questionnaire and gave blood samples; 44.6% were vitamin B12 deficient (< 180 pg/mL) and 34.2% had hypovitaminosis (180-300 pg/mL). Vitamin B12 deficiency was associated with memory impairment, low meat intake and strict vegetarian (vegan) diets. The high frequency of low vitamin B12 warrants the development of a strategy to correct this problem in Jordan. PMID:20187536

  6. Proximate causes of the red face of the bald uakari monkey (Cacajao calvus)

    PubMed Central

    Mayor, P.; Mamani, J.; Montes, D.; González-Crespo, C.; Sebastián, M. A.; Bowler, M.

    2015-01-01

    In social species, such as primates, facial appearances transmit a variety of social signals. Although it is suggested that the intense red colour of the face of the bald uakari monkey might be an indicator of health, this hypothesis still has not been verified. This study describes the histological structure of the skin of the face in the bald uakari, compared with other non-red neotropical primates, to better understand the maintenance of its colour. The facial skin of the bald uakari monkey is characterized by a thinner epidermis, absence of melanin pigments and a high density of vascular capillaries that spread below the epidermis. These vascular capillaries are larger and more tortuous than in other neotropical primates. The skin of the face of the bald uakari monkey allows a direct external assessment of haematological status, suggesting that the colour of the face would be an honest indicator of health, but could also signal sexual or behavioural states. PMID:26587272

  7. The TAM family: phosphatidylserine sensing receptor tyrosine kinases gone awry in cancer.

    PubMed

    Graham, Douglas K; DeRyckere, Deborah; Davies, Kurtis D; Earp, H Shelton

    2014-12-01

    The TYRO3, AXL (also known as UFO) and MERTK (TAM) family of receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs) are aberrantly expressed in multiple haematological and epithelial malignancies. Rather than functioning as oncogenic drivers, their induction in tumour cells predominately promotes survival, chemoresistance and motility. The unique mode of maximal activation of this RTK family requires an extracellular lipid–protein complex. For example, the protein ligand, growth arrest-specific protein 6 (GAS6), binds to phosphatidylserine (PtdSer) that is externalized on apoptotic cell membranes, which activates MERTK on macrophages. This triggers engulfment of apoptotic material and subsequent anti-inflammatory macrophage polarization. In tumours, autocrine and paracrine ligands and apoptotic cells are abundant, which provide a survival signal to the tumour cell and favour an anti-inflammatory, immunosuppressive microenvironment. Thus, TAM kinase inhibition could stimulate antitumour immunity, reduce tumour cell survival, enhance chemosensitivity and diminish metastatic potential. PMID:25568918

  8. Refractory hypercapnia: a simplified technique for extracorporeal CO2 removal (ECCO2R) in the presence of therapeutic limitations.

    PubMed

    Bonnet, M; Wittebole, X; Jacquet, L M; Hantson, P

    2012-01-01

    Refractory hypercapnia with severe acidosis appeared in a 67-year-old man who presented with lung fibrosis and a left pneumothorax as delayed complications of bleomycin chemotherapy for advanced grade lymphoma. Due to failure of noninvasive ventilation using a high-flow nasal cannula oxygen system, the patient was mechanically ventilated with two ventilators at different settings, after intubation with a double-lumen tube. As he had a poor haematological prognosis, extracorporeal membranous oxygenation was not considered. To remove some amount of carbon dioxide, we used a simplified method based on a veno-venous hemofiltration circuit coupled to a paediatric oxygenator and an air/oxygen blender. The efficacy on carbon dioxide removal was modest, with a percentage of CO2 total extraction ranging from 10.5 to 20.4%, but the system was immediately available, well tolerated and not very expensive. PMID:23610855

  9. Multifocal osteonecrosis in systemic lupus erythematosus: case report and review of the literature

    PubMed Central

    Fajardo-Hermosillo, Luis D; López-López, Linnette; Nadal, Anaida; Vilá, Luis M

    2013-01-01

    Osteonecrosis is a relatively common comorbidity in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), but avascular necrosis in multiple sites is unusual. Multifocal osteonecrosis is defined as osteonecrotic lesions affecting three or more separate anatomic sites. We report a case of a 24-year-old woman diagnosed with SLE when she presented with mucocutaneous, haematological and mild renal manifestations. Initially, she was treated with prednisone and hydroxychloroquine and her condition remained stable. Two years later, she developed severe bilateral pretibial ulcers intractable to immunosuppressive therapy and broad-spectrum antibiotics. MRI of both legs disclosed osteonecrosis of the distal tibia, proximal tibia, distal fibula and talus bilaterally. She had elevated anticardiolipin antibodies for which she was treated with chronic anticoagulation resulting in complete healing of the leg ulcers and no further episodes of osteonecrosis. In addition to this case, we review the demographic, clinical and pharmacological features of 14 cases reported in the literature. PMID:23595183

  10. [Drug-induced agranulocytosis: clinical study of 19 cases].

    PubMed

    Márquez, J A; Pardo, C; Amutio, E; Cortés, C; Pińán, M A; Alvarez, C

    1998-10-01

    Agranulocytosis is one of the most serious side effects to drugs. From January 1991 to June 1996 were diagnosed 19 cases of agranulocytosis associated with drugs at our hospital (incidence rate: 9.4 over million hab. per year). The average age was 62 and 11 cases were women. The drugs most commonly involved were metamizol and ticlopidine. In 15 of the patients fever blew up and 16 presented some infectious location. In 9 of the cases some positive microbiological culture was obtained, gram-negative bacilli being the commonest. G-CSF was used in 13 of the patients, observing a quicker haematological recovery (5.7 days vs 9.1, p = 0.07), though without any difference in mortality, which was of 0%. All this leads to the following conclusions: a high incidence of agranulocytosis in our environment and the important role of metamizol and ticlopidine in its origin. PMID:9868339

  11. Cast nephropathy: an extremely rare renal presentation of Waldenström's macroglobulinaemia.

    PubMed

    Santos, Tânia; Machado, Susana; Sousa, Vítor; Campos, Mário

    2015-01-01

    Renal involvement in Waldenström's macroglobulinaemia (WM) is very unusual when compared to multiple myeloma. We report a case of a patient who developed anuric acute kidney injury secondary to cast nephropathy, dependent on high-flux haemodialysis. Complementary study revealed the presence of blood IgM monoclonal gammopathy and a massive bone marrow lymphoplasmacytic infiltration. There were no osteolytic lesions and no clinical signs/symptoms of hyperviscosity syndrome. The diagnosis of WM was established and a dexamethasone plus cyclophosphamide regime was started, in addition to plasmapheresis. The patient partially recovered renal function allowing haemodialysis and plasmapheresis withdrawal. He remained asymptomatic with a good response to chemotherapy and 12?months after his renal function remained stable. This is a rare clinical case in which WM presented as an IgM cast nephropathy, which in turn is an extremely rare renal presentation of this equally rare haematological disorder. PMID:26446315

  12. IgG Lambda Myeloma Presenting as Plasmacytic Ascites: Case Report and Review of Literature.

    PubMed

    Mitra, Subhashis; Mukherjee, Sanghamitra; Chakraborty, Hema; Bhattacharyya, Maitreyee

    2015-12-01

    Multiple myeloma is a neoplastic disease of plasma cells accounting for 13 % of haematological malignancies and 2 % of all malignancies worldwide. Ascites may develop very rarely during the course of disease in multiple myeloma. We report the case of a 78 years old male with IgG lambda multiple myeloma who initially presented with plasmacytic ascites. An exhaustive review of world literature reveals 65 cases of ascites to have been reported in myeloma over a span of 62 years (1952 till date), usually developing in the course of treatment. This is the 7th case of plasmacytic ascites to have been diagnosed at initial presentation. We review the clinical features, diagnosis, prognostic significance and treatment of such cases. PMID:26306073

  13. Mesenteric amyloid deposition as the initial presentation of multiple myeloma

    PubMed Central

    Asadi, Mehrnaz

    2011-01-01

    Despite many recent progresses in diagnostic modalities, occasionally the initial manifestation of the diseases may be misleading. Therefore, to consider the uncommon presentations of prevalent diseases may be of help. Plasma-cell dyscrasia is one of the most well-known haematological malignancies. Clonal expansion of plasma cells results in diverse clinical findings, such as renal failure, lytic bone lesion, anaemia, hyperviscosity syndrome and so forth. However, this disease entity rarely presents with abdominal mass due to mesenteric amyloid deposition. Here we report a case of a 53-year-old Iranian woman who presented with a 4-month history of abdominal pain and fullness; she was finally found to suffer from small bowel mesenteric amyloidosis in the context of multiple myeloma. PMID:22714598

  14. [HELLP syndrome--a life-threatening pregnancy complication].

    PubMed

    Aune, B; Oian, P

    1992-10-20

    A serious complication to pregnancy-induced hypertension and preeclampsia is the HELLP syndrome (H - haemolysis, EL - elevated liver enzymes, LP - low platelet count). Perinatal and maternal mortality are reported to be high, 7-60% and 2-24%, respectively. A non-obstetric diagnosis is often made, such as gastrointestinal or haematologic disease. Typical symptoms are epigastric and right upper-quadrant pain and tenderness, nausea and vomiting. Recognition of the clinical and laboratory findings is important, so that early, aggressive therapy can be initiated in order to prevent maternal and perinatal death. We present data from 14 patients with the HELLP syndrome treated in our hospital. There was one intrauterine death. The other infants were discharged in good condition. Two of the patients had eclampsia. PMID:1462289

  15. Further studies on osmotic resistance of nucleated erythrocytes: observations with pigeon, peafowl, lizard and toad erythrocytes during changes in temperature and pH.

    PubMed

    Oyewale, J O

    1994-02-01

    The osmotic resistance of pigeon, peafowl, lizard and toad erythrocytes at different temperatures and pH was studied. Erythrocytes from female pigeons showed greater osmotic resistance than those from males, but no sex difference appeared with erythrocytes from peafowls. Pigeon erythrocytes were more resistant and the red blood cell, packed cell volume and haemoglobin values were higher than those in peafowls. Although no significant differences appeared in their haematological values, erythrocytes from the lizard were more resistant than erythrocytes from the toad. At higher temperature, the osmotic resistance of pigeon, lizard and toad erythrocytes increased, while that of peafowl erythrocytes decreased. The resistance of toad erythrocytes decreased in acidic and alkaline solutions, but that of peafowl erythrocytes increased in both solutions. However, with pigeon and lizard erythrocytes, the resistance was unaltered in alkaline solution and decreased in acidic solution. PMID:8085400

  16. Is Having Clonal Cytogenetic Abnormalities the Same as Having Leukaemia.

    PubMed

    Farina, Mirko; Rossi, Giuseppe; Bellotti, Daniella; Marchina, Eleonora; Gale, Robert Peter

    2016-01-01

    A finding of cytogenetic abnormalities, even when these are clonal and even when the abnormalities are typically associated with leukaemia, is not the same as a person having leukaemia. We describe a person who had acute myeloid leukaemia (AML) and achieved a complete haematological remission and who then had persistent and transient clonal cytogenetic abnormalities for 22 years but no recurrence of leukaemia. These data suggest that clones of myeloid cells with mutations and capable of expanding to levels detectable by routine cytogenetic analyses do not all eventuate in leukaemia, even after a prolonged observation interval. The possibility of incorrectly diagnosing a person as having leukaemia becomes even greater when employing more sensitive techniques to detect mutations such as by polymerase chain reaction and whole-exome or whole-genome sequencing. Caution is needed when interpreting clonal abnormalities in AML patients with normal blood and bone marrow parameters. PMID:26376174

  17. Diagnosis of alpha-thalassemia trait from Coulter Counter 'S' indices.

    PubMed Central

    Hegde, U M; White, J M; Hart, G H; Marsh, G W

    1977-01-01

    A number of patients of Mediterranean and Asian origins were found to have unexplained microcytic hypochromic red blood cells. Iron deficiency and beta-thalassaemia trait were both satisfactorily excluded in all of them. The haematological indices of these patients, obtained on a Coulter Model 'S' Counter, were found to be very similar to those seen in obligatory heterozygotes for alpha-thalassaemia. It is postulated that these patients were also carriers for alpha-thalassaemia. Subsequent investigation of some of these patients showed the characteristically reduced rates of alpha-chain synthesis seen in this condition. The discriminant function of England and Fraser (1973) may be of help in diagnosing this state. alpha-Thalassaemia trait should be considered in all patients of 'high-risk' ethnic origins with a blood picture suggestive of beta-thalassaemia trait but in whom the levels of Hb A2 and Hb F are within normal limits. PMID:915018

  18. Neurolymphomatosis as a late relapse of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma detected by 18F-FDG PET/CT: a case report.

    PubMed

    Kajáry, K; Molnár, Z; Mikó, I; Barsi, P; Lengyel, Z; Szakáll, S

    2014-01-01

    Neurolymphomatosis is a rare condition defined as an infiltration of nerves, nerve roots or nervous plexuses by haematological malignancy. Its diagnosis may sometimes be difficult with conventional imaging techniques. This paper aims to emphasize the importance of this entity and the role of (18)F-FDG PET/CT in this indication. We present the case of a 53-year-old male who complained of sharp pain in his right hip and right leg paresthesia after 2 years of complete remission from Non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. Physical examination and CT scan were negative and the lumbar MRI showed protrusion of L5-S1 disc. Physiotherapy, nonsteroid antiinflammatory drugs and steroids were inefficient. PET/CT was performed four months after the onset of the symptoms, revealing focal FDG uptake in the right S1 nerve root and linear FDG uptake along the right sacral plexus suggesting relapse. This was confirmed by histology. PMID:23683830

  19. Spontaneous rupture of the spleen as a result of primary splenic lymphoma

    PubMed Central

    Mohammed, Ahmed M.A.; Majid, Zulqarnain I.; Villatoro, Eduardo A.

    2016-01-01

    Spontaneous rupture of the spleen is a true surgical emergency that requires immediate management to prevent rapid exsanguination. It occurs mostly as a result of splenic infiltration by infectious or haematological diseases. We present a case of a 79-year-old male who was admitted to our emergency department with 3 days history of feeling unwell, abdominal pain, and dizziness, with no history of trauma. He was hypotensive, but all other observations were within normal limits. Examination revealed abdominal tenderness, mainly on the left side, with no palpable organs or masses. Computed tomography scan showed an abnormal spleen with signs of intraabdominal bleeding; emergency splenectomy was performed successfully. Histological examination showed infiltration of the spleen by diffuse large B cell lymphoma, which was later confirmed to be primary. The patient went through an uneventful post-operative recovery, and remains disease free so far. PMID:26724327

  20. Persistent thrombocytopaenia in a young man with splenomegaly, rebound thrombocytosis after splenectomy and subsequent pulmonary embolism: splenic littoral cell angioma and associated events.

    PubMed

    de Ridder, Gustaaf Gregoire; Galeotti, Jonathan; Carney, John; Wang, Endi

    2015-01-01

    Littoral cell angioma (LCA) is a rare endothelial cell neoplasm in the spleen. Although many cases of LCA are asymptomatic, some present with signs and symptoms related to splenomegaly, whereas others manifest with haematological abnormalities, including anaemia and/or thrombocytopaenia (ie, hypersplenism). We report a case of LCA presenting with chronic thrombocytopaenia, probably due to splenic sequestration of platelets or phagocytosis of platelets by neoplastic cells. Following therapeutic splenectomy, the patient suffered from a marked rebound thrombocytosis and subsequently developed pulmonary embolisms. He was treated with anticoagulant therapy combined with antiplatelet therapy, and his symptoms were quickly resolved. This case emphasises an exclusion of primary splenic disorders in patients with chronic thrombocytopaenia, especially in those with splenomegaly and the contemplation of thromboembolism prophylaxis postsplenectomy. PMID:26604237

  1. Panobinostat: first global approval.

    PubMed

    Garnock-Jones, Karly P

    2015-04-01

    Novartis has developed oral and intravenous formulations of panobinostat (Farydak(®)), a histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitor, for the treatment of cancer. HDACs have important roles in maintaining chromatin structure and in regulating gene expression, including that of tumour suppressor genes, and thus represent valid targets in the search for cancer therapeutics. Oral panobinostat is approved in the US, as combination therapy with bortezomib and dexamethasone in patients with recurrent multiple myeloma who have received at least two prior treatment regimens, including bortezomib and an immunomodulatory agent. Regulatory submissions have been made for the use of combination therapy with panobinostat in patients with recurrent multiple myeloma in the EU and Japan. Panobinostat is in various stages of clinical development worldwide for a range of haematological and solid tumours. This article summarizes the milestones in the development of panobinostat leading to this first approval for multiple myeloma. PMID:25837990

  2. Virtual anthropology and forensic identification using multidetector CT

    PubMed Central

    Savall, F; Mokrane, F-Z; Rousseau, H; Crubézy, E; Rougé, D; Telmon, N

    2014-01-01

    Virtual anthropology is made possible by modern cross-sectional imaging. Multislice CT (MSCT) can be used for comparative bone and dental identification, reconstructive identification and lesion identification. Comparative identification, the comparison of ante- and post-mortem imaging data, can be performed on both teeth and bones. Reconstructive identification, a considerable challenge for the radiologist, identifies the deceased by determining sex, geographical origin, stature and age at death. Lesion identification combines virtual autopsy and virtual anthropology. MSCT can be useful in palaeopathology, seeking arthropathy, infection, oral pathology, trauma, tumours, haematological disorders, stress indicators or occupational stress in bones and teeth. We examine some of the possibilities offered by this new radiological subspeciality that adds a new dimension to the work of the forensic radiologist. A multidisciplinary approach is crucial and involves communication and data exchange between radiologists, forensic pathologists, anthropologists and radiographers. PMID:24234584

  3. Possible health effects of liquefied petroleum gas on workers at filling and distribution stations of Gaza governorates.

    PubMed

    Sirdah, M M; Al Laham, N A; El Madhoun, R A

    2013-03-01

    Liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) is widely used in the Gaza Strip for domestic purposes, in agriculture and industry and, illegally, in cars. This study aimed to identify possible health effects on workers exposed to LPG in Gaza governorates. Data were collected by a questionnaire interview, and haematological and biochemical analyses of venous blood samples were made from 30 workers at filling and distribution stations and 30 apparently healthy controls. Statistically significant differences were found in all self-reported health-related complaints among LPG workers versus controls. LPG workers had significantly higher values of red blood cell counts, haemoglobin, haematocrit mean corpuscular haemoglobin and platelet counts. They also had significantly higher values of kidney function tests (urea, creatinine and uric acid) and liver function enzyme activities (aspartate aminotransferase and alanine aminotransferase). LPG workers at Gaza Strip petroleum stations are at higher risk for health-related symptoms and clinical abnormalities. PMID:23879082

  4. The importance of cleanrooms for the treatment of haemato-oncological patients

    PubMed Central

    Matoušková, Ivanka

    2012-01-01

    The main purpose of cleanrooms in health care centres is to prevent hospital infections or leakage of a highly infectious agent (the source of haemorrhagic fevers, SARS, etc.) into the ambient environment and subsequently possibly threatening other individuals. Patients with haematological malignancies or after autologous or allogeneic haematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) rank among immunosuppressed individuals. Prolonged and deep neutropenia is considered a key risk factor of the occurrence of an exogenous infection. One of the possibilities of preventing an exogenous infection in these patients is to place them in a “cleanroom” for the crucial period of time. Cleanrooms are intensive care units with reverse isolation. The final part of the general article below provides an overview of the technology and types of cleanrooms for immunosuppressed patients in compliance with the current recommendations and technical standards. PMID:23788892

  5. A phase II study of paclitaxel in heavily pretreated patients with small-cell lung cancer.

    PubMed Central

    Smit, E. F.; Fokkema, E.; Biesma, B.; Groen, H. J.; Snoek, W.; Postmus, P. E.

    1998-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to delineate the efficacy and toxicity of paclitaxel (Taxol, Bristol Myers Squibb) in the treatment of drug resistant small-cell lung cancer (SCLC). Patients with SCLC relapsing within 3 months of cytotoxic therapy received paclitaxel 175 mg m(-2) intravenously over 3 h every 3 weeks. The dose of paclitaxel was adjusted to the toxicity encountered in the previous cycle. Of 24 patients entered into the study, 24 and 21 were assessable for response and toxicity respectively. There were two early deaths and two toxic deaths. No complete and seven partial responses (29%) (95%CI 12-51%) were observed and five patients had disease stabilization. The median survival (n = 21) was 100 days. Life-threatening toxicity occurred in four patients; in others (non)-haematological toxicity was manageable. Paclitaxel is active in drug-resistant SCLC. Further investigation in combination with other active agents in this poor prognosis group is appropriate. PMID:9461009

  6. Selective myelosuppression following yellow phosphorus ingestion.

    PubMed

    Basheer, Aneesh; Mookkappan, Sudhagar; Padhi, Somanath; Iqbal, Nayyar

    2015-01-01

    Toxicity from accidental and intentional ingestion of yellow phosphorus, ubiquitously present in fireworks and rodenticides, has recently become more frequent. Gastrointestinal, renal, neurologic, and cardiovascular manifestations are common, with mortality of 23 per cent to 73 per cent. Reports of haematological abnormalities are rare. We report only the second case of severe neutropenia secondary to selective myelosuppression in a 14-year-old girl following intentional ingestion of yellow phosphorus. Leucocyte counts recovered spontaneously without further complications. Our case indicates that, besides hepatic and renal function monitoring, physicians should meticulously monitor blood counts in such cases for early detection of marrow suppression. Further studies are required to elucidate the complex mechanisms and significance of this unusual toxicity of yellow phosphorus. PMID:25848404

  7. Increased detection of Plasmodium knowlesi in Sandakan division, Sabah as revealed by PlasmoNex™

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Plasmodium knowlesi is a simian malaria parasite that is widespread in humans in Malaysian Borneo. However, little is known about the incidence and distribution of this parasite in the Sandakan division, Malaysian Borneo. Therefore, the aim of the present epidemiological study was to investigate the incidence and distribution of P. knowlesi as well as other Plasmodium species in this division based on a most recent developed hexaplex PCR system (PlasmoNex™). Methods A total of 189 whole blood samples were collected from Telupid Health Clinic, Sabah, Malaysia, from 2008 to 2011. All patients who participated in the study were microscopically malaria positive before recruitment. Complete demographic details and haematological profiles were obtained from 85 patients (13 females and 72 males). Identification of Plasmodium species was conducted using PlasmoNex™ targeting the 18S ssu rRNA gene. Results A total of 178 samples were positive for Plasmodium species by using PlasmoNex™. Plasmodium falciparum was identified in 68 samples (38.2%) followed by 64 cases (36.0%) of Plasmodium vivax, 42 (23.6%) cases of P. knowlesi, two (1.1%) cases of Plasmodium malariae and two (1.1%) mixed-species infections (i e, P. vivax/P. falciparum). Thirty-five PlasmoNex™ positive P. knowlesi samples were misdiagnosed as P. malariae by microscopy. Plasmodium knowlesi was detected in all four districts of Sandakan division with the highest incidence in the Kinabatangan district. Thrombocytopaenia and anaemia showed to be the most frequent malaria-associated haematological complications in this study. Conclusions The discovery of P. knowlesi in Sandakan division showed that prospective studies on the epidemiological risk factors and transmission dynamics of P. knowlesi in these areas are crucial in order to develop strategies for effective malaria control. The availability of advanced diagnostic tool PlasmoNex™ enhanced the accuracy and accelerated the speed in the diagnosis of malaria. PMID:23902626

  8. Peripheral blood and bone marrow changes in patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome.

    PubMed

    Adediran, I A; Durosinmi, M A

    2006-12-01

    There is dearth of information on the haematologic complications of HIV/AIDS in this country. The aim of this work was to evaluate the importance of peripheral blood and bone marrow changes in a population of adult Nigerians managed for symptomatic HIV infection at the OAUTHC, Ile-Ife, between 1995 and 2001. The study was prospective. Peripheral blood cells counts (haemetocrit value, total and differential leucocyte counts, and platelet counts) and bone marrow cytology of serologically confirmed HIV/AIDS patients seen within the study period were studied. The associated opportunistic disorder (s) was noted for each patient. Individuals with conditions that are ordinarily associated with haematologic disorders (e.g. cancer and inherited haemoglobinopathies) and patients diagnosed in pregnancy were not included. Significant levels of differences in mean values of blood cells within groups were determined by student's t-test. Seventy-two patients were recorded, out of which 49 (68%) were evaluable. There were 32 (65%) males and 17 (35%) females, all aged between 21 and 51 (median = 36) years. None of the patients had conventional antiretroviral therapy. Lymphopenia (lymphocytes < 2 x 10(9)/l) was seen in 64.4% of the patients, 50% and over 40% of the patients had moderate-severe anaemia and neutropenia, respectively. Blood cells values were not significantly different between patients with mild disease and those with moderate-severe diseases. The most characteristic marrow abnormality was the abundance of naked nuclei of megakarycytes in 20 (60.1%) of the patients. Dysplatic changes were evident in 15 (45.5%) of the bone marrow specimens studied. Such changes are characterised by dysgranulopoiesis, Pelger-Huet anomaly in some of the mature granulocytes, vacuolation of some erythroid and myeloid cells, unilobular micromegakaryocytes and megaloblastic erythroid precursors (15.1% of the marrow). PMID:18050779

  9. Eliglustat: A Review in Gaucher Disease Type 1.

    PubMed

    Scott, Lesley J

    2015-09-01

    Oral eliglustat (Cerdelga(®)) is approved in several countries for the long-term treatment of adults with Gaucher disease type 1 (GD1) who are cytochrome P450 (CYP) 2D6 extensive metabolizers (EMs), intermediate metabolizer (IMs) or poor metabolizers (PMs) [these three CYP categories encompass >90 % of individuals]. Eliglustat is a potent, selective inhibitor of glucosylceramide synthase, the rate-limiting enzyme in the synthesis of certain glycosphingolipids, and thus, reduces the rate of biosynthesis of glycosphingolipids to counteract the catabolic defect (i.e. substrate reduction therapy). In the 9-month phase 3 ENGAGE trial, eliglustat significantly improved haematological endpoints and reduced organomegaly compared with placebo in treatment-naive adults with GD1, with the bone marrow burden score (a marker of Gaucher cell infiltration) and GD1 biomarkers also improving from baseline in eliglustat recipients. After 12 months in the phase 3 ENCORE trial, oral eliglustat was noninferior to intravenous imiglucerase [an enzyme replacement therapy (ERT)] in maintaining disease stability in adults who had stable disease after receiving ERT for ?3 years. During long-term treatment with eliglustat (?4 years) in the extension period of each of these pivotal trials and a phase 2 trial, patients experienced sustained improvements in visceral, haematological and skeletal endpoints, with no new safety concerns identified. Further clinical experience will help to more definitively establish the position of eliglustat treatment in adults with GD1. In the meantime, with its convenient oral regimen, eliglustat is an emerging alternative therapy to ERT for the long-term treatment of adults with GD1 who are CYP2D6 EMs, IMs or PMs. PMID:26384672

  10. Autologous plasma rich in growth factors in the prevention of severe bleeding after teeth extractions in patients with bleeding disorders: a controlled comparison with fibrin glue

    PubMed Central

    Cocero, Nadia; Pucci, Fabrizio; Messina, Maria; Pollio, Berardino; Mozzati, Marco; Bergamasco, Laura

    2015-01-01

    Background Dental extractions in haemophiliacs may cause secondary bleeding, requiring repeated surgical and haematological interventions. As a local haemostatic, fibrin glue has recognised efficacy but, as a plasma-derived product, it carries the risk of viral infections. We, therefore, compared fibrin glue with an autologous haemostatic, plasma rich in growth factors (PRGF), in a controlled trial. Material and methods One hundred and twenty patients with different blood disorders were randomised into two cohorts to undergo dental extraction procedures without hospitalisation. Prior to the extractions, patients underwent systemic haematological treatment. Complications were defined as secondary bleeding after the 7-day follow-up period or protracting after the repair procedure. Results There were 106 extractions (7 retained 3rd molars) in the group managed with fibrin glue: secondary bleeding affected 3/60 patients (5%) on the third day after extraction and necessitated additional surgery and systemic treatment (in one case the procedure had to be repeated on the 7th day). In the PRGF arm there were 98 extractions (23 retained 3rd molars): secondary bleeding affected two patients (3.3%) on the first day after extraction and was arrested with surgery without systemic treatment. Four out of the five secondary bleeds occurred in patients with haemophilia A. Concomitant diabetes or liver disease significantly increased the bleeding risk. Discussion The bleeding rates in the study and control arm prove that PRGF works as well as fibrin glue as a local haemostatic. Further assets are that PRGF has autologous origin, does not require additional systemic treatment in post-extraction repair surgery, is associated with an earlier onset of neo-angiogenesis and, overall, can reduce patients’ distress and costs to the health system. PMID:25369587

  11. Toxicity assessment and analgesic activity investigation of aqueous acetone extracts of Sida acuta Burn f . and Sida cordifolia L. (Malvaceae), medicinal plants of Burkina Faso

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Sida acuta Burn f. and Sida cordifolia L. (Malvaceae) are traditionally used in Burkina Faso to treat several ailments, mainly pains, including abdominal infections and associated diseases. Despite the extensive use of these plants in traditional health care, literature provides little information regarding their toxicity and the pharmacology. This work was therefore designed to investigate the toxicological effects of aqueous acetone extracts of Sida acuta Burn f. and Sida cordifolia L. Furthermore, their analgesic capacity was assessed, in order to assess the efficiency of the traditional use of these two medicinal plants from Burkina Faso. Method For acute toxicity test, mice were injected different doses of each extract by intraperitoneal route and the LD50 values were determined. For the subchronic toxicity evaluation, Wistar albinos rats were treated by gavage during 28?days at different doses of aqueous acetone extracts and then haematological and biochemical parameters were determined. The analgesic effect was evaluated in mice by the acetic-acid writhing test and by the formalin test. Results For the acute toxicity test, the LD50 values of 3.2?g/kg and 3.4?g/kg respectively for S. acuta Burn f. and S. cordifolia L. were obtained. Concerning the haematological and biochemical parameters, data varied widely (increase or decrease) according to dose of extracts and weight of rats and did not show clinical correlations. The extracts have produced significant analgesic effects by the acetic acid writhing test and by the hot plate method (p <0.05) and a dose-dependent inhibition was observed. Conclusion The overall results of this study may justify the traditional uses of S. acuta and S. cordifolia . PMID:22883637

  12. A 90-day feeding study of the alkaloids of Lupinus angustifolius in the rat.

    PubMed

    Robbins, M C; Petterson, D S; Brantom, P G

    1996-08-01

    Groups of 20 Sprague-Dawley rats of each sex were fed diets containing lupin alkaloid at dose levels of 0, 100, 330, 1000 and 5000 ppm supplemented with maltodextrin to attain a level of 4.5%, for 13 wk (equivalent to average daily intakes of lupin alkaloid of approximately 0, 10, 30, 100 and 500 mg/kg body weight/day, respectively, over the course of the study). A further group of rats was fed control (basal) diet over the same period. All control and high-dose animals underwent an ophthalmological examination before the start of the study and before autopsy. Blood samples were collected from all rats prior to the start of treatment, during wk 6 and prior to autopsy for haematological and clinical chemistry examination. All animals were monitored daily for change in clinical condition, and body weight and food intake were measured twice weekly. A range of tissues were preserved for histological examination at autopsy. There was an initial drop in food intake by all rats in the 1000 and 5000 ppm groups and thereafter the intake was between 90% and 95% of that of the controls. In general, no other effects related to treatment were seen. On the basis of the lower body weights and food intakes of the groups fed the alkaloid at levels of 1000 and 5000 ppm, a no-observed-adverse-effect level (NOAEL) of 330 ppm is seen under the conditions of this study. It is likely that these effects are entirely due to the antipalatability effect of the lupin alkaloids. In view of the growth rates, haematology, clinical chemistry and histological findings, a speculative NOAEL of 1000 ppm may be more appropriate. PMID:8883468

  13. Development of haemophilic arthropathy of the ankle: results of a Delphi consensus survey on potential contributory factors.

    PubMed

    McCarthy, A; Moore, A; Redhead, L; McLaughlin, P; Iorio, A; Chowdary, P

    2015-01-01

    The evidence base to support the prevention of haemophilic arthropathy remains incomplete. In particular there is a lack of evidence regarding the potential influence of non-haematological factors. Additionally the ankle joint, the most affected joint in the primary prophylaxis era, has biochemical and structural features that should offer some protection from degeneration. Therefore, this study aimed to ascertain expert opinions on the potential contributory factors in order to inform a research agenda. The Delphi method, a group forum technique to achieve consensus of expert opinion was selected. It allows anonymous participation of a geographically disparate panel. A modified three-round design was used with a multi-professional international panel from 11 countries, 280 suggestions with the potential to influence arthropathy development were submitted in Round 1. These were analysed for theme, giving 47 factors in four categories: musculoskeletal intrinsic, extrinsic affecting physical health, compliance, education and non-haematological management, and haemophilia related. Subsequently, consensus was ascertained on their importance for study. At survey completion, 31 panellists (86%) completed. 41 factors reached the pre-selected level for consensus and 6 were rejected. The breadth of the factors put forward suggests that the panel believe pathogenesis of HA is multifactorial. Panel composition indicates results with high face and content validity capable of guiding future research. Developing an understanding of the relative influence of factors in each patient has the potential of not only individualizing replacement therapy with regard to frequency and trough levels but also individualizing other interventions that promote musculoskeletal health. PMID:25421726

  14. Prevalence of Toxoplasma gondii, Bartonella species and haemoplasma infection in cats in South Africa.

    PubMed

    Lobetti, Remo; Lappin, Michael R

    2012-12-01

    Vector-borne agents and Toxoplasma gondii are common in cats, with many being zoonotic. The current study investigated the prevalence of selected infectious agents in cats from Johannesburg, South Africa, for which no published data exists. Whole blood and sera were obtained from 102 cats with a variety of disease conditions. Total DNA was extracted from the blood and assayed using PCR techniques for Mycoplasma haemofelis, Candidatus M haemominutum, Candidatus M turicensis, Bartonella species, Ehrlichia species and Anaplasma species. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays were used to detect IgG and IgM serum antibodies to T gondii and IgG serum antibodies to Bartonella species. Associations between test results, patient characteristics and haematological values were also evaluated. Overall, 56 cats (55%) were positive in one or more of the assays. Haemoplasma DNA was amplified from 26 cats [M haemofelis: four cats (3.9%); Candidatus M haemominutum from 22 cats (21.6%)] and Bartonella species DNA was amplified from eight cats [Bartonella henselae: five cats (4.9%); Bartonella clarridgeieae: three cats (2.9%)]; DNA of Ehrlichia species or Anaplasma species were not amplified. Of the cats, 24 (23.5%) were seropositive for Bartonella IgG and 18 (17.6%) were positive for T gondii IgM (12 cats), IgG (eight cats), or both (two cats). The study concluded that Bartonella species haemoplasmas and T gondii are common in client-owned cats in the region and the diagnosis of feline vector-borne agents and T gondii is difficult without the use of specific diagnostic tests, as there are minimal patient characteristics or haematological changes that indicate infection. PMID:22729571

  15. A multicentre phase II study of cisplatin and gemcitabine for malignant mesothelioma

    PubMed Central

    Nowak, A K; Byrne, M J; Williamson, R; Ryan, G; Segal, A; Fielding, D; Mitchell, P; Musk, A W; Robinson, B W S

    2002-01-01

    Our previous phase II study of cisplatin and gemcitabine in malignant mesothelioma showed a 47.6% (95% CI 26.2–69.0%) response rate with symptom improvement in responding patients. Here we confirm these findings in a multicentre setting, and assess the effect of this treatment on quality of life and pulmonary function. Fifty-three patients with pleural malignant mesothelioma received cisplatin 100?mg?m?2 i.v. day 1 and gemcitabine 1000?mg?m?2 i.v. days 1, 8, and 15 of a 28 day cycle for a maximum of six cycles. Quality of life and pulmonary function were assessed at each cycle. The best response achieved in 52 assessable patients was: partial response, 17 (33%, 95% CI 20–46%); stable disease, 31 (60%); and progressive disease, four (8%). The median time to disease progression was 6.4 months, median survival from start of treatment 11.2 months, and median survival from diagnosis 17.3 months. Vital capacity and global quality of life remained stable in all patients and improved significantly in responding patients. Major toxicities were haematological, limiting the mean relative dose intensity of gemcitabine to 75%. This schedule of cisplatin and gemcitabine is active in malignant mesothelioma in a multicentre setting. Investigation of alternative scheduling is needed to decrease haematological toxicity and increase the relative dose intensity of gemcitabine whilst maintaining response rate and quality of life. British Journal of Cancer (2002) 87, 491–496. doi:10.1038/sj.bjc.6600505 www.bjcancer.com © 2002 Cancer Research UK PMID:12189542

  16. Long-term treatment with interferon-alpha 2b for severe pruritus in patients with polycythaemia vera.

    PubMed

    Muller, E W; de Wolf, J T; Egger, R; Wijermans, P W; Huijgens, P C; Halie, M R; Vellenga, E

    1995-02-01

    Pruritus is a major clinical problem in patients with polycythaemia vera (PV). Conventional symptomatic treatment is unsatisfactory. Recently, a favourable effect of interferon-alpha on pruritus in patients with PV has been reported. Also, interferon-alpha suppresses the increased haemopoiesis in PV. However, long-term treatment with interferon-alpha may be hampered by side-effects and the inconvenience of chronic subcutaneous injection therapy. We conducted a long-term study (median follow-up 13 months) of the efficacy and tolerability of interferon-alpha in 15 patients (mean age 68 years) with PV and severe pruritus. Six patients were evaluable after 1 year. Pruritus significantly improved in 12/15 patients. Haematological control improved, as evidenced by a decreased number of phlebotomies from a mean of 4.3 in the year before the study to 1.8 while on interferon-alpha. Leucocyte and platelet numbers also decreased significantly. Five patients (33%) did not tolerate interferon-alpha. The effects of interferon-alpha could not be ascribed to an inhibitive effect on histamine production or to the disappearance of the abnormal erythroid progenitor clone, because erythropoietin-independent erythroid colony formation persisted during interferon-alpha treatment. We conclude that long-term interferon-alpha treatment is feasible and effectively relieves pruritus in patients with PV, but side-effects are an important concern. The optimal dose regimen that is well tolerated, relieves pruritus, and offers satisfactory haematological control at the same time remains to be established. PMID:7873381

  17. Metabolic and transcriptional responses of gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata L.) to environmental stress: new insights in fish mitochondrial phenotyping.

    PubMed

    Bermejo-Nogales, Azucena; Nederlof, Marit; Benedito-Palos, Laura; Ballester-Lozano, Gabriel F; Folkedal, Ole; Olsen, Rolf Eric; Sitjŕ-Bobadilla, Ariadna; Pérez-Sánchez, Jaume

    2014-09-01

    The aim of the current study was to phenotype fish metabolism and the transcriptionally-mediated response of hepatic mitochondria of gilthead sea bream to intermittent and repetitive environmental stressors: (i) changes in water temperature (T-ST), (ii) changes in water level and chasing (C-ST) and (iii) multiple sensory perception stressors (M-ST). Gene expression profiling was done using a quantitative PCR array of 60 mitochondria-related genes, selected as markers of transcriptional regulation, oxidative metabolism, respiration uncoupling, antioxidant defense, protein import/folding/assembly, and mitochondrial dynamics and apoptosis. The mitochondrial phenotype mirrored changes in fish performance, haematology and lactate production. T-ST especially up-regulated transcriptional factors (PGC1?, NRF1, NRF2), rate limiting enzymes of fatty acid ?-oxidation (CPT1A) and tricarboxylic acid cycle (CS), membrane translocases (Tim/TOM complex) and molecular chaperones (mtHsp10, mtHsp60, mtHsp70) to improve the oxidative capacity in a milieu of a reduced feed intake and impaired haematology. The lack of mitochondrial response, increased production of lactate and negligible effects on growth performance in C-ST fish were mostly considered as a switch from aerobic to anaerobic metabolism. A strong down-regulation of PGC1?, NRF1, NRF2, CPT1A, CS and markers of mitochondrial dynamics and apoptosis (BAX, BCLX, MFN2, MIRO2) occurred in M-ST fish in association with the greatest circulating cortisol concentration and a reduced lactate production and feed efficiency, which represents a metabolic condition with the highest allostatic load score. These findings evidence a high mitochondrial plasticity against stress stimuli, providing new insights to define the threshold level of stress condition in fish. PMID:24792819

  18. Gestational thrombocytopaenia among pregnant women in Lagos, Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Ajibola, Sarah Oluwatayo; Akinbami, Akinsegun; Rabiu, Kabiru; Adewunmi, Adeniyi; Dosunmu, Adedoyin; Adewumi, Adediran; Osikomaiya, Bodunrin; Ismail, Kamal

    2014-01-01

    Background: Thrombocytopaenia is a common haematologic abnormality during pregnancy. Pregnant women with thrombocytopenia have a higher risk of bleeding excessively during or after childbirth, particularly if they need to have a caesarean section or other surgical intervention during pregnancy, labour or in the puperium. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of gestational thrombocytopaenia among pregnant women reporting for antenatal care at tertiary health care centres in Lagos. Materials and Methods: Platelet count was analyzed in 274 consecutive pregnant women who gave informed consent and 70 non-pregnant female staff of the hospitals. Platelet count was performed on each sample using the Sysmex KN-21N automated haematology analyzer. The study design was cross-sectional, proportions were analyzed for statistical significance with the chi-square, and Odds ratio was also calculated. Thrombocytopaenia is classically defined as a platelet count of less than 150 × 109/L.34 Counts from 100 to 150 × 109/L are considered mildly depressed, 50 to 100 × 109/L are moderately depressed and less than 50 × 109/L are severely depressed. Results: Thirty-four (13.5%) pregnant women were thrombocytopaenic compared with three (4.3%) non-pregnant women. This was statistically significant; P = 0.03; Odds ratio: 3.5 (95% CI 1.03-11.82). Out of the 37 pregnant women who were thrombocytopaenic, most of them (78%) had mild thrombocytopenia, only 6% had severe thrombocytopaenia. Conclusion: The prevalence of gestational thrombocytopaenia in this study was 13.5%. Although majority of the pregnant women had mild thrombocytopaenia, healthcare providers should screen all pregnant women routinely for thrombocytopaenia to avoid excessive bleeding during or after childbirth. PMID:24791048

  19. Apoptotic activity of a novel synthetic cantharidin analogue on hepatoma cell lines.

    PubMed

    Kok, Stanton Hon Lung; Chui, Chung Hin; Lam, Wing Sze; Chen, Jien; Lau, Fung Yi; Cheng, Gregory Yin Ming; Wong, Raymond Siu Ming; Lai, Paul Po San; Leung, Thomas Wai Tong; Tang, Johnny Cheuk On; Chan, Albert Sun Chi

    2006-05-01

    Cantharidin isolated from Mylabris caraganae and other insects is used traditionally as an anti-cancer drug. However, its toxicity on the renal system and suppression effect on bone marrow limits its clinical usage. Recently, we have synthesized two cantharidin analogues, CAN 029 (compound 2) and CAN 030 (compound 3). Although both showed an apoptotic induction ability on cancer cells, they were still relatively toxic towards non-malignant haematological disordered bone marrow. Based on the principle structure of cantharidin, we have further chemically synthesized another analogue, CAN 032. The cytotoxic activity of this analogue was screened on both Hep3B hepatocellular carcinoma and SK-Hep-1 liver adenocarcinoma cell lines by [3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-5-(3-carboxymethoxyphenyl)-2-(4-sulfophenyl)-2H-tetrazolium] (MTS) assay. Morphological changes of hepatoma cell lines were recorded under an inverted microscope. The possible tolerance of these analogues was further investigated using non-malignant haematological bone marrow primary culture. CAN 032 showed a significant cytotoxic response on both hepatoma cell lines in which the potencies were comparable to that of cantharidin. Further screening on the bone marrow tolerance revealed that compound CAN 032 showed a relatively less toxic effect. Phase contrast microscopy demonstrated that cell shrinkage, rounding, loss of adherent property and loss of colony-formation ability were induced. The dose-dependence of the response of CAN 032 on Hep3B was further assayed by DNA fragmentation gel electrophoresis. The G1 peak of Hep3B cells was reduced. Chemically synthesized CAN 032 may provide an improved therapeutic advantage over traditional cantharidin. PMID:16596285

  20. Decreased white blood cell counts in semiconductor manufacturing workers in Taiwan

    PubMed Central

    Luo, J; Hsieh, L; Chang, M; Hsu, K

    2002-01-01

    Objectives: To assess the systematic health effects on the liver, kidney, and haematological function tests of workers in semiconductors in Taiwan. Methods: 926 workers of a semiconductor plant in Taiwan in July 1995 were investigated. Complete blood tests including liver, kidney, and haematological functions were available from 227 workers. Results: There was a significantly lower mean (SD) white blood cell (WBC) count in male workers of photolithography (5870 (1190)/mm3, p=0.003) and implantation (6190 (1150)/mm3, p=0.018) than that of male control workers (7350 (1660)/mm3). There was a significantly higher prevalence of leukopenia in male photolithography workers (6 of 20; 30%) than in male control workers (1 of 18; 5.6%), the crude odds ratio (OR) was 7.3 (95% confidence interval (95% CI) 1 to 55.6), and the multivariate adjusted OR was 8.1 (95% CI 0.83 to 78.3). The tests for serum glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase (SGOT), serum glutamic pyruvic transaminase (SGPT), ? glutamyl transferase (RGT), and creatinine were not significant among male workers. Female workers in photolithography had abnormal SGPT and RGT of borderline significance, the multivariate adjusted ORs were 9.6 (95% CI 0.86 to 107) and 6.35 (95% CI 0.53 to 75.8), respectively. Conclusions: This study suggests that leukopenia is a potential health effect in male fabrication workers of the semiconductor industry. The tasks of the process, maintenance, and equipment engineers which consisted mostly of men put them at risk for intermittent short term peak exposure to glycol ethers, ionising radiation, arsenic, or other toxins. The findings of this medical surveillance are significant; however, a further investigation of the aetiological factors and the subsequent health effects is necessary. PMID:11836468

  1. Immunomodulatory activities of Yoyo bitters: recommended dose precipitated inflammatory responses in male Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Oyewo, E B; Adetutu, A; Adebisi, J A

    2013-12-15

    This study investigated the immunomodulatory capabilities of the sub-chronic administration of Yoyo bitters in male Wistar rats. Eighteen rats weighing 86.2 +/- 4.43 g were randomly picked into three equal groups. The rats were acclimatized for 14 days, after which 0.308 and 0.462 mL kg(-1) b.wt. of Yoyo bitters were administered once daily to groups B and C respectively for 56 days, while group A received distilled water. The feed intake, body weight, blood glucose, interleukin 2 (IL-2), interleukin 6 (IL-6), tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha), haematological parameters, serum lipid profile and uric acid, liver reduced glutathione and malodialdehyde were determined. The feed intake, body weight and blood glucose concentrations were reduced (p < 0.05) at the doses. No changes were recorded in the concentration of serum IL-2 (p > 0.05), but IL-6 decreased (p < 0.05) in group B and increased (p < 0.05) in group C, while TNF-alpha were increased (p < 0.05) dose dependent. The haematological parameters were decreased at all the doses (p < 0.05), except the ESR, WBC and lymphocytes that were increased (p < 0.05) and platelets in group C (p < 0.05). The serum total cholesterol, TAG, LDL-C and atherogenic index were decreased (p < 0.05) and HDL-C increased (p < 0.05) in group B only. Serum uric acid was reduced (p < 0.05) in group B, but increased in group C with the concentration of liver MDA (p < 0.05). The study, therefore, established that a dose lower than the manufacturer's recommended dose presented the desired immunomodulatory activities and the habitual use of Yoyo bitters at the adult recommended dose calls for caution. PMID:24517005

  2. Hyperammonemia and Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome Predicts Presence of Hepatic Encephalopathy in Dogs with Congenital Portosystemic Shunts

    PubMed Central

    Tivers, Mickey S.; Handel, Ian; Gow, Adam G.; Lipscomb, Vicky J.; Jalan, Rajiv; Mellanby, Richard J.

    2014-01-01

    Hepatic encephalopathy (HE) is an important cause of morbidity and mortality in patients with liver disease. The pathogenesis of he is incompletely understood although ammonia and inflammatory cytokines have been implicated as key mediators. To facilitate further mechanistic understanding of the pathogenesis of HE, a large number of animal models have been developed which often involve the surgical creation of an anastomosis between the hepatic portal vein and the caudal vena cava. One of the most common congenital abnormalities in dogs is a congenital portosystemic shunt (cpss), which closely mimics these surgical experimental models of HE. Dogs with a cPSS often have clinical signs which mimic clinical signs observed in humans with HE. Our hypothesis is that the pathogenesis of HE in dogs with a cPSS is similar to humans with HE. The aim of the study was to measure a range of clinical, haematological and biochemical parameters, which have been linked to the development of HE in humans, in dogs with a cPSS and a known HE grade. One hundred and twenty dogs with a cPSS were included in the study and multiple regression analysis of clinical, haematological and biochemical variables revealed that plasma ammonia concentrations and systemic inflammatory response syndrome scores predicted the presence of HE. Our findings further support the notion that the pathogenesis of canine and human HE share many similarities and indicate that dogs with cPSS may be an informative spontaneous model of human HE. Further investigations on dogs with cPSS may allow studies on HE to be undertaken without creating surgical models of HE thereby allowing the number of large animals used in animal experimentation to be reduced. PMID:24392080

  3. Attenuation of Congenital Portosystemic Shunt Reduces Inflammation in Dogs

    PubMed Central

    Tivers, Michael S.; Handel, Ian; Gow, Adam G.; Lipscomb, Victoria J.; Jalan, Rajiv; Mellanby, Richard J.

    2015-01-01

    Liver disease is a major cause of morbidity and mortality. One of the most significant complications in patients with liver disease is the development of neurological disturbances, termed hepatic encephalopathy. The pathogenesis of hepatic encephalopathy is incompletely understood, which has resulted in the development of a wide range of experimental models. Congenital portosystemic shunt is one of the most common congenital disorders diagnosed in client owned dogs. Our recent studies have demonstrated that the pathophysiology of canine hepatic encephalopathy is very similar to human hepatic encephalopathy, which provides strong support for the use of dogs with a congenital portosystemic shunt as a naturally occurring model of human hepatic encephalopathy. Specifically, we have demonstrated an important role for ammonia and inflammation in the development of hepatic encephalopathy in dogs with a congenital portosystemic shunt. Despite the apparent importance of inflammation in driving hepatic encephalopathy in dogs, it is unclear whether inflammation resolves following the successful treatment of liver disease. We hypothesized that haematological and biochemical evidence of inflammation, as gauged by neutrophil, lymphocyte and monocyte concentrations together with C-reactive protein concentrations, would decrease following successful treatment of congenital portosystemic shunts in dogs. One hundred and forty dogs with a congenital portosystemic shunt were enrolled into the study. We found that the proportion of dogs with a monocyte concentration above the reference range was significantly greater in dogs with hepatic encephalopathy at time of initial diagnosis. Importantly, neutrophil and monocyte concentrations significantly decreased following surgical congenital portosystemic shunt attenuation. We also found a significant decrease in C-reactive protein concentrations following surgical attenuation of congenital portosystemic shunts. Our study demonstrates that haematological and biochemical indices of inflammation reduce following successful treatment of the underlying liver disorder. PMID:25658922

  4. The role of organic selenium in cadmium toxicity: effects on broiler performance and health status.

    PubMed

    Al-Waeli, A; Zoidis, E; Pappas, A C; Demiris, N; Zervas, G; Fegeros, K

    2013-03-01

    This work was part of a project designed to assess whether organic selenium (Se) can protect against the toxic effects of cadmium (Cd). A total of 300 1-day-old, as hatched, broilers were randomly distributed in four dietary treatments with five replicate pens per treatment. In T1 treatment, broilers were fed a diet with 0.3 mg/kg added Se, as Se-yeast, without added Cd; in T2, broilers were fed a diet with 0.3 mg/kg Se and 10 mg/kg Cd; in T3, broilers were fed a diet with 0.3 mg/kg Se and 100 mg/kg of Cd; and in T4 treatment broilers were fed a diet with 3 mg/kg Se and 100 mg/kg Cd. The Cd was added to diets T2, T3 and T4 as CdCl2. On the 4th and 6th week, two broilers per replicate pen were killed in order to obtain whole blood, liver, kidney and breast samples. Body mass, feed conversion ratio and mortality were assessed and haematological analyses were performed. Se and Cd levels in tissues were analysed by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Broilers supplemented with 0.3 mg/kg Se can tolerate low levels of Cd added to the diets, as there were no significant negative effects on the examined performance parameters, whereas addition of excess Cd led to an impairment of broilers' performance. Mortality of broilers did not differ between the four dietary treatments at any interval point or the whole period. The examined haematological parameters such as haematocrit, total blood protein concentration, and leukocytes types ranged within physiological values, revealing no negative health effects after simultaneous Cd and Se addition. The present study indicated that Se can help against the negative effects of Cd, but cannot counteract all of its negative effects. PMID:23031417

  5. Evaluation of low-dose metronomic (LDM) cyclophosphamide toxicity in cats with malignant neoplasia.

    PubMed

    Leo, Chiara; Stell, Anneliese; Borrego, Juan; Martinez de Merlo, Elena; Ruess-Melzer, Katja; Lara-Garcia, Ana

    2014-08-01

    Oral administration of low-dose cyclophosphamide in pets with spontaneously occurring malignant neoplasms has become a common practice in veterinary medicine. The purpose of this retrospective study was to investigate toxicity events in cats with spontaneous malignancies receiving cyclophosphamide as a metronomic therapy for at least 1 month. The number and severity of clinical, haematological and biochemical adverse events were recorded according to the Veterinary Cooperative Oncology Group's Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events v1.1 classification scheme. Twenty-four cats were enrolled in the study with a total number of 27 neoplasms: 13 sarcomas, 12 carcinomas, one melanoma and one neuroendocrine tumour. Seventeen cats presented with macroscopic disease, while seven had microscopic disease. Seven cats (29%) had metastasis either to the regional lymph nodes and/or distant sites at the time of study enrolment. Additional medications, administered concurrently, included non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (17), toceranib (4) and thalidomide (7). Four cats showed grade I gastrointestinal toxicity during the first month of treatment, which was controlled with antiemetics. Overall, 2/24 cats (8%) showed grade I haematological toxicities and 1/24 (4%) showed grade I renal toxicity in the first 4 weeks. Median follow-up for all cats was 30 days (range 30-360 days). For the 15 cats with follow-up longer than 1 month the only additional toxicities observed were two grade III and one grade II azotaemia that occurred after 2 months of therapy. Low-dose cyclophosphamide seems to be a well-tolerated option for cats bearing primary or metastatic tumours. Evaluation of toxicity after long-term administration is still needed. PMID:24423814

  6. Nosocomial Candidemia; Risk Factors and Prognosis Revisited; 11 Years Experience from a Norwegian Secondary Hospital

    PubMed Central

    Berdal, Jan-Erik; Haagensen, Rolf; Ranheim, Trond; Bjřrnholt, Jřrgen V.

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the study was to review the epidemiology and prognosis of candidemia in a secondary hospital, and to examine the intra-hospital distribution of candidemia patients. Study design is a retrospective cohort study. Trough 2002–2012, 110 cases of candidemia were diagnosed, giving an incidence of 2, 6/100000 citizens/year. Overall prognosis of candidemia was dismal, with a 30 days case fatality rate of 49% and one year case fatality rate of 64%. Candidemia was a terminal event in 55% of 30 days non-survivors, defined as Candida blood cultures reported positive on the day of death or thereafter (39%), or treatment refrained due to hopeless short-term prognosis (16%). In terminal event candidemias, advanced or incurable cancer was present in 29%. Non-survivors at 30 days were 9 years (median) older than survivors. In 30 days survivors, candidemia was not recognised before discharge in 13% of cases. No treatment were given and no deaths or complications were observed in this group. Candidemia patients were grouped into 8 patient categories: Abdominal surgery (35%), urology (13%), other surgery (11%), pneumonia (13%), haematological malignancy (7%), intravenous drug abuse (4%), other medical (15%), and new-borns (3%). Candidemia was diagnosed while admitted in the ICU in 46% of patients. Urology related cases were all diagnosed in the general ward. Multiple surgical procedures were done in 60% of abdominal surgery patients. Antibiotics were administered prior to candidemia in 87% of patients, with median duration 17 (1–108) days. Neutropenia was less common than expected in patients with candidemia (8/105) and closely associated to haematological malignancy (6/8). Compared with previous national figures the epidemiology of invasive candidiasis seems not to have changed over the last decade. PMID:25079361

  7. Successful adoptive transfer and in vivo expansion of haploidentical ?? T cells

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The primary aim of this pilot study was to determine the feasibility and safety of an adoptive transfer and in vivo expansion of human haploidentical ?? T lymphocytes. Methods Patients with advanced haematological malignancies who are not eligible for allogeneic transplantation received peripheral blood mononuclear cells from half-matched family donors. For that, a single unstimulated leukapheresis product was incubated with both the anti-CD4 and anti-CD8 antibodies conjugated to paramagnetic particles. The depletion procedure was performed on a fully automated CliniMACS® device according to the manufacturer’s instructions. On average, patients received 2.17 × 106/kg (range 0.9-3.48) ?? T cells with <1% CD4- or CD8-positive cells remaining in the product. All patients received prior lymphopenia-inducing chemotherapy (fludarabine 20-25 mg/m2 day -6 until day -2 and cyclophosphamide 30-60 mg/kg day -6 and -5) and were treated with 4 mg zoledronate on day 0 and 1.0x106 IU/m2 IL-2 on day +1 until day +6 for the induction of ?? T cell proliferation in vivo. Results This resulted in a marked in vivo expansion of donor ?? T cells and, to a lower extent, natural killer cells and double-negative ?? T cells (mean 68-fold, eight-fold, and eight-fold, respectively). Proliferation peaked by around day +8 and donor cells persisted up to 28 days. Although refractory to all prior therapies, three out of four patients achieved a complete remission, which lasted for 8 months in a patient with plasma cell leukaemia. One patient died from an infection 6 weeks after treatment. Conclusion This pilot study shows that adoptive transfer and in vivo expansion of haploidentical ?? T lymphocytes is feasible and suggests a potential role of these cells in the treatment of haematological diseases. PMID:24528541

  8. A rabbit osteomyelitis model for the longitudinal assessment of early post-operative implant infections

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Implant infection is one of the most severe complications within the field of orthopaedic surgery, associated with an enormous burden for the healthcare system. During the last decades, attempts have been made to lower the incidence of implant-related infections. In the case of cemented prostheses, the use of antibiotic-containing bone cement can be effective. However, in the case of non-cemented prostheses, osteosynthesis and spinal surgery, local antibacterial prophylaxis is not a standard procedure. For the development of implant coatings with antibacterial properties, there is a need for a reliable animal model to evaluate the preventive capacity of such coatings during a specific period of time. Existing animal models generally present a limited follow-up, with a limited number of outcome parameters and relatively large animal numbers in multiple groups. Methods To represent an early post-operative implant infection, we established an acute tibial intramedullary nail infection model in rabbits by contamination of the tibial nail with 3.8?×?105 colony forming units of Staphylococcus aureus. Clinical, haematological and radiological parameters for infection were weekly assessed during a 6-week follow-up with post-mortem bacteriological and histological analyses. Results S. aureus implant infection was confirmed by the above parameters. A saline control group did not develop osteomyelitis. By combining the clinical, haematological, radiological, bacteriological and histological data collected during the experimental follow-up, we were able to differentiate between the control and the infected condition and assess the severity of the infection at sequential timepoints in a parameter-dependent fashion. Conclusion We herein present an acute early post-operative rabbit implant infection model which, in contrast to previously published models, combines improved in-time insight into the development of an implant osteomyelitis with a relatively low amount of animals. PMID:24188807

  9. Persistent sub-lethal chlorine exposure augments temperature induced immunosuppression in Cyprinus carpio advanced fingerlings.

    PubMed

    Verma, A K; Pal, A K; Manush, S M; Das, T; Dalvi, R S; Chandrachoodan, P P; Ravi, P M; Apte, S K

    2007-05-01

    Apart from increased temperature, thermal effluents discharged through cooling systems of nuclear power plants may often contain chlorine (used against bio-fouling), which may affect the immune status of fish. Therefore, a 28-day trial was undertaken to delineate the effect of high temperature and a persistent sub-lethal chlorine exposure on immunomodulation in Cyprinus carpio advanced fingerlings. Fish were acclimated to four different temperatures (26, 31, 33 and 36 degrees C) and maintained for 30 days in two different groups. One group was exposed to persistent chlorine (0.1mgL(-1)) and was compared with their respective temperature control groups (without chlorine exposure). Expression of heat shock proteins (hsp 70) was tested in muscle after 28 days using Western blotting. Haematological parameters (erythrocyte count, leucocyte count, haemoglobin), serum parameters (total protein, albumin, globulin, A/G ratio) and respiratory burst activity were tested to assess immuno-competence of C. carpio in response to temperature and chlorine exposure. Results indicated that hsp 70 was induced at 36 degrees C in temperature control groups but not in their respective temperatures in the presence of chlorine. Haematological parameters such as haemoglobin, erythrocyte and leucocyte counts appeared depressed in chlorine treated groups as compared to their respective temperature control groups. Serum protein and globulin were affected due to chlorine exposure at different acclimation temperatures. A decrease in NBT activity was recorded in chlorine treated groups as compared to their respective temperature control groups. Overall results indicate that increasing acclimation temperatures alters the immune status of C. carpio advanced fingerlings and persistent sub-lethal exposure to chlorine augments this temperature induced immunosuppression. PMID:17046286

  10. Integrated analysis of long-term safety in patients with chronic immune thrombocytopaenia (ITP) treated with the thrombopoietin (TPO) receptor agonist romiplostim.

    PubMed

    Cines, Douglas B; Gernsheimer, Terry; Wasser, Jeffrey; Godeau, Bertrand; Provan, Drew; Lyons, Roger; Altomare, Ivy; Wang, Xuena; Lopez, Angela

    2015-09-01

    A safety analysis of pooled data from clinical studies of romiplostim, a thrombopoietin (TPO) receptor agonist, in which patients with immune thrombocytopaenia (ITP) received romiplostim, placebo, or medical standard of care (SOC) Rodeghiero et al. (Eur J Haematol 91:423-436, 2013), has been updated. Included are data from 14 trials spanning 2002-2011; placebo- and SOC-arm data are pooled. Most patients (n = 1059) were female (61 %) and Caucasian (85 %); 38 % had undergone splenectomy; 23 were children. Mean (SD) baseline platelet count was 20.6 (16.5) × 10(9)/L. Mean (SD) weekly dose of romiplostim was 4.2 (2.8) µg/kg; total exposure was 1520 patient-years. Overall, 921 patients received romiplostim only, 65 received placebo/SOC only, and 73 received placebo/SOC followed by romiplostim. Rates of haemorrhage (romiplostim, 205/100 patient-years; placebo/SOC, 263/100), thrombosis (both, 5.5/100 patient-years), haematological malignancy/myelodysplastic syndrome (romiplostim, 0.5/100 patient-years; placebo/SOC, 2.7/100), and non-haematological tumours (romiplostim, 2.2/100 patient-years; placebo/SOC, 3.6/100) were comparable among groups. Bone marrow reticulin was reported in 17 patients and collagen in one patient receiving romiplostim; one patient receiving placebo/SOC had reticulin reported. Three patients developed neutralizing antibodies to romiplostim, but not to endogenous TPO. This integrated analysis of the safety profile of romiplostim in patients with ITP is consistent with previously reported studies; no new safety concerns emerged. PMID:26201709

  11. Prevalence and phylogenetic analysis of haemoplasmas from cats infected with multiple species.

    PubMed

    Aquino, Larissa Campos; Hicks, Chelsea A E; Scalon, Marcela C; Lima, Maíra G da M; Lemos, Marcelle dos S; Paludo, Giane Regina; Helps, Chris R; Tasker, Séverine

    2014-12-01

    Mycoplasma haemofelis (Mhf), ‘Candidatus Mycoplasma haemominutum’ (CMhm) and ‘Candidatus Mycoplasma turicensis’ (CMt) are agents of feline haemoplasmosis and can induce anaemia in cats. This study aimed to determine the prevalence and phylogeny of haemoplasma species in cats from Brazil's capital and surrounding areas, and whether correlation with haematological abnormalities existed. Feline haemoplasmas were found in 13.8% of 432 cats. CMhm was the most prevalent species (in 13.8% of cats), followed by Mhf (11.1%) and CMt (4.4%). Over 80% of haemoplasma-infected cats harboured two or more feline haemoplasma species: 7.1% of cats were co-infected with Mhf/CMhm, 0.4% with CMhm/CMt and 3.9% with Mhf/CMhm/CMt. Male gender was significantly associated with haemoplasma infections. No association was found between qPCR haemoplasma status and haematological variables, however CMhm relative copy numbers were correlated with red blood cell (RBC) numbers and packed cell volume (PCV). Haemoplasma 16S rRNA gene sequences (> 1 Kb) were derived from co-infected cats using novel haemoplasma species-specific primers. This allowed 16S rRNA gene sequences to be obtained despite the high level of co-infection, which precluded the use of universal 16S rRNA gene primers. Within each species, the Mhf, CMhm and CMt sequences showed > 99.8%, > 98.5% and > 98.8% identity, respectively. The Mhf, CMhm and CMt sequences showed > 99.2%, > 98.4% and > 97.8% identity, respectively, with GenBank sequences. Phylogenetic analysis showed all Mhf sequences to reside in a single clade, whereas the CMhm and CMt sequences each grouped into three distinct subclades. These phylogeny findings suggest the existence of different CMhm and CMt strains. PMID:25447887

  12. Prevalence and phylogenetic analysis of haemoplasmas from cats infected with multiple species

    PubMed Central

    Aquino, Larissa Campos; Hicks, Chelsea A.E.; Scalon, Marcela C.; Lima, Maíra G. da M.; Lemos, Marcelle dos S.; Paludo, Giane Regina; Helps, Chris R.; Tasker, Séverine

    2014-01-01

    Mycoplasma haemofelis (Mhf), ‘Candidatus Mycoplasma haemominutum’ (CMhm) and ‘Candidatus Mycoplasma turicensis’ (CMt) are agents of feline haemoplasmosis and can induce anaemia in cats. This study aimed to determine the prevalence and phylogeny of haemoplasma species in cats from Brazil's capital and surrounding areas, and whether correlation with haematological abnormalities existed. Feline haemoplasmas were found in 13.8% of 432 cats. CMhm was the most prevalent species (in 13.8% of cats), followed by Mhf (11.1%) and CMt (4.4%). Over 80% of haemoplasma-infected cats harboured two or more feline haemoplasma species: 7.1% of cats were co-infected with Mhf/CMhm, 0.4% with CMhm/CMt and 3.9% with Mhf/CMhm/CMt. Male gender was significantly associated with haemoplasma infections. No association was found between qPCR haemoplasma status and haematological variables, however CMhm relative copy numbers were correlated with red blood cell (RBC) numbers and packed cell volume (PCV). Haemoplasma 16S rRNA gene sequences (> 1 Kb) were derived from co-infected cats using novel haemoplasma species-specific primers. This allowed 16S rRNA gene sequences to be obtained despite the high level of co-infection, which precluded the use of universal 16S rRNA gene primers. Within each species, the Mhf, CMhm and CMt sequences showed > 99.8%, > 98.5% and > 98.8% identity, respectively. The Mhf, CMhm and CMt sequences showed > 99.2%, > 98.4% and > 97.8% identity, respectively, with GenBank sequences. Phylogenetic analysis showed all Mhf sequences to reside in a single clade, whereas the CMhm and CMt sequences each grouped into three distinct subclades. These phylogeny findings suggest the existence of different CMhm and CMt strains. PMID:25447887

  13. Challenges for children and adolescents with cancer in Europe: The SIOP-Europe agenda

    PubMed Central

    Vassal, Gilles; Fitzgerald, Edel; Schrappe, Martin; Arnold, Frédéric; Kowalczyk, Jerzy; Walker, David; Hjorth, Lars; Riccardi, Riccardo; Kienesberger, Anita; Jones, Kathy-Pritchard; Valsecchi, Maria Grazia; Janic, Dragana; Hasle, Henrik; Kearns, Pamela; Petrarulo, Giulia; Florindi, Francesco; Essiaf, Samira; Ladenstein, Ruth

    2014-01-01

    In Europe, 6,000 young people die of cancer yearly, the commonest disease causing death beyond the age of 1 year. In addition, 300,000–500,000 European citizens are survivors of a childhood cancer and up to 30% of them have severe long-term sequelae of their treatment. Increasing both cure and quality of cure are the two goals of the European paediatric haematology/oncology community. SIOPE coordinates and facilitates research, care and training which are implemented by the 18 European study groups and 23 national paediatric haematology/oncology societies. SIOPE is the European branch of the International Society of Paediatric Oncology and one of the six founding members of the European Cancer Organisation. SIOPE is preparing its strategic agenda to assure long-term sustainability of clinical and translational research in paediatric malignancies over the next 15 years. SIOPE tackles the issues of equal access to standard care and research across Europe and improvement of long term follow up. SIOPE defined a comprehensive syllabus for training European specialists. A strong partnership with parent, patient and survivor organisations is being developed to successfully achieve the goals of this patient-centred agenda. SIOPE is advocating in the field of EU policies, such as the Clinical Trials Regulation and the Paediatric Medicine Regulation, to warrant that the voice of young people is heard and their needs adequately addressed. SIOPE and the European community are entirely committed to the global agenda against childhood cancers to overcome the challenges to increasing both cure and quality of cure of young people with cancer. Pediatr Blood Cancer 2014;61:1551–1557. PMID:24706509

  14. Biocompatibility of single-walled carbon nanotube composites for bone regeneration

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, A.; Liberati, T. A.; Verhulst, S. J.; Main, B. J.; Roberts, M. H.; Potty, A. G. R.; Pylawka, T. K.; El-Amin III, S. F.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives The purpose of this study was to evaluate in vivo biocompatibility of novel single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNT)/poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLAGA) composites for applications in bone and tissue regeneration. Methods A total of 60 Sprague-Dawley rats (125 g to 149 g) were implanted subcutaneously with SWCNT/PLAGA composites (10 mg SWCNT and 1gm PLAGA 12 mm diameter two-dimensional disks), and at two, four, eight and 12 weeks post-implantation were compared with control (Sham) and PLAGA (five rats per group/point in time). Rats were observed for signs of morbidity, overt toxicity, weight gain and food consumption, while haematology, urinalysis and histopathology were completed when the animals were killed. Results No mortality and clinical signs were observed. All groups showed consistent weight gain, and the rate of gain for each group was similar. All groups exhibited a similar pattern for food consumption. No difference in urinalysis, haematology, and absolute and relative organ weight was observed. A mild to moderate increase in the summary toxicity (sumtox) score was observed for PLAGA and SWCNT/PLAGA implanted animals, whereas the control animals did not show any response. Both PLAGA and SWCNT/PLAGA showed a significantly higher sumtox score compared with the control group at all time intervals. However, there was no significant difference between PLAGA and SWCNT/PLAGA groups. Conclusions Our results demonstrate that SWCNT/PLAGA composites exhibited in vivo biocompatibility similar to the Food and Drug Administration approved biocompatible polymer, PLAGA, over a period of 12 weeks. These results showed potential of SWCNT/PLAGA composites for bone regeneration as the low percentage of SWCNT did not elicit a localised or general overt toxicity. Following the 12-week exposure, the material was considered to have an acceptable biocompatibility to warrant further long-term and more invasive in vivo studies. Cite this article: Bone Joint Res 2015;4:70–7 PMID:25943595

  15. Accuracy of Platelet Counting by Optical and Impedance Methods in Patients with Thrombocytopaenia and Microcytosis

    PubMed Central

    Boulassel, Mohamed-Rachid; Al-Farsi, Raya; Al-Hashmi, Sulaiman; Al-Riyami, Hamad; Khan, Hammad; Al-Kindi, Salam

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: Obtaining accurate platelet counts in microcytic blood samples is challenging, even with the most reliable automated haematology analysers. The CELL-DYN™ Sapphire (Abbott Laboratories, Chicago, Illinois, USA) analyser uses both optical density and electronic impedance methods for platelet counting. This study aimed to evaluate the accuracy of optical density and electrical impedance methods in determining true platelet counts in thrombocytopaenic samples with microcytosis as defined by low mean corpuscular volume (MCV) of red blood cells. Additionally, the impact of microcytosis on platelet count accuracy was evaluated. Methods: This study was carried out between February and December 2014 at the Haematology Laboratory of the Sultan Qaboos University Hospital in Muscat, Oman. Blood samples were collected and analysed from 189 patients with thrombocytopaenia and MCV values of <76 femtolitres. Platelet counts were tested using both optical and impedance methods. Stained peripheral blood films for each sample were then reviewed as a reference method to confirm platelet counts. Results: The platelet counts estimated by the impedance method were on average 30% higher than those estimated by the optical method (P <0.001). The estimated intraclass correlation coefficient was 0.52 (95% confidence interval: 0.41–0.62), indicating moderate reliability between the methods. The degree of agreement between methods ranged from ?85.5 to 24.3 with an estimated bias of ?30, suggesting that these methods generate different platelet results. Conclusion: The impedance method significantly overestimated platelet counts in microcytic and thrombocytopaenic blood samples. Further attention is therefore needed to improve the accuracy of platelet counts, particularly for patients with conditions associated with microcytosis. PMID:26629371

  16. Distribution of Alpha Thalassaemia Gene Variants in Diverse Ethnic Populations in Malaysia: Data from the Institute for Medical Research

    PubMed Central

    Ahmad, Rahimah; Saleem, Mohamed; Aloysious, Nisha Sabrina; Yelumalai, Punithawathy; Mohamed, Nurul; Hassan, Syahzuwan

    2013-01-01

    Alpha thalassaemia is highly prevalent in the plural society of Malaysia and is a public health problem. Haematological and molecular data from 5016 unrelated patients referred from various hospitals to the Institute for Medical Research for ? thalassaemia screening from 2007 to 2010 were retrieved. The aims of this retrospective analysis were to describe the distribution of various alpha thalassaemia alleles in different ethnic groups, along with their genotypic interactions, and to illustrate the haematological changes associated with each phenotype. Amongst the patients, 51.2% (n = 2567) were diagnosed with ? thalassaemia. Of the 13 ? thalassaemia determinants screened, eight different deletions and mutations were demonstrated: three double gene deletions, – – SEA, – – THAI, ––FIL; two single-gene deletions, ?–3.7 and – ?4.2; and three non-deletion mutations, Cd59G > A (haemoglobin [Hb] Adana), Cd125T > C (Hb Quong Sze) and Cd142 (Hb Constant Spring). A high incidence of ?–3.7 deletion was observed in Malays, Indians, Sabahans, Sarawakians and Orang Asli people. However, the – – SEA deletion was the most common cause of alpha thalassaemia in Chinese, followed by the ?–3.7 deletion. As many as 27 genotypic interactions showed 1023 ? thalassaemia silent carriers, 196 homozygous ?+ thalassaemia traits, 973 heterozygous ?0 thalassaemia carriers and 375 patients with Hb H disease. Statistical analysis showed a significant difference in the distribution of ? thalassaemia determinants amongst the various ethnic groups. Hence, the heterogeneous distribution of common determinants indicated that the introduction of an ethnicity-targeted hierarchical ? thalassaemia screening approach in this multi-ethnic Malaysian population would be effective. PMID:24025420

  17. [Renal disorders associated with monoclonal gammopathies: diagnostic and therapeutic progress].

    PubMed

    Bridoux, Frank; Delbes, Sébastien; Sirac, Christophe; Pourreau, François; Puyade, Matthieu; Desport, Estelle; Jaccard, Arnaud; Fermand, Jean-Paul; Touchard, Guy

    2012-03-01

    Various renal disorders are associated with monoclonal gammopathies, secondary to tissue deposition or precipitation of a monoclonal immunoglobulin (Ig) or a fragment thereof (isolated Ig light chain or heavy chain). They are classified according to the localization of renal lesions, either glomerular or tubular and to the pattern of ultrastructural organization of Ig deposits. Renal disease in monoclonal gammopathies may be isolated, or associated with various systemic symptoms particularly in AL amyloidosis, Randall-type monoclonal Ig deposition disease and monoclonal cryoglobulinemias. Except for myeloma cast nephropathy, which occurs in the setting of high-mass myeloma and is recognized after electrophoretic analysis of proteinuria and AL amyloidosis, which diagnosis is usually made after pathological examination of non-invasive tissue specimens (i.e. abdominal fat or minor salivary glands), a kidney biopsy is required to identify the other types of renal disorders associated with monoclonal gammopathies and to estimate renal prognosis. Renal pathological diagnosis is difficult and relies on careful examination of kidney biopsy samples, by light microscopy, immunofluorescence studies using conjugates specific for Ig light and heavy chains, IgG sub-classes and heavy chain constant domains and by electron microscopy. In some cases, additional studies are required to identify the nature of deposits, such as immuno-electron microscopy or mass spectrometric-based proteomic analysis after laser dissection. In patients with renal disorders related to Ig light chain precipitation or deposition (myeloma cast nephropathy, AL amyloidosis, Randall-type light chain deposition disease), measurement of serum free light chains at baseline and throughout follow-up is mandatory to evaluate clonal response to chemotherapy. A more than or equal to 50% decrease in serum free light chain levels is associated with increased renal and patient survival. In AL amyloidosis, serum levels of markers of cardiac disease (NT-proBNP and troponin) are also closely associated with prognosis. Efficient chemotherapy, tailored to the underlying plasma cell or lymphoproliferative disorder and adapted to renal function, should be promptly introduced, even in the absence of overt malignant haematological disease. Renal prognosis and patient survival (particularly in AL amyloidosis and cast nephropathy) are closely associated with the rapid achievement of an haematological response. The combination of melphalan plus dexamethasone (MDex) is currently used as first-line chemotherapy in systemic AL amyloidosis. Bortezomib-based regimens are commonly employed as first-line treatment in myeloma cast nephropathy and Randall-type monoclonal Ig deposition disease and as second line therapy in AL amyloidosis patients with advanced cardiomyopathy or refractory to previous chemotherapy. Solid organ transplantation (heart and kidney) should be considered in patients with AL amyloidosis or Randall-type monoclonal Ig deposition disease and advanced cardiac or renal failure. Prolonged graft and patient survival may be obtained, providing that recipients do not have other severe organ involvement or symptomatic myeloma and that haematological remission has been achieved with chemotherapy before or after organ transplantation. PMID:22244725

  18. [Cancer treatment in elderly patients: evidence and clinical research].

    PubMed

    Repetto, Lazzaro; Luciani, Andrea

    2015-01-01

    In 2020 the percentage of patients with a diagnosis of cancer in people with more than 65 years will exceed 70% and 28% in ethnic minorities. The treatment of cancer in these populations is challenging for the oncologists due to socio-economic issues such as poverty, reduced access to the hospital care, level of education. The clinical pathway "diagnosis-treatment-cure", typical of the care of young patients has to be integrated in elderly patients with a more individualized treatment by means of comprehensive geriatric assessment (CGA). IADL (Instrumental Activities of Daily Living) have the best predictive role in oncological setting and their impairment significantly correlate with overall survival, chemotherapy toxicities and thirty days postoperative morbidities. The CGA is universally accepted as the most appropriate instrument to analitically evaluate the age related problems of elderly patients. The role of CGA is crucial to identify geriatric issues not easily diagnosed, to predict treatment toxicities, functional or cognitive decline, post operative complications and to estimate life expectancy. The CGA items are predictive of severe toxicity, however it is not clearly established which are the best performers and the best cut-offs points. Today CGA is integrated with physical performance tests (the most widely used is the "time up and go" test) and laboratory assay of Interleukin 6 and D-Dimer that correlate with mortality and physical decline. There are few prospective studies that evaluated the role of CGA in treatment choice. The first is a phase II study in solid tumors, the second is a haematological trial on non Hodgkin lymphoma. The largest trial is a 571 patients observational series that confirmed the role of CGA in decision making. The administration of CGA is time consuming and consequently some screening tools were developed. VES-13 is a 13 items tool that explores prevalently the functional status and the self reported health status. VES-13 showed a good sensibility (87.3%) but a low specificity (62%) with respect to CGA for the diagnosis of patients with disabilities. Overcash et al. proposed an abbreviated form of CGA using a reduced number of items of ADL, IADL, MMSE and GDS. There was a good correlation between complete and reduced scales (coefficient of correlation 0.8). G8 is a screening tool composed of 8 questions that explore functional, cognitive and nutritional status. The score with the best equilibrium between sensibility and specificity was 14 (sensibility 85% and specificity 65%). In the first observational trial age, hystotype, chemotherapy dose, haemoglobin (man: 11 g/dL; women: 10 g/dL), creatinine clearance less than 34 mL/min (Jelliffe formula), earing problems, at least a fall in the last six months, walking problems, low social activity, were related to a major risk of toxicity; in another trial IADL, diastolic blood pressure, LDH and MAX2 index were predictive of haematological toxicity, while performance status, Mini-Mental Status score, Mini-Nutritional Assessment (MNA) score and MAX2 index were predictive of non haematological toxicity. Based on these parameters a 0-2 score was developed. A recent "position article" of EORTC (European organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer) and SIOG analyzed the pro and the contra of the use of some indicators in elderly patients. The overall survival (OS) frequently used in classical clinical trial could give wrong messages as there are some competitive risks of death in elderly patients. Another important indicator is the disease specific survival (DSS). Concerning the design of clinical trials, a possible strategy is to enrol elderly patients without upper age limit and to plan stratification. An interesting trial design is the so called "extended trial" that allow to re-open the arm of a trial in which a too low number of older patients was enrolled. PMID:25621776

  19. Phase II study of bi-weekly administration of paclitaxel and cisplatin in patients with advanced oesophageal cancer

    PubMed Central

    Polee, M B; Eskens, F A L M; van der Burg, M E L; Splinter, T A W; Siersema, P D; Tilanus, H W; Verweij, J; Stoter, G; van der Gaast, A

    2002-01-01

    In a phase I study we demonstrated the feasibility of a bi-weekly combination of paclitaxel 180?mg?m?2 with cisplatin 60?mg?m?2. In this study we further assessed toxicity and efficacy of this schedule in the treatment of advanced cancer of the oesophagus or the gastro-oesophageal junction. Patients received paclitaxel 180?mg?m?2 administered over 3?h followed by a 3-h infusion of cisplatin 60?mg?m?2. Patients were retreated every 2 weeks unless granulocytes were <0.75×109 or platelets <75×109. Patients were evaluated after three and six cycles and responding patients received a maximum of eight cycles. Fifty-one patients were enrolled into the study. The median age was 56 years (range 32–78). WHO performance status were: 0 (19 patients); 1 (29 patients); 2 (three patients). All patients received at least three cycles of chemotherapy and all were evaluable for toxicity and response. Haematological toxicity consisted of uncomplicated neutropenia grade 3 in 39% and grade 4 in 31% of patients. Five patients (10%) were hospitalised, three patients because of treatment related complications and two patients because of infections without neutropenia. Sensory neurotoxicity was the predominant non-haematological toxicity; grade 1 and 2 neurotoxicity was observed in 43 and 20% of patients, respectively. Response evaluation in 51 patients with measurable disease: complete response 4%, partial response 39%, stable disease 43% and progressive disease in 14% of the patients. The median duration of response was 8 months. The median survival for all patients was 9 (range 2–29+) months and the one-year survival rate was 43%. Four patients who received additional local treatment (two patients surgery and two patients radiotherapy) are still disease free after a follow-up of 20–29 months. This bi-weekly treatment of paclitaxel and cisplatin is well tolerated by patients with advanced oesophageal cancer. The toxicity profile of this regimen compares favourable to that of previously used cisplatin- and paclitaxel-based regimens. Trials are underway evaluating this bi-weekly regimen in a neo-adjuvant setting. British Journal of Cancer (2002) 86, 669–673. DOI: 10.1038/sj/bjc/6600166 www.bjcancer.com © 2002 Cancer Research UK PMID:11875723

  20. Does Carica papaya leaf-extract increase the platelet count? An experimental study in a murine model

    PubMed Central

    Dharmarathna, Sinhalagoda Lekamlage Chandi Asoka; Wickramasinghe, Susiji; Waduge, Roshitha Nilmini; Rajapakse, Rajapakse Peramune Veddikkarage Jayanthe; Kularatne, Senanayake Abeysinghe Mudiyanselage

    2013-01-01

    Objective To investigate the potential role of fresh Carica papaya (C. papaya) leaf extract on haematological and biochemical parameters and toxicological changes in a murine model. Methods In total 36 mice were used for the trial. Fresh C. papaya leaf extract [0.2 mL (2 g)/mouse] was given only to the test group (18 mice). General behavior, clinical signs and feeding patterns were recorded. Blood and tissue samples were collected at intervals. Haematological parameters including platelet, red blood cell (RBC), white blood cell (WBC), packed cell volume (PCV), serum biochemistry including serum creatinine, serum glutamic-oxaloacetic transaminase (SGOT) and serum glutamic-pyruvic transaminase (SGPT) were determined. Organs for possible histopathological changes were examined. Results Neither group exhibited alteration of behavior or reduction in food and water intake. Similarly, no significant changes in SGOT, SGPT and serum creatinine levels were detected in the test group. Histopathological organ changes were not observed in either group of mice except in three liver samples of the test group which had a mild focal necrosis. The platelet count (11.33±0.35)×105/µL (P=0.000?04) and the RBC count (7.97±0.61)×106/µL (P=0.000?03) were significantly increased in the test group compared to that of the controls. However, WBC count and PCV (%) values were not changed significantly in the test group. The platelet count in the test group started to increase significantly from Day 3 (3.4±0.18×105/µL), reaching almost a fourfold higher at Day 21 (11.3×105/µL), while it was 3.8×105/µL and 5.5×105/µL at Day 3 and Day 21 respectively in the control. Likewise, the RBC count in the test group increased from 6×106/µL to 9×106/ µL at Day 21 while it remained near constant in the control group (6×106/µL). Conclusions Fresh C. papaya leaf extract significantly increased the platelet and RBC counts in the test group as compared to controls. Therefore, it is very important to identify those chemicals of C. papaya leaves as it can be recommended to be used as a medication to boost thrombopoiesis and erythropoiesis in humans and in animals in which these cell lineages have been compromised. PMID:23998013

  1. Effects of Feeding Bt Maize to Sows during Gestation and Lactation on Maternal and Offspring Immunity and Fate of Transgenic Material

    PubMed Central

    Buzoianu, Stefan G.; Walsh, Maria C.; Rea, Mary C.; O'Donovan, Orla; Gelencsér, Eva; Ujhelyi, Gabriella; Szabó, Erika; Nagy, Andras; Ross, R. Paul; Gardiner, Gillian E.; Lawlor, Peadar G.

    2012-01-01

    Background We aimed to determine the effect of feeding transgenic maize to sows during gestation and lactation on maternal and offspring immunity and to assess the fate of transgenic material. Methodology/Principal Findings On the day of insemination, sows were assigned to one of two treatments (n?=?12/treatment); 1) non-Bt control maize diet or 2) Bt-MON810 maize diet, which were fed for ?143 days throughout gestation and lactation. Immune function was assessed by leukocyte phenotyping, haematology and Cry1Ab-specific antibody presence in blood on days 0, 28 and 110 of gestation and at the end of lactation. Peripheral-blood mononuclear cell cytokine production was investigated on days 28 and 110 of gestation. Haematological analysis was performed on offspring at birth (n?=?12/treatment). Presence of the cry1Ab transgene was assessed in sows' blood and faeces on day 110 of gestation and in blood and tissues of offspring at birth. Cry1Ab protein presence was assessed in sows' blood during gestation and lactation and in tissues of offspring at birth. Blood monocyte count and percentage were higher (P<0.05), while granulocyte percentage was lower (P<0.05) in Bt maize-fed sows on day 110 of gestation. Leukocyte count and granulocyte count and percentage were lower (P<0.05), while lymphocyte percentage was higher (P<0.05) in offspring of Bt maize-fed sows. Bt maize-fed sows had a lower percentage of monocytes on day 28 of lactation and of CD4+CD8+ lymphocytes on day 110 of gestation, day 28 of lactation and overall (P<0.05). Cytokine production was similar between treatments. Transgenic material or Cry1Ab-specific antibodies were not detected in sows or offspring. Conclusions/Significance Treatment differences observed following feeding of Bt maize to sows did not indicate inflammation or allergy and are unlikely to be of major importance. These results provide additional data for Bt maize safety assessment. PMID:23091650

  2. Acute toxicity and the 28-day repeated dose study of a Siddha medicine Nuna Kadugu in rats

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Nuna Kadugu (NK), a Siddha medicine prepared from leaves and fruits of Morinda Pubescens, used for the treatment of various skin diseases. Though NK has been widely used for several decades, no scientific report was available on its safety. Present study was undertaken to demonstrate the oral toxicity of NK in Sprague Dawley rats. Methods Acute and 28-day repeated oral toxicity studies were performed following OECD test guidelines 423 and 407, respectively, with minor modifications. In acute oral toxicity study, NK was administered at 2000mg/kg b.wt., p.o and animals were observed for toxic signs at 0, 0.5, 1, 4, 24 h and for next 14 days. Gross pathology was performed at the end of the study. In repeated dose, the 28- day oral toxicity study, NK was administered at 300, 600 and 900 mg/kg b.wt./p.o/day. Two satellite groups (control and high dose) were also maintained to determine the delayed onset toxicity of NK. Animals were observed for mortality, morbidity, body weight changes, feed and water intake. Haematology, clinical biochemistry, electrolytes, gross pathology, relative organ weight and histopathological examination were performed. Results In acute toxicity study, no treatment related death or toxic signs were observed with NK administration. In the repeated dose study, no significant differences in body weight changes, food / water intake, haematology, clinical biochemistry and electrolytes content were observed between control and NK groups. No gross pathological findings and difference in relative organ weights were observed between control and NK treated rats. Histopathological examination revealed no abnormalities with NK treatment. Conclusion Acute study reveals that the LD50 of NK is greater than 2000mg/kg, b.wt. in fasted female rats and can be classified as Category 5. 28-day repeated oral toxicity demonstrates that the No Observed Adverse Effect Level of NK is greater than 900 mg/kg b.wt./day, p.o in rats. There were no delayed effects in NK satellite group. In conclusion, NK was found to be non-toxic in the tested doses and experimental conditions. PMID:23088610

  3. Assessment of a blood preservation protocol for use in ferrets before transfusion.

    PubMed

    Pignon, C; Donnelly, T M; Todeschini, C; Deschamps, J Y; Roux, F A

    2014-03-15

    Blood transfusion has been described in ferrets as a treatment for oestrus-associated anaemia and as a life-saving therapy following trauma, iatrogenic (usually surgery-induced) anaemia, autoimmune haemolytic anaemia and pure red cell aplasia. Although blood banking is a common method for storage of feline and canine blood it is not currently done with ferret blood. The aim of this study was to determine the shelf-life of ferret blood using the anticoagulant citrate-phosphate-dextrose-solution with adenine (CPDA). Two male ferrets were used as blood donors. From each ferret, 6 ml of blood was taken from the cranial vena cava and stored in 10 ml polyethylene terephthalate (PET) blood tubes containing 1 ml of CPDA solution. Blood was taken from each ferret once per month for five months. These 10 blood samples were stored in a laboratory refrigerator at 4°C for four weeks. Biochemical (glucose, pH, lactate, potassium, sodium) and haematological (haematocrit, light microscopic blood smear examination) analyses were performed on the stored blood at days 0, 7, 14, 21 and 28. Biochemical analyses revealed a progressive decrease from day seven in the stored blood pH, glucose and sodium, with a concomitant increase in lactate and potassium. These results are attributable to the ongoing metabolism and deterioration of the red blood cells (RBC) while in storage, and are more rapid than described for human or canine stored blood. Haematological analyses revealed a progressive elevation of the haematocrit due to the appearance of hypochromic red blood cells and echinocytes beginning at day 7. Haemolysis was observed in the microhaematocrit capillary tube sample by day 21, and microscopic clots were visible on the blood smear by day 28. The low blood pH and the appearance of many hypochromic RBCs and some echinocytes from day 7 in CPDA-stored ferret blood, suggest stored ferret blood has a short shelf-life when compared with stored human or canine blood. We recommend that ferret blood stored in CPDA should not be used for transfusion after seven days of storage at 4°C. PMID:24523302

  4. Clinical comparison of medetomidine with xylazine/l-methadone in dogs.

    PubMed

    Kramer, S; Nolte, I; Jöchle, W

    1996-02-10

    Seventy-two healthy dogs required sedation and analgesia for a variety of procedures causing discomfort or pain. They were treated either with the alpha 2-agonist medetomidine at 40 micrograms/kg (15 intravenously and 17 intramuscularly), or 80 micrograms/kg (15 intravenously and 15 intramuscularly) or with xylazine plus l-methadone (1.0 mg)(10 intravenously). The levels of sedation, analgesia and safety were compared clinically and by measurements of the effects on the electrocardiogram (ECG) and blood gases, body temperature, haematology and clinical chemistry. Sedation was achieved reliably with both medetomidine and xylazine plus l-methadone but its onset, depth and duration were influenced by the dose and route of administration. In the medetomidine-treated dogs, intravenous administration resulted in more rapid sedation and the effects of the higher dose were deeper and longer lasting. The small dogs receiving 40 micrograms/kg may have been underdosed. The initial analgesic effects in response to a pin prick to the body surface were sufficient and similar for both drugs, except for the intramuscular dose of 40 micrograms/kg medetomidine. Analgesia for the clinical procedures was less reliable with medetomidine and was not always adequate even at the high dose, but xylazine plus l-methadone assured analgesia in almost every case. Medetomidine resulted in marked bradycardia, lasting as long as the sedation and the ECG revealed a sinus arrhythmia with sinoatrial and atrioventricular blocks grade I and II as a sign of interference with transduction. The bradycardia with xylazine plus l-methadone was less pronounced. A decrease in respiratory rate accompanying sedation had no influence on blood gases and blood acidity in the dogs treated with medetomidine but caused a respiratory acidosis with xylazine plus l-methadone. Body temperature decreased with all treatments for the duration of the period of sedation. Blood glucose concentration increased to a similar extent in all treatment groups, but all other haematological and clinicochemical variables remained unchanged. Treatment with the specific alpha 2 antagonist, atipamezole, reversed the sedation and cardiovascular and pulmonary effects due to medetomidine within minutes. PMID:8650915

  5. Design of the Quality of Life in Motion (QLIM) study: a randomized controlled trial to evaluate the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of a combined physical exercise and psychosocial training program to improve physical fitness in children with cancer

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Childhood cancer and its treatment have considerable impact on a child's physical and mental wellbeing. Especially long-term administration of chemotherapy and/or radiotherapy impairs physical fitness both during and after therapy, when children often present with muscle weakness and/or low cardiorespiratory fitness. Physical exercise can improve these two elements of physical fitness, but the positive effects of physical exercise might be further increased when a child's wellbeing is simultaneously enhanced by psychosocial training. Feeling better may increase the willingness and motivation to engage in sports activities. Therefore, this multi-centre study evaluates the short and long-term changes in physical fitness of a child with a childhood malignancy, using a combined physical exercise and psychosocial intervention program, implemented during or shortly after treatment. Also examined is whether positive effects on physical fitness reduce inactivity-related adverse health problems, improve quality of life, and are cost-effective. Methods This multi-centre randomized controlled trial compares a combined physical and psychosocial intervention program for children with cancer, with care as usual (controls). Children with cancer (aged 8-18 years) treated with chemotherapy and/or radiotherapy, and who are no longer than 1 year post-treatment, are eligible for participation. A total of 100 children are being recruited from the paediatric oncology/haematology departments of three Dutch university medical centres. Patients are stratified according to pubertal stage (girls: age ?10 or >10 years; boys: ?11 or >11 years), type of malignancy (haematological or solid tumour), and moment of inclusion into the study (during or after treatment), and are randomly assigned to the intervention or control group. Discussion Childhood cancer patients undergoing long-term cancer therapy may benefit from a combined physical exercise and psychosocial intervention program since it may maintain or enhance their physical fitness and increase their quality of life. However, the feasibility, patient need, and effectiveness of such a program should be established before the program can be implemented as part of standard care. Trial registration number NTR1531 (The Netherlands National Trial Register) PMID:21070639

  6. Water Spinach, Ipomoea aquatica (Convolvulaceae), Ameliorates Lead Toxicity by Inhibiting Oxidative Stress and Apoptosis

    PubMed Central

    Dewanjee, Saikat; Dua, Tarun K.; Khanra, Ritu; Das, Shilpa; Barma, Sujata; Joardar, Swarnalata; Bhattacharjee, Niloy; Zia-Ul-Haq, M.; Jaafar, Hawa Z. E.

    2015-01-01

    Background Ipomoea aquatica (Convolvulaceae), an aquatic edible plant, is traditionally used against heavy metal toxicity in India. The current study intended to explore the protective role of edible (aqueous) extract of I. aquatica (AEIA) against experimentally induced Pb-intoxication. Methods The cytoprotective role of AEIA was measured on mouse hepatocytes by cell viability assay followed by Hoechst staining and flow cytometric assay. The effect on ROS production, lipid peroxidation, protein carbonylation, intracellular redox status were measured after incubating the hepatocytes with Pb-acetate (6.8 ?M) along with AEIA (400 ?g/ml). The effects on the expressions of apoptotic signal proteins were estimated by western blotting. The protective role of AEIA was measured by in vivo assay in mice. Haematological, serum biochemical, tissue redox status, Pb bioaccumulation and histological parameters were evaluated to estimate the protective role of AEIA (100 mg/kg) against Pb-acetate (5 mg/kg) intoxication. Results Pb-acetate treated hepatocytes showed a gradual reduction of cell viability dose-dependently with an IC50 value of 6.8 ?M. Pb-acetate treated hepatocytes exhibited significantly enhanced levels (p < 0.01) of ROS production, lipid peroxidation, protein carbonylation with concomitant depletion (p < 0.01) of antioxidant enzymes and GSH. However, AEIA treatment could significantly restore the aforementioned parameters in murine hepatocytes near to normalcy. Besides, AEIA significantly reversed (p < 0.05–0.01) the alterations of transcription levels of apoptotic proteins viz. Bcl 2, Bad, Cyt C, Apaf-1, cleaved caspases [caspase 3, caspase 8 and caspase 9], Fas and Bid. In in vivo bioassay, Pb-acetate treatment caused significantly high intracellular Pb burden and oxidative pressure in the kidney, liver, heart, brain and testes in mice. In addition, the haematological and serum biochemical factors were changed significantly in Pb-acetate-treated animals. AEIA treatment restored significantly the evaluated-parameters to the near-normal position. Conclusion The extract may offer the protective effect via counteracting with Pb mediated oxidative stress and/or promoting the elimination of Pb by chelating. The presence of substantial quantities of flavonoids, phenolics and saponins would be responsible for the overall protective effect. PMID:26473485

  7. Impact of Organic Solvents and Environmental Pollutants on the Physiological Function in Petrol Filling Workers

    PubMed Central

    Uzma, Nazia; Khaja Mohinuddin Salar, B. M.; Kumar, B. Santhosh; Aziz, Nusrat; David, M. Anthony; Reddy, V. Devender

    2008-01-01

    Long term exposure to solvents and air pollutants can lead to deleterious effects on respiratory, haematological and thyroid functioning. The aim of this study was to investigate whether chronic exposure to solvents like benzene and pollutants like carbon monoxide in petrol filling workers had adverse effect on blood parameters, thyroid and respiratory functions. The study group consisted of 42 healthy, non-smoker petrol filling workers, aged 20–50 years with work (exposure) duration from 2–15 years while 36 healthy subjects of the same age group served as controls. Physical examination and measurement of pulmonary functions by portable electronic spirometer were performed. Complete blood pictures (CBP) were determined by normal haematology lab procedure and hormones by Chemiluminescence immunoassay (CLIA) light absorption techniques. There was a significant decrease in the lung volumes and capacities; the restrictive pattern was more prevalent in the workers when compared with the control groups. But in the workers exposed for long period (more than 10 years) the restrictive pattern was changed to mixed pattern. A significant increase in haemoglobin (Hb) (>16 mg %) and red blood cells (RBC) (5.4 million cells/mm3) were observed in workers with longer period of exposure when compared with the control subjects (14.483 mg% and 4.83 million cells/mm3 for Hb and RBC respectively). White blood cell count except eosinophils and platelets were significantly lower in workers compared to controls. Marked increase in the tetra iodothyroinine (T4), free thyroxine (T4F) level and significant decrease in thyroid stimulating hormones (TSH), and tri-iodothyronine (T3) were observed between long term exposed and non – exposed groups. Till now researchers focused only on the effect of solvents in workers professionally exposed to solvents without considering the effect of concomittant air pollution. The result obtained from present study indicates that there is a significant toxic effect of solvents and air pollutants on workers exposed for longer duration. Improved detection and prevention technologies are needed to answer environmentally related health questions for petrol filling workers. PMID:19139531

  8. Impact of organic solvents and environmental pollutants on the physiological function in petrol filling workers.

    PubMed

    Uzma, Nazia; Salar, B M Khaja Mohinuddin; Kumar, B Santhosh; Aziz, Nusrat; David, M Anthony; Reddy, V Devender

    2008-09-01

    Long term exposure to solvents and air pollutants can lead to deleterious effects on respiratory, haematological and thyroid functioning. The aim of this study was to investigate whether chronic exposure to solvents like benzene and pollutants like carbon monoxide in petrol filling workers had adverse effect on blood parameters, thyroid and respiratory functions. The study group consisted of 42 healthy, non-smoker petrol filling workers, aged 20-50 years with work (exposure) duration from 2-15 years while 36 healthy subjects of the same age group served as controls. Physical examination and measurement of pulmonary functions by portable electronic spirometer were performed. Complete blood pictures (CBP) were determined by normal haematology lab procedure and hormones by Chemiluminescence immunoassay (CLIA) light absorption techniques. There was a significant decrease in the lung volumes and capacities; the restrictive pattern was more prevalent in the workers when compared with the control groups. But in the workers exposed for long period (more than 10 years) the restrictive pattern was changed to mixed pattern. A significant increase in haemoglobin (Hb) (>16 mg %) and red blood cells (RBC) (5.4 million cells/mm3) were observed in workers with longer period of exposure when compared with the control subjects (14.483 mg% and 4.83 million cells/mm3 for Hb and RBC respectively). White blood cell count except eosinophils and platelets were significantly lower in workers compared to controls. Marked increase in the tetra iodothyroinine (T4), free thyroxine (T4F) level and significant decrease in thyroid stimulating hormones (TSH), and tri-iodothyronine (T3) were observed between long term exposed and non-exposed groups. Till now researchers focused only on the effect of solvents in workers professionally exposed to solvents without considering the effect of concomittant air pollution. The result obtained from present study indicates that there is a significant toxic effect of solvents and air pollutants on workers exposed for longer duration. Improved detection and prevention technologies are needed to answer environmentally related health questions for petrol filling workers. PMID:19139531

  9. A highly specific and sensitive fluorescence in situ hybridization assay for the detection of t(4;11)(q21;q23) and concurrent submicroscopic deletions in acute leukaemias.

    PubMed

    König, Margit; Reichel, Martin; Marschalek, Rolf; Haas, Oskar A; Strehl, Sabine

    2002-03-01

    The translocation t(4;11)(q21;q23) is one of the most frequent 11q23 abnormalities associated with infant leukaemia as well as topoisomerase inhibitor-induced secondary leukaemias. On the molecular level, the MLL gene on 11q23 is fused to the AF4 gene in the 4q21 region, resulting in a chimaeric MLL/AF4 fusion transcript. These particular chromosome rearrangements are generally considered to be associated with poor prognosis, and therefore accurate detection at diagnosis is of clinical significance. In this study we developed a highly specific dual-colour fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) assay for the detection of the t(4;11) and demonstrate its usefulness for interphase molecular cytogenetics. In our approach, differentially labelled genomic clones that span the breakpoint cluster regions of both genes involved in the specific translocation were used. Thus, t(4;11)-positive nuclei will display two fusion signals and for t(4;11) cases with concurrent 3' MLL deletions only one fusion signal will be displayed. A very low false-positive value of less than 0.1% was obtained for interphase cells with two fusion signals. In contrast, in cases with 3' MLL deletions that display only one fusion signal, the rate of false-positive nuclei was 10.4%. This FISH assay enables the screening of larger series of patients with haematological diseases for t(4;11) translocations and allows the unambiguous detection of associated cryptic deletions. PMID:11886378

  10. SPRED1, a RAS MAPK pathway inhibitor that causes Legius syndrome, is a tumour suppressor downregulated in paediatric acute myeloblastic leukaemia.

    PubMed

    Pasmant, E; Gilbert-Dussardier, B; Petit, A; de Laval, B; Luscan, A; Gruber, A; Lapillonne, H; Deswarte, C; Goussard, P; Laurendeau, I; Uzan, B; Pflumio, F; Brizard, F; Vabres, P; Naguibvena, I; Fasola, S; Millot, F; Porteu, F; Vidaud, D; Landman-Parker, J; Ballerini, P

    2015-01-29

    Constitutional dominant loss-of-function mutations in the SPRED1 gene cause a rare phenotype referred as neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1)-like syndrome or Legius syndrome, consisted of multiple café-au-lait macules, axillary freckling, learning disabilities and macrocephaly. SPRED1 is a negative regulator of the RAS MAPK pathway and can interact with neurofibromin, the NF1 gene product. Individuals with NF1 have a higher risk of haematological malignancies. SPRED1 is highly expressed in haematopoietic cells and negatively regulates haematopoiesis. SPRED1 seemed to be a good candidate for leukaemia predisposition or transformation. We performed SPRED1 mutation screening and expression status in 230 paediatric lymphoblastic and acute myeloblastic leukaemias (AMLs). We found a loss-of-function frameshift SPRED1 mutation in a patient with Legius syndrome. In this patient, the leukaemia blasts karyotype showed a SPRED1 loss of heterozygosity, confirming SPRED1 as a tumour suppressor. Our observation confirmed that acute leukaemias are rare complications of the Legius syndrome. Moreover, SPRED1 was significantly decreased at RNA and protein levels in the majority of AMLs at diagnosis compared with normal or paired complete remission bone marrows. SPRED1 decreased expression correlated with genetic features of AML. Our study reveals a new mechanism which contributes to deregulate RAS MAPK pathway in the vast majority of paediatric AMLs. PMID:24469042

  11. Acute and Subchronic Toxicity Study of Euphorbia hirta L. Methanol Extract in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Yuet Ping, Kwan; Darah, Ibrahim; Chen, Yeng; Sreeramanan, Subramaniam

    2013-01-01

    Despite Euphorbia hirta L. ethnomedicinal benefits, very few studies have described the potential toxicity. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the in vivo toxicity of methanolic extracts of E. hirta. The acute and subchronic oral toxicity of E. hirta was evaluated in Sprague Dawley rats. The extract at a single dose of 5000?mg/kg did not produce treatment related signs of toxicity or mortality in any of the animals tested during the 14-day observation period. Therefore, the LD 50 of this plant was estimated to be more than 5000?mg/kg. In the repeated dose 90-day oral toxicity study, the administration of 50?mg/kg, 250?mg/kg, and 1000?mg/kg/day of E. hirta extract per body weight revealed no significant difference (P > 0.05) in food and water consumptions, body weight change, haematological and biochemical parameters, relative organ weights, and gross findings compared to the control group. Macropathology and histopathology examinations of all organs including the liver did not reveal morphological alteration. Analyses of these results with the information of signs, behaviour, and health monitoring could lead to the conclusion that the long-term oral administration of E. hirta extract for 90 days does not cause sub-chronic toxicity. PMID:24386634

  12. Zearalenone, an Estrogenic Mycotoxin, Is an Immunotoxic Compound

    PubMed Central

    Hueza, Isis M.; Raspantini, Paulo Cesar F.; Raspantini, Leonila Ester R.; Latorre, Andreia O.; Górniak, Silvana L.

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the toxic effects of zearalenone (ZEA) on the immune function. Ovariectomised rats were treated daily by gavage with 3.0 mg/kg of ZEA for 28 days. Body weight gain, food consumption, haemotological parameters, lymphoid organs, and their cellularities were evaluated. Moreover, acquired immune responses and macrophage activity were also assessed. ZEA promoted reduction in body weight gain, which is not fully explained by diminished food consumption. Despite no effect on haematological parameters, ZEA caused thymic atrophy with histological and thymocyte phenotype changes and decrease in the B cell percentage in the spleen. With respect to acquired and innate immune responses, no statistically significant differences in delayed-type hypersensitivity were noticed; however, in the ZEA-treated rats, antibody production and peroxide release by macrophages were impaired. The observed results could be related to ZEA activity on ERs; thus, ZEA is an immunotoxic compound similar to estrogen and some endocrine disruptors. PMID:24632555

  13. Effects of astaxanthin-rich Haematococcus pluvialis extract on cognitive function: a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled study

    PubMed Central

    Katagiri, Mikiyuki; Satoh, Akira; Tsuji, Shinji; Shirasawa, Takuji

    2012-01-01

    In this study we tried to confirm the effect of an astaxanthin-rich Haematococcus pluvialis extract on cognitive function in 96 subjects by a randomised double-blind placebo-controlled study. Healthy middle-aged and elderly subjects who complained of age-related forgetfulness were recruited. Ninety-six subjects were selected from the initial screen, and ingested a capsule containing astaxanthin-rich Haematococcus pluvialis extract, or a placebo capsule for 12 weeks. Somatometry, haematology, urine screens, and CogHealth and Groton Maze Learning Test were performed before and after every 4 weeks of administration. Changes in cognitive performance and the safety of astaxanthin-rich Haematococcus pluvialis extract administration were evaluated. CogHealth battery scores improved in the high-dosage group (12 mg astaxanthin/day) after 12 weeks. Groton Maze Learning Test scores improved earlier in the low-dosage (6 mg astaxanthin/day) and high-dosage groups than in the placebo group. The sample size, however, was small to show a significant difference in cognitive function between the astaxanthin-rich Haematococcus pluvialis extract and placebo groups. No adverse effect on the subjects was observed throughout this study. In conclusion, the results suggested that astaxanthin-rich Haematococcus pluvialis extract improves cognitive function in the healthy aged individuals. PMID:22962526

  14. Clinicopathological Profile of Salmonella Typhi and Paratyphi Infections Presenting as Fever of Unknown Origin in a Tropical Country

    PubMed Central

    Iqbal, Nayyar; Basheer, Aneesh; Mookkappan, Sudhagar; Ramdas, Anita; Varghese, Renu G’Boy; Padhi, Somanath; Shrimanth, Bhairappa; Chidambaram, Saranya; Anandhalakshmi, S.; Kanungo, Reba

    2015-01-01

    Background Enteric fever, a common infection in the tropics and endemic to India, often manifests as an acute febrile illness. However, presentation as fever of unknown origin (FUO) is not uncommon in tropical countries. Methods We aim to describe the clinical, laboratory and pathological features of patients hospitalized with fever of unknown origin and diagnosed as enteric fever. All culture proven cases of enteric fever were analyzed retrospectively over a period of three years from January 2011 to December 2013. Results Seven of 88 (8%) cases with enteric fever presented as FUO. Abdominal pain was the most common symptom besides fever. Relative bradycardia and splenomegaly were uncommon. Thrombocytopenia was the most common haematological abnormality while leucopenia was rare. Transaminase elevation was almost universal. S. Typhi and S. Paratyphi A were isolated from six cases and one case respectively. Yield of organisms from blood culture was superior to that of bone marrow aspirate. Multiple granulomas were identified in 4 out of 6 (67%) of the bone marrows studied, including that due to S. Paratyphi A and histiocytic hemophagocytosis was noted in two cases. Conclusion FUO is a relatively common manifestation of enteric fever in the tropics. Clinical and laboratory features may be atypical in such cases, including absence of relative bradycardia, leucopenia, and presence of thrombocytopenia, bicytopenia or pancytopenia. In addition, in endemic countries, enteric fever should be considered as a differential diagnosis, next to tuberculosis, in the evaluation of bone marrow granulomas in cases with FUO and culture correlation should be mandatory. PMID:25745548

  15. Expanding the use of monoclonal antibody therapy of cancer by using ionising radiation to upregulate antibody targets

    PubMed Central

    Wattenberg, M M; Kwilas, A R; Gameiro, S R; Dicker, A P; Hodge, J W

    2014-01-01

    Background: Monoclonal antibody (mAb) therapy for the treatment of solid and haematologic malignancies has shown poor response rates as a monotherapy. Furthermore, its use is limited to tumours expressing certain molecular targets. It has been shown that single-dose radiation can induce immunogenic modulation that is characterised by cell-surface phenotypic changes leading to augmented tumour cell/cytotoxic T-cell interaction. Methods: We examined radiation's ability to upregulate mAb therapy targets. We also used radiation to sensitise tumour cells to antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity (ADCC). Results: Radiation significantly increased cell-surface and total protein expression of mAb targets HER2, EGFR, and CD20. Focusing on HER2, targeted by trastuzumab, we observed significant upregulation of HER2 following radiation of 3 out of 3 breast cancer cell lines, one of which was triple negative, as well as in residential stem-cell populations. HER2 upregulation was sustained up to 96?h following radiation exposure and was largely dependent on intracellular reactive oxygen species. Improved ADCC and sensitisation to the antiproliferative effects of trastuzumab demonstrated the functional significance of radiation-induced HER2 upregulation. Conclusions: We show that single-dose radiation enhances mAb therapy. These findings highlight a mechanism for combining radiation with immunotherapy and expand the patient population that can be treated with targeted therapy. PMID:24556625

  16. IL-1 receptor antagonist gene polymorphism in patients with secondary acute myeloid leukaemia.

    PubMed

    Langabeer, S E; Linch, D C

    1998-03-01

    Acute myeloid leukaemia (AML) may not only occur as a de novo disease but may evolve from a preceding myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) or may result from therapy for a previous malignancy. These secondary acute myeloid leukaemias (sAML) possess some common biological and clinical features of the corresponding de novo disorders. The cytokine interleukin-1 (IL-1) is known to have a role in haematopoiesis, and modulation of its action might contribute to the deregulation of proliferation seen in leukaemia. It has recently been reported that a variable number tandem repeat (VNTR) polymorphism in the IL-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1ra) gene is closely associated with the severity of many inflammatory and autoimmune diseases, and may also play a role in the pathogenesis of sAML. We sought to confirm this finding in a large group of patients classified as having sAML. We found no differences in either the genotypic or allele frequencies of the polymorphism studied when compared with those of normal controls or other haematological disorders. No differences were observed in allele frequencies between younger and older patients, or between those patients who had an antecedent myelodysplasia and those who had received prior chemotherapy or radiotherapy. We conclude that the described polymorphism in the IL-1ra gene is not associated with the development of sAML. PMID:9557211

  17. Molecular mechanisms of the progression of myelodysplastic syndrome to secondary acute myeloid leukaemia and implication for therapy.

    PubMed

    Dan, Chunli; Chi, Jianxiang; Wang, Li

    2015-05-01

    Myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) includes a heterogeneous group of clonal haematological stem cell disorders characterized by dysplasia, cytopenias, ineffective haematopoiesis, and an increased risk of progression to acute myeloid leukaemia (AML), which is also called secondary AML (sAML). Approximately one-third of patients with MDS will progress to sAML within a few months to a few years, and this type of transformation is more common and rapid in patients with high-risk MDS (HR-MDS). However, the precise mechanisms underlying the evolution of MDS to sAML remain unclear. Currently, chemotherapy for sAML has minimal efficacy. The only method of curing patients with sAML is allogeneic haematopoietic stem cell transplantation (Allo-HSCT). Unfortunately, only a few patients are appropriate for transplantation because this disease primarily affects older adult patients. Additionally, compared to de novo AML, sAML is more difficult to cure, and the prognosis is often worse. Therefore, it is important to clarify the molecular mechanisms of the progression of MDS to sAML and to explore the potent drugs for clinical use. This review will highlight several molecular mechanisms of the progression of MDS to sAML and new therapeutic strategies of this disease. PMID:25861829

  18. Acute admissions of patients with sickle cell disease who live in Britain.

    PubMed Central

    Brozovi?, M; Davies, S C; Brownell, A I

    1987-01-01

    All acute admissions of patients with sickle cell disease who lived in the London borough of Brent and attended this hospital were analysed for a period of one year. Sixty three of the 211 patients who were followed up by the haematology department required 161 acute admissions during the year. Most admissions (126) were for the 42 patients with homozygous sickle cell disease; 147 (91%) were for vaso-occlusive episodes, 142 of which were for painful crises, three for cerebrovascular accidents, and two for renal papillary necrosis. Preschool children with sickle cell disease were admitted predominantly with limb pain, whereas in schoolchildren and adults the incidence of trunk pain was higher. Twenty four of the 93 episodes of trunk pain culminated in an episode of severe visceral sequestration usually affecting the lungs, the liver, or the mesenteric circulation. Two patients died: an 18 month old baby with an acute splenic sequestration crisis and a 19 year old man with a severe girdle syndrome (sickling in the mesenteric circulation, liver, and lungs). Infective episodes were rare (11 episodes) but severe: one haemophilus meningitis, two salmonella infections, and three aplastic crises due to parvovirus infections. The average duration of the hospital stay was 7.4 days per admission. It is concluded that because sickle cell disease causes appreciable morbidity in older children, adolescents, and adults a systematic approach to management is needed to deal with acute episodes such as sequestration syndromes. PMID:3109583

  19. Toxicological evaluation of jimson weed (Datura stramonium) seed.

    PubMed

    Dugan, G M; Gumbmann, M R; Friedman, M

    1989-08-01

    Diets containing 0.5, 1.58 and 5.0% jimson weed seed were fed to male and female rats (20/group) in a 90-day subchronic feeding study. The alkaloid content was 2.71 mg atropine and 0.66 mg scopolamine/g of seed. Gross clinical observations, body weights and feed and water intakes were recorded weekly. Tear production and pupil dilation measurements were made throughout the study. At 90 days, all of the animals were autopsied and clinical-chemistry analyses, complete haematology and bone-marrow evaluation for evidence of clastogenic effects were performed. Tissues from control (0% seed) and high-dose animals were examined histologically. The principal effects of jimson weed seed were: decreased body-weight gain, serum albumin and serum calcium; increased liver and testes weights (as a percentage of body weight), serum alkaline phosphatase and blood urea nitrogen. Female rats showed more marked responses to jimson weed seed than did males. In addition to the effects seen in both sexes, the females developed decreased serum total protein and cholesterol, and increased serum glutamic-pyruvic transaminase and chloride, red blood cell count, haemoglobin concentration and packed red cell volume. No histological lesions were associated with ingestion of jimson weed seed at 5.0%. It is concluded that jimson weed seed at concentrations of 0.5% or more in the diet produced adverse physiological changes in rats. PMID:2792973

  20. Focus on quetiapine.

    PubMed

    Green, B

    1999-01-01

    Quetiapine fumarate is a novel dibenzothiazepine antipsychotic developed by Zeneca. It is marketed under the trade name 'Seroquel'. Quetiapine is well tolerated and clinically effective in the treatment of schizophrenia. The initial hope of investigators was that quetiapine would have antipsychotic potential and that it might share some of the properties of clozapine without its toxicity to white blood cells. The effective dosage range is usually 300-450 mg/day split into two doses. The dose is titrated upwards from 25 mg twice daily from day 1 to 300 mg/day on day 4. Elderly patients or patients with liver problems should be started on lower doses. It is both superior to placebo and comparable to haloperidol in reducing positive symptoms at doses ranging from 150 mg/day to 750 mg/day, and is an effective treatment for negative symptoms. Somnolence is the most common adverse event. Abnormalities of the QT interval on ECG appear very infrequently and there is no need for a baseline ECG or blood pressure monitoring, as used to be the case with sertindole. There is no need for haematological monitoring as with clozapine. Quetiapine, across the full dosage range, is associated with no greater extrapyramidal symptoms than placebo. Quetiapine's general efficacy and side-effect profile suggest that, unless there are unforeseen post-marketing complications, it deserves a major place in the initial and long-term management of schizophreniform disorders. PMID:10621920

  1. Leptospirosis acquisition following the reintroduction of wildlife.

    PubMed

    Gelling, M; Zochowski, W; Macdonald, D W; Johnson, A; Palmer, M; Mathews, F

    2015-10-31

    Potential risks posed to domestic animals and human beings by zoonotic diseases in reintroduced animals can reduce the acceptability of reintroductions. The authors investigated the role of endangered water voles, Arvicola amphibius, as a host for leptospirosis, a waterborne zoonosis affecting a range of mammals. Based on samples from 112 individuals from across the UK, a 6.2 per cent exposure rate was found (7 animals were microscopic agglutination test (MAT) positive for serum antibodies), with 4 of 11 sites having positive animals. No individual was actively excreting leptospires in urine (PCR urine test, 0 per cent positive). The acquisition of Leptospira species by a cohort of 'clean' captive-bred voles reintroduced to one site in the wild was then examined. By four months postrelease the maximum exposure prevalence (by either MAT or culture) was 42.9 per cent. Thirty-five per cent were actively excreting leptospires. The rapidity of leptospire acquisition and comparatively high prevalence of infectious individuals is notable, exceeding expectation based on wild voles. One possible explanation is a lack of immunocompetence in reintroduced voles. Analyses of haematological parameters from reintroduced voles suggest a link between prior condition and disease acquisition. There may be potential to select the fittest animals before release to maximise reintroduction success. PMID:26483277

  2. Warfarin Management Pathway: A clear and safe algorithm, from admission to discharge.

    PubMed Central

    Hart-George, Alice

    2014-01-01

    Warfarin is the most commonly prescribed anticoagulant in the UK and the one most frequently associated with both fatal medication errors and litigation claims [1]. Its life-threatening interactions and side effects are a concern for all doctors. Identifying and implementing solutions to achieve safer prescribing and monitoring is imperative to improve patient safety. The National Patient Safety Agency (NPSA) has outlined the major risks associated with anticoagulant therapy and sought to establish safer practice [1]. The monitoring of safety indicators has been highlighted as a solution. This quality improvement project (QIP) introduces a management algorithm for oral anticoagulant therapy in hospital patients, validated through a completed audit cycle. It was completed at one district general hospital (DGH) in England and involved all inpatient wards. Doctors and pharmacists were interviewed to assess their knowledge of the correct pathways for management of patients on warfarin. The number of errors on hospital warfarin charts was audited over three weeks. These results, coupled with senior haematological advice led to the production of an algorithm illustrating the gold-standard pathway for warfarin management from admission to discharge. It was emailed to all doctors in the Trust and a laminated copy attached to hospital Pneumatic Tube System (PTS) machines. The warfarin charts were re-audited over the following three weeks. The results showed a marked decrease in errors and incomplete anticoagulation referrals as well as a reduction in doctors’ anxiety around prescribing warfarin.

  3. Molecular basis of iron-loading disorders.

    PubMed

    Darshan, Deepak; Frazer, David M; Anderson, Gregory J

    2010-01-01

    Iron-loading disorders (haemochromatosis) represent an important class of human diseases. Primary iron loading results from inherited disturbances in the mechanisms regulating intestinal iron absorption, such that excess iron is taken up from the diet. Body iron load can also be increased by repeated blood transfusions (secondary iron loading), usually as part of the treatment for various haematological disorders. In these syndromes, an element of enhanced iron absorption is also often involved. The central regulator of body iron trafficking is the liver-derived peptide hepcidin. Hepcidin limits iron entry into the plasma from macrophages, intestinal enterocytes and other cells by binding to the sole iron-export protein ferroportin, and facilitating its removal from the plasma membrane. Mutations in hepcidin or its upstream regulators (HFE, TFR2, HFE2 and BMP6) lead to reduced or absent hepcidin expression and a concomitant increase in iron absorption. Mutations in ferroportin that prevent hepcidin binding produce a similar result. Increased ineffective erythropoiesis, which often characterises erythrocyte disorders, also leads to reduced hepcidin expression and increased absorption. Recent advances in our understanding of hepcidin and body iron homeostasis provide the potential for a range of new diagnostic and therapeutic tools for haemochromatosis and related conditions. PMID:21054916

  4. Lenalidomide for myelodysplastic syndromes with del(5q): how long should it last?

    PubMed

    Vozella, Federico; Latagliata, Roberto; Carmosino, Ida; Volpicelli, Paola; Montagna, Chiara; Romano, Angela; Roberto, Amanda; Finsinger, Paola; Mancini, Marco; Breccia, Massimo; Oliva, Esther; Oliva, Esther

    2015-03-01

    Lenalidomide induces in patients with myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) and del(5q) erythroid and cytogenetic response rates as high as 75% and 50%, respectively. It is still unclear, however, how long lenalidomide treatment should be continued and whether or not the drug could be interrupted. To assess the feasibility of lenalidomide discontinuation, we revised a cohort of 16 low-risk MDS patients with del(5q) treated at our institute in a phase II multicentric Italian study. Among the 12 responding patients, four discontinued lenalidomide while in complete response. All four patients needed during treatment a permanent lenalidomide reduction from 10 to 5?mg/day because of haematological toxicity (three patients) or grade 3 muscular and bone pain (one patient). At lenalidomide discontinuation after 16, 20, 27 and 20?months from the start, respectively, all four patients were in complete hematologic response and three forth in complete cytogenetic response. Three patients are still in response after 36, 30 and 20?months from lenalidomide discontinuation, respectively: The remaining patient relapsed after 20?months, and she is now receiving a new course of lenalidomide. In conclusion, long-lasting remissions are achievable in MDS patients with del(5q) in complete response after lenalidomide discontinuation. PMID:25950027

  5. Generalized sarcoidosis in two horses.

    PubMed

    Reijerkerk, E P R; Veldhuis Kroeze, E J B; Sloet van Oldruitenborgh-Oosterbaan, M M

    2008-08-15

    Equine sarcoidosis is a rare disorder usually characterized by exfoliative dermatitis, moderate to severe wasting, and sarcoidal granulomatous inflammation of multiple organ systems. It has an unknown aetiopathogenesis. The condition is not related to equine sarcoid. This case report describes generalized cutaneous and systemic sarcoidosis in an 11-year-old Trakehner mare (case A) and in a 7-year-old Dutch Warmblood gelding (case B). Case A was presented with cutaneous sarcoidosis on the head and body and was diagnosed on the basis of histological examination of skin. Case B presented with multiple subcutaneous nodules (2-15 cm in diameter) and the diagnosis was established at postmortem examination. Both horses showed distinctive histology of the skin with extensive lymphohistiocytic infiltration and Langhans-type multinucleated giant cells. Haematology and biochemistry revealed a normal total white blood cell count with a right shift in both horses. Case B was anaemic and had a slightly elevated total protein concentration with hyperglobulinaemia. Both horses were unresponsive to corticosteroids and were euthanized. PMID:18788186

  6. Molecular biomarkers in grey seals (Halichoerus grypus) to evaluate pollutant exposure, health and immune status.

    PubMed

    Lehnert, K; Müller, S; Weirup, L; Ronnenberg, K; Pawliczka, I; Rosenberger, T; Siebert, U

    2014-11-15

    Grey seals as top-predators bioaccumulate contaminants and can be considered as sentinels of eco-system health. Pups are weaned after a short nursing period, characterised by an enormous lipid transfer and exposure to contaminants. This study established molecular biomarkers of the xenobiotic metabolism and immune system to help assess health and immune status. mRNA transcription of AHR, ARNT, PPAR? and cytokine IL-2 and heat-shock-protein HSP70 was measured in blood of grey seal pups and adults in rehabilitation and permanent care using RT-qPCR and compared to rehabilitating harbour seal pups and haematology values. In pups highest levels at admission in xenobiotic biomarker, HSP70 and cytokine transcription may show contaminant exposure via lactation, stress during abandonment and dehydration. The significant decrease may be linked to diet, health improvement and adaptation. Adults showed higher levels and more variation in biomarker transcription and clear species-specific differences between harbour and grey seal pups were found. PMID:25220314

  7. Diagnostic Performance of 1?3-?-d-Glucan in Neonatal and Pediatric Patients with Candidemia

    PubMed Central

    Montagna, Maria Teresa; Coretti, Caterina; Lovero, Grazia; De Giglio, Osvalda; Montagna, Osvaldo; Laforgia, Nicola; Santoro, Nicola; Caggiano, Giuseppina

    2011-01-01

    Fungal sepsis is one of the major problems in neonatal and pediatric care unit settings. The availability of new diagnostic techniques could allow medical practitioners to rapidly identify septic patients and to improve their outcome. The aim of this study was to evaluate the performance of the 1?3-?-d-glucan (BDG), individually and in comparison with the Candida mannan (CM) antigen, in ten preterm infants and five onco-haematological pediatric patients with Candida bloodstream infections already proven by positive culture. The serum levels of BDG were >80 pg/mL on the same day as a positive blood culture in all examined patients, while CM antigen was negative in the patients with C. parapsilosis fungemia and in one further case due to C. albicans. These results suggest that a regular monitoring of serum circulating antigens (i.e., 1?3-?-d-glucan) combined with other microbiological and clinical information, may allow earlier and accurate diagnosis. However, further studies are necessary to confirm its usefulness in routine clinical practice. PMID:22016633

  8. Prevalence of HIV-related autoimmune haemolytic anaemia in Lagos, Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Adewumi, A Adediran; Titilope, A Adeyemo; Osamuedemen, V Aghayere; Vincent, O Osunkalu; Akinsegun, A Akinbami; Dapus, O Damulak; Sulaimon, A Akanmu

    2014-01-01

    Background: Despite a high frequency of anaemia, a positive direct antiglobulin test (DAT) and bone marrow hyperplasia HIV-infected patients, lack of reticulocytosis may cause underdiagnosis autoimmune haemolytic anaemia (AIHA) in them. This study was carried out to determine the prevalence of autoimmune haemolytic anaemia in HIV-infected patients and to compare the haematological/immunological characteristics of subjects with anaemia and those without. Materials and Methods: A total of 350 HIV-infected subjects attending the Lagos University Teaching Hospital who consented were recruited for the study. This included 250 subjects with anaemia (haemoglobin concentration <10 g/dl) as cases and 100 subjects without anaemia as controls. Five milliliters of venous blood drawn from each subject was used for the full blood count, reticulocyte count and DAT. Results: Subjects with anaemia had lower mean CD4 cell count (284.3 cells/?l) and higher mean reticulocyte per cent (1.5%) than the non-anaemic subjects. The frequency of reticulocytosis was higher in female subjects than in males. Only 0.8% (2 of 250) of the study group screened positive to DAT, p = 0.0339. None of the subjects in control group screened positive to DAT. Conclusion: Autoimmune haemolytic anaemia is a rare complication of HIV infection in our geographical location. PMID:24970973

  9. Long-term complete responses after 131I-tositumomab therapy for relapsed or refractory indolent non-Hodgkin's lymphoma

    PubMed Central

    Buchegger, F; Antonescu, C; Delaloye, A Bischof; Helg, C; Kovacsovics, T; Kosinski, M; Mach, J-P; Ketterer, N

    2006-01-01

    We present the long-term results of 18 chemotherapy relapsed indolent (N=12) or transformed (N=6) NHL patients of a phase II anti-CD20 131I-tositumomab (Bexxar®) therapy study. The biphasic therapy included two injections of 450?mg unlabelled antibody combined with 131I-tositumomab once as dosimetric and once as therapeutic activity delivering 75 or 65?cGy whole-body radiation dose to patients with normal or reduced platelet counts, respectively. Two patients were not treated due to disease progression during dosimetry. The overall response rate was 81% in the 16 patients treated, including 50% CR/CRu and 31% PR. Median progression free survival of the 16 patients was 22.5 months. Median overall survival has not been reached after a median observation of 48 months. Median PFS of complete responders (CR/CRu) has not been reached and will be greater than 51 months. Short-term side effects were mainly haematological and transient. Among the relevant long-term side effects, one patient previously treated with CHOP chemotherapy died from secondary myelodysplasia. Four patients developed HAMA. In conclusion, 131I-tositumomab RIT demonstrated durable responses especially in those patients who achieved a complete response. Six of eight CR/CRu are ongoing after 46–70 months. PMID:16685263

  10. A phase 2 multicentre study of siltuximab, an anti-interleukin-6 monoclonal antibody, in patients with relapsed or refractory multiple myeloma.

    PubMed

    Voorhees, Peter M; Manges, Robert F; Sonneveld, Pieter; Jagannath, Sundar; Somlo, George; Krishnan, Amrita; Lentzsch, Suzanne; Frank, Richard C; Zweegman, Sonja; Wijermans, Pierre W; Orlowski, Robert Z; Kranenburg, Britte; Hall, Brett; Casneuf, Tineke; Qin, Xiang; van de Velde, Helgi; Xie, Hong; Thomas, Sheeba K

    2013-05-01

    Interleukin-6 (IL6) plays a central role in multiple myeloma pathogenesis and confers resistance to corticosteroid-induced apoptosis. We therefore evaluated the efficacy and safety of siltuximab, an anti-IL6 monoclonal antibody, alone and in combination with dexamethasone, for patients with relapsed or refractory multiple myeloma who had ? 2 prior lines of therapy, one of which had to be bortezomib-based. Fourteen initial patients received siltuximab alone, 10 of whom had dexamethasone added for suboptimal response; 39 subsequent patients were treated with concurrent siltuximab and dexamethasone. Patients received a median of four prior lines of therapy, 83% were relapsed and refractory, and 70% refractory to their last dexamethasone-containing regimen. Suppression of serum C-reactive protein levels, a surrogate marker of IL6 inhibition, was demonstrated. There were no responses to siltuximab but combination therapy yielded a partial (17%) + minimal (6%) response rate of 23%, with responses seen in dexamethasone-refractory disease. The median time to progression, progression-free survival and overall survival for combination therapy was 4.4, 3.7 and 20.4 months respectively. Haematological toxicity was common but manageable. Infections occurred in 57% of combination-treated patients, including ? grade 3 infections in 18%. Further study of siltuximab in modern corticosteroid-containing myeloma regimens is warranted, with special attention to infection-related toxicity. PMID:23432640

  11. Trypanosoma cruzi: desferrioxamine decreases mortality and parasitemia in infected mice through a trypanostatic effect.

    PubMed

    Arantes, Jerusa Marilda; Francisco, Amanda Fortes; de Abreu Vieira, Paula Melo; Silva, Maisa; Araújo, Márcio Sobreira Silva; de Carvalho, Andréa Teixeira; Pedrosa, Maria Lúcia; Carneiro, Cláudia Martins; Tafuri, Washington Luiz; Martins-Filho, Olindo Assis; Elói-Santos, Silvana Maria

    2011-08-01

    Desferrioxamine (DFO) is a potent iron chelator that is also known to modulate inflammation and act as an efficient antioxidant under normal conditions and under oxidative stress. Many in vitro and in vivo studies have shown the efficacy of DFO in the treatment of viral, bacterial and protozoan infections. DFO is known to reduce the intensity of Trypanosoma cruzi infections in mice even during a course of therapy that is not effective in maintaining anaemia or low iron levels. To further clarify these findings, we investigated the action of DFO on mouse T. cruzi infection outcomes and the direct impact of DFO on parasites. Infected animals treated with DFO (5 mg/animal/day) for 35 days, beginning 14 days prior to infection, presented lower parasitemia and lower cumulative mortality rate. No significant effect was observed on iron metabolism markers, erythrograms, leukograms or lymphocyte subsets. In the rapid method for testing in vivo T. cruzi susceptibility, DFO also induced lower parasitemia. In regard to its direct impact on parasites, DFO slightly inhibited the growth of amastigotes and trypomastigotes in fibroblast culture. Trypan blue staining showed no effects of DFO on parasite viability, and only minor apoptosis in trypomastigotes was observed. Nevertheless, a clear decrease in parasite mobility was detected. In conclusion, the beneficial actions of DFO on mice T. cruzi infection seem to be independent of host iron metabolism and free of significant haematological side effects. Through direct action on the parasite, DFO has more effective trypanostatic than trypanocidal properties. PMID:21620835

  12. Characterization of lethal inhalational infection with Francisella tularensis in the common marmoset (Callithrix jacchus)

    PubMed Central

    Nelson, Michelle; Lever, Mark S.; Dean, Rachel E.; Savage, Victoria L.; Salguero, F. Javier; Pearce, Peter C.; Stevens, Daniel J.; Simpson, Andrew J. H.

    2010-01-01

    The intracellular Gram-negative pathogen Francisella tularensis is the causative agent of tularaemia and is prevalent in many countries in the northern hemisphere. To determine whether the common marmoset (Callithrix jacchus) would be a suitable non-human primate model of inhalational tularaemia, a pathophysiology study was undertaken. Ten animals were challenged with ?102?c.f.u. F. tularensis strain SCHU S4 (F. tularensis subsp. tularensis). To look for trends in the infection, pairs of animals were sacrificed at 24?h intervals between 0 and 96?h post-challenge and blood and organs were assessed for bacteriology, pathology and haematological and immunological parameters. The first indication of infection was a raised core temperature at 3?days post-challenge. This coincided with a number of other factors: a rapid increase in the number of bacteria isolated from all organs, more pronounced gross pathology and histopathology, and an increase in the immunological response. As the disease progressed, higher bacterial and cytokine levels were detected. More extensive pathology was observed, with multifocal lesions seen in the lungs, liver and spleen. Disease progression in the common marmoset appears to be consistent with human clinical and pathological features of tularaemia, indicating that this may be a suitable animal model for the investigation of novel medical interventions such as vaccines or therapeutics. PMID:20558585

  13. The applicability of the WHO classification in paediatric AML. A NOPHO-AML study.

    PubMed

    Sandahl, Julie D; Kjeldsen, Eigil; Abrahamsson, Jonas; Ha, Shau-Yin; Heldrup, Jesper; Jahnukainen, Kirsi; Jónsson, Ólafur G; Lausen, Birgitte; Palle, Josefine; Zeller, Bernward; Forestier, Erik; Hasle, Henrik

    2015-06-01

    The World Health Organization (WHO) classification of myeloid leukaemia was revised in 2008. It incorporates newly recognized entities and emphasizes the pivotal role of cytogenetic abnormalities. The aim of this study was to evaluate the usability of the WHO classification when applied to a large population-based paediatric acute myeloid leukaemia (AML) cohort. We included children diagnosed with de novo AML, 0-18 years of age from the Nordic countries and Hong Kong from 1993 to 2012. Data were retrieved from the Nordic Society for Paediatric Haematology and Oncology AML database and patients classified according to the WHO 2008 classification. A successful karyotype was available in 97% of the cases. AML with recurrent genetic abnormalities were present in 262 (41%) and 94 (15%) were classified as AML with myelodysplasia-related changes (AML-MDS). WHO classifies patients with monosomy 7 and del(7q) into one group. We found that -7 (n = 14) had significantly poorer outcome than del(7q) (n = 11); 5-year event-free survival 26% vs. 67%, (P = 0·02), and 5-year overall survival 51% vs. 90%, (P = 0·04). The largest group was the highly heterogeneous AML not otherwise specified (NOS) (n = 280) (44%). In conclusion, the WHO classification allocated 15% to AML-MDS, 44% to NOS and grouped together entities with clearly different outcome, therefore limiting the applicability of the current WHO classification in children with AML. PMID:25819835

  14. [Main concepts of preventive health care for the air staff of sea-based aviation].

    PubMed

    Mel'nik, S G; Chulaevski?, A O

    2013-08-01

    The authors researched the air-stuff and complex of adverse factors uncharacteristic for the air-staff of land-based aircraft. It was determined that adverse factors affect the air-staff foremost in 4-5 months of a blue-water sailing, except cardiovascular system diseases. In a month of a blue-water sailing was registered a hypotonic state. Systolic blood pressure varied from 100-105 mm Hg and lower, dystolic blood pressure varied from 60-65 mm Hg and lower. The lowest ranges of blood pressure were registered in three months after the beginning of the sailing. In the following, the hypotonic state, registered during the monthly medical examinations, remained till the end of the sailing. Normal averages of blood pressure were restored in two weeks after the end of sailing. Low red cell count (for more than 1100 points) was registered in 61.5% of patients, (for more than 550 points) in 38.4% of patients. Low white cell count (for more than 4800 points) was registered in 33.3% of patients, (for more than 3300 points) in 41% of patients, (for more than 1330 points) in 25% of patients. Input data was: red cell count--4250 points, white cell count--7300 points in 1 ml of blood. After the sailing haematological indices were restored. The authors suggested guidelines for primary and secondary disease prevention. PMID:24341020

  15. Modern approaches to HLA-haploidentical blood or marrow transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Kanakry, Christopher G.; Fuchs, Ephraim J.; Luznik, Leo

    2015-01-01

    Allogeneic blood or bone-marrow transplantation (alloBMT) is a potentially curative treatment for a variety of haematological malignancies and nonmalignant diseases. Historically, human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-matched siblings have been the preferred source of donor cells owing to superior outcomes compared with alloBMT using other donors. Although only approximately one-third of patients have an HLA-matched sibling, nearly all patients have HLA-haploidentical related donors. Early studies using HLA-haploidentical alloBMT resulted in unacceptably high rates of graft rejection and graft-versus-host disease (GVHD), leading to high nonrelapse mortality and consequently poor survival. Several novel approaches to HLA-haploidentical alloBMT have yielded encouraging results with high rates of successful engraftment, effective GVHD control and favourable outcomes. In fact, outcomes of several retrospective comparative studies seem similar to those seen using other allograft sources, including those of HLA-matched-sibling alloBMT. In this Review, we provide an overview of the three most-developed approaches to HLA-haploidentical alloBMT: T-cell depletion with ‘megadose’ CD34+ cells; granulocyte colony-stimulating factor-primed allografts combined with intensive pharmacological immunosuppression, including antithymocyte globulin; and high-dose, post-transplantation cyclophosphamide. We review the preclinical and biological data supporting each approach, results from major clinical studies, and completed or ongoing clinical studies comparing these approaches with other alloBMT platforms. PMID:26305035

  16. A practical guide for using registry data to inform decisions about the cost effectiveness of new cancer drugs: lessons learned from the PHAROS registry.

    PubMed

    Blommestein, Hedwig M; Franken, Margreet G; Uyl-de Groot, Carin A

    2015-06-01

    Decision makers increasingly request evidence on the real-world cost effectiveness of a new treatment. There is, however, a lack of practical guidance on how to conduct an economic evaluation based on registry data and how this evidence can be used in actual decision making. This paper explains the required steps on how to perform a sound economic evaluation using examples from an economic evaluation conducted with real-world data from the Dutch Population based HAematological Registry for Observational Studies. There are three main issues related to using registry data: confounding by indication, missing data, and insufficient numbers of (comparable) patients. If encountered, it is crucial to accurately deal with these issues to maximize the internal validity and generalizability of the outcomes and their value to decision makers. Multivariate regression modeling, propensity score matching, and data synthesis are well-established methods to deal with confounding. Multiple imputation methods should be used in cases where data are missing at random. Furthermore, it is important to base the incremental cost-effectiveness ratio of a new treatment compared with its alternative on comparable groups of (matched) patients, even if matching results in a small analytical population. Unmatched real-world data provide insights into the costs and effects of a treatment in a real-world setting. Decision makers should realize that real-world evidence provides extremely valuable and relevant policy information, but needs to be assessed differently compared with evidence derived from a randomized clinical trial. PMID:25644460

  17. Safety evaluation of sweet lupine (Lupinus albus cv. Multolupa). II. Nine-month feeding and multigeneration study in rats.

    PubMed

    Ballester, D R; Brunser, O; Saitúa, M T; Egańa, J I; Yáńez, E O; Owen, D F

    1984-01-01

    Sweet lupine Lupinus albus cv. Multolupa) flour containing 41.7% protein and 0.025% lupanine was fed for 9 months to two generations of rats (F1 and F2) at a level that provided 20% dietary protein. The diets were supplemented with 0.2% DL-methionine. The control diet provided the same dietary protein level from defatted soya-bean flour, fish meal and dried skimmed milk. The lupine diet had no effect on the general condition, mortality or behaviour of the animals. The growth rate of males fed sweet lupine was significantly higher than that of the controls. Haematological parameters and tests of liver function were normal in all treatment groups. At autopsy there were no significant changes in the weight of the heart, kidney, spleen, brain and gonads. However, the relative weight of the liver of lupine-fed rats was significantly lower than that in the controls. The histology of the liver, like that of the other organs examined, was normal. The reproduction study did not reveal any adverse effect on fertility or lactation that could be attributed to ingestion of sweet lupine. This investigation did not disclose any deleterious effects through two generations of rats that were fed sweet lupine at a level that provided 20% dietary protein for 9 months. PMID:6537936

  18. Cardiac monitoring of patients receiving arsenic trioxide therapy.

    PubMed

    Unnikrishnan, Dilip; Dutcher, Janice P; Garl, Susan; Varshneya, Nikita; Lucariello, Richard; Wiernik, Peter H

    2004-03-01

    Arsenic trioxide (ATO) is approved for the treatment of acute promyelocytic leukaemia and is under investigation for other malignancies. We report the cardiac findings in 18 patients with haematologic malignancies treated with ATO and assess the role of cardiac factors in fluid retention syndrome observed during ATO therapy. Based on initial observations in 10 patients treated with ATO, cardiac functions in the subsequent eight patients were evaluated prospectively. Evaluation included pre- and during-treatment electrocardiograms, Holter monitoring, echocardiograms, multigated acquisition scan and cardiac stress tests if indicated. All eight patients developed fluid retention during ATO, evidenced by pulmonary congestion, oedema and pleural/pericardial effusions. No cardiac factors were identified that contributed to fluid retention. Six patients had prolonged corrected QT (QTc) compared with baseline, three developed ventricular tachycardia. Sinus tachycardia, ventricular premature contractions, and non-sustained ventricular/supraventricular tachycardia were seen during ATO treatment. Fluid retention and cardiac events did not correlate with the dose or total amount of ATO or prior anthracycline therapy. In summary, fluid overload during ATO therapy does not appear to be cardiac in origin but appears to be drug-related, and may reflect cytokine-induced capillary leak. QTc prolongation, transient arrhythmias and clinically significant arrhythmias were seen with therapeutic doses of ATO. PMID:14871247

  19. Broad spectrum antimicrobial compounds from the bacterium Exiguobacterium mexicanum MSSRFS9.

    PubMed

    Shanthakumar, S P; Duraisamy, Purushothaman; Vishwanath, Ganga; Selvanesan, Benson Chellakkan; Ramaraj, Vijayakumar; Vasantharaj David, B

    2015-09-01

    Clinical bacterial pathogens front a major challenge for the clinical researchers and physicians. In particular microbial pathogens like Escherichia coli, Shigella flexneri, Klebsiella pneumonia and Salmonella enterica are apparelled with systemic machineries to bring down the human immune system as well as proliferate dramatically in a short period which in turn cause a pronounced ailment to the human health. In vitro evaluation of four purified compounds isolated from rhizosphere bacterium Exiguobacterium mexicanum tested against clinical pathogens mentioned above by disc diffusion method showed the two compounds viz., 3,6,18-trione, 9,10-dihydro-12'-hydroxyl-2methyl-5-(phenyl methyl) (5'-alpha, 10-alpha)-dihydroergotamine (C3) and dipropyl - S-propyl ester (C4) exhibit antibacterial property against all the tested pathogens. Among the four clinical pathogens tested, compound C3 has shown higher zone of inhibition against S. enterica with 17±0 mm, followed by S. flexneri with 16.5±0.7 mm, E. coli with 15±0 mm and K. pneumoniae with 14±0 mm, respectively. The compound C4 has shown higher antimicrobial activity against S. enterica with 21.5±0.7 mm zone of inhibition, followed by S. flexneri with 19.5±0.7 mm, E. coli with 17±0 mm and K. pneumoniae with 16±0 mm, these two compounds were found to be safer when subjected to rat haematological and enzymatic analysis. PMID:26302848

  20. Cytostatic and apoptosis-inducing activity of boswellic acids toward malignant cell lines in vitro.

    PubMed

    Hostanska, Katarina; Daum, Gerhard; Saller, Reinhard

    2002-01-01

    Boswellic acids from frankincense were indentified as the active compounds which inhibit leukotriene biosynthesis, 5-lipoxygenase and exert antiproliferative activity toward a variety of malignant cells. Because of the relevance for the clinical application, we tested the ethanolic extract of Boswellia serrata gum resin containing a defined amount of boswellic acids for its cytotoxic, cytostatic and apoptotic activity on five leukemia (HL-60, K 562, U937, MOLT-4, THP-1) and two brain tumor (LN-18, LN-229) cell lines by WST-1 assay and flow cytometry. The Boswellia serrata extract induced dose-dependent antiproliferative effects on all human malignant cells tested with GI50 values (extract concentration producing 50% cell growth inhibition) between 57.0 and 124.1 micrograms/ml. In three haematological cell lines (K562, U937, MOLT-4) the effect of total extract expressed in GI50 was 2.8-, 3.3- and 2.3-times more potent (p < 0.05) than pure 3-O-acetyl-11-keto-beta-boswellic acid (AKBA). Morphological changes after 24-27 hours and the detection of apoptotic cells by AnnexinV-binding and/or by the detection of propidium iodide-labelled DNA with flow cytometry, confirmed the apoptotic cell death. The results of this study suggest the effectiveness of Boswellia serrata extract with defined content of boswellic acids. PMID:12530009

  1. A double-blind placebo-controlled study of fluvoxamine and imipramine in out-patients with primary depression.

    PubMed

    Itil, T M; Shrivastava, R K; Mukherjee, S; Coleman, B S; Michael, S T

    1983-01-01

    1 A double-blind placebo-controlled study of fluvoxamine and imipramine was performed in a group of depressed patients. Twenty-two patients received fluvoxamine (mean dose 101 mg/day), 25 received imipramine (mean dose 127 mg/day) and 22 received placebo. 2 Apart from an increase in the SGOT and SGPT values of four imipramine patients, no statistically significant changes in haematology or urinalysis were judged to be medically relevant. Fluvoxamine exhibited fewer anticholinergic side effects than imipramine. 3 Both fluvoxamine treated patients and imipramine-treated patients exhibited a statistically significant improvement at the end of the 28-day treatment period with respect to the placebo patients, as measured using the Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression, and the Clinical Global Impression Scale. Evaluations of the results of the Beck Depression Inventory and the Profile of Mood States revealed a statistically significant improvement for imipramine patients with respect to placebo at week 4, but not for fluvoxamine patients. It is postulated on the basis of quantitative pharmaco-EEG findings, that the slight superiority of imipramine over fluvoxamine was due to underdosing of the latter. PMID:6407504

  2. Effects of fenugreek (Trigonella foenum graecum) on gilthead seabream (Sparus aurata L.) immune status and growth performance.

    PubMed

    Awad, Elham; Cerezuela, Rebeca; Esteban, M Ángeles

    2015-08-01

    The possible effect of dietary administration of fenugreek (Trigonella foenum graecum) on gilthead seabream (Sparus aurata L.) immune status and growth performance was studied. Fish were divided into 4 groups before being fed with commercial diet supplemented with 0% (control), 1%, 5% and 10% of fenugreek seeds for 4 weeks. The effects of the diets were analysed on the cellular (respiratory burst activity and leucocyte peroxidase content) and humoral (complement activity, antiprotease, total protein, peroxidase, and IgM level) immune parameters, as well as growth and haematological parameters (WBC and RBC counts). The results recorded enhancement in all the assayed parameters in fish fed fenugreek diets comparing to control fish. The expression of several immune-related genes in head-kidney (MHC1, CSF-1R, IL-8, and IgM) and different antioxidant enzyme genes in liver (GR, CAT and SOD) of seabream specimens were also investigated. Again, the highest fenugreek doses tested provoked significant up-regulation in most of immune-related genes and antioxidant enzyme genes (p < 0.05). No adverse effects were observed on intestine and liver morphology on fish fed fenugreek diets. The present results suggest that the fenugreek seed, specially the highest dosage used in the present work could be considered a good food supplement to improve the immune status and increase the production of gilthead seabream. PMID:25956720

  3. Reversible antispermatogenic and antisteroidogenic activities of Feronia limonia fruit pulp in adult male rats

    PubMed Central

    Dhanapal, Ramaiyan; Ratna, J.Vijaya; Sarathchandran, I.; Gupta, Malaya

    2012-01-01

    Objective To explore the antispermatogenic and testicular antisteroidogenic activities of Feronia limonia fruit pulp southern India. Methods Fourty Wistar male albino rats (Rattus norvegicus) were equally divided into four groups. Experimental groups were administered with the ethanolic extract of Feronia limonia (F. limoni) fruit pulp at doses of 250 and 500 mg/kg body weight once daily for 55 days. All treated rats had corresponding recovery groups. At the end of each treatment periods, various spermatological indices, tissue biochemicals and testicular enzymes levels were analysed. Blood profiles were also estimated. Results Compared with the control, the F. limonia fruit pulp at both dose levels did not decrease body weight, which were associated with decline in epididymal sperm count, motility, viability and increased percent of abnormal sperm. Further, F. limonia fruit pulp at 500 mg/kg body weight markedly reduced the epididymal and testicular protein content by 24.58% and 29.86%, respectively, as well as the glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase and ?5-3?-hydroxy steroid dehydrogenase) levels by 42.82% and 38.08%, respectively, while a significant elevation was observed in testicular cholesterol and ascorbic acid content. A gradual recovery of all parameters was observed after 55 days of treatment withdrawal. No significant alterations in haematological indices were observed. Conclusions The present findings indicate that F. limonia fruit pulp may have reversible antispermatogenic and antisteroidogenic properties, and could partially support the traditional use as male contraceptive. PMID:23569995

  4. Influence of space flight conditions on phenotypes and functionality of nephritic immune cells of fish (Xiphophorus helleri)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piepenbreier, K.; Renn, J.; Fischer, R.; Goerlich, R.

    Microgravity is considered to directly perturb a number of immunological and haematological parameters in mammalians, and therefore is of fundamental importance in space biology. The viviparous teleost Xiphophorus helleri (swordtail) was used as a "lower vertebrate model" in the shuttle missions STS-89 (Small Payload) and STS-90 (NEUROLAB). When developing a regenerative aquatic system (like the Closed Equilibrated Biological Aquatic System - C.E.B.A.S.) to produce food fish on long-term space missions, we have to make sure that microgravity and other space conditions do not endanger the animals' health. Immunological aspects are very important in this field. The major research targets were immunological research of accessory (monocytes) and immunoreactive cells (lymphocytes) of the kidney from X. helleri, which were exposed to microgravity in comparison to ground control animals. Cell cycle analysis of the main haematopoetic organ (kidney), cell behaviour, cell cytochemistry, phagocytic ability and in vitro stimulation of immunoreactive cells from kidney after return to earth were investigated. The results are also important for basic research in immunotoxicology and developmental biology. As there is an interrelation between immune cells and bone metabolism, the investigations are also interesting for space medicine. Acknowledgement: This work was supported by the German Aerospace Center (DLR) (50 WB 9412, 50 WB 9996) and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA 98HEDS-02-418)

  5. A zebrafish model of Poikiloderma with Neutropenia recapitulates the human syndrome hallmarks and traces back neutropenia to the myeloid progenitor.

    PubMed

    Colombo, Elisa A; Carra, Silvia; Fontana, Laura; Bresciani, Erica; Cotelli, Franco; Larizza, Lidia

    2015-01-01

    Poikiloderma with Neutropenia (PN) is an autosomal recessive genodermatosis characterized by early-onset poikiloderma, pachyonychia, hyperkeratosis, bone anomalies and neutropenia, predisposing to myelodysplasia. The causative C16orf57/USB1 gene encodes a conserved phosphodiesterase that regulates the stability of spliceosomal U6-RNA. The involvement of USB1 in splicing has not yet allowed to unveil the pathogenesis of PN and how the gene defects impact on skin and bone tissues besides than on the haematological compartment. We established a zebrafish model of PN using a morpholino-knockdown approach with two different splicing morpholinos. Both usb1-depleted embryos displayed developmental abnormalities recapitulating the signs of the human syndrome. Besides the pigmentation and osteochondral defects, usb1-knockdown caused defects in circulation, manifested by a reduced number of circulating cells. The overall morphant phenotype was also obtained by co-injecting sub-phenotypic dosages of the two morpholinos and could be rescued by human USB1 RNA. Integrated in situ and real-time expression analyses of stage-specific markers highlighted defects of primitive haematopoiesis and traced back the dramatic reduction in neutrophil myeloperoxidase to the myeloid progenitors showing down-regulated pu.1 expression. Our vertebrate model of PN demonstrates the intrinsic requirement of usb1 in haematopoiesis and highlights PN as a disorder of myeloid progenitors associated with bone marrow dysfunction. PMID:26522474

  6. Investigation of human haemotropic Mycoplasma infections using a novel generic haemoplasma qPCR assay on blood samples and blood smears

    PubMed Central

    Tasker, Séverine; Peters, Iain R.; Mumford, Andrew D.; Day, Michael J.; Gruffydd-Jones, Timothy J.; Day, Sarinder; Pretorius, Anne-Marie; Birtles, Richard J.; Helps, Chris R.; Neimark, Harold

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to develop quantitative real-time (q)PCR assays to detect all known haemoplasma species, and a human housekeeping gene in order to demonstrate both successful DNA extraction from clinical samples and to test for sample inhibition, and to apply these qPCRs to human blood samples and blood smears. Sensitive and specific generic haemoplasma qPCR assays were developed to amplify haemoplasma species, as well as human glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) as an internal amplification control. An optimized technique for extracting DNA from stained blood smears was also developed. These methods were applied to anonymized blood samples obtained from 100 human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected South Africans and 920 UK patients undergoing haematological examination, and to 15 blood smears recruited from previous studies describing human haemoplasmosis. Human GAPDH levels were acceptable in all but three of the blood samples and all but two of the blood smears. The latter could have arisen due to DNA degradation due to the old age (over 35 years) of these smears. Haemoplasma infection was found in one HIV-infected South African, but the species could not be characterized due to the very low levels of DNA present. This report describes novel extraction and qPCR methodologies for haemoplasma screening. Previously reported human haemoplasmosis based on cytological diagnosis alone should be viewed with caution. PMID:20651038

  7. Haemotropic mycoplasmas

    PubMed Central

    Tasker, Séverine

    2010-01-01

    Practical relevance The feline haemotropic mycoplasmas (‘haemoplasmas') are a group of bacteria that can induce haemolytic anaemia in cats. Mycoplasma haemofelis is the most pathogenic of the species; ‘Candidatus Mycoplasma haemominutum’ and ‘Candidatus Mycoplasma turicensis’ are less pathogenic. The natural route of transmission of feline haemoplasma infection has not been confirmed, but fleas are implicated. When disease results, common clinical signs are pallor, lethargy, anorexia, weight loss, depression, dehydration and pyrexia. Treatment with tetracyclines or fluoroquinolones is usually effective at resolving clinical disease, but clearance of infection may not result. Global importance The feline haemoplasmas are found worldwide, although prevalence varies geographically. Patient group Older male non-pedigree cats are believed to be at increased risk of haemoplasma infection, although younger cats are possibly more likely to show clinical disease associated with M haemofelis. Clinical challenges The significance of feline haemoplasma infection is difficult to determine due to the existence of asymptomatic carrier cats and the variable pathogenicity of the haemoplasma species. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) results should be interpreted in the light of the patient's clinical signs and haematological findings, infecting haemoplasma species and level of haemoplasma DNA present in the blood. Trial antibiotic treatment for haemoplasmosis may be warranted in suspected cases while awaiting PCR results. Evidence base Aspects of feline haemoplasmosis, particularly risk factors, pathogenesis, diagnostic methods and treatment, have been the focus of much recent research. This article draws on the current evidence base with a view to helping clinicians diagnose and manage cases more effectively. PMID:20417898

  8. Paraneoplastic syndromes in patients with primary oral cancers: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Chapireau, David; Adlam, David; Cameron, Malcolm; Thompson, Mark

    2010-07-01

    The aim of this study was to review all the paraneoplastic syndromes of primary tumours of the oral cavity. Metastatic tumours of the mouth and primary tumours of the oropharynx (including tonsils), and major salivary glands were excluded. The primary search was conducted on PubMed, Scopus and EMBASE, and included every paraneoplastic syndrome from a primary oral tumour described in English, French, or German papers during the last 20 years. The secondary search was conducted by handpicking articles from reviews on paraneoplastic syndromes of the head and neck. The aim of the tertiary search was to identify conditions that had been reported only rarely. We then cross-referenced "mouth neoplasm" with every paraneoplastic condition cited in relevant review articles. We classified the paraneoplastic syndromes that arose from tumours of the head and neck into six categories: endocrine, dermatological, vascular and haematological, rheumatoid, ocular, and neurological. The following conditions are described in this review: syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone production, hypercalcaemia, hypercalcaemia-leucocytosis syndrome, ectopic production of beta-human chorionic gonadotrophin, Bazex syndrome, Sweet syndrome, tripe palm syndrome, pemphigus, pityriasis rotunda, neutrophilic leukemoid reaction, cerebral venous sinus thrombophlebitis, digital ischaemia, dermatomyositis, necrotising myopathy, autoimmune retinal degeneration, and subacute cerebellar degeneration. Paraneoplastic syndromes of the oral cavity are a heterogeneous group. Most syndromes occur from squamous cell carcinoma and their aetiology is poorly understood. They are important to recognise as they can be the presenting complaint of a malignant tumour, change the prognosis, and considerably reduce the quality of life. PMID:19833419

  9. Role of intravenous iron sucrose in correction of anemia in antenatal women with advanced pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Avantika; Rathore, Asmita Muthal; Manaktala, Usha; Gupta, Ashutosh; Gupta, Sangeeta

    2015-06-01

    The aim of this study is to observe rise in haematological parameters after treatment with iron sucrose in antenatal patients with moderate anemia with period of gestation 32 to 35 weeks. The study included 45 antenatal patients with period of gestation from 32 to 35 weeks having iron deficiency anemia with haemoglobin levels 7-9 g% and serum ferritin levels less than 12 ng/mL. Intravenous iron sucrose was given in the dose of 200 mg on alternate days, according to the calculated dose. The mean haemoglobin and red blood cell indices were compared on days 7, 14, 21, 28 and at the time of delivery from the baseline value. There was a statistically significant rise in haemoglobin value from baseline on days 14, 21, 28 as well as at the time of delivery (p value <0.0001). The mean rise in haemoglobin values was 0.56 g% on day 14, 1.44 g% on day 21 and 2.0 g% on day 28. At the time of delivery, mean haemoglobin was 11.24 g%. After 28 days of treatment, there was a statistically significant rise in the levels of serum ferritin from 10.33 ± 3.8 ng/mL to 36.89 ± 5.7 ng/mL. Thus, earlier response achieved by iron sucrose can be utilised in the patients presenting at an advanced period of gestation with iron deficiency anemia. PMID:25825567

  10. Genetics of rheumatoid arthritis contributes to biology and drug discovery.

    PubMed

    Okada, Yukinori; Wu, Di; Trynka, Gosia; Raj, Towfique; Terao, Chikashi; Ikari, Katsunori; Kochi, Yuta; Ohmura, Koichiro; Suzuki, Akari; Yoshida, Shinji; Graham, Robert R; Manoharan, Arun; Ortmann, Ward; Bhangale, Tushar; Denny, Joshua C; Carroll, Robert J; Eyler, Anne E; Greenberg, Jeffrey D; Kremer, Joel M; Pappas, Dimitrios A; Jiang, Lei; Yin, Jian; Ye, Lingying; Su, Ding-Feng; Yang, Jian; Xie, Gang; Keystone, Ed; Westra, Harm-Jan; Esko, Tőnu; Metspalu, Andres; Zhou, Xuezhong; Gupta, Namrata; Mirel, Daniel; Stahl, Eli A; Diogo, Dorothée; Cui, Jing; Liao, Katherine; Guo, Michael H; Myouzen, Keiko; Kawaguchi, Takahisa; Coenen, Marieke J H; van Riel, Piet L C M; van de Laar, Mart A F J; Guchelaar, Henk-Jan; Huizinga, Tom W J; Dieudé, Philippe; Mariette, Xavier; Bridges, S Louis; Zhernakova, Alexandra; Toes, Rene E M; Tak, Paul P; Miceli-Richard, Corinne; Bang, So-Young; Lee, Hye-Soon; Martin, Javier; Gonzalez-Gay, Miguel A; Rodriguez-Rodriguez, Luis; Rantapää-Dahlqvist, Solbritt; Arlestig, Lisbeth; Choi, Hyon K; Kamatani, Yoichiro; Galan, Pilar; Lathrop, Mark; Eyre, Steve; Bowes, John; Barton, Anne; de Vries, Niek; Moreland, Larry W; Criswell, Lindsey A; Karlson, Elizabeth W; Taniguchi, Atsuo; Yamada, Ryo; Kubo, Michiaki; Liu, Jun S; Bae, Sang-Cheol; Worthington, Jane; Padyukov, Leonid; Klareskog, Lars; Gregersen, Peter K; Raychaudhuri, Soumya; Stranger, Barbara E; De Jager, Philip L; Franke, Lude; Visscher, Peter M; Brown, Matthew A; Yamanaka, Hisashi; Mimori, Tsuneyo; Takahashi, Atsushi; Xu, Huji; Behrens, Timothy W; Siminovitch, Katherine A; Momohara, Shigeki; Matsuda, Fumihiko; Yamamoto, Kazuhiko; Plenge, Robert M

    2014-02-20

    A major challenge in human genetics is to devise a systematic strategy to integrate disease-associated variants with diverse genomic and biological data sets to provide insight into disease pathogenesis and guide drug discovery for complex traits such as rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Here we performed a genome-wide association study meta-analysis in a total of >100,000 subjects of European and Asian ancestries (29,880 RA cases and 73,758 controls), by evaluating ?10 million single-nucleotide polymorphisms. We discovered 42 novel RA risk loci at a genome-wide level of significance, bringing the total to 101 (refs 2 - 4). We devised an in silico pipeline using established bioinformatics methods based on functional annotation, cis-acting expression quantitative trait loci and pathway analyses--as well as novel methods based on genetic overlap with human primary immunodeficiency, haematological cancer somatic mutations and knockout mouse phenotypes--to identify 98 biological candidate genes at these 101 risk loci. We demonstrate that these genes are the targets of approved therapies for RA, and further suggest that drugs approved for other indications may be repurposed for the treatment of RA. Together, this comprehensive genetic study sheds light on fundamental genes, pathways and cell types that contribute to RA pathogenesis, and provides empirical evidence that the genetics of RA can provide important information for drug discovery. PMID:24390342

  11. Breed differences in humoral and cellular responses of lambs to experimental infection with the gastrointestinal nematode Teladorsagia circumcincta.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, Albin Mostaque; Sebastiano, Simone Rocco; Sweeney, Torres; Hanrahan, James Patrick; Glynn, Assumpta; Keane, Orla Mary; Mukhopadhya, Anindya; Thornton, Kevin; Good, Barbara

    2015-01-01

    While Texel lambs have increased resistance to infection with the gastrointestinal nematode Teladorsagia circumcincta compared to Suffolk lambs, the underlying resistance mechanisms are still unknown. The aim of this study was to compare parasitological, humoral and cellular responses of Texel and Suffolk lambs over time following a single experimental infection with T. circumcincta. Gastrointestinal nematode free (but not naďve) lambs received a single oral dose of 3?×?104 infective T. circumcincta larvae. The variables examined included worm burden, mucosal and serum IgA, abomasal mast cells and eosinophils, haematological parameters and plasma pepsinogen. Texel lambs had significantly lower worm burden on day 14 and lower plasma pepsinogen concentration from day 14 onwards than Suffolks and their response in mucosal IgA to infection occurred earlier. The results from the study suggest that an earlier local IgA response in the Texel contributes to the resistant characteristics of the breed, while the increased level of plasma pepsinogen in the Suffolk lambs implies greater abomasal tissue damage arising from the nematode infection. PMID:25827901

  12. Physiological changes during fasting in Ramadan.

    PubMed

    Meo, Sultan Ayoub; Hassan, Asim

    2015-05-01

    Fasting during Ramadan is one of the five fundamental pillars of Islam and mandatory for all healthy adult Muslims to fast from sunrise to sunset for a period of a month. During fasting, Muslims are required to refrain from all intakes of food, water, beverages, smoking and from sexual intercourse. Ramadan fasting causes many physiological, biochemical, metabolic and spiritual changes in the body. Ramadan Fasting increases the Red Blood Cells (RBCs), White Blood Cells (WBCs), platelet (PLT) count, High Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol (HDL-c), and decreases the blood cholesterol, triglycerides, Low Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol (LDL-c) and Very Low Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol (VLDL-c). Moreover, it reduces body weight, waist circumference, body mass index, body fat, blood glucose, systolic and diastolic blood pressure and anxiety levels. Furthermore, Ramadan fasting decreases the inflammation, pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-1b, IL-6, tumour necrosis factor a and cancer promotion. Among healthy adults, there are no adverse effects of Ramadan fasting on the brain, heart, lung, liver, kidney, haematologic, endocrine profile and cognitive functions. Ramadan fasting is a healthy non pharmacological means for minimizing the risk factors and improving health. Although Ramadan fasting is safe for all healthy individuals, but those with various illnesses such as diabetes mellitus, coronary artery disease, renal and eye illness should consult their physicians and firmly follow the scientific recommendations. PMID:26013791

  13. Progress in understanding the diagnosis and molecular genetics of macrothrombocytopenias.

    PubMed

    Favier, Remi; Raslova, Hana

    2015-09-01

    The inherited macrothrombocytopenias constitute a subgroup of congenital platelet disorders that is the best characterized from the genetic point of view. This clinically heterogeneous subgroup is characterized by a variable degree of bleeding but without predisposition to haematological malignancies, as seen in the two other subgroups. The classification of inherited thrombocytopenia is traditionally based on the description of different clinical and biological features, in particular the measurement of the mean platelet volume. In certain disorders, biochemical platelet components are abnormal, and their analyses are useful in diagnosis. However, these approaches present several limitations, and many cases remain undiagnosed, especially for patients without a clear family history. An analysis of genetic abnormalities was subsequently used for classification, demonstrating that some different clinical entities were, in fact, identical. The genomic approach that was used initially to accurately link some phenotypic diagnoses with the causal genetic alteration was positional cloning and DNA sequencing. More recently, next generation sequencing in the form of whole-genome or -exome sequencing and RNA sequencing has been developed. This review will focus on the progress in understanding the different macrothrombocytopenias that have been identified. PMID:25944497

  14. Identification and management of ocular lipid deposition in association with hyperlipidaemia in captive moray eels, Gymnothorax funebris Ranzani, Gymnothorax moringa (Cuvier) and Muraena retifera Goode and Bean.

    PubMed

    Clode, A B; Harms, C; Fatzinger, M H; Young, F; Colitz, C; Wert, D

    2012-09-01

    Ocular lipid deposition and its surgical management and possible association with systemic hyperlipidaemia in captive moray eels are described. Ophthalmologic examinations, haematology and plasma biochemistry analyses were performed on an initial population of captive moray eels (n=10): green moray, Gymnothorax funebris Ranzani; spotted moray, Gymnothorax morninga (Cuvier) and reticulated moray, Muraena retifera Goode and Bean. Recently captured green moray eels comprised the control group (n=9). Clinical signs compatible with ocular lipid deposition were identified in six of ten captive eels (60%) vs. none of the controls. Green moray eels in the initial captive population (n=5) had significantly higher total protein, triglyceride, cholesterol and aspartate amino transferase values than the control eels. Dietary management was attempted in all captive eels, and surgical intervention was performed in three eels, including two from a separate population, with improved ocular clarity within 1month post-operatively. Histopathological evaluation of surgical specimens and two eyes from an additional affected eel that died suggested ocular lipid deposition. Eels in captivity have an apparent predisposition for hyperlipidaemia and ocular lipid deposition. Although limited in this study and complicated by exhibit restraints, dietary management was minimally effective, while surgery improved ocular clarity. PMID:22631876

  15. Occupational status among adult survivors following allo-SCT.

    PubMed

    Winterling, J; Johansson, E; Wennman-Larsen, A; Petersson, L-M; Ljungman, P; Alexanderson, K

    2014-06-01

    Being in work or the equivalent is an important goal after allo-SCT and is used as an indicator of recovery. The aim was to elucidate occupational status and factors associated with work among SCT survivors. Adults in working age with a haematological disease (n=177) were followed up within a median of 8 (range 28) years post allo-SCT. Predictors of not being in work at all or working part-time because of sick leave, disability pension or early old-age pension were analyzed using logistic regression analyses. At diagnosis, 82% of the participants were working full-time and 2% were on sick leave or old-age pension. At follow-up, 52% were working full-time, 27% were working part-time and 17% were on sick leave, disability pension or old-age pension. Not working at all was associated with multi-morbidity (P=0.01) and poorer health (P=0.00). Working part-time was associated with a higher age at diagnosis (P=0.00), being a woman (P=0.03), being born abroad (P=0.03) and multi-morbidity (P=0.00). In conclusion, the majority of survivors were in paid work at follow-up; however, a substantial number were not working or worked part-time. PMID:24614841

  16. Circulating monocytes are activated in newly diagnosed type 1 diabetes mellitus patients.

    PubMed Central

    Josefsen, K; Nielsen, H; Lorentzen, S; Damsbo, P; Buschard, K

    1994-01-01

    Investigations in the BB rat and the non-obese diabetic (NOD) mouse have provided substantial evidence for the involvement of the monocyte/macrophage system in the development of type 1 diabetes mellitus. However, it is not known whether monocytes play the same role in the pathogenesis of human type 1 diabetes. We investigated this problem in a longitudinal study of 29 recent-onset type 1 diabetes mellitus patients. Monocyte chemotaxis, phagocytosis and superoxide production as well as metabolic and haematological parameters were studied immediately after diagnosis and 6 months later. At diagnosis the patients had activated casein and C5a chemotaxis (casein 70 +/- 9 versus 150 +/- 5 (mean +/- s.e.m.), P < 0.001; C5a 137 +/- 10 versus 158 +/- 5, P < 0.05 (activation immobilizes monocytes, reducing the measured values)), and activated superoxide production (3.6 +/- 0.3 versus 3.0 +/- 0.3, P < 0.05). After 6 months casein chemotaxis (115 +/- 16 versus 150 +/- 5, P < 0.05) and Candida phagocytosis (3.3 +/- 0.1 versus 2.8 +/- 0.2, P < 0.001) were still activated. There was no correlation with other clinical or paraclinical parameters. We conclude that the circulating monocytes in newly diagnosed type 1 diabetes patients are activated. It is reasonable to expect that monocytes at the local site of inflammation in pancreas are even further activated. This could play a pathogenic role in beta cell destruction. PMID:7994912

  17. Inclusion bodies in loggerhead erythrocytes are associated with unstable hemoglobin and resemble human Heinz bodies.

    PubMed

    Basile, Filomena; Di Santi, Annalisa; Caldora, Mercedes; Ferretti, Luigi; Bentivegna, Flegra; Pica, Alessandra

    2011-08-01

    The aim of this study was to clarify the role of the erythrocyte inclusions found during the hematological screening of loggerhead population of the Mediterranean Sea. We studied the erythrocyte inclusions in blood specimens collected from six juvenile and nine adult specimens of the loggerhead turtle, Caretta caretta, from the Adriatic and Tyrrhenian Seas. Our study indicates that the percentage of mature erythrocytes containing inclusions ranged from 3 to 82%. Each erythrocyte contained only one round inclusion body. Inclusion bodies stained with May Grünwald-Giemsa show that their cytochemical and ultrastructure characteristics are identical to those of human Heinz bodies. Because Heinz bodies originate from the precipitation of unstable hemoglobin (Hb) and cause globular osmotic resistance to increase, we analyzed loggerhead Hb using electrophoresis and high-performance liquid chromatography to detect and quantitate Hb fractions. We also tested the resistance of Hb to alkaline pH, heat, isopropanol denaturation, and globular osmosis. Our hemogram results excluded the occurrence of any infection, which could be associated with an inclusion body, in all the specimens. Negative Feulgen staining indicated that the inclusion bodies are not derived from DNA fragmentation. We hypothesize that amino acid substitutions could explain why loggerhead Hb precipitates under normal physiologic conditions, forming Heinz bodies. The identification of inclusion bodies in loggerhead erythrocytes allow us to better understand the haematological characteristics and the physiology of these ancient reptiles, thus aiding efforts to conserve such an endangered species. PMID:21538919

  18. Nitazoxanide for the treatment of intestinal protozoan and helminthic infections in Mexico.

    PubMed

    Romero Cabello, R; Guerrero, L R; Muńóz García, M R; Geyne Cruz, A

    1997-01-01

    A study to evaluate the efficacy and safety of nitazoxanide as a single agent for the treatment of a broad spectrum of mixed parasitic infections, both protozoa and helminths, was conducted at a primary school in San Pedro Tolimán, Querétaro, Mexico. Three faecal samples from 1824 adults and children were screened for the presence of oocysts, cysts, trophozoites, eggs or larvae of intestinal protozoa or helminths. Two hundred and forty-six adults and children infected with at least one protozoan and 2 helminths were given 7.5 mg/kg of nitazoxanide (500 mg to adults and 200 mg to children less than 12 years old) every 12 h for 3 consecutive days. Faecal samples were examined on days 6, 7, 8, 13, 14 and 15 (+/- 1) following initiation of treatment, using formalin-ether concentration and Kato-Katz egg counting. Treatment with nitazoxanide was 71-100% effective in eliminating evidence of infection with Entamoeba histolytica/E. dispar, Giardia duodenalis, Blastocystis hominis, Isospora belli, Enterobius vermicularis, Ascaris lumbricoides, Trichuris trichiura and Hymenolepis nana. Haematology and clinical chemistry values obtained before and after treatment remained unaffected by nitazoxanide. The drug was well tolerated, with only 15 patients (6.1%) reporting mild abdominal pain that lasted less than 24 h. PMID:9580117

  19. The non-invasive and automated detection of bovine respiratory disease onset in receiver calves using infrared thermography.

    PubMed

    Schaefer, A L; Cook, N J; Bench, C; Chabot, J B; Colyn, J; Liu, T; Okine, E K; Stewart, M; Webster, J R

    2012-10-01

    Bovine respiratory disease complex (BRD) causes considerable economic loss and biosecurity cost to the beef industry globally and also results in significant degradation to the welfare of affected animals. The successful treatment of this disease depends on the early, timely and cost effective identification of affected animals. The objective of the present study was to investigate the use of an automated, RFID driven, noninvasive infrared thermography technology to determine BRD in cattle. Sixty-five calves averaging 220 kg were exposed to standard industry practices of transport and auction. The animals were monitored for BRD using conventional biometric signs for clinical scores, core temperatures, haematology, serum cortisol and infrared thermal values over 3 weeks. The data collected demonstrated that true positive animals for BRD based on a gold standard including core temperature, clinical score, white blood cell number and neutrophil/lymphocyte ratio displayed higher peak infrared thermal values of 35.7±0.35 °C compared to true negative animals 34.9±0.22 °C (P<0.01). The study also demonstrated that such biometric data can be non-invasively and automatically collected based on a system developed around the animal's water station. It is concluded that the deployment of such systems in the cattle industry would aid animal managers and practitioners in the identification and management of BRD in cattle populations. PMID:22055252

  20. A Case Report on the Progression of Myeloid Sarcoma to Form Multiple Metastatic Deposits without Developing Acute Myeloid Leukaemia.

    PubMed

    Kohli, Sunita; Lee, Mark; Marshall, Scott

    2015-01-01

    Introduction. Myeloid sarcomas (MS) are rare tumours occurring at extramedullary sites. They are usually associated with other haematology disorders such as acute myeloid leukaemia, myelodysplastic syndrome, and chronic myeloproliferative neoplasms. They frequently occur with a diagnosis of acute myeloid leukaemia (AML) or with relapse of preexisting disease. Patients with myeloid sarcomas without history or evidence of myeloid leukaemia typically progress to form AML. Case Presentation. A case report of a patient diagnosed with an isolated myeloid sarcoma that rarely did not transform to AML but instead spread to form multiple myeloid sarcomas throughout the body. Discussion. This case identifies the risk of metastatic spread of these tumours rather than the development of AML which is poorly documented in the literature, due to the rarity of cases, and may be significant in the investigation and management of isolated myeloid sarcomas. This case highlights the need for clinicians to consider repeat cross-sectional imaging to investigate unexplained clinical decline or symptoms, when there is no sign of AML progression and to consider radiotherapy treatment early. PMID:26491577

  1. Pre-transplant comorbidity burden and post-transplant chronic graft-versus-host disease.

    PubMed

    Vaughn, Jennifer E; Gooley, Ted; Maziarz, Richard T; Pulsipher, Michael A; Bhatia, Smita; Maloney, David G; Sandmaier, Brenda M; Flowers, Mary E; Storb, Rainer; Sorror, Mohamed L

    2015-11-01

    The Haematopoietic Cell Transplantation-Comorbidity Index (HCT-CI) was designed as a predictor of non-relapse mortality after HCT. Chronic graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) contributes to mortality after HCT. Here, we investigated whether the HCT-CI could predict development of chronic GVHD or post-chronic GVHD mortality. We retrospectively analysed data from 2909 patients treated with allogeneic HCT for malignant and non-malignant haematological conditions at four institutions. In Cox regression models adjusted for potential confounders, increasing HCT-CI was not statistically significantly associated with the development of chronic GVHD [hazard ratio (HR) = 1·02, P = 0·34]. Yet, the index was associated with an increased risk of non-relapse mortality (HR = 1·29, P < 0·0001) as well as overall mortality (HR = 1·25, P < 0·001) following the development of chronic GVHD. The association between HCT-CI and post-chronic GVHD mortality was similar regardless of donor type or stem cell source. HCT-CI scores could be incorporated in the design of clinical trials for treatment of chronic GVHD. PMID:26194447

  2. A Case Report on the Progression of Myeloid Sarcoma to Form Multiple Metastatic Deposits without Developing Acute Myeloid Leukaemia

    PubMed Central

    Kohli, Sunita; Lee, Mark; Marshall, Scott

    2015-01-01

    Introduction. Myeloid sarcomas (MS) are rare tumours occurring at extramedullary sites. They are usually associated with other haematology disorders such as acute myeloid leukaemia, myelodysplastic syndrome, and chronic myeloproliferative neoplasms. They frequently occur with a diagnosis of acute myeloid leukaemia (AML) or with relapse of preexisting disease. Patients with myeloid sarcomas without history or evidence of myeloid leukaemia typically progress to form AML. Case Presentation. A case report of a patient diagnosed with an isolated myeloid sarcoma that rarely did not transform to AML but instead spread to form multiple myeloid sarcomas throughout the body. Discussion. This case identifies the risk of metastatic spread of these tumours rather than the development of AML which is poorly documented in the literature, due to the rarity of cases, and may be significant in the investigation and management of isolated myeloid sarcomas. This case highlights the need for clinicians to consider repeat cross-sectional imaging to investigate unexplained clinical decline or symptoms, when there is no sign of AML progression and to consider radiotherapy treatment early. PMID:26491577

  3. Hashimoto's thyroiditis and acute chest syndrome revealing sickle cell anemia in a 32 years female patient

    PubMed Central

    Igala, Marielle; Nsame, Daniela; Ova, Jennie Dorothée Guelongo Okouango; Cherkaoui, Siham; Oukkach, Bouchra; Quessar, Asmae

    2015-01-01

    Sickle cell anemia results from a single amino acid substitution in the gene encoding the ?-globin subunit. Polymerization of deoxygenated sickle hemoglobin leads to decreased deformability of red blood cells. Hashimoto's thyroiditis is a common thyroid disease now recognized as an auto-immune thyroid disorder, it is usually thought to be haemolytic autoimmune anemia. We report the case of a 32 years old women admitted for chest pain and haemolysis anemia in which Hashimoto's thyroiditis and sickle cell anemia were found. In our observation the patient is a young woman whose examination did not show signs of goitre but the analysis of thyroid function tests performed before an auto-immune hemolytic anemia (confirmed by a high level of unconjugated bilirubin and a Coombs test positive for IgG) has found thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) and positive thyroid antibody at rates in excess of 4.5 times their normal value. In the same period, as the hemolytic anemia, and before the atypical chest pain and anguish they generated in the patient, the search for hemoglobinopathies was made despite the absence of a family history of haematological disease or painful attacks in childhood. Patient electrophoresis's led to research similar cases in the family. The mother was the first to be analyzed with ultimately diagnosed with sickle cell trait have previously been ignored. This case would be a form with few symptoms because the patient does not describe painful crises in childhood or adolescence. PMID:26327979

  4. Genetically modified T cells in cancer therapy: opportunities and challenges.

    PubMed

    Sharpe, Michaela; Mount, Natalie

    2015-04-01

    Tumours use many strategies to evade the host immune response, including downregulation or weak immunogenicity of target antigens and creation of an immune-suppressive tumour environment. T cells play a key role in cell-mediated immunity and, recently, strategies to genetically modify T cells either through altering the specificity of the T cell receptor (TCR) or through introducing antibody-like recognition in chimeric antigen receptors (CARs) have made substantial advances. The potential of these approaches has been demonstrated in particular by the successful use of genetically modified T cells to treat B cell haematological malignancies in clinical trials. This clinical success is reflected in the growing number of strategic partnerships in this area that have attracted a high level of investment and involve large pharmaceutical organisations. Although our understanding of the factors that influence the safety and efficacy of these therapies has increased, challenges for bringing genetically modified T-cell immunotherapy to many patients with different tumour types remain. These challenges range from the selection of antigen targets and dealing with regulatory and safety issues to successfully navigating the routes to commercial development. However, the encouraging clinical data, the progress in the scientific understanding of tumour immunology and the improvements in the manufacture of cell products are all advancing the clinical translation of these important cellular immunotherapies. PMID:26035842

  5. Clinical and epidemiological patterns of Argentine haemorrhagic fever

    PubMed Central

    Maiztegui, J. I.

    1975-01-01

    The epidemiology of Argentine haemorrhagic fever (AHF) is closely related to cricetine rodents acting as natural hosts of Junin virus. The endemo-epidemic area, which has increased 5 times since the disease was first recognized 15-20 years ago, is located in a densely populated region of Argentina. It has been shown that the virus of LCM is active in humans and rodents of the AHF endemic area; this demonstrates the simultaneous presence of two arenaviruses pathogenic for man in a given geographic location. The disease is characterized by haematological, renal, neurological and cardiovascular changes. Electron microscopy and immunohistochemical studies have shown cytopathic changes, characteristic intracellular virus-like particles, and antigenic determinants of Junin virus in different organs from 9 cases of AHF. No deposits of immunoglobulins or C3 were found in the kidneys; in addition, an absence of fibrinogen and C3 in the hepatocytes and of immunoglobulins in the spleen was observed. These findings suggest a direct viral pathogenic action in the human disease. Ultrastructural and immunofluorescence studies in tissues of guinea-pigs inoculated with two strains of Junin virus revealed the presence of the same types of virus-like particles and antigenic determinants of Junin virus as were encountered in the human subjects with AHF. ImagesFig. 2Fig. 3 PMID:1085212

  6. A Study of the Effects of Latent Iron Deficiency on Measures of Cognition: A Pilot Randomised Controlled Trial of Iron Supplementation in Young Women

    PubMed Central

    Leonard, Alecia J.; Chalmers, Kerry A.; Collins, Clare E.; Patterson, Amanda J.

    2014-01-01

    Rates of iron deficiency are high amongst healthy young women. Cognitive impairment occurs secondary to iron deficiency in infants and children, but evaluation of the impact on cognition among young women is inconsistent. The aim was to determine the suitability of the IntegNeuro test battery for assessing cognitive function in iron-deficient and iron-sufficient young women. A pilot double-blinded, placebo-controlled intervention trial was conducted in iron-deficient (serum ferritin ? 20 ?g/L and haemoglobin > 120 g/L) and iron-sufficient young women (18–35 years). Cognitive function and haematological markers of iron status were measured at baseline and follow-up. Iron-deficient participants (n = 24) were randomised to receive placebo, 60 mg or 80 mg elemental iron daily supplements for 16 weeks. A control group of iron-sufficient participants (n = 8) was allocated to placebo. Change scores for Impulsivity and Attention were significantly greater in plasma ferritin improvers than in non-improvers (p = 0.004, p = 0.026). IntegNeuro was easy to administer and acceptable to young women. Based on the differences in Memory and Attention scores between iron-deficient participants on iron treatment and those on placebo, it was decided that between 26 and 84 participants would be required in each iron treatment group for an adequately powered extension of this pilot RCT. PMID:24959952

  7. Phenotypic screening of hepatocyte nuclear factor (HNF) 4-{gamma} receptor knockout mice

    SciTech Connect

    Gerdin, Anna Karin; Surve, Vikas V.; Joensson, Marie; Bjursell, Mikael; Edenro, Anne; Schuelke, Meint; Saad, Alaa; Bjurstroem, Sivert; Lundgren, Elisabeth Jensen; Snaith, Michael; Fransson-Steen, Ronny; Toernell, Jan; Bohlooly-Y, Mohammad . E-mail: mohammad.bohlooly@astrazeneca.com

    2006-10-20

    Using the mouse as a model organism in pharmaceutical research presents unique advantages as its physiology in many ways resembles the human physiology, it also has a relatively short generation time, low breeding and maintenance costs, and is available in a wide variety of inbred strains. The ability to genetically modify mouse embryonic stem cells to generate mouse models that better mimic human disease is another advantage. In the present study, a comprehensive phenotypic screening protocol is applied to elucidate the phenotype of a novel mouse knockout model of hepatocyte nuclear factor (HNF) 4-{gamma}. HNF4-{gamma} is expressed in the kidneys, gut, pancreas, and testis. First level of the screen is aimed at general health, morphologic appearance, normal cage behaviour, and gross neurological functions. The second level of the screen looks at metabolic characteristics and lung function. The third level of the screen investigates behaviour more in-depth and the fourth level consists of a thorough pathological characterisation, blood chemistry, haematology, and bone marrow analysis. When compared with littermate wild-type mice (HNF4-{gamma}{sup +/+}), the HNF4-{gamma} knockout (HNF4-{gamma}{sup -/-}) mice had lowered energy expenditure and locomotor activity during night time that resulted in a higher body weight despite having reduced intake of food and water. HNF4-{gamma}{sup -/-} mice were less inclined to build nest and were found to spend more time in a passive state during the forced swim test.

  8. NOTE: Skin and cutaneous melanocytic lesion simulation in biomedical optics with multilayered phantoms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Urso, P.; Lualdi, M.; Colombo, A.; Carrara, M.; Tomatis, S.; Marchesini, R.

    2007-05-01

    The complex inner layered structure of skin influences the photon diffusion inside the cutaneous tissues and determines the reflectance spectra formation. Phantoms are very useful tools to understand the biophysical meaning of parameters involved in light propagation through the skin. To simulate the skin reflectance spectrum, we realized a multilayered skin-like phantom and a multilayered skin phantom with a melanoma-like phantom embedded inside. Materials used were Al2O3 particles, melanin of sepia officinalis and a calibrator for haematology systems dispersed in transparent silicon. Components were optically characterized with indirect techniques. Reflectance phantom spectra were compared with average values of in vivo spectra acquired on a sample of 573 voluntary subjects and 132 pigmented lesions. The phantoms' reflectance spectra agreed with those measured in vivo, mimicking the optical behaviour of the human skin. Further, the phantoms were optically stable and easily manageable, and represented a valid resource in spectra formation comprehension, in diagnostic laser applications and simulation model implementation, such as the Monte Carlo code for non-homogeneous media.

  9. Experiment on ``discovery'' STS 51-C: Aggregation of red cells and thrombocytes in heart disease, hyperlipidaemia and other conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dintenfass, L.

    The aim of this experiment was to study aggregation of red cells in the blood of patients with ischaemic heart disease, diabetes, hyperlipidaemia, and (silent) cancer, and in two normal donors. Reconstituted blood using IgG was also used. The instrument, the automated slit-capillary photo-viscometer (100 kg weight) was set on the middeck of the Space Shuttle. An analogous instrument was at the Kennedy Space Center. Blood was obtained from donors, anticoagulated, and adjusted to haematocrit of 30% using native plasma. Experiments took place at 25°C, during which blood was forced to flow in the slit formed by two parallel glass plates. Macro and microphotography was carried out at specific intervals controlled by a computer. During stasis, lasting 6 minutes, aggregates (or clumps) of the red cells were formed. Results indicated that red cell aggregates do form under zero-G; that such aggregates are smaller than the ones obtained at one-G; that morphology is different, the zero-G showing rouleaux while one-G showing usual sludge-like clumps of red cells in all severe disorders. Platelets appeared to remain monodisperse under zero-G. Assuming that these data can be confirmed, one could suggest that zero-G affects cell-cell interaction, and may consequently influence the internal microstructure of the cell membrane and of the receptors, as well as their activity. Gravitational studies may thus open a new door on immunology and haematology in general.

  10. Subclinical pulmonary function defects following autologous and allogeneic bone marrow transplantation: relationship to total body irradiation and graft-versus-host disease

    SciTech Connect

    Tait, R.C.; Burnett, A.K.; Robertson, A.G.; McNee, S.; Riyami, B.M.; Carter, R.; Stevenson, R.D. )

    1991-06-01

    Pulmonary function results pre- and post-transplant, to a maximum of 4 years, were analyzed in 98 patients with haematological disorders undergoing allogeneic (N = 53) or autologous bone marrow transplantation (N = 45) between 1982 and 1988. All received similar total body irradiation based regimens ranging from 9.5 Gy as a single fraction to 14.4 Gy fractionated. FEV1/FVC as a measure of airway obstruction showed little deterioration except in patients experiencing graft-versus-host disease in whom statistically significant obstructive ventilatory defects were evident by 6 months post-transplant (p less than 0.01). These defects appeared to be permanent. Restrictive ventilatory defects, as measured by reduction in TLC, and defects in diffusing capacity (DLCO and KCO) were also maximal at 6 months post-transplant (p less than 0.01). Both were related, at least in part, to the presence of GVHD (p less than 0.01) or use of single fraction TBI with absorbed lung dose of 8.0 Gy (p less than 0.05). Fractionated TBI resulted in less marked restricted ventilation and impaired gas exchange, which reverted to normal by 2 years, even when the lung dose was increased from 11.0 Gy to between 12.0 and 13.5 Gy. After exclusion of patients with GVHD (30% allografts) there was no significant difference in pulmonary function abnormalities between autograft and allograft recipients.

  11. Arthropod-borne infections in travelled dogs in Europe

    PubMed Central

    Hamel, Dietmar; Silaghi, Cornelia; Pfister, Kurt

    2013-01-01

    Pet animal movement is ever increasing within the European Union and in that context canine vectorborne infections gained a considerable importance. Information on these infections in travelled dogs is nevertheless limited. A first prospective study on vector-borne infections was conducted in 106 dogs travelling from Germany to countries in South and South-East Europe. The dogs were screened prior to and consecutively up to three times after travel by haematological (Giemsa-stained buffy coat smears, Knott’s-Test), molecular biological (PCR) as well as serological (IFAT, DiroChek®-ELISA) methods for arthropod-borne infections. Seven animals were seropositive for antibodies against Babesia canis sspp., Leishmania spp. and/or Ehrlichia canis prior to travel to Italy, Spain, France, Croatia, Greece, or Hungary. In the consecutive screening after return there was no increase in the number of seropositive dogs. None was positive in direct methods. The mean duration of the stay was 17 days and 51% of the dogs were prophylactically treated with ectoparasiticidal formulations. Preliminary data from this study on canine vector-borne infections indicate a low risk for infection during a limited single stay in endemic countries. PMID:23477298

  12. New enzymatic assay of iron in serum.

    PubMed

    Fujita, T; Hamasaki, H; Furukata, C; Nonobe, M

    1994-05-01

    A new enzymatic method for assaying iron in serum samples, suitable for automated analyzers, is reported. Three reagent mixtures are used: dilution buffer (pH 3.0; ascorbate), reagent 1 (pH 6.7; apoaconitase), and reagent 2 (pH 7.7; citrate, magnesium, and isocitrate dehydrogenase). Sera are diluted with dilution buffer. Fe3+ is liberated from transferrin in sera under acidic conditions, and then reduced by ascorbate. Reagent 1 is added to diluted specimens, and apoaconitase is reactivated by Fe2+ at neutral pH. The resulting solutions are mixed with reagent 2, so that holoaconitase hydrolyzes citrate to isocitrate and the isocitrate and NADP+ are converted to 2-oxoglutarate, NADPH, and CO2. Serum iron is determined linearly up to 70 mumol/L, with within-run CVs < or = 2.4% and day-to-day CVs < or = 2.9%. This method (y) gives results correlating with those of a Reference Method (x) proposed by the International Committee for Standardization in Haematology: y = 0.98x + 0.38 mumol/L (n = 72, r = 0.996, Sylx = 0.63 mumol/L). The mean (+/- SD) serum iron concentrations measured by our method were 18.5 +/- 5.4 and 15.2 +/- 6.0 mumol/L for 63 males and 166 females, respectively. PMID:8174249

  13. Effects of dietary fructo-oligosaccharide supplementation on the growth performance, haemato-immunological parameters, gut microbiota and stress resistance of common carp (Cyprinus carpio) fry.

    PubMed

    Hoseinifar, Seyed Hossein; Soleimani, Narges; Ringř, Einar

    2014-10-28

    The present study was conducted to investigate the effects of dietary fructo-oligosaccharide (FOS) (0, 1, 2 and 3%) supplementation on the growth performance, haemato-immunological parameters, cultivable autochthonous (non-adherent) intestinal microbiota and stress resistance of common carp (Cyprinus carpio) fry (3·23 (SEM 0·14) g). These parameters were measured after feeding the carp fry with the experimental diets for 7 weeks. Dietary FOS supplementation had no significant effects on the growth performance and food intake of carp fry compared with the control treatment. It also had no significant effects on the following haematological parameters: erythrocyte count; leucocyte counts (WBC); haematocrit; Hb; mean corpuscular volume; mean corpuscular Hb content; mean corpuscular Hb concentration. However, WBC and respiratory burst activity were significantly affected by dietary FOS supplementation. Evaluation of the cultivable autochthonous intestinal microbiota revealed a significant increase in the levels of total viable heterotrophic aerobic bacteria and lactic acid bacteria in fish fed diets supplemented with 2 and 3% FOS. Furthermore, dietary FOS supplementation significantly increased the survival rate and stress resistance of carp fry compared with the control treatment. These results encourage conducting further research on the administration of FOS and other prebiotics in carp fry studies. PMID:25313574

  14. The hematopoietic regulator, ELF-1, enhances the transcriptional response to Interferon-? of the OAS1 anti-viral gene

    PubMed Central

    Larsen, Steven; Kawamoto, Shota; Tanuma, Sei-ichi; Uchiumi, Fumiaki

    2015-01-01

    Interferon (IFN) therapy is effective in treating cancers, haematological and virus induced diseases. The classical Jak/Stat pathway of IFN signal transduction leading to changes in transcriptional activity is well established but alone does not explain the whole spectrum of cellular responses to IFN. Gene promoters contain cis-acting sequences that allow precise and contextual binding of transcription factors, which control gene expression. Using the transcriptional response to IFN as a starting point we report a high frequency of tandem GGAA motifs in the proximal promoters of Interferon stimulated genes, suggesting a key regulatory action. Utilizing the well-characterized anti-viral gene, OAS1, as an example Interferon stimulated gene promoter containing such a duplicated GGAA motif, we have demonstrated a regulatory role of this promoter in response to IFN by mutation analysis. Furthermore, we identified ELF-1 as a direct binding factor at this motif. Additionally, recruitment of RB1 and SP1 factors to the promoter following IFN stimulation is shown. ELF-1 overexpression enhanced and knockdown of ELF-1 inhibited full activation of OAS1 by IFN stimulation. Collectively, ELF-1 binds an important duplicated GGAA cis-acting element at the OAS1 promoter and in cooperation with RB1 and SP1 recruitment contributes to regulation in response to IFN stimulation. PMID:26643049

  15. [Carcinoembryonic antigen as a marker of proliferative diseases of the lymphatic system in patients with chronic renal failure--case report].

    PubMed

    Janas, Marzena; Niemczyk, Stanis?aw; Mazur, Stanis?aw

    2014-10-01

    In patients with CKD, anaemia mainly develops due to a decreased renal synthesis of erythropoietin. The anaemia, both normochromic and normocytic, becomes more severe as the glomerular filtration rate progressively decreases. Tumor markers are used to detect or monitor proliferative diseases. Carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) is usually produced in the gastrointestinal tract, but its production is terminated before birth. The main application of this indicator is to monitor the treatment and the presence of metastases of colorectal cancer. We present a case of 86-year-old woman who was diagnosed with renal anaemia in stage 4 of chronic kidney disease (CKD), treated by periodic blood transfusions. This paper presents the difficulties in diagnosis and treatment of anemia with complex and different than renal origin anemia in patients with CKD. Patients require the detailed haematological diagnosis. Pointed out the usefulness of CEA in the diagnosis of lymphoma with co-existing renal failure. The use of erythropoietin in doses of nephrology allowed to avoid further blood transfusion. PMID:25518581

  16. Cyclophosphamide Alters the Gene Expression Profile in Patients Treated with High Doses Prior to Stem Cell Transplantation

    PubMed Central

    El-Serafi, Ibrahim; Abedi-Valugerdi, Manuchehr; Potácová, Zuzana; Afsharian, Parvaneh; Mattsson, Jonas; Moshfegh, Ali; Hassan, Moustapha

    2014-01-01

    Background Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation is a curative treatment for several haematological malignancies. However, treatment related morbidity and mortality still is a limiting factor. Cyclophosphamide is widely used in condition regimens either in combination with other chemotherapy or with total body irradiation. Methods We present the gene expression profile during cyclophosphamide treatment in 11 patients conditioned with cyclophosphamide for 2 days followed by total body irradiation prior to hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. 299 genes were identified as specific for cyclophosphamide treatment and were arranged into 4 clusters highly down-regulated genes, highly up-regulated genes, early up-regulated but later normalized genes and moderately up-regulated genes. Results Cyclophosphamide treatment down-regulated expression of several genes mapped to immune/autoimmune activation and graft rejection including CD3, CD28, CTLA4, MHC II, PRF1, GZMB and IL-2R, and up-regulated immune-related receptor genes, e.g. IL1R2, IL18R1, and FLT3. Moreover, a high and significant expression of ANGPTL1 and c-JUN genes was observed independent of cyclophosphamide treatment. Conclusion This is the first investigation to provide significant information about alterations in gene expression following cyclophosphamide treatment that may increase our understanding of the cyclophosphamide mechanism of action and hence, in part, avoid its toxicity. Furthermore, ANGPTL1 remained highly expressed throughout the treatment and, in contrast to several other alkylating agents, cyclophosphamide did not influence c-JUN expression. PMID:24466173

  17. Protective role of tea polyphenols in combination against radiation-induced haematopoietic and biochemical alterations in mice.

    PubMed

    Hu, Yuan; Cao, Jing-Jing; Liu, Ping; Guo, Dai-Hong; Wang, Ya-Ping; Yin, Jian; Zhu, Ying; Rahman, Khalid

    2011-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the radioprotective effects of tea polyphenols (TPs) in various combinations against radiation-induced damage in mice. Mice were divided into different groups: non-irradiated control, irradiated control, amifostine (43.6?mg/kg, i.v. 30?min before irradiation; positive control) and various combinations of tea polyphenols in different doses. The radioprotective effect on the haematopoietic system, serum cytokines and endogenous antioxidant enzymes were studied. TP50, containing approximately 50% of (-)-epigallochatechin-3-gallate in addition to other catechins, showed the greatest radioprotective effect against radiation-induced changes in haematological parameters (red blood cell count, white blood cell count and haemoglobin), and maintained the spleen and thymus indices unchanged (spleen or thymus weight/body weight?×?1000). Tea polyphenols also significantly decreased radiation-induced lipid peroxidation (malondialdehyde levels), elevated endogenous antioxidant enzymes (superoxide dismutase) and reduced the serum cytokines which were elevated in radiation-induced toxicity. This evidence shows the potential of tea polyphenols, particularly in the combination found in TP50, as radioprotectors in mice, especially regarding recovery of the haematopoietic system, antioxidant potential activity and reduction of inflammatory cytokines. PMID:21452375

  18. The oral iron chelator deferasirox inhibits NF-?B mediated gene expression without impacting on proximal activation: implications for myelodysplasia and aplastic anaemia.

    PubMed

    Banerjee, Ashish; Mifsud, Nicole A; Bird, Robert; Forsyth, Cecily; Szer, Jeff; Tam, Constantine; Kellner, Sybil; Grigg, Andrew; Motum, Penelope; Bentley, Mark; Opat, Stephen; Grigoriadis, George

    2015-02-01

    The myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS) are a group of disorders characterized by ineffective haematopoiesis, bone marrow dysplasia and cytopenias. Failure of red cell production often results in transfusion dependency with subsequent iron loading requiring iron chelation in lower risk patients. Consistent with previous reports, we have observed haematopoietic improvement in a cohort of patients treated with the oral iron chelator deferasirox (DFX). It has been postulated that MDS patients have a pro-inflammatory bone marrow environment with increased numbers of activated T cells producing elevated levels of tumour necrosis factor (TNF), which is detrimental to normal haematopoiesis. We demonstrate that DFX inhibits nuclear factor (NF)-?B dependent transcription without affecting its proximal activation, resulting in reduced TNF production from T cells stimulated in vitro. These results suggest that the haematopoietic improvement observed in DFX-treated patients may reflect an anti-inflammatory effect, mediated through inhibition of the transcription factor NF-?B and support the therapeutic targeting of this pathway, which is aberrantly activated in a large proportion of haematological malignancies. PMID:25271366

  19. Assessment of the requisites of microbiology based infectious disease training under the pressure of consultation needs

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Training of infectious disease (ID) specialists is structured on classical clinical microbiology training in Turkey and ID specialists work as clinical microbiologists at the same time. Hence, this study aimed to determine the clinical skills and knowledge required by clinical microbiologists. Methods A cross-sectional study was carried out between June 1, 2010 and September 15, 2010 in 32 ID departments in Turkey. Only patients hospitalized and followed up in the ID departments between January-June 2010 who required consultation with other disciplines were included. Results A total of 605 patients undergoing 1343 consultations were included, with pulmonology, neurology, cardiology, gastroenterology, nephrology, dermatology, haematology, and endocrinology being the most frequent consultation specialties. The consultation patterns were quite similar and were not affected by either the nature of infections or the critical clinical status of ID patients. Conclusions The results of our study show that certain internal medicine subdisciplines such as pulmonology, neurology and dermatology appear to be the principal clinical requisites in the training of ID specialists, rather than internal medicine as a whole. PMID:22177310

  20. The crossroads between cancer stem cells and aging

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    The cancer stem cell (CSC) hypothesis suggests that only a subpopulation of cells within a tumour is responsible for the initiation and progression of neoplasia. The original and best evidence for the existence of CSCs came from advances in the field of haematological malignancies. Thus far, putative CSCs have been isolated from various solid and non-solid tumours and shown to possess self-renewal, differentiation, and cancer regeneration properties. Although research in the field is progressing extremely fast, proof of concept for the CSC hypothesis is still lacking and key questions remain unanswered, e.g. the cell of origin for these cells. Nevertheless, it is undisputed that neoplastic transformation is associated with genetic and epigenetic alterations of normal cells, and a better understanding of these complex processes is of utmost importance for developing new anti-cancer therapies. In the present review, we discuss the CSC hypothesis with special emphasis on age-associated alterations that govern carcinogenesis, at least in some types of tumours. We present evidence from the scientific literature for age-related genetic and epigenetic alterations leading to cancer and discuss the main challenges in the field. PMID:25708542