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Sample records for haematology

  1. Haematology and neurology

    PubMed Central

    Austin, Steven; Cohen, Hannah; Losseff, Nick

    2007-01-01

    This review aims to update the reader on advances in the understanding of haematological conditions that may arise in neurological practice. Thrombophilia, antiphospholipid antibody syndrome, thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura, sickle cell and clonal disorders associated with neuropathy are discussed. PMID:17369588

  2. Haematological abnormalities in mitochondrial disorders

    PubMed Central

    Finsterer, Josef; Frank, Marlies

    2015-01-01

    INTRODUCTION This study aimed to assess the kind of haematological abnormalities that are present in patients with mitochondrial disorders (MIDs) and the frequency of their occurrence. METHODS The blood cell counts of a cohort of patients with syndromic and non-syndromic MIDs were retrospectively reviewed. MIDs were classified as ‘definite’, ‘probable’ or ‘possible’ according to clinical presentation, instrumental findings, immunohistological findings on muscle biopsy, biochemical abnormalities of the respiratory chain and/or the results of genetic studies. Patients who had medical conditions other than MID that account for the haematological abnormalities were excluded. RESULTS A total of 46 patients (‘definite’ = 5; ‘probable’ = 9; ‘possible’ = 32) had haematological abnormalities attributable to MIDs. The most frequent haematological abnormality in patients with MIDs was anaemia. 27 patients had anaemia as their sole haematological problem. Anaemia was associated with thrombopenia (n = 4), thrombocytosis (n = 2), leucopenia (n = 2), and eosinophilia (n = 1). Anaemia was hypochromic and normocytic in 27 patients, hypochromic and microcytic in six patients, hyperchromic and macrocytic in two patients, and normochromic and microcytic in one patient. Among the 46 patients with a mitochondrial haematological abnormality, 78.3% had anaemia, 13.0% had thrombopenia, 8.7% had leucopenia and 8.7% had eosinophilia, alone or in combination with other haematological abnormalities. CONCLUSION MID should be considered if a patient’s abnormal blood cell counts (particularly those associated with anaemia, thrombopenia, leucopenia or eosinophilia) cannot be explained by established causes. Abnormal blood cell counts may be the sole manifestation of MID or a collateral feature of a multisystem problem. PMID:26243978

  3. Haematological manifestations of lupus

    PubMed Central

    Fayyaz, Anum; Igoe, Ann; Kurien, Biji T; Danda, Debashish; James, Judith A; Stafford, Haraldine A; Scofield, R Hal

    2015-01-01

    Our purpose was to compile information on the haematological manifestations of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), namely leucopenia, lymphopenia, thrombocytopenia, autoimmune haemolytic anaemia (AIHA), thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura (TTP) and myelofibrosis. During our search of the English-language MEDLINE sources, we did not place a date-of-publication constraint. Hence, we have reviewed previous as well as most recent studies with the subject heading SLE in combination with each manifestation. Neutropenia can lead to morbidity and mortality from increased susceptibility to infection. Severe neutropenia can be successfully treated with granulocyte colony-stimulating factor. While related to disease activity, there is no specific therapy for lymphopenia. Severe lymphopenia may require the use of prophylactic therapy to prevent select opportunistic infections. Isolated idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura maybe the first manifestation of SLE by months or even years. Some manifestations of lupus occur more frequently in association with low platelet count in these patients, for example, neuropsychiatric manifestation, haemolytic anaemia, the antiphospholipid syndrome and renal disease. Thrombocytopenia can be regarded as an important prognostic indicator of survival in patients with SLE. Medical, surgical and biological treatment modalities are reviewed for this manifestation. First-line therapy remains glucocorticoids. Through our review, we conclude glucocorticoids do produce a response in majority of patients initially, but sustained response to therapy is unlikely. Glucocorticoids are used as first-line therapy in patients with SLE with AIHA, but there is no conclusive evidence to guide second-line therapy. Rituximab is promising in refractory and non-responding AIHA. TTP is not recognised as a criteria for classification of SLE, but there is a considerable overlap between the presenting features of TTP and SLE, and a few patients with SLE have concurrent TTP. Myelofibrosis is an uncommon yet well-documented manifestation of SLE. We have compiled the cases that were reported in MEDLINE sources. PMID:25861458

  4. Bone biopsy in haematological disorders.

    PubMed Central

    Burkhardt, R; Frisch, B; Bartl, R

    1982-01-01

    Bone marrow biopsies are now widely used in the investigation and follow-up of many diseases. Semi-thin sections of 8216 undecalcified biopsies of patients with haematological disorders were studied. Observations were made on the cytopenias and the myelodysplastic syndromes, the acute leukaemias the myeloproliferative disorders, Hodgkin's disease and the malignant lymphomas including multiple myeloma, hairy cell leukaemia and angioimmunoblastic lymphadenopathy. Bone marrow biopsies are essential for the differential diagnosis of most cytopenias and for the early recognition of fibrosis which most frequently occurred as a consequence of megakaryocytic proliferation in the myeloproliferative disorders. Different patterns of bone marrow involvement were found in the lymphoproliferative disorders and both their type and extent constituted factors of prognostic significance. A survey of the literature is given and the conclusion is drawn that bone marrow biopsies provide indispensible information for the diagnostic evaluation and the follow-up of patients with haematological disorders. Images PMID:7040489

  5. Primary immunoglobulin deficiency and haematological disorders.

    PubMed Central

    French, M. A.; Dawkins, R. L.; Jackson, J. M.

    1983-01-01

    Nine patients with immunoglobulin deficiency and various haematological disorders are presented. In all patients, recurrent infections had antedated the onset of the haematological disorder but, in most, the possibility of primary immunodeficiency had not been considered until after the haematological diagnosis had been established. The recognition of immunodeficiency is important since such patients may require steroids, immunosuppressive therapy or splenectomy. Gammaglobulin would appear to be the appropriate therapy in this situation. Infections were reduced in all 6 patients so treated. PMID:6878102

  6. Automated haematology analysis to diagnose malaria

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    For more than a decade, flow cytometry-based automated haematology analysers have been studied for malaria diagnosis. Although current haematology analysers are not specifically designed to detect malaria-related abnormalities, most studies have found sensitivities that comply with WHO malaria-diagnostic guidelines, i.e. ≥ 95% in samples with > 100 parasites/μl. Establishing a correct and early malaria diagnosis is a prerequisite for an adequate treatment and to minimizing adverse outcomes. Expert light microscopy remains the 'gold standard' for malaria diagnosis in most clinical settings. However, it requires an explicit request from clinicians and has variable accuracy. Malaria diagnosis with flow cytometry-based haematology analysers could become an important adjuvant diagnostic tool in the routine laboratory work-up of febrile patients in or returning from malaria-endemic regions. Haematology analysers so far studied for malaria diagnosis are the Cell-Dyn®, Coulter® GEN·S and LH 750, and the Sysmex XE-2100® analysers. For Cell-Dyn analysers, abnormal depolarization events mainly in the lobularity/granularity and other scatter-plots, and various reticulocyte abnormalities have shown overall sensitivities and specificities of 49% to 97% and 61% to 100%, respectively. For the Coulter analysers, a 'malaria factor' using the monocyte and lymphocyte size standard deviations obtained by impedance detection has shown overall sensitivities and specificities of 82% to 98% and 72% to 94%, respectively. For the XE-2100, abnormal patterns in the DIFF, WBC/BASO, and RET-EXT scatter-plots, and pseudoeosinophilia and other abnormal haematological variables have been described, and multivariate diagnostic models have been designed with overall sensitivities and specificities of 86% to 97% and 81% to 98%, respectively. The accuracy for malaria diagnosis may vary according to species, parasite load, immunity and clinical context where the method is applied. Future developments in new haematology analysers such as considerably simplified, robust and inexpensive devices for malaria detection fitted with an automatically generated alert could improve the detection capacity of these instruments and potentially expand their clinical utility in malaria diagnosis. PMID:21118557

  7. Imaging features of haematological malignancies of kidneys.

    PubMed

    Sandrasegaran, K; Menias, C O; Verma, S; Abdelbaki, A; Shaaban, A; Elsayes, K M

    2016-03-01

    Haematological malignancies are relatively uncommon neoplasms of kidneys. Nevertheless, the incidence of these neoplasms is increasing, partly due to more widespread use of computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging. This article discusses the clinical and imaging features of renal lymphoma, leukaemia, extra-osseous multiple myeloma, and post-transplant lymphoproliferative disorder. Although there is overlap of imaging features with other more common malignancies, such as transitional and renal cell cancers, the combination of imaging findings and the appropriate clinical picture should allow the radiologist to raise a provisional diagnosis of a haematological neoplasm. This has management implications including the preference for image-guided core biopsies and a shift towards medical rather than surgical therapy. PMID:26688550

  8. Cancer stem cells in haematological malignancies

    PubMed Central

    Golab, Jakub

    2015-01-01

    At least several types of human haematological malignancies can now be seen as stem-cell diseases. The best-studied in this context is acute myeloid leukaemia (AML). It has been shown that these diseases are driven by a pool of leukaemia stem cells (LSC), which remain in the quiescent state, have the capacity to survive and self-renew, and are responsible for the recurrence of cancer after classical chemotherapy. It has been understood that LSC must be eliminated in order to cure patients suffering from haematological cancers. Recent advances in LSC research have allowed for description of LSC phenotype and identification of potential targets for anti-LSC therapies. This concise review summarises the current view on LSC biology and targeted approaches against LSC. PMID:25691816

  9. [Toward pertinent analytical objectives for haematological parameters].

    PubMed

    Iobagiu, Cristina; Nehar, Diane; Denis, Isabelle; de Saint-Trivier, Aurlie; Boyer, Michelle

    2014-01-01

    Usually, the blood cell counting activity in haematology laboratory uses the comparison of IQC values to the target values proposed by the manufacturer. We intended to improve the monitoring of the proper functioning of our analytical measure system for 17 main haematologic parameters. To set the allowable critical limits of IQC, we propose our reflection based on several elements: benchmark and expert recommendation, clinical requirements, statistical indicators of the laboratory calculated using IQC values (3 levels, 2 different lots, 2 haematology analysers and 2 passage modes) and the EEQ values, during four months. We exploited the reports obtained from the middleware (our own IQC values), and the interlaboratory comparison reports (obtained from SNCS and EuroCell websites) and we compared our performances to the Ricos objectives, to set clearly argued allowable limits for IQC values. Finally, the allowable limits correspond to the imprecision limits stated by Ricos for 14 parameters (desirable for 11 parametres and minimal for 3 parameters) and personalized limits (more exigent than desirable Ricos limits) for 3 parameters of blood cell counting. PMID:25486666

  10. [Optimising therapy in patients with haematological malignancies].

    PubMed

    Dumontet, Charles

    2008-10-01

    Haematological malignancies, although relatively infrequent diseases, have benefited from major advances both in terms of diagnosis, identification of prognostic factors and therapeutic breakthroughs. The combination of morphological, cytogenetic, immunological and molecular approaches has greatly contributed to the identification of homogeneous entities, as well as prognostic subgroups of patients. Targeted therapies, such as monoclonal antibodies and kinase inhibitors, have demonstrated their efficacy in this group of diseases and since then has been generalized to patients with solid tumours. Current efforts include the evaluation of individual characteristics of patients, including their genetic make-up, to reduce treatment toxicity while increasing the quality and the duration of response. PMID:19004726

  11. Comparison of automated haematology analysers for detection of apoptotic lymphocytes.

    PubMed

    Taga, K; Sawaya, M; Yoshida, M; Kaneko, M; Okada, M; Taniho, M

    2002-06-01

    Automated haematology analysers can rapidly provide accurate blood cell counts and white blood cell differentials. In this study, we evaluated four different haematology analysers for the detection of apoptotic lymphocytes in peripheral blood: MAXM A/L Retic, H*2, Cell-Dyn 3500 and NE-8000. With the MAXM A/L Retic haematology analyser, the apoptotic lymphocyte cluster appeared below the original lymphocyte cluster on the volume/DF1, and to the right under the original lymphocyte cluster on the volume/DF2 scattergrams. With the H*2 haematology analyser, the apoptotic polymorphonuclear lymphocytes produced a higher lobularity index on the BASO channel. With the Cell-Dyn 3500 haematology analyser, the apoptotic lymphocyte cluster appeared to the right side of the original lymphocyte cluster on the 0D/10D scattergram and to the left side of the polymorphonuclear cluster on the 90D/10D scattergram. With the NE-8000 haematology analyser, the apoptotic lymphocyte cluster was not distinguishable. Thus, apoptotic lymphocytes are readily detected on scattergrams generated by selected haematology analysers. PMID:12067276

  12. Gaucher disease: haematological presentations and complications.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Alison S; Mehta, Atul; Hughes, Derralynn A

    2014-05-01

    Gaucher disease (GD) is an autosomal recessive lysosomal storage disease, caused by deficiency of the enzyme glucocerebrosidase, required for the degradation of glycosphingolipids. Clinical manifestations include hepatosplenomegaly, thrombocytopenia, bone disease and a bleeding diathesis, frequently resulting in presentation to haematologists. Historically managed by splenectomy, transfusions and orthopaedic surgery, the development of specific therapy in the form of intravenous enzyme replacement therapy in the 1990s has resulted in dramatic improvements in haematological and visceral disease. Recognition of complications, including multiple myeloma and Parkinson disease, has challenged the traditional macrophage-centric view of the pathophysiology of this disorder. The pathways by which enzyme deficiency results in the clinical manifestations of this disorder are poorly understood; altered inflammatory cytokine profiles, bioactive sphingolipid derivatives and alterations in the bone marrow microenvironment have been implicated. Further elucidating these pathways will serve to advance our understanding not only of GD, but of associated disorders. PMID:24588457

  13. Severe malaria in immigrant haematological patient

    PubMed Central

    Vzquez-Snchez, R.; Martnez-Nez, M.E.; Molina-Garca, T.

    2015-01-01

    Severe malaria is a life-threatening condition caused by Plasmodium falciparum. Rupture of red blood cells when merozoites release to the bloodstream is responsible for the clinical manifestations, febrile fever reaching 39C, and other unspecific symptoms. P. falciparum is considered as the worst form of malaria. Moreover, this species has cytoadherence to red blood cells. This can lead to an organic dysfunction. People coming from hyper endemic areas have developed a partial immunity, but immunodepressed people are a group with a greater risk. Due to the high mortality rate associated to this disease, early diagnosis and a prompt treatment implementation are essential. However, the missed or delayed diagnosis is one of the major reasons of reaching a severe malaria disease. This case reflects the complexity of the diagnosis in an immigrant and immunodepressed patient with a haematological neoplasm with a severe infection by P. falciparum due to the unspecified symptoms and the overlapping of the same. PMID:26793463

  14. Trial of Haploidentical Stem Cell Transplantation for Haematological Cancers

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2015-12-07

    Hodgkin's Lymphoma; Non-Hodgkin's Lymphoma; Acute Myeloid Leukaemia; Acute Lymphoblastic Leukaemia; Myelodysplastic Syndrome; Chronic Myeloid Leukaemia; Chronic Lymphocytic Leukaemia; Acquired Bone Marrow Failure Syndromes; Other Haematological Malignancies; Unrelated HSCT Indicated

  15. Haematological cancer and quality of life: a systematic literature review

    PubMed Central

    Allart-Vorelli, P; Porro, B; Baguet, F; Michel, A; Cousson-Glie, F

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study is to examine the impact of haematological cancers on quality of life (QoL). A review of the international literature was conducted from the databases PsycInfo' and 'Medline' using the keywords: 'haematological cancer', 'quality of life', 'physical', 'psychological', 'social', 'vocational', 'professional', 'economic', 'cognitive', and 'sexual'. Twenty-one reliable studies were analysed. Among these studies, 12 showed that haematological cancer altered overall QoL, 8 papers found a deterioration of physical dimension, 8 papers reported on functional and role dimensions, 11 papers reported on the psychological component and 9 on the social component. Moreover, one study and two manuscripts, respectively, reported deteriorated sexual and cognitive dimensions. Our review demonstrates that the different dimensions of QoL are deteriorated by haematological malignancies and, probably, by the side effects of treatment. PMID:25909835

  16. Tuberculosis in Patients with Haematological Malignancies

    PubMed Central

    Anibarro, Luis; Pena, Alberto

    2014-01-01

    Tuberculosis (TB) is an infectious disease that causes more than 1 million deaths worldwide every year. In addition, it is estimated that one third of the world population is infected with M. tuberculosis in a latent state, which involves an eventual risk of progressing to active TB disease. Patients with immunodeficiencies, such as those suffering from haematological malignancies, have a greater risk of progressing to TB disease once infected. It is estimated that the Relative Risk of TB disease in patients with hematologic malignancies is 2–40 times that of the general population. The diagnosis of TB in these patients is often challenging as they often present clinical characteristics that are distinct to those of patients without any other underlying disease. Mortality due to TB is higher. Therefore, it is recommended to diagnose latent TB infection and consider preventive therapy that could avoid the progression from a latent state to active TB disease. There are currently two methods for diagnosing latent TB infection: the Tuberculin Skin Test (TST) and the Interferon-Gamma Release Assays (IGRA). Due to the lack of sensitivity in patients with immunodeficient conditions, a combined TST-IGRA testing is probably the best way for latent TB diagnosis in order to gain sensitivity. Treatment of latent TB infection and TB disease should follow the general principles to that in the general population. PMID:24803999

  17. The role of CCN family genes in haematological malignancies.

    PubMed

    Wells, J E; Howlett, M; Cheung, L C; Kees, Ursula R

    2015-09-01

    Haematological malignancies, although a broad range of specific disease types, continue to show considerable overlap in classification, and patients are treated using similar chemotherapy regimes. In this review we look at the role of the CCN family of matricellular proteins and indicate their role in nine haematological malignancies including both myeloid and lymphoid neoplasms. The potential for further haematological neoplasms with CCN family associations is argued by summarising the demonstrated role of CCN family genes in the differentiation of haematopoietic stem cells (HSC) and mesenchymal stem cells. The expanding field of knowledge encompassing CCN family genes and cancers of the HSC-lineage highlights the importance of extracellular matrix-interactions in both normal physiology and tumorigenesis of the blood, bone marrow and lymph nodes. PMID:26026820

  18. Autoimmune haematological disorders in two Italian children with Kabuki syndrome.

    PubMed

    Giordano, Paola; Lassandro, Giuseppe; Sangerardi, Maria; Faienza, Maria Felicia; Valente, Federica; Martire, Baldassarre

    2014-01-01

    Kabuki syndrome (also called Niikawa-Kuroki syndrome) is a rare genetic disease described for the first time in Japan, characterised by anomalies in multiple organ systems and often associated with autoimmune disorders and impaired immune response. We herein report the clinical history, the therapeutic approach and the outcome of two children with Kabuki syndrome who developed autoimmune haematological disorders (haemolytic anaemia and immune thrombocytopenia). Factors regarding differential diagnosis and interventions in better management of this syndrome and its complications are discussed. This is the first report of Italian children with autoimmune haematological disorders complicating Kabuki syndrome. PMID:24460868

  19. Design and implementation of a web-enabled haematological system.

    PubMed

    Gortzis, Lefteris; Koubias, Stavros; Nikiforidis, George

    2004-09-01

    This paper describes the design and the implementation of a web-enabled integrated haematological system, named e-HS. The proposed system runs on a set of distributed network nodes providing useful haematological services. These services include patient-oriented data management, digitized histopathological slides (DHS) acquisition, teleconsulting facilities, etc. The objective of e-HS is to supply web-enabled services according to haematological requirements, implement a distributed storage scheme for DHS, and provide a common database containing all haematological laboratory results by using eXtensible Markup Language (XML) and web technologies. Our implementation can be accessible to every authorized physician at the distributed nodes without any additional software. The only software required for the user is the widely used browser (e.g. MS Internet Explorer v 3.02 or higher). Besides, by using a self-explaining user interfaces and HTML-techniques, such as hyperlinks, the necessary amount of training at the physicians-side is reduced to a minimum. A first implementation of the e-HS, has been established at the Medical Physics Department of the University of Patras (master node of the system), and has been tested with success by the medical staff of the Hospital Departments of the University of Patras and Thessalonica that served as distributed nodes of the system. PMID:15265621

  20. [The treatment of leukaemia in paediatric haematology day hospital].

    PubMed

    Héritier, Sébastien; Morand, Karine; Courcoux, Mary-France; Leverger, Guy

    2015-01-01

    The paediatric haematology day hospital administers almost all types of chemotherapy used to treat acute lymphoblastic leukaemia. Blood transfusions, myelograms and lumbar punctures are also performed there. The prevention of pain and anxiety generated by the care is a priority. PMID:26183094

  1. [Management of treatment-induced pain in paediatric haematology].

    PubMed

    Ben Hamadi, Donia; Calvet, Clmence

    2015-01-01

    Invasive procedures are frequent and painful in children treated in paediatric haematology. It is therefore essential to take into consideration and anticipate the pain induced by these procedures. The caregiver has various effective methods of providing a high quality care management. PMID:26183097

  2. Clinical and Haematological Effects of Hydroxyurea in ?-Thalassemia Intermedia Patients

    PubMed Central

    Yousefi, Homayon; Bahadoram, Mohammad

    2015-01-01

    Introduction It is well known that hydroxyurea (HU) impacts on clinical and haematologic indices in thalassemia. We aimed to evaluate the effect of hydroxyurea on clinical and haematological improvement in children with thalassemia intermedia. Materials and Methods After the patients enrollment in the study their data such as transfusion, hospitalization, spleen size, visit, total Hb, HbF levels, MCV and MCH were compared before and after treatment with HU 10 mg/kg/day/for one year. Results In patients with thalassemia intermedia, HU significantly diminished the rate of transfusion, hospitalization, spleen size and significantly increased Hb MCH, HbF and MCV. Moreover HU was well tolerated in our patients and we got no remarkable adverse effect. Conclusion We divulged hydroxyurea 10 mg/kg/day during one year. This significantly increased HbF, total haemoglobin, MCV, MCH, without any remarkable adverse events. PMID:26557561

  3. Haematological malignancies: at the forefront of immunotherapeutic innovation.

    PubMed

    Bachireddy, Pavan; Burkhardt, Ute E; Rajasagi, Mohini; Wu, Catherine J

    2015-04-01

    The recent successes of cancer immunotherapies have stimulated interest in the potential widespread application of these approaches; haematological malignancies have provided both initial proofs of concept and an informative testing ground for various immune-based therapeutics. The immune-cell origin of many of the blood malignancies provides a unique opportunity both to understand the mechanisms of cancer immune responsiveness and immune evasion, and to exploit these mechanisms for therapeutic purposes. PMID:25786696

  4. Lipid peroxidation in Nigerians affected with haematological malignancies.

    PubMed

    Akinlolu, A; Akingbola, T; Salau, B

    2012-12-01

    This study investigated Lipid peroxidation status in twenty Nigerians; five (5) healthy subjects and 15 (fifteen) Haematological cancer patients; 5 affected with Chronic Myeloid leukaemia (CML), 5 (five) with Non-Hodgkin's Lymphoma and 5 (five) with Multiple Myeloma. Consents were sought and received from all participants used in the study. 10 mls of blood samples were collected in lithium heparin bottles from all subjects used in the study. Free plasma Malondialdehyde (MDA) quantification was used to assess lipid peroxidation in all subjects. MDA levels were increased in CML and Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma patients compared with that of control subjects at P < 0.001. However, a decreased non-significant free plasma MDA level was observed in multiple myeloma patients compared with control subjects. Increase in lipid peroxidation status in Nigerians affected with Haematological malignancies may be associated with a dysregulation of antioxidant system. Lipid peroxidation status could be used as clinical clue for diagnosis, prognosis and treatment of patients affected with haematological malignancies. PMID:23678650

  5. Whole body MRI and PET/CT in haematological malignancies

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Chieh; Luciani, Alain; Itti, Emmanuel; Haioun, Corinne

    2007-01-01

    Abstract The usefulness of whole body magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and positron emission tomography (PET)/computed tomography (CT) in haematological malignancies is reviewed. PET/CT combining functional and anatomical information is currently a valuable tool in the management of patients with lymphoma, especially in the assessment of early treatment response. MRI is advantageous in evaluating bone marrow involvement and therefore plays an important role in clinical decision making for patients with myeloma. The development of whole body functional MR studies is underway and can potentially complement the PET/CT for better patient care. PMID:17921084

  6. Haematological abnormalities in acute pancreatitis. A prospective study.

    PubMed Central

    Murphy, D.; Imrie, C. W.; Davidson, J. F.

    1977-01-01

    Twenty-five patients with acute pancreatitis were studied prospectively in the first week of their admission using haematological and coagulation tests. Platelet counts initially fell and later returned to admission levels. Rising levels of plasma fibrinogen were recorded. The kaolin cephalin clotting time was shorter than its control in twenty-one patients. Eighteen patients had elevated fibrinogen degradation products and fourteen had a positive ethanol gelation test. It is suggested that by taking into account the results in series of individual patients a degree of intravascular coagulation may be a common feature of acute pancreatitis. In one patient (presented in detail) strong evidence for disseminated intravascular coagulation was found PMID:887529

  7. Transition of care from paediatric to adult services in haematology

    PubMed Central

    Bolton?Maggs, Paula H B

    2007-01-01

    The need for adequate preparation for transition for young people with health care needs who require long term follow?up in the adult sector has long been recognised and is a required part of the national service framework for children. The Royal College of Paediatrics and Child Health and the Royal College of Nursing have endorsed this need for improvement in services for adolescents. In 2006 the Department of Health launched guidelines with a wealth of recommendations. Despite these initiatives only slow progress has been made (usually by enthusiasts) and much work is needed to develop good programmes in many specialties, including non?malignant haematology. PMID:17715443

  8. Biochemical and haematological effects of phenylbutazone in horses.

    PubMed

    Lees, P; Creed, R F; Gerring, E E; Gould, P W; Humphreys, D J; Maitho, T E; Michell, A R; Taylor, J B

    1983-04-01

    Five matched pairs of horses were used to investigate the effects of phenylbutazone on a range of physiological, biochemical and haematological variables. The drug was given by mouth daily for 15 consecutive days at the manufacturer's recommended dose rates to one group of horses (Group A); the second group (Group B) received equivalent doses of a placebo. For some of the measured parameters, significant changes were recorded in both groups, indicating background instability. Significant decreases in serum total protein, albumin, plasma pH, viscosity and magnesium, and an increase in albumin: globulin ratio occurred in Group A, but not in Group B. These changes were, therefore, attributed to phenylbutazone or its metabolites. Toxicologically, the change in pH is probably unimportant but the decrease in protein concentration may have resulted from a protein losing enteropathy and/or from decreased synthesis in the liver. In one animal which received phenylbutazone, clinical signs of toxicity (lethargy, inappetence, oedema) were observed and evidence of hepatotoxicity and haematological changes were also noted in this horse. It is concluded that recommended dose rates of phenylbutazone should never be exceeded and that the period for which the highest dose (4.4 mg/kg body weight twice daily for four days) is administered should be reduced. In clinical cases, where phenylbutazone toxicity is suspected, measurement of serum or plasma protein concentration might provide an indication of the need to reduce dose levels or stop therapy. PMID:6873049

  9. A retrospective series of gut aspergillosis in haematology patients.

    PubMed

    Kazan, E; Maertens, J; Herbrecht, R; Weisser, M; Gachot, B; Vekhoff, A; Caillot, D; Raffoux, E; Fagot, T; Reman, O; Isnard, F; Thiebaut, A; Bretagne, S; Cordonnier, C

    2011-04-01

    Gut invasive aspergillosis is an extremely rare infection in immunocompromised patients. The goal of this retrospective multicentre study is to report on cases of gut aspergillosis in haematology patients, including clinical presentation, risk factors, and outcome. Twenty-one patients from nine centres were identified. Eight had isolated gut aspergillosis, with no evidence of other infected sites, and 13 had disseminated aspergillosis. Thirteen patients had acute leukaemia. Nine were allogeneic stem cell transplant recipients. Clinical symptoms and imaging were poorly specific. The galactomannan antigenaemia test result was positive in 16/25 (64%) patients, including in four of the eight cases of isolated gut aspergillosis. Five of 21 patients had a dietary regimen rich in spices, suggesting that, in these cases, food could have been the source of gut colonization, and then of a primary gut Aspergillus lesion. The diagnosis was made post-mortem in six patients. The mortality rate in the remaining patients at 12 weeks was 7/15 (47%). Gut aspergillosis is probably misdiagnosed and underestimated in haematology patients, owing to the poor specificity of symptoms and imaging. Patients with a persistently positive galactomannan antigenaemia finding that is unexplained by respiratory lesions should be suspected of having gut aspergillosis in the presence of abdominal symptoms, and be quickly investigated. In the absence of severe abdominal complications leading to surgery and resection of the lesions, the optimal treatment is not yet defined. PMID:20636423

  10. The Role of miRNA in Haematological Malignancy

    PubMed Central

    Gounaris-Shannon, Stephanie

    2013-01-01

    Currently, there are over 1,800 annotated human miRNAs, many of which have tissue-specific expression. Numerous studies have highlighted their role in haematopoietic differentiation and proliferation, acting as master regulators of haematopoietic stem cell function. Aberrant expression of miRNAs has been observed in haematological cancers, exhibiting unique expression signatures in comparison to normal counterparts. Functional and target analyses as well as animal models have attempted to annotate how different miRNA may contribute to the pathophysiology of these malignancies from modulating cancer associated genes, functioning directly as oncogenes or tumour suppressor genes or acting as bystanders or regulators of the epigenetic mechanisms in cancer. miRNAs have also been shown to play a role in modulating drug resistance and determining prognosis between the various subtypes of blood cancers. This review discusses the important role that miRNAs play in haematological malignancies by exploring associations that exist between the two and trying to examine evidence of causality to support the tantalising possibility that miRNAs might serve as therapeutic targets in blood cancers. PMID:24416592

  11. Long Non-Coding RNAs in Haematological Malignancies

    PubMed Central

    Garitano-Trojaola, Andoni; Agirre, Xabier; Prsper, Felipe; Fortes, Puri

    2013-01-01

    Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) are functional RNAs longer than 200 nucleotides in length. LncRNAs are as diverse as mRNAs and they normally share the same biosynthetic machinery based on RNA polymerase II, splicing and polyadenylation. However, lncRNAs have low coding potential. Compared to mRNAs, lncRNAs are preferentially nuclear, more tissue specific and expressed at lower levels. Most of the lncRNAs described to date modulate the expression of specific genes by guiding chromatin remodelling factors; inducing chromosomal loopings; affecting transcription, splicing, translation or mRNA stability; or serving as scaffolds for the organization of cellular structures. They can function in cis, cotranscriptionally, or in trans, acting as decoys, scaffolds or guides. These functions seem essential to allow cell differentiation and growth. In fact, many lncRNAs have been shown to exert oncogenic or tumor suppressor properties in several cancers including haematological malignancies. In this review, we summarize what is known about lncRNAs, the mechanisms for their regulation in cancer and their role in leukemogenesis, lymphomagenesis and hematopoiesis. Furthermore, we discuss the potential of lncRNAs in diagnosis, prognosis and therapy in cancer, with special attention to haematological malignancies. PMID:23887658

  12. Intestinal helminths induce haematological changes in dogs from Jabalpur, India.

    PubMed

    Qadir, S; Dixit, A K; Dixit, P; Sharma, R L

    2011-12-01

    The effect of canine intestinal helminths on the haematological profile of 200 dogs, of both sexes and variable age, visiting university veterinary clinics for routine examination was investigated. The dogs were assigned to parasitized (n = 39) and non-parasitized (n = 161) groups of animals. Coprological examination revealed a 19.5% prevalence of different species of the helminths. Of these animals, 10.25% had mixed infections with Ancylostoma caninum, Toxascaris spp. and Dipylidium caninum. The intensity of A. caninum infection was the highest, with mean egg counts of 951.43 (standard error 88.66), followed by Toxascaris 283.33 (standard error 116.81) and D. caninum. The parasitized animals had significantly lower levels of haemoglobin, packed cell volume and total erythrocyte counts than non-parasitized animals (P < 0.01). Values of other parameters, except for lymphocytes and eosinophils, were not different between the two groups. Analyses of the haematological profile revealed normocytic hypochromic anaemia in the parasitized group of animals. PMID:21110909

  13. Performance and haematological indices in rats exposed to monocrotophos contamination.

    PubMed

    Sunmonu, T O; Oloyede, O B

    2010-10-01

    Monocrotophos is an organophosphate pesticide used in agriculture to control insect pests. Changes in performance and haematological parameters (such as packed cell volume, white blood cells, neutrophils, eosinophils and lymphocytes) were used to assess the effect of the pesticide on rats chronically exposed to 12.5 parts per million (ppm), 25 ppm, 50 ppm, 100 ppm and 200 ppm for 10 days, while the control rats were placed on borehole water. Administration of the pesticide to the animals resulted in several physical deteriorations including appearance and agility. A significant reduction (p < .05) was observed in the weight gained by rats while the liver-to-body weight ratio increased significantly (p < .05) as the level of exposure to monocrotophos increased. Whereas packed cell volume, white blood cells and lymphocytes increased significantly (p < .05), neutrophils and eosinophils counts reduced significantly (p < .05) as the concentration of monocrotophos in the drinking water increased. Overall, the data indicated that exposure to monocrotophos portends serious consequences on the performance and haematological parameters of rats. PMID:20194576

  14. [A new automated haematology analyser: the Excell 2280].

    PubMed

    Bouvier, S; Machon, C; Destenay, S; Brun, S; Arnaud, A; Cochery-Nouvellon, E; Lissalde-Lavigne, G; Gris, J-C

    2008-01-01

    Excell 2280 analyser is a new automated haematology analyser manufactured by Drew Scientific Inc, Texas, USA, and distributed in France by MAXMAT S.A., Montpellier. It can achieve 80 complete blood cell counts per hour, with leukocyte differential counts. Three sampling possibilities are included: a direct one (open tubes, 180 microL), a blood saver one (80 microL) and an automatic, through-the-cap one (180 microL). The analytic principles are: electrical impedance for cell counting (WBC, RBC, platelets, MCV) and RBC/platelet sizing; and a new multidimensional optical system using a laser light scattering flow cytometer for WBC counting and classification. We evaluated the Excell 2280 in our laboratory: we quantified intra-run and within-run variations, correlations between the automatic and the direct sampling method, stability of the results over time, linearity of the detections and finally correlation between results obtained with this analyzer and the Gen'S one from Beckman-Coulter Inc. The obtained results were within the theoretical ranges given by the manufacturer. The presence of any abnormal result, or of any flag, must systematically lead to check the blood smear. This new automated haematology analyser appears to be convenient for emergency room-related laboratories, and for routine small-to-medium laboratories. PMID:18725343

  15. Haematological and biochemical markers as predictors of dengue infection.

    PubMed

    Rashmi, M V; Hamsaveena

    2015-12-01

    Dengue is a viral infection which has become a serious problem in recent years. It is a major cause of mortality and morbidity. The present study is a prospective, hospital-based, observational study done from August 2014 to October 2014. The objective of our study was to consider whether dengue infection can be suspected based on haematological and biochemical findings. The study included 100 patients positive for dengue infection. Complete hemogram, transaminases for liver injury, blood urea and serum creatinine levels for renal assessment were performed for these patients. The most common haematological findings were thrombocytopenia, leucopenia, an increase in the mixed cell fraction of the leucocytes and the presence of reactive lymphocytes. Biochemical parameters like the aminotranferases, blood urea and serum creatinine levels were significantly raised. Hence, a platelet count of <100,000 cells/µl, leucopenia of <4000 cells/µl and aspartate aminotransferase levels of >82.2 U/L can be considered as predictors of dengue infection. PMID:26712670

  16. Haemodynamic and haematologic effects of Acanthaster planci venom in dogs.

    PubMed

    Shiroma, N; Noguchi, K; Matsuzaki, T; Ojiri, Y; Hirayama, K; Sakanashi, M

    1994-10-01

    This study was designed to examine haemodynamic and haematologic effects of the crown-of-thorns starfish venom (Acanthaster planci venom: APV) in dogs. Severe systemic hypotension, thrombocytopenia and leukopenia were induced by APV (1.0 mg protein/kg i.v.), followed by gradual return to the baseline level within 60 min. Hypotension was presumably caused by two factors: an early decrease in systemic vascular resistance and the large reduction in cardiac output due to reduced ventricular filling. Indomethacin, a cyclooxygenase inhibitor, remarkably suppressed systemic hypotension induced by APV. The peak reduction in systemic pressure was associated with concomitant rise of plasma 6-keto-PGF1 alpha, a major stable metabolite of prostacyclin. Thus, the hypotensive effect of APV may be caused primarily by prostacyclin and/or some vasodilating prostaglandins. In contrast, thrombocytopenia and leukopenia were not affected by cyclooxygenase inhibitor, 5-lipoxygenase inhibitor or platelet activating factor (PAF) receptor antagonist. When APV was administered repeatedly, tachyphylaxis was developed in haemodynamic effects, but not in haematologic effects. These findings suggest that APV-induced hypotensive effects may occur mainly through endogenous production of vasodilating prostaglandins including prostacyclin, although APV-induced thrombocytopenia and leukopenia may be caused by other mechanism(s) unrelated to arachidonate metabolites and/or PAF. PMID:7846692

  17. Haematology in the Republic of Macedonia: present situation and brief history.

    PubMed

    Panovska-Stavridis, I; Cevreska, L

    2013-01-01

    (Full text is available at http://www.manu.edu.mk/prilozi). The development of clinical haematology in Macedonia has taken place over the past nine decades. The greatest expansion of its development took place in the second half of the 20th century. The oficial start of clinical haematology dates from 1956, when the Department of Haematology was founded within the fra-mework of the Internal Medicine Clinic in Skopje. In the beginning, haematology represented a form of virtual sub-specialty, but its expansion was so progressive and rapid that it reached the highest peaks of Yugoslav haematology in those times. The period from 1968 to 1979 was a period of integral development of haema-tology and blood-transfusion science in Macedonia. Nowadays, the autonomous Public Health Institution, the University Hematology Clinic, is a unique healthcare, educational and scientific establishment in the Republic of Macedonia in its field of work. The diagnostics algorithm comprises cyto-morphologic and cyto-chemical analysis, through immunologic characterization with the assistance of a flow cytometer, to sophisticated molecular analysis for detecting genetic abnormalities. The therapeutic approach is based upon modern poly-haemotherapeutic protocols, application of monoclonal antibodies, immuno-modulatory agents, molecular target therapy and the use of alogeneic and autologous transplantation of fresh bone-marrow and frozen haemopoietic stem-cells. The current motto of the Haematology Clinic is: always help those who seek help, provide precise and early diagnostics, and apply all up-to-date therapeutic strategies, scientific research, continual education and day-to-day implementation of the latest achievements in the field of haematology in daily practice. Key words: haematology, history, chemotherapy, flow-cytometry, molecular analysis, stem cell transplant, target therapy, immuno-modulatory agents. PMID:23921481

  18. Effects of different stressors in haematological variables in cultured Oreochromis aureus S.

    PubMed

    Silveira-Coffigny, R; Prieto-Trujillo, A; Ascencio-Valle, F

    2004-12-01

    Since haematological variables can be used to assess the health state in cultured fish, a haematological characterization of clinically healthy Oreochromis aureus was done to establish the reference indices of this species. Fish were subjected to different stressed conditions (bacterial infection, nitrite intoxication, malachite green overdose) to study the changes in the haematological indices and its relation with the health condition. This species showed microcytic anaemia under experimental bacterial infection by Corynebacterium sp.; anaemia, neutrophilia and erythrocytes deformation following nitrite intoxication and medication overdose with malachite green. PMID:15683834

  19. [Blood isolates epidemiology in a clinical haematology department].

    PubMed

    Elmaataoui, A; Elghazouani, M; Eric, N Akwa; Doghmi, K; Mikdame, M; Elhamzaoui, S; Elouennass, M

    2009-01-01

    Cancer chemotherapy is responsible for infections by decreasing the phagocytosis and chemotaxis of polymorphonuclear. We conducted a retrospective analysis during the period from 18/10/2006 to 21/05/2008, on all bacteria isolated from blood cultures performed in the department of clinical hematology at the hospital military instruction Mohamed V. One hundred and sixty two blood isolates were selected; Gram positive cocci (CGP) accounted for 60.34% and Gram negative bacilli (GNB) for 24.14%. Coagulase negative staphylococci (SNA) and S. aureus presented a resistance to methicilline respectively 54.55% and 22.22%. Prevalence of Gram positive cocci is consistent with the results of the EORTC (International Antimicrobial Therapy Cooperative Group). Analysis of resistance patterns of all species, except for staphylococci, showed phenotypes essentially community, sometimes wild. In conclusion probabilistic antibiotic treatement of bacteraemia in the haematology department should focus among other staphylococci resistant to methicilline. PMID:19411231

  20. Guidelines for genomic array analysis in acquired haematological neoplastic disorders.

    PubMed

    Schoumans, Jacqueline; Suela, Javier; Hastings, Ros; Muehlematter, Dominique; Rack, Katrina; van den Berg, Eva; Berna Beverloo, H; Stevens-Kroef, Marian

    2016-05-01

    Genetic profiling is important for disease evaluation and prediction of prognosis or responsiveness to therapy in neoplasia. Microarray technologies, including array comparative genomic hybridization and single-nucleotide polymorphism-detecting arrays, have in recent years been introduced into the diagnostic setting for specific types of haematological malignancies and solid tumours. It can be used as a complementary test or depending on the neoplasia investigated, also as a standalone test. However, comprehensive and readable presentation of frequently identified complex genomic profiles remains challenging. To assist diagnostic laboratories, standardization and minimum criteria for clinical interpretation and reporting of acquired genomic abnormalities detected through arrays in neoplastic disorders are presented. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26774012

  1. Curriculum Design of a Flipped Classroom to Enhance Haematology Learning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Porcaro, Pauline A.; Jackson, Denise E.; McLaughlin, Patricia M.; O'Malley, Cindy J.

    2016-01-01

    A common trend in higher education is the "flipped" classroom, which facilitates active learning during class. The flipped approach to teaching was instituted in a haematology `major' class and the students' attitudes and preferences for the teaching materials were surveyed. The curriculum design was explicit and involved four major components (1) the preparation of the students; (2) the weekly pre-class work; (3) the in-class active learning strategies and (4) closing the learning loop using formative quizzes. Each of these components is discussed in detail and was informed by sound pedagogical strategies. Several different sources of information and several freely available software tools to engage the students are discussed. Two iterations are reported here, with improved pass rate for the final examination from 47 to 48 % in the traditional class to 56-65 % in the flipped classroom approach. The majority of students (93 and 89 %) came to the class prepared, after viewing the screencasts and engaged fully with the activities within the face-to-face time. The students perceived that solving case studies (93 %) was the most beneficial activity for their learning and this was closely followed by the production of essay plans (71 %). The majority of students recommended that this approach be repeated the following year (69 and 75 %).

  2. Current status of chimeric antigen receptor therapy for haematological malignancies.

    PubMed

    Maude, Shannon; Barrett, David M

    2016-01-01

    The field of adoptive cell transfer includes chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) engineered T cells, constructs that emerged from basic research into principles of immunology and have transformed into clinically effective therapies for haematological malignancies. T cells engineered to express these artificial receptors hold great promise, but also carry significant risk. While permanent genetic modification of mature T cells appears safe, modulating their invivo function is difficult, partly because the robust response can trigger other arms of the immune system. Suicide systems and toxicity management with cytokine blockade or signal transduction modulators have emerged as a new frontier in this field, a far cry from early problems getting CAR T cells to work at all. Currently, clinical trials in patients with relapsed or refractory B cell malignancies treated with CD19-specific CAR T cells have induced durable remissions in adults and children. Results from these trials indicate that more work needs to be done to understand biomarkers of efficacy, the role of T cell persistence and how to integrate this care into standard practice. Cell therapy will not be a 'one size fits all' class of medicine, and here we will discuss the development of this therapy and important questions for its future. PMID:26560054

  3. Complications associated with central venous catheters in a haematology unit.

    PubMed Central

    Sharpe, P. C.; Morris, T. C.

    1994-01-01

    The use of central venous catheters in patients suffering from haematological disorders has brought enormous benefits, but has been associated with an increase in septicaemia. We have reviewed septic and other complications in 43 patients who received one of three different forms of central venous catheters (type A-Hickman, type B-Portacath, type C-Pasport) during 1991. All complications were reviewed up to 18 months following insertion. The total complication rate was 31% (0.97 per 100 catheter days), and the total sepsis complication rate was 18.8% (0.49 per 100 catheter days). Type A catheters had the greatest sepsis complication rate of 29.5% (0.84 per 100 catheter days), with type B 15% (0.39 per 100 catheter days) and type C 9.9% (0.32 per 100 catheter days). Prophylactic antibiotics on the day of catheter insertion did not reduce the sepsis rate or prolong catheter survival. PMID:8650826

  4. Complications associated with central venous catheters in a haematology unit.

    PubMed

    Sharpe, P C; Morris, T C

    1994-10-01

    The use of central venous catheters in patients suffering from haematological disorders has brought enormous benefits, but has been associated with an increase in septicaemia. We have reviewed septic and other complications in 43 patients who received one of three different forms of central venous catheters (type A-Hickman, type B-Portacath, type C-Pasport) during 1991. All complications were reviewed up to 18 months following insertion. The total complication rate was 31% (0.97 per 100 catheter days), and the total sepsis complication rate was 18.8% (0.49 per 100 catheter days). Type A catheters had the greatest sepsis complication rate of 29.5% (0.84 per 100 catheter days), with type B 15% (0.39 per 100 catheter days) and type C 9.9% (0.32 per 100 catheter days). Prophylactic antibiotics on the day of catheter insertion did not reduce the sepsis rate or prolong catheter survival. PMID:8650826

  5. Gene therapy for treatment of inherited haematological disorders.

    PubMed

    Herzog, Roland W; Cao, Ou; Hagstrom, J Nathan; Wang, Lixin

    2006-05-01

    Gene therapy, a molecular medicine based on vector-mediated transfer of therapeutic genes, holds promise for a cure of monogenetic inherited diseases. In recent years, tremendous progress has been reported in the treatment of haematological disorders: clinical trials in severe combined immune deficiencies have been successful by using retroviral vectors to express target genes in haematopoietic stem cells, which after transplantation efficiently reconstituted the immune system concomitant with substantial improvement in the clinical status of patients. Conversely, unexpected adverse events were also encountered. In other work, progress towards clinical studies on ex vivo gene transfer for Fanconi anaemia and haemoglobinopathies has been made. Each approach features a unique treatment strategy and also faces various impediments to success. In the case of the X-linked bleeding disorder haemophilia, several Phase I/II clinical trials were conducted, including in vivo administration of viral vectors to skeletal muscle and liver. Adeno-associated viral gene transfer of coagulation Factor IX has been documented in human subjects, reaching therapeutic levels after infusion into a hepatic blood vessel. However, sustained expression of therapeutic levels (as shown in large animal models of haemophilia) has not yet been achieved in humans. In general, long-term follow-up will be important for assessment of the safety of all existing gene therapy strategies. PMID:16610980

  6. Biochemical and haematological profile of pheasant hens during the laying period.

    PubMed

    Schumann, J; Bedanova, I; Voslarova, E; Hrabcakova, P; Chloupek, J; Pistekova, V

    2014-01-01

    The present paper provides new experimental data on the biochemical and haematological profile of blood in pheasant hens, and points out the changes in both biochemical and haematological parameters that occur during the laying period. Significant effects of egg laying on both the biochemical and the haematological blood parameters of pheasant hens were found. Biochemical analyses revealed a significant increase in the metabolites cholesterol, uric acid, lactate, the enzyme aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and the minerals calcium and phosphorous, as well as a significant decrease in total protein, albumin and glucose in the course of the laying period. Haematological analyses revealed a significant increase in the count of leukocytes, lymphocytes, eosinophils, basophils and monocytes due to egg laying. In addition, the erythrocyte count and haemoglobin content significantly decreased in the middle of the laying period and then rebounded at the end of the laying period. The haematocrit content gradually decreased till the end of the laying period. All together, the results of this study underline the impact of the reproduction status of pheasant hens on basic blood parameters. The biochemical and haematological values presented in this study may be of help in assessing disease conditions in laying pheasant hens. PMID:24724469

  7. The prevention and management of infections due to multidrug resistant organisms in haematology patients

    PubMed Central

    Trubiano, Jason A; Worth, Leon J; Thursky, Karin A; Slavin, Monica A

    2015-01-01

    Infections due to resistant and multidrug resistant (MDR) organisms in haematology patients and haematopoietic stem cell transplant recipients are an increasingly complex problem of global concern. We outline the burden of illness and epidemiology of resistant organisms such as gram-negative pathogens, vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium (VRE), and Clostridium difficile in haematology cohorts. Intervention strategies aimed at reducing the impact of these organisms are reviewed: infection prevention programmes, screening and fluoroquinolone prophylaxis. The role of newer therapies (e.g. linezolid, daptomycin and tigecycline) for treatment of resistant and MDR organisms in haematology populations is evaluated, in addition to the mobilization of older agents (e.g. colistin, pristinamycin and fosfomycin) and the potential benefit of combination regimens. PMID:24341410

  8. Clinical, ultrasonography and haematology of aglepristone-induced mid-gestation pregnancy terminations in rabbits.

    PubMed

    zalp, Gzde R; Temizel, Ethem M; zocak-Batmaz, Elin

    2013-01-01

    Aglepristone is a safe abortifacient in cats, dogs and rabbits. Although no serious side effects have been reported, there is no information available about the effects of the medicine on haematological parameters. For the first time clinical and ultrasonographic features and haematological profiles were evaluated in rabbits treated with aglepristone 15 and 16 days after mating. Ten healthy 10-14 month-old New Zealand White female rabbits were mated with fertile bucks and pregnancies were con?rmed by ultrasound 15 days later. Of these, 5 does were treated with aglepristone (test group, n = 5) whilst the remaining five (control group, n = 5) were treated with a saline solution (0.9% NaCl). The treatment dose was 10 mg/kg body weight, administered subcutaneously once daily on two consecutive days (day 15 and 16 post mating). Ultrasonographic, clinical and haematological assessments were performed daily. Aglepristone treatment induced embryonic fluid resorptions without foetal death in mid-gestation terminations. Following ultrasonographic and haematological examinations, it was established that aglepristone is a safe abortifacient in rabbits. PMID:23718772

  9. Haematological and biochemical reference intervals for free-ranging brown bears (Ursus arctos) in Sweden

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Establishment of haematological and biochemical reference intervals is important to assess health of animals on individual and population level. Reference intervals for 13 haematological and 34 biochemical variables were established based on 88 apparently healthy free-ranging brown bears (39 males and 49 females) in Sweden. The animals were chemically immobilised by darting from a helicopter with a combination of medetomidine, tiletamine and zolazepam in April and May 2006–2012 in the county of Dalarna, Sweden. Venous blood samples were collected during anaesthesia for radio collaring and marking for ecological studies. For each of the variables, the reference interval was described based on the 95% confidence interval, and differences due to host characteristics sex and age were included if detected. To our knowledge, this is the first report of reference intervals for free-ranging brown bears in Sweden. Results The following variables were not affected by host characteristics: red blood cell, white blood cell, monocyte and platelet count, alanine transaminase, amylase, bilirubin, free fatty acids, glucose, calcium, chloride, potassium, and cortisol. Age differences were seen for the majority of the haematological variables, whereas sex influenced only mean corpuscular haemoglobin concentration, aspartate aminotransferase, lipase, lactate dehydrogenase, β-globulin, bile acids, triglycerides and sodium. Conclusions The biochemical and haematological reference intervals provided and the differences due to host factors age and gender can be useful for evaluation of health status in free-ranging European brown bears. PMID:25139149

  10. Haematological response of curimbas Prochilodus lineatus, naturally infected with Neoechinorhynchus curemai.

    PubMed

    Belo, M A A; Souza, D G F; Faria, V P; Prado, E J R; Moraes, F R; Onaka, E M

    2013-04-01

    This study evaluated the haematological response of curimbas Prochilodus lineatus, naturally infected with Neoechinorhynchus curemai (Acanthocephala: Neoechinorhynchidae). Thirty-seven fish were captured in October 2010 from the Mogi Guau River, Porto Ferreira, SP, Brazil. Infected fish presented increased mean corpuscular volume of erythrocytes, and lower thrombocyte and higher monocyte counts than uninfected fish. PMID:23557315

  11. Sample stability for complete blood cell count using the Sysmex XN haematological analyser

    PubMed Central

    Daves, Massimo; Zagler, Elmar M.; Cemin, Roberto; Gnech, Flora; Joos, Alexandra; Platzgummer, Stefan; Lippi, Giuseppe

    2015-01-01

    Background Sample stability is a crucial aspect for the quality of results of a haematology laboratory. This study was conducted to investigate the reliability of haematological testing using Sysmex XN in samples stored for up to 24 h at different temperatures. Materials and methods Haematological tests were performed on whole blood samples collected from 16 ostensibly healthy outpatients immediately after collection and 3 h, 6 h or 24 h afterwards, with triple aliquots kept at room temperature, 4 C or 37 C. Results No meaningful bias was observed after 3 h under different storage conditions, except for red blood cell distribution width (RDW) and platelet count (impedance technique, PLT-I) at 37 C. After 6 h, meaningful bias was observed for mean corpuscular haemoglobin (MCH) and mean corpuscular volume (MCV) at room temperature, red blood cell (RBC) count, mean corpuscular haemoglobin concentration (MCHC), MCH, MCV and PLT-I at 4 C, and RBC, RDW, MCHC, MCH and PLT-I at 37 C. After 24 h, a meaningful bias was observed for MCHC, MCV, platelet count (fluorescent technique, PLT-F) and mean platelet volume (MPV) at room temperature, MCHC, MCV, PLT-I and MPV at 4 C, and all parameters except RBC count and MPV at 37 C. Discussion Great caution should be observed when analysing results of haematological tests conducted more than 3 h after sample collection. PMID:26057491

  12. A nightmare for haematology clinics: extensively drug-resistant (XDR) Acinetobacter baumannnii.

    PubMed

    Metan, Gkhan; Pala, i?dem; Kaynar, Leylagl; Cevahir, Fatma; Alp, Emine

    2014-12-01

    The purpose of our study was to share experience on demographic characteristics and clinical outcome of the patients infected with extensively drug-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii (XDRAB) in haematology clinics, focusing on the period with a sudden increase in the number of XDRAB cases. A regular patient-based infection control programme was set up in haematology clinics and haematopoietic stem cell transplant centre starting from 2008. An infection control nurse visited all patients daily. A form including demographic data and laboratory results were recorded for all patients. The source of infections was identified according to the criteria proposed by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. While haematology ward-acquired XRDAB was rare before 2012, between January 2012 and July 2013, 29 A. baumannii infection episodes were detected in 28 patients. All but one isolate were MDR and 72.4% (21 out of 29) were XDR. Blood cultures revealed A. baumannii in 26 out of 29 episodes. While the haematological malignancy was relapsing or not under remission in 15 patients, four patients were under remission, and 10 patients were newly diagnosed. The mortality rate was 81.2%. All patients with a poor outcome died in the first week after the index blood culture was performed. In 16 out of 29 episodes, the patients died before the culture results became available. Colistin was initiated for the treatment in 11 out of 29 episodes. Three patients received colistin combined with sulbactam or sulbactam containing beta-lactams; the remaining eight patients who received colistin monotherapy were already under carbapenems. In conclusion, XDRAB infections can easily become nightmares for haematology clinics without any reliable treatment option. PMID:25551842

  13. Evaluation of the QBC Star centrifugal three-part differential haematology system.

    PubMed

    Erhabor, O; Richardson, G; Mohammed, I; Thornton, C; Bark, J; Hurst, M; Hamer, D; Kinsella, P

    2013-01-01

    The QBC Star haematology system includes the QBC Star centrifugal analytical analyser and the QBC Star tube system. Together, they are capable of producing a haematology profile on venous or capillary whole blood. The aim of this study is to compare full blood count (FBC) including differential white cell count performance between the QBC Star analyser and a gold standard Sysmex XE-2100 haematology analyser. The FBC performance was evaluated according to the National Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards (NCCLS) document H20-A. Imprecision, correlation and linearity studies all showed excellent results. Overall, the haemoglobin, haematocrit, white cell count (WCC) and platelet count parameters showed excellent correlation. Mean corpuscular haemoglobin concentration (MCHC) results showed poor comparability. The white cell differential parameters showed good correlation within certain clinically significant limits. Imprecision for haemoglobin, haematocrit, WCC, MCHC and platelet count was considered acceptable. The re-read function was found to be stable over the five-hour testing period under the authors' laboratory environmental conditions. The subjective assessment by biomedical scientist staff demonstrated that the system was user friendly, required little maintenance, and no user calibration was required. Staff considered the user manual to be excellent. Overall, the QBC Star appears to be an excellent point-of-care (POC) dry haematology analyser that delivers clinically significant nine-parameter complete blood count and will make a good POC analyser for use in field hospitals, research, screening programmes, GP surgeries as well as in emergency and intensive care units. It is a health and safety-friendly analyser considering the fact that it uses dry haematology reagents instead of the bulky wet reagents that are often associated with liquid biohazard waste. PMID:23888608

  14. A prospective, cohort, multicentre study of candidaemia in hospitalized adult patients with haematological malignancies.

    PubMed

    Gamaletsou, M N; Walsh, T J; Zaoutis, T; Pagoni, M; Kotsopoulou, M; Voulgarelis, M; Panayiotidis, P; Vassilakopoulos, T; Angelopoulou, M K; Marangos, M; Spyridonidis, A; Kofteridis, D; Pouli, A; Sotiropoulos, D; Matsouka, P; Argyropoulou, A; Perloretzou, S; Leckerman, K; Manaka, A; Oikonomopoulos, P; Daikos, G; Petrikkos, G; Sipsas, N V

    2014-01-01

    Invasive candidiasis is a life-threatening infection in patients with haematological malignancies. The objective of our study was to determine the incidence, microbiological characteristics and clinical outcome of candidaemia among hospitalized adult patients with haematological malignancies. This is a population-based, prospective, multicentre study of patients ? 18 years admitted to haematology and/or haematopoietic stem cell transplantation units of nine tertiary care Greek hospitals from January 2009 through to February 2012. Within this cohort, we conducted a nested case-control study to determine the risk factors for candidaemia. Stepwise logistic regression was used to identify independent predictors of 28-day mortality. Candidaemia was detected in 40 of 27,864 patients with haematological malignancies vs. 967 of 1,158,018 non-haematology patients for an incidence of 1.4 cases/1000 admissions vs. 0.83/1000 respectively (p <0.001). Candidaemia was caused predominantly (35/40, 87.5%) by non-Candida albicans species, particularly Candida parapsilosis (20/40, 50%). In vitro resistance to at least one antifungal agent was observed in 27% of Candida isolates. Twenty-one patients (53%) developed breakthrough candidaemia while receiving antifungal agents. Central venous catheters, hypogammaglobulinaemia and a high APACHE II score were independent risk factors for the development of candidaemia. Crude mortality at day 28 was greater in those with candidaemia than in control cases (18/40 (45%) vs. 9/80 (11%); p <0.0001). In conclusion, despite antifungal prophylaxis, candidaemia is a relatively frequent infection associated with high mortality caused by non-C. albicans spp., especially C. parapsilosis. Central venous catheters and hypogammaglobulinaemia are independent risk factors for candidaemia that provide potential targets for improving the outcome. PMID:23889746

  15. Biosimilar Epoetin Zeta in Oncology and Haematology: Development and Experience following 6 Years of Use.

    PubMed

    Michallet, Mauricette; Losem, Christoph

    2016-01-01

    Chemotherapy-induced anaemia is frequent in cancer patients, with severity depending on the extent of the disease and intensity of treatment. Clinical guidelines recommend erythropoietin therapy to treat or prevent anaemia in some oncology/haematology patients being treated with chemotherapy. The patent expiry of the first-generation erythropoietins has led to the development of biosimilar products, i.e. therapeutic proteins exhibiting comparable quality, safety and efficacy to an existing reference biological medicine, the patent of which has expired. This review summarises the available data set supporting the use of one such biosimilar product, epoetin zeta (Retacrit™) in oncology/haematology. The body of evidence supporting the use of epoetin zeta continues to grow, with post-marketing clinical studies underway to evaluate its longer-term clinical efficacy and safety. Biosimilar medicines have the potential to offer cost savings to health care providers, with the assurance of ongoing risk management programmes to ensure patient safety. PMID:26426164

  16. Occupational exposures and haematological abnormalities among ordnance factory workers: a case control study.

    PubMed

    West, R R; Stafford, D A

    1997-07-01

    The lifetime exposures to an extensive list of chemical and other potentially toxic hazards were estimated for all available employees at an ordnance factory by questionnaire-based interview. Exposure histories of 32 (of 33) previously diagnosed as haematologically abnormal (cases) were compared with 322 (of 345) normals (controls). Among 'ordnance factory chemicals', modestly increased odds ratios were observed for men for acetic anhydride (2.8), stearic acid (2.8), and possibly for resorcinol (2.9), TNT (2.4) and hydroxy terminated polybutadene (HTPB) (2.4). Increased odds ratios were also observed in exposures not directly related to ordnance manufacture, including mineral acids, welding fumes, exhaust gases and insecticides. While, small numbers in the case group limit the statistical significance of reported odds ratios, one should be cautious about committing a type II error. These findings may partly explain the previously reported unusual prevalence of haematological abnormalities within the factory. PMID:9301689

  17. Invasive pneumococcal disease in patients with haematological malignancies before routine use of conjugate vaccines in Finland.

    PubMed

    Lindström, Vesa; Aittoniemi, Janne; Lyytikäinen, Outi; Klemets, Peter; Ollgren, Jukka; Silvennoinen, Raija; Nuorti, J Pekka; Sinisalo, Marjatta

    2016-05-01

    The baseline national invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) incidence rate, serotype distribution and serotype coverage of pneumococcal vaccines were evaluated in patients with Hodgkin's and non-Hodgkin's lymphomas, myeloma and leukaemia within 1 year after haematological diagnosis during 1995-2002, before introduction of pneumococcal conjugate vaccines. Pneumococcal serotype distribution among these patients was different from serotypes causing IPD in the general population. The serotype coverages of PCV13 and PPSV23 were 57% and 64%, respectively, lower than in the general population. This reflects a higher predisposition to IPD in vaccinated patients with haematological malignancies and possibly less benefit of herd immunity gained with the wide use of pneumococcal conjugate vaccines in the general population. This data will be useful as a baseline for determining the future role of adult PCV vaccination in these patient groups. PMID:26635103

  18. Biochemical and haematological effects of a revised dosage schedule of phenylbutazone in horses.

    PubMed

    Taylor, J B; Walland, A; Lees, P; Gerring, E L; Maitho, T E; Millar, J D

    1983-06-25

    Five pairs of matched horses were used to study the biochemical and haematological effects of a revised dosage schedule of phenylbutazone. One group of five horses received a phenylbutazone paste formulation daily for 12 days and a second group of five animals received a placebo preparation for a similar time. Some statistically significant differences were recorded from pretreatment levels in both groups of horses. These changes represented instability in baseline levels and could not be ascribed to phenylbutazone administration. PMID:6879987

  19. Molecular Characterization and Resistant Spectrum of Enterococci Isolated from a Haematology Unit in China

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Jiajia; Shi, Jinfang; Zhao, Ruike; Han, Qingzhen; Qian, Xuefeng; Gu, Guohao; Zhang, Xianfeng

    2015-01-01

    Objectives The present study screened clinical isolates of E. faecalis and E. faecium to determine resistant spectrum and the potential virulence genes characterization among them of haematology patients. Methods Clinical Enterococci isolates were obtained from a haematology unit in a tertiary care hospital in China. Results Among 125 isolates available for the investigation, 46 were identified as E. faecium, and 79 were E. faecalis. Urine was the most common source (82, 65.6%). E. faecium isolates were more resistant than E. faecalis. Among E. faecium, maximum resistance was seen against PEN 93.5% and AMP 93.5% followed by CIP 87%. Eight vancomycin-resistant E. faecium (VREfm) isolates were obtained, positive for vanA genotype. Of 125 Enterococci isolates, 67(53.6%) were acm, and 42.4%, 25.6%, 25.6%, 24.8%, 23.2%, 20.8%, 10.4% and 7.2% of isolates were positive for esp, cylL-A, asa 1, cylL-S, cpd, cylL-L, gel-E and ace, respectively. E. faecalis isolates have more virulence genes (VGs) than E. faecium. MLST analysis of VREfm identified three different STs (ST17, ST78 and ST203). Conclusion The study provides the molecular characterization and resistant spectrum of Enterococci isolated from a haematology unit in China. Molecular analysis showed that all VREfm isolates belonged to pandemic clonal complex-17(CC17), associated with hospital-related isolates. Therefore, determining resistant spectrum and virulence characterization is crucial for the prevention and control of the spread of nosocomial infections caused by Enterococci in the haematology unit. PMID:26266119

  20. Haematological and genotoxic responses in an urban adapter, the banana bat, foraging at wastewater treatment works.

    PubMed

    Naidoo, Samantha; Vosloo, Dalene; Schoeman, M Corrie

    2015-04-01

    Wastewater Treatment Works (WWTWs) are a ubiquitous feature of the urban landscape. The Banana Bat, Neoromicia nana specifically exploits the high abundance of chironomid midge prey available at WWTWs but these populations also have higher levels of non-essential metals (Cd, Cr and Ni) in their tissues than bats foraging at unpolluted sites. Pollutant exposure may elicit primary physiological responses such as DNA damage and haematological changes. We investigated whether pollutant exposure from foraging at WWTWs impacts haematological and genotoxic parameters in N. nana. We compared four measures of haematological/genotoxic damage between N. nana foraging at three WWTWs and two unpolluted sites located in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa: DNA damage measured by the Comet assay, total antioxidant capacity as indicated by the FRAP assay, chromosomal aberration indicated by micronuclei formation and blood oxygen capacity based on haematocrits. There was significantly higher DNA damage in N. nana at WWTWs than in bats from unpolluted sites, suggesting inadequate repair to double stranded DNA breaks. In addition, WWTW bats had a significantly lower antioxidant capacity than bats from unpolluted sites. This suggests that bats at WWTWs may have a diminished capacity to cope with the excess reactive oxidative species (ROS) produced from pollutants such as metals. There was no increase in micronucleus frequency in WWTW bats, indicating that cellular functioning has not yet been disrupted by chemical exposure. Haematocrits, however, were significantly higher in WWTW bats, possibly due to erythrocyte production in response to certain pollutants. Thus, effects of pollutant exposure in bats foraging at WWTWs elicit sub-lethal haematological and genotoxic responses which may pose serious long-term risks. This provides evidence that WWTWs, that are aimed to remove pollutants from the environment, can themselves act as a source of contamination and pose a threat to animals exploiting these habitats. PMID:24953517

  1. The Prognostic Significance of HbF in Childhood Haematological Malignancies.

    PubMed

    Mallick, Debjani; Karmakar, Rupam; Barui, Gopinath; Gon, Sonia; Chakrabarti, Sudipta

    2015-03-01

    The degree of increase infoetal haemoglobin(HbF) synthesis in haematological malignancies may be associated with the degree of malignancy. The aim of the present study was to quantify HbF levels in various childhood haematological malignancies and also, to ascertain its prognostic significance by comparing the results with the already established standard prognostic factors. Newly diagnosed cases of haematological malignancies in the paediatric age group were included in the study. HbF levels were estimated in each case of the study group along with HbF levels of control group comprising healthy children of same age group. The estimation was done by HPLC and Modified Betke's method. 50 cases of newly diagnosed haematological malignancies were studied out of which most of the cases were of acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL) [n=30(60%)] followed by acute myeloid leukaemia (AML) [n=8(16%)], Hodgkin's lymphoma [n=7(14%)], non-Hodgkin's lymphoma [n=5(10%)]. Raised HbF levels were found in 43.3% cases of ALL (13/30) and 37.5% cases of AML (3/8). No significant rise in HbF level was found in cases of lymphomas. There was correlation between raised HbF level and poor prognostic factors in cases of ALL but no such correlation was found in cases of AML. HbF levels are often elevated in childhood leukaemias as compared to childhood lymphomas. Thus, the concentration of HbF in acute childhood leukaemia may be considered as a prognostic factor. PMID:25548456

  2. Changes in period and cohort effects on haematological cancer mortality in Spain, 1952-2006

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background In contrast to other haematological cancers, mortality from non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma and multiple myeloma increased dramatically during the second half of the 20th century in most developed countries. This widespread upward trend remains controversial, as it may be attributable either to progressive improvements in diagnosis and certification or to increasing exposures to little-known but relevant risk factors. Methods To assess the relative contribution of these factors, we analysed the independent effects of age, death period, and birth cohort on haematological cancer mortality rates in Spain across the period 1952-2006. Weighted joinpoint regression analyses were performed to detect and estimate changes in period and cohort curvatures. Results Although mortality rates were consistently higher among men, trends across periods and cohorts were virtually identical in both sexes. There was an early period trend reversal in the 1960s for Hodgkin’s disease and leukaemia, which was delayed to the 1980s for multiple myeloma and the 1990s for non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma. Birth cohort patterns showed a first downturn for generations born in the 1900s and 1910s for all haematological cancers, and a second trend reversal for more recent cohorts born in the 1950s and 1960s for non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma and leukaemia. Conclusions The sustained decline in Hodgkin’s disease mortality and the levelling off in leukaemia seem to be driven by an early period effect linked to improvements in disease treatment, whereas the steep upward trends in non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma and multiple myeloma mortality in Spain are more likely explained by a cohort effect linked to better diagnosis and death certification in the elderly. The consistent male excess mortality across all calendar periods and age groups points to the importance of possible sex-related genetic markers of susceptibility in haematological cancers. PMID:24716829

  3. Serum biochemical and haematological reference intervals for water buffalo Bubalus bubalis heifers.

    PubMed

    Abd Ellah, Mahmoud R; Hamed, Maha I; Ibrahim, Derar R; Rateb, Hassan Z

    2014-01-01

    Based on a review of the literature, reference intervals for water buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) serum biochemistry and haematology have not previously been published. The current study was done to establish reference intervals for water buffalo heifers. The International Federation of Clinical Chemistry stated that at least 120 values are necessary to obtain reliable estimates for reference intervals. A total number of 127 clinically healthy buffalo heifers (1-2 years old) were included in the study. Animals were examined at buffalo farms that belong to Assiut Governorate, Egypt. Three types of samples were collected: serum samples for biochemical analysis, whole blood samples for haematological analysis and faecal samples for parasitological examination. Animals that fitted the inclusion criteria were included in the study. Biochemical analysis included serum total proteins, albumin, total globulins, alpha, beta and gamma globulin levels, and aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, gamma glutamyl transferase, creatine phosphokinase and lactate dehydrogenase activity. In addition to the above, serum creatinine, urea, total bilirubin, direct bilirubin, indirect bilirubin, sodium, potassium, chloride, magnesium, calcium, phosphorus, copper, zinc, iron, triglycerides, high density lipoprotein, low density lipoprotein, very low density lipoprotein, glucose levels and 20 haematological variables were measured. The 95.0% reference intervals were calculated by removing the upper and lower 2.5% of the interval for each serum biochemical constituent to give the 2.5 and 97.5 percentiles. Confidence intervals were calculated for each reference limit. Reference intervals from the current study were compared with established values for cows. The current study is as far as could be determined the first that establishes reference intervals for the serum biochemical and haematological parameters in water buffalo heifers. PMID:24831856

  4. Effects of lichen extracts on haematological parameters of rats with experimental insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Colak, Suat; Geyikoğlu, Fatime; Aslan, Ali; Deniz, Gülşah Yıldız

    2014-11-01

    The prevalence of diabetes mellitus in the world is steadily increasing. Oxidative stress contributes to the development of diabetic complications, including diabetic haematological changes. Lichens are used as food supplements and are also used as possible natural antioxidant, antimicrobial and anticancer agents. We hypothesized that antioxidant activity of lichens may decrease hyperglycaemia-induced oxidative stress and prevent the development of diabetic complications, including abnormality in haematological condition. Therefore, the effects of Cetraria islandica water extract (CIWE) and Pseudevernia furfuracea water extract (PFWE) on the haematological parameters of rats with type 1 DM were investigated for the first time in the present study. Control Sprague-Dawley or streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats were either untreated or treated with water lichen extracts (5-500 mg/kg body weight (bw)/day) for 2 weeks, starting at 72 h after STZ injection. On day 14, animals were anaesthetized and haematological and metabolic parameters were determined between control and experimental groups. In addition, the total oxidative stress (TOS), a specific indicator of oxidative stress, and the total antioxidant capacity (TAC) were measured by biochemical studies. In diabetic rats, CIWE of 250-500 mg/kg bw dose showed more prominent results when compared with doses of PFWE for TAC. The results obtained in the present study suggested that the antioxidant activities of lichens might be the possible reason behind the observed antihaematological status. However, the protective effect of lichen extracts were inadequate on diabetes-induced microcytic hypochromic anaemia. In addition, the extracts have no effect on metabolic complications. Our experimental data showed that high doses of CIWE and PFWE alone have no detrimental effect on blood cells and TOS status of plasma. Hence, they are safe and suitable for different administration routes. PMID:23114377

  5. KIR Genes and Patterns Given by the A Priori Algorithm: Immunity for Haematological Malignancies

    PubMed Central

    Rodríguez-Escobedo, J. Gilberto; García-Sepúlveda, Christian A.; Cuevas-Tello, Juan C.

    2015-01-01

    Killer-cell immunoglobulin-like receptors (KIRs) are membrane proteins expressed by cells of innate and adaptive immunity. The KIR system consists of 17 genes and 614 alleles arranged into different haplotypes. KIR genes modulate susceptibility to haematological malignancies, viral infections, and autoimmune diseases. Molecular epidemiology studies rely on traditional statistical methods to identify associations between KIR genes and disease. We have previously described our results by applying support vector machines to identify associations between KIR genes and disease. However, rules specifying which haplotypes are associated with greater susceptibility to malignancies are lacking. Here we present the results of our investigation into the rules governing haematological malignancy susceptibility. We have studied the different haplotypic combinations of 17 KIR genes in 300 healthy individuals and 43 patients with haematological malignancies (25 with leukaemia and 18 with lymphomas). We compare two machine learning algorithms against traditional statistical analysis and show that the “a priori” algorithm is capable of discovering patterns unrevealed by previous algorithms and statistical approaches. PMID:26495028

  6. Fertility preservation in patients with haematological disorders: a retrospective cohort study?

    PubMed Central

    Senapati, Suneeta; Morse, Christopher B; Sammel, Mary D; Kim, Jayeon; Mersereau, Jennifer E; Efymow, Brenda; Gracia, Clarisa R

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the factors associated with utilization of fertility preservation and the differences in treatments and outcomes by prior chemotherapy exposure in patients with haematological diseases. This study included all 67 women with haematological diseases seen for fertility preservation consultation at two university hospitals between 2006 and 2011. Of the total, 49% had lymphoma, 33% had leukaemia, 7% had myelodysplastic syndrome and 4% had aplastic anaemia; 46% had prior chemotherapy; and 33% were planning for bone marrow transplantation, 33% pursued ovarian stimulation and 7% used ovarian tissue banking; and 48% of patients did not pursue fertility preservation treatment. All five cycle cancellations were in the post-chemotherapy group: three patients with leukaemia and two with lymphoma. Patients with prior chemotherapy had lower baseline antral follicle count (10 versus 22) and received more gonadotrophins to achieve similar peak oestradiol concentrations, with no difference in oocyte yield (10.5 versus 10) after adjustment for age. Embryo yield was similar between those who had prior chemotherapy and those who had not. Half of the patients with haematological diseases who present for fertility preservation have been exposed to chemotherapy. While ovarian reserve is likely impaired in this group, oocyte yield may be acceptable. PMID:24140311

  7. KIR Genes and Patterns Given by the A Priori Algorithm: Immunity for Haematological Malignancies.

    PubMed

    Rodrguez-Escobedo, J Gilberto; Garca-Seplveda, Christian A; Cuevas-Tello, Juan C

    2015-01-01

    Killer-cell immunoglobulin-like receptors (KIRs) are membrane proteins expressed by cells of innate and adaptive immunity. The KIR system consists of 17 genes and 614 alleles arranged into different haplotypes. KIR genes modulate susceptibility to haematological malignancies, viral infections, and autoimmune diseases. Molecular epidemiology studies rely on traditional statistical methods to identify associations between KIR genes and disease. We have previously described our results by applying support vector machines to identify associations between KIR genes and disease. However, rules specifying which haplotypes are associated with greater susceptibility to malignancies are lacking. Here we present the results of our investigation into the rules governing haematological malignancy susceptibility. We have studied the different haplotypic combinations of 17 KIR genes in 300 healthy individuals and 43 patients with haematological malignancies (25 with leukaemia and 18 with lymphomas). We compare two machine learning algorithms against traditional statistical analysis and show that the "a priori" algorithm is capable of discovering patterns unrevealed by previous algorithms and statistical approaches. PMID:26495028

  8. The Efficacy of Nardostachys Jatamansi Against The Radiation Induced Haematological Damage In Rats

    PubMed Central

    Gowda, Damodara K M; Shetty, Lathika; A P, Krishna; Kumari, Suchetha N; Sanjeev, Ganesh; P, Naveen

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: Radiation is increasingly being used for medical purposes and it is an established weapon in the diagnosis and the therapy of cancer. An exposure to 1-2 Gys causes the NVD (Nausea, vomiting, diarrhoea) syndrome, whereas an exposure to 2-6 Gys causes the haematopoietic syndrome. The aim of the present study was to investigate the protective effect of the Nardostachys jatamansi root extract (NJE) on the radiation induced haematological damage in rats. Materials and Methods: EBR was performed at the Microtron Centre, Mangalore University, India. Rats were treated with NJE once daily for 15 days before and after the irradiation. After the irradiation, blood was collected for determining the peripheral blood counts (RBC and WBC), haemoglobin, the platelet count and the packed cell volume (PCV) at 6 hours, 12 hours, 24 hours, 48 hours and 5, 10 and 15 days post irradiation. The data was analyzed by one way ANOVA, followed by the Tukeys test for multiple comparisons. Result: NJE provided protection against the radiation induced haematological disorders. The rats treated with NJE exhibited a time dependent significant elevation in all the haematological parameters which were studied and its modulation upto the near normal level was recorded. Conclusion: From this study, we concluded that, NJE provides protection by modulating the radiation induced damage on the haematopoietic system. PMID:23905085

  9. Altitude training causes haematological fluctuations with relevance for the Athlete Biological Passport.

    PubMed

    Bonne, Thomas Christian; Lundby, Carsten; Lundby, Anne Kristine; Sander, Mikael; Bejder, Jacob; Nordsborg, Nikolai Baastrup

    2015-08-01

    The impact of altitude training on haematological parameters and the Athlete Biological Passport (ABP) was evaluated in international-level elite athletes. One group of swimmers lived high and trained high (LHTH, n?=?10) for three to four weeks at 2130?m or higher whereas a control group (n?=?10) completed a three-week training camp at sea-level. Haematological parameters were determined weekly three times before and four times after the training camps. ABP thresholds for haemoglobin concentration ([Hb]), reticulocyte percentage (RET%), OFF score and the abnormal blood profile score (ABPS) were calculated using the Bayesian model. After altitude training, six swimmers exceeded the 99% ABP thresholds: two swimmers exceeded the OFF score thresholds at day +7; one swimmer exceeded the OFF score threshold at day +28; one swimmer exceeded the threshold for RET% at day +14; and one swimmer surpassed the ABPS threshold at day +14. In the control group, no values exceeded the individual ABP reference range. In conclusion, LHTH induces haematological changes in Olympic-level elite athletes which can exceed the individually generated references in the ABP. Training at altitude should be considered a confounding factor for ABP interpretation for up to four weeks after altitude exposure but does not consistently cause abnormal values in the ABP. PMID:25545030

  10. Trichlorfon-induced haematological and biochemical changes in Cyprinus carpio: ameliorative effect of propolis.

    PubMed

    Yonar, M Enis; Yonar, Serpil Mi?e; Pala, Ay?egl; Silici, Sibel; Sa?lam, Naim

    2015-06-01

    Trichlorfon is among the most commonly used products to treat fish parasites in aquaculture. We investigated the effectiveness of propolis in alleviating the toxicity of trichlorfon on haematological and oxidant/antioxidant parameters in carp Cyprinus carpio. Fish were exposed to sublethal concentrations (11 and 22 mg l-1) of trichlorfon, and propolis (10 mg kg-1 of fish weight) was simultaneously administered. At the end of 14 d administration, blood and tissue (liver, kidney, gill) samples were collected. Haematological changes (red and white blood cell count, haemoglobin concentration, haematocrit level and erythrocyte indices: mean corpuscular volume, mean corpuscular haemoglobin and mean corpuscular haemoglobin concentration) were determined in the blood samples, while antioxidant parameters (malondialdehyde and reduced glutathione levels and superoxide dismutase, catalase and glutathione peroxidase activities) were evaluated in the liver, kidney and gill samples. Trichlorfon led to negative alterations in the haematological and antioxidant parameters investigated. The administration of propolis alleviated this effect and suggests that fish treated with trichlorfon improve their physiological status when fed a propolis-supplemented diet. PMID:26036828

  11. Utility of next-generation sequencing technologies for the efficient genetic resolution of haematological disorders.

    PubMed

    Zhang, J; Barbaro, P; Guo, Y; Alodaib, A; Li, J; Gold, W; Ads, L; Keating, B J; Xu, X; Teo, J; Hakonarson, H; Christodoulou, J

    2016-02-01

    Next-generation sequencing (NGS) has now evolved to be a relatively affordable and efficient means of detecting genetic mutations. Whole genome sequencing (WGS) or whole exome sequencing (WES) offers the opportunity for rapid diagnosis in many paediatric haematological conditions, where phenotypes are variable and either a large number of genes are involved, or the genes are large making sanger sequencing expensive and labour-intensive. NGS offers the potential for gene discovery in patients who do not have mutations in currently known genes. This report shows how WES was used in the diagnosis of six paediatric haematology cases. In four cases (Diamond-Blackfan anaemia, congenital neutropenia (n?=?2), and Fanconi anaemia), the diagnosis was suspected based on classical phenotype, and NGS confirmed those suspicions. Mutations in RPS19, ELANE and FANCD2 were found. The final two cases (MYH9 associated macrothrombocytopenia associated with multiple congenital anomalies; atypical juvenile myelomonocytic leukaemia associated with a KRAS mutation) highlight the utility of NGS where the diagnosis is less certain, or where there is an unusual phenotype. We discuss the advantages and limitations of NGS in the setting of these cases, and in haematological conditions more broadly, and discuss where NGS is most efficiently used. PMID:25703294

  12. The influence of administering "effective microorganisms" to pullets on chosen haematological and biochemical blood indexes.

    PubMed

    Sok?, R; Michalczyk, M; Spodniewska, A; Barski, D

    2009-01-01

    "Effective Microorganisms" (EM)--a mixture of lactic acid bacteria, photosynthetic bacteria, yeasts and fungi are used mainly in agriculture and organic waste treatment. Recently, they have also been added to water and feed for animals, as well as to processing their excrements into compost and to eliminate the stench. The objective of the present study was to assess the influence of a 14-day administration of an EM solution in drinking water to layer hens on chosen haematological and biochemical indexes. The research was carried out on 120 hens divided into two equal groups. The birds in the experimental group were given drinking water with dissolved EM (5% solution), and those in the control group--water without the preparation. On the 64th day of the aviculture, the hens were weighted and their blood was taken from the wing vein for haematological and biochemical examinations. Administering EM with water to hens did not influence significantly their body weight nor chosen haematological and biochemical indexes. A significant increase was found only in the number of platelets, the level of albumins, the content of total cholesterol and the LDH activity, however, a decrease in the ALT activity was observed. PMID:20169927

  13. Candiduria in haematologic malignancy patients without a urinary catheter: nothing more than a frailty marker?

    PubMed

    Georgiadou, Sarah P; Tarrand, Jeffrey; Sipsas, Nikolaos V; Kontoyiannis, Dimitrios P

    2013-05-01

    There is scarcity of data regarding significance of candiduria in patients with haematologic malignancies and its association with invasive candidiasis. To that end, we retrospectively evaluated all hospitalised, non-intensive care unit patients with haematologic malignancies and candiduria during a 10-year period (2001-2011). To decrease the possibility of bladder colonisation and sample contamination, we excluded all patients with candiduria who had urinary catheters and those with concomitant bacteriuria. Twenty-four such patients (21 females) were identified, with median age at diagnosis 62?years (range, 20-82?years). Acute leukaemia was the most common underlying disease (54%); 62% of these cases were not in remission. Twenty-nine percent of the patients had diabetes mellitus and 25% were neutropenic. The most common isolated Candida species was Candida glabrata (37%), followed by C. albicans (29%). Only 8% of them had urinary tract infection symptoms. However, 88% received systemic antifungals. Candidemia and crude mortality rates at 4?weeks were low (4% and 12% respectively). Isolated candiduria in patients with haematologic malignancies has risk factors similar to those in other hospitalised patients, and it does not seem to be a strong predictor of subsequent invasive candidiasis. PMID:23170870

  14. Establishment of baseline haematology and biochemistry parameters in wild adult African penguins (Spheniscus demersus).

    PubMed

    Parsons, Nola J; Schaefer, Adam M; van der Spuy, Stephen D; Gous, Tertius A

    2015-01-01

    There are few publications on the clinical haematology and biochemistry of African penguins (Spheniscus demersus) and these are based on captive populations. Baseline haematology and serum biochemistry parameters were analysed from 108 blood samples from wild, adult African penguins. Samples were collected from the breeding range of the African penguin in South Africa and the results were compared between breeding region and sex. The haematological parameters that were measured were: haematocrit, haemoglobin, red cell count and white cell count. The biochemical parameters that were measured were: sodium, potassium, chloride, calcium, inorganic phosphate, creatinine, cholesterol, serum glucose, uric acid, bile acid, total serum protein, albumin, aspartate transaminase and creatine kinase. All samples were serologically negative for selected avian diseases and no blood parasites were detected. No haemolysis was present in any of the analysed samples. Male African penguins were larger and heavier than females, with higher haematocrit, haemoglobin and red cell count values, but lower calcium and phosphate values. African penguins in the Eastern Cape were heavier than those in the Western Cape, with lower white cell count and globulin values and a higher albumin/globulin ratio, possibly indicating that birds are in a poorer condition in the Western Cape. Results were also compared between multiple penguin species and with African penguins in captivity. These values for healthy, wild, adult penguins can be used for future health and disease assessments. PMID:26016391

  15. Haematological and Biochemical Parameters during the Laying Period in Common Pheasant Hens Housed in Enhanced Cages

    PubMed Central

    Hrabčáková, Petra; Voslářová, Eva; Bedáňová, Iveta; Pištěková, Vladimíra; Chloupek, Jan; Večerek, Vladimír

    2014-01-01

    The development of selected haematological and biochemical parameters during the laying period was monitored in common pheasant hens housed in an enhanced cage system. The cages were enhanced by the addition of two perches and a shelter formed by strips of cloth hanging in the corner of the cage. The results showed significant changes in the haematological and biochemical parameters monitored during egg laying. At the time when laying capacity approached a maximum, a decrease was observed (P < 0.05) in haematocrit, erythrocytes, and haemoglobin values, whereas monocytes, eosinophils, the heterophil/lymphocyte ratio, phosphorus, and calcium exhibited an increase (P < 0.05). At the end of the laying period, an increase (P < 0.05) was recorded in the count of leukocytes, heterophils, lymphocytes and basophils, the heterophil to lymphocyte ratio, and the concentrations of aspartate aminotransferase, cholesterol, phosphorus, and calcium, whereas lower values (P < 0.05) were recorded for haematocrit and plasma total protein in comparison with the values of the indicators at the beginning of the laying period. The results provide new information about dynamic changes in selected haematological and biochemical parameters in clinically healthy common pheasant hens during the laying period. PMID:25121117

  16. Haematological and biochemical parameters during the laying period in common pheasant hens housed in enhanced cages.

    PubMed

    Hrab?kov, Petra; Vosl?ov, Eva; Bed?ov, Iveta; Pit?kov, Vladimra; Chloupek, Jan; Ve?erek, Vladimr

    2014-01-01

    The development of selected haematological and biochemical parameters during the laying period was monitored in common pheasant hens housed in an enhanced cage system. The cages were enhanced by the addition of two perches and a shelter formed by strips of cloth hanging in the corner of the cage. The results showed significant changes in the haematological and biochemical parameters monitored during egg laying. At the time when laying capacity approached a maximum, a decrease was observed (P < 0.05) in haematocrit, erythrocytes, and haemoglobin values, whereas monocytes, eosinophils, the heterophil/lymphocyte ratio, phosphorus, and calcium exhibited an increase (P < 0.05). At the end of the laying period, an increase (P < 0.05) was recorded in the count of leukocytes, heterophils, lymphocytes and basophils, the heterophil to lymphocyte ratio, and the concentrations of aspartate aminotransferase, cholesterol, phosphorus, and calcium, whereas lower values (P < 0.05) were recorded for haematocrit and plasma total protein in comparison with the values of the indicators at the beginning of the laying period. The results provide new information about dynamic changes in selected haematological and biochemical parameters in clinically healthy common pheasant hens during the laying period. PMID:25121117

  17. Relationship between anthropometric and haematological parameters among third trimester pregnant women in Sokoto State, Northwest Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Bamaiyi, A J; Adelaiye, A B; Igbokwe, V U

    2013-01-01

    The pregnancy state in a woman's life is a unique state in terms of the desirable physiological changes and the exciting reversal of the changes soon after the termination of the pregnancy. It is considered essential that to guarantee a good feto-maternal outcome the attainment of optimum anthropometric and haematological parameters are key. Our study assessed the anthropometric and haematological changes and also looked at the relationship that exists between these parameters among pregnant women.We carried out a cross-sectional descriptive study which considered 160 apparently healthy, singleton, third trimester pregnant women attending ANC at the State Specialist Hospital and 58 apparently healthy non-pregnant controls sourced from the Sokoto metropolis population. Each subject or control enrolled was contacted 3 times at 2 weekly intervals. And at each occasion they are assessed for changes in the anthropometric and haematological parameters. The response rate was 93.6% (3 pregnants and 11 controls were loss to follow up). The pregnant and control subgroups mean ages were 28.02 6.81 years and 26.89 5.84 years respectively (p = 0.265). Weekly weight gains of 0.48kg among the pregnant sub-group against 0.13kg obtained in the control group were recorded. BMI increase of about 0.19kg/m2 per week among the pregnant sub-group and only 0.05kg per week in the controls. 95% of the distribution of pregnant sub-group has haemoglobin and haematocrit of ?8.9g/dL and ?26% respectively. Among the pregnant sub-group, mean weekly haemoglobin and haematocrit drop of 0.24g/dL and 0.74% were respectively recorded. A steady rise in WBC was recorded but platelets counts dropped at an average of 5.04 x 103 /?L per week. A positive correlation between BMI and haemoglobin levels was observed (r > 0 and p < 0.05). No particular regularity in the relationship between BMI and WBC was noticed. We conclude that there was optimum weight gain and good haematological indices for those with good BMI during the third trimester of pregnancy. There was a positive correlation between BMI and plasma haemoglobin level but WBC showed no particular relationship with the anthropometric changes. We therefore, recommend that good education to improve the socio- economic wellbeing of the girl-child be encouraged to boost self sufficiency for better weight gains and to facilitate access to good healthcare so that the ideal anthropometric and haematological parameters can be achieved during pregnancy to guarantee good feto-maternal outcome. PMID:24937399

  18. Increased risk of zoonotic Salmonella and Campylobacter gastroenteritis in patients with haematological malignancies: a population-based study.

    PubMed

    Gradel, Kim O; Nrgaard, Mette; Dethlefsen, Claus; Schnheyder, Henrik C; Kristensen, Brian; Ejlertsen, Tove; Nielsen, Henrik

    2009-08-01

    We hypothesised that haematological malignancies increase the risk of acquiring zoonotic Salmonella or Campylobacter gastroenteritis. The population-based study comprised all first-time Salmonella/Campylobacter gastroenteritis cases in two Danish counties (1991-2003), with age- and gender-matched controls from the background population. We linked the study cohort to registries to obtain data on malignancies, chemotherapy (yes/no), and main comorbidities diagnosed before Salmonella/Campylobacter gastroenteritis. Based on this design, we determined incidence rate ratios (IRR) in conditional logistic regression analyses, and we used weighted mean regression curves to evaluate fluctuations in risk 0-5 years after the malignancy diagnosis. Sixty-eight of 13,324 cases (0.5%) and 29 of 26,648 controls (0.1%) had haematological malignancy before their Salmonella/Campylobacter gastroenteritis. Comorbidity-adjusted IRR for Salmonella/Campylobacter gastroenteritis in patients with haematological malignancy as compared to patients without malignancy were 4.46 [95% confidence intervals (CI), 2.88-6.90] for all individuals, 8.33 (95% CI, 4.31-16.1) for Salmonella, and 2.17 (95% CI, 1.15-4.08) for Campylobacter. Stratification on chemotherapy treatment did not change these estimates. In time-related analyses, IRR were 7-8 in the first 2 years after the haematological malignancy diagnosis and 4-5 in the following 3 years. Patients with haematological malignancy had increased long-term risk of enquiring Salmonella or Campylobacter gastroenteritis. PMID:19083236

  19. Modulation of platelet aggregation, haematological and histological parameters by structured lipids on hypercholesterolaemic rats.

    PubMed

    Sengupta, Avery; Ghosh, Mahua

    2010-05-01

    The effect of the consumption of medium-chain fatty acid (MCFA)-rich and polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA)-rich mustard oil on platelet aggregation, haematological parameters and the liver was studied in male albino rats. The rats were fed on standard stock diet with control (mustard oil) and experimental oils for 28 days. Haematological examinations in the normal condition showed that there was no significant variation in the platelet count, total white blood cell (WBC) and red blood cell (RBC) counts, haematocrit value and mean cell haemoglobin concentration (MCHC) percentage in the rats fed with control and experimental oils. Haematological examinations in the hypercholesterolaemic condition revealed that there was a significant increase in the platelet count by 39.38% in hypercholesterolaemia, which was decreased by 27.29 and 42.71% by the administration of the experimental oils, respectively. The haemoglobin level was decreased by 5.3%, whereas the haematocrit value was increased by 12.52% in hypercholesterolaemia, which were normalised by treatment with the experimental oils. The platelet aggregation study indicated that the adenosine diphosphate (ADP)-induced platelet aggregation increased by 71.67% in hypercholesterolaemia, but the experimental oils beneficially reduced platelet aggregation by 26.33 and 68.33%, respectively. There was increased total cholesterol, non-high-density lipoprotein (non-HDL) cholesterol and triglyceride levels in liver in hypercholesterolaemia, which was also recovered by the administration of experimental oils. Organopathological examination showed that there was deposition of cholesterol in the liver in the hypercholesterolaemic condition, which was also reduced by treatment with the two experimental oils. PMID:20401638

  20. Infection by Brazilian and Dutch swine hepatitis E virus strains induces haematological changes in Macaca fascicularis

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Hepatitis E virus (HEV) has been described as an emerging pathogen in Brazil and seems to be widely disseminated among swine herds. An autochthonous human case of acute hepatitis E was recently reported. To obtain a better understanding of the phenotypic profiles of both human and swine HEV strains, a experimental study was conducted using the animal model, Macaca fascicularis. Methods Six cynomolgus monkeys (Macaca fascicularis) were inoculated intravenously with swine HEV genotype 3 that was isolated from naturally and experimentally infected pigs in Brazil and the Netherlands. Two other monkeys were inoculated with HEV genotype 3 that was recovered from Brazilian and Argentinean patients with locally acquired acute and fulminant hepatitis E. The haematological, biochemical, and virological parameters of all animals were monitored for 67 days. Results Subclinical hepatitis was observed in all monkeys after inoculation with HEV genotype 3 that was recovered from the infected swine and human patients. HEV RNA was detected in the serum and/or faeces of 6 out of the 8 cynomolgus monkeys between 5 and 53 days after inoculation. The mild inflammation of liver tissues and elevations of discrete liver enzymes were observed. Seroconversions to anti-HEV IgM and/or IgG were detected in 7 animals. Reactivities to anti-HEV IgA were also detected in the salivary samples of 3 animals. Interestingly, all of the infected monkeys showed severe lymphopenia and a trend toward monocytosis, which coincided with elevations in alanine aminotransferase and antibody titres. Conclusions The ability of HEV to cross the species barrier was confirmed for both the swine (Brazilian and Dutch) and human (Argentinean) strains, thus reinforcing the zoonotic risk of hepatitis E in South America. Cynomolgus monkeys that were infected with HEV genotype 3 developed subclinical hepatitis that was associated with haematological changes. Haematological approaches should be considered in future studies of HEV infection. PMID:24148233

  1. ATM germline mutations in women with familial breast cancer and a relative with haematological malignancy.

    PubMed

    Paglia, Laura La; Laug, Anthony; Weber, Jrmie; Champ, Jrme; Cavaciuti, Eve; Russo, Antonio; Viovy, Jean-Louis; Stoppa-Lyonnet, Dominique

    2010-01-01

    Biallelic inactivation of the ATM gene causes ataxia-telangiectasia (A-T), a complex neurological disease associated with a high risk of leukaemias and lymphomas. Mothers of A-T children, obligate ATM heterozygote mutation carriers, have a breast cancer (BC) relative risk of about 3. The frequency of ATM carriers in BC women with a BC family history has been estimated to be 2.70%. To further our clinical understanding of familial BC and examine whether haematological malignancies are predictive of ATM germline mutation, we estimated the frequency of heterozygote mutation carriers in a series of 122 BC women with a family history of both BC and haematological malignancy and without BRCA1/2 mutation. The gene screening was performed with a new high throughput method, EMMA (enhanced mismatch mutation analysis). Amongst 28 different ATM variants, eight mutations have been identified in eight patients: two mutations leading to a putative truncated protein and six being likely deleterious mutations. One of the truncating mutations was initially interpreted as a missense mutation, p.Asp2597Tyr, but is actually a splice mutation (c.7789G>T/p.Asp2597_Lys2643>LysfsX3). The estimated frequency of ATM heterozygote mutation carriers in our series is 6.56% (95% CI: 2.16-10.95), a significantly higher figure than that observed in the general population, estimated to be between 0.3 and 0.6%. Although a trend towards an increased frequency of ATM carriers was observed, it was not different from that observed in a population of familial BC women not selected for haematological malignancy as the frequency of ATM carriers was 2.70%, a value situated in the confidence interval of our study. PMID:19404735

  2. Long driving time is associated with haematological markers of increased cardiovascular risk in taxi drivers

    PubMed Central

    Chen, J; Chen, Y; Chang, W; Christiani, D

    2005-01-01

    Aims: To examine the association between driving time and changes in haematological markers of increased risks for cardiovascular diseases (CVD). Methods: The authors conducted a cross sectional analysis of baseline data from the Taxi Drivers' Health Study cohort in Taipei, Taiwan. They retrieved information on comorbidity, laboratory tests, age, and anthropometric measures from medical records of 1157 subjects (mean age 44.6 (SD 8.6) years). Whole blood cell (WBC) count was used as the primary haematological marker for increased CVD risk, and platelet count and haematocrit as the secondary markers. Standardised questionnaires were implemented to collect information on demographics, lifestyle, work related physical and psychosocial factors, and driving time profiles. Multiple regression was used to estimate the adjusted effects of driving time on three haematological markers. Results: The mean measured hematological marker was 6656 (SD 1656) cells x106/l for WBC, 47.2 (SD 3.5) % for hematocrit, and 243 (SD 52) cells x109/l for platelets. The driving time was 264 (SD 76) hours/month. Compared with drivers who drove ?208 hours/month (1st quartile cut off), drivers who drove >208 hours/month had a higher WBC count (by 317 x106/l; 95% CI 99 to 535), haematocrit (by 0.8%; 95% CI 0.3 to 1.2), and platelets (7.9 x109/l; 95% CI 1.0 to 14.8). After adjusting for conventional CVD risk factors (age, sex, smoking, hypertension, diabetes, and hypercholesterolaemia), obesity, alcohol drinking, regular exercise, and sociodemographics (education, marital status, income, and so on), long driving time was still associated with significant increases in WBC and platelets, whereas the effect on haematocrit was diminished and became statistically non-significant. Additional controls for physical workload, self-perceived job stress, and job dissatisfaction did not alter the associations with increased WBC and platelets. Conclusions: Longitudinal studies are needed to confirm the observed cross sectional association and to further examine the specific occupational exposures accountable for the association between driving time and haematological markers of systemic inflammation and haemostatic alteration. PMID:16299099

  3. Haematological traits, religion and rural/urban residence among the Lepchas of Kalimpong subdivision, Darjeeling district, West Bengal (India).

    PubMed

    Mukhopadhyay, B; Gupta, R; Bhattacharya, S K

    1996-03-01

    As a part of an ongoing multidisciplinary biomedical research programme, initiated by the Indian Statistical Institute in early 1976, entitled "Human Adaptability Programme", the present study was undertaken among the Lepchas of Kalimpong subdivision, Darjeeling district, West Bengal (India) to enquire at a micro-level into the possible relationship between the major sociocultural factors, viz. religious practices and rural/urban residence, on the one hand, and haematological traits such as haemoglobin level, haematocrit and anaemia, on the other. The results show that while effects of religious practices do not seem to exist on the haematological traits considered, significant effects of rural/urban residence do. PMID:8660003

  4. Alfalfa dodder (Cuscuta campestris) toxicity in horses: clinical, haematological and serum biochemical findings.

    PubMed

    Abutarbush, S M

    2013-07-27

    The objective of this observational study is to describe clinical, haematological and serum biochemical findings of horses affected with alfalfa dodder (Cuscuta campestris) toxicity. Twenty horses naturally exposed to alfalfa dodder toxicity were examined and information was collected on history and clinical signs. Physical examination was done on horses in the premises (n=20), and venous blood samples of 12 horses were submitted for haematology and serum biochemical examination for each horse. Abnormal clinical signs started around 36 hours after horses were fed the contaminated alfalfa. Abnormal signs were seen in 11 horses and those included diarrhoea (n=8), decreased appetite (n=7), neurological signs (n=4) and abdominal pain (n=1). Some horses had multiple clinical signs of the above. The results of complete blood cell count revealed leukocytopenia, neutropenia and thrombocytopenia. Serum biochemical analysis revealed decreased ALP, AST and CPK levels and increased direct bilirubin level. The used alfalfa was stopped immediately and a different alfalfa from a new container that did not contain any weeds was fed. Horses on the premises were observed closely, and the abnormal clinical signs resolved within three days. No treatment was implemented. Knowledge about toxicity of horses by Cuscuta species is scarce in the English veterinary literature and very limited. PMID:23800626

  5. Detection of quantitative trait loci affecting haematological traits in swine via genome scanning

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Haematological traits, which consist of mainly three components: leukocyte traits, erythrocyte traits and platelet traits, play extremely important role in animal immune function and disease resistance. But knowledge of the genetic background controlling variability of these traits is very limited, especially in swine. Results In the present study, 18 haematological traits (7 leukocyte traits, 7 erythrocyte traits and 4 platelet traits) were measured in a pig resource population consisting of 368 purebred piglets of three breeds (Landrace, Large White and Songliao Black Pig), after inoculation with the swine fever vaccine when the pigs were 21 days old. A whole-genome scan of QTL for these traits was performed using 206 microsatellite markers covering all 18 autosomes and the X chromosome. Using variance component analysis based on a linear mixed model and the false discovery rate (FDR) test, 35 QTL with FDR < 0.10 were identified: 3 for the leukocyte traits, 28 for the erythrocyte traits, and 4 for the platelet traits. Of the 35 QTL, 25 were significant at FDR < 0.05 level, including 9 significant at FDR < 0.01 level. Conclusions Very few QTL were previously identified for hematological traits of pigs and never in purebred populations. Most of the QTL detected here, in particular the QTL for the platelet traits, have not been reported before. Our results lay important foundation for identifying the causal genes underlying the hematological trait variations in pigs. PMID:20584270

  6. Establishment of haematological and immunological reference values for healthy Tanzanian children in Kilimanjaro Region

    PubMed Central

    Buchanan, Ann M.; Muro, Florida J.; Gratz, Jean; Crump, John A.; Musyoka, Augustine M.; Sichangi, Moses W.; Morrissey, Anne B.; M'rimberia, Jane K.; Njau, Boniface N.; Msuya, Levina J.; Bartlett, John A.; Cunningham, Coleen K.

    2010-01-01

    Summary Objective To determine the normal haematological and immunological reference intervals for healthy Tanzanian children. Methods We analysed data from 655 HIV-seronegative, healthy children from 1 month to 18 years of age from the Kilimanjaro Region of Tanzania for this cross-sectional study. Median and 95% reference ranges were determined for haematological and immunological parameters and analysed by age cohorts, and by gender for adolescents. Results Median haemoglobin (Hb) and haematocrit (Hct) for all age groups were higher than established East African reference intervals. Compared to U.S. intervals, reference ranges encompassed lower values for Hb, Hct, mean corpuscular volume, and platelets. Applying the U.S. National Institute of Health Division of AIDS (DAIDS) adverse event grading criteria commonly used in clinical trials to the reference range participants, 128 (21%) of 619 children would be classified as having an adverse event related to Hb level. CD4-positive T-lymphocyte absolute counts declined significantly with increasing age (P < 0.0001). For those aged under five years, CD4-positive T-lymphocyte percentages are lower than established developed country medians. Conclusions Country-specific reference ranges are needed for defining normal laboratory parameters among children in Africa. Knowledge of appropriate reference intervals is critical not only for providing optimal clinical care, but also for enrolling children in medical research. Knowledge of normal CD4-positive T-lymphocyte parameters in this population is especially important for guiding the practice of HIV medicine in Tanzania. PMID:20636301

  7. Inside the Redbox: applications of haematology in wildlife monitoring and ecosystem health assessment.

    PubMed

    Maceda-Veiga, Alberto; Figuerola, Jordi; Martnez-Silvestre, Albert; Viscor, Gins; Ferrari, Nicola; Pacheco, Mrio

    2015-05-01

    Blood analyses have great potential in studies of ecology, ecotoxicology and veterinary science in wild vertebrates based on advances in human and domestic animal medicine. The major caveat for field researchers, however, is that the 'rules' for human or domestic animal haematology do not always apply to wildlife. The present overview shows the strengths and limitations of blood analyses in wild vertebrates, and proposes a standardisation of pre-analytical procedures plus some suggestions for a more systematic examination of blood smears to increase the diagnostic value of blood data. By discussing the common problems that field researchers face with blood variables, we also aim to highlight common ground enabling new researchers in the field to accurately collect blood samples and interpret and place their haematological findings into the overall picture of an ecological or eco-toxicological study. Besides showing the practicality and ecological relevance of simple blood variables, this study illustrates the suitability of blood samples for the application of cutting-edge analytical procedures for expanding the current repertoire of diagnostic tools in wildlife monitoring and ecosystem health assessment. PMID:25668285

  8. Effect of ingested heavy metals (Cd, Pb and Hg) on haematology and serum biochemistry in rabbits.

    PubMed

    Bersnyi, A; Fekete, S Gy; Szcs, Z; Berta, Erzsbet

    2003-01-01

    In order to investigate the effects of exposure to possible environmental pollutants such as Cd, Pb and Hg on haematological and serum biochemistry values, New Zealand White female rabbits were treated orally with distilled water solutions of CdSO4 x H2O, Pb(NO3)2 and HgCl2 (n = 4/treatment) in concentrations of 2.3, 4.1, and 30 mg/kg dry matter, respectively, for 28 days. The initial concentrations of Cd, Pb, and Hg in serum were significantly increased by the treatment. Exposure to Pb significantly decreased the red blood cell (RBC) count, haemoglobin (Hgb) concentration and the haematocrit (Hct) value. The Zn-protoporphyrin concentration did not change as a result of Pb exposure. Pb and Hg loading significantly increased the aspartate aminotransferase (AST) activity. Alanine aminotransferase (ALT) activity was also increased by both Hg and Cd exposure. Comparing the treated and the control rabbits, all the trace elements studied significantly reduced the activity of enzymes in the pancreatic tissues. The haematological results indicate that hyperchromic macrocytic anaemia developed in rabbits treated with Pb. The increased activities of both AST and ALT indicate pathophysiological changes of the liver parenchyma, which was verified by focal fatty infiltration seen histopathologically. Cd exposure could exert a toxic effect on the kidneys, although the slight tubulonephrosis developed would not possibly affect the renal function. The reduced activities of amylase, trypsin, protease and lipase induced by Cd, Pb and Hg suggest toxicity to the pancreas. PMID:14516158

  9. Increased risk of invasive pneumococcal disease in haematological and solid-organ malignancies.

    PubMed

    Wong, A; Marrie, T J; Garg, S; Kellner, J D; Tyrrell, G J

    2010-12-01

    Large-scale population-based studies have reported a significant increase in invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) in those with underlying haematological or solid-organ malignancy, but limited condition-specific data are available on rates of IPD in the adult population. A retrospective chart review of all patients with IPD (identified prospectively) in the province of Alberta, Canada (population ~33 million) was conducted from 2000 to 2004 to study the epidemiology of IPD. Rates of IPD in patients with various haematological and solid-organ malignancies were determined by obtaining the number of these patients at risk from the provincial cancer registry. Compared to the attack rate of IPD in the adult population aged ?18 years (110 cases/100,000 per year, 95% CI 1044-1165), there were significantly increased rates of IPD in those with lung cancer (1436 cases/100,000 per year, OR 134, 95% CI 93-194, P<0001) and multiple myeloma (6739 cases/100,000 per year, OR 628, 95% CI 396-998, P<0001). More modestly increased rates of IPD were found in those with chronic lymphocytic leukaemia, acute myeloid leukaemia, acute lymphoblastic leukaemia, and Hodgkin's and non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. There was an increased prevalence of serotype 6A in those with these underlying malignancies, but no other serotypes predominated. Fifty-three percent (48/83) of cases were caused by serotypes in the investigational 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV13), and 57/83 (69%) of the cases were caused by serotypes in the 23-valent pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine (PPV23). The incidence of IPD in adults with certain haematological and solid-organ malignancies is significantly greater than the overall adult population. Such patients should be routinely given pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine; this population could also be targeted for an expanded valency conjugate vaccine. PMID:20429967

  10. Haematological and physiological responses of Piemontese beef cattle to different housing conditions.

    PubMed

    Starvaggi Cucuzza, L; Riondato, F; Macchi, E; Bellino, C; Franco, G; Biolatti, B; Cannizzo, F T

    2014-10-01

    Public concern for animal welfare has progressively grown over the recent years. In this context, stress has a great economical impact on growth of animals and quality of animal products. The development and validation of methods to assess animal stress, particularly at the farm level, are desirable to evaluate animal production systems. Piemontese breed is traditionally tie-stall housed in the fattening period. Hence, the objective of this study was to characterise a profile of physiological and haematological changes of Piemontese beef cattle under different management conditions (tie-stall and loose housing). Our results suggest that the housing system is an important factor in animal welfare. Indeed, the values of the total protein, lysozyme, cortisol, serum and faecal corticosterone concentration and GR-? gene expression indicate that the tie-stall housing is more stressful than the loose system. All the alterations highlighted in this study considered together may be effective biomarkers of stress and disease susceptibility. PMID:25168461

  11. The contribution of randomized trials to the cure of haematological disorders from Bradford Hill onwards.

    PubMed

    Hills, Robert K

    2012-09-01

    It is now 75 years since the publication of Sir Austin Bradford Hill's classic textbook on Medical Statistics, and half a century since the formation of the Medical Research Council Working Party on Leukaemia. In the intervening period, trials in haematological malignancies have been at the forefront of cancer research, both in the proportion of patients recruited, and in the adoption of novel trial designs. In this paper, the principles propounded by Hill for reliable evaluation of new treatments are considered and placed in the context of the development and evaluation of novel treatments in the 21st century. Many of the original principles espoused are still highly relevant today, while the emerging heterogeneity of the conditions, both in aetiology and outcome provide their own newer challenges, which are discussed here. PMID:22765202

  12. Genetic and clinical studies of serum beta 2-microglobulin levels in haematological malignancies.

    PubMed Central

    Nakao, Y; Matsumoto, H; Miyazaki, T; Watanabe, S; Masaoka, T; Takatsuki, K; Kishihara, M; Kobayashi, N; Hattori, M; Fujita, T

    1981-01-01

    Sera from 244 patients with haematological malignancies were examined for beta 2-microglobulin (beta 2m) levels. There were 142 leukaemias, 32 malignant lymphomas, three immunoblastic lymphomas, two pseudolymphomas and 65 multiple myelomas. Culture supernatants from various established cell lines were also tested. The phenotype facilitating beta 2m shedding from the cell surface appeared to be independent of the specific IgG heavy chain allotypes; however, a myeloma group with normal serum beta 2m levels showed a significant association with the specific Gm allotypes. The determination of serum beta 2m levels can provide valuable information on the proliferative stage of the disorders, the effectiveness of chemotherapy, and be a diagnostic aid for blastic crisis in chronic myelocytic leukaemias, and for subtyping lymphoid malignancies. PMID:6175458

  13. [Invasive fungal infections in oncology and haematology unit care: review of literature and costs analysis].

    PubMed

    Lecointre, R; Bleyzac, N

    2011-07-01

    Invasive fungal infections are an important cause of mortality in oncology and haematology unit care. Immunosuppression allows the occurrence of Candida or Aspergillus infectious disease. Treatment is based on antifungal agents (liposomal amphotericin B, azoles and caspofungin) administrated alone. The lack of study does not yet validate the combination of two drugs which are not recommended in medical practice. The aim of this pharmacoeconomics study is to assess different therapeutic strategies compared to standard treatment. Health care system point of view is used. Results show that liposomal amphotericin B is the reference standard drug during no documented infection in term of cost. But, voriconazole does not have significative cost variation for Aspergillus disease. Same conclusion can be showed, in case of candidosis for caspofungin. The sensitivity analysis shows that daily cost treatment and body weight are variables with important impact on results. This preliminary analysis must be continued by a clinical study in order to assess different antifungal treatments. PMID:21840441

  14. Tales from the Jazz ASH: highlights from the 2013 American Society of Haematology meeting

    PubMed Central

    Mazzarella, Luca

    2014-01-01

    The 55th annual ASH meeting was held in pleasant New Orleans and was the largest in its history, with 22,495 participants coming from 113 nations. A ‘bench-to-bedside and back’ attitude characterises haematology probably more than any other discipline in medicine and, as usual, this was reflected in the extremely wide breadth of the topics covered, including the last results from clinical trials and cutting-edge advancements in basic science. This year, the balance was arguably skewed: few truly clinical practice-changing results were presented. On the other hand, a great number of basic and translational studies significantly increased our understanding of the biology of numerous malignancies and heralded the coming of age of disruptive technologies. Namely, above all, next generation sequencing and T cell engineering-based cell therapy. PMID:24678345

  15. Effects of Aflatoxin on Some Haematological Parameters and Protective Effectiveness of Esterified Glucomannan in Merino Rams

    PubMed Central

    Dnmez, Nurcan; Dnmez, H. H.; Keskin, E.; K?sadere, ?.

    2012-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to evaluate the toxic effects of aflatoxin on some hematological parameters and to determine the preventive effectiveness of added glucomannan. In the study, 32 Merino rams were used, and the rams were separated equally to four groups as control (C), glucomannan (G), glucomannan?+?aflatoxin (AG), and aflatoxin (A). Erythrocyte, leukocyte count, hemoglobin, and hematocrit levels were decreased in A group compared with the other groups, and there was a reduction in similar parameters in AG group compared to control values. On the other hand, these parameters were tended to increase in AG group compared to A group values. Aflatoxicosis caused the lymphocytopenia and monocytopenia but increased percentage of neutrophil counts. In conclusion, the results determined in the study might be important to demonstrate the effects of aflatoxicosis and glucomannan on some haematological parameters before the clinical symptoms appear. PMID:22629132

  16. Haematology and Serum Biochemistry Parameters and Variations in the Eurasian Beaver (Castor fiber)

    PubMed Central

    Girling, Simon J.; Campbell-Palmer, Roisin; Pizzi, Romain; Fraser, Mary A.; Cracknell, Jonathan; Arnemo, Jon; Rosell, Frank

    2015-01-01

    Haematology parameters (N = 24) and serum biochemistry parameters (N = 35) were determined for wild Eurasian beavers (Castor fiber), between 6 months – 12 years old. Of the population tested in this study, N = 18 Eurasian beavers were from Norway and N = 17 originating from Bavaria but now living extensively in a reserve in England. All blood samples were collected from beavers via the ventral tail vein. All beavers were chemically restrained using inhalant isoflurane in 100% oxygen prior to blood sampling. Results were determined for haematological and serum biochemical parameters for the species and were compared between the two different populations with differences in means estimated and significant differences being noted. Standard blood parameters for the Eurasian beaver were determined and their ranges characterised using percentiles. Whilst the majority of blood parameters between the two populations showed no significant variation, haemoglobin, packed cell volume, mean cell haemoglobin and white blood cell counts showed significantly greater values (p<0.01) in the Bavarian origin population than the Norwegian; neutrophil counts, alpha 2 globulins, cholesterol, sodium: potassium ratios and phosphorus levels showed significantly (p<0.05) greater values in Bavarian versus Norwegian; and potassium, bile acids, gamma globulins, urea, creatinine and total calcium values levels showed significantly (p<0.05) greater values in Norwegian versus Bavarian relict populations. No significant differences were noted between male and female beavers or between sexually immature (<3 years old) and sexually mature (≥3 years old) beavers in the animals sampled. With Eurasian beaver reintroduction encouraged by legislation throughout Europe, knowledge of baseline blood values for the species and any variations therein is essential when assessing their health and welfare and the success or failure of any reintroduction program. This is the first study to produce base-line blood values and their variations for the Eurasian beaver. PMID:26066344

  17. Exploring haematology nurses' perceptions of specialist education's contribution to care delivery and the development of expertise.

    PubMed

    Atkinson, Joanne; Tawse, Stephen

    2007-08-01

    The role that educational preparation may play in the delivery of care and the development of expertise is a point of some debate [Manley, K., Garbett, R., 2000. Paying Peter and Paul reconciling concepts of expertise with competency for a clinical career structure. Journal of Clinical Nursing 9 (3), 347; King, L., Macleod Clark, J., 2002. Intuition and the development of expertise in surgical ward and intensive care nurses. Journal of Advanced Nursing 37(4), 322-329; Bonner, A., 2003. Recognition of expertise: an important concept in the acquisition of nephrology nursing expertise. Nursing & Health Sciences Journal 5, 123-131; Dunphy, B.C., Williamson, S.L., 2004. In pursuit of expertise. Advances in Health Sciences Education 9, 107-127]. Though education is a concept that may be universally valued, it may be more difficult to clearly discern the significance it has for practitioners who are developing their expertise. This research project employed an interpretive phenomenological design to explore the perceptions of specialist haematology nursing staff on the extent to which specialist education contributes to care delivery and the development of expert practice. A non-representative purposive sample of qualified nurses who had undertaken specialist education in haemopoiesis and work in specialist haematology participated in a focus group and semi-structured interviews. The report concludes that, for these specialist practitioners, specialist educational input had a beneficial impact on their levels of knowledge and confidence. Further to this, involvement in higher education had enabled them to become more active in the learning process. Perhaps the key finding of the study was the assertion by respondents that specialist educational input had enabled them to develop their specialist practice to a level that experience alone could not achieve. PMID:17126955

  18. Haematology and Serum Biochemistry Parameters and Variations in the Eurasian Beaver (Castor fiber).

    PubMed

    Girling, Simon J; Campbell-Palmer, Roisin; Pizzi, Romain; Fraser, Mary A; Cracknell, Jonathan; Arnemo, Jon; Rosell, Frank

    2015-01-01

    Haematology parameters (N = 24) and serum biochemistry parameters (N = 35) were determined for wild Eurasian beavers (Castor fiber), between 6 months - 12 years old. Of the population tested in this study, N = 18 Eurasian beavers were from Norway and N = 17 originating from Bavaria but now living extensively in a reserve in England. All blood samples were collected from beavers via the ventral tail vein. All beavers were chemically restrained using inhalant isoflurane in 100% oxygen prior to blood sampling. Results were determined for haematological and serum biochemical parameters for the species and were compared between the two different populations with differences in means estimated and significant differences being noted. Standard blood parameters for the Eurasian beaver were determined and their ranges characterised using percentiles. Whilst the majority of blood parameters between the two populations showed no significant variation, haemoglobin, packed cell volume, mean cell haemoglobin and white blood cell counts showed significantly greater values (p<0.01) in the Bavarian origin population than the Norwegian; neutrophil counts, alpha 2 globulins, cholesterol, sodium: potassium ratios and phosphorus levels showed significantly (p<0.05) greater values in Bavarian versus Norwegian; and potassium, bile acids, gamma globulins, urea, creatinine and total calcium values levels showed significantly (p<0.05) greater values in Norwegian versus Bavarian relict populations. No significant differences were noted between male and female beavers or between sexually immature (<3 years old) and sexually mature (?3 years old) beavers in the animals sampled. With Eurasian beaver reintroduction encouraged by legislation throughout Europe, knowledge of baseline blood values for the species and any variations therein is essential when assessing their health and welfare and the success or failure of any reintroduction program. This is the first study to produce base-line blood values and their variations for the Eurasian beaver. PMID:26066344

  19. Effects of nitrite exposure on haematological parameters, oxidative stress and apoptosis in juvenile turbot (Scophthalmus maximus).

    PubMed

    Jia, Rui; Han, Cen; Lei, Ji-Lin; Liu, Bao-Liang; Huang, Bin; Huo, Huan-Huan; Yin, Shu-Ting

    2015-12-01

    Nitrite (NO2(-)) is commonly present as contaminant in aquatic environment and toxic to aquatic organisms. In the present study, we investigated the effects of nitrite exposure on haematological parameters, oxidative stress and apoptosis in juvenile turbot (Scophthalmus maximus). Fish were exposed to various concentrations of nitrite (0, 0.02, 0.08, 0.4 and 0.8mM) for 96 h. Fish blood and gills were collected to assay haematological parameters, oxidative stress and expression of genes after 0, 24, 48 and 96 h of exposure. In blood, the data showed that the levels of methemoglobin (MetHb), triglyceride (TG), potassium (K(+)), cortisol, heat shock protein 70 (HSP70) and glucose significantly increased in treatments with higher concentrations of nitrite (0.4 and/or 0.8mM) after 48 and 96 h, while the levels of haemoglobin (Hb) and sodium (Na(+)) significantly decreased in these treatments. In gills, nitrite (0.4 and/or 0.8mM) apparently reduced the levels of superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), catalase (CAT) and glutathione (GSH), increased the formation of malondialdehyde (MDA), up-regulated the mRNA levels of c-jun amino-terminal kinase (JUK1), p53, caspase-3, caspase-7 and caspase-9 after 48 and 96 h of exposure. The results suggested caspase-dependent and JUK signaling pathways played important roles in nitrite-induced apoptosis in fish. Further, this study provides new insights into how nitrite affects the physiological responses and apoptosis in a marine fish. PMID:26476021

  20. Effect of petroleum products inhalation on some haematological indices of fuel attendants in Calabar metropolis, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Okoro, A M; Ani, E J; Ibu, J O; Akpogomeh, B A

    2006-01-01

    The Haematotoxic implications of exposure to petroleum fumes through inhalation in human subjects were investigated. A total of 400 subjects (200 males and 200 females) aged between 18-30 years participated. Each gender was further categorized into two groups of 100 each for control and test, respectively. The test group was again subdivided into test 1 (T1) and test 2 (T2) in both sexes. T1 subjects were exposed to petroleum fumes for two years and below while T2 subjects were exposed for more than two years. Samples of blood were collected daily and subjected to haematological analysis. The results obtained showed that in males and females, red blood cell counts (10(6) /mm3) was significantly [P < 0.001] decreased in T1 (4.4 +/- 0.13) and T2 (3.85 +/- 0.07) compared to control (4.76 +/- 0.01). White blood cell counts, haematocrit, haemoglobin concentration and mean corpusclular haemoglobin concentration (MCHC) were significantly [P < 0.01] decreased in both sexes of test groups when compared with control. There was also a significant [P < 0.001] decrease in mean corpuscular haemoglobin (MCH) and mean corpuscular volume (MCV) in test 2 males compared with control. Most subjects exposed for longer than two years (T2) had significantly [P < 0.001] lower values of red blood cell count, haemoglobin concentration and haematocrit than those exposed for less than two years. The odds/odds ratio that a subject would become anaemic progressively rose from less than 1 in the control to greater than 1 or infinity on exposure to petroleum fumes. These results indicate that the petroleum fumes cause a reduction in haematological indices which worsens with prolonged exposure. PMID:17242722

  1. Haematological, inflammatory, and immunological responses in elite judo athletes maintaining high training loads during Ramadan.

    PubMed

    Chaouachi, Anis; Coutts, Aaron J; Wong, Del P; Roky, Rachida; Mbazaa, Abderraouf; Amri, Mohamed; Chamari, Karim

    2009-10-01

    During Ramadan, Muslims abstain from food and fluid intake from dawn to sunset for 1 month. These behavioural changes that accompany Ramadan may impact upon Muslim athletes who continue to train intensely. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of Ramadan intermittent fasting (RIF) on the haematological, inflammatory, and immunological measures in elite judo athletes maintaining their usual high training loads. Haematological markers of inflammation, hormones, and immune status were studied in 15 elite male judo athletes before, during, and after Ramadan. The RIF produced small but significant changes in inflammatory, hormonal, and immunological profiles in judo athletes. Serum C-reactive protein increased from 2.93 +/- 0.26 mg.L-1 pre-Ramadan to 4.60 +/- 0.51 mg.L-1 at the end of Ramadan. Haptoglobin and antitrypsin also significantly increased at different phases during Ramadan, whereas homocysteine and prealbumin remained relatively unchanged. Albumin decreased slightly by mid-Ramadan, then recovered. Immunoglobulin Aincreased from 1.87 +/- 0.56 g.L-1 before Ramadan to 2.49 +/- 0.75 g.L-1 at the end, and remained high 3 weeks after. There were no changes in the leucocyte cell counts throughout the study. The mean blood level of thyroid-stimulating hormone and free thyroxine increased significantly during RIF. Most of these changes were within the normal ranges. These results suggest that athletes who continue to train intensely during Ramadan are liable to experience a myriad of small fluctuations in hormones, immunoglobulins, antioxidants, and inflammatory responses. PMID:19935853

  2. Guidelines for the prevention and treatment of infection in patients with an absent or dysfunctional spleen. Working Party of the British Committee for Standards in Haematology Clinical Haematology Task Force.

    PubMed Central

    1996-01-01

    Overwhelming postsplenectomy infection should be preventable if simple precautions are taken. An ad hoc working party of the British Committee for Standards in Haematology has reviewed recommendations for patients without a spleen and drawn up a consensus. Members of the working party were selected for their personal expertise and to represent relevant professional bodies. The guidelines, which are set out below, include and extend the chief medical officer's 1994 update. PMID:8601117

  3. Functional and Biological Role of Endothelial Precursor Cells in Tumour Progression: A New Potential Therapeutic Target in Haematological Malignancies

    PubMed Central

    Reale, Antonia; Melaccio, Assunta; Lamanuzzi, Aurelia; Saltarella, Ilaria; Dammacco, Franco; Vacca, Angelo; Ria, Roberto

    2016-01-01

    It was believed that vasculogenesis occurred only during embryo life and that postnatal formation of vessels arose from angiogenesis. Recent findings demonstrate the existence of Endothelial Precursor Cells (EPCs), which take partin postnatal vasculogenesis. EPCs are recruited from the bone marrow under the stimulation of growth factors and cytokines and reach the sites of neovascularization in both physiological and pathological conditions such as malignancies where they contribute to the “angiogenic switch” and tumor progression. An implementation of circulating EPCs in the bloodstream of patients with haematological malignancies has been demonstrated. This increase is strictly related to the bone marrow microvessel density and correlated with a poor prognosis. The EPCs characterization is a very complex process and still under investigation. This literature review aims to provide an overview of the functional and biological role of EPCs in haematological malignancies and to investigate their potential as a new cancer therapeutic target. PMID:26788072

  4. The Effect of Cement Dust Exposure on Haematological Parameters of Cement Factory workers in Nalagonda, Andhra Pradesh.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guguloth, Mohan Rao.; Sambanaik, A.; srinivasnaik, L.; Mude, Jagadishnaik.

    2012-10-01

    This study was measured on haematological parameters in workers exposed to cement dust in order to test the the hypothesis and to identify a simple, readily available, cost effective screening test that could help in identifying the presence of disease, its severity, that Cement dust exposure may perturb these functions related to their workplace.Assesment of haematological parameters were performed in 100exposed workers occupationally exposed to cement dust and 50 matched unexposed controls with ages ranging from 20-35, 35-50, 50-65 years. The blood samples were taken from them and percentage of hemoglobin, Lymphocytes / monocytes count were analysed.The hemoglobin percentage of exposed workers were significantly lower(P<0.05).Lymphocytes/Monocytes counts of exposed workers was insignificant (P<0.05).These results suggest that long term occupational exposure to cement dust may perturb haemopoietic function.

  5. EMQN Best Practice Guidelines for molecular and haematology methods for carrier identification and prenatal diagnosis of the haemoglobinopathies

    PubMed Central

    Traeger-Synodinos, Joanne; Harteveld, Cornelis L; Old, John M; Petrou, Mary; Galanello, Renzo; Giordano, Piero; Angastioniotis, Michael; De la Salle, Barbara; Henderson, Shirley; May, Alison

    2015-01-01

    Haemoglobinopathies constitute the commonest recessive monogenic disorders worldwide, and the treatment of affected individuals presents a substantial global disease burden. Carrier identification and prenatal diagnosis represent valuable procedures that identify couples at risk for having affected children, so that they can be offered options to have healthy offspring. Molecular diagnosis facilitates prenatal diagnosis and definitive diagnosis of carriers and patients (especially ‘atypical' cases who often have complex genotype interactions). However, the haemoglobin disorders are unique among all genetic diseases in that identification of carriers is preferable by haematological (biochemical) tests rather than DNA analysis. These Best Practice guidelines offer an overview of recommended strategies and methods for carrier identification and prenatal diagnosis of haemoglobinopathies, and emphasize the importance of appropriately applying and interpreting haematological tests in supporting the optimum application and evaluation of globin gene DNA analysis. PMID:25052315

  6. Toxic effects of copper and zinc mixtures on some haematological and biochemical parameters in common carp, Cyprinus carpio (Linn).

    PubMed

    Dhanapakiam, P; Ramasamy, V K

    2001-04-01

    The effect of heavy metals and mixture were studied on some haematological and biochemical parameters in fish, Cyprinus carpio at sublethal level over the period of 30 days. Heavy metal significantly decreased total RBC count, haemogoblin, heamatocrit (Hct) (except copper after 10 days exposure). The WBC count was increased significantly in all the treated fish. The MCH, MCHC, MVC were increased depending upon the exposure period; declined PVC was noticed at 1% level of significance after 30 days on all the treated fish. Serum level of chloride and calcium content were increased where as serum glucose, cholesterol and total serum protein were decreased significantly. The alteration in haematological and biochemical parameters shows more toxic in mixture after 30 days, showed more than 'addition action' of the individual toxicant. PMID:11500014

  7. Functional and Biological Role of Endothelial Precursor Cells in Tumour Progression: A New Potential Therapeutic Target in Haematological Malignancies.

    PubMed

    Reale, Antonia; Melaccio, Assunta; Lamanuzzi, Aurelia; Saltarella, Ilaria; Dammacco, Franco; Vacca, Angelo; Ria, Roberto

    2016-01-01

    It was believed that vasculogenesis occurred only during embryo life and that postnatal formation of vessels arose from angiogenesis. Recent findings demonstrate the existence of Endothelial Precursor Cells (EPCs), which take partin postnatal vasculogenesis. EPCs are recruited from the bone marrow under the stimulation of growth factors and cytokines and reach the sites of neovascularization in both physiological and pathological conditions such as malignancies where they contribute to the "angiogenic switch" and tumor progression. An implementation of circulating EPCs in the bloodstream of patients with haematological malignancies has been demonstrated. This increase is strictly related to the bone marrow microvessel density and correlated with a poor prognosis. The EPCs characterization is a very complex process and still under investigation. This literature review aims to provide an overview of the functional and biological role of EPCs in haematological malignancies and to investigate their potential as a new cancer therapeutic target. PMID:26788072

  8. Health assessment of free-ranging endangered Australian sea lion (Neophoca cinerea) pups: effect of haematophagous parasites on haematological parameters.

    PubMed

    Marcus, Alan D; Higgins, Damien P; Gray, Rachael

    2015-06-01

    Evaluation of the health status of free-ranging populations is important for understanding the impact of disease on individuals and on population demography and viability. In this study, haematological reference intervals were developed for free-ranging endangered Australian sea lion (Neophoca cinerea) pups within the context of endemic hookworm (Uncinaria sanguinis) infection and the effects of pathogen, host, and environment factors on the variability of haematological parameters were investigated. Uncinaria sanguinis was identified as an important agent of disease, with infection causing regenerative anaemia, hypoproteinaemia, and a predominantly lymphocytic-eosinophilic systemic inflammatory response. Conversely, the effects of sucking lice (Antarctophthirus microchir) were less apparent and infestation in pups appears unlikely to cause clinical impact. Overall, the effects of U. sanguinis, A. microchir, host factors (standard length, body condition, pup sex, moult status, and presence of lesions), and environment factors (capture-type and year of sampling) accounted for 26-65% of the total variance observed in haematological parameters. Importantly, this study demonstrated that anaemia in neonatal Australian sea lion pups is not solely a benign physiological response to host-environment changes, but largely reflects a significant pathological process. This impact of hookworm infection on pup health has potential implications for the development of foraging and diving behaviour, which would subsequently influence the independent survival of juveniles following weaning. The haematological reference intervals developed in this study can facilitate long-term health surveillance, which is critical for the early recognition of changes in disease impact and to inform conservation management. PMID:25724096

  9. Iron requirements based upon iron absorption tests are poorly predicted by haematological indices in patients with inactive inflammatory bowel disease

    PubMed Central

    Lomer, Miranda CE; Cook, William B; Jan-Mohamed, Hamid Jan B; Hutchinson, Carol; Liu, Ding Yong; Hider, Robert C; Powell, Jonathan J

    2012-01-01

    Iron deficiency (ID) and iron deficiency anaemia (IDA) are common in patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Traditional clinical markers of iron status can be skewed in the presence of inflammation meaning that a patient’s iron status can be misinterpreted. Additionally, iron absorption is known to be down-regulated in patients with active IBD. However, whether this is the case for quiescent or mildly active disease has not been formally assessed. This study aimed to investigate the relationship between iron absorption, iron requirements and standard haematological indices in IBD patients without active disease. Twenty nine patients with quiescent or mildly active IBD and 28 control subjects undertook an iron absorption test which measured sequential rises in serum iron over four hours following ingestion of 200 mg ferrous sulphate. At baseline, serum iron, transferrin saturation, non-transferrin bound iron (NTBI), ferritin and soluble transferrin receptor were all measured. Thereafter (30-240 minutes) only serum iron and NTBI were measured. Iron absorption did not differ between the two groups (P=0.9; RM-ANOVA). In control subjects baseline haematological parameters predicted iron absorption (i.e. iron requirements) but this was not the case for patients with IBD. Iron absorption is normal in quiescent or mildly active IBD patients but standard haematological parameters do not accurately predict iron requirements. PMID:22152498

  10. Prevalence of Plasmodium falciparum Parasitaemia and Its Correlation with Haematological Parameters among HIV-Positive Individuals in Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Ojurongbe, Olusola; Oyeniran, Oluwatoyin Adeola; Alli, Oyebode Armstrong Terry; Taiwo, Sunday Samuel; Ojurongbe, Taiwo Adetola; Olowe, Adekunle Olugbenga; Opaleye, Oluyinka Oladele; Adeyeba, Oluwaseyi Adegboyega

    2014-01-01

    Malaria and HIV are the two most important health challenges of our time. Haematologic abnormalities are features in Plasmodium falciparum infection, and anaemia is a well-known outcome. The prevalence and haematological impact of P. falciparum parasitaemia were determined among HIV-infected individuals in Nigeria. Parasite detection was carried out using microscopy and Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR). Haemoglobin concentration was determined using an automated machine while CD4+ T-cells count was analyzed using flow cytometer. Thirty-seven (18.5%) out of the 200 HIV individuals enrolled had malaria parasites detected in their blood. All the positive cases were detected by PCR while only 20 (10%) were detected by thick blood microscopy. The mean haemoglobin concentration and packed cell volume (PCV) of HIV individuals with malaria parasitaemia were lower compared to those without malaria parasitaemia but the difference was not statistically significant. Also no significant difference was observed in malaria positivity in respect to sex and mean CD4+ cell count. The study highlights the effects of P. falciparum parasitaemia on the haematologic and immune components of HIV individuals. PMID:24729787

  11. Prevalence of Plasmodium falciparum Parasitaemia and Its Correlation with Haematological Parameters among HIV-Positive Individuals in Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Ojurongbe, Olusola; Oyeniran, Oluwatoyin Adeola; Alli, Oyebode Armstrong Terry; Taiwo, Sunday Samuel; Ojurongbe, Taiwo Adetola; Olowe, Adekunle Olugbenga; Opaleye, Oluyinka Oladele; Adeyeba, Oluwaseyi Adegboyega

    2014-01-01

    Malaria and HIV are the two most important health challenges of our time. Haematologic abnormalities are features in Plasmodium falciparum infection, and anaemia is a well-known outcome. The prevalence and haematological impact of P. falciparum parasitaemia were determined among HIV-infected individuals in Nigeria. Parasite detection was carried out using microscopy and Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR). Haemoglobin concentration was determined using an automated machine while CD4+ T-cells count was analyzed using flow cytometer. Thirty-seven (18.5%) out of the 200 HIV individuals enrolled had malaria parasites detected in their blood. All the positive cases were detected by PCR while only 20 (10%) were detected by thick blood microscopy. The mean haemoglobin concentration and packed cell volume (PCV) of HIV individuals with malaria parasitaemia were lower compared to those without malaria parasitaemia but the difference was not statistically significant. Also no significant difference was observed in malaria positivity in respect to sex and mean CD4+ cell count. The study highlights the effects of P. falciparum parasitaemia on the haematologic and immune components of HIV individuals. PMID:24729787

  12. Effect of Aqueous Extract of Telfairia occidentalis Leaf on the Performance and Haematological Indices of Starter Broilers

    PubMed Central

    P. N., Onu

    2012-01-01

    This experiment was conducted to determine the effect of aqueous extract of Telfairia occidentalis (Fluted Pumpkin) leaf on the performance and haematological indices of starter broilers. A total of 200, 8-day-old broiler chicks were randomly allotted to five (5) treatments, each with 4 replicate groups containing 10 chicks and fed with standard starter broiler diets. Telfaria occidentalis leaves extract (FPLE) was added at 0, 40, 80, 120, and 160 mL/litre of drinking water. Growth performance and haematological indices were evaluated. Results showed that there was significant (P < 0.05) difference in weight gain, feed conversion, and protein efficiency ratios of the birds among the treatments. Birds fed 80 ml FPLE/litre of water had significantly the highest weight gain and the best feed conversion and protein efficiency ratios. There was no significant (P > 0.05) variations in the feed and water intakes of the birds. Results also show no significant (P > 0.05) difference in haematological indices of birds among the treatments. The results of this study indicate that, for enhanced weight gain and feed conversion efficiency, birds should be fed 80 mL FPLE/litre of water. PMID:23738128

  13. Efficacy of environmental measures to decrease the risk of hospital-acquired aspergillosis in patients hospitalised in haematology wards.

    PubMed

    Berthelot, P; Loulergue, P; Raberin, H; Turco, M; Mounier, C; Tran Manh Sung, R; Lucht, F; Pozzetto, B; Guyotat, D

    2006-08-01

    This study evaluated a multidisciplinary strategy to decrease the rate of invasive pulmonary aspergillosis (IPA) among adult patients hospitalised in two haematology wards in a single 560-bed building at the University Hospital of Saint-Etienne. Upgrading of the air filtration system and construction of an air-lock chamber at the entrance to the unit were completed during 1994. In 1995, specific hygienic measures were introduced during hospital building work, including the use of plastic barriers, watering during demolition work, reduction of pedestrian traffic in construction areas, and the wearing of high-efficiency filtration masks by immunosuppressed patients when outside the protected unit. This strategy was evaluated by a prospective survey of IPA cases between 1993 and 2001, coupled with environmental surveillance. The number and risk-level of hospital renovation projects increased between 1995 and 2001 (p < 0.01). In parallel, the rate of IPA decreased globally in the haematology unit from 0.85% (1.19/1,000 patients) in 1993 to 0.28% (0.21/1,000 patients) in 2001. The incidence of IPA decreased significantly between 1993-1996 and 1997-2001 (p 0.02, Mann-Whitney test). These results show that a multidisciplinary approach involving engineers, infection control practitioners, mycologists and clinicians enables IPA rates among patients hospitalised in haematology wards to be significantly decreased. PMID:16842568

  14. Role of Haematological Parameters as an Indicator of Acute Malarial Infection in Uttarakhand State of India

    PubMed Central

    Chandra, Smita; Chandra, Harish

    2013-01-01

    Background Malaria may be associated with complications which may be avoided by early diagnosis and treatment. Microscopic diagnosis showing presence of malarial parasites is needed for confirmation which at times may be unreliable and requires technical expertise. The present study was conducted to statistically analyze the haematological parameters including platelet indices which can give initial hint for malarial infection and therefore prompt the laboratory physician for active search of the parasite microscopically. Methods A retrospective study was conducted which included 334 cases of acute malaria caused by Plasmodium vivax, falciparum and dual infection along with 100 cases of control. Routine haematological parameters along with platelet indices (MPV and PDW) which are easily available on automated cell counter were statistically analyzed to assess their role as indicators for malaria. Results Leukocyte count and platelet count were significantly lower in cases of acute malaria in comparison to controls (p value <0.001). Platelet count<150×109/l showed 87.2% sensitivity, 65% specificity, 89.3% positive predictive value and 2.49 likelihood ratio for the infection. PDW of 6–10 and MPV>8 fl had 71.9% and 61.5% sensitivity and 78.2% and 77.7% positive predictive value respectively for infection. Platelet count <150×109/l and MPV>8 fl was comparatively more sensitive indicator for vivax (88% and 70.8% respectively) than falciparum (84.8% and 50.4% respectively) and PDW 6–10 was more sensitive indicator for falciparum (82.6%) than vivax (69.5%) infection. Conclusion Thrombocytopenia (<150×109/l) and low leukocyte count (<4×109/l) may be used as probable indicator for malaria in endemic countries. Higher MPV (>8 fl) and PDW of 6–10 also show considerable sensitivity for malarial infection. In addition, thrombocytopenia (<150×109/l) and higher MPV (>8 fl) was more sensitive for vivax infection while PDW 6–10 was more sensitive for falciparum infection. PMID:23350022

  15. Multivitamin supplementation improves haematologic status in children born to HIV-positive women in Tanzania

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Enju; Duggan, Christopher; Manji, Karim P; Kupka, Roland; Aboud, Said; Bosch, Ronald J; Kisenge, Rodrick R; Okuma, James; Fawzi, Wafaie W

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Anaemia is prevalent among children born to HIV-positive women, and it is associated with adverse effects on cognitive and motor development, growth, and increased risks of morbidity and mortality. Objective To examine the effect of daily multivitamin supplementation on haematologic status and mother-to-child transmission (MTCT) of HIV through breastfeeding. Methods A total of 2387 infants born to HIV-positive women from Dar es Salaam, Tanzania were enrolled in a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial, and provided a daily oral supplement of multivitamins (vitamin B complex, C and E) or placebo at age 6 weeks for 24 months. Among them, 2008 infants provided blood samples and had haemoglobin concentrations measured at baseline and during a follow-up period. Anaemia was defined as haemoglobin concentrations<11 g/dL and severe anaemia<8.5 g/dL. Results Haemoglobin concentrations among children in the treatment group were significantly higher than those in the placebo group at 12 (9.77 vs. 9.64 g/dL, p=0.03), 18 (9.76 vs. 9.57 g/dL, p=0.004), and 24 months (9.93 vs. 9.75 g/dL, p=0.02) of follow-up. Compared to those in the placebo group, children in the treatment group had a 12% lower risk of anaemia (hazard ratio (HR): 0.88; 95% CI: 0.790.99; p=0.03). The treatment was associated with a 28% reduced risk of severe anaemia among children born to women without anaemia (HR: 0.72; 95% CI: 0.560.92; p=0.008), but not among those born to women with anaemia (HR: 1.10; 95% CI: 0.791.54; p=0.57; p for interaction=0.007). One thousand seven hundred fifty three infants who tested HIV-negative at baseline and had HIV testing during follow-up were included in the analysis for MTCT of HIV. No association was found between multivitamin supplements and MTCT of HIV. Conclusions Multivitamin supplements improve haematologic status among children born to HIV-positive women. Further trials focusing on anaemia among HIV-exposed children are warranted in the context of antiretroviral therapy. PMID:23948440

  16. Effect of azadirachtin on haematological and biochemical parameters of Argulus-infested goldfish Carassius auratus (Linn. 1758).

    PubMed

    Kumar, Saurav; Raman, R P; Kumar, Kundan; Pandey, P K; Kumar, Neeraj; Mallesh, B; Mohanty, Snatashree; Kumar, Abhay

    2013-08-01

    Argulosis hampers aquaculture production and alters the host physiology and growth. Azadirachtin is recognized as a potential antiparasitic agent against Argulus sp. The present study aimed to investigate the effect of different concentration of azadirachtin solution on haematological and serum biochemical parameters of Argulus-infested goldfish Carassius auratus. Ninety Argulus-infested goldfish were randomly divided into six equal groups. Fish of group 1-5 were treated with azadirachtin solution through bath of 1, 5, 10, 15 and 20 mg L(-1) as T1, T2, T3, T4 and T5, respectively, and group 6 was exposed to 2% DMSO solution without azadirachtin and considered as negative control T0(-). Along with six treatment groups, a positive control T0(+) of healthy goldfish free from Argulus infestation was also maintained. Parasitic mortality was evaluated after 3 days of consecutive bath treatment. After 7 days of post-treatment, the blood and serum were drawn from each of the treatment groups and haematological and serum biochemical parameters were evaluated. Total leucocyte count (TLC), mean corpuscular volume (MCV), mean corpuscular haemoglobin (MCH), blood glucose, total protein (TP), globulin, serum glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase (SGOT) and serum glutamate pyruvate transaminase (SGPT) were significantly (p < 0.05) high in negative control group when compared with positive control group. It could be concluded that Argulus infestation altered marked haematological and serum biochemical parameters. However, in treated groups complete elimination of Argulus was found in T4 and T5 groups. Also significant (p < 0.05) reduction in haematological and serum biochemical parameters of all the treatment groups were recorded in comparison with negative control group. In addition, T4 and T5 groups showed significantly (p < 0.05) high superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase, total erythrocyte count (TEC) and haemoglobin (Hb). However, higher mean corpuscular haemoglobin concentration (MCHC), blood glucose and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) levels in T5 group revealed that higher concentration of azadirachtin have notable effects on activity of vital tissues function and physiology of the host. Argulus spp. from infested goldfish could be eliminated using bath treatment with solution of azadirachtin having concentration of 15 mg L(-1) and that also shifted haematological and serum biochemical parameters towards homeostasis. PMID:23090629

  17. Chronic diclofenac (DCF) exposure alters both enzymatic and haematological profile of African catfish, Clarias gariepinus.

    PubMed

    Ajima, Malachy N O; Ogo, Ogo A; Audu, Bala S; Ugwoegbu, Kyrian C

    2015-10-01

    Pharmaceuticals are used extensively in human and veterinary medicine to eradicate or prevent diseases. The residues of these drugs have been detected in aquatic ecosystem; nevertheless, their toxicological effects on Clarias gariepinus have not been critically investigated. In this study, the toxic effects of diclofenac (DCF), a non-steroid anti-inflammatory drug, were studied in C. gariepinus by acute and chronic static renewable bioassay. The 96?h LC50 of DCF to C. gariepinus was 25.12?mg/L. Exposure to acute toxicity resulted in abnormal behavior and mortality of some fish. Compared with the control, chronic exposure of the fish to concentration (1.57, 3.14 and 6.28?mg/L) showed significantly higher mean corpuscular haemoglobin concentration (MCHC), mean corpuscular volume (MCV) and white blood cell (WBC), with significantly lower haemoglobin (Hb), haematocrit, red blood cell (RBC) and mean corpuscular haemoglobin (MCH) with increase in the concentration of the drug. Furthermore, the levels of alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and glucose values significantly increased while protein levels were reduced (p?haematological changes in the fish and recommends that these parameters be used as potential biomarkers for assessing residual pharmaceuticals available in aquatic ecosystem. PMID:25367777

  18. Analysis of the effects of malaria chemoprophylaxis in children on haematological responses, morbidity and mortality.

    PubMed Central

    Geerligs, Paul D. Prinsen; Brabin, Bernard J.; Eggelte, Teunis A.

    2003-01-01

    This paper reviews the evidence for beneficial effects of malaria chemoprophylaxis on haematological responses, morbidity, mortality, health service utilization and rebound immunity in children. As anaemia may play an important role in childhood mortality, it is important to assess evidence from controlled trials of the potential of chemoprophylaxis to reduce childhood anaemia. An analysis of trials found good evidence that malaria chemoprophylaxis improves mean haemoglobin levels and reduces severe anaemia, clinical malaria attacks, parasite and spleen rates. Significant reductions in outpatient attendance and hospital admissions have been achieved, and substantial evidence from Gambian studies shows reductions in mortality. Chemoprophylaxis in children does not seem to produce any sustained impairment of immunity to malaria, although rebound effects may be greater in children who receive prophylaxis during infancy. Short periods of targeted prophylaxis are likely to be preferable to continuous drug administration. Evidence of the protective efficacy of malaria chemoprophylaxis in children shows that this strategy could be considered within integrated health programmes for specific time periods. Intermittent routine combination therapy early in childhood may be appropriate for those living under holoendemic conditions. Large-scale studies over a number of years are needed to address this issue and the impact of this approach on health service utilization, mortality, and the emergence of drug-resistant parasites. PMID:12764517

  19. Effect of Intensity of Cigarette Smoking on Haematological and Lipid Parameters

    PubMed Central

    Lakshmanan, Anandhi; P, Ganesh Kumar; A, Saravanan

    2014-01-01

    Background: Smoking is the single largest preventable cause of disease and premature death and major tobacco related diseases like cancer costs India more than Rs.308.33 billion per year. Cigarette smoking increases the total peripheral blood leukocyte count but its effect on other haematological parameters is largely unexplored.. Objective: To study the effect of smoking and its intensity on hematological and lipid parameters. Materials and Methods: This cross sectional study included 40 cigarette smokers and 40 non-smokers in the age range of 25 and 40 years at SRM Medical College, Kattangulathur, Tamilnadu, India. In this study the volunteers were otherwise healthy and the smokers were enquired about their intensity of smoking using smoking index. Common hematological and lipid parameters were measured in all subjects. Comparison of smoking status and its intensity among the study subjects were analysed using t-test and ANOVA.. Results: There is a significant increase in levels of haemoglobin, hematocrit, total leukocyte count, total cholesterol, triglycerides, low density lipoprotein (LDL), very low density lipoprotein (VLDL) and reduced levels of high density lipoprotein (HDL) among the smokers. Heavy smokers showed significant dyslipidemia,increase in red blood cell count, total leukocyte count and neutrophil count. Conclusion: Increase in hemoglobin, hematocrit, total leucocyte count and dyslipidemia were found significant among smokers and in heavy smokers there is dyslipidemia with increased RBC count, total leukocyte count with specific increase in neutrophils. As per the existing literature, these changes may lead to future fatal cardiac diseases among the smokers. PMID:25177557

  20. [Inclusion Body Disease (IBD of Boids)--a haematological, histological and electron microscopical study].

    PubMed

    Keilwerth, Melanie; Bühler, Ilina; Hoffmann, Rudolf; Soliman, Hatem; El-Matbouli, Mansour

    2012-01-01

    Our objective was to evaluate diagnostic tools for the detection of Inclusion Body Disease (IBD) in bold snakes. The aetiology of IBD is unknown, and the disease has non-specific clinical signs, hence there is a need for a clinically-applicable, specific diagnostic method. We examined blood smears and liver biopsies from 26 bold snakes (17 boas and nine pythons; some of which were suspected of having IBD) for the presence of characteristic inclusion bodies. We used haematology, histology and electron microscopy to characterise samples as IBD-positive or -negative. Our results indicate that examination of a simple blood smear is sufficient to diagnose IBD in boas. Inclusion bodies in lymphocytes, erythrocytes and thrombocytes were observed. In both, boas and pythons, we detected inclusion bodies within hepatocytes. We demonstrated also that IBD was more common in boas than in pythons: only samples from two Ball Pythons (Python regius) tested positive, whereas no other Pythonidae were positive. We consider that blood smears represents a rapid, non-invasive technique for detection of IBD. PMID:23045804

  1. ?F-FDG-PET/CT Imaging in Patients with Febrile Neutropenia and Haematological Malignancies.

    PubMed

    Camus, Vincent; Edet-Sanson, Agathe; Bubenheim, Michael; Hitzel, Anne; Becker, Stphanie; David, Marion; Stamatoullas, Aspasia; Lenain, Pascal; Jardin, Fabrice; Contentin, Nathalie; Fontoura, Marie Laure; Cardinael, Nathalie; Vaudaux, Sandrine; Dubois, Sydney; Tilly, Herv; Vera, Pierre; Leprtre, Stphane

    2015-05-01

    The aim of the present study was to assess the prevalence of hyper-metabolic infection sites revealed by fluorine-18 ((18)F) fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) positron-emission tomography (PET) combined with computed tomography (CT) in patients with febrile neutropenia (FN). Forty-eight consecutive patients with haematological malignancies and persistent FN (temperature ? 38C and neutrophil count <500 cells/?l for more than two days) as a consequence of intensive chemotherapy were prospectively included. Pathological FDG uptakes identified 31 foci of infections located in the lungs (n=15, 48.4 %), colon (n=4, 12.9%), pancreas (n=2, 6.5%), skin (n=3, 9.7%), ear-nose-throat area (n=5, 16.1%), central venous catheter tract (n=1, 3.2%) and gallbladder (n=1, 3.2%). These pathological FDG uptakes were observed in half of the 48 patients (n=24). Among the 38 patients with a clinical diagnosis of infection, 23 showed a pathological FDG uptake, resulting in a FDG-PET/CT sensitivity of 61% (95% CI, 43-76%). Our study confirmed the ability of FDG-PET/CT to diagnose infections in patients with persistent FN. PMID:25964587

  2. The influence of sample source and cell concentration on the in vitro chemosensitivity of haematological tumours.

    PubMed Central

    Bird, M. C.; Forskitt, S.; Gilby, E. D.; Bosanquet, A. G.

    1986-01-01

    The Differential Staining Cytotoxicity (DiSC) assay has been used to study the effects of sample source and cell concentration on the in vitro chemosensitivity of haematological malignancies. The chemosensitivity of blood and bone marrow samples was significantly associated (P less than 0.001) in 12 cases where both were tested simultaneously. In 8 of the cases, where the in vitro result could be compared with clinical response, the in vitro and in vivo chemosensitivity was in agreement in 7, for both blood and bone marrow samples. The in vitro chemosensitivity of chronic lymphocytic leukaemia blood lymphocytes was dependent on the cell concentration for 4 out of 5 drugs tested. A five fold reduction in cell number resulted in a significantly greater cell kill with 4-hydroperoxycyclophosphamide, a greater cell kill (not significant) with chlorambucil and adriamycin, and a significantly lower cell kill with prednisolone. The cell concentration did not affect vincristine cytotoxicity. These results suggest that sample source is not an important consideration for the in vitro chemosensitivity of leukaemias, but that the cell concentration tested should not be varied from assay to assay if the results are to be used for comparative purposes. PMID:3707845

  3. Minimal residual disease monitoring: the new standard for treatment evaluation of haematological malignancies?

    PubMed

    Hauwel, Mathieu; Matthes, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Minimal residual disease (MRD) refers to the small number of malignant cells that remain after therapy when the patient is in remission and shows no symptoms or overt signs of disease. Current treatment protocols for haematological malignancies allow most patients to obtain some form of MRD state, but cure seldom follows and in most cases fatal relapses occur sooner or later, leaving a bitter impression of having won a battle yet lost the war. MRD detection and quantification are used for evaluation of treatment efficiency, patient risk stratification and long-term outcome prediction. Whereas multicolour flow cytometry (MCFC) and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) based methods constitute the two most commonly used techniques for MRD detection, next generation sequencing will certainly be widely employed in the future. As MRD reflects the nature of the malignant disease itself, including its sensitivity to the drug regimens applied, it constitutes the ideal method for surveillance and patient follow-up. The morphological examination of peripheral blood or bone marrow smears, although still an indispensable part of routine laboratory testing, is clearly insufficient for patient management, and clinicians should not ask themselves whether to look for MRD or not, but how and when. PMID:24452390

  4. Haematological Changes Associated with Aspergillus fumigatus Infection in Experimental Mycotic Abortion of Sheep

    PubMed Central

    Day, C. A.; Corbel, M. J.

    1974-01-01

    The haematological changes specifically associated with Aspergillus fumigatus infection were studied in experimentally inoculated pregnant sheep. No significant changes in relation to infection were observed in the haemoglobin concentration, erythrocyte sedimentation rate, packed cell volume, mean corpuscular haemoglobin concentration or erythrocyte morphology of inoculated sheep. There was little evidence of changes in total leucocyte count in most sheep in the first few weeks following inoculation, although those animals receiving larger inocula showed signs of an increasing leucocytosis at the terminal phase of gestation. This increase was even more pronounced at the time of lambing or abortion. Compared with uninoculated pregnant controls, the mean relative neutrophil counts of the inoculated sheep tended to increase during the later stages of gestation and showed highly significant increases at the time of lambing or abortion. Both total leucocyte and relative neutrophil counts were significantly higher in those sheep showing signs of placental infection than in those inoculated animals with no evidence of placentitis. There was some evidence of a relationship between the dose of A. fumigatus conidia inoculated and the severity of infection as indicated by the number of animals aborting, extent of placental involvement and reduction in mean gestation period. Irrespective of inoculum size, only a proportion of inoculated animals developed detectable placentitis. PMID:4611461

  5. Modeling early haematologic adverse events in conformal and intensity-modulated pelvic radiotherapy in anal cancer

    PubMed Central

    Robinson, Maxwell; Sabbagh, Ahmed; Muirhead, Rebecca; Durrant, Lisa; Van den Heuvel, Frank; Hawkins, Maria

    2015-01-01

    Background and purpose To determine if there are differences between dose to pelvic bone marrow (PBM) using intensity modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) under UK guidance versus conformal radiotherapy (CRT) per ACT II protocol and if differences translate to rates of early haematological adverse events grade 3 or greater (HT3+). Methods and materials Two groups of 20+ patients, treated under IMRT and CRT regimes respectively, were identified. All patients underwent weekly blood cell count: haemoglobin (HgB), white cell count (WCC), absolute neutrophil count (ANC) and platelets (plats). Percent volume of PBM and sub structures receiving 525Gy were tested for statistical significance. Regression models were used to test for correlation to blood counts. NTCP modeling was also performed. Results PMB dose metrics showed a significant increase in the IMRT group. Regression analysis showed iliac and lumbosacral PBM dose metrics to associate with reduced nadir ANC and WCC. NTCP at HT3+ was 0.13 using IMRT relative to 0.07 using CRT (p<0.05). Conclusion Whilst this is a relatively small retrospective study and lacks information on the distribution of active PBM, IMRT treatment has been shown to significantly increase PMB irradiation. PBM dose metrics have been shown to be predictive of WCC and ANC suppression. NTCP modeling predicts much high risk of HT3+. Paradoxically, actual rates of HT3+ were comparable suggesting that differences in the distributions of dose metrics maybe a significant factor and/or that there are insufficiency in the NTCP modeling. PMID:26409831

  6. Reductions in immunosuppression after haematological or solid organ cancer diagnosis in kidney transplant recipients.

    PubMed

    Hope, Christopher M; Krige, Alice J; Barratt, Alex; Carroll, Robert P

    2015-11-01

    Few data exist on how immunosuppression is altered in kidney transplant recipients (KTR) following a diagnosis of cancer. This study investigated how immunosuppression was altered in KTR after cancer diagnosis and its effect on patient and graft survival. All KTR diagnosed with cancer at our centre from 1990 to 2012 were assessed. Drug regime and serum creatinine levels were recorded 1year before, at time of, and 1year after cancer diagnosis. Of 87 KTR who developed cancer (7.3% of transplanted population, n=1189), 30 developed haematological malignancies and 57 developed solid organ cancers (SOC). In total, 38% of KTR presented with nodal or metastatic disease and 23 of 87 (26%) KTR died within 6months of cancer diagnosis. Fifty-five KTR had records of pre- and postcancer diagnosis drug regimes. Thirty-six KTR had a (>50%) dose reduction or cessation of 1 or more immunosuppressive agents, and 19 no reduction in immunosuppression. In total, 2 of 36 (6%) of KTR who underwent a dose reduction suffered acute rejection that was reversed with methylprednisolone. Dose reduction/cessation of immunosuppression did not impair graft function, but also did not affect cancer free survival. Further larger prospective studies are needed to determine whether dose reduction alters relapse free cancer survival in KTR. PMID:26174703

  7. Chronic Lymphocytic Leukaemia: Census of Patients Treated in Italian Haematology Units

    PubMed Central

    Salvi, Gianfranco; Innocenti, Idanna; Autore, Francesco; Laurenti, Luca

    2015-01-01

    This study was conducted by contacting the population of the Italian haematology units and collecting from 68% of them data concerning the number of patients with chronic lymphocytic leukaemia visited over the previous 12 months, with the aim of obtaining an overview of the treatment of this disease and comparing the results with the prevalence estimates found in literature. The projection obtained (about 17,000 patients visited in the previous 12 months) is probably overestimated because of double-counting of patients who may have been treated at two different facilities during the year, although it is also underestimated since the internal medicine units were not involved. The balance of these two opposite factors is not known. It is important to bear in mind the approximation with which the count was performed in facilities for which no official data were available. Albeit with these limits, the results obtained are in line with some existing prevalence data and make it possible to determine the portion of patients at different Binet stages and in the various age ranges, identifying the corresponding therapeutic treatments. Use of the CIRS scale to classify patients as FIT and UNFIT was seen to be still somewhat limited. PMID:26543525

  8. Lead poisoning: clinical, biochemical, and haematological aspects of a recent outbreak.

    PubMed Central

    Pagliuca, A; Mufti, G J; Baldwin, D; Lestas, A N; Wallis, R M; Bellingham, A J

    1990-01-01

    The clinical, biochemical, and haematological aspects of a recent outbreak of lead poisoning, in which exposure was related to the oxyacetylene cutting of red lead painted ironwork, were investigated. Initial suspicion was raised when a blood film showed punctate basophilia which remains a simple and useful method of picking up lead toxicity. Estimations of blood lead concentration and conventional laboratory data confirmed the diagnosis. Although there was prominent punctate basophilia, spectrophotometric analysis showed only negligible accumulation of pyrimidine-5'-nucleotides despite severe suppression of pyrimidine-5'-nucleotidase activity. The pattern of the red cell glycolytic intermediates, investigated for the first time, suggested that lead may also affect glycolysis at the hexokinase step. Once the diagnosis was made intravenous chelation treatment was begun with a rapid improvement in symptoms. Long term follow up is required to assess any sequelae of intoxication. These cases emphasise the classic features of lead poisoning, and despite the currently available diagnostic tests, lead intoxication may still go unrecognised unless a thorough occupational history is taken. Images PMID:2341563

  9. Haematological toxicity: a marker of adjuvant chemotherapy efficacy in stage II and III breast cancer.

    PubMed Central

    Saarto, T.; Blomqvist, C.; Rissanen, P.; Auvinen, A.; Elomaa, I.

    1997-01-01

    Two hundred and eleven patients with node-positive stage II and III breast cancer were treated with eight cycles of adjuvant chemotherapy comprising cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin and oral ftorafur (CAFt), with and without tamoxifen. All patients had undergone radical surgery, and 148 patients were treated with post-operative radiotherapy in two randomized studies. The impact of haematological toxicity of CAFt on distant disease-free (DDFS) and overall survival (OS) was recorded. Dose intensity of all given cycles (DI), dose intensity of the two initial cycles (DI2) and total dose (TD) were calculated separately for all chemotherapy drugs and were correlated with DDFS and OS. Patients with a lower leucocyte nadir during the chemotherapy had significantly better DDFS and OS (P = 0.01 and 0.04 respectively). Dose intensity of the two first cycles also correlated significantly with DDFS (P = 0.05) in univariate but not in multivariate analysis, while the leucocyte nadir retained its prognostic value. These results indicate that the leucocyte nadir during the adjuvant chemotherapy is a biological marker of chemotherapy efficacy; this presents the possibility of establishing an optimal dose intensity for each patient. The initial dose intensity of adjuvant chemotherapy also seems to be important in assuring the optimal effect of adjuvant chemotherapy. PMID:9010042

  10. Newer antifungal agents for invasive fungal infections in patients with haematological malignancy.

    PubMed

    Rogers, Thomas R; Frost, Susanna

    2009-03-01

    Since 2001 five new systemically administered antifungal agents have been approved for clinical use. This represents a major advance for antifungal therapy in haematological malignancy patients undergoing chemotherapy or haematopoietic stem cell transplant (HSCT). The echinocandins are a new class of antifungals with a novel mode of action. Capsofungin has already established itself as a valuable therapy for candidaemia and salvage therapy of invasive aspergillosis. Although both anidulafungin and micafungin are approved for treatment of candidiasis, their role in invasive aspergillosis requires more clinical trial evaluation. Of the two newer triazoles, voriconazole has been recommended in international guidelines as primary therapy for acute invasive aspergillosis. Posaconazole has a broad spectrum of activity in vitro and a potentially key role in antifungal prophylaxis in high-risk HSCT recipients and during prolonged neutropenia. Although some of these drugs have important interactions with other medications, and potential toxicities, they are safer to use and more efficacious than amphotericin B deoxycholate. Their arrival gives more choices to treat rarer mycoses and will facilitate clinical trial assessment of combination therapy of aspergillosis where single agent therapy gives less than 50% success rates. PMID:19120371

  11. To what extent will contaminated water affect physical, haematological and lipid properties of Clariasgariepinus?

    PubMed

    Adeyemi, Olalekan; Oginni, Olatunde; Igbakin, Ayanfe P; Adeyemi, Oyeyemi; Osubor, Chris C

    2011-01-01

    Some haematological and physical properties of Clarias gariepinus cultivated in water contaminated with phthalate, benzene and cyclohexane over a period of 56 days were examined. The haemoglobin (Hb) and packed cell volume (PCV) concentrations of test animals were found to be significantly lower than those of control (p<0.05). The gain in body weight of male C. gariepinus cultivated in uncontaminated water (control), water contaminated with phthalate, benzene and cyclohexane was found to be 11.88 0.55, 13.5 0.62, 21.60 1.03 and 27.54 1.22 g, respectively. Serum cholesterol concentrations of fish cultivated in contaminated water were found to be significantly higher than those of control (p<0.05). The experimental results suggested that the pollutants may cause anaemia in the fish as evident in the Hb and PCV results. It could also be inferred that the gain in body weight may be due to impaired fat metabolism which might have led to elevated levels of serum cholesterol and triglycerides in the fish. It is our view that consumption of such fish may cause hypercholesterolemia. PMID:19801186

  12. Haematological and biochemical changes in experimental Trypanosoma evansi infection in rabbits.

    PubMed

    Sivajothi, S; Rayulu, V C; Sudhakara Reddy, B

    2015-06-01

    New Zealand white rabbits (N = 4) were challenged with the local strain of Trypanosoma evansi. Each rabbit was infected with 5 × 10(5) trypanosomes subcutaneously. The infection was characterized by intermittent pyrexia, undulating parasitaemia, anorexia and emaciation. The infected rabbits were examined daily for development of clinical signs and infection status by wet blood-films made from the ear veins. Thick and thin blood smears were also examined daily until the end of the experiment for description of blood cells. Differential leukocyte count (DLC) was also done. The parasite was observed in the blood during the acute phase only. Leukocytosis in the acute phase followed by leukopenia during the chronic phase was recognized. Haematological studies revealed reduced TEC, Hb and PCV. The main changes in the erythrocytes were macrocytes, hypochromic cells, Howell-Jolly bodies, target cells, stomatocytes and burr cells. Serum chemistry revealed hypoproteinemia, hypocholesterolaemia, hypoglycemia, hyperbilirubinemia, elevated creatinine, BUN, increased AST and ALT. PMID:26064003

  13. A case/control study of adult haematological malignancies in relation to overhead powerlines.

    PubMed Central

    Youngson, J. H.; Clayden, A. D.; Myers, A.; Cartwright, R. A.

    1991-01-01

    A population based case control study of adult haematological malignancy and distance from, and magnetic fields associated with, overhead (OH) power lines has been carried out in the North West and Yorkshire regions of England. Three-thousand, one hundred and forty-four cases with histologically proven disease were entered into the study. One control per case, matched for age, sex, year of diagnosis and health district of residence, was selected from hospital discharges. Seven per cent of cases and controls lived near to OH power lines as defined by the study protocol. The measure of exposure used was the calculated magnetic field strength at each of these addresses due to maximum load currents carried by OH power lines in the 5 years preceding diagnosis. The odds ratio (OR) for living within 50 m of an OH line was 1.29 with a 95% Confidence Interval (CI) of 0.99-1.68 but a chi 2 test for trend with distance was not statistically significant. The analysis of calculated magnetic fields, did not produce any statistically odds ratios. The OR for magnetic fields greater than or equal to 0.1 mG was 1.03 (95% CI 0.81 1.32). Analysis of magnetic fields greater than or equal to 3.0 mG gave an OR of 1.87 (95% CI 0.79 4.42), but this result is based on small numbers. No evidence was found for confounding by the type of dwelling which was used as a partial surrogate for socio-economic status. PMID:2069855

  14. Impact of age on haematological markers pre- and post-marathon running.

    PubMed

    Martin, Thomas G; Pata, Rachel W; D'Addario, Johanna; Yuknis, Lauren; Kingston, Rebecca; Feinn, Richard

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated whether haematological markers differ between young and masters marathon participants, running at similar performance levels. Nine young (31.89 ± 4.96 years) and eight masters (63.13 ± 4.61 years) runners participated. At five time points (pre-race through 54 h post-race), a complete blood cell count, basic metabolic panel and creatine kinase (CK) isoenzyme panel were assessed. Race performance was standardised using the World Masters Association Age Grading Performance Tables. Total CK levels were elevated for all participants at all time points post-race (P < 0.001). The CK-isoenzyme MB% was elevated across groups at 6, 30 and 54 h post-race (P < 0.01, P < 0.01 and P < 0.05), with masters runners having a higher CK-MB% at 30 and 54 h (P < 0.05, P < 0.05). Total white blood cell and neutrophil counts were elevated through 6 h post-race (P < 0.001), with higher levels found in younger runners (P < 0.001). When considering all blood work, masters runners had a higher number of abnormal values at 6, 30 and 54 h post-race (P < 0.05, P < 0.01 and P < 0.05). In conclusion, masters runners demonstrated sustained CK-MB elevation, which may suggest greater cardiac stress. However, future studies using additional cardiac markers should be completed to confirm these findings. In addition, masters runners showed an increased number of laboratory values outside normal range, indicating the body's reduced capacity to respond to marathon running. PMID:25789424

  15. Clinical and haematological responses of feline blood donors anaesthetised with a tiletamine and zolazepam combination.

    PubMed

    Spada, Eva; Proverbio, Daniela; Bagnagatti De Giorgi, Giada; Perego, Roberta; Valena, Emanuela; Della Pepa, Alessandra; Baggiani, Luciana

    2015-04-01

    This prospective study investigated the effect on clinical and haematological variables of the anaesthetic combination of tiletamine and zolazepam in feline blood donors. Blood (10 ml/kg bodyweight to a maximum volume of 60 ml) was collected from the jugular vein of 31 owned healthy cats anaesthetised with 2.5 mg/kg of tiletamine and 2.5 mg/kg of zolazepam intramuscularly. Rectal temperature (RT), systolic arterial pressure (SAP), mean arterial pressure (MAP), diastolic arterial pressure (DAP), heart rate (HR) and complete blood count (including red blood cells [RBC], haemoglobin [HB], haematocrit [HT], platelet [PLT] count, white blood cells [WBC], lymphocytes, neutrophils, eosinophils, monocytes and basophils) were evaluated pre- and postdonation. RT decreased significantly (P <0.01) after blood donation (mean change in RT -0.7C). Significant increases in SAP (P = 0.03), MAP (P <0.01) and DAP (P <0.01) occurred after blood donation (mean increase 13 mmHg, 12 mmHg and 11 mmHg, respectively). Although RBC, HT, HB, WBC, PLT, neutrophil and monocyte counts decreased, and HR, and lymphocyte, eosinophil and basophil counts increased after blood donation this change was not statistically significant. Mean time from pre- to postdonation evaluation was 39 11 mins (range 24-76 mins). None of the cats had evidence of pallor or collapse after recovery from anaesthesia. The collection of blood at 10 ml/kg bodyweight to a maximum volume of 60 ml in healthy cats using a low dose tiletamine and zolazepam anaesthetic appears to be well tolerated by feline blood donors. PMID:25015738

  16. The effects of levamisole poisoning on the haematological and biochemical parameters in dogs.

    PubMed

    Gokce, H I; Gunes, V; Erdogan, H M; Citil, M; Akca, A; Yuksek, N

    2004-02-01

    This study was designed to evaluate possible organ and system disorders associated with experimentally induced levamisole poisoning in dogs. For this purpose, twelve clinically healthy dogs of different ages, sexes and breeds were used. They were divided into two equal groups (Group A and Group B) and given levamisole orally at a dose of 25 mg/kg of body weight daily for three days. The dogs in Group B were also injected with atropin sulphate (0.04 mg/kg of body weight) subcutaneously (sc) 1 hour after each administration of levamisole. Routine clinical examinations were made and some haematological, biochemical and blood gas parameters were established at various times after administration of levamisole. The dogs in Group A developed severe neurological signs, gastric haemorrhage, bloody vomiting, colic, anaemia and four dogs died. In Group B these signs were mild and only one dog died. Levamisole poisoning was characterised by a significant reduction in the total number of red blood cells (RBCs), concentration of haemoglobin (Hb) and packed cell volume (PCV), and by anaemia. Peripheral blood pH, actual bicarbonate of plasma (HCO3), actual base excess (BE), partial pressure of oxygen (pO2) and saturated oxygen (O2SAT) increased in both groups of animals and these dogs developed metabolic alkalosis 48 hours after the first administration of levamisole. The results of the study also show that levamisole poisoning in dogs causes a significant increase in the activity of serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and of alkaline phosphatase (AP) and in the concentration of urea in both Group A and Group B. In the study, atropin sulphate reduced the severity of the clinical signs and the number of deaths, but it was not alone sufficient to remedy levamisole poisoning in dogs. PMID:15032267

  17. A Genome-wide screen identifies frequently methylated genes in haematological and epithelial cancers

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Genetic as well as epigenetic alterations are a hallmark of both epithelial and haematological malignancies. High throughput screens are required to identify epigenetic markers that can be useful for diagnostic and prognostic purposes across malignancies. Results Here we report for the first time the use of the MIRA assay (methylated CpG island recovery assay) in combination with genome-wide CpG island arrays to identify epigenetic molecular markers in childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) on a genome-wide scale. We identified 30 genes demonstrating methylation frequencies of ≥25% in childhood ALL, nine genes showed significantly different methylation frequencies in B vs T-ALL. For majority of the genes expression could be restored in methylated leukemia lines after treatment with 5-azaDC. Forty-four percent of the genes represent targets of the polycomb complex. In chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) two of the genes, (TFAP2A and EBF2), demonstrated increased methylation in blast crisis compared to chronic phase (P < 0.05). Furthermore hypermethylation of an autophagy related gene ATG16L2 was associated with poorer prognosis in terms of molecular response to Imatinib treatment. Lastly we demonstrated that ten of these genes were also frequently methylated in common epithelial cancers. Conclusion In summary we have identified a large number of genes showing frequent methylation in childhood ALL, methylation status of two of these genes is associated with advanced disease in CML and methylation status of another gene is associated with prognosis. In addition a subset of these genes may act as epigenetic markers across hematological malignancies as well as common epithelial cancers. PMID:20184741

  18. Distribution of haematological indices among subjects with Blastocystis hominis infection compared to controls

    PubMed Central

    Javaherizadeh, Hazhir; Soltani, Shahrzad; Torabizadeh, Mehdi; Yousefi, Elham

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Some studies suggest Blastocystis hominis is a potentially pathogenic protozoa. Blastocystis hominis contributed to anaemia in children aged 8–10 years old in one study. Aim To compare haematological indices in cases with blastocystis hominis infection with healthy controls. Material and methods From 2001 to 2012, 97600 stool examinations were done in 4 university hospitals. Parasites were observed in 46,200 specimens. Of these cases, subjects with complete laboratory investigation (complete blood count – CBC, ferritin, total iron binding capacity – TIBC, and serum) and blastocystis hominis infection were included in this study as the case group. Of these cases, 6851 cases had only B. hominis infection. In the control group, 3615 subjects without parasite infestation were included. Age, haemoglobin (Hb), serum iron, TIBC, white blood cell (WBC), platelet (PLT), mean corpuscular volume (MCV), haematocrit (HCT) and erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) were recorded for cases and controls. SPSS software version 13.0 was used for analysis. Independent sample t-test and χ2 tests were used for comparison. Results Erythrocyte sedimentation rate level was significantly higher in cases with B. hominis infection (p < 0.05). C-reactive protein level was positive in 1.46% of cases and 0.5% of controls, which was statistically significant (p < 0.05). Frequency of serum iron < 120 was significantly higher in cases with B. hominis infection compared to controls. Occult blood was positive in 0.93% of cases and in none of the controls (p < 0.05). Conclusions The ESR, CRP and occult blood was significantly higher in cases with B. hominis infection. PMID:24868297

  19. The evolving role of biosimilars in haematology-oncology: a practical perspective.

    PubMed

    Gascon, Pere

    2015-12-01

    The loss of patents covering many biopharmaceutical/biological agents in the mid 1990s led to the introduction of a new generation of drugs: biosimilars. These new agents, produced by living cells just as the originator drugs, are chemically highly similar to endogenous human proteins; characterized by three-dimensionally complex, high molecular weight compounds. Among the first biosimilars used in haematology-oncology were erythropoietin and granulocyte colony-stimulating factor. After five years of use in clinical practice, the efficacy and safety profile of biosimilars approved by the European Medicines Agency is excellent. Over the next year or two, biosimilar monoclonal antibodies (MoAbs) will become available; the first will be rituximab and trastuzumab. Not only are MoAbs more complex in terms of molecular weight and number of amino acids than the first biosimilars, but they are also anticancer drugs, not merely supportive treatments like their predecessors. This opens up important questions. How are regulatory agencies to assess their clinical efficacy, immunogenicity and safety? Is the neoadjuvant clinical setting the best to evaluate them? What will regulatory agencies decide in terms of switching an originator molecule for a biosimilar or extrapolating efficacy results from one pathology to another? Once biosimilars of rituximab and trastuzumab are approved, several challenging issues will need to be addressed such as how to maintain appropriate pharmacovigilance, how to extrapolate across indications, and issues concerning automatic substitution. There is currently no consensus in any of these areas. This review addresses all these issues: new challenges that the oncology community will face in the near future. PMID:26622996

  20. Canine parvovirus enteritis 1: Clinical, haematological and pathological features of experimental infection.

    PubMed

    Macartney, L; McCandlish, I A; Thompson, H; Cornwell, H J

    1984-09-01

    The effect of oral infection of puppies, eight and 10 weeks old, with canine parvovirus of faecal origin was studied. Clinical signs of enteric disease were first apparent at five days after inoculation and persisted during days 6 and 7 after inoculation. The severity of clinical signs varied from transient dullness and anorexia to emesis, dysentery and death. Changes in haematological parameters were first found at day 3 after inoculation when a relative lymphopenia was observed. A profound neutropenia developed in severely affected dogs after the appearance of clinical enteric disease. Post mortem examination revealed thymic atrophy in all dogs killed on day 4 after inoculation. Macroscopic changes in the small intestine were apparent only in animals examined during the phase of severe enteric disease and consisted of thickening, rigidity and congestion of the small intestines. Microscopically there was lymphocytolysis in the thymic cortex and the germinal centres of the lymph nodes from days 2 and 3 after inoculation respectively and this rapidly resulted in depletion of these tissues. There was repopulation of lymph nodes from day 7 after inoculation but significant thymic regeneration was not apparent during the course of this study. In the small intestine, necrosis of crypt epithelium, atrophy of villi and, in some areas, complete collapse of mucosal architecture were found but the extent of these changes varied along the length of the small intestine and between individuals. Regenerative intestinal changes were observed in those animals surviving the acute phase of enteric dysfunction. The variable severity of clinical and enteric lesions, together with the factors which may affect the expression of clinical disease, are discussed. PMID:6091317

  1. Intracranial haemorrhage in thrombocytopenic haematology patientsa nested casecontrol study: the InCiTe study protocol

    PubMed Central

    Estcourt, Lise J; Stanworth, Simon J; Collett, Dave; Murphy, Mike F

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Intracranial haemorrhage (ICH) is one of the most serious side-effects of severe thrombocytopenia in haematology patients. ICH is rare, but can have devastating consequences (death or major morbidity). It is unknown why some patients with severe thrombocytopenia bleed and others do not. Study aims Primary aim was to identify risk factors for ICH in patients with haematological malignancies. Secondary aims were to identify short-term outcomes for these patients at 30?days (major morbidity and mortality) and produce a more accurate estimate of ICH incidence in this population. This information is key to identifying means to improve treatment and quality of care. Methods/analysis This is a UK-wide casecontrol study of ICH nested within a 4-year prospective surveillance study set up specifically for the casecontrol study. Each case will be matched to one control. Cases will be adult haematology patients (?16?years) who have had any type or severity of ICH who are receiving, about to receive or have just received myeloablative chemotherapy (defined as chemotherapy expected to cause a significant thrombocytopenia <50109/L for >5?days) or a haemopoietic stem cell transplant. Only patients being treated with curative intent will be included. Controls will be patients who fulfil the same inclusion criteria as cases (apart from ICH) and were treated at the same hospital immediately before the index case. Cases and controls will be matched to type of treatment (myeloablative chemotherapy or haemopoietic stem cell transplant). Hospitals across the UK will participate in a monthly email reporting strategy (started June 2011), as to whether a case of ICH occurred during the preceding calendar month. Case and control forms will be sent to any hospital reporting an eligible case. Conditional logistic regression will be used to calculate ORs. Denominator data for incidence estimates will use national registry data. Study Registration ISRCTN05026912 (prospective registration). NIHR Portfolio (UKCRN ID 10712). PMID:24508852

  2. Teicoplanin use in adult patients with haematological malignancy: Exploring relationships between dose, trough concentrations, efficacy and nephrotoxicity.

    PubMed

    Byrne, Catherine J; Egan, Sean; Fennell, Jrme P; O'Byrne, Philomena; Enright, Helen; Deasy, Evelyn; Ryder, Sheila A; D'Arcy, Deirdre M; McHugh, Johnny

    2015-10-01

    In 2010, our hospital introduced a higher target teicoplanin trough concentration of ?20mg/L by Day 3 for haematological malignancy patients. This study aimed to explore whether target trough concentrations were achieved, to identify factors associated with trough concentrations attained, and to assess clinical efficacy with teicoplanin treatments and nephrotoxicity. This was a retrospective, single-centre, cohort study of 172 teicoplanin treatments in 104 adults with haematological malignancy. Mixed-effects regression was used to evaluate factors affecting trough concentrations, and logistic regression was used to assess the relationship between trough concentrations and treatment outcomes. Nephrotoxicity was assessed using the RIFLE criteria. Considerable variability in trough concentrations was observed, with trough concentrations ?20mg/L rarely achieved early in therapy. A mixed-effects regression model explaining 52% of the variation in trough concentrations was developed. Dose and day of therapy were positively associated with trough concentration, whilst estimated renal function and, interestingly, acute myeloid leukaemia diagnosis were negatively associated (P<0.05). Results suggested a positive relationship between trough concentration and the likelihood of a favourable outcome for coagulase-negative staphylococcal central line-associated bloodstream infections. Elucidation of a specific target concentration requires further investigation. Teicoplanin was well tolerated renally. Findings suggest a risk of underexposure if conventional teicoplanin doses are used in haematological malignancy patients. Given the variability in trough concentrations observed, the identified factors affecting trough concentrations attained and the suggested link with clinical outcome, individualised initial dosing followed by therapeutic drug monitoring is recommended to ensure early adequate exposure in this vulnerable patient group. PMID:26228465

  3. Evolution of clinical, haematological and biochemical findings in young dogs naturally infected by vector-borne pathogens.

    PubMed

    de Caprariis, Donato; Dantas-Torres, Filipe; Capelli, Gioia; Mencke, Norbert; Stanneck, Dorothee; Breitschwerdt, Edward B; Otranto, Domenico

    2011-04-21

    Longitudinal studies evaluating the evolution of clinical, haematological, biochemical findings in young dogs exposed for the first time to multiple vector-borne pathogens have not been reported. With the objective of assessing the evolution of clinical, haematological and biochemical findings, these parameters were serially monitored in naturally infected dogs throughout a 1-year follow-up period. Young dogs, infected by vector-borne pathogens based on cytology or polymerase chain reaction, were examined clinically and blood samples were obtained at seven different follow-up time points. Dogs were randomized to group A (17 dogs treated with a spot-on formulation of imidacloprid 10% and permethrin 50%) or to group B (17 dogs untreated). In addition, 10 4-month-old beagles were enrolled in each group and used as sentinel dogs. At baseline, Anaplasma platys was the most frequently detected pathogen, followed by Babesia vogeli, Bartonella spp., Ehrlichia canis and Hepatozoon canis. Co-infections with A. platys and B. vogeli, followed by E. canis and B. vogeli, A. platys and H. canis and A. platys and Bartonella spp. were also diagnosed. In dogs from group B, abnormal clinical signs were recorded at different time points throughout the study. No abnormal clinical signs were recorded in group A dogs. Thrombocytopenia was the most frequent haematological alteration recorded in A. platys-infected dogs, B. vogeli-infected dogs and in dogs co-infected with A. platys and B. vogeli or A. platys and Bartonella spp. Lymphocytosis was frequently detected among dogs infected with B. vogeli or co-infected with A. platys and B. vogeli. Beagles were often infected with a single pathogen rather than with multiple canine vector-borne pathogens. There was a significant association (p<0.01) between tick infestation and A. platys or B. vogeli, as single infections, and A. platys and B. vogeli or A. platys and Bartonella spp. co-infections. This study emphasizes the clinical difficulties associated with assigning a specific clinical sign or haematological abnormality to a particular canine vector-borne disease. PMID:21106311

  4. The Survivor Unmet Needs Survey (SUNS) for haematological cancer survivors: a cross-sectional study assessing the relevance and psychometric properties

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Relevant and psychometrically sound needs assessment tools are necessary for accurate assessment of haematological cancer survivors unmet needs. No previous study has developed nor psychometrically evaluated a comprehensive needs assessment tool for use with population-based samples of haematological cancer survivors. This study aimed to assess the validity and reliability of the Survivor Unmet Needs Survey (SUNS) with haematological cancer survivors. Methods The relevance, content and face validity of the SUNS to haematological cancer survivors was assessed using qualitative interviews. Psychometric evaluation was conducted using data collected from haematological cancer survivors, aged 1880 years at recruitment and recruited from four Australian cancer registries. Construct, convergent and discriminant validity; internal reliability and floor and ceiling effects were assessed. A second survey was completed by a sub-sample of survivors recruited from two of the four registries to assess test-retest reliability. Results Results from 17 qualitative interviews confirmed the relevance, face and content validity of the original items of the SUNS for use with haematological cancer survivors. Overall, 1,957 eligible haematological cancer survivors were contacted by the cancer registries. Of these 1,280 were sent a survey, and 715 returned a survey (37% of eligible survivors contacted and 56% of survivors sent a survey). A total of 529 survivors completed all 89 items of the SUNS and were included in the exploratory factor analysis. Exploratory factor analysis supported the original five-factor structure of the SUNS. Evidence for convergent validity was established, with all five domains of the SUNS illustrating a moderate positive correlation with all three subscales of the Depression Anxiety and Stress Scale (DASS-21). All Cronbachs alpha values were above 0.9 and all corrected item-total correlations were acceptable (>0.2). Criteria for discriminant validity was not met, with only 10 of the 15 (67%) a-priori hypotheses supported. Test-retest reliability was acceptable for 40 of the 89 items (45%) and for three of the five domains. Significant floor effects were evident for all five domains. Conclusions The SUNS demonstrates evidence for multiple features of validity and reliability as a measure of unmet needs for haematological cancer survivors. However, evidence supporting some psychometric properties was limited. PMID:24886475

  5. Contribution of new diagnostic approaches to antifungal treatment plans in high-risk haematology patients.

    PubMed

    Einsele, H; Loeffler, J

    2008-05-01

    In high-risk patient cohorts, such as patients after solid-organ or allogeneic stem-cell transplantation, or patients with acute leukaemia, early diagnosis of invasive fungal infections (IFIs) is essential, as delayed or missing diagnosis of IFI results in increasing rates of mortality. However, diagnosis of most IFIs, especially of invasive aspergillosis, is difficult because classic tests have low sensitivity and specificity, and radiology often provides non-specific and transient results. The limited sensitivity and specificity of conventional assays for the detection of IFI and the growing number of immunocompromised patients who are at risk for opportunistic fungal infections have led to the development of new assays. These methods include antigen detection systems, such as ELISAs, and different molecular methods (PCR assays). Serological tests, such as the detection of the carbohydrate galactomannan, are standardised and commercially available. However, they still need to be evaluated in large patient cohorts, especially children. The benefit of antibody detection remains unclear if patients are under immune suppression or are heavily colonised but not infected. A range of different PCR assays (conventional, nested, real-time) have been developed, targeting different gene regions (cytochrome P450, heat-shock proteins, 18S, 5.8S, 28S, internal transcribed spacer), including a variety of amplicon detection methods, such as gel electrophoresis, hybridisation with specific probes, ELISA and restriction fragment length polymorphism. These molecular assays provide high potential in terms of sensitivity and specificity, but vary widely in their feasibility and up to now have not been standardised. Taken together, new non-culture-based diagnostic assays are appropriate as simple and rapid screening tests with high sensitivities and quick turnaround times. Thus, they might help to reduce empirical antifungal therapy and might be valuable tools to allow early initiation and monitoring of pre-emptive antifungal therapy. In this review, we assess the performance of a variety of non-culture-based tests for the detection of IFI in high-risk haematological patients, with emphasis on the impact of the assays on different management strategies. PMID:18430128

  6. Diagnostic accuracy of the Aspergillus-specific bronchoalveolar lavage lateral-flow assay in haematological malignancy patients.

    PubMed

    Prattes, Juergen; Lackner, Michaela; Eigl, Susanne; Reischies, Frederike; Raggam, Reinhard B; Koidl, Christoph; Flick, Holger; Wurm, Robert; Palfner, Michael; Wlfler, Albert; Neumeister, Peter; Thornton, Christopher R; Krause, Robert; Lass-Flrl, Cornelia; Hoenigl, Martin

    2015-08-01

    We evaluated the performance of the Aspergillus-specific lateral-flow device (LFD) test for diagnosing invasive pulmonary aspergillosis (IPA) in patients with underlying haematological malignancies. Participating centres were the two Austrian University Hospitals of Graz and Innsbruck. LFD performance was evaluated with 95 bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) samples from 72 patients collected prospectively in Graz, and with 24 BALF bio bank samples from 23 patients (21 samples with probable IPA) in Innsbruck. Invasive fungal infections were classified according to the revised European Organization of Research and Treatment of Cancer/Mycoses Study Group criteria. Overall, 27 patients (30 samples) had probable IPA, 32 (43 samples) possible and 36 (46 samples) did not fulfil IPA criteria. The vast majority of patients - in particular those with probable IPA - received mould-active treatment before bronchoscopy. Sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value and negative-predictive-value for probable IPA diagnosis using the BALF-LFD test were 71%, 76%, 35% and 94% for the Graz cohort. Sensitivity of the BALF-LFD test for probable IPA was 57% in Innsbruck bio bank samples. Our results indicate that the BALF-LFD-test provides fast results with moderate sensitivities in patients with underlying haematological malignancies. Similar to other diagnostic tests and biomarkers sensitivity of the test may be influenced by ongoing systemic mould-active treatment. PMID:26103209

  7. Consensus guidelines for the treatment of yeast infections in the haematology, oncology and intensive care setting, 2014.

    PubMed

    Chen, S C; Sorrell, T C; Chang, C C; Paige, E K; Bryant, P A; Slavin, M A

    2014-12-01

    Pathogenic yeast forms are commonly associated with invasive fungal disease in the immunocompromised host, including patients with haematological malignancies and patients of haemopoietic stem cell transplants. Yeasts include the Candida spp., Cryptococcus spp., Pneumocystis jirovecii and some lesser-known pathogens. Candida species remain the most common cause of invasive yeast infections (and the most common human pathogenic fungi). These guidelines present evidence-based recommendations for the antifungal management of established, invasive yeast infections in adult and paediatric patients in the haematology/oncology setting. Consideration is also given to the critically ill patient in intensive care units, including the neonatal intensive care unit. Evidence for 'pre-emptive' or 'diagnostic-driven antifungal therapy' is also discussed. For the purposes of this paper, invasive yeast diseases are categorised under the headings of invasive candidiasis, cryptococcosis and uncommon yeast infections. Specific recommendations for the management of Pneumocystis jirovecii are presented in an accompanying article (see consensus guidelines by Cooley et al. appearing elsewhere in this supplement). PMID:25482743

  8. Incidence of thrombotic complications in patients with haematological malignancies with central venous catheters: a prospective multicentre study.

    PubMed

    Cortelezzi, Agostino; Moia, Marco; Falanga, Anna; Pogliani, Enrico M; Agnelli, Giancarlo; Bonizzoni, Erminio; Gussoni, Gualberto; Barbui, Tiziano; Mannucci, Pier Mannuccio

    2005-06-01

    This prospective, observational and multicentre study assessed the incidence of, and risk factors for, symptomatic venous thrombotic complications after central venous catheter (CVC) positioning in patients with haematological malignancies. A total of 458 consecutive CVC insertions were registered in 416 patients (81.2% of whom had severe thrombocytopenia). Over the observation period (3 months or up to catheter removal), the incidence of events was: CVC-related deep vein thrombosis (DVT), 1.5%; lower limb DVT, 0.4%; pulmonary embolism (PE), 1.3%; fatal PE, 0.6%; CVC-related superficial thrombophlebitis, 3.9%; CVC-occlusion/malfunction of thrombotic origin, 6.1%; major arterial events, 1.1%. Severe bleeding and CVC-related infections were observed in 3.5% and 4.6% of cases respectively. A composite end point (any venous thromboembolism or superficial thrombophlebitis or CVC occlusion/malfunction) was defined in order to consider venous thrombotic events with a significant impact on clinical practice. With this criterion, the overall incidence was 12.0% (2.54 cases/1000 catheter days). No factor helped to predict venous thrombotic complications: only thrombocytopenia was associated with a weak trend for a reduced risk (odds ratio 0.52; 95% confidence interval 0.26-1.07). No severe bleeding was observed in those patients who received antithrombotic prophylaxis. This study shows that the impact on clinical practice of symptomatic CVC-related thrombotic complications is not negligible in patients with haematological malignancies. PMID:15953009

  9. Biochemistry and haematology values for the baboon (Papio hamadryas): the effects of sex, growth, development and age.

    PubMed

    Harewood, W J; Gillin, A; Hennessy, A; Armistead, J; Horvath, J S; Tiller, D J

    1999-02-01

    A retrospective study evaluated the influence of sex and age on plasma biochemistry and haematology parameters in a captive-bred colony of baboons. Over 1,140 ETDA and heparin blood samples were obtained from 160 clinically normal baboons between the ages of 11 months and 11 years. Data for these blood tests were analysed for the effects of sex, age and sex age interactions. Sex, age and sex age interactions were detected for many plasma biochemistry and haematological parameters. The reference range values for platelets, white-blood cells and mean corpuscular volume and plasma chloride, glucose, total protein and iron were higher (P < 0.01) and red blood cell, plasma sodium, potassium, total CO2, creatinine, urea, total bilirubin, albumin, alkaline phosphate, gamma glutamyl transpeptidase and phosphate were lower (P < 0.01) in the female compared to the male population. Sex age interactions (P < 0.05) were seen with haemoglobin, white blood cells, haematocrit, mean corpuscular volume, sodium, creatinine, urea, calcium, phosphate, total bilirubin, total protein alkaline phosphatase, the liver enzymes and triglycerides. Plasma alkaline phosphatase was highest ( > 800 micro/l) in young juveniles of both sexes; creatinine was higher in older ( > 4 years) compared to younger baboons of the same sex (P < 0.05). Plasma cholesterol and triglycerides were greater (P < 0.01) in young baboons compared to older animals. PMID:10372537

  10. Volume Conductivity and Scatter Parameters as an Indicator of Acute Bacterial Infections by the Automated Haematology Analyser

    PubMed Central

    Suresh, Pooja K; Rao, Purnima S; Ballal, Kirthinath; Sridevi, Hanaganahalli B; Padyana, Mahesha

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Complete blood picture is the first and foremost investigation ordered for evaluation of acute infectious processes which require early and prompt intervention. With the advent of automated Coulter Haematology analysers, the Volume, Conductivity & Scatter parameters of the leucocytes could be analysed for the early detection of the infections. Aim To evaluate the clinical usefulness of Volume, Conductivity & Scatter parameters of neutrophils & monocytes in predicting the onset of acute bacterial infections. Materials and Methods Peripheral blood samples from 94 patients with infections (systemic infections n=36 & localised infections n=58) and 46 control subjects were studied using the Volume, Conductivity & Scatter parameters by the Coulter Haematology analyser. Results We observed a significant increase in the mean channel of neutrophil volume & mean channel of monocyte volume from patients with infections (both systemic & localised) as compared with control subjects (Mean Neutrophil Volume: 158.3 13.7 vs 137.2 4.3; p<0.001) & (Mean Monocyte Volume: 177.8 16 vs 161.7 6.04; p <0.001). However, there was no significant difference in the Mean Neutrophil Volume of patients with systemic infection & localised infections (160.517.5 vs 156.810.5, p>0.05). Conclusion The Volume, Conductivity & Scatter parameters like Mean Neutrophil Volume & Mean Monocyte Volume are more sensitive parameters and could prove to be a quick diagnostic indicator of acute bacterial infections. PMID:26894069

  11. Indications for allo- and auto-SCT for haematological diseases, solid tumours and immune disorders: current practice in Europe, 2015.

    PubMed

    Sureda, A; Bader, P; Cesaro, S; Dreger, P; Duarte, R F; Dufour, C; Falkenburg, J H F; Farge-Bancel, D; Gennery, A; Krger, N; Lanza, F; Marsh, J C; Nagler, A; Peters, C; Velardi, A; Mohty, M; Madrigal, A

    2015-08-01

    This is the sixth special report that the European Society for Blood and Marrow Transplantation regularly publishes on the current practice and indications for haematopoietic SCT for haematological diseases, solid tumours and immune disorders in Europe. Major changes have occurred in the field of haematopoietic SCT over the last years. Cord blood units as well as haploidentical donors have been increasingly used as stem cell sources for allo-SCT, thus, augmenting the possibility of finding a suitable donor for a patient. Continuous refinement of conditioning strategies has also expanded not only the number of potential indications but also has permitted consideration of older patients or those with co-morbidity for a transplant. There is accumulating evidence of the role of haematopoietic SCT in non-haematological disorders such as autoimmune diseases. On the other hand, the advent of new drugs and very effective targeted therapy has challenged the role of SCT in some instances or at least, modified its position in the treatment armamentarium of a given patient. An updated report with revised tables and operating definitions is presented. PMID:25798672

  12. Risk Factors and Scoring System for Predicting Bacterial Resistance to Cefepime as Used Empirically in Haematology Wards

    PubMed Central

    El Maaroufi, Hicham; Goubard, Agathe; Redjoul, Rabah; Legrand, Patrick; Pautas, Ccile; Mikdame, Mohamed; Doghmi, Kamal; Toma, Andra; Maury, Sbastien; Schwarzinger, Michael; Cordonnier, Catherine

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. Bacterial resistance is of growing concern in haematology wards. As the inappropriate administration of empirical antibacterial may alter survival, we studied risk factors for resistance to our usual empirical first-line antibacterial therapy, cefepime. Methods. We retrospectively studied 103 first episodes of bacteraemia recorded in our haematology department over 2.5 years. Risk factors for cefepime-resistance were identified by multivariate logistic regression with backward selection (P < 0.05). A scoring system for predicting cefepime-resistance was built on independent factor, with an internal validation by the bootstrap resampling technique. Results. 38 (37%) episodes were due to Gram-negative bacteria. Fifty (49%) were due to bacteria resistant to cefepime. Cefepime resistance was significantly associated with a decreased survival at day 30 (P < 0.05). Three risk factors were independently associated with cefepime-resistance: acute lymphoblastic leukaemia; ?18 days since hospital admission; and receipt of any ?-lactam in the last month. Patients with ?2 of these risk factors had a probability of 86% (CI 95%, 25 to 100%) to carry a cefepime-resistant strain. Conclusion. Using our scoring system should reduce the indication of very broad antibacterial regimens in the empirical, first-line treatment of febrile hematology patients in more than 80% of the cases. PMID:26075276

  13. Preliminary study of the fungal ecology at the haematology and medical-oncology ward in Bamako, Mali.

    PubMed

    Niaré-Doumbo, Safiatou; Normand, Anne Cécile; Diallo, Yacouba Lazarre; Dembelé, Abdoul Karim; Thera, Mahamadou A; Diallo, Dapa; Piarroux, Renaud; Doumbo, Ogobara; Ranque, Stéphane

    2014-08-01

    Data on fungal epidemiology in sub-Saharan African countries are scarce. This exploratory study aimed to characterize the fungal flora at the Onco-Haematology ward of the National Teaching Hospital of Point G in Bamako, Mali. A cross-sectional survey was conducted in the dry and in the rainy seasons. Nasal swab and sputum samples were collected from the hospitalized patients while airborne fungal spores were collected using electrostatic dust-fall collectors. Fungi were identified by their morphological characteristics and MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry. Candida albicans was the most frequent yeast species colonizing patients; Aspergillus species were isolated in 86 % of the patients and were the main airborne environmental contaminants. Overall, airborne fungal contamination rates increased from 33.8 % in the dry to 66.2 % in the rainy season (p < 0.001). The most frequent Aspergillus species were Aspergillus niger (36.6 %) and Aspergillus flavus (32.92 %). In contrast, Aspergillus fumigatus (5.43 %) was relatively rare. This high level of fungal exposure raises concern regarding the management of at-risk patients in this Onco-Haematology ward and stresses the need for strengthening the mycological diagnostic capacities to accompany the implementation of adapted fungal infection prevention and management policies. PMID:24889723

  14. Perceived need for information among patients with a haematological malignancy: associations with information satisfaction and treatment decision-making preferences.

    PubMed

    Rood, Janneke A J; van Zuuren, Florence J; Stam, Frank; van der Ploeg, Tjeerd; Eeltink, Corien; Verdonck-de Leeuw, Irma M; Huijgens, Peter C

    2015-06-01

    For patients with haematological malignancies, information on disease, prognosis, treatment and impact on quality of life is of the utmost importance. To gain insight into the perceived need for information in relation to sociodemographic and clinical parameters, comorbidity, quality of life (QoL) and information satisfaction, we compiled a questionnaire based on existing validated questionnaires. A total of 458 patients diagnosed with a haematological malignancy participated. The perceived need for information was moderate to high (40-70%). Multivariate regression analyses showed that a higher need for information was related to younger age, worse QoL, being member of a patient society and moderate comorbidity. The need for disease and treatment-related information was higher than the need for psychosocial information. A higher need for disease and treatment-related information was associated to being diagnosed with multiple myeloma. A higher need for psychosocial information was related to a lower educational level. The information provision could be improved according to 41% of the patients. Higher satisfaction with provided information was associated with better QoL. Most patients (62%) reported that they wanted to be fully informed about their illness and actively involved in treatment decision-making. The results contribute to improving patient-tailored information provision and shared decision-making in clinical practice. PMID:24811073

  15. Haematological and biochemical measurements in healthy, adult, free-ranging golden jackals (Canis aureus syriacus) held in captivity.

    PubMed

    Aroch, I; Shpigel, N Y; Avidar, Y; Yakobson, B; King, R; Shamir, M

    2005-09-10

    Blood from 31 healthy, free-ranging golden jackals held in captivity for seven days was collected while they were anaesthetised. Haematological and serum biochemical measurements were analysed and the 95 per cent confidence interval for each variable was compared with the reference value for domestic dogs. The measurements of their red blood cells were within the reference interval for dogs, but the jackals had higher white blood cell counts and eosinophil counts than dogs. The male jackals had a higher haematocrit, red blood cell count, mean corpuscular volume and mean corpuscular haemoglobin concentration, and a lower red blood cell distribution width than the female jackals. High activities of muscle enzymes were detected in many of the jackals, in several of which the activity of creatine kinase exceeded 5000 U/l; these were considered abnormal. PMID:16155240

  16. Non-transferrin-bound iron in haematological patients during chemotherapy and conditioning for autologous stem cell transplantation.

    PubMed

    Sahlstedt, Leila; von Bonsdorff, Leni; Ebeling, Freja; Parkkinen, Jaakko; Juvonen, Eeva; Ruutu, Tapani

    2009-11-01

    Free iron induced hydroxyl radical formation is one possible mechanism for tissue injury during cytotoxic therapy. We studied the appearance of free, non-transferrin-bound iron (NTBI) at baseline and during the 20-d period after the onset of cytotoxic chemotherapy in patients with haematological malignancy undergoing intensive chemotherapy or conditioning for autologous stem cell transplantation (aSCT). NTBI was detected on average for 15.6 d in patients treated with chemotherapy only, and for 6.1 d in patients undergoing aSCT. The recovery of the bone marrow function coincided with the disappearance of NTBI. The type of the conditioning regimen was also associated with the appearance of NTBI. The timing of the presence of NTBI accords with the presence of the most important non-infectious complication of intensive chemotherapy and autologous transplantation, mucosal injury, and free iron is likely to contribute to this and probably other complications of the intensive treatments. PMID:19572995

  17. Blood Haematology, Serum Thyroid Hormones and Glutathione Peroxidase Status in Kacang Goats Fed Inorganic Iodine and Selenium Supplemented Diets

    PubMed Central

    Aghwan, Z. A.; Sazili, A. Q.; Alimon, A. R.; Goh, Y. M.; Hilmi, M.

    2013-01-01

    The effects of dietary supplementation of selenium (Se), iodine (I), and a combination of both on the blood haematology, serum free thyroxine (FT4) and free triiodothyronine (FT3) hormones and glutathione peroxidase enzyme (GSH-Px) activity were examined on twenty four (7 to 8 months old, 221.17 kg live weight) Kacang crossbred male goats. Animals were randomly assigned to four dietary treatments (6 animals in each group). Throughout 100 d of feeding trial, the animals of control group (CON) received a basal diet, while the other three groups were offered basal diet supplemented with 0.6 mg/kg diet DM Se (SS), or 0.6 mg/kg diet DM I (PI), or a combination of both Se and I, each at 0.6 mg/kg diet DM (SSPI). The haematological attributes which are haemoglobin (Hb), red blood cell (RBC), packed cell volume (PCV), mean cell volume (MCV), white blood cells (WBC), band neutrophils (B Neut), segmented neutrophils (S Neut), lymphocytes (Lymph), monocytes (Mono), eosinophils (Eosin) and basophils (Baso) were similar among the four treatment groups, while serum levels of Se and I increased significantly (p<0.05) in the supplemented groups. The combined dietary supplementation of Se and I (SSPI) significantly increased serum FT3 in the supplemented animals. Serum GSH-Px activity increased significantly in the animals of SS and SSPI groups. It is concluded that the dietary supplementation of inorganic Se and I at a level of 0.6 mg/kg DM increased serum Se and I concentration, FT3 hormone and GSH-Px activity of Kacang crossbred male goats. PMID:25049744

  18. Growth performance, carcass quality, biochemical and haematological traits and immune response of growing rabbits as affected by different growth promoters.

    PubMed

    Attia, Y A; El-Hanoun, A M; Bovera, F; Monastra, G; El-Tahawy, W S; Habiba, H I

    2014-02-01

    The aim of the article was to study the effect of different growth promoters on growth performance, carcass quality, biochemical and haematological traits and immune response of growing rabbits. A total number of 105 male growing NZW rabbits during 35-91days of age were randomly distributed among 7 groups fed the same basal diet and submitted to different dietary treatments: the first group was unsupplemented and used as control; the other groups were supplemented respectively with bee pollen and/or propolis at 200mg/kg BW of each and inulin and/or mannanoligosaccharides (MOS) at 35mg/kg BW of each. Body weight gain, daily feed intake, feed conversion ratio (FCR), biochemical and haematological blood parameters, carcass characteristics, histological studies of ileum and spleen and economical efficiency were measured. Bee pollen administered alone or with propolis significantly (p<0.01) the body weight gain and improved FCR in respect of the control group. Inulin with MOS significantly improved just FCR than the control group. Bee pollen with propolis and MOS supplemented-groups resulted in significantly higher (7.96 and 8.41% respectively) white blood cells compared to the control group. Plasma total cholesterol was significantly higher for the MOS group in respect of the control, bee pollen, inulin and inulin with MOS supplemented-groups. Propolis resulted in significantly higher dressed carcass percentage than the control group and higher carcass index than only bee pollen with propolis supplemented-group. Bee pollen, in particular if in combination with propolis, could be used as a supplement in the growing rabbits during days 35-91 of age with positive effects on growth rate and feed conversion ratio. PMID:23419029

  19. Growth and haematological response of indigenous Venda chickens aged 8 to 13 weeks to varying dietary lysine to energy ratios.

    PubMed

    Alabi, O J; Ng'ambi, J W; Mbajiorgu, E F; Norris, D; Mabelebele, M

    2015-06-01

    The effect of feeding varying dietary lysine to energy levels on growth and haematological values of indigenous Venda chickens aged 8 - 13 weeks was evaluated. Four hundred and twenty Venda chickens (BW 362 10 g) were allocated to four dietary treatments in a completely randomized design. Each treatment was replicated seven times, and each replicate had fifteen chickens. Four maize-soya beans-based diets were formulated. Each diet had similar CP (150 g/kg DM) and lysine (8 g lysine/kg DM) but varying energy levels (11, 12, 13 and 14 MJ ME/kg DM). The birds were reared in a deep litter house; feed and water were provided ad libitum. Data on growth and haematological values were collected and analysed using one-way analysis of variance. Duncan's test for multiple comparisons was used to test the significant difference between treatment means (p < 0.05). A quadratic equation was used to determine dietary lysine to energy ratios for optimum parameters which were significant difference. Results showed that dietary energy level influenced (p < 0.05) feed intake, feed conversion ratio, live weight, haemoglobin and pack cell volume values of chickens. Dry matter digestibility, metabolizable energy and nitrogen retention not influenced by dietary lysine to energy ratio. Also, white blood cell, red blood cell, mean corpuscular volume, mean corpuscular haemoglobin and mean corpuscular haemoglobin concentration in female Venda chickens aged 91 days were not influenced by dietary lysine to energy ratio. It is concluded that dietary lysine to energy ratios of 0.672, 0.646, 0.639 and 0.649 optimized feed intake, growth rate, FCR and live weight in indigenous female Venda chickens fed diets containing 8 g of lysine/kg DM, 150 g of CP/kg DM and 11 MJ of ME/kg DM. This has implications in diet formulation for indigenous female Venda chickens. PMID:25495676

  20. Haematological, serum electrolyte and blood gas effects of small volume hypertonic saline in experimentally induced haemorrhagic shock.

    PubMed

    Schmall, L M; Muir, W W; Robertson, J T

    1990-07-01

    The effects of treatment with small volume hypertonic (2400 mOsm/litre) and isotonic (300 mOsm/litre) saline on serum electrolyte and biochemical concentrations, haemograms and blood gases were evaluated in 12 horses using a haemorrhagic shock model. Intravascular catheters were placed surgically for sample collection prior to anaesthesia. Controlled haemorrhage was initiated and continued until mean systemic pressure reached 50 to 60 mmHg. Hypertonic or isotonic saline (2 litres) was administered by intravenous infusion and data collected for 2 h. Following haemorrhage, packed cell volume (PCV), haemoglobin, blood glucose concentrations and erythrocyte numbers increased whereas plasma total protein and albumin concentrations decreased. Infusion of hypertonic saline resulted in a further decrease in total protein and albumin concentrations. Glucose concentrations and other haematological variables were unaffected. Isotonic saline administration did not affect electrolyte, total protein or albumin concentrations. Concentrations of sodium and chloride were unaffected by hypotension but increased significantly following hypertonic saline treatment, exceeding normal values during the immediate post treatment period. Serum osmolality increased concurrently. No significant changes in arterial and venous blood gas values were observed with haemorrhage or isotonic saline treatment. A transient decrease in arterial and venous blood pH and a sustained decrease in venous bicarbonate and base excess concentrations occurred following hypertonic saline administration. No significant increases in any serum biochemical concentrations occurred during hypotension or following infusion of either isotonic or hypertonic saline. These results demonstrate that small volume hypertonic saline can be administered safely to horses without producing extreme changes in electrolyte concentrations, blood gases or haematological parameters. PMID:2120034

  1. Breakthrough candidaemia caused by phenotypically susceptible Candida spp. in patients with haematological malignancies does not correlate with established interpretive breakpoints.

    PubMed

    Gamaletsou, Maria N; Daikos, George L; Walsh, Thomas J; Perlin, David S; Ortigosa, Cristina Jimenez; Psaroulaki, Anna; Pagoni, Maria; Argyropoulou, Athina; Nepka, Martha; Perivolioti, Efstathia; Kotsopoulou, Maria; Perloretzou, Stavroula; Marangos, Markos; Kofteridis, Diamantis; Grammatikou, Maria; Goukos, Dimitrios; Petrikkos, George; Sipsas, Nikolaos V

    2014-09-01

    In a study of 27,864 patients with haematological malignancies, 40 patients with candidaemia were identified, among whom 21 developed candidaemia while receiving systemic antifungal therapy [breakthrough candidaemia (BTC)]. Demographic, clinical, microbiological and molecular features of these episodes were analysed. Compared with 19 patients with de novo candidaemia, patients with BTC were more likely to have neutropenia (81% vs. 63%), longer median duration of neutropenia (27 days vs. 15 days), hypogammaglobulinaemia (62% vs. 37%) and central venous catheters (CVCs) (86% vs. 68%). The median duration of prior antifungal exposure was 46 days (range 3-108 days). Among the 18 available Candida spp. isolates, 15 (83%) were phenotypically susceptible to the antifungal agent that the patient was receiving. Emergence of resistance was the mechanism leading to BTC in three cases of patients receiving echinocandins. Other possible mechanisms of BTC were (i) elevated (≥2) minimum lethal concentration/minimum inhibitory concentration (MLC/MIC) ratio (reduced ability for a fungicidal agent to kill a fungal pathogen) in all patients receiving amphotericin B and (ii) elevated MLC/MIC ratios in all Candida parapsilosis isolates with MICs≤1 μg/mL to echinocandins. DNA sequencing of the hotspot 1 region of the fks1 and fks2 genes in seven different isolates of C. parapsilosis group demonstrated P660A in Fks1 but no polymorphisms in fks2. In conclusion, mechanisms for BTC in the setting of prolonged neutropenia may be host-based (hypogammaglobulinaemia and CVC) and pathogen-based. CLSI interpretive breakpoints do not reliably predict BTC in patients with haematological malignancies and warrant further investigation. PMID:25108876

  2. Micro-organisms Associated with Febrile Neutropenia in Patients with Haematological Malignancies in a Tertiary Care Hospital in Eastern India.

    PubMed

    Mandal, Prakas Kumar; Maji, Suman Kumar; Dolai, Tuphan Kanti; De, Rajib; Dutta, Shyamali; Saha, Sandeep; Bhattacharyya, Maitreyee

    2015-03-01

    There is paucity of information from eastern India with regard to observed dominant micro-organisms causing febrile neutropenia (FN) in patients with haematological malignancies. To identify the prevalence of pathogenic microorganisms associated with FN. A total number of 268 episodes of FN were analysed from September'2010 to October'2013. The blood samples were inoculated into brain heart infusion broth, glucose broth, Hicombi dual performance media (Himedia, LQ-12) at 37C for 168h and Bactec method was also performed for these samples. Blood agar, chocolate agar, MacConkey's agar and cystine lactose electrolyte deficient agar were used for isolation of the microorganisms. A total number of 78 (29.10%) episodes revealed positive growths. Gram negative bacilli and Gram positive cocci were isolated in 61.53 and 34.61% cases respectively. The eight commonest isolates were Pseudomonas aeruginosa (14.10%), methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA-12.82%), Acinetobacter sps (11.53%), coagulase negative Staphylococcus (10.25%), Klebsiella pneumoniae (8.97%), Escherichia coli (8.97%), ESBL E. coli (6.41%), methicillin sensitive S. aureus (MSSA-6.41%). Amongst other less common isolates were Citrobacter kosseri (3.84%), Citrobacter freundii (2.56%), Ralstonia paucula (2.56%), Cedecia neteri (1.28%), methicillin resistant coagulase negative Staphylococcus (2.56%). Candida spp. including two cases of Candida non-albicans was isolated in 3.84% of cases. P. aeruginosa was the commonest pathogenic isolates in FN patients associated with haematological malignancies in this study. Gram negative bacteria were the commonest isolates in FN including significant numbers of rare opportunistic micro-organisms. PMID:25548444

  3. The effect of fasting during Ramadan on parameters of the haematological and steroidal modules of the athletes biological passport - a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Alsaadi, K; Voss, S C; Kraiem, S; Alwahaibi, A; Alyazedi, S; Dbes, N; Goebel, R; Mohamed-Ali, V; Alsowaidi, S; Seyam, A M; Bashraheel, A S; Alsayrafi, M; Georgakopoulos, C

    2015-12-01

    This study investigated the effect of Ramadan on the haematological and steroid module of the Athletes Biological Passport (ABP) of the World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA). Nine healthy physically active subjects were tested in the morning and afternoon for two days before and three days during Ramadan. Sample collection and all analyses were performed according to WADA technical documents. Although there were significant changes in the haemoglobin concentration during Ramadan, especially during the first fasting week, none of the subjects in this study exceeded the individually calculated thresholds of the ABP. No significant effects on testosterone/epitestosterone (T/E) ratio were observed but only the afternoon specific gravity (SG) of the urine was elevated. Thus, when urinary steroid concentrations are required, SG corrections need to be performed. The haematological and the steroid module of the ABP can be reliably applied during Ramadan as the observed changes are only marginal. Copyright 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:26695489

  4. [Investigations on the influence of selected compulsory measures on clinically relevant haematological and blood-chemical parameters of racing pigeons (Columba livia f. dom.)].

    PubMed

    Krautwald-Junghanns, M E; Bartels, T; Richter, A; Pees, M

    2006-10-01

    In the presented study the influence of stress and environmental factors on selected haematological and blood-chemical parameters in racing pigeons was examined. Blood was taken at three defined days and haematological as well as blood-chemical parameters of clinical relevance were determined. In comparison to reference values published for pigeons, the majority of the values obtained in this study were within physiological borders. The daily handling of the pigeons did not have any significant effect on the examined parameters. Also the heterophile/lymphocyte ratio did not show any changes characteristic of a stress reaction. In contrast, after change of the housing dies with pigeons originating normally from a flock, the first blood sampling should be performed after a 4 or 5-day lasting period of acclimatisation to the the individual housing conditions. PMID:17078530

  5. A non-randomised trial of an art therapy intervention for patients with haematological malignancies to support post-traumatic growth.

    PubMed

    Singer, Susanne; Götze, Heide; Buttstädt, Marianne; Ziegler, Corinna; Richter, Robert; Brown, Anna; Niederwieser, Dietger; Dorst, Jana; Jäkel, Nadja; Geue, Kristina

    2013-07-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the effect of art therapy on post-traumatic growth in patients with haematological malignancies in a non-randomised trial (n = 36, intervention group; n = 129, control group). Art therapy was administered over a period of 22 weeks in small groups. Post-traumatic growth was measured with the Stress-Related Growth Scale. After controlling for the effect of potential confounders, no difference in post-traumatic growth was observed between the intervention and control groups after 22 weeks. There was no evidence for an effect of weekly group sessions with art therapy on post-traumatic growth in patients with haematological malignancies. PMID:23027781

  6. Effect of a Probiotic Containing Bacillus licheniformis and Bacillus subtilis and Ferroin Solution on Growth Performance, Body Composition and Haematological Parameters in Kutum (Rutilus frisii kutum) Fry.

    PubMed

    Azarin, Hajar; Aramli, Mohammad Sadegh; Imanpour, Mohammad Reza; Rajabpour, Mina

    2015-03-01

    This study aimed to assess the efficacy of BioPlus 2B, a probiotic containing Bacillus licheniformis and B. subtilis and Ferroin solution on growth performance, body composition and haematological parameters in kutum, Rutilus frisii kutum, fry. The fish were fed dry pellets containing various ratios of probiotics and Ferroin for 60 days after absorption of the yolk sac. At the end of the trial, growth indices (final weight, weight gain, specific growth rate, daily growth rate, food conversion ratio and condition factor), body composition (crude protein, crude lipid, ash and moisture) and haematological parameters [haematocrit (Hct), haemoglobin (Hb), red blood cells (RBC), white blood cells (WBC), neutrophils (NEUTR), lymphocytes (LYM), mean cell volume (MCV), mean cell haemoglobin (MCH) and mean cell haemoglobin concentration (MCHC)] were assessed. Regarding body composition, total protein levels were higher, and ash, moisture and lipid levels were lower in fish receiving the probiotic and Ferroin treatments compared with the control group (P < 0.05). Fish receiving diets supplemented with probiotics and Ferroin solution showed significantly better growth than those fed the basal diet (control). RBC, Hct, Hb, MCV, MCH and LYM were all highest in fish fed probiotic (1.6 10(9) CFU/g dry pellet) + Ferroin solution (7 mg/kg dry pellet) + dry pellets. These results indicate that the combination of probiotic and Ferroin solution represents an effective dietary supplement for improving carcass quality, growth performance and haematological parameters in kutum fry. PMID:25431124

  7. The role of vitamin C as antioxidant in protection of biochemical and haematological stress induced by chlorpyrifos in freshwater fish Clarias batrachus.

    PubMed

    Narra, Madhusudan Reddy; Rajender, Kodimyala; Rudra Reddy, R; Rao, J Venkateswara; Begum, Ghousia

    2015-08-01

    The study was conducted to explore the modulatory effects of chlorpyrifos and protective role of vitamin C in tissues of Clarias batrachus. Treatments include E1 group (basal diet plus 1.65mgL(-1) CPF) and E2 group (basal diet+200mgkg body weight vitamin C and 1.65mgL(-1) CPF) along with a control group of fishes (fed on basal diet only). After 1, 7, 15, and 30d of treatment, fish tissues (brain, blood and liver) were used for the estimation of growth, biochemical and haematological parameters. The results of E1 group indicated significantly lower weight gain and survival rate. Brain AChE activity was inhibited. The RBC, Hb, respiratory burst activity, total protein and HSI were also reduced whereas WBC count, plasma glucose and haematocrit were elevated. In contrast, liver glycogen content, lactate dehydrogenase, alkaline and acid phosphatase activities were inhibited and malate dehydrogenase, aspartate, alanine amino transferase were enhanced. The E2 group of fish exhibited significant improvement in growth, survival, haematological indices, brain AChE, liver glycogen and oxidative enzyme activity. The findings support that dietary vitamin C supplementation might be helpful in abrogation of chlorpyrifos toxicity and improves growth, survival, biochemical and haematological conditions in fishes. PMID:25855010

  8. Effects of age and season on haematological parameters of donkeys during the rainy and cold-dry seasons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zakari, Friday Ocheja; Ayo, Joseph Olusegun; Rekwot, Peter Ibrahim; Kawu, Mohammed Umar

    2015-04-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate the effects of age and season on haematological parameters of donkeys at rest during the rainy and cold-dry seasons. Thirty healthy donkeys divided into three groups based on their age served as the subjects. During each season, blood sample was collected from each donkey thrice, 2 weeks apart, for haematological analysis, and the dry-bulb temperature (DBT), relative humidity (RH) and temperature-humidity index (THI) were obtained thrice each day during the experimental period using standard procedures. During the rainy season, the mean DBT (33.05 0.49 C), RH (73.63 1.09 %) and THI (84.39 0.71) were higher (P < 0.0001) than the corresponding values of 24.00 0.44 C, 36.80 0.92 % and 64.80 0.62, during the cold-dry season. Packed cell volume (PCV), erythrocyte count [red blood cell (RBC)], haemoglobin concentration (Hb), mean corpuscular volume (MCV), mean corpuscular haemoglobin (MCH), platelet count (PLT), leucocyte count [white blood cell (WBC)], lymphocyte count (LYM) and neutrophil/lymphocyte ratio (N/L) were higher (P < 0.05) in adults than foals during the rainy season. The MCV, MCH, WBC, NEU, LYM and PLT of adult and yearling donkeys were higher (P < 0.05) during the rainy than the cold-dry season. The PCV, RBC, Hb, MCV, MCH, and NEU of foals were higher in the rainy than the cold-dry season. The N/L of adult and foal donkeys were higher (P < 0.05) in the rainy than in the cold-dry season. In conclusion, PCV, RBC, Hb and LYM were considerably higher in foals than yearlings or adults during the rainy season, while erythrocytic indices and platelet counts were higher in adults or yearlings than in foals in both seasons. Erythrocytic indices, PLT and N/L were higher in the rainy than the cold-dry season in adults, yearlings and foals.

  9. Loci associated with N-glycosylation of human immunoglobulin G show pleiotropy with autoimmune diseases and haematological cancers.

    PubMed

    Lauc, Gordan; Huffman, Jennifer E; Pučić, Maja; Zgaga, Lina; Adamczyk, Barbara; Mužinić, Ana; Novokmet, Mislav; Polašek, Ozren; Gornik, Olga; Krištić, Jasminka; Keser, Toma; Vitart, Veronique; Scheijen, Blanca; Uh, Hae-Won; Molokhia, Mariam; Patrick, Alan Leslie; McKeigue, Paul; Kolčić, Ivana; Lukić, Ivan Krešimir; Swann, Olivia; van Leeuwen, Frank N; Ruhaak, L Renee; Houwing-Duistermaat, Jeanine J; Slagboom, P Eline; Beekman, Marian; de Craen, Anton J M; Deelder, André M; Zeng, Qiang; Wang, Wei; Hastie, Nicholas D; Gyllensten, Ulf; Wilson, James F; Wuhrer, Manfred; Wright, Alan F; Rudd, Pauline M; Hayward, Caroline; Aulchenko, Yurii; Campbell, Harry; Rudan, Igor

    2013-01-01

    Glycosylation of immunoglobulin G (IgG) influences IgG effector function by modulating binding to Fc receptors. To identify genetic loci associated with IgG glycosylation, we quantitated N-linked IgG glycans using two approaches. After isolating IgG from human plasma, we performed 77 quantitative measurements of N-glycosylation using ultra-performance liquid chromatography (UPLC) in 2,247 individuals from four European discovery populations. In parallel, we measured IgG N-glycans using MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry (MS) in a replication cohort of 1,848 Europeans. Meta-analysis of genome-wide association study (GWAS) results identified 9 genome-wide significant loci (P<2.27 × 10(-9)) in the discovery analysis and two of the same loci (B4GALT1 and MGAT3) in the replication cohort. Four loci contained genes encoding glycosyltransferases (ST6GAL1, B4GALT1, FUT8, and MGAT3), while the remaining 5 contained genes that have not been previously implicated in protein glycosylation (IKZF1, IL6ST-ANKRD55, ABCF2-SMARCD3, SUV420H1, and SMARCB1-DERL3). However, most of them have been strongly associated with autoimmune and inflammatory conditions (e.g., systemic lupus erythematosus, rheumatoid arthritis, ulcerative colitis, Crohn's disease, diabetes type 1, multiple sclerosis, Graves' disease, celiac disease, nodular sclerosis) and/or haematological cancers (acute lymphoblastic leukaemia, Hodgkin lymphoma, and multiple myeloma). Follow-up functional experiments in haplodeficient Ikzf1 knock-out mice showed the same general pattern of changes in IgG glycosylation as identified in the meta-analysis. As IKZF1 was associated with multiple IgG N-glycan traits, we explored biomarker potential of affected N-glycans in 101 cases with SLE and 183 matched controls and demonstrated substantial discriminative power in a ROC-curve analysis (area under the curve = 0.842). Our study shows that it is possible to identify new loci that control glycosylation of a single plasma protein using GWAS. The results may also provide an explanation for the reported pleiotropy and antagonistic effects of loci involved in autoimmune diseases and haematological cancer. PMID:23382691

  10. Loci Associated with N-Glycosylation of Human Immunoglobulin G Show Pleiotropy with Autoimmune Diseases and Haematological Cancers

    PubMed Central

    Muini?, Ana; Novokmet, Mislav; Polaek, Ozren; Gornik, Olga; Kriti?, Jasminka; Keser, Toma; Vitart, Veronique; Scheijen, Blanca; Uh, Hae-Won; Molokhia, Mariam; Patrick, Alan Leslie; McKeigue, Paul; Kol?i?, Ivana; Luki?, Ivan Kreimir; Swann, Olivia; van Leeuwen, Frank N.; Ruhaak, L. Renee; Houwing-Duistermaat, Jeanine J.; Slagboom, P. Eline; Beekman, Marian; de Craen, Anton J. M.; Deelder, Andr M.; Zeng, Qiang; Wang, Wei; Hastie, Nicholas D.; Gyllensten, Ulf; Wilson, James F.; Wuhrer, Manfred; Wright, Alan F.; Rudan, Igor

    2013-01-01

    Glycosylation of immunoglobulin G (IgG) influences IgG effector function by modulating binding to Fc receptors. To identify genetic loci associated with IgG glycosylation, we quantitated N-linked IgG glycans using two approaches. After isolating IgG from human plasma, we performed 77 quantitative measurements of N-glycosylation using ultra-performance liquid chromatography (UPLC) in 2,247 individuals from four European discovery populations. In parallel, we measured IgG N-glycans using MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry (MS) in a replication cohort of 1,848 Europeans. Meta-analysis of genome-wide association study (GWAS) results identified 9 genome-wide significant loci (P<2.2710?9) in the discovery analysis and two of the same loci (B4GALT1 and MGAT3) in the replication cohort. Four loci contained genes encoding glycosyltransferases (ST6GAL1, B4GALT1, FUT8, and MGAT3), while the remaining 5 contained genes that have not been previously implicated in protein glycosylation (IKZF1, IL6ST-ANKRD55, ABCF2-SMARCD3, SUV420H1, and SMARCB1-DERL3). However, most of them have been strongly associated with autoimmune and inflammatory conditions (e.g., systemic lupus erythematosus, rheumatoid arthritis, ulcerative colitis, Crohn's disease, diabetes type 1, multiple sclerosis, Graves' disease, celiac disease, nodular sclerosis) and/or haematological cancers (acute lymphoblastic leukaemia, Hodgkin lymphoma, and multiple myeloma). Follow-up functional experiments in haplodeficient Ikzf1 knock-out mice showed the same general pattern of changes in IgG glycosylation as identified in the meta-analysis. As IKZF1 was associated with multiple IgG N-glycan traits, we explored biomarker potential of affected N-glycans in 101 cases with SLE and 183 matched controls and demonstrated substantial discriminative power in a ROC-curve analysis (area under the curve?=?0.842). Our study shows that it is possible to identify new loci that control glycosylation of a single plasma protein using GWAS. The results may also provide an explanation for the reported pleiotropy and antagonistic effects of loci involved in autoimmune diseases and haematological cancer. PMID:23382691

  11. Effects of age and season on haematological parameters of donkeys during the rainy and cold-dry seasons.

    PubMed

    Zakari, Friday Ocheja; Ayo, Joseph Olusegun; Rekwot, Peter Ibrahim; Kawu, Mohammed Umar

    2015-12-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate the effects of age and season on haematological parameters of donkeys at rest during the rainy and cold-dry seasons. Thirty healthy donkeys divided into three groups based on their age served as the subjects. During each season, blood sample was collected from each donkey thrice, 2 weeks apart, for haematological analysis, and the dry-bulb temperature (DBT), relative humidity (RH) and temperature-humidity index (THI) were obtained thrice each day during the experimental period using standard procedures. During the rainy season, the mean DBT (33.05 ± 0.49 °C), RH (73.63 ± 1.09 %) and THI (84.39 ± 0.71) were higher (P < 0.0001) than the corresponding values of 24.00 ± 0.44 °C, 36.80 ± 0.92 % and 64.80 ± 0.62, during the cold-dry season. Packed cell volume (PCV), erythrocyte count [red blood cell (RBC)], haemoglobin concentration (Hb), mean corpuscular volume (MCV), mean corpuscular haemoglobin (MCH), platelet count (PLT), leucocyte count [white blood cell (WBC)], lymphocyte count (LYM) and neutrophil/lymphocyte ratio (N/L) were higher (P < 0.05) in adults than foals during the rainy season. The MCV, MCH, WBC, NEU, LYM and PLT of adult and yearling donkeys were higher (P < 0.05) during the rainy than the cold-dry season. The PCV, RBC, Hb, MCV, MCH, and NEU of foals were higher in the rainy than the cold-dry season. The N/L of adult and foal donkeys were higher (P < 0.05) in the rainy than in the cold-dry season. In conclusion, PCV, RBC, Hb and LYM were considerably higher in foals than yearlings or adults during the rainy season, while erythrocytic indices and platelet counts were higher in adults or yearlings than in foals in both seasons. Erythrocytic indices, PLT and N/L were higher in the rainy than the cold-dry season in adults, yearlings and foals. PMID:25860334

  12. Effects of age and season on haematological parameters of donkeys during the rainy and cold-dry seasons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zakari, Friday Ocheja; Ayo, Joseph Olusegun; Rekwot, Peter Ibrahim; Kawu, Mohammed Umar

    2015-12-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate the effects of age and season on haematological parameters of donkeys at rest during the rainy and cold-dry seasons. Thirty healthy donkeys divided into three groups based on their age served as the subjects. During each season, blood sample was collected from each donkey thrice, 2 weeks apart, for haematological analysis, and the dry-bulb temperature (DBT), relative humidity (RH) and temperature-humidity index (THI) were obtained thrice each day during the experimental period using standard procedures. During the rainy season, the mean DBT (33.05 ± 0.49 °C), RH (73.63 ± 1.09 %) and THI (84.39 ± 0.71) were higher ( P < 0.0001) than the corresponding values of 24.00 ± 0.44 °C, 36.80 ± 0.92 % and 64.80 ± 0.62, during the cold-dry season. Packed cell volume (PCV), erythrocyte count [red blood cell (RBC)], haemoglobin concentration (Hb), mean corpuscular volume (MCV), mean corpuscular haemoglobin (MCH), platelet count (PLT), leucocyte count [white blood cell (WBC)], lymphocyte count (LYM) and neutrophil/lymphocyte ratio (N/L) were higher ( P < 0.05) in adults than foals during the rainy season. The MCV, MCH, WBC, NEU, LYM and PLT of adult and yearling donkeys were higher ( P < 0.05) during the rainy than the cold-dry season. The PCV, RBC, Hb, MCV, MCH, and NEU of foals were higher in the rainy than the cold-dry season. The N/L of adult and foal donkeys were higher ( P < 0.05) in the rainy than in the cold-dry season. In conclusion, PCV, RBC, Hb and LYM were considerably higher in foals than yearlings or adults during the rainy season, while erythrocytic indices and platelet counts were higher in adults or yearlings than in foals in both seasons. Erythrocytic indices, PLT and N/L were higher in the rainy than the cold-dry season in adults, yearlings and foals.

  13. Interaction effect of whole wheat feeding and mannanoligosaccharides supplementation on growth performance, haematological indices and caecal microbiota of cockerel chicks.

    PubMed

    Oso, A O; Erinle, O Y; William, G A; Ogunade, A C

    2015-10-01

    The interaction effect of whole wheat feeding and mannanoligosaccharides supplementation on growth performance, haematological indices and caecal microbiota of cockerel chicks were investigated using 250-day-old cockerel chicks previously reared for 7 days pre-experimental period. Birds were fed with commercial chick mash during the pre-experimental period. At the expiration of this period, 192 chicks were selected on weight equalization basis and assigned into 24 pens. Each treatment consisted of six pens, while each pen housed eight birds. Four wheat-soya bean-based experimental diets were formulated in a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement of diets having two wheat forms (ground and whole wheat grain) each supplemented or not with 1 g/kg MOS/kg feed. Whole wheat feeding (irrespective of MOS supplementation) showed reduced (p < 0.05) feed intake. Birds fed whole wheat diet supplemented with MOS recorded the highest (p < 0.01) final live weight, weight gain and the best (p < 0.05) feed conversion ratio. Haemoglobin concentration, packed cell volume and red blood cell count of the chicks were not affected (p > 0.05) by dietary treatment. However, dietary supplementation with MOS resulted in increased (p < 0.05) WBC counts. The caecum content of chicks fed with MOS-supplemented whole wheat diets recorded the least (p < 0.01) salmonella counts. In conclusion, combination of whole wheat feeding and MOS supplementation showed improved growth performance, gut microbiota and indications of improved health status of cockerel chicks. PMID:25817244

  14. Using haematological parameters to infer the health and nutritional status of an endangered black-necked swan population.

    PubMed

    Artacho, Paulina; Soto-Gamboa, Mauricio; Verdugo, Claudio; Nespolo, Roberto F

    2007-08-01

    Living organisms are continuously faced with several forms of environmental perturbation, one of the most important being human activity. In this scenario, the role of physiological studies on wildlife has proved to be important given that in vivo physiological variables reflect a great deal how sensitive animals are to acute environmental changes. We studied the haematological parameters in black-necked swans (Cygnus melanocoryphus) at the Ramsar site at the Carlos Anwandter Sanctuary, which were experiencing a drastic population decrease. Through seven months, body mass (body mass corrected by total length) was reduced 30%, which was followed by significant reductions of haemoglobin concentration, haematocrit and red blood cell count. Mean cell volume and mean cell haemoglobin concentration did not change with time, whereas there was a significant increase of the white blood cells and heterophile / lymphocyte ratio. Our results, together with the published evidence, suggests that the proximal factors associated with the mass mortality and emigration of the black - necked swan population at the "Carlos Anwandter Sanctuary" was a drastic nutritional deficiency, and the potentially toxic effects of iron pollution in the waters of the Ramsar site. PMID:17448718

  15. The effect of mycotoxin deoxynivalenol on haematological and biochemical indicators and histopathological changes in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss).

    PubMed

    Matejova, Iveta; Modra, Helena; Blahova, Jana; Franc, Ales; Fictum, Petr; Sevcikova, Marie; Svobodova, Zdenka

    2014-01-01

    Deoxynivalenol (DON), produced by the Fusarium genus, is a major contaminant of cereal grains used in the production of fish feed. The effect of mycotoxin deoxynivalenol on rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) was studied using a commercial feed with the addition of DON in a dose of 2 mg/kg feed. The fish (n=40) were exposed to the mycotoxin for 23 days. The trout were divided into two groups, control and experimental groups. Control groups were fed a commercial feed naturally contaminated with a low concentration of DON (225  μg/kg feed); experimental groups were fed a commercial feed with the addition of DON (1964  μg/kg feed). Plasma biochemical and haematological indices, biometric parameters, and histopathological changes were assessed at the end of the experiment. The experimental groups showed significantly lower values in MCH (P<0.05). In biochemical indices, after 23-day exposure, a significant decrease in glucose, cholesterol (P<0.05), and ammonia (P<0.01) was recorded in the experimental group compared to the control group. Our assessment showed no significant changes in biometric parameters. The histopathological examination revealed disorders in the caudal kidney of the exposed fish. The obtained data show the sensitivity of rainbow trout (O. mykiss) to deoxynivalenol. PMID:24729967

  16. Effect of Aqueous Stem Bark Extract of Khaya senegalensis on Some Biochemical, Haematological, and Histopathological Parameters of Rats.

    PubMed

    Onu, A; Saidu, Y; Ladan, M J; Bilbis, L S; Aliero, A A; Sahabi, S M

    2013-01-01

    The subchronic effect of aqueous stem bark extract of Khaya senegalensis on some biochemical, haematological, and histopathological parameters of rats was investigated. The rats were divided into six groups of five rats per group. Groups I to VI were administered graded doses of 0, 400, 800, 1200, 1600, and 2000 mg/kg bw, respectively. The result of study revealed that administration of the Khaya senegalensis for twenty-eight days at the experimental dose resulted in significant (P < 0.05) increase in urea, electrolytes (Na(+), K(+)), and creatinine levels. The extract also significantly (P < 0.05) increased serum activity of ALT, AST, and ALP. The levels of protein, albumin, and bilirubin were significantly changed when compared to their control values, but they were not dose dependent. The hematological indices assayed in this study were not significantly affected at the experimental dose when compared to the control values. Histological studies of the liver showed cellular degeneration and necrosis and bile duct hyperplasia and fibrosis with lymphocytic infiltration of the hepatocyte, providing supportive evidence for discussing the biochemical findings, indicative of functional derangement. The histological architecture of the kidney and that of the heart were however preserved. The result of this study indicates that the aqueous stem bark extract of K. senegalensis may affect the cellular integrity of vital organs of the body. PMID:24348549

  17. Effect of Aqueous Stem Bark Extract of Khaya senegalensis on Some Biochemical, Haematological, and Histopathological Parameters of Rats

    PubMed Central

    Onu, A.; Saidu, Y.; Ladan, M. J.; Bilbis, L. S.; Aliero, A. A.; Sahabi, S. M.

    2013-01-01

    The subchronic effect of aqueous stem bark extract of Khaya senegalensis on some biochemical, haematological, and histopathological parameters of rats was investigated. The rats were divided into six groups of five rats per group. Groups I to VI were administered graded doses of 0, 400, 800, 1200, 1600, and 2000 mg/kg bw, respectively. The result of study revealed that administration of the Khaya senegalensis for twenty-eight days at the experimental dose resulted in significant (P < 0.05) increase in urea, electrolytes (Na+, K+), and creatinine levels. The extract also significantly (P < 0.05) increased serum activity of ALT, AST, and ALP. The levels of protein, albumin, and bilirubin were significantly changed when compared to their control values, but they were not dose dependent. The hematological indices assayed in this study were not significantly affected at the experimental dose when compared to the control values. Histological studies of the liver showed cellular degeneration and necrosis and bile duct hyperplasia and fibrosis with lymphocytic infiltration of the hepatocyte, providing supportive evidence for discussing the biochemical findings, indicative of functional derangement. The histological architecture of the kidney and that of the heart were however preserved. The result of this study indicates that the aqueous stem bark extract of K. senegalensis may affect the cellular integrity of vital organs of the body. PMID:24348549

  18. Effect of fluconazole prophylaxis on fungal blood cultures: an autopsy-based study involving 720 patients with haematological malignancy.

    PubMed

    Kami, Masahiro; Machida, Utako; Okuzumi, Katsuko; Matsumura, Tomoko; Mori Si, Shin-ichiro; Hori, Akiko; Kashima, Takeshi; Kanda, Yoshinobu; Takaue, Yoichi; Sakamaki, Hisashi; Hirai, Hisamaru; Yoneyama, Akiko; Mutou, Yoshitomo

    2002-04-01

    To investigate the utility of blood culture of invasive fungal infections in patients with haematological malignancies, an autopsy survey was conducted in 720 patients who were treated between 1980 and 1999. We identified 252 patients with invasive mycosis. These included Candida (n = 94), Aspergillus (n = 91), Zygomycetes (n = 34), Cryptococcus (n = 7), Trichosporon (n = 11), Fusarium (n = 1), and unknown fungi (n = 20). Of the 94 patients with invasive candidiasis, 20 had positive blood cultures. Of the 11 patients with invasive trichosporonosis, seven had positive blood cultures. The sensitivities of blood cultures were 1.1%, 0% and 14% for detecting invasive aspergillosis, zygomycosis and cryptococcosis respectively. Multiple regression analysis showed a significant correlation between results of Candida blood cultures and some variables, including prophylactic use of absorbable antifungals (P = 0.0181) and infection by Candida albicans (P = 0.0086). The sensitivity of blood cultures decreased when patients received antifungal chemoprophylaxis. Unless these agents are inactivated in culture bottles, conventional blood cultures might produce false-negative results. PMID:11918531

  19. Impact of poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) nanoparticle surface charge on protein, cellular and haematological interactions.

    PubMed

    Pillai, Gopikrishna J; Greeshma, M M; Menon, Deepthy

    2015-12-01

    The initial interactions of nanoparticles with biomolecules have a great influence on its toxicity, efficacy, biodistribution and clearance. The present work is an attempt to understand the impact of surface charge of polymeric nanoparticles on its plasma protein and cellular interactions. Negative, near-neutral and positively charged poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) [PLGA] nanoparticles were prepared using casein, poly(vinyl alcohol) and poly(ethylene imine) respectively, as surface stabilizers. A significant temporal variation in the hydrodynamic diameter of PLGA nanoparticles was observed in the presence of plasma proteins, which correlated with the amount of proteins adsorbed to each surface. Positively charged particles displayed the maximum size variation and protein adsorption. Cellular uptake of differentially charged nanoparticles was also concurrent with the quantity of adsorbed proteins, though there was no significant difference in their cytotoxicity. Haematological interactions (haemolysis and plasma coagulation times) of positively charged nanoparticles were considerably different from near-neutral and negative nanoparticles. Collectively, the results point to the interplay between plasma protein adsorption and cellular interactions of PLGA nanoparticles, which is governed by its surface charge, thereby necessitating a rational design of nanoparticles. PMID:26590899

  20. Toxicity of anthraquinones: differential effects of rumex seed extracts on rat organ weights and biochemical and haematological parameters.

    PubMed

    Islam, Rabigul; Mamat, Yultuz; Ismayil, Ilyar; Yan, Ming; Kadir, Mahsutjan; Abdugheny, Abdujilil; Rapkat, Haximjan; Niyaz, Mardan; Ali, Yusupjan; Abay, Sirapil

    2015-05-01

    The genus Rumex and related species such as Rheum and Polygonum are widely used as medicinal herbs and foods. They contain anthraquinones (AQ) such as emodin and chrysophanol as active ingredients, and there is concern about the toxicity of these compounds. This study evaluated the chronic effects of Rumex patientia seed aqueous and ethanolic extracts, in male and female rats separately, on organ weights and over 30 haematological, biochemical and histological parameters, immediately after 14-week administration and after a further period of 15?days without drug treatment. Adverse changes were associated with long-term AQ administration, and these focussed on the liver, lung and kidney, but after 15-day convalescence, most had reverted to normal. In general, male rats appeared to be more susceptible than female rats at similar doses. The water extract produced no irreversible changes, which may reflect the lower dose of the AQ constituents or the presence of different ancillary compounds, and supports the traditional method of extracting Rumex seeds with water. In conclusion, ethanolic extracts of R. patientia caused irreversible pathological changes at very high doses (4000mg/kg), but lower doses and aqueous extracts produced either non-significant or reversible changes. Long-term administration of high doses of AQ extracts over a long period of time should be avoided until further assurances can be given, and given other existing reports of reproductive toxicity, should be avoided altogether during pregnancy. PMID:25753342

  1. Blood antioxidant enzymes (SOD, GPX), biochemical and haematological parameters in pigs naturally infected with porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus.

    PubMed

    Stukelj, M; Toplak, I; Svete, A Nemec

    2013-01-01

    Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS) has become one of the most economically important diseases for the swine industry worldwide. The objective of the study was to determine selected blood antioxidant enzymes (glutathione peroxidase (GPX), superoxide dismutase (SOD)), biochemical and haematological parameters in PRRS positive and negative pigs of three different categories, mainly to test oxidative stress hypothesis in pigs naturally infected with PRRS virus. Ninety PRRS positive and 90 PRRS negative pigs were included in the study. The presence of PRRS was confirmed by serological detection of antibodies against PRRS virus (PRRSV) and detection of PRRS viral RNA by RT-PCR. Pigs were further divided into three groups of 30: piglets just before weaning (weaners), fatteners and finishers. Blood samples for determining selected blood parameters were collected from the vena cava cranialis. Significantly (P < 0.05) higher activities of SOD in weaners and fatteners and of GPX in weaners were determined in PRRS positive pigs than in corresponding groups of PRRS negative pigs. In contrast, significantly (P < 0.05) lower GPX activity was observed in finishers of PRRS positive pigs than in the corresponding group of PRRS negative pigs. Concentrations of serum total protein in PRRS positive weaners and fatteners were significantly (P < 0.05) higher than those found in PRRS negative pigs. Leukopenia was observed in all three groups of PRRS positive pigs. It has been demonstrated, for the first time, that oxidative stress might be increased in PRRSV naturally infected pigs, especially in weaners. PMID:23971206

  2. Haematological parameters and HbA2 levels in beta-thalassaemia trait with coincident iron deficiency.

    PubMed

    Madan, N; Sikka, M; Sharma, S; Rusia, U

    1998-07-01

    Iron status was estimated in 463 heterozygous beta-thalassaemics to delineate the effect of iron deficiency (ID) on the haematological parameters and expression of HbA2 in these patients. One hundred and twenty six (27.2%) traits had coincident ID. These iron deficient traits had a significantly (p < 0.0002), higher prevalence of anaemia (90.5%) as compared to iron replete traits (71.5%). Mean haemoglobin concentration was significantly lower (p < 0.0001) in beta-thalassaemics with ID (10.7 +/- 1.5) g/al as compared to those without ID (11.6 +/- 1.6 g/dl). Mean MCV and MCH were significantly lowered (p < 0.0001) in patients of beta-thalassaemia trait (BTT) with ID than in these without ID. Mean HbA2 was not significantly different in the two groups of traits and was elevated (> or = 3.5%) in all except one patient. However, mean HbA2/cell was significantly (p < 0.05) lower in traits with ID. The effect of ID in BTT was apparent with significant lowering of haemoglobin concentration and increased prevalence of anaemia. Iron therapy is warranted in iron deficient traits and would help in significantly raising their haemoglobin concentration. Elevation in HbA2 values was striking and could be used with reliability for diagnosis of BTT even in the presence of ID. PMID:9805853

  3. Outbreak of vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium in a haematology unit: risk factor assessment and successful control of the epidemic.

    PubMed

    Timmers, Gert Jan; van der Zwet, Wil C; Simoons-Smit, Ina M; Savelkoul, Paul H M; Meester, Helena H M; Vandenbroucke-Grauls, Christina M J E; Huijgens, Peter C

    2002-03-01

    We describe an outbreak of vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium (VRE) on the haematology ward of a Dutch university hospital. After the occurrence of three consecutive cases of bacteraemia with VRE, strains were genotyped and found to be identical. During the next 4 months an intensive surveillance programme identified 21 additional patients to be colonized with VRE, while two more patients developed bacteraemia. A case-control study was carried out to identify risk factors for VRE acquisition. In comparison with VRE-negative control patients (n=49), cases (n=24) had a longer stay on the ward during the year preceding the outbreak (25.8 versus 10.1 d, P=0.02), more cases with acute myeloid leukaemia [11 versus 4, odds ratio (OR) 9.5, 95% confidence interval (CI95) 2.4-32.2] and higher grades of mucositis (P=0.03). Logistic regression analysis identified antibiotic use within 1 month before admission (OR 13.0, CI95 2.1-80.5, P=0.006) and low albumin levels at baseline (OR 1.2, CI95 1.1-1.3, P=0.02) to be independent risk factors. Four patients with VRE-bacteraemia were successfully treated with quinupristin/dalfopristin (Synercid). Control of the outbreak was achieved by step-wise implementation of intensive infection control measures, which included the cohorting of patients, allocation of nurses and reinforcement of hand hygiene. PMID:11886387

  4. The Effect of Mycotoxin Deoxynivalenol on Haematological and Biochemical Indicators and Histopathological Changes in Rainbow Trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)

    PubMed Central

    Modra, Helena; Blahova, Jana; Franc, Ales; Fictum, Petr; Sevcikova, Marie; Svobodova, Zdenka

    2014-01-01

    Deoxynivalenol (DON), produced by the Fusarium genus, is a major contaminant of cereal grains used in the production of fish feed. The effect of mycotoxin deoxynivalenol on rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) was studied using a commercial feed with the addition of DON in a dose of 2?mg/kg feed. The fish (n = 40) were exposed to the mycotoxin for 23 days. The trout were divided into two groups, control and experimental groups. Control groups were fed a commercial feed naturally contaminated with a low concentration of DON (225??g/kg feed); experimental groups were fed a commercial feed with the addition of DON (1964??g/kg feed). Plasma biochemical and haematological indices, biometric parameters, and histopathological changes were assessed at the end of the experiment. The experimental groups showed significantly lower values in MCH (P < 0.05). In biochemical indices, after 23-day exposure, a significant decrease in glucose, cholesterol (P < 0.05), and ammonia (P < 0.01) was recorded in the experimental group compared to the control group. Our assessment showed no significant changes in biometric parameters. The histopathological examination revealed disorders in the caudal kidney of the exposed fish. The obtained data show the sensitivity of rainbow trout (O. mykiss) to deoxynivalenol. PMID:24729967

  5. Changes in haematology, plasma biochemistry and erythrocyte osmotic fragility of the Nigerian laughing dove (Streptopelia senegalensis) in captivity.

    PubMed

    Azeez, O I; Oyagbemi, A A; Olawuwo, O S; Oyewale, J O

    2013-01-01

    The haematology, plasma biochemistry and erythrocyte osmotic fragility of the Nigerian laughing dove (Streptopelia senegalensis) were studied after 4 and 8 weeks in captivity. At 8 weeks, there was a normocytic hypochromic anaemia characterized by reduced values for packed cell volume (PCV), red blood cell count (RBC), haemoglobin (Hb) concentration, mean corpuscular haemoglobin (MCH) and mean corpuscular haemoglobin concentration (MCHC), but the mean corpuscular volume (MCV) was unaltered compared with the corresponding values at 4 weeks. The platelet count, total white blood cell count, heterophil, lymphocyte and monocyte counts were also lower at 8 weeks than those of the birds sampled at 4 weeks in captivity. There was also a stress induced increased heterophil/lymphocyte ratio and the erythrocytes were more fragile in hypotonic solution in birds sampled at 8 weeks. Plasma aspartate transaminase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and alkaline phosphate (ALP) increased at 8 weeks, though non-significantly, which might have been due to muscle wasting consequent upon decreased muscular activities associated with prolonged captivity. The results suggest that maintaining wild birds in captivity for a prolonged period could be stressful as shown by the heterophil/lymphocytes ratio and reduced erythrocyte osmotic resistance, and could lead to decreases in erythrocyte parameters and muscle wasting. PMID:23955409

  6. Effects of iron supplementation twice a week on attention score and haematologic measures in female high school students

    PubMed Central

    Rezaeian, Akram; Ghayour-Mobarhan, Majid; Mazloum, Seyed Reza; Yavari, Mehri; Jafari, Seyed-Ali

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCTION Iron deficiency, associated with a decline in cognitive function, is the most common nutritional deficiency globally. The present study aimed to identify the impact of weekly iron supplements on the attention function of female students from a high school in North Khorasan Province, Iran. METHODS This was a blind, controlled, clinical trial study, involving 200 female students who were chosen using the stratified randomised sampling method. First, laboratory studies were performed to detect iron consumption limitations. Next, the 200 students were divided randomly and equally into case and control groups. The case group was treated with 50 mg of ferrous sulfate twice a week for 16 weeks. We compared both groups data on attention, iron status and erythrocyte indices. Questionnaires were used to collect demographic data, while clinical data was collected using complete blood count and Toulouse-Piron tests. Data was analysed using descriptive statistics, as well as paired and independent t-tests. RESULTS The mean attention scores of the case and control groups were 104.8 7.0 and 52.7 9.6, respectively (p < 0.001). The mean haemoglobin levels of the two groups were 12.5 0.9 and 11.2 1.0, respectively (p < 0.001). Compared to the control group, the attention scores and haemoglobin concentrations of the case group were found to be improved by approximately 90% and 10%, respectively. CONCLUSION Oral iron supplements (50 mg twice a week for 16 weeks) were able to improve the attention span and haematologic indices of female high school students. PMID:25631970

  7. Effects of growth hormone on growth performance, haematology, metabolites and hormones in iron-deficient veal calves.

    PubMed

    Ceppi, A; Blum, J W

    1994-08-01

    Effects of subcutaneous (s.c.) administration of 50 micrograms/kg body weight of recombinant bovine growth hormone (rbGH) or saline were studied for 11 weeks in 40 intact male veal calves supplied 50 mg or 10 mg of iron (Fe)/kg of milk replacer (MR). Feed intake, average daily gain and growth: feed ratio were reduced in Fe-deficient calves, but not significantly influenced by rbGH. Plasma Fe and haemoglobin concentration, red-cell number and packed cell volume were decreased in Fe-deficient calves (P < 0.05) and rbGH further reduced red-cell number in Fe-deficient calves (P < 0.05). The age-dependent increase of total Fe binding capacity was greater in Fe-deficient calves and enhanced by rbGH (P < 0.05). Plasma urea concentrations increased, whereas glucose (G) and triiodothyronine (T3) levels decreased in Fe-deficient calves. rbGH significantly increased G in calves fed MR containing 50 mg/kg (P < 0.05) and influenced urea concentrations (P < 0.05). Plasma insulin (I) and IGF-I concentrations were lower in Fe-deficient calves (P < 0.05). Plasma GH in the first hours after rbGH injections increased (P < 0.05) to higher levels in calves fed 10 than in those fed 50 mg Fe/kg MR, but incremental changes were comparable. In conclusion, low Fe intake caused haematologic, metabolic and endocrine changes. Plasma IGF-I, I and T3 concentrations after rbGH administration and effects of rbGH on IGF-I in Fe-deficient calves were reduced, even though plasma GH levels were increased. PMID:7863735

  8. Haematological profile of 21 patients with hairy cell leukaemia in a tertiary care centre of north India

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Arvind Kumar; Sachdeva, Man Updesh Singh; Ahluwalia, Jasmina; Das, Reena; Naseem, Shano; Sharma, Prashant; Kumar, Narender; Malhotra, Pankaj; Varma, Neelam; Varma, Subhash

    2015-01-01

    Background & objectives: Hairy cell leukaemia (HCL) is a B cell neoplasm which constitutes around 2 per cent of all the lymphoid leukaemias. It has a characteristic morphology and immunophenotypic profile. It is important to distinguish HCL from other B cell lymphoproliferative disorders due to availability of different chemotherapeutic agents. This study presents clinical, haematological and immunophenotypic profile of patients with HCL seen over a period of four years in a tertiary care hospital in north India. Methods: Twenty one cases of hairy cell leukaemia were analyzed for their clinical details, haemogram, bone marrow examination and immunophenotypic findings. Results: Age of the patients ranged from 28-76 yr with male predominance. Weakness and fever were commonest presentations. Splenomegaly, hepatomegaly, lymphadenopathy were seen in decreasing order of frequency. Anaemia was noted in all 21 patients, leukopenia in 15 and thrombocytopenia in 19 cases. Fourteen patients were pancytopenic. Bone marrow examination showed typical hairy cells in all cases. Immunophenotyping showed expression of CD19, CD20, CD103, CD25 and CD11c in all cases, while positivity was seen for CD79b in 93.7 per cent, kappa light chain restriction in 60 per cent and lambda in 40 per cent cases. Notably, 20 per cent showed CD10 and 12 per cent showed CD23 expression. Interpretation & conclusions: This study reveals some unusual findings in otherwise classical disease entity, like absence of palpable spleen, presence of lymphadenopathy, normal or elevated leukocyte counts, expression of CD10, which at times could be diagnostically challenging. PMID:26609034

  9. Haematological and serum biochemical responses of rabbit does to crude Moringa oleifera leaf extract at gestation and lactation.

    PubMed

    Ewuola, Emmanuel Olubisi; Sokunbi, Olujide Adedamola; Sanni, Kafayat Modupeola; Oyedemi, Oluwaseyi Margaret; Lawal, Temitope Tawakalit

    2015-04-01

    As the plant Moringa oleifera is used in herbal medicines for animals, an experiment was carried out to assess the effects of crude M. oleifera leaf extract (CMOLE) on the blood profile of rabbit does during gestation and lactation. Twenty-four mature does (mean weight 2200 g) housed individually were assigned to four treatments in a completely randomised design. The animals in treatments 2, 3 and 4 were orally given 100, 200 and 300 mL/L CMOLE, respectively, at 2.5 mL/kg body weight at 48 h intervals for 9 weeks. The control animals (treatment 1) were given with water only. All the does were mated with untreated bucks 2 weeks into the experiment. Blood samples were collected at 3rd trimester (day 25 of gestation) and 2nd week of lactation. During gestation, levels of erythrocytes, leukocytes, haematocrit, haemoglobin, lymphocytes, monocytes and eosinophils were not significantly different among the treatments. However, animals on treatment 2 had the highest platelets (148.8 × 10(9)/L), not significantly different from those on treatments 3 (141.5 × 10(9)/L) and 4 (135.0 × 10(9)/L), but higher (p < 0.05) than the control (126.6 × 10(9)/L). Haematological parameters during lactation were not significantly different among the treatments. Of the serum biochemical variables examined during gestation, only urea was higher (p < 0.05) in control rabbits than those administered with 300 mL/L CMOLE. In lactation, only cholesterol was significantly (p < 0.05) reduced with an increase in CMOLE concentration. This suggests that Moringa has a hypocholesterolemic effect and is safe for use up to 300 mL/L for both nutritional and medicinal purposes. PMID:25686552

  10. Understanding the impact of pre-analytic variation in haematological and clinical chemistry analytes on the power of association studies

    PubMed Central

    Gaye, Amadou; Peakman, Tim; Tobin, Martin D; Burton, Paul R

    2014-01-01

    Background: Errors, introduced through poor assessment of physical measurement or because of inconsistent or inappropriate standard operating procedures for collecting, processing, storing or analysing haematological and biochemistry analytes, have a negative impact on the power of association studies using the collected data. A dataset from UK Biobank was used to evaluate the impact of pre-analytical variability on the power of association studies. Methods: First, we estimated the proportion of the variance in analyte concentration that may be attributed to delay in processing using variance component analysis. Then, we captured the proportion of heterogeneity between subjects that is due to variability in the rate of degradation of analytes, by fitting a mixed model. Finally, we evaluated the impact of delay in processing on the power of a nested case-control study using a power calculator that we developed and which takes into account uncertainty in outcome and explanatory variables measurements. Results: The results showed that (i) the majority of the analytes investigated in our analysis, were stable over a period of 36?h and (ii) some analytes were unstable and the resulting pre-analytical variation substantially decreased the power of the study, under the settings we investigated. Conclusions: It is important to specify a limited delay in processing for analytes that are very sensitive to delayed assay. If the rate of degradation of an analyte varies between individuals, any delay introduces a bias which increases with increasing delay. If pre-analytical variation occurring due to delays in sample processing is ignored, it affects adversely the power of the studies that use the data. PMID:25085103

  11. Significance of the CC chemokine RANTES in patients with haematological malignancy: results from a prospective observational study.

    PubMed

    Ellis, Michael; al-Ramadi, Basel; Hedstrm, Ulla; Frampton, Chris; Alizadeh, Hussain; Kristensen, Jorgen

    2005-02-01

    Regulated on activation, normal T cell expressed and secreted (RANTES) serum concentrations were explored in a prospective observational study of haematological-malignancy patients undergoing chemotherapy. During systemic inflammatory response syndrome/sepsis or severe sepsis/septic shock mean concentrations were 3394 or 2939 pg/ml, respectively, significantly lower than those prior to fever (6031 pg/ml) (P < 0.01) or at bone-marrow recovery (6433 pg/ml, P < 0.001). Levels during febrile-bacteraemia were lower compared with febrile-non-bacteraemia (3022 pg/ml vs. 5111 pg/ml, respectively, P < 0.01). Sixty-three of 67 infection episodes resolved despite low RANTES concentrations, suggesting RANTES is not a prerequisite for recovering from most infection events. However, in four patients dying from septic shock associated with aspergillosis, candidosis, pneumonia or infectious colitis, RANTES concentrations were persistently and extremely low (1629 pg/ml), compared with four matched patients who recovered (6780 pg/ml). RANTES concentrations were highly correlated to platelet counts [median correlation coefficient 0.82 (inter-quartile range, 0.72-0.89)]. RANTES concentrations rose 4.5 d before platelet counts (P < 0.001), suggesting an additional extra-platelet source for RANTES. A nested mixed model regression analysis demonstrated that platelet level was the only independent variable associated with RANTES concentration (P < 0.001) among steroids, haematopoietic-colony-stimulating-factor, recombinant-human-interleukin-11, sepsis status, and neutropenia. A significant 'hypo-RANTES' serum environment occurs following chemotherapy, is driven by thrombocytopenia, but does not affect the ability of most patients to recover from infection. PMID:15686455

  12. Mortality, morbidity, and haematological results from a cohort of long-term workers involved in 1,3-butadiene monomer production.

    PubMed Central

    Cowles, S R; Tsai, S P; Snyder, P J; Ross, C E

    1994-01-01

    A retrospective mortality analysis and prospective morbidity and haematological analyses were performed for Shell Deer Park Manufacturing Complex (DPMC) male employees who worked in jobs with potential exposure to 1,3-butadiene from 1948 to 1989. 614 employees qualified for the mortality study (1948-89), 438 of those were still employed during the period of the morbidity study (1982-9), and 429 of those had haematological data available for analysis. Industrial hygiene data from 1979 to 1992 showed that most butadiene exposures did not exceed 10 ppm (eight-hour time weighted average (8 hour TWA)), and most were below 1 ppm, with an arithmetic mean of 3.5 ppm. 24 deaths occurred during the mortality study period. For all causes of death, the standardised mortality ratio (SMR) was 48 (95% confidence interval (95% CI) = 31-72), and the all cancer SMR was 34 (95% CI = 9-87). There were only two deaths due to lung cancer (SMR 42, 95% CI = 5-151) and none due to lymphohaematopoietic cancer (expected = 1.2). Morbidity (illness absence) events of six days or more for the 438 butadiene employees were compared with the rest of the complex. No cause of morbidity was in excess for this group; the all cause standardised morbidity ratio (SMbR) was 85 (95% CI = 77-93) and the all neoplasms SMbR was 51 (95% CI = 22-100). Haematological results for the 429 with laboratory data were compared with results for the rest of the complex. No significant differences occurred between the two groups and the distributions of results between butadiene and non-butadiene groups were virtually identical. These results suggest that butadiene exposures at concentrations common at DPMC in the past 10-20 years do not pose a health hazard to employees. PMID:8199682

  13. Variation in haematological parameters in children less than five years of age with asymptomatic Plasmodium infection: implication for malaria field studies.

    PubMed

    Gansane, Adama; Ouedraogo, Issa Nebie; Henry, Noelie Bere; Soulama, Issiaka; Ouedraogo, Esperance; Yaro, Jean-Baptiste; Diarra, Amidou; Benjamin, Sombie; Konate, Amadou Tidiani; Tiono, Alfred; Sirima, Sodiomon Bienvenu

    2013-08-01

    During the season of high malaria transmission, most children are infected by Plasmodium, which targets red blood cells (RBCs), affecting haematological parameters. To describe these variations, we examined the haematological profiles of two groups of children living in a malaria-endemic area. A cross-sectional survey was conducted at the peak of the malaria transmission season in a rural area of Burkina Faso. After informed consent and clinical examination, blood samples were obtained from the participants for malaria diagnosis and a full blood count. Of the 414 children included in the analysis, 192 were not infected with Plasmodium, whereas 222 were asymptomatic carriers of Plasmodium infection. The mean age of the infected children was 41.8 months (range of 26.4-57.2) compared to 38.8 months (range of 22.4-55.2) for the control group (p = 0.06). The asymptomatic infected children tended to have a significantly lower mean haemoglobin level (10.8 g/dL vs. 10.4 g/dL; p < 0.001), mean lymphocyte count (4592/L vs. 5141/L; p = 0.004), mean platelet count (266 x 10/L vs. 385 x 10/L; p < 0.001) and mean RBC count (4.388 x 10(6)/L vs. 4.158 x 10(6)/L; p < 0.001) and a higher mean monocyte count (1403/L vs. 1192/L; p < 0.001) compared to the control group. Special attention should be applied when interpreting haematological parameters and evaluating immune responses in asymptomatic infected children living in malaria-endemic areas and enrolled in vaccine trials. PMID:23903982

  14. Variation in haematological parameters in children less than five years of age with asymptomatic Plasmodium infection: implication for malaria field studies

    PubMed Central

    Gansane, Adama; Ouedraogo, Issa Nebie; Henry, Noelie Bere; Soulama, Issiaka; Ouedraogo, Esperance; Yaro, Jean-Baptiste; Diarra, Amidou; Benjamin, Sombie; Konate, Amadou Tidiani; Tiono, Alfred; Sirima, Sodiomon Bienvenu

    2013-01-01

    During the season of high malaria transmission, most children are infected by Plasmodium, which targets red blood cells (RBCs), affecting haematological parameters. To describe these variations, we examined the haematological profiles of two groups of children living in a malaria-endemic area. A cross-sectional survey was conducted at the peak of the malaria transmission season in a rural area of Burkina Faso. After informed consent and clinical examination, blood samples were obtained from the participants for malaria diagnosis and a full blood count. Of the 414 children included in the analysis, 192 were not infected with Plasmodium, whereas 222 were asymptomatic carriers of Plasmodium infection. The mean age of the infected children was 41.8 months (range of 26.4-57.2) compared to 38.8 months (range of 22.4-55.2) for the control group (p = 0.06). The asymptomatic infected children tended to have a significantly lower mean haemoglobin level (10.8 g/dL vs. 10.4 g/dL; p < 0.001), mean lymphocyte count (4592/L vs. 5141/L; p = 0.004), mean platelet count (266 x 103/L vs. 385 x 103/L; p < 0.001) and mean RBC count (4.388 x 106/L vs. 4.158 x 106/L; p < 0.001) and a higher mean monocyte count (1403/L vs. 1192/L; p < 0.001) compared to the control group. Special attention should be applied when interpreting haematological parameters and evaluating immune responses in asymptomatic infected children living in malaria-endemic areas and enrolled in vaccine trials. PMID:23903982

  15. Biochemical and haematological assessment of toxic effects of the leaf ethanol extract of Petroselinum crispum (Mill) Nyman ex A.W. Hill (Parsley) in rats

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Petroselinum crispum, a bright green biennial shrub is widely used traditionally as a food additive and herbal remedies for many ailments. This study therefore aimed to assess the toxic effects of its leaf extract using some biochemical, haematological parameters. Methods The toxic effects were assessed by quantifying liver enzymes such as serum aspartate amino transferase (AST), alanine amino transferase (ALT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), total serum protein and liver weight. Effects on haematological parameters were assessed by analysis of parked cell volume (PCV), red blood cell count (RBC), white blood cells (WBC) and haemoglobin (Hb) concentrations. Histopathological studies were done on the liver and kidneys. Results The extract caused significant increase in serum activity of alanine amino transferase and blood urea nitrogen (BUN) levels at the dose of 1000mg/kg. Other biochemical and haematological parameters were not affected at lower doses. Conversely, the liver weight was not affected after eight weeks of treatment at the dose levels studied. The organs obtained for pathological study, were structurally unchanged under histopathological evaluation at lower doses but inflammatory and necrotic features were observed at doses???1000mg/kg. Conclusion The results indicate that the leaf ethanol extract of Petroselinum crispum was hepatotoxic and nephrotoxic at continued oral doses equal to or more than 1000mg/kg, but no obvious toxicity when used at lower doses. Therefore, there should be caution in its administration to avoid overdosing and known interaction with some medications. In addition, the plant should be kept away from pets and domestic animals and should not be cultivated on soil irrigated with waste water due to their ability to bio-accumulate toxic metals. PMID:23557241

  16. Serum cortisol and haematological, biochemical and antioxidant enzyme variables in horse blood sampled in a slaughterhouse lairage, immediately before stunning and during exsanguination.

    PubMed

    Nemec Svete, A; ?ebulj-Kadunc, N; Frange, R; Kruljc, P

    2012-08-01

    The aim of the study was to determine changes of serum cortisol and biochemical, haematological and antioxidant enzyme variables in the blood of horses sampled during the pre-slaughter period (in the lairage and in the stunning box) and during exsanguination. A total of 24 Slovenian warm-blooded horses were observed. Blood samples for determination of serum cortisol and biochemical, haematological (red blood cell count, haematocrit, haemaglobin concentration) and antioxidant enzyme (whole blood superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase) variables were collected by venipuncture of the left jugular vein in the lairage pen, 60 min before stunning (lairage) and immediately before stunning (stunning box). At exsanguination, blood samples were collected from the wound at the time of jugular vein sticking. During blood collection in the lairage pen and in the stunning box, horses were gently restrained with a halter. They were stunned using a penetrating captive bolt pistol impelled by air and were bled by jugular vein sticking. Horses were physically active in the lairage pen and in the race before entering the stunning box. After stunning, the horses showed paddling movements with their legs. In horses, the plasma lactate and glucose concentrations, the serum potassium concentration, the activities of the serum muscle enzymes aspartate aminotransferase and creatine kinase, and values of most of the other biochemical (Table 1) and haematological variables (Table 2), were significantly (P < 0.05) higher at exsanguination, than in blood sampled while they were in the lairage and in the stunning box. The serum concentrations of cortisol and chloride and the activities of alanine aminotransferase and antioxidant enzymes were not significantly different between the pre-slaughter period and exsanguination. All selected blood variables were not significantly different between the lairge and the stunning box sampling time, indicating no physiological stress responses of the investigated horses to stressors, such as novelty of the pre-slaughter environment and handling, present in the slaughterhouse between the lairage and the stunning box. However, the significantly higher values, at exsanguination, for the plasma lactate and glucose concentrations, serum muscle enzyme activities and haematological variables, than during the pre-slaughter period, might partially be attributed to stimulation of the sympathetic nervous system, caused by stunning and bleeding. PMID:23217233

  17. Changes in clinical values of cattle infected with Clostridium chauvoei CH3 strain and a local Kad1 strain. Haematological values.

    PubMed

    el Sawi Mohamed, O; Tag el Din, M H; el Sanousi, S M

    1989-01-01

    Clostridium chauvoei CH3 and Kad1 strains were found to cause marked changes in the blood parameters during the course of blackleg disease. These changes displayed by CH3 were found to be more marked than the local Kad1 strain. Results of changes in the haematological values in calves infected with blackleg organisms, showed an increase in RBC, PCV, Hb and the total leukocyte count. MCHC and MCH remained within normal range values, however, a terminal significant increase of MCV was obtained. Thrombocytes showed a steady drop after infection to the time of death of the animals. PMID:2626568

  18. Staging and haematological abnormalities of HIV-infected persons in the rural Free State Province of South Africa

    PubMed Central

    van Wyk, Hendrik J.; Walsh, Corinna M.; van der Merwe, Lynette J.; van Zyl, Sanet

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Objectives The objectives of this study were firstly to determine HIV (human immunodeficiency virus) prevalence in the rural Free State, secondly to classify the stages of HIV by utilising CD4 (cluster of differentiation 4) counts, and thirdly to measure differences in haematological abnormalities between HIV-uninfected and HIV-infected participants. Method Blood specimens were obtained from 552 participants in Springfontein (36.3%), Trompsburg (30.1%) and Philippolis (33.5%). Participants were between 2564 years of age, of which 28.1% were male (mean age 47.3 years) and 71.9% were female (mean age 46.0 years). The primary screening for HIV status was performed using the Enzygnost HIV Integral II Ag/ Ab test and confirmed by the Vironostica HIV Uni-Form II Ag/Ab test. Full blood counts were performed on all participants, but CD4 counts were only performed on HIV-positive serum. Results The overall prevalence of HIV was 17.1%, with the peak prevalence in female participants (41.3%) occurring in the age group of 3140 years, and in male participants (37.9%) in the age group of 4150 years. Most HIV-uninfected participants (40.9%) were 5160 years of age, whilst most HIV-infected participants were 3140 years (35.6%) of age. The lowest mean CD4 count (276 cells/mm3) was observed in the age group 4150 years, which was significantly lower than a mean count of 459 cells/mm3 in the age group 3140 years (p ? 0.05). Haemoglobin was significantly reduced in HIV-infected male participants (p < 0.01) and female participants (p < 0.000 1), as ware white blood cell counts (p < 0.001), neutrofil counts (p < 0.005) and lymphocyte counts (p < 0.005). Peak prevalence of HIV in terms of age occurred later (between 3140 years) than previously described and was reflected by a delayed low CD4 count (4150 years). Conclusion The low CD4 counts and anaemia were probably indicative of a generally ill study population. Participants in need of medical care should be identified and referred for management and follow-up.

  19. White Blood Cell Count in Women: Relation to Inflammatory Biomarkers, Haematological Profiles, Visceral Adiposity, and Other Cardiovascular Risk Factors

    PubMed Central

    Farhangi, Mahdieh Abbasalizad; Keshavarz, Seyyed-Ali; Eshraghian, Mohammadreza; Ostadrahimi, Alireza

    2013-01-01

    The role of white blood cell (WBC) count in pathogenesis of diabetes, cardiovascular disease, and obesity-related disorders has been reported earlier. Recent studies revealed that higher WBC contributes to atherosclerotic progression and impaired fasting glucose. However, it is unknown whether variations in WBC and haematologic profiles can occur in healthy obese individuals. The aim of this study is to further evaluate the influence of obesity on WBC count, inflammatory biomarkers, and metabolic risk factors in healthy women to establish a relationship among variables analyzed. The sample of the present study consisted of 84 healthy women with mean age of 35.566.83 years. They were categorized into two groups based on their body mass index (BMI): obese group with BMI >30 kg/m2 and non-obese group with BMI <30 kg/m2. We evaluated the relationship between WBC and platelet count (PLT) with serum interleukin 6 (IL-6), C-reactive protein (CRP), angiotensin ? (Ang ?), body fat percentage (BF %), waist-circumference (WC), and lipid profile. WBC, PLT, CRP, and IL-6 in obese subjects were significantly higher than in non-obese subjects (p< 0.05). The mean WBC count in obese subjects was 6.40.3 (109/L) compared to 4.40.3 (109/L) in non-obese subjects (p=0.035). WBC correlated with BF% (r=0.31, p=0.004), CRP (r=0.25, P=0.03), WC (r=0.22, p=0.04), angiotensin ? (r=0.24, p=0.03), triglyceride (r=0.24, p=0.03), and atherogenic index of plasma (AIP) levels (r=0.3, p=0.028) but not with IL-6. Platelet count was also associated with WC and waist-to-hip ratio (p<0.05). Haemoglobin and haematocrit were in consistent relationship with LDL-cholesterol (p<0.05). In conclusion, obesity was associated with higher WBC count and inflammatory parameters. There was also a positive relationship between WBC count and several inflammatory and metabolic risk factors in healthy women. PMID:23617205

  20. Haematological and biochemical parameters and tissue accumulations of cadmium in Oreochromis niloticus exposed to various concentrations of cadmium chloride.

    PubMed

    Al-Asgah, Nasser A; Abdel-Warith, Abdel-Wahab A; Younis, El-Sayed M; Allam, Hassan Y

    2015-09-01

    Oreochromis niloticus, weighing 36.451.12g were exposed to 10%, 20% and 30% of the LC50 of CdCl2 which represents treatments (T1)1.68, (T2)3.36 and (T3)5.03mg/l, respectively, for a period of 10, 20 and 30days. It was found that, compared to a control group reading of 0.190.03?g/g dry weight, accumulation of Cd in the gills was significantly (p<0.05) increased in samples ranging between 7.640.86 and 61.730.82?g/g dry weight from T1 at 10days to T3 at 30days. The accumulation of Cd in the liver, meanwhile, was also observed to significantly increase (p<0.05) with increasing time and concentrations with results ranging between 3.210.12 and 181.611.32 compared to the control group results of 0.290.04?g/g dry weight. Although muscles exhibited lower levels of accumulation than the gills and liver they still showed the same pattern of increase compared to the control group, with a significant difference ranging between 0.320.02 and 2.160.08 compared to the control group results of 0.030.001?g/g dry weight. Also, haematological parameters such as red blood cells (RBCs), haemoglobin (Hb) and haematocrit (Hct) were reduced in fish exposed to Cd at all periods, with significant differences (p<0.05). Plasma glucose concentration showed a significant increase. Total protein levels of fish showed a significant reduction (p>0.05) for all exposed treatments. Also, the total lipid level increased significantly as fish were exposed to increasing cadmium concentrations, compared to control fish. Finally, the activities of aspartate aminotransferase (AST IU/l) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT IU/l) showed a significant increase (p<0.05) with increasing time and concentrations. PMID:26288556

  1. Effect of feeding cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) root meal on growth performance, hydrocyanide intake and haematological parameters of broiler chicks.

    PubMed

    Akapo, Abiola Olajetemi; Oso, Abimbola Oladele; Bamgbose, Adeyemi Mustapha; Sanwo, Kehinde A; Jegede, Adebayo Vincent; Sobayo, Richard Abayomi; Idowu, Olusegun Mark; Fan, Juexin; Li, Lili; Olorunsola, Rotimi A

    2014-10-01

    The effect of feeding cassava root meal on growth performance, hydrocyanide intake, haematological indices and serum thiocyanate concentration of broiler chicks was investigated using 300-day-old male broilers. There were five dietary treatments arranged in a 2??2?+?1 factorial arrangement of two processing methods of cassava root (peeled and unpeeled) included at two levels (100 and 200 g/kg) plus a control diet (maize-based diet, containing no cassava root). Each treatment was replicated six times with ten birds per replicate. The feeding trial lasted for 28 days. Control-fed birds had the highest overall (P?

  2. Haematological and biochemical parameters and tissue accumulations of cadmium in Oreochromis niloticus exposed to various concentrations of cadmium chloride

    PubMed Central

    Al-Asgah, Nasser A.; Abdel-Warith, Abdel-Wahab A.; Younis, El-Sayed M.; Allam, Hassan Y.

    2015-01-01

    Oreochromis niloticus, weighing 36.45 ± 1.12 g were exposed to 10%, 20% and 30% of the LC50 of CdCl2 which represents treatments (T1)1.68, (T2)3.36 and (T3)5.03 mg/l, respectively, for a period of 10, 20 and 30 days. It was found that, compared to a control group reading of 0.19 ± 0.03 μg/g dry weight, accumulation of Cd in the gills was significantly (p < 0.05) increased in samples ranging between 7.64 ± 0.86 and 61.73 ± 0.82 μg/g dry weight from T1 at 10 days to T3 at 30 days. The accumulation of Cd in the liver, meanwhile, was also observed to significantly increase (p < 0.05) with increasing time and concentrations with results ranging between 3.21 ± 0.12 and 181.61 ± 1.32 compared to the control group results of 0.29 ± 0.04 μg/g dry weight. Although muscles exhibited lower levels of accumulation than the gills and liver they still showed the same pattern of increase compared to the control group, with a significant difference ranging between 0.32 ± 0.02 and 2.16 ± 0.08 compared to the control group results of 0.03 ± 0.001 μg/g dry weight. Also, haematological parameters such as red blood cells (RBCs), haemoglobin (Hb) and haematocrit (Hct) were reduced in fish exposed to Cd at all periods, with significant differences (p < 0.05). Plasma glucose concentration showed a significant increase. Total protein levels of fish showed a significant reduction (p > 0.05) for all exposed treatments. Also, the total lipid level increased significantly as fish were exposed to increasing cadmium concentrations, compared to control fish. Finally, the activities of aspartate aminotransferase (AST IU/l) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT IU/l) showed a significant increase (p < 0.05) with increasing time and concentrations. PMID:26288556

  3. The use of body condition and haematology to detect widespread threatening processes in sleepy lizards (Tiliqua rugosa) in two agricultural environments

    PubMed Central

    Smyth, Anita K.; Smee, Elizabeth; Godfrey, Stephanie S.; Crowther, Mathew; Phalen, David

    2014-01-01

    Agricultural practices, including habitat alteration and application of agricultural chemicals, can impact wildlife resulting in their decline. Determining which of these practices are contributing to declines is essential if the declines are to be reversed. In this study, the health of two geographically separated sleepy lizard (Tiliqua rugosa) populations was compared between a rangeland environment and cropping environment using linear body size index (LBSI) and haematology. Animals in the cropping site were smaller, suggesting genetic differences as the result of geographical isolation. The animals in the cropping site had a lower LBSI and many were experiencing a regenerative anaemia. The anaemia was postulated to be the cause of the low LBSI. The anaemia appeared to be the result of haemolysis and was likely to be caused by exposure to agricultural chemicals applied in the cropping site but not the rangeland site. Elevated white blood cell counts in lizards in the rangeland site suggested that they were experiencing an inflammatory disease of possible ecological significance. Together, these results demonstrate the value of combining physical and haematological parameters when studying the impact of agricultural practices on wildlife. They also show that reptiles may be useful as sentinel species for livestock and humans. PMID:26064571

  4. A Phase 3, Randomized, Placebo-controlled Trial of Filgrastim in Patients with Haematological Malignancies Undergoing Matched-related Allogeneic Bone Marrow Transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Ernst, Peter; Bacigalupo, Andrea; Ringdn, Olle; Ruutu, Tapani; Kolb, Hans J; Lawrinson, Susan; Skacel, Tomas

    2008-01-01

    Introduction Recombinant granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) may aid engraftment post high-dose chemo-/radiotherapy in patients with haematological malignancies undergoing allogeneic bone marrow transplantation (BMT); however, the effects of G-CSF on graft-versus-host disease (GvHD), relapse, and survival are not well defined. Methods In this double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled, multicentre, phase 3 study, the effects of the G-CSF Filgrastim on neutrophil and platelet recovery, and on clinical outcomes were evaluated. Patients (1255 years) receiving an allogeneic BMT for a haematological malignancy were randomized to receive Filgrastim 5 g/kg or placebo. Study treatment was continued until patients achieved an absolute neutrophil count (ANC) ?0.5 109/L, or until day 42. Results Fifty-one patients (Filgrastim, N = 25; placebo, N = 26) were evaluable. Patients treated with Filgrastim had significantly faster engraftment with ANC ?0.5 109/L being achieved after a median (range) of 15.0 (1.022.0) days vs. 19.0 (15.028.0) days for placebo (P< 0.0001). The incidence of GvHD was comparable for both groups. During the limited follow-up (2 years), Filgrastim had no adverse effect on mortality and possibly reduced the rate of relapse. PMID:19639030

  5. A Phase 3, Randomized, Placebo-controlled Trial of Filgrastim in Patients with Haematological Malignancies Undergoing Matched-related Allogeneic Bone Marrow Transplantation.

    PubMed

    Ernst, Peter; Bacigalupo, Andrea; Ringdn, Olle; Ruutu, Tapani; Kolb, Hans J; Lawrinson, Susan; Skacel, Tomas

    2008-12-01

    INTRODUCTION: Recombinant granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) may aid engraftment post high-dose chemo-/radiotherapy in patients with haematological malignancies undergoing allogeneic bone marrow transplantation (BMT); however, the effects of G-CSF on graft-versus-host disease (GvHD), relapse, and survival are not well defined. METHODS: In this double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled, multicentre, phase 3 study, the effects of the G-CSF Filgrastim on neutrophil and platelet recovery, and on clinical outcomes were evaluated. Patients (12-55 years) receiving an allogeneic BMT for a haematological malignancy were randomized to receive Filgrastim 5 microg/kg or placebo. Study treatment was continued until patients achieved an absolute neutrophil count (ANC) >/=0.5 x 10(9)/L, or until day 42. RESULTS: Fifty-one patients (Filgrastim, N = 25; placebo, N = 26) were evaluable. Patients treated with Filgrastim had significantly faster engraftment with ANC >/=0.5 x 10(9)/L being achieved after a median (range) of 15.0 (1.0-22.0) days vs. 19.0 (15.0-28.0) days for placebo (P< 0.0001). The incidence of GvHD was comparable for both groups. During the limited follow-up (2 years), Filgrastim had no adverse effect on mortality and possibly reduced the rate of relapse. PMID:19639030

  6. Facilitating Surveillance of Pulmonary Invasive Mold Diseases in Patients with Haematological Malignancies by Screening Computed Tomography Reports Using Natural Language Processing

    PubMed Central

    Ananda-Rajah, Michelle R.; Martinez, David; Slavin, Monica A.; Cavedon, Lawrence; Dooley, Michael; Cheng, Allen; Thursky, Karin A.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Prospective surveillance of invasive mold diseases (IMDs) in haematology patients should be standard of care but is hampered by the absence of a reliable laboratory prompt and the difficulty of manual surveillance. We used a high throughput technology, natural language processing (NLP), to develop a classifier based on machine learning techniques to screen computed tomography (CT) reports supportive for IMDs. Patients and Methods We conducted a retrospective case-control study of CT reports from the clinical encounter and up to 12-weeks after, from a random subset of 79 of 270 case patients with 33 probable/proven IMDs by international definitions, and 68 of 257 uninfected-control patients identified from 3 tertiary haematology centres. The classifier was trained and tested on a reference standard of 449 physician annotated reports including a development subset (n?=?366), from a total of 1880 reports, using 10-fold cross validation, comparing binary and probabilistic predictions to the reference standard to generate sensitivity, specificity and area under the receiver-operating-curve (ROC). Results For the development subset, sensitivity/specificity was 91% (95%CI 86% to 94%)/79% (95%CI 71% to 84%) and ROC area was 0.92 (95%CI 89% to 94%). Of 25 (5.6%) missed notifications, only 4 (0.9%) reports were regarded as clinically significant. Conclusion CT reports are a readily available and timely resource that may be exploited by NLP to facilitate continuous prospective IMD surveillance with translational benefits beyond surveillance alone. PMID:25250675

  7. The use of body condition and haematology to detect widespread threatening processes in sleepy lizards (Tiliqua rugosa) in two agricultural environments.

    PubMed

    Smyth, Anita K; Smee, Elizabeth; Godfrey, Stephanie S; Crowther, Mathew; Phalen, David

    2014-12-01

    Agricultural practices, including habitat alteration and application of agricultural chemicals, can impact wildlife resulting in their decline. Determining which of these practices are contributing to declines is essential if the declines are to be reversed. In this study, the health of two geographically separated sleepy lizard (Tiliqua rugosa) populations was compared between a rangeland environment and cropping environment using linear body size index (LBSI) and haematology. Animals in the cropping site were smaller, suggesting genetic differences as the result of geographical isolation. The animals in the cropping site had a lower LBSI and many were experiencing a regenerative anaemia. The anaemia was postulated to be the cause of the low LBSI. The anaemia appeared to be the result of haemolysis and was likely to be caused by exposure to agricultural chemicals applied in the cropping site but not the rangeland site. Elevated white blood cell counts in lizards in the rangeland site suggested that they were experiencing an inflammatory disease of possible ecological significance. Together, these results demonstrate the value of combining physical and haematological parameters when studying the impact of agricultural practices on wildlife. They also show that reptiles may be useful as sentinel species for livestock and humans. PMID:26064571

  8. Haematological studies on vegans.

    PubMed

    Sanders, T A; Ellis, F R; Dickerson, J W

    1978-07-01

    1. The concentrations of vitamin B12 and folate in the serum and folate in the erythrocytes were determined and full blood counts made on a series of caucasian vegans and omnivore controls. 2. The blood counts and films were normal in all the vegans and no subject had a haemoblobin concentration below the lower limit of normality. 3. Although within the normal range, male but not female vegans had lower values for erythrocyte counts and higher values for mean corpuscular volume and mean corpuscular haemoglobin than their controls regardless of whether they were taking vitamin B12 supplements or not. 4. The mean serum vitamin B12 concentration was lower in the vegans not taking vitamin B12 supplements and in those using foods supplemented with the vitamin than in the controls, but in no subject was it below 80 ng/1. 5. The serum folate concentrations were higher in the vegans than in their controls. The mean value for erythrocyte folate tended to be greater in the vegans not taking vitamin B12 supplements. No subject had an erythrocyte folate concentration of less than 100 microgram/1. 6. It is concluded that megaloblastic anaemia is very rare in caucasian vegans and that a diet consisting entirely of plant foods is generally adequate to promote normal blood formation providing it is composed of a mixture of unrefined cereals, pulses, nuts, fruit and vegetables and is supplemented with vitamin B12. PMID:667007

  9. The Socio-Demographic and Clinical Factors Associated with Quality of Life among Patients with Haematological Cancer in a Large Government Hospital in Malaysia

    PubMed Central

    Priscilla, Das; Hamidin, Awang; Azhar, Md Zain; Noorjan, Kon; Salmiah, Md Said; Bahariah, Khalid

    2011-01-01

    Background: The paper examined the quality of life of haematological cancer patients according to their socio-demographic profiles and clinical diagnoses. Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted at the tertiary referral centre of Ampang Hospital, Kuala Lumpur, involving 105 patients. The European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer Quality of Life (EORTC QLQ-C30) questionnaire was used to measure their quality of life. Results: The study involved patients diagnosed with all types of haematological cancer, including non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL), acute myelogenous leukaemia (AML), acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL), Hodgkin lymphoma (HL), and multiple myeloma (MM), with a response rate of 83.3%. The patients with ALL, HL, without NHL, and without MM were younger than other patients. There were significant differences in quality of life scores in different socio-demographic groups and types of cancer diagnosis. The global quality of life of the female patients was much better than that of the male patients. Patients who were 40 years old or younger had a better global quality of life and physical functioning, as well as fewer symptoms of constipation, nausea, and vomiting. Employed patients were in less pain but showed greater impairments of cognitive function than did unemployed patients. Patients who earned a monthly wage of RM1000 or less had reduced physical function, more symptoms of pain, and more financial difficulties compared with patients who earned more. Patients with AML tended to have better physical functioning than did patients with MM, whose physical functioning was impaired. Comparatively, more symptoms of dyspnoea were found in ALL and HL patients than in other types of lymphoma. Compared with other patients, those with ALL had a greater loss of appetite, and other lymphoma patients had fewer symptoms of pain. Patients with NHL had impaired role functioning and more constipation compared with other patients. The results were all statistically significant (P < 0.05). Conclusion: The quality of life of haematological cancer patients is affected by socio-demographic factors and clinical diagnoses. Efforts should be made to improve the overall quality of life of these patients. PMID:22135601

  10. Orlando Magic: report from the 57th meeting of the American Society of Haematology, 5–7 December 2015, Orlando, USA

    PubMed Central

    Mazzarella, Luca

    2016-01-01

    The 57th American Society of Haematology (ASH) meeting held in Orlando, FL was certainly the year when myeloma management changed for good, with a plethora of newly Food and Drug Administration (FDA)-approved drugs showing impressive outcome improvements and the introduction of new techniques for disease monitoring. Also, chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) T cells continued their triumphal march, consolidating their success in lymphoma and chronic lymhocytic leukaemia (CLL) and venturing into new fields such as again multiple myeloma. Some experimental drugs showed long-awaited results (midostaurin in FLT3-mutated acute myeloid leukaemia (AML)) and some brand new drugs showed promising results in the clinic after extensive preclinical studies, such as those targeting new epigenetic factors (histone methyltransferases) and apoptosis. PMID:26823681

  11. Object-oriented business process analysis of the cooperative soft tissue sarcoma trial of the german society for paediatric oncology and haematology (GPOH).

    PubMed

    Weber, R; Knaup, P; Knietitg, R; Haux, R; Merzweiler, A; Mludek, V; Schilling, F H; Wiedemann, T

    2001-01-01

    The German Society for Paediatric Oncology and Haematology (GPOH) runs nation-wide multicentre clinical trials to improve the treatment of children suffering from malignant diseases. We want to provide methods and tools to support the centres of these trials in developing trial specific modules for the computer-based DOcumentation System for Paediatric Oncology (DOSPO). For this we carried out an object-oriented business process analysis for the Cooperative Soft Tissue Sarcoma Trial at the Olgahospital Stuttgart for Child and Adolescent Medicine. The result is a comprehensive business process model consisting of UML-diagrams and use case specifications. We recommend the object-oriented business process analysis as a method for the definition of requirements in information processing projects in the field of clinical trials in general. For this our model can serve as basis because it slightly can be adjusted to each type of clinical trial. PMID:11604706

  12. Epidemiology of hemoglobinopathies and thalassemias in individuals referred to the haematology research centre, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, Iran from 2006 to 2011.

    PubMed

    Haghpanah, Sezaneh; Ramzi, Mani; Zakerinia, Maryam; Nourani Khojasteh, Habib; Haghshenas, Mansour; Rezaei, Narges; Moayed, Vida; Rezaei, Alireza; Karimi, Mehran

    2014-01-01

    Hemoglobinopathies and thalassemias are the most frequent genetic hereditary disorders with an increasing global health burden, especially in low- and middle-income countries. We aimed to determine the epidemiologic pattern of hemoglobinopathies and thalassemias in individuals referred to the Haematology Research Centre, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, Iran, which is the most important referral center in Southern Iran during 2006 to 2011. The most frequent abnormality was ?-thalassemia (?-thal) minor (24.0%), followed by ?-thalassemia (?-thal) trait (10.0%), hemoglobin (Hb) S trait (4.0%) and Hb D-Punjab trait (4.0%). Because this center is a referral center, we detected a higher prevalence compared to the normal population; however, these data could help policymakers and health service providers to better programming for prevention of births affected with Hb disorders. PMID:24941048

  13. Rise of the mutants: report from the 19th conference of the European Haematology Association, Milan, 12–15 June 2014

    PubMed Central

    Mazzarella, Luca

    2014-01-01

    At the 19th conference of the European Haematology Association in Milan, we saw the true and dramatic changes brought about by the integration of extensive genomic information in clinical practice, and the dilemmas that accompany such a rapid increase in knowledge. Each disease is sliced more and more into smaller pieces, each with its own better-determined outcome and treatment. We also observed the rise of mutant-specific epigenetic agents, which benefit from knowing the underlying genetic abnormality to specifically assign an epigenetic drug where it is needed. In contrast to the ‘one mutation, one drug’ approach, others are pursuing the search for drugs targeting pathways fundamental for the survival of all or most cancer cells, sometimes looking at more ‘exotic’ pathways like neddylation or nuclear export. PMID:25183998

  14. Impact of portable air filtration units on exposure of haematology-oncology patients to airborne Aspergillus fumigatus spores under field conditions.

    PubMed

    Engelhart, S; Hanfland, J; Glasmacher, A; Krizek, L; Schmidt-Wolf, I G H; Exner, M

    2003-08-01

    We undertook a one-year study to investigate the impact of the NSA model 7100A/B portable air filtration unit on exposure of haematology-oncology patients to airborne Aspergillus fumigatus spores under field conditions. Weekly measurements for airborne A. fumigatus were conducted in indoor and outdoor air, and surveillance for invasive aspergillosis was based on a combination of ward liaison, targeted chart review and consultation with the medical staff. The mean indoor A. fumigatus counts (8.1 cfu/m3; range, <0.8 to 42 cfu/m3) reflected the fungal load of outdoor air (9.4 cfu/m3; range, <0.8 to 50 cfu/m3), and were reduced by only about one third in rooms with portable air filtration units (5.3 cfu/m3; range, <0.8 to 41 cfu/m3). During the study period, a total of five cases (incidence density, 0.8 per 1000 patient-days) of invasive aspergillosis (one proven case, four suspected cases; case fatality rate 40%) were recorded. None of these five patients was allocated to a room with portable air filtration unit, however, the difference between incidence densities in rooms with and without portable air filtration units was non-significant (Fisher's exact test, P=0.33). Due to the noise level and thermal discomfort, patient compliance with the air filtration units was poor. We conclude that under field conditions this air filtration unit cannot be recommended for prevention of invasive aspergillosis in neutropenic haematology-oncology patients. PMID:12919761

  15. Inhibition of bromodomain and extra-terminal proteins (BET) as a potential therapeutic approach in haematological malignancies: emerging preclinical and clinical evidence

    PubMed Central

    Chaidos, Aristeidis; Caputo, Valentina

    2015-01-01

    Post-translational modifications of the nucleosomal histone proteins orchestrate chromatin organization and gene expression in normal and cancer cells. Among them, the acetylation of N-terminal histone tails represents the fundamental epigenetic mark of open structure chromatin and active gene transcription. The bromodomain and extra-terminal (BET) proteins are epigenetic readers which utilize tandem bromodomains (BRD) modules to recognize and dock themselves on the acetylated lysine tails. The BET proteins act as scaffolds for the recruitment of transcription factors and chromatin organizers required in transcription initiation and elongation. The recent discovery of small molecules capable of blocking their lysine-binding pocket is the first paradigm of successful pharmacological inhibition of epigenetic readers. JQ1 is a prototype benzodiazepine molecule and a specific BET inhibitor with antineoplastic activity both in solid tumours and haematological malignancies. The quinolone I-BET151 and the suitable for clinical development I-BET762 benzodiazepine were introduced in parallel with JQ1 and have also shown potent antitumour activity in preclinical studies. I-BET762 is currently being tested in early phase clinical trials, along with a rapidly growing list of other BET inhibitors. Unlike older epigenetic therapies, the study of BET inhibitors has offered substantial, context-specific, mechanistic insights of their antitumour activity, which will facilitate optimal therapeutic targeting in future. Here, we review the development of this novel class of epigenetic drugs, the biology of BET protein inhibition, the emerging evidence from preclinical work and early phase clinical studies and we discuss their potential role in the treatment of haematological malignancies. PMID:26137204

  16. Inhibition of bromodomain and extra-terminal proteins (BET) as a potential therapeutic approach in haematological malignancies: emerging preclinical and clinical evidence.

    PubMed

    Chaidos, Aristeidis; Caputo, Valentina; Karadimitris, Anastasios

    2015-06-01

    Post-translational modifications of the nucleosomal histone proteins orchestrate chromatin organization and gene expression in normal and cancer cells. Among them, the acetylation of N-terminal histone tails represents the fundamental epigenetic mark of open structure chromatin and active gene transcription. The bromodomain and extra-terminal (BET) proteins are epigenetic readers which utilize tandem bromodomains (BRD) modules to recognize and dock themselves on the acetylated lysine tails. The BET proteins act as scaffolds for the recruitment of transcription factors and chromatin organizers required in transcription initiation and elongation. The recent discovery of small molecules capable of blocking their lysine-binding pocket is the first paradigm of successful pharmacological inhibition of epigenetic readers. JQ1 is a prototype benzodiazepine molecule and a specific BET inhibitor with antineoplastic activity both in solid tumours and haematological malignancies. The quinolone I-BET151 and the suitable for clinical development I-BET762 benzodiazepine were introduced in parallel with JQ1 and have also shown potent antitumour activity in preclinical studies. I-BET762 is currently being tested in early phase clinical trials, along with a rapidly growing list of other BET inhibitors. Unlike older epigenetic therapies, the study of BET inhibitors has offered substantial, context-specific, mechanistic insights of their antitumour activity, which will facilitate optimal therapeutic targeting in future. Here, we review the development of this novel class of epigenetic drugs, the biology of BET protein inhibition, the emerging evidence from preclinical work and early phase clinical studies and we discuss their potential role in the treatment of haematological malignancies. PMID:26137204

  17. Characterisation of Escherichia coli isolates from the blood of haematological adult patients with bacteraemia: translocation from gut to blood requires the cooperation of multiple virulence factors.

    PubMed

    Krawczyk, B; Śledzińska, A; Szemiako, K; Samet, A; Nowicki, B; Kur, J

    2015-06-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate whether there are unique pathotypes of Escherichia coli capable of transmission from the gastrointestinal tract to the vascular bed. The study included E. coli strains isolated from clinical materials collected from 115 patients suffering from haematologic malignancies diagnosed with bacteraemia. The genotyping techniques established that 89 E. coli isolates from the blood had the same genotype as the E. coli from the patient's bowel. The presence of 21 genes encoding virulence factors typical of various E. coli pathotypes and their relationship with the phylogenetic group was established. One-dimensional analysis showed that the focG gene occurred more frequently in the control bowel group, while the ampicillin-resistant afa/dr E. coli were associated with bacteraemia. Blood isolates with the highest occurrence of virulence factors belonged to pathogenic group B2 and non-pathogenic group A. The co-occurrence of multiple genes encoding papC, sfa, usp and cnf1 virulence factors probably predisposes E. coli to translocation from the gastrointestinal tract to the vascular bed in the group of patients with haematologic malignancies. Based on clustering analysis, dominance of the most virulent strains assigned to the cluster with seven virulence factors encoded by the following genes, papC, sfaD/E, cnf1, usp, agn43, hlyA and iutA, was found. The obtained results enforce the previously proposed concept of bowel-blood translocation and further expand our hypothesis by defining the unique virulence characteristics of E. coli isolates, which predispose them to bowel colonisation or translocation and bacteraemia in this group of patients. PMID:25655758

  18. R306465 is a novel potent inhibitor of class I histone deacetylases with broad-spectrum antitumoral activity against solid and haematological malignancies

    PubMed Central

    Arts, J; Angibaud, P; Marin, A; Floren, W; Janssens, B; King, P; van Dun, J; Janssen, L; Geerts, T; Tuman, R W; Johnson, D L; Andries, L; Jung, M; Janicot, M; van Emelen, K

    2007-01-01

    R306465 is a novel hydroxamate-based histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitor with broad-spectrum antitumour activity against solid and haematological malignancies in preclinical models. R306465 was found to be a potent inhibitor of HDAC1 and -8 (class I) in vitro. It rapidly induced histone 3 (H3) acetylation and strongly upregulated expression of p21waf1,cip1, a downstream component of HDAC1 signalling, in A2780 ovarian carcinoma cells. R306465 showed class I HDAC isotype selectivity as evidenced by poor inhibition of HDAC6 (class IIb) confirmed by the absence of downregulation of Hsp90 chaperone c-raf protein expression and tubulin acetylation. This distinguished it from other HDAC inhibitors currently in clinical development that were either more potent towards HDAC6 (e.g. vorinostat) or had a broader HDAC inhibition spectrum (e.g. panobinostat). R306465 potently inhibited cell proliferation of all main solid tumour indications, including ovarian, lung, colon, breast and prostate cancer cell lines, with IC50 values ranging from 30 to 300?nM. Haematological cell lines, including acute lymphoblastic leukaemia, acute myeloid leukaemia, chronic lymphoblastic leukaemia, chronic myeloid leukaemia, lymphoma and myeloma, were potently inhibited at a similar concentration range. R306465 induced apoptosis and inhibited angiogenesis in cell-based assays and had potent oral in vivo antitumoral activity in xenograft models. Once-daily oral administration of R306465 at well-tolerated doses inhibited the growth of A2780 ovarian, H460 lung and HCT116 colon carcinomas in immunodeficient mice. The high activity of R306465 in cell-based assays and in vivo after oral administration makes R306465 a promising novel antitumoral agent with potential applicability in a broad spectrum of human malignancies. PMID:18000499

  19. Comparative study of growth traits and haematological parameters of Anak and Nigerian heavy ecotype chickens fed with graded levels of mango seed kernel (Mangifera indica) meal.

    PubMed

    Mbunwen, Ndofor-Foleng Harriet; Ngongeh, Lucas Atehmengo; Okolie, Peter Nzeribe; Okoli, Emeka Linus

    2015-08-01

    One hundred fifty Anak and 120 Nigerian heavy local ecotype (NHLE) chickens were used to study the effects of feeding graded levels of mango seed kernel meal (MKM) replacing maize diet on growth traits and haematological parameters. A 2??5 factorial arrangement was employed: two breeds and five diets. The birds were randomly allocated to five finisher diets formulated such that MKM replaced maize at 0, 10, 20, 30 and 40% (T1, T2, T3, T4 and T5) inclusion levels, respectively. The effect of breed and dietary treatments on growth performance and blood characteristics were determined. The results showed a significant (P?haematological indices (RBC, Hb, MCV, MCH and MCHC count) were not significant (P?>?0.05) when the breeds and treatments were compared. It was concluded that inclusion of dietary MKM below 30% could replace maize in the diets of Anak and NHLE growing chickens without adverse effect on growth performance and blood constituents. This work suggests that genetic differences exist in growth traits of these breeds of chickens. This advantage could be useful in breed improvement programmes and better feeding managements of the NHLE and Anak chickens. PMID:25939914

  20. Antiviral prophylaxis in patients with solid tumours and haematological malignancies--update of the Guidelines of the Infectious Diseases Working Party (AGIHO) of the German Society for Hematology and Medical Oncology (DGHO).

    PubMed

    Sandherr, Michael; Hentrich, Marcus; von Lilienfeld-Toal, Marie; Massenkeil, Gero; Neumann, Silke; Penack, Olaf; Biehl, Lena; Cornely, Oliver A

    2015-09-01

    Reactivation of viral infections is common in patients with solid tumour or haematological malignancy. Incidence and severity depend on the extent of cellular immunosuppression. Antiviral prophylaxis may be effective to prevent viral reactivation. In 2006, the Infectious Diseases Working Party of German Society for Hematology and Medical Oncology (DGHO) published guidelines for antiviral prophylaxis in these patient populations. Here, we present an update of these guidelines for patients with solid and haematological malignancies undergoing antineoplastic treatment but not allogeneic stem cell transplantation. Relevant literature for reactivation of different viruses (herpes simplex virus (HSV), varicella zoster virus (VZV), hepatitis B virus (HBV) and respiratory viruses) is discussed to provide evidence-based recommendations for clinicians taking care of this patient population. We recommend a risk-adapted approach with (val)acyclovir against HSV and VZV in patients treated with alemtuzumab, bortezomib or purine analogues. Seasonal vaccination against influenza is recommended for all patients with solid or haematological malignancies regardless of antineoplastic therapy. Hepatitis B screening is recommended in lymphoproliferative disorders, acute leukaemia, and breast cancer, and during treatment with monoclonal anti-B-cell antibodies, anthracyclines, steroids and in autologous stem cell transplantation. In those with a history of hepatitis B prophylactic lamivudine, entecavir or nucleotide analogues as adefovir are recommended to prevent reactivation. PMID:26193852

  1. Drug- not carrier-dependent haematological and biochemical changes in a repeated dose study of cyclosporine encapsulated polyester nano- and micro-particles: size does not matter.

    PubMed

    Venkatpurwar, V P; Rhodes, S; Oien, K A; Elliott, M A; Tekwe, C D; Jrgensen, H G; Kumar, M N V Ravi

    2015-04-01

    Biodegradable nanoparticles are being considered more often as drug carriers to address pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic issues, yet nano-product safety has not been systematically proven. In this study, haematological, biochemical and histological parameters were examined on 28 day daily dosing of rats with nano- or micro-particle encapsulated cyclosporine (CsA) to confirm if any changes observed were drug or carrier dependent. CsA encapsulated poly(lactide-co-glycolide) [PLGA] nano- (nCsA) and micro-particles (mCsA) were prepared by emulsion techniques. CsA (15, 30, 45 mg/kg) were administered by oral gavage to Sprague Dawley (SD) rats over 28 days. Haematological and biochemical metrics were followed with tissue histology performed on sacrifice. Whether presented as nCsA or mCsA, 45 mg/kg dose caused significant loss of body weight and lowered food consumption compared to untreated control. Across the doses, both nCsA and mCsA produce significant decreases in lymphocyte numbers compared to controls, commensurate with the proprietary product, Neoral() 15. Dosing with nCsA showed higher serum drug levels than mCsA presumably owing to the smaller particle size facilitating absorption. The treatment had no noticeable effects on inflammatory/oxidative stress markers or antioxidant enzyme levels, except an increase in ceruloplasmin (CP) levels for high dose nCsA/mCsA group. Further, only subtle, sub-lethal changes were observed in histology of nCsA/mCsA treated rat organs. Blank (drug-free) particles did not induce changes in the parameters studied. Therefore, it is extremely important that the encapsulated drug in the nano-products is considered when safety of the overall product is assessed rather than relying on just the particle size. This study has addressed some concerns surrounding particulate drug delivery, demonstrating safe delivery of CsA whilst achieving augmented serum concentrations. PMID:25637670

  2. The effect of the combination of acids and tannin in diet on the performance and selected biochemical, haematological and antioxidant enzyme parameters in grower pigs

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background The abolition of in-feed antibiotics or chemotherapeutics as growth promoters have stimulated the swine industry to look for alternatives such as organic acids, botanicals, probiotics and tannin. The objective of the present study was to compare the effects of a combination of acids and tannin with diet with organic acids and diet without growth promoters on the growth performance and selected biochemical, haematological and antioxidant enzyme parameters in grower pigs. Tannin is more natural and cheaper but possibly with the same effectiveness as organic acids with regard to growth performance. Methods Thirty-six 7 week old grower pigs, divided into three equal groups, were used in a three week feeding trial. Group I was fed basal diet, group II basal diet with added organic acids and group III basal diet with added organic and inorganic acids and tannin. Pigs were weighed before and after feeding and observed daily. Blood was collected before and after the feeding trial for the determination of selected biochemical, haematological and antioxidant enzyme parameters. One-way ANOVA was used to assess any diet related changes of all the parameters. Paired t-test was used to evaluate changes of blood parameters individually in each group of growers before and after feeding. Results No clinical health problems related to diet were noted during the three week feeding trial. The average daily gain (ADG) and selected blood parameters were not affected by the addition to basal diet of either acids and tannin or of organic acids alone. Selected blood parameters remained within the reference range before and after the feeding trial, with the exception of total serum proteins that were below the lower value of reference range at both times. The significant changes (paired t-test) observed in individual groups before and after the feeding trial are related to the growth of pigs. Conclusion Diet with acids and tannin did not improve the growth performance of grower pigs but had no deleterious effects on selected blood parameters. The possibility of beneficial effects of adding acids and tannin in diets on growth performance over a longer period, however, could not be excluded. PMID:20205921

  3. Prediction of central venous catheter-related bloodstream infections (CRBSIs) in patients with haematologic malignancies using a modified Infection Probability Score (mIPS).

    PubMed

    Schalk, Enrico; Hanus, Lynn; Frber, Jacqueline; Fischer, Thomas; Heidel, Florian H

    2015-09-01

    The aim of this study was to predict the probability of central venous catheter-related bloodstream infections (CRBSIs) in patients with haematologic malignancies using a modified version of the Infection Probability Score (mIPS). In order to perform a prospective, mono-centric surveillance of complications in clinical routine due to short-term central venous catheters (CVCs) in consecutive patients receiving chemotherapy from March 2013 to September 2014, IPS was calculated at CVC insertion and removal (mIPSin and mIPSex, respectively). We used the 2012 Infectious Diseases Working Party of the German Society of Haematology and Medical Oncology (AGIHO/DGHO) criteria to define CRBSI. In total, 143 patients (mean 59.5 years, 61.4 % male) with 267 triple-lumen CVCs (4044 CVC days; mean 15.1 days, range 1-60 days) were analysed. CVCs were inserted for therapy of acute leukaemia (53.2 %), multiple myeloma (24.3 %) or lymphoma (11.2 %), and 93.6 % were inserted in the jugular vein. A total of 66 CRBSI cases (24.7 %) were documented (12 definite/13 probable/41 possible). The incidence was 16.3/1000 CVC days (2.9/3.1/10.1 per 1000 CVC days for definite/probable/possible CRBSI, respectively). In CRBSI cases, the mIPSex was higher as compared to cases without CRBSI (13.1 vs. 7.1; p?

  4. BD GeneOhm-MRSA assay for detection of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus directly in nasal and non-nasal swab specimens from haematologic patients

    PubMed Central

    Knig, B.; Knig, W.

    2011-01-01

    Infections caused by methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) are responsible for rising health care costs and have a high attribution to mortality. Reliable and rapid detection of MRSA carriage is essential. Real-time PCR allows an early detection of MRSA colonization within 2 h. By using the BD GeneOhm-MRSA assay we analysed directly swabs of different sampling sites and compared the assay with culture method. One thousand one hundred and sixty samples from 129 patients in Magdeburg were examined. Of the samples, 8 (0.69%) or 1117 (96.3%) were tested equally positive or negative by both methods whereas 16 (1.38%) specimens were MRSA positive only by the GeneOhm-MRSA assay and 6 (0.52%) were MRSA positive only by culture method. Thirteen samples (1.12%), which are culture negative, were unresolved by the GeneOhm-MRSA. With regard to the patients, seven were detected as MRSA carriers only by the GeneOhm-MRSA while one patient was tested positive for MRSA only by culture. Assuming 100% correct results by the culture method, sensitivity and specificity of GeneOhm-MRSA assay could be calculated as 84.4% and 96.1% for nasal swabs, 78.7% and 96.9% for all swabs under study, and 94.8% and 99.5% when focussed on patients. PPV and NPV were 70.3% and 98% for all specimens together, respectively. BD GeneOhm-MRSA assay is a sensitive test for the detection of MRSA colonization from swab specimens without the need for an initial culture, but should always be performed in parallel to the culture method for comparison reasons. Furthermore, our results indicate that in addition swabs taken from different body sites were successfully analysed by the BD GeneOhm-MRSA assay. However, we conclude that the PCR assay might not be a preferred tool for screening in haematologic patients with low MRSA rate; for screening haematologic patients, the culture method is sufficient enough. PMID:24516736

  5. Effects of doxycycline on haematology, blood chemistry and peripheral blood lymphocyte subsets of healthy dogs and dogs naturally infected with Ehrlichia canis.

    PubMed

    Villaescusa, A; Garca-Sancho, M; Rodrguez-Franco, F; Tesouro, M ; Sainz,

    2015-06-01

    Canine monocytic ehrlichiosis (CME), caused by Ehrlichia canis, is a vector-borne disease with a worldwide distribution. It has been proposed that the pathogenesis, clinical severity and outcome of disease caused by Ehrlichia spp. can be attributed to the immune response rather than to any direct rickettsial effect. Moreover, doxycycline, the antimicrobial of choice for the treatment of CME, has immunomodulatory and anti-inflammatory properties associated with blood leukocyte proliferation function, cytokine synthesis, and matrix metalloproteinase activity. In order to assess the potential effects of doxycycline, dependent and independent of its antimicrobial activity, the present study compared changes in haematology, blood chemistry and circulating lymphocyte subpopulations in 12 healthy dogs and 20 dogs with CME after doxycycline therapy. Some changes were recorded only in the CME affected dogs, probably due to the antimicrobial effect of doxycycline. However, increases in mean corpuscular haemoglobin, mean corpuscular haemoglobin concentration, platelet count and ?2-globulins, and decreased plasma creatinine were observed in both healthy and CME affected dogs. The absolute count of B lymphocytes (CD21(+)) increased initially, but then decreased until the end of the study period in both groups. A potential effect of doxycycline unrelated to its antimicrobial activity against E.?canis is suggested, taking into account the results observed both in healthy dogs and in dogs with CME. PMID:25957920

  6. Geotrichum capitatum septicaemia in a haematological patient after acute myeloid leukaemia relapse: identification using MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Miglietta, Fabio; Vella, Antonietta; Faneschi, Maria Letizia; Lobreglio, Giambattista; Rizzo, Adriana; Palumbo, Claudio; Palumbo, Carla; Di Renzo, Nicola; Pizzolante, Maria

    2015-06-01

    Emerging fungal pathogens, such as Geotrichum capitatum, are often associated with poor prognosis and represent a new challenge in modern medicine. Invasive Geotrichum capitatum infection is rare and has been reported exclusively in patients who showed signs of severe immunodeficiency, particularly those affected by haematological malignancies. The optimal therapy against systemic geotricosis has not yet been identified due to limited data about its antifungal susceptibility. The use of several therapeutic strategies and the low number of cases treated does not allow identification of specific therapeutic protocols. Furthermore, in spite of antifungal therapy, mortality rates reach very high levels. We report a case of systemic Geotrichum capitatum infection in a 78-year-old male treated with salvage therapy after acute myeloid leukaemia (AML) relapse. Geotrichum capitatum was isolated from his blood culture and identified by using Vitek 2 and Maldi time-of-flight system (MALDI-TOF). The infection was unsuccessfully treated, despite in vitro susceptibility, with micafungin and liposomal amphotericin B. PMID:26110297

  7. Haematological and immunological adaptations of non-pregnant, non-lactating dairy cows to a high-energetic diet containing mycotoxins.

    PubMed

    Dänicke, Sven; Meyer, Ulrich; Winkler, Janine; Ulrich, Sebastian; Frahm, Jana; Kersten, Susanne; Valenta, Hana; Rehage, Jürgen; Häussler, Susanne; Sauerwein, Helga; Locher, Lena

    2016-02-01

    Diet change and fatness are supposed to challenge the immune system of the cow. Therefore, immunological and haematological consequences of adaptation to and continued feeding of a high-energy diet were studied in eight non-pregnant, non-lactating Holstein cows over 16 weeks. Blood haptoglobin concentration remained unaltered, suggesting that an acute phase reaction was not induced. Stimulation ability of peripheral blood mononuclear cells and stimulated oxidative burst capacity of granulocytes increased significantly in the course of the experiment after an initial drop. While total leucocyte counts increased, the proportion of granulocytes increased and that of lymphocytes decreased at the same time as the ratio of CD4(+)/CD8(+) lymphocytes did. Capability of rumen microbes to detoxify the immune-modulating mycotoxin deoxynivalenol (DON) was not compromised as indicated by the exclusive presence of de-DON as the detoxified DON metabolite in blood. In conclusion, both diet change and prolonged positive energy balance influenced the bovine immune system. PMID:26654380

  8. Comparison of selected haematological and biochemical indices and behaviour patterns of pheasant hens kept in different housing systems during the laying period.

    PubMed

    Voslarova, Eva; Bedanova, Iveta; Radisavljevic, Katarina; Hrabcakova, Petra; Marsalek, Petr; Vecerek, Vladimir

    2015-01-01

    Selected haematological and biochemical indices and behaviour patterns were monitored in cage-housed pheasant hens during the peak-of-lay egg laying period. Lower counts of monocytes (p = 0.035) and concentrations of plasma biopterin (p = 0.020) and higher concentrations of plasma neopterin (p = 0.005) and plasma phosphorus (p = 0.025) were found in spectacles-fitted pheasant hens kept in conventional cages compared to non-spectacled hens kept in enriched cages. Even more pronounced effects of the housing system were revealed by analysis of the behaviour of pheasant hens: spectacles-fitted pheasant hens kept in conventional cages exhibited higher occurrences of movement (p = 0.045), stereotyped behaviour (p = 0.039), and aggression (p = 0.004), and lower rates of feeding (p = 0.009), drinking (p < 0.001), defecation (p = 0.038), preening (p = 0.013), and feather pecking (p < 0.001). Our results show that the relatively easy and inexpensive enrichment of the cage environment (two perches, a simple hideout) where breeding groups of common pheasants are housed during the laying period can significantly contribute to the health and welfare (including the ability to express natural behaviour patterns) of pheasants kept in commercial cage systems. PMID:26591380

  9. A therapeutic-only versus prophylactic platelet transfusion strategy for preventing bleeding in patients with haematological disorders after myelosuppressive chemotherapy or stem cell transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Crighton, Gemma L; Estcourt, Lise J; Wood, Erica M; Trivella, Marialena; Doree, Carolyn; Stanworth, Simon

    2015-01-01

    Background Platelet transfusions are used in modern clinical practice to prevent and treat bleeding in thrombocytopenic patients with bone marrow failure. Although considerable advances have been made in platelet transfusion therapy in the last 40 years, some areas continue to provoke debate, especially concerning the use of prophylactic platelet transfusions for the prevention of thrombocytopenic bleeding. This is an update of a Cochrane review first published in 2004 and updated in 2012 that addressed four separate questions: therapeutic-only versus prophylactic platelet transfusion policy; prophylactic platelet transfusion threshold; prophylactic platelet transfusion dose; and platelet transfusions compared to alternative treatments. We have now split this review into four smaller reviews looking at these questions individually; this review is the first part of the original review. Objectives To determine whether a therapeutic-only platelet transfusion policy (platelet transfusions given when patient bleeds) is as effective and safe as a prophylactic platelet transfusion policy (platelet transfusions given to prevent bleeding, usually when the platelet count falls below a given trigger level) in patients with haematological disorders undergoing myelosuppressive chemotherapy or stem cell transplantation. Search methods We searched for randomised controlled trials (RCTs) in the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (Cochrane Library 2015, Issue 6), MEDLINE (from 1946), Embase (from 1974), CINAHL (from 1937), the Transfusion Evidence Library (from 1950) and ongoing trial databases to 23 July 2015. Selection criteria RCTs involving transfusions of platelet concentrates prepared either from individual units of whole blood or by apheresis, and given to prevent or treat bleeding in patients with malignant haematological disorders receiving myelosuppressive chemotherapy or undergoing HSCT. Data collection and analysis We used standard methodological procedures expected by The Cochrane Collaboration. Main results We identified seven RCTs that compared therapeutic platelet transfusions to prophylactic platelet transfusions in haematology patients undergoing myelosuppressive chemotherapy or HSCT. One trial is still ongoing, leaving six trials eligible with a total of 1195 participants. These trials were conducted between 1978 and 2013 and enrolled participants from fairly comparable patient populations. We were able to critically appraise five of these studies, which contained separate data for each arm, and were unable to perform quantitative analysis on one study that did not report the numbers of participants in each treatment arm. Overall the quality of evidence per outcome was low to moderate according to the GRADE approach. None of the included studies were at low risk of bias in every domain, and all the studies identified had some threats to validity. We deemed only one study to be at low risk of bias in all domains other than blinding. Two RCTs (801 participants) reported at least one bleeding episode within 30 days of the start of the study. We were unable to perform a meta-analysis due to considerable statistical heterogeneity between studies. The statistical heterogeneity seen may relate to the different methods used in studies for the assessment and grading of bleeding. The underlying patient diagnostic and treatment categories also appeared to have some effect on bleeding risk. Individually these studies showed a similar effect, that a therapeutic-only platelet transfusion strategy was associated with an increased risk of clinically significant bleeding compared with a prophylactic platelet transfusion policy. Number of days with a clinically significant bleeding event per participant was higher in the therapeutic-only group than in the prophylactic group (one RCT; 600 participants; mean difference 0.50, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.10 to 0.90; moderate-quality evidence). There was insufficient evidence to determine whether there was any difference in the number of participants with severe or life-threatening bleeding between a therapeutic-only transfusion policy and a prophylactic platelet transfusion policy (two RCTs; 801 participants; risk ratio (RR) 4.91, 95% CI 0.86 to 28.12; low-quality evidence). Two RCTs (801 participants) reported time to first bleeding episode. As there was considerable heterogeneity between the studies, we were unable to perform a meta-analysis. Both studies individually found that time to first bleeding episode was shorter in the therapeutic-only group compared with the prophylactic platelet transfusion group. There was insufficient evidence to determine any difference in all-cause mortality within 30 days of the start of the study using a therapeutic-only platelet transfusion policy compared with a prophylactic platelet transfusion policy (two RCTs; 629 participants). Mortality was a rare event, and therefore larger studies would be needed to establish the effect of these alternative strategies. There was a clear reduction in the number of platelet transfusions per participant in the therapeutic-only arm (two RCTs, 991 participants; standardised mean reduction of 0.50 platelet transfusions per participant, 95% CI −0.63 to −0.37; moderate-quality evidence). None of the studies reported quality of life. There was no evidence of any difference in the frequency of adverse events, such as transfusion reactions, between a therapeutic-only and prophylactic platelet transfusion policy (two RCTs; 991 participants; RR 1.02, 95% CI 0.62 to 1.68), although the confidence intervals were wide. Authors’ conclusions We found low- to moderate-grade evidence that a therapeutic-only platelet transfusion policy is associated with increased risk of bleeding when compared with a prophylactic platelet transfusion policy in haematology patients who are thrombocytopenic due to myelosuppressive chemotherapy or HSCT. There is insufficient evidence to determine any difference in mortality rates and no evidence of any difference in adverse events between a therapeutic-only platelet transfusion policy and a prophylactic platelet transfusion policy. A therapeutic-only platelet transfusion policy is associated with a clear reduction in the number of platelet components administered. PMID:26422767

  10. Haematological and biochemical reference intervals for three species of hydrophiine sea snakes (Hydrophis curtus, H. elegans and H. peronii) in Australia.

    PubMed

    Gillett, Amber K; Flint, Mark; Hulse, Lyndal; Hanger, Jon; Mills, Paul C

    2015-06-01

    This study presents the first set of comprehensive reference intervals (RIs) for plasma biochemistry and haematology for three species of sea snakes common to the Indo-Pacific waters of Australia. In total 98 snakes, composed of Hydrophis curtus (n= 60), H. elegans (n = 27) and H. peronii (n = 11), were captured, clinically examined and had venous blood samples collected. All snakes were deemed healthy and in good to excellent body condition with snout to vent lengths of 40.7-73.9 cm (H. curtus), 68.9-131.4 cm (H. elegans) and 55.0-83.0 cm (H. peronii), respectively. Lymphocyte numbers, alkaline phosphatase, alanine aminotransferase, creatine kinase and lactate dehydrogenase levels were species-dependent. All other parameters are presented as a single range for the three species. Gender ratio was evenly distributed for H. curtus and H. elegans, but 8/11 (73%) of H. peronii were males. No significant differences were detected between males and females for any of the measured blood parameters. Lymph contamination was considered and accounted for. Although only three species of sea snakes are represented in this study, the RIs generated may be useful in the clinical assessment of other sea snake species. PMID:25933825

  11. Primary antifungal prophylaxis with micafungin in patients with haematological malignancies: real-life data from a retrospective single-centre observational study.

    PubMed

    Nachbaur, David; Angelova, Olga; Orth-Hller, Dorothea; Ditlbacher, Adelheid; Lackner, Michaela; Auberger, Jutta; Lass-Flrl, Cornelia

    2015-03-01

    Mould-active antifungal prophylaxis is increasingly used in patients at risk for invasive fungal disease. Between June 2011 and June 2012, one hundred patients with various haematological malignancies at risk for invasive fungal disease received primary antifungal prophylaxis with intravenous micafungin at a daily dosage of 50 mg during neutropenia. The median number of days on micafungin prophylaxis was 14 (range, 6-48 d). The incidence of proven and probable breakthrough invasive fungal diseases (bIFDs) was 6% and 3%, respectively. There were two bloodstream infections caused by yeasts or yeast-like fungi (Candida krusei, Trichosporon asahii) in two patients during the neutropenic phase after allogeneic haematopoietic stem cell transplantation. Four proven bIFDs caused by non-Aspergillus moulds and three cases of probable pulmonary bIFDs were documented during the neutropenic phase after induction/consolidation chemotherapy for acute leukaemia. Colonisation with Candida spp. was documented in 51% of the patients with none of the isolates being in vitro micafungin resistant. Compared to a historical control, receiving primary prophylaxis with posaconazole micafungin is at least as effective in preventing IFD. In both cohorts, bIFDs were exclusively caused by emerging pathogens with a highly preserved in vitro sensitivity to amphotericin B. PMID:25082655

  12. Measurement of CD4+ T cells in point-of-care settings with the Sysmex pocH-100i haematological analyser.

    PubMed

    Briggs, C; Machin, S; Mller, M; Haase, W; Hofmann, K; Forstreuter, F; Hinzmann, R

    2009-04-01

    The decision to provide antiretroviral therapy to HIV-positive patients mainly depends on the CD4(+) T-cell count, with therapy indicated at a cut-off value of <350-200 CD4(+) T cells/microl blood. Monitoring patients is still a major problem in countries with limited resources where blood samples often have to be transported over long distances to regional referral centres in which the count can be performed on flow cytometers. We have evaluated a newly developed simple and inexpensive method for CD4(+) T-cell quantification. It is a variation of the Invitrogen T4 Quant kit, with manual isolation of nuclei from CD4(+) T cells and subsequent counting on the small haematology analyser pocH-100i, Sysmex. We have demonstrated that this new method is highly reproducible and gives stable and linear results over a wide range of CD4(+) T-cell concentrations. Method comparison to two different flow cytometers showed excellent correlation with concordances of about 93%. Overall, this method is rapid, easy to perform and offers a good reliable alternative to measurement by flow cytometry. The pocH-100i has the additional benefit of providing a complete blood count with a three-part white blood cell differential and software for patient data storage and handling. PMID:18177434

  13. Experimental copper and chromium deficiency and additional molybdenum supplementation in goats. II. Concentrations of trace and minor elements in liver, kidneys and ribs: haematology and clinical chemistry.

    PubMed

    Frank, A; Danielsson, R; Jones, B

    2000-04-17

    Since the mid-1980s a previously undescribed disease has affected moose in south-western Sweden. Investigations made to reveal evidence of a viral aetiology have proved unsuccessful. Trace element studies in apparently healthy moose shot during regular hunting suggested a trace element imbalance, with excessive molybdenum uptake causing secondary copper deficiency. The results also indicated a possible chromium deficiency. To verify this hypothesis, an experimental study was performed in male goats fed a semi-synthetic diet for 1.5 years. The animals were kept and treated in four groups: Controls, Cu-deficient group (group 1), Cr-deficient group (group 2), and combined Cu- and Cr-deficient group with additional supplementation of tetrathiomolybdate for 10 weeks at the end of the study (group 3). The present paper presents tissue contents of trace and minor elements, haematology and clinical chemical parameters. Feed consumption and weight development, as well as pathological and histopathological investigations, were also performed in this study, but these results are presented elsewhere. Changes in trace element concentrations were determined by comparing groups 1, 2 and 3 with the control group. Increased concentrations were observed for Al, Ca, Co, Fe, Mo, Pb, Se in the liver; for Al, Cd, Co, Cr, Mo in the kidneys; and for Mn and Mo in the ribs. Considerable accumulation of Mn in ribs seems to be a useful way to determine oxidative stress. Decreases in Mg and P in all organs and blood serum is characteristic of Cu deficiency and molybdenosis. Also the ratio of Ca/Mg was increased as the result of tissue lesions causing an intracellular increase in Ca and decrease in Mg. The trace element changes observed in group 1 were enhanced by the Mo supplementation in group 3, resulting in characteristic patterns, 'spectra' of changes. The alterations were not as remarkable in group 2 as in the two other groups. However, Cr deficiency considerably influenced Al, Co, V and to a smaller extent also Mn in ribs. In groups 1 and 2, only a few minor changes were detected in the haematological parameters, probably caused by increased adrenal activity after transportation of the animals. In group 3, severe anaemia was present but also a leukopenia. For the different clinical chemical parameters measured, all three groups showed changes, explained mainly by the altered activity of enzymes induced by trace element deficiencies and imbalance. Impaired carbohydrate and lipid metabolism was seen in groups 1 and 3, with increased concentrations of glucose, lactate and triglycerides in serum. Increased concentrations of total bilirubin were measured in all three groups (bile stasis was also seen post mortem). A considerably increased concentration of serum urea was found in group 3, although there were no indications of renal insufficiency or dehydration. Regarding hormones, a substantial decrease was seen in thyroxine (T4) in group 3 as a result of the molybdenosis, but a minor decrease was also seen in group 1. Insulin on the other hand showed increased levels in group 3--and especially in group 2 due to the Cr deficiency but also affected by the molybdenosis. As could be expected, Cu deficiency (groups 1 and 3) caused low levels of caeruloplasmin, secondarily affecting the Fe metabolism in these animals. Protein abnormalities, detected as altered electrophoretic patterns of serum proteins, were also seen mainly in group 3. The findings were also confirmed by multivariate data analysis, where PCA revealed the overall impact of the deficiencies, and PLS regression coefficients indicated the influence on the various analytes. PMID:10813454

  14. Hygienic safety of reusable tap water filters (Germlyser) with an operating time of 4 or 8 weeks in a haematological oncology transplantation unit

    PubMed Central

    Daeschlein, Georg; Krger, William H; Selepko, Christian; Rochow, Markus; Dlken, Gottfried; Kramer, Axel

    2007-01-01

    Background Microbial safe tap water is crucial for the safety of immunosuppressed patients. Methods To evaluate the suitability of new, reusable point-of-use filters (Germlyser, Aquafree GmbH, Hamburg, Germany), three variations of a reusable filter with the same filter principle but with different outlets (with and without silver) and inner surface coating of the filter encasements (with and without nano-crystalline silver) were tested. The filter efficacy was monitored over 1, 4 and 8 weeks operating time in a haematological oncology transplantation unit equipped with 18 water outlets (12 taps, 6 showers). Results The filtered water fulfilled the requirements of absence of pathogens over time. From 348 samples, 8 samples (2.3%) exceeded 100 cfu/ml (no sample ? 500 cfu/ml). As no reprocessed filter exhibited 100% filter efficacy in the final quality control after each reprocessing, these contaminations could be explained by retrograde contamination during use. Conclusion As a consequence of the study, the manufacturer recommends changing filters after 4 weeks in high risk areas and after 8 weeks in moderate infectious risk areas, together with routine weekly alcohol-based surface disinfection and additionally in case of visible contamination. The filter efficacy of the 3 filters types did not differ significantly regarding total bacterial counts. Manual reprocessing proved to be insufficient. Using a validated reprocessing in a washer/disinfector with alkaline, acid treatment and thermic disinfection, the filters were effectively reprocessable and now provide tap water meeting the German drinking water regulations as well as the WHO guidelines, including absence of pathogens. PMID:17521416

  15. Effects of iron-glycine chelate on growth, carcass characteristic, liver mineral concentrations and haematological and biochemical blood parameters in broilers.

    PubMed

    Kwiecień, M; Samolińska, W; Bujanowicz-Haraś, B

    2015-12-01

    Studies were carried out to determine the effect of additive iron-glycine chelate on the production performance, slaughter yield, mineral deposition in the liver and the metabolic blood panel in broiler chickens. A total of 250 one-day-old Ross 308 chicks were allotted into five groups with five replicates of 10 birds each. Diets were supplemented with the organic form iron (Fe-Gly at the rate of 25%, 50% or 100% of the total requirements of the elements) and inorganic Fe (FeSO4 at the rate of 50% or 100%). In the experiment, iron was added to the premix (containing no Fe) in an amount of 40 or 20 mg per kg of basal diet, in groups I and II, in the form of FeSO4 , and in an amount of 40, 20 or 10 mg per kg of basal diet, in groups III, IV and V, in the form of Fe-Gly. The study covering the period from the first to the 42nd day of breeding revealed that the production performance and slaughter yield were not dependent on the form and amount of added Fe. In the experimental groups with the addition of Fe-Gly of 20 or 10 mg/kg, there were no deaths of chickens during the whole fattening period. As a result, introducing an organic form of iron covering 50% and 25% of the birds' requirement increased the effectiveness of chicken fattening (European Efficiency Index) (p < 0.01). An organic Fe compound (40, 20 or 10 mg/kg) added to mixtures contributed to significant changes in the level of biochemical and haematological indicators in blood. The study demonstrated that an addition of Fe-Gly to mixtures for broilers can be fully effective in terms of production and health performance even if the suggested requirement for this element is 50% or 25% covered. PMID:25865671

  16. Long-term follow-up of bone density, general and reproductive health in female survivors after treatment for haematological malignancies.

    PubMed

    Naessn, Sabine; Bergstrm, Ingrid; Ljungman, Per; Landgren, Britt-Marie

    2014-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the ovarian function, fertility and bone mineral density in women who previously had treatment for different haematological malignancies (HMs). The overall survival and cure rates of patients with HMs have improved dramatically. The treatment affects fertility and bone density. Fifty-two premenopausal women, from Stockholm region, were included in the study between 1998 and 2002, followed until 2011. The diagnoses were acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (n = 6), acute myeloid leukaemia (n = 10), chronic lymphocytic leukaemia (n = 1), chronic myeloid leukaemia (n = 12), Hodgkin lymphoma (n = 12) and non-Hodgkin lymphoma (n = 11). Before treatment, women without children (43/52), when possible, were offered fertility preservation options. The mean age at diagnosis was 27, at final evaluation 39 yr. Thirty-seven patients received HSCT; 26 allogeneic, 11 autologous. Before allogeneic HSCT, nineteen patients had myeloablative conditioning; seven had reduced-intensity conditioning. Eleven patients got total body irradiation. Eight patients were transplanted with grafts from an HLA-identical sibling donor, while 18 had unrelated donors. All women were in a menopausal state post-therapy. Hormone replacement therapy (HRT) was given, and bone mineral density (BMD) was measured every other year. The serum levels of parathyroid hormone (PTH), free and bound calcium was within normal range. BMD measurements showed a slight increase over time in the spine with a mean of 0.015 g/cm(2) /yr. Four spontaneous pregnancies resulted in two babies and two discontinued pregnancies; two pregnancies were achieved with oocyte donation and surrogacy and one woman adopted a child. HRT sustains BMD in long-term survivors from HMs. This study highlights the importance of HRT and fertility issues in this patient group. PMID:24649942

  17. The effects of inulin supplementation of diets with or without hydrolysed protein sources on digestibility, faecal characteristics, haematology and immunoglobulins in dogs.

    PubMed

    Verlinden, A; Hesta, M; Hermans, J M; Janssens, G P J

    2006-11-01

    Dogs with food allergy are often treated by giving a diet with hydrolysed protein sources. Prebiotics might also be successful in prevention and treatment of allergic disease through their effect on the colonic microflora, analogous to studies on probiotics in allergic children. The present study was set up to investigate the effect of supplementing inulin (IN) to commercial hypoallergenic dog diets on apparent nutrient digestibility, faecal characteristics, haematology and Ig in dogs. Supplementation of 3 % IN did not affect faecal pH, food and water intake and urine production. Compared with the intact protein diet with a limited number of ingredients (L), the diet with a hydrolysed protein source (H) resulted in an increased water intake (P<0.001), which could be due to the osmotic effect of free amino acids. Faeces production was increased by IN due to increased faecal moisture content. Increased faeces production on the H diet was mainly due to a higher DM excretion. Subsequently, the apparent digestibility coefficient (ADC) of DM was lower in the H diet group. A similar result was noted for ADC of diethyl ether extract and crude ash. The ADC of crude protein was higher in the H diet group, whereas IN decreased the ADC of crude protein. Differences in the ADC of crude protein among the different diets disappeared after correction for a higher faecal biomass, except for the dogs fed the L+IN diet. Total faecal IgA concentrations were lower in the H group (P<0.05) because of lower antigenic stimulation of hydrolysed protein, which implies that hydrolysed protein is really hypoallergenic. The present study indicates that the use of hydrolysed protein diets for canine food allergy treatment can affect digestibility and that combination with IN affected apparent protein digestibility but not IgA response. PMID:17092385

  18. The haematological features and transfusion management of women who required massive transfusion for major obstetric haemorrhage in the UK: a population based study.

    PubMed

    Green, Laura; Knight, Marian; Seeney, Frances; Hopkinson, Cathy; Collins, Peter W; Collis, Rachel E; Simpson, Nigel A B; Weeks, Andrew; Stanworth, Simon J

    2016-02-01

    Understanding the coagulopathy of major-obstetric-haemorrhage (MOH) that leads to massive-transfusion (MT) is fundamental to improving outcomes. This study reports on the haematological features and transfusion management of women experiencing MT [defined as transfusion of ≥8 units of red blood cells (RBC) within 24 h of delivery]. One hundred and eighty-one cases [median (interquartile range; IQR) age 33 years (29-36)] were identified from all UK hospitals, using the UK Obstetric Surveillance System between July 2012 and June 2013. The median (IQR) estimated blood loss was 6 l (4·5-8). At presentation, the median platelet count was lowest for placenta accreta, compared with other causes, while the median prothrombin time and fibrinogen were <1·5 × mean normal and <3 g/l, respectively for all aetiologies. Median platelet count and fibrinogen fell to <75 × 10(9) /l and <2 g/l, respectively for all causes during bleeding, except for trauma. The median (IQR) units of RBC, fresh-frozen-plasma (FFP) and cryoprecipitate transfused were 10 (8-14), 6 (4-8) and 2 (2-4), respectively. The median time from the onset of bleeding to delivery of the first RBC unit was significantly shorter for women who delivered via elective caesarean section, compared with others. The coagulopathy of MT during MOH differs significantly depending on its cause, suggesting that more targeted transfusion strategies are required. PMID:26683982

  19. Do We Know Why We Make Errors in Morphological Diagnosis? An Analysis of Approach and Decision-Making in Haematological Morphology

    PubMed Central

    Brereton, Michelle; De La Salle, Barbara; Ardern, John; Hyde, Keith; Burthem, John

    2015-01-01

    Summary Background The laboratory interpretation of blood film morphology is frequently a rapid, accurate, and cost-effective final-stage of blood count analysis. However, the interpretation of findings often rests with a single individual, and errors can carry significant impact. Cell identification and classification skills are well supported by existing resources, but the contribution and importance of other skills are less well understood. Methods The UK external quality assurance group in haematology (UK NEQAS(H)) runs a Continued Professional Development scheme where large digital-images of abnormal blood smears are presented using a web-based virtual microscope. Each case is answered by more than 800 individuals. Morphological feature selection and prioritisation, as well as diagnosis and proposed action, are recorded. We analysed the responses of participants, aiming to identify successful strategies as well as sources of error. Findings The approach to assessment by participants depended on the affected cell type, case complexity or skills of the morphologist. For cases with few morphological abnormalities, we found that accurate cell identification and classification were the principle requirements for success. For more complex films however, feature recognition and prioritisation had primary importance. Additionally however, we found that participants employed a range of heuristic techniques to support their assessment, leading to associated bias and error. Interpretation A wide range of skills together allow successful morphological assessment and the complexity of this process is not always understood or recognised. Heuristic techniques are widely employed to support or reinforce primary observations and to simplify complex findings. These approaches are effective and are integral to assessment; however they may also be a source of bias or error. Improving outcomes and supporting diagnosis require the development of decision-support mechanisms that identify and support the benefits of heuristic strategies while identifying or avoiding associated biases. Funding The CPD scheme is funded by participant subscription. PMID:26501122

  20. Different doses of prophylactic platelet transfusion for preventing bleeding in people with haematological disorders after myelosuppressive chemotherapy or stem cell transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Estcourt, Lise J; Stanworth, Simon; Doree, Carolyn; Trivella, Marialena; Hopewell, Sally; Blanco, Patricia; Murphy, Michael F

    2015-01-01

    Background Platelet transfusions are used in modern clinical practice to prevent and treat bleeding in people who are thrombocytopenic due to bone marrow failure. Although considerable advances have been made in platelet transfusion therapy in the last 40 years, some areas continue to provoke debate, especially concerning the use of prophylactic platelet transfusions for the prevention of thrombocytopenic bleeding. This is an update of a Cochrane review first published in 2004, and updated in 2012 that addressed four separate questions: prophylactic versus therapeutic-only platelet transfusion policy; prophylactic platelet transfusion threshold; prophylactic platelet transfusion dose; and platelet transfusions compared to alternative treatments. This review has now been split into four smaller reviews; this review compares different platelet transfusion doses. Objectives To determine whether different doses of prophylactic platelet transfusions (platelet transfusions given to prevent bleeding) affect their efficacy and safety in preventing bleeding in people with haematological disorders undergoing myelosuppressive chemotherapy with or without haematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). Search methods We searched for randomised controlled trials in the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) (Cochrane Library 2015, Issue 6), MEDLINE (from 1946), Embase (from 1974), CINAHL (from 1937), the Transfusion Evidence Library (from 1950), and ongoing trial databases to 23 July 2015. Selection criteria Randomised controlled trials involving transfusions of platelet concentrates, prepared either from individual units of whole blood or by apheresis, and given to prevent bleeding in people with malignant haematological disorders or undergoing HSCT that compared different platelet component doses (low dose 1.1 × 1011/m2 ± 25%, standard dose 2.2 × 1011/m2 ± 25%, high dose 4.4 × 1011/m2 ± 25%). Data collection and analysis We used the standard methodological procedures expected by The Cochrane Collaboration. Main results We included seven trials (1814 participants) in this review; six were conducted during one course of treatment (chemotherapy or HSCT). Overall the methodological quality of studies was low to moderate across different outcomes according to GRADE methodology. None of the included studies were at low risk of bias in every domain, and all the included studies had some threats to validity. Five studies reported the number of participants with at least one clinically significant bleeding episode within 30 days from the start of the study. There was no difference in the number of participants with a clinically significant bleeding episode between the low-dose and standard-dose groups (four studies; 1170 participants; risk ratio (RR) 1.04, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.95 to 1.13; moderate-quality evidence); low-dose and high-dose groups (one study; 849 participants; RR 1.02, 95% CI 0.93 to 1.11; moderate-quality evidence); or high-dose and standard-dose groups (two studies; 951 participants; RR 1.02, 95% CI 0.93 to 1.11; moderate-quality evidence). Three studies reported the number of days with a clinically significant bleeding event per participant. There was no difference in the number of days of bleeding per participant between the low-dose and standard-dose groups (two studies; 230 participants; mean difference −0.17, 95% CI −0.51 to 0.17; low quality evidence). One study (855 participants) showed no difference in the number of days of bleeding per participant between high-dose and standard-dose groups, or between low-dose and high-dose groups (849 participants). Three studies reported the number of participants with severe or life-threatening bleeding. There was no difference in the number of participants with severe or life-threatening bleeding between a low-dose and a standard-dose platelet transfusion policy (three studies; 1059 participants; RR 1.33, 95% CI 0.91 to 1.92; low-quality evidence); low-dose and high-dose groups (one study; 849 participants; RR 1.20, 95% CI 0.82 to 1.77; low-quality evidence); or high-dose and standard-dose groups (one study; 855 participants; RR 1.11, 95% CI 0.73 to 1.68; low-quality evidence). Two studies reported the time to first bleeding episodes; we were unable to perform a meta-analysis. Both studies (959 participants) individually found that the time to first bleeding episode was either the same, or longer, in the low-dose group compared to the standard-dose group. One study (855 participants) found that the time to the first bleeding episode was the same in the high-dose group compared to the standard-dose group. Three studies reported all-cause mortality within 30 days from the start of the study. There was no difference in all-cause mortality between treatment arms (low-dose versus standard-dose: three studies; 1070 participants; RR 2.04, 95% CI 0.70 to 5.93; low-quality evidence; low-dose versus high-dose: one study; 849 participants; RR 1.33, 95% CI 0.50 to 3.54; low-quality evidence; and high-dose versus standard-dose: one study; 855 participants; RR 1.71, 95% CI 0.51 to 5.81; low-quality evidence). Six studies reported the number of platelet transfusions; we were unable to perform a meta-analysis. Two studies (959 participants) out of three (1070 participants) found that a low-dose transfusion strategy led to more transfusion episodes than a standard-dose. One study (849 participants) found that a low-dose transfusion strategy led to more transfusion episodes than a high-dose strategy. One study (855 participants) out of three (1007 participants) found no difference in the number of platelet transfusions between the high-dose and standard-dose groups. One study reported on transfusion reactions. This study’s authors suggested that a high-dose platelet transfusion strategy may lead to a higher rate of transfusion-related adverse events. None of the studies reported quality-of-life. Authors’ conclusions In haematology patients who are thrombocytopenic due to myelosuppressive chemotherapy or HSCT, we found no evidence to suggest that a low-dose platelet transfusion policy is associated with an increased bleeding risk compared to a standard-dose or high-dose policy, or that a high-dose platelet transfusion policy is associated with a decreased risk of bleeding when compared to a standard-dose policy. A low-dose platelet transfusion strategy leads to an increased number of transfusion episodes compared to a standard-dose strategy. A high-dose platelet transfusion strategy does not decrease the number of transfusion episodes per participant compared to a standard-dose regimen, and it may increase the number of transfusion-related adverse events. Findings from this review would suggest a change from current practice, with low-dose platelet transfusions used for people receiving in-patient treatment for their haematological disorder and high-dose platelet transfusion strategies not being used routinely. PMID:26505729

  1. Comparison of different platelet count thresholds to guide administration of prophylactic platelet transfusion for preventing bleeding in people with haematological disorders after myelosuppressive chemotherapy or stem cell transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Estcourt, Lise J; Stanworth, Simon J; Doree, Carolyn; Hopewell, Sally; Trivella, Marialena; Murphy, Michael F

    2015-01-01

    Background Platelet transfusions are used in modern clinical practice to prevent and treat bleeding in people who are thrombocytopenic due to bone marrow failure. Although considerable advances have been made in platelet transfusion therapy in the last 40 years, some areas continue to provoke debate, especially concerning the use of prophylactic platelet transfusions for the prevention of thrombocytopenic bleeding. This is an update of a Cochrane review first published in 2004, and previously updated in 2012 that addressed four separate questions: prophylactic versus therapeutic-only platelet transfusion policy; prophylactic platelet transfusion threshold; prophylactic platelet transfusion dose; and platelet transfusions compared to alternative treatments. This review has now been split into four smaller reviews looking at these questions individually; this review compares prophylactic platelet transfusion thresholds. Objectives To determine whether different platelet transfusion thresholds for administration of prophylactic platelet transfusions (platelet transfusions given to prevent bleeding) affect the efficacy and safety of prophylactic platelet transfusions in preventing bleeding in people with haematological disorders undergoing myelosuppressive chemotherapy or haematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). Search methods We searched for randomised controlled trials (RCTs) in the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) (Cochrane Library 2015, Issue 6, 23 July 2015), MEDLINE (from 1946), Embase (from 1974), CINAHL (from 1937), the Transfusion Evidence Library (from 1950), and ongoing trial databases to 23 July 2015. Selection criteria We included RCTs involving transfusions of platelet concentrates, prepared either from individual units of whole blood or by apheresis, and given to prevent bleeding in people with haematological disorders (receiving myelosuppressive chemotherapy or undergoing HSCT) that compared different thresholds for administration of prophylactic platelet transfusions (low trigger (5 × 109/L); standard trigger (10 × 109/L); higher trigger (20 × 109/L, 30 × 109/L, 50 × 109/L); or alternative platelet trigger (for example platelet mass)). Data collection and analysis We used the standard methodological procedures expected by Cochrane. Main results Three trials met our predefined inclusion criteria and were included for analysis in the review (499 participants). All three trials compared a standard trigger (10 × 109/L) versus a higher trigger (20 × 109/L or 30 × 109/L). None of the trials compared a low trigger versus a standard trigger or an alternative platelet trigger. The trials were conducted between 1991 and 2001 and enrolled participants from fairly comparable patient populations. The original review contained four trials (658 participants); in the previous update of this review we excluded one trial (159 participants) because fewer than 80% of participants had a haematological disorder. We identified no new trials in this update of the review. Overall, the methodological quality of the studies was low across different outcomes according to GRADE methodology. None of the included studies were at low risk of bias in every domain, and all the included studies had some threats to validity. Three studies reported the number of participants with at least one clinically significant bleeding episode within 30 days from the start of the study. There was no evidence of a difference in the number of participants with a clinically significant bleeding episode between the standard and higher trigger groups (three studies; 499 participants; risk ratio (RR) 1.35, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.95 to 1.90; low-quality evidence). One study reported the number of days with a clinically significant bleeding event (adjusted for repeated measures). There was no evidence of a difference in the number of days of bleeding per participant between the standard and higher trigger groups (one study; 255 participants; relative proportion of days with World Health Organization Grade 2 or worse bleeding (RR 1.71, 95% CI 0.84 to 3.48, P = 0.162; authors’ own results; low-quality evidence). Two studies reported the number of participants with severe or life-threatening bleeding. There was no evidence of any difference in the number of participants with severe or life-threatening bleeding between a standard trigger level and a higher trigger level (two studies; 421 participants; RR 0.99, 95% CI 0.52 to 1.88; low-quality evidence). Only one study reported the time to first bleeding episode. There was no evidence of any difference in the time to the first bleeding episode between a standard trigger level and a higher trigger level (one study; 255 participants; hazard ratio 1.11, 95% CI 0.64 to 1.91; low-quality evidence). Only one study reported on all-cause mortality within 30 days from the start of the study. There was no evidence of any difference in all-cause mortality between standard and higher trigger groups (one study; 255 participants; RR 1.78, 95% CI 0.83 to 3.81; low-quality evidence). Three studies reported on the number of platelet transfusions per participant. Two studies reported on the mean number of platelet transfusions per participant. There was a significant reduction in the number of platelet transfusions per participant in the standard trigger group (two studies, mean difference −2.09, 95% CI −3.20 to −0.99; low-quality evidence). One study reported on the number of transfusion reactions. There was no evidence to demonstrate any difference in transfusion reactions between the standard and higher trigger groups (one study; 79 participants; RR 0.07, 95% CI 0.00 to 1.09). None of the studies reported on quality of life. Authors’ conclusions In people with haematological disorders who are thrombocytopenic due to myelosuppressive chemotherapy or HSCT, we found low-quality evidence that a standard trigger level (10 × 109/L) is associated with no increase in the risk of bleeding when compared to a higher trigger level (20 × 109/L or 30 × 109/L). There was low-quality evidence that a standard trigger level is associated with a decreased number of transfusion episodes when compared to a higher trigger level (20 × 109/L or 30 × 109/L). Findings from this review were based on three studies and 499 participants. Without further evidence, it is reasonable to continue with the current practice of administering prophylactic platelet transfusions using the standard trigger level (10 × 109/L) in the absence of other risk factors for bleeding. PMID:26576687

  2. Comparative effects of using black seed (Nigella sativa), cumin seed (Cuminum cyminum), probiotic or prebiotic on growth performance, blood haematology and serum biochemistry of broiler chicks.

    PubMed

    Alimohamadi, K; Taherpour, K; Ghasemi, H A; Fatahnia, F

    2014-06-01

    A 42-day trial was conducted to compare the effects of the following seven experimental diets, which varied in black seed, cumin seed, probiotic or prebiotic concentrations, on the broiler chicks: control (no additives), diet BS1 (4 g/kg black seed), diet BS2 (8 g/kg black seed), diet CS1 (4 g/kg cumin seed), diet CS2 (8 g/kg cumin seed), diet Pro (1 g/kg probiotic Primalac()) and diet Pre (2 g/kg prebiotic Fermacto()). A total of 420 1-day-old male broiler chicks, initially weighing an average of 43 g, were distributed into 28 floor pens at a stocking density of 15 birds per pen. At 28 day of age, the body weight in the birds fed diets BS2, CS2 and Pro was significantly higher than in the control group, but final body weight was not affected. Additionally, the birds fed diets BS2, Pro and Pre exhibited better feed conversion ratio than control birds from 0 to 42 day of age. Diets BS2, CS2 and Pro also statistically increased the relative weight of thymus and bursa of Fabricius, whereas only diet Pro decreased the abdominal fat percentage compared with control diet. Regarding the haematological parameters, feeding diet BS2 yielded a significant increase in red blood cell count, haemoglobin concentration and haematocrit percentage compared with control diet. Serum total cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels in the birds fed diets BS2, Pro and Pre were also significantly lower than in the birds fed the control diet. Without exception, no diets affected feed intake, internal organs weights, carcass characteristics, antibody titres against Newcastle and influenza viruses and leucocyte subsets. In general, current study showed promising results regarding the use of spice additives as growth and health promoters, especially at higher levels of their incorporation in the diets, which were comparable to the probiotic- or prebiotic-containing diets. PMID:23909469

  3. Protective effect of herbal and probiotics enriched diet on haematological and immunity status of Oplegnathus fasciatus (Temminck & Schlegel) against Edwardsiella tarda.

    PubMed

    Harikrishnan, Ramasamy; Kim, Man-Chul; Kim, Ju-Sang; Balasundaram, Chellam; Heo, Moon-Soo

    2011-03-01

    This study determines the effect of diet enriched with the herb Baical skullcap Scutellaria baicalensis, and/or probiotics Lactobacillus sakei BK19 in rock bream, Oplegnathus fasciatus (32 ± 3 g) against Edwardsiella tarda. The changes in haematological parameters, innate immune response, and disease resistance were investigated after 1, 3, and 6 weeks. The white blood cell count (WBC: 10(4) mm(-3)), red blood cell count (RBC: 10(6) mm(-3)), and haemoglobin (Hb: g dl(-1)) levels significant increased (P < 0.05) with mixed diet on 3rd and 6th week and probiotics enriched diet on 6th week. The haematocrit (Ht: %) level significantly increased (P < 0.05) when fed with mixed diet on weeks 1-6. Interestingly, in mixed diet group the lymphocytes (LYM), monocytes (MON), and neutrophils (NEU) significantly increased from week 1-6. The eosinophils (EOS) significantly increased in all the treated groups. In the probiotics or mixed diet groups the total protein (TP: g dl(-1)) increased significantly on weeks 3 and 6. The serum lysozyme activity significantly was enhanced in all the treated groups indicating an increase in the innate immunity level. Serum complement, antiprotease activities, reactive oxygen species (ROS) and reactive nitrogen species (RNS) production significantly increased from week 1-6 with mixed diet. The maximum protection against E. tarda was recorded in mixed diet group with a minimum cumulative mortality of 20% and a high relative percent survival (RPS) of 72.84. In the probiotics and herbal diet groups the cumulative mortality was 25% and 35% and RPS was 68.63 and 59.42, respectively. This study indicates that administration of probiotics or mixed diets can effectively minimize the mortality and restore the altered hematological parameters and enhancing the innate immunity in O. fasciatus against E. tarda. PMID:21272648

  4. Primary prophylaxis of invasive fungal infections in patients with hematologic malignancies. Recommendations of the Infectious Diseases Working Party of the German Society for Haematology and Oncology

    PubMed Central

    Cornely, Oliver A.; Bhme, Angelika; Buchheidt, Dieter; Einsele, Hermann; Heinz, Werner J.; Karthaus, Meinolf; Krause, Stefan W.; Krger, William; Maschmeyer, Georg; Penack, Olaf; Ritter, Jrg; Ruhnke, Markus; Sandherr, Michael; Sieniawski, Michal; Vehreschild, Jrg-Janne; Wolf, Hans-Heinrich; Ullmann, Andrew J.

    2009-01-01

    There is no widely accepted standard for antifungal prophylaxis in patients with hematologic malignancies. The Infectious Diseases Working Party of the German Society for Haematology and Oncology assigned a committee of hematologists and infectious disease specialists to develop recommendations. Literature data bases were systematically searched for clinical trials on antifungal prophylaxis. The studies identified were shared within the committee. Data were extracted by two of the authors (OAC and MSi). The consensus process was conducted by email communication. Finally, a review committee discussed the proposed recommendations. After consensus was established the recommendations were finalized. A total of 86 trials were identified including 16,922 patients. Only a few trials yielded significant differences in efficacy. Fluconazole 400 mg/d improved the incidence rates of invasive fungal infections and attributable mortality in allogeneic stem cell recipients. Posaconazole 600 mg/d reduced the incidence of IFI and attributable mortality in allogeneic stem cell recipients with severe graft versus host disease, and in patients with acute myelogenous leukemia or myelodysplastic syndrome additionally reduced overall mortality. Aerosolized liposomal amphotericin B reduced the incidence rate of invasive pulmonary aspergillosis. Posaconazole 600 mg/d is recommended in patients with acute myelogenous leukemia/myelodysplastic syndrome or undergoing allogeneic stem cell recipients with graft versus host disease for the prevention of invasive fungal infections and attributable mortality (Level A I). Fluconazole 400 mg/d is recommended in allogeneic stem cell recipients until development of graft versus host disease only (Level A I). Aerosolized liposomal amphotericin B is recommended during prolonged neutropenia (Level B II). PMID:19066334

  5. Effects of Saccharomyces cerevisiae extract on haematological parameters, immune function and the antioxidant defence system in breeder hens fed aflatoxin contaminated diets.

    PubMed

    Matur, E; Ergul, E; Akyazi, I; Eraslan, E; Inal, G; Bilgic, S; Demircan, H

    2011-10-01

    The study was conducted to investigate the efficacy of Saccharomyces cerevisiae extract (SC) on haematological parameters, immune function, and the antioxidant defence system in breeder hens fed a diet contaminated with low level aflatoxin (AF). Forty-eight Ross 308 breeder hens were fed on diets containing AF (0 or 100?g/kg) and SC (0 or 1?g/kg) in a 2??2 factorial arrangement. Red blood cell (RBC), white blood cell (WBC), and platelet counts, differential leucocyte counts, blood CD3+, CD4+, CD8+ and CD5+ T cell ratios, phagocytic activity and oxidative burst of heterophils, plasma and liver catalase activity, and malondialdehyde (MDA) and ascorbic acid concentrations were measured. 3. Plasma and liver MDA concentrations increased (P?

  6. Endocrine Profiles, Haematology and Pregnancy Outcomes of Late Pregnant Holstein Dairy Heifers Sired by Bulls Giving a High or Low Incidence of Stillbirth

    PubMed Central

    Kornmatitsuk, B; Dahl, E; Ropstad, E; Beckers, JF; Gustafsson, H; Kindahl, H

    2004-01-01

    The high incidence of stillbirth in Swedish Holstein heifers has increased continuously during the last 15 years to an average of 11% today. The pathological reasons behind the increased incidence of stillbirth are unknown. The present experiment was undertaken to investigate possible causes of stillbirth and to study possible physiological markers for predicting stillbirth. Twenty Swedish Holstein dairy heifers sired by bulls with breeding values for a high risk of stillbirth (n = 12) (experimental group) and a low risk of stillbirth (n = 8) (control group, group B) were selected based on information in the Swedish AI-data base. The experimental group consisted of 2 subgroups of heifers (groups A1 and A2) inseminated with 2 different bulls with 3.5% and 9% higher stillbirth rates than the average, and the control group consisted of heifers pregnant with 5 different bulls with 0%–6% lower stillbirth rates than the average. The bull used for group A1 had also calving difficulties due to large calves as compared to the bull in group A2 showing no calving difficulties. The heifers were supervised from 6–7 months of pregnancy up to birth, and the pregnancies and parturitions were compared between groups regarding hormonal levels, haematology, placental characteristics and calf viability. In group A1, 1 stillborn, 1 weak and 4 normal calves were recorded. In group A2, 2 stillborn and 4 normal calves were registered. All animals in the control group gave birth to a normal living calf without any assistance. The weak calf showed deviating profiles of body temperature, saturated oxygen and heart rates, compared with the normal living calves. No differences of the placentome thickness, measured in vivo by ultrasonography were seen between the groups. The number of leukocytes and differential cell counts in groups A1 and A2 followed the profiles found in the control group. In group A1, a slight decrease of oestrone sulphate (E1SO4) levels was found in the animal delivering a stillborn calf from the first 24-h blood sampling at 6 weeks to the second at 3 weeks prior to delivery, while the levels of E1SO4 at both periods in the animal delivering a weak calf followed the profile in animals delivering a normal living calf. During late pregnancy and at the time of parturition, the levels of E1SO4 and PAGs in animals delivering a stillborn or weak calf (from group A1) followed the normal profiles found in animals delivering a normal living calf. In group A2, low levels of E1SO4 and pregnancy associated glycoproteins (PAGs) over 24 h at both 3 and 6 weeks prior to parturition (<1.5 nmol/L) were recorded in animals delivering a stillborn calf. During late pregnancy and parturition, the levels of E1SO4 and PAGs were slightly lower during 30–50 days prior to delivery and increased with a lower magnitude at the time of parturition. In conclusion, our results indicate that the aetiology behind stillbirth varies depending on the AI-bulls used and is associated with dystocia or low viability of the calves. Deviating profiles of oestrone sulphate (E1SO4) and pregnancy associated glycoproteins (PAGs) in animals delivering a stillborn calf not caused by dystocia were observed, suggesting placental dysfunction as a possible factor. The finding suggests that the analyses of E1SO4 and PAGs could be used for monitoring foetal well-being in animals with a high risk of stillbirth at term. PMID:15535086

  7. Long-term complete haematological and molecular remission after allogeneic bone marrow transplantation in a patient with a stem cell myeloproliferative disorder associated with t(8;13)(p12;q12).

    PubMed

    Suzan, Florence; Guasch, Graldine; Terre, Christine; Garcia, Isabel; Bastie, Jean-Nol; Maarek, Odile; Ribaud, Patricia; Gluckman, Eliane; Daniel, Marie-Thrse; Pbusque, Marie-Josphe; Castaigne, Sylvie

    2003-04-01

    A rare atypical myeloproliferative disorder (aMPD) associated with chromosomal translocations involving the short arm of chromosome 8, region p11-p12 has been described. In most patients, the cytogenetic abnormality is a t(8;13)(p12;q12) that fuses fibroblast growth factor receptor 1, the 8p12 key gene, to FIM/ZNF198 gene. Prognosis is poor with frequent evolution to acute myeloid leukaemia within 1 year of diagnosis. We report a new patient with aMPD with a t(8;13) translocation. Complete haematological, cytogenetic and molecular remission was demonstrated 39 months after allogeneic bone marrow transplantation. This is the first report to demonstrate a molecular remission in this disorder. PMID:12694254

  8. Long-term outcome and prognostic factors of unrelated cord blood transplantation in children with haematological malignancies: a retrospective study using the Spanish Working Party for BMT in Children (GETMON) database.

    PubMed

    Díaz de Heredia, C; González, M; Verdeguer, A; Elorza, I; Rodriguez, A; Martinez, A; Pérez, J M; Badell, I; Gonzalez, M E; Olivé, T; Fernández, J M; Maldonado, M S; Díaz, M A; Sánchez de Toledo, J

    2014-06-01

    Outcomes of unrelated cord blood transplants (UCBT) were assessed in 172 consecutive children, median age 5 years (range: 0.5-18), with haematological malignancies treated at nine Spanish hospitals between February 1996 and April 2009. Data were collected from the Spanish Working Party for Blood and Marrow Transplantation in Children (GETMON) database. ALL was diagnosed in 125 patients, AML in 43 and myelodysplastic syndrome in 4. Myeloid engraftment (ANC⩾0.5 × 10(9)/L) occurred in 87.2% at a median of 22 days and was associated with the total nucleated cell (TNC) dose infused and use of a TT-containing conditioning regimen. Cumulative incidence of relapse was 20% at 1 year post transplant and 29% at 3 years, being higher in patients with a diagnosis of ALL, very high risk disease and GVHD grades 0-1. Cumulative incidence of non-relapse mortality (NRM) was 19% at 100 days post transplant and 39% at 1 year. BU-FLU-TT-ATG-conditioned patients had lower NRM. Disease-free survival (DFS) was 40% at 2 years post transplant (for patients transplanted since 2006). On multivariate analysis, TNC dose infused, AML and BU-FLU-TT-ATG-conditioning regimen increased the probability of DFS. It is of paramount importance to select cord blood units with the highest cell dose. As the BU-FLU-TT-ATG-conditioning regimen was associated with better DFS owing to lower NRM, further prospective studies testing this regimen are warranted. PMID:24614843

  9. Evaluation of growth performance, serum biochemistry and haematological parameters on broiler birds fed with raw and processed samples of Entada scandens, Canavalia gladiata and Canavalia ensiformis seed meal as an alternative protein source.

    PubMed

    Sasipriya, Gopalakrishnan; Siddhuraju, Perumal

    2013-03-01

    The experiment was carried out to investigate the inclusion of underutilised legumes, Entada scandens, Canavalia gladiata and Canavalia ensiformis, seed meal in soybean-based diet in broilers. The utilisation of these wild legumes is limited by the presence of antinutrient compounds. Processing methods like soaking followed by autoclaving in sodium bicarbonate solution in E. scandens and C. gladiata and soaking followed by autoclaving in ash solution in C. ensiformis were adopted. The proximate composition of raw and processed samples of E. scandens, C. gladiata and C. ensiformis were determined. The protein content was enhanced in processed sample of E. scandens (46%) and C. ensiformis (16%). This processing method had reduced the maximum number of antinutrients such as tannins (10-100%), trypsin inhibitor activity (99%), chymotrypsin inhibitor activity (72-100%), canavanine (60-62%), amylase inhibitor activity (73-100%), saponins (78-92%), phytic acid (19-40%) and lectins. Hence, the raw samples at 15% and processed samples at 15 and 30% were replaced with soybean protein in commercial broiler diet respectively. Birds fed with 30% processed samples of E. scandens, C. gladiata and C. ensiformis showed significantly similar results of growth performance, carcass characteristics, organ weight, haematological parameters and serum biochemical parameters (cholesterol, protein, bilirubin, albumin, globulin and liver and kidney function parameters) without any adverse effects after 42days of supplementation. The proper utilisation of these underutilised legumes may act as an alternative protein ingredient in poultry diets. PMID:23076820

  10. Adaptive Evolution Coupled with Retrotransposon Exaptation Allowed for the Generation of a Human-Protein-Specific Coding Gene That Promotes Cancer Cell Proliferation and Metastasis in Both Haematological Malignancies and Solid Tumours: The Extraordinary Case of MYEOV Gene

    PubMed Central

    Papamichos, Spyros I.; Margaritis, Dimitrios; Kotsianidis, Ioannis

    2015-01-01

    The incidence of cancer in human is high as compared to chimpanzee. However previous analysis has documented that numerous human cancer-related genes are highly conserved in chimpanzee. Till date whether human genome includes species-specific cancer-related genes that could potentially contribute to a higher cancer susceptibility remains obscure. This study focuses on MYEOV, an oncogene encoding for two protein isoforms, reported as causally involved in promoting cancer cell proliferation and metastasis in both haematological malignancies and solid tumours. First we document, via stringent in silico analysis, that MYEOV arose de novo in Catarrhini. We show that MYEOV short-isoform start codon was evolutionarily acquired after Catarrhini/Platyrrhini divergence. Throughout the course of Catarrhini evolution MYEOV acquired a gradually elongated translatable open reading frame (ORF), a gradually shortened translation-regulatory upstream ORF, and alternatively spliced mRNA variants. A point mutation introduced in human allowed for the acquisition of MYEOV long-isoform start codon. Second, we demonstrate the precious impact of exonized transposable elements on the creation of MYEOV gene structure. Third, we highlight that the initial part of MYEOV long-isoform coding DNA sequence was under positive selection pressure during Catarrhini evolution. MYEOV represents a Primate Orphan Gene that acquired, via ORF expansion, a human-protein-specific coding potential. PMID:26568894

  11. The effect of oyster mushroom ?-1.3/1.6-D-glucan and oxytetracycline antibiotic on biometrical, haematological, biochemical, and immunological indices, and histopathological changes in common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.).

    PubMed

    Dobkov, Radka; Blahov, Jana; Mikulkov, Ivana; Modr, Helena; Prkov, Eva; Svobodov, Zde?ka; Skori?, Mio; Jarkovsk, Ji?; Siwicki, Andrzej-Krzysztof

    2013-12-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the effect of micronized ?-1.3/1.6-D-glucan (BG) derived from the oyster mushroom Pleurotus ostreatus Hiratake and tetracycline antibiotic oxytetracycline (OTC) on biometrical, haematological, biochemical, and immunological indices, and histopathological changes in tissues of one- to two-year-old common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.). The fish tested were divided into five experimental groups and one control. Carp in the control group were fed commercial carp feed pellets. Fish in the five experimental groups were fed the same pellets supplemented with either OTC, a combination of OTC and BG, or BG as follows: 75 mg oxytetracycline kg(-1) bw (OTC group), 75 mg oxytetracycline kg(-1) bw and 0.5% ?-glucan (OTC + 0.5% BG group), 75 mg oxytetracycline kg(-1) bw and 2.0% ?-glucan (OTC + 2.0% BG group), 0.5% ?-glucan (0.5% BG group), and 2.0% ?-glucan (2.0% BG group). OTC- and BG-supplemented diets and the control diet were administered to experimental and control carp for 50 days (i.e. samplings 1-3, the exposure period); for the following 14 days, fish were fed only control feed pellets with no OTC or BG supplementation (i.e. sampling 4, the recovery period). Blood and tissue samples were collected both during, and at the end of the study. No significant changes in biometrical indices (i.e. total length, standard length, total weight, hepatosomatic and spleen somatic index, and Fulton's condition factor) were found in experimental carp compared to control in any sampling. In haematological indices, significant changes were found only in sampling 2, in which shifts in PCV (P < 0.01), Hb (P < 0.01), and WBC (P < 0.01), and in the counts of lymphocytes (P < 0.01), monocytes (P < 0.01), and neutrophil granulocytes-segments (P < 0.05) were revealed. As for biochemical profiling, plasma concentrations of glucose, albumins, cholesterol, natrium, and chlorides (all P < 0.01), and total proteins, lactate, phosphorus, and potassium (all P < 0.05) as well as the catalytic activity of ALP (P < 0.05) were altered in common carp. A significant change in induced (opsonizedzymosan particles, OZP) chemiluminescence (P < 0.05) in sampling 3 and no shifts in serum immunoglobulins concentration were found in the immunological analysis. Histopathological examination of skin, gills, liver, spleen, and cranial and caudal kidneys revealed no obvious specific changes in any tissue analysed. The use of ?-glucans in clinically healthy aquaculture remains an issue. Nevertheless, their use in breeding endangered by stress stimuli, infectious disease, or adverse environmental factors is defensible. PMID:24041844

  12. Characteristics of platelet indices, neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio and erythrocyte sedimentation rate compared with C reactive protein in patients with cerebral infarction: a retrospective analysis of comparing haematological parameters and C reactive protein

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jong-Han; Kwon, Kyum-Yil; Yoon, Soo-Young; Kim, Hyon-Suk; Lim, Chae Seung

    2014-01-01

    Objective Elevation of C reactive protein (CRP) is one of the major acute-phase responses following ischaemic or haemorrhagic stroke. This study aims to investigate the associations between platelet indices, neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR) and erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) compared with CRP in patients with cerebral infarction. Setting The clinical data of patients with cerebral infarction were analysed retrospectively. Participants We analysed, unduplicated, 516 patients with cerebral infarction (mean age 66.212.7, male/female=291/225). Outcome measures Mean platelet volume (MPV), MPV to platelet count, NLR and ESR were compared with CRP in patients with cerebral infarction in a single institute through Spearman correlation test. Results There were significant correlations between CRP and MPV (?=0.088, p=0.045), NLR (?=0.4, p<0.001) and ESR (?=0.468, p<0.001) in patients with cerebral infarction. In the male group, NLR (?=0.398, p<0.001) and ESR (?=0.502, p<0.001) showed significant correlations with CRP. In the female group, CRP showed significant correlations with MPV (?=0.17, p=0.011), NLR (?=0.392, p<0.001) and ESR (?=0.475, p<0.001). Conclusions MPV, NLR and ESR showed significant correlation with CRP in patients with cerebral infarction. MPV and NLR are cost-effective and simple parameters that can be attainable by using an automatic haematology analyser. Further well-designed and large-scale prospective studies are warranted to evaluate platelet indices or NLR for monitoring patients with cerebral infarction. PMID:25412865

  13. Feeding a diet contaminated with ochratoxin A for chickens at the maximum level recommended by the EU for poultry feeds (0.1 mg/kg). 1. Effects on growth and slaughter performance, haematological and serum traits.

    PubMed

    Pozzo, L; Salamano, G; Mellia, E; Gennero, M S; Doglione, L; Cavallarin, L; Tarantola, M; Forneris, G; Schiavone, A

    2013-05-01

    The European Commission Recommendation 2006/576/EC, suggests that the maximum level of Ochratoxin A (OTA) in poultry feeds should be set at 0.1 mg OTA/kg. Thirty-six one-day-old male Hubburd broiler chickens were divided into two groups, a Control (basal diet) and an Ochratoxin A (basal diet + 0.1 mg OTA/kg) group. The growth and slaughter performance traits were recorded. The liver, spleen, bursa of Fabricius and thymus weights were measured. The erythrocyte and leukocyte numbers were assayed in blood samples, and the heterophils to lymphocytes (H/L) ratio was determined. Alpha-1-acid glycoprotein (AGP), lysozyme, the total protein and the electrophoretic pattern were evaluated in serum samples. Liver enzymes (alanino aminotransferase, ALT and aspartate aminotransferase, AST) and kidney function parameters (uric acid and creatinine) were quantified. The results revealed that feeding a 0.1 mg OTA/kg contaminated diet to chicks caused a decrease in the absolute thymus weight (p < 0.05) and a lower total protein (p < 0.01), albumin (p < 0.01), alpha (p < 0.05), beta (p = 0.001) and gamma (p = 0.001) globulins serum concentration in the Ochratoxin A group. Moreover, the albumin-to-globulin (A/G) ratio of the OTA-treated animals resulted to be higher (p < 0.05). Feeding broiler chickens, a diet contaminated with the maximum level admitted by the European Commission Recommendation (0.1 mg OTA/kg), did not affect the animal performance, slaughter traits, organ weights, haematological parameters, liver enzyme or renal function parameters concentrations but had an overall immunosuppressant effect, with reduction in the thymus weight and of the total serum protein, albumin, alpha, beta and gamma globulins concentration. PMID:23639013

  14. [CUTANEOUS INFECTIONS ASSOCIATED WITH HAEMATOLOGICAL MALIGNANCIES].

    PubMed

    Pirard, G E

    2015-12-01

    Patients suffering from a malignant hemopathy represent a population at high risk for cutaneous infections that are potentially severe. Viral, bacterial and mycotic infections of the skin are not rare. Their semiology possibly appears falsely reassuring. Some skin lesions are primary events. Other lesions are secondary following contiguous extension of another deeper location, or represent a sign of septicemia. Taking care of the patient must be precocious and rigorous. PMID:26867306

  15. [Invasive mould disease in haematological patients].

    PubMed

    Ruiz-Camps, Isabel; Jarque, Isidro

    2014-01-01

    Invasive mould infections (IMI) are a persistent problem with high morbidity and mortality rates among patients receiving chemotherapy for hematological malignancies and hematopoietic stem cell transplant recipients. Management of IMI in this setting has become increasingly complex with the advent of new antifungal agents and diagnostic tests, which have resulted in different therapeutic strategies (prophylactic, empirical, pre-emptive, and directed). A proper assessment of the individual risk for IMI appears to be critical in order to use the best prophylactic and therapeutic approach and increase the survival rates. Among the available antifungal drugs, the most frequently used in the hematologic patient are fluconazole, mould-active azoles (itraconazole, posaconazole and voriconazole), candins (anidulafungin, caspofungin and micafungin), and lipid formulations of amphotericin B. Specific recommendations for their use, and criteria for selecting the antifungal agents are discussed in this paper. PMID:25434346

  16. The clinical management of tumour lysis syndrome in haematological malignancies.

    PubMed

    Will, Andrew; Tholouli, Eleni

    2011-07-01

    Tumour lysis syndrome (TLS) is caused by the disintegration of malignant cells, usually following the instigation of chemotherapy, although it may already be established at the time of initial presentation in a minority of cases. As a direct consequence of malignant cell breakdown, intracellular ions, proteins, nucleic acids and their metabolites are released into the plasma causing the characteristic metabolic abnormalities of TLS; hyperuricaemia, hyperkalaemia, hyperphosphataemia and hypocalcaemia. In many cases the release of large amounts intracellular contents is so abrupt that the normal homeostatic mechanisms are rapidly overwhelmed and without prompt, effective management, the clinical effects of TLS soon become apparent. PMID:21554259

  17. [The place of the parents at the haematology day hospital].

    PubMed

    Granjard-Goy, Florence

    2015-01-01

    Over recent years, paediatric departments have slowly opened up to parents who now have a recognised status as partners in their children's care. However, while in theory their place in the hospital is no longer brought into question, in practice some difficulties still arise. PMID:26183099

  18. Cutaneous mast cell tumor (Mastocytoma): Cyto- histopathological and haematological investigations

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Cutaneous mast cell tumours (MCTs) are the most common skin tumours in dogs. Due to the prevalence of canine MCTs and the variable biologic behavior of this disease, accurate prognostication and a thorough understanding of MCT biology are critical for the treatment of this disease. A cytologic diagnosis of mast cell tumor with evidence of prior hemorrhage was made, and the masses were surgically removed. Cytological evaluation of fine-needle aspirates from the cutaneous mass from the axillary comprised many well-differentiated, highly granulated mast cells with moderate numbers of eosinophils. Nuclei were varied in size and shape with high nuclear’to’cytoplasmic ratio, prominent nucleoli, marked atypical and mitotic figures. Microscopically, mass consisted of sheets of neoplastic round cells that formed nonencapsulated nodules in the dermis and infiltrated into the adjacent dermal collagen, and also there was diffuse subcutis invasion of round to pleomorphic tumor cells. Tumor cells had moderate to abundant cytoplasm, round to ovoid nuclei with scattered chromatin, and mitotic figures. In this tumor, cytoplasmic granules showed atypical metachromasia. In addition, eosinophils were scattered among the mast cells at the periphery of the nodules. The presence of eosinophils and the observation, at high magnification, of cells with cytoplasmic metachromatic granules. Invasion of the deep subcutaneous fat or cutaneous muscles were a common feature of grade III tumour. Finally, a diagnosis of grade III cutaneous mast cell tumor was made. Virtual slides The virtual slide(s) of this article can be found here: http://www.diagnosticpathology.diagnomx.eu/vs/4755249151157024. PMID:24444100

  19. The challenge of antibiotic resistance in haematology patients.

    PubMed

    Blennow, Ola; Ljungman, Per

    2016-02-01

    Bacterial infections were once a major obstacle to the treatment of acute leukaemia. Improvement in management strategies, including the use of broad-spectrum antibacterial drugs targeting Gram-negative bacteria, has reduced the mortality in neutropenic patients developing blood stream infections and other severe infections. In many countries these achievements are threatened by development of multi-resistant bacteria, such as Klebsiella pneumoniae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. This review addresses the epidemiology, clinical importance and possible management of these multi-resistant organisms. PMID:26492511

  20. Effects of electroplating effluent on haematological parameters of Oreochromis mossambicus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Navaraj, P. S.; Kumaraguru, A. K.

    2003-05-01

    Fresh water fish, Oreochromis mossambicus was exposed to Electroplating effluent with a view to check the hematological changes as a function of time and effluent concentration. Increase in time and concentration always produced a declining value of RBC, Hb, Ht and WBC. This level is statistically significant in most of the test concentrations and in the experimental duration. The calculated MCV, MCH and MCHC also exhibit the same trend in all the selected sub lethal concentrations of the effluent, which is also found to be time and dose dependent.

  1. Not so benign haematology: anaemia of the elderly

    PubMed Central

    Merchant, Akil A.; Roy, Cindy N.

    2011-01-01

    Summary Developed countries, such as the United Kingdom, are experiencing a change in demographics resulting in the largest proportion of adults over 65 years of age that our health systems have ever experienced. As such, haematologists must be prepared to evaluate and treat anaemia in a more complicated patient population, but sufficient evidence-based guidelines are lacking. Critical next steps that must be taken to ensure the best care of this population include the determination of appropriate haemoglobin concentrations for older adults in light of age, gender, race, and comorbidities; the development of interventional trials that address physical performance outcomes in addition to haemoglobin targets; and translational studies which address the molecular pathogenesis of anaemia in older adults with the most advanced scientific approaches. PMID:22050828

  2. Cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterases as targets for treatment of haematological malignancies

    PubMed Central

    Lerner, Adam; Epstein, Paul M.

    2005-01-01

    The cAMP signalling pathway has emerged as a key regulator of haematopoietic cell proliferation, differentiation and apoptosis. In parallel, general understanding of the biology of cyclic nucleotide PDEs (phosphodiesterases) has advanced considerably, revealing the remarkable complexity of this enzyme system that regulates the amplitude, kinetics and location of intracellular cAMP-mediated signalling. The development of therapeutic inhibitors of specific PDE gene families has resulted in a growing appreciation of the potential therapeutic application of PDE inhibitors to the treatment of immune-mediated illnesses and haematopoietic malignancies. This review summarizes the expression and function of PDEs in normal haematopoietic cells and the evidence that family-specific inhibitors will be therapeutically useful in myeloid and lymphoid malignancies. PMID:16336197

  3. Cytotoxic T lymphocytes as immune-therapy in haematological practice.

    PubMed

    Leen, Ann M; Heslop, Helen E

    2008-10-01

    Viral infections are a significant cause of morbidity and mortality, particularly in pediatric allogeneic haematopoietic stem cell transplant recipients. Effective therapies are limited and often associated with significant side effects. Adoptive transfer of virus-reactive T cells offers a means of reconstituting antiviral immunity and this approach has been successfully used to prevent and treat cytomegalovirus, Epstein-Barr virus, and adenovirus infections in vivo. This review outlines the clinical trials that have been performed to date, and will describe future initiatives to (a) develop strategies that can increase the breadth of the viruses that can be targeted, and (b) simplify the process to extend this technology to more centers so that cellular therapy to reconstitute immunity can be more widely applied. PMID:18691164

  4. Predictors of parenting stress in patients with haematological cancer.

    PubMed

    Fernandes, Cheryl; Muller, Robert; Rodin, Gary

    2012-01-01

    This study was designed to identify potential determinants of parenting stress in parents with leukemia or lymphoma and with children younger than age 18 years. Participants recruited at a comprehensive cancer center completed self-report measures of parenting stress, attachment style, parenting alliance, depression, and anxiety. Depression was positively correlated with parenting stress. Anxious and avoidant attachment styles, but not the degree of physical distress or the quality of the parenting alliance, significantly predicted parenting stress. These findings underscore the relationship of parenting stress to psychological well-being and the contribution of individual characteristics in parents to this stress. PMID:22269077

  5. Biosimilar agents in oncology/haematology: from approval to practice

    PubMed Central

    Niederwieser, Dietger; Schmitz, Stephan

    2011-01-01

    The regulation of biosimilars is a process that is still developing. In Europe, guidance regarding the approval and use of biosimilars has evolved with the products under consideration. It is now more than 3 years since the first biosimilar agents in oncology support, erythropoiesis-stimulating agents, were approved in the EU. More recently, biosimilar granulocyte colony-stimulating factors have received marketing approval in Europe. This review considers general issues surrounding the introduction of biosimilars and highlights current specific issues pertinent to their use in clinical practice in oncology. Information on marketing approval, extrapolation, labelling, substitution, immunogenicity and traceability of each biosimilar product is important, especially in oncology where patients are treated in repeated therapy courses, often with complicated protocols, and where biosimilars are not used as a unique therapy for replacement of e.g. growth hormone or insulin. While future developments in the regulation of biosimilars will need to address multiple issues, in the interim physicians should remain aware of the inherent differences between biosimilar and innovator products. PMID:21175852

  6. Targeting the ubiquitin proteasome system in haematological malignancies.

    PubMed

    Crawford, Lisa J; Irvine, Alexandra E

    2013-11-01

    The ubiquitin proteasome system (UPS) plays a central role in cellular protein homeostasis through the targeted destruction of damaged/misfolded proteins and regulatory proteins that control critical cellular functions. The UPS comprises a sequential series of enzymatic activities to covalently attach ubiquitin to proteins to target them for degradation through the proteasome. Aberrancies within this system have been associated with transformation and tumourigenesis and thus, the UPS represents an attractive target for the development of anti-cancer therapies. The use of the first-in-class proteasome inhibitor, bortezomib, in the treatment of Plasma Cell Myeloma and Mantle Cell Lymphoma has validated the UPS as a therapeutic target. Following on its success, efforts are focused on the development of second-generation proteasome inhibitors and small molecule inhibitors of other components of the UPS. This review will provide an overview of the UPS and discuss current and novel therapies targeting the UPS. PMID:24183816

  7. Haematological changes in the laboratory rat Rattus norvegicus infected with Echinostoma caproni (Trematoda: Echinostomatidae).

    PubMed

    Muñoz-Antoli, C; Cortés, A; Torres, D; Esteban, J G; Toledo, R

    2015-09-01

    To study possible indirect effects of the infection with intestinal helminths, 12 Rattus norvegicus (Wistar) were each experimentally exposed to 100 metacercariae of Echinostoma caproni, and blood samples were taken weekly up to 4 weeks post-exposure for comparison with control rats. Values of haematocrit (HCT), red blood cells (RBC), platelets (PLT), white blood cells (WBC), haemoglobin (HGB) and haematimatrix indices, and mean corpuscular haemoglobin concentrations (MCHC) were determined. In addition, leucocyte counts, including lymphocytes, neutrophils, monocytes, eosinophils and basophils were analysed. These parameters, including the leucocyte counts, showed no significant differences, except for MCHC at 4 weeks post-exposure. The present results indicate that in rats infected with E. caproni, although eosinophilia did not significantly increase, a significant reduction in MCHC was associated with an increase in the number of RBC. PMID:24893315

  8. CD19 chimeric antigen receptor T cell therapy for haematological malignancies.

    PubMed

    Ghorashian, Sara; Pule, Martin; Amrolia, Persis

    2015-05-01

    T cells can be redirected to recognize tumour antigens by genetic modification to express a chimeric antigen receptor (CAR). These consist of antibody-derived antigen-binding regions linked to T cell signalling elements. CD19 is an ideal target because it is expressed on most B cell malignancies as well as normal B cells but not on other cell types, restricting any 'on target, off tumour' toxicity to B cell depletion. Recent clinical studies involving CD19 CAR-directed T cells have shown unprecedented responses in a range of B cell malignancies, even in patients with chemorefractory relapse. Durable responses have been achieved, although the persistence of modified T cells may be limited. This therapy is not without toxicity, however. Cytokine release syndrome and neurotoxicity appear to be frequent but are treatable and reversible. CAR T cell therapy holds the promise of a tailored cellular therapy, which can form memory and be adapted to the tumour microenvironment. This review will provide a perspective on the currently available data, as well as on future developments in the field. PMID:25753571

  9. Haematological values and parasitic infections in school children in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, M M

    1991-12-01

    A total of 1426 apparently healthy Saudi children, were subjected to clinical and laboratory investigations of blood, urine and stools. Lower means were observed for Hb concentration, Hot ratio, RBC and WBC counts. The MCV was in the range of Western levels. Of 1343 stool specimens 156 (11.6%) were positive for intestinal parasites (5.4% pathogenic and 6.3% commensals). The higher infection rate of commensals strongly suggests the presence of potentially infectious environmental sources and a public health problem. Giardia lamblia was the most common pathogenic parasite 3.6% and its high infection rate seemed to be associated with lower Hb level. So screening for parasitic infections especially among anaemic children is necessary as a part of the general health care programme. PMID:1765697

  10. Adoptive T-cell therapy for fungal infections in haematology patients

    PubMed Central

    Deo, Shivashni S; Gottlieb, David J

    2015-01-01

    The prolonged immune deficiency resulting from haematopoietic stem cell transplant and chemotherapy predisposes to a high risk of invasive fungal infections. Despite the recent advances in molecular diagnostic testing, early initiation of pre-emptive antifungal therapy and the use of combination pharmacotherapy, mortality from invasive mould infections remain high among recipients of allogeneic stem cell transplant. The increasing incidences of previously rare and drug-resistant strains of fungi present a further clinical challenge. Therefore, there is a need for novel strategies to combat fungal infections in the immunocompromised. Adoptive therapy using in vitro-expanded fungus-specific CD4 cells of the Th-1 type has shown clinical efficacy in murine studies and in a small human clinical study. Several techniques for the isolation and expansion of fungus-specific T cells have been successfully applied. Here we discuss the incidence and changing patterns of invasive fungal diseases, clinical evidence supporting the role of T cells in fungal immunity, methods to expand fungus-specific T cells in the laboratory and considerations surrounding the use of T cells for fungal immunotherapy. PMID:26366286

  11. Haematological characterisation and molecular basis of asian Indian inversion deletions delta Beta thalassemia: a case report.

    PubMed

    Khunger, Jitender Mohan; Gupta, Monika; Singh, Rekha; Kapoor, Rohit; Pandey, Hare Ram

    2014-09-01

    The hereditary persistence of fetal hemoglobin (HPFH) and delta beta thalassemia are heterogeneous disorders characterised by increased levels of fetal hemoglobin and high level of this Hb continues in adulthood. The distinction between these two conditions is not always possible with routine hematologic analysis and molecular characterisation of the defect is required. We encountered such a rare case of ? ? thalassemia in a 10-year-old male child who presented with features of thalassemia intermedia. Hemoglobin analysis showed 100% HbF while molecular analysis revealed Asian Indian inversion-deletion G?A?(? ?) zero thalassemia. PMID:25386442

  12. Bovine haematological values during fattening with possible implications for muscle growth.

    PubMed

    Krizanovi?, D; Karadjole, I; Bozi?, P; Susi?, V; Mikuli?, B

    2001-08-01

    Haemoglobin concentration (Hb), haematocrit (PCV) and mean corpuscular haemoglobin concentration (MCHC) were determined as indicators of oxygen-carrying capacity in 25 Simmental bulls during intensive fattening. Their possible relations to muscle growth were also investigated. The animals were the progeny of two sires. Blood samples were taken at 6, 9, 12 and 15 months of age. After slaughter, the right thoracic rib cut (7-9) was dissected into the longissimus dorsi muscle (LD), other muscles (OM) and total muscles (TM) (LD+OM). There was a significant increase in the mean PCV and Hb values during fattening. The PCV and Hb values were significantly correlated with the tissue share of OM or TM only at 12 and 15 months of age. LD muscle share was not significantly correlated with any of the parameters at any fattening time. It would appear from these results that muscle growth proceeds in two phases. The first is until the age of 12 months and the other from then to maturity. PMID:11519680

  13. Haematologic alterations caused by Ipomoea carnea in experimental poisoning of guinea pig.

    PubMed

    García, Enrique N; Aguirre, María V; Gimeno, Eduardo J; Rios, Elvio E; Acosta, Ofelia C; Cholich, Luciana A

    2015-10-01

    Ipomoea carnea subsp. fistulosa (Convolvulaceae) causes poisoning of goats, sheep and cattle in many tropical and subtropical countries. The pathophysiology of this poisoning mainly involves an abnormal glycoprotein metabolism. The aim of this study was to describe the potential toxicity of I. carnea in a guinea pig model through its effect on hematopoiesis in a time course study of 40 days. Experimental poisoning was achieved by feeding animals with "small balls" prepared with milled leaves of I. carnea mixed with commercial crushed pellets for rodents. Hematologic and biochemical parameters, bone marrow and spleencellularities, histopathologic evaluations and lectin-histochemistrywere performed during the scheduled time of the study.The treatment with "small balls" caused significant changes in the weight of spleen, a notable decrease in peripheral red blood cells, and concomitantwith morphological and histopathologicalalterationsin hematopoietic tissues. Overall, the present study suggested that 20 days ofthis treatmentcouldbe enough to develop bone marrow hypoplasia and vacuolation of white cells of spleen, blood and lymph nodes with a transient erythropoietic contribution of the splenic niche.Moreover, this work provides a cheap and simple method for detecting preclinical cases of intoxication by I. carnea in livestock. PMID:26208869

  14. [The role of the nurse and child health nurse in a haematology day hospital].

    PubMed

    Perray, Stéphanie; Costes, Élodie; Héritier, Sébastien

    2015-01-01

    The paediatric haemato-oncology nurse and the child health nurse in a day hospital have specific technical skills and in-depth knowledge in order to be able to provide global care for children with leukaemia. Close collaboration between the different professionals working in this care unit is essential. PMID:26183096

  15. Arsenic Exposure and Haematological Derangement in Cervical Cancer Cases in India.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Rahul; Trivedi, Vinita; Murti, Krishna; Dey, Akalanka; Singh, Jitendra Kumar; Nath, A; Das, P

    2015-01-01

    Cervical cancer is the second most common gynecological malignancy worldwide. According to HPV Information Centre, Spain (Aug'2014), in India approximately 1,22,844 women are diagnosed with the disease every year and of them 67,477 die due to the disease. CaCx is said to be mediated by HPV but recent data published reveal the role of Oxidative Stress in different Cancers. Arsenic is also one of the agents for causing Oxidative Stress. Arsenic has been linked with different types of cancer. Arsenic is considered responsible for generation of free radicals and eventually for apoptosis. Early diagnosis of CaCx is presently a matter of concern and clinical presentation in advanced stages become difficult for complete clinical response. For determination of oxidative stress, Malondialdehyde (MDA) was taken as an identifier and arsenic estimation was performed with the help of Atomic Absorption Spectrometer (AAS). RBC count and Haemoglobin levels were performed according to standard protocol. MDA was in direct proportion with arsenic concentration and inversely proportional to RBC and Haemoglobin in CaCx patients. Arsenic is one of the major causative agents for oxidative stress and hence may be a risk factor leading to cancer including CaCx. PMID:26434849

  16. Rare yeasts causing fungemia in immunocompromised and haematology patients: Case series from Delhi.

    PubMed

    Capoor, M R; Gupta, D K; Verma, P K; Sachdeva, H C

    2015-01-01

    Systemic fungal infection related to fluconazole-resistant yeasts are emerging in immunocompromised patients. In this case-series, we report eight cases of fungemia caused by Trichosporon spp. (2), Stephanoascus ceferrii (1), Kodamaea ohmeri (1), Pichia kutrawersi (2), Candida rugosa (1) and Candida lusitianae (1) in immunocompromised patients. All the yeasts except (Trichosporon asahii) were sequenced. As these rare species are inherently resistant to antifungal agents and they may lead to the development of nosocomial outbreaks, therefore, accurate identification followed by antifungal susceptibility testing is crucial for proper treatment and management. PMID:26470968

  17. The 'royal disease'--haemophilia A or B? A haematological mystery is finally solved.

    PubMed

    Lannoy, N; Hermans, C

    2010-11-01

    ? 'History can change blood. And blood can change the course of history'. Haemophilia is an illustration of this, as this congenital hereditary coagulation disorder, passed through the majority of royal European families at the beginning of the 20th century by Queen Victoria of England and Empress of the Indies, had indisputable political consequences, which led to one of the most defining moments of contemporary history: the Bolshevik Revolution. Today, none of Queen Victoria's living descendents carry haemophilia. Because of this, the characterization of haemophilia (deficit of either factor VIII or XI) and the identification of the causal mutation are rendered impossible. In 1991, a tomb containing the remains of Czar Nicolas II's entire family was discovered. A second tomb was discovered in 2007, allowing Russian and American scientists to fill in this gap in medical history. Following a scientific approach combining current genetic experimentation tools and the development of biological information technology, researchers were able to identify each body, allowing them to obtain precious genetic material from the young Czar Alexis, who was stricken by the disease, which revealed a causal substitution in the splice acceptor site of exon 4 in the F9 gene. This mutation that is responsible for haemophilia B had traumatized European royal families throughout the 20th century! PMID:20557352

  18. Clinical applications of molecular haematology: flow cytometry in leukaemias and myelodysplastic syndromes.

    PubMed

    Dalal, Bakul I

    2007-08-01

    Flow cytometry is semi-automated study of antigen profile of cells using the Scatchard principle of antigen-antibody binding and fluorochrome-based detection systems. Flow cytometric evaluation of cellular proteomics has become an integral part of the laboratory diagnosis and classification of haematopoietic neoplasms. Recent technical advances in lasers, monoclonal antibodies, fluorochromes, and computer-based color compensation algorithms have expanded the usefulness of flow cytometry. Detection of minimal residual disease by flow cytometry in leukaemias and lymphomas is incorporated in many treatment protocols. Finding of aberrant maturation pattern of granulocytes offers a sensitive screening tool for early diagnosis of myelodysplastic syndromes. Detailed proteomic analysis of leukemias is helping more precise prognostic and biological stratification. PMID:18019799

  19. Detection of EPO doping and blood doping: the haematological module of the Athlete Biological Passport.

    PubMed

    Schumacher, Yorck Olaf; Saugy, Martial; Pottgiesser, Torben; Robinson, Neil

    2012-11-01

    The increase of the body's capacity to transport oxygen is a prime target for doping athletes in all endurance sports. For this pupose, blood transfusions or erythropoiesis stimulating agents (ESA), such as erythropoietin, NESP, and CERA are used. As direct detection of such manipulations is difficult, biomarkers that are connected to the haematopoietic system (haemoglobin concentration, reticulocytes) are monitored over time (Athlete Biological Passport (ABP)) and analyzed using mathematical models to identify patterns suspicious of doping. With this information, athletes can either be sanctioned directly based on their profile or targeted with conventional doping tests. Key issues for the appropriate use of the ABP are correct targeting and use of all available information (e.g. whereabouts, cross sectional population data) in a forensic manner. Future developments of the passport include the correction of all concentration-based variables for shifts in plasma volume, which might considerably increase sensitivity. New passport markers from the genomic, proteomic, and metabolomic level might add further information, but need to be validated before integration into the passport procedure. A first assessment of blood data of federations that have implemented the passport show encouraging signs of a decreased blood-doping prevalence in their athletes, which adds scientific credibility to this innovative concept in the fight against ESA- and blood doping. PMID:22374784

  20. Haematology and Plasma Biochemistry of Wild Black Flying-Foxes, (Pteropus alecto) in Queensland, Australia

    PubMed Central

    McMichael, Lee; Edson, Daniel; McLaughlin, Amanda; Mayer, David; Kopp, Steven; Meers, Joanne; Field, Hume

    2015-01-01

    This paper establishes reference ranges for hematologic and plasma biochemistry values in wild Black flying-foxes (Pteropus alecto) captured in South East Queensland, Australia. Values were found to be consistent with those of other Pteropus species. Four hundred and forty-seven animals were sampled over 12 months and significant differences were found between age, sex, reproductive and body condition cohorts in the sample population. Mean values for each cohort fell within the determined normal adult reference range, with the exception of elevated levels of alkaline phosphatase in juvenile animals. Hematologic and biochemistry parameters of injured animals showed little or no deviation from the normal reference values for minor injuries, while two animals with more severe injury or abscessation showed leucocytosis, anaemia, thrombocytosis, hyperglobulinemia and hypoalbuminemia. PMID:25938493

  1. Pre-operative haematological assessment in patients scheduled for major surgery.

    PubMed

    Muoz, M; Gmez-Ramrez, S; Kozek-Langeneker, S

    2016-01-01

    Peri-operative anaemia, blood loss and allogeneic blood transfusion are associated with increased postoperative morbidity and mortality, and prolonged hospital stay. A multidisciplinary, multimodal, individualised strategy, collectively termed 'patient blood management', may reduce or eliminate allogeneic blood transfusion and improve outcomes. This approach has three objectives: the detection and treatment of peri-operative anaemia; the reduction of peri-operative bleeding and coagulopathy; and harnessing and optimising the physiological tolerance of anaemia. This review focuses on the pre-operative evaluation of erythropoiesis, coagulation status and platelet function. Where possible, evidence is graded systematically and recommended therapies follow recently published consensus guidance. PMID:26620143

  2. Angiopoietins in haematopoietic stem cell mobilisation in patients with haematological malignancies

    PubMed Central

    Szmigielska-Kaplon, Anna; Krawczynska, Anna; Czemerska, Magdalena; Pluta, Agnieszka; Cebula-Obrzut, Barbara; Szmigielska, Katarzyna; St?pka, Konrad; Smolewski, Piotr; Robak, Tadeusz; Wierzbowska, Agnieszka

    2015-01-01

    Background The bone marrow niche contains different types of cells including osteoblasts and endothelial progenitors, all of which interact and take part in the process of mobilisation. The aim of our study was to evaluate the levels of cytokines (osteopontin and angiopoietins 1 and 2) active in the bone marrow niche during the mobilisation of haematopoietic stem cells for autologous transplantation. Materials and methods Forty-eight patients (24 females, 24 males), median age 56.5 years, entered the study. The group consisted of patients with multiple myeloma (n=34), lymphoma (n=13) and acute myeloid leukaemia (n=1). Blood samples were collected before chemotherapy and on the day of the first apheresis. Cytokines were evaluated by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays. Additionally, circulating endothelial cells were assessed by flow cytometry. Results The median concentration of angiopoietin 1 at the time of apheresis was lower than that at baseline (2.7 vs 7.8 ng/mL, p<0.001). In contrast, the median level of angiopoietin 2 increased during the mobilisation procedure (3.6 vs 2.8 ng/mL, p=0.001). The patients were divided according to the number of days of granulocyte colony-stimulating factor treatment before the first apheresis into early (median) mobilisers. The group of early mobilisers had higher baseline angiopoietin 1 levels (median=11.6 ng/mL) than those of the late mobilisers (median=6.0 ng/mL, p=0.05). An adverse correlation was observed between duration of granulocyte colony-stimulating factor treatment and baseline angiopoietin 1 level. Baseline angiopoietin 1 levels correlated with numbers of circulating endothelial cells. Low angiopoietin 2 level increased the chance of poor mobilisation. Conclusions The angiogenic processes can influence the timing of mobilisation. Angiopoietins 1 and 2 need further evaluation in the context of mobilisation. PMID:25369606

  3. The treatment of bovine dermatophilosis and its effect on some haematological and blood chemical parameters.

    PubMed

    Hamid, M E; Musa, M S

    2009-12-01

    In this study, the authors evaluated parenteral treatment of zebu cattle, with naturally and experimentally induced bovine dermatophilosis, in western Sudan, using four different antibiotic treatments. In terms of recovery rate, weight gain, avoiding relapse and preventing death, gentamycin was found to be the most effective treatment, followed by a combination of penicillin and streptomycin and, finally, long-acting oxytetracycline. However, enrofloxacin was not successful. A significant improvement in the red blood cell count was noticed among cattle treated with penicillin-streptomycin (p = 0.021) and gentamycin (p = 0.029). All treated cattle, except those treated with enrofloxacin, showed a significant improvement in mean corpuscular haemoglobin concentration (p = 0.021); mean corpuscular volume (p = 0.021), and white blood cell count (p < 0.021). Significant improvements were observed among treated cattle in their total levels of protein, calcium (p = 0.021) and cholesterol (p < 0.05), when compared to untreated cattle infected with Dermatophilus congolensis. This study recommends gentamycin as a drug of choice for the parenteral treatment of dermatophilosis. Treatment was not only effective in early, mild cases but also useful among moderately and heavily affected cattle. According to the observations of the authors, when no intervention took place, the condition of moderately and heavily affected cattle deteriorated and/or resulted in death. PMID:20462170

  4. Notch signalling in T cell lymphoblastic leukaemia/lymphoma and other haematological malignancies

    PubMed Central

    Aster, Jon C.; Blacklow, Stephen C.; Pear, Warren S.

    2010-01-01

    Notch receptors participate in a highly conserved signalling pathway that regulates normal development and tissue homeostasis in a context- and dose-dependent manner. Deregulated Notch signalling has been implicated in many diseases, but the clearest example of a pathogenic role is found in T cell lymphoblastic leukaemia/lymphoma (T-LL), in which the majority of human and murine tumours have acquired mutations that lead to aberrant increases in Notch1 signalling. Remarkably, it appears that the selective pressure for Notch mutations is virtually unique among cancers to T-LL, presumably reflecting a special context-dependent role for Notch in normal T cell progenitors. Nevertheless, there are some recent reports suggesting that Notch signalling has subtle yet important roles in other forms of hematologic malignancy as well. Here, we review the role of Notch signalling in various blood cancers, focusing on T-LL with an eye toward targeted therapeutics. PMID:20967796

  5. Automated analysis of bone marrow aspirates from dogs with haematological disorders.

    PubMed

    Tan, E; Abrams-Ogg, A C G; Defarges, A; Bienzle, D

    2014-07-01

    Automated analysis of bone marrow (BM) aspirates is a useful 'pre-microscopical' screen to identify hypocellular samples and those with potentially abnormal cells. In order to determine whether automated analysis could also be used to identify haemopoietic abnormalities, EDTA-anticoagulated BM aspirates from 43 dogs were analysed using the Advia 2120 instrument. Corresponding Wright-stained BM smears were evaluated microscopically to determine smear quality, cell composition and 500-cell differential counts, and correlation to automated analysis parameters was computed. Leucocyte cytograms generated by the automated analyzer were scrutinized and compared with those of 'normal' BM. Twenty-three neoplastic and 20 non-neoplastic samples were analysed, including samples from 10 cases of acute myeloid leukaemia, four cases of acute lymphocytic leukaemia, four cases of chronic lymphocytic leukaemia, one case of chronic neutrophilic leukaemia, three cases of multiple myeloma, one case of myelodysplastic syndrome, five cases of non-regenerative immune-mediated haemolytic anaemia, one case of immune-mediated neutropenia, three cases of immune-mediated thrombocytopenia, six cases of inflammatory disease, three samples with myelotoxicity and two samples analysed for staging of neoplasia. Automated white blood cell (WBC) counts correlated significantly with smear cellularity, particle cellularity and particle number. There was a significant difference in WBC counts of samples with insufficient versus sufficient particles. Significant correlations between Advia percent neutrophils and microscopical determination of marrow segmented neutrophils/neutrophilic granulocyte reserve, Advia percent lymphocytes and microscopical determination of lymphocytes/rubricytes, Advia percent large unstained cells and microscopical determination of myeloblasts/promyelocytes and between Advia percent eosinophils and manual determination of eosinophils were identified. This suggested that Advia WBC counts may be used to approximate BM sample quality and that Advia differential counts may predict marrow granulocyte reserve and lymphocyte/rubricyte stores. Distinct and consistent alterations in cytogram patterns were observed in cases of acute leukaemia, but were less obvious in chronic leukaemia. Complete automated BM analysis was performed in approximately 2 min, while staining and coverslipping of BM slides required approximately 30 min. Hence, although automated analysis should not supplant microscopical evaluation of BM, it can provide useful ancillary information in a short time and flag potentially inadequate or abnormal samples. PMID:24726417

  6. Observing a fictitious stressful event: haematological changes, including circulating leukocyte activation.

    PubMed

    Mian, Rubina; Shelton-Rayner, Graham; Harkin, Brendan; Williams, Paul

    2003-03-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the effect of watching a psychological stressful event on the activation of leukocytes in healthy human volunteers. Blood samples were obtained from 32 healthy male and female subjects aged between 20 and 26 years before, during and after either watching an 83-minute horror film that none of the subjects had previously seen (The Texas Chainsaw Massacre, 1974) or by sitting quietly in a room (control group). Total differential cell counts, leukocyte activation as measured by the nitroblue tetrazolium (NBT) test, heart rate and blood pressure (BP) measurements were taken at defined time points. There were significant increases in peripheral circulating leukocytes, the number of activated circulating leukocytes, haemoglobin (Hb) concentration and haematocrit (Hct) in response to the stressor. These were accompanied by significant increases in heart rate, systolic and diastolic BP (P<0.05 from baseline). This is the first reported study on the effects of observing a psychologically stressful, albeit fictitious event on circulating leukocyte numbers and the state of leukocyte activation as determined by the nitrotetrazolium test. PMID:12637206

  7. Guidelines for the diagnosis and management of disseminated intravascular coagulation. British Committee for Standards in Haematology.

    PubMed

    Levi, M; Toh, C H; Thachil, J; Watson, H G

    2009-04-01

    The diagnosis of disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC) should encompass both clinical and laboratory information. The International Society for Thrombosis and Haemostasis (ISTH) DIC scoring system provides objective measurement of DIC. Where DIC is present the scoring system correlates with key clinical observations and outcomes. It is important to repeat the tests to monitor the dynamically changing scenario based on laboratory results and clinical observations. The cornerstone of the treatment of DIC is treatment of the underlying condition. Transfusion of platelets or plasma (components) in patients with DIC should not primarily be based on laboratory results and should in general be reserved for patients who present with bleeding. In patients with DIC and bleeding or at high risk of bleeding (e.g. postoperative patients or patients due to undergo an invasive procedure) and a platelet count of <50 x 10(9)/l transfusion of platelets should be considered. In non-bleeding patients with DIC, prophylactic platelet transfusion is not given unless it is perceived that there is a high risk of bleeding. In bleeding patients with DIC and prolonged prothrombin time (PT) and activated partial thromboplastin time (aPTT), administration of fresh frozen plasma (FFP) may be useful. It should not be instituted based on laboratory tests alone but should be considered in those with active bleeding and in those requiring an invasive procedure. There is no evidence that infusion of plasma stimulates the ongoing activation of coagulation. If transfusion of FFP is not possible in patients with bleeding because of fluid overload, consider using factor concentrates such as prothrombin complex concentrate, recognising that these will only partially correct the defect because they contain only selected factors, whereas in DIC there is a global deficiency of coagulation factors. Severe hypofibrinogenaemia (<1 g/l) that persists despite FFP replacement may be treated with fibrinogen concentrate or cryoprecipitate. In cases of DIC where thrombosis predominates, such as arterial or venous thromboembolism, severe purpura fulminans associated with acral ischemia or vascular skin infarction, therapeutic doses of heparin should be considered. In these patients where there is perceived to be a co-existing high risk of bleeding there may be benefits in using continuous infusion unfractionated heparin (UFH) due to its short half-life and reversibility. Weight adjusted doses (e.g. 10 mu/kg/h) may be used without the intention of prolonging the APTT ratio to 1.5-2.5 times the control. Monitoring the APTT in these cases may be complicated and clinical observation for signs of bleeding is important. In critically ill, non-bleeding patients with DIC, prophylaxis for venous thromboembolism with prophylactic doses of heparin or low molecular weight heparin is recommended. Consider treating patients with severe sepsis and DIC with recombinant human activated protein C (continuous infusion, 24 microg/kg/h for 4 d). Patients at high risk of bleeding should not be given recombinant human activated protein C. Current manufacturers guidance advises against using this product in patients with platelet counts of <30 x 10(9)/l. In the event of invasive procedures, administration of recombinant human activated protein C should be discontinued shortly before the intervention (elimination half-life approximately 20 min) and may be resumed a few hours later, dependent on the clinical situation. In the absence of further prospective evidence from randomised controlled trials confirming a beneficial effect of antithrombin concentrate on clinically relevant endpoints in patients with DIC and not receiving heparin, administration of antithrombin cannot be recommended. In general, patients with DIC should not be treated with antifibrinolytic agents. Patients with DIC that is characterised by a primary hyperfibrinolytic state and who present with severe bleeding could be treated with lysine analogues, such as tranexamic acid (e.g. 1 g every 8 h). PMID:19222477

  8. Comparative Haematological Screening of Urban and Rural Pregnant Women Attending Antenatal Clinics in Lagos and Its Environs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abidoye, R. O.; Olukoya, A. A.

    1993-01-01

    Compared blood screening data for 200 urban and rural pregnant women in Nigeria. Found that rural subjects had a greater incidence of moderate anemia than did urban subjects, and corpuscular hemoglobin concentrations fell with increased gestational age. No relationship was found between hemoglobin counts and nutrition habits. (HTH)

  9. A positioning pillow to improve lumbar puncture success rate in paediatric haematology-oncology patients: a randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background Lumbar punctures (LPs) are common in children with cancer. Although pain management during the lumbar puncture has been well standardized, dealing with stress and anxiety is not well addressed yet. Our objective was to evaluate the potential improvement of the LP success rate using a positioning pillow, to ensure maximum lumbar flexion, and allow paravertebral muscles to relax, in children who are awake, with either conscious sedation or no sedation. Methods Children aged 218 years undergoing LP were randomly assigned to a positioning pillow or no intervention. The primary outcome was the rate of success, i.e. achieving the LP (sampling or injection) at the first attempt, without bleeding (RBC < 50/mm3). The secondary outcomes included: the child's pain, assessed by a self-administered visual analogical scales (VAS) for children over 6 years of age; the parents' and caregivers' perception of the child's pain; the satisfaction of the children, the parents, the caregivers and the physician. The child's cooperation and the occurrence of post-LP syndrome were also evaluated. Results 124 children (62 in each group) were included. The LP pillow tended to increase the success rate of LPs (67% vs. 57%, p = 0.23), and decreased the post-LP syndromes (15% vs. 24%, p = 0.17) but the differences were not statistically significant. In children over 6-year of age (n = 72), the rate of success was significantly higher in the pillow group (58.5% vs. 41.5%, p = 0.031), with a tendency to feel less pain (median VAS 25 vs. 15 mm, p = 0.39) and being more satisfied (84.4% vs. 75.0%, p = 0.34). Conclusion Overall results do not demonstrate a benefit in using this pillow for lumbar punctures. This study results also suggest a benefit in the sub group of children over 6-year of age; this result needs confirmation. Trial Registration The trial was registered with Clinical Trials.gov (number NCT00775112). PMID:19146666

  10. Single and cartel effect of pesticides on biochemical and haematological status of Clarias batrachus: A long-term monitoring.

    PubMed

    Narra, Madhusudan Reddy

    2016-02-01

    Pesticide mixtures are common in the streams of agricultural or urban catchments. Individual and cartel toxicity of four different pesticides, namely Endosulfan, Carbofuran, Methyl parathion and Cypermethrin were studied. Sub acute exposure (1/10th of LC50) for 1, 7, 15, 30 and 60 days in Clarias batrachus active tissues such as brain, gills, blood and liver were evaluated. Growth, hepatosomatic index and survival performance were decreased, inhibition of brain acetylcholinesterase, gills Na(+)/K(+) ATPase activities, and abnormal behavior are noticed. The characteristics of the blood respiratory burst activity, erythrocyte count, contents of hematocrit and hemoglobin are dwindled. Plasma total proteins and liver glycogen decreased whereas blood glucose and serum creatinine, triglycerides are elevated. The immunological attributes such as white blood cell count was elevated, whereas albumin, globulins and lysozyme activity significantly decreased. Hepatic superoxide dismutase, catalase and glutathione S-transferase activities and lipid peroxidation levels are elevated, whereas glutathione peroxidase and glutathione are reduced. Toxicity effect of pesticides reached to a crest on 30th day and showed a descent thereafter except in endosulfan which mounted its detrimental effect throughout the experimental period. Toxicity trends of the present study are determined to be highest in Mix group followed by cypermethrin, methyl parathion and carbofuran. Indiscriminate application of these chemicals pose a toxic threat to non-target organisms, damage the ecosystems and jeopardizes human health. PMID:26432990

  11. Serum Copper and Haematological Values of Sheep of Different Physiological Stages in the Dry and Wet Seasons of Central Trinidad

    PubMed Central

    Mohammed, A.; Campbell, M.; Youssef, F. G.

    2014-01-01

    A study was conducted to determine serum copper (Cu) concentrations and hematological values of 174 sheep from four medium sized farms, pertaining to physiological stage, in the late dry and late wet seasons of Central Trinidad. Serum Cu was significantly lower in the dry than in the wet season (P < 0.001) with a corresponding high percentage of samples with low Cu levels in the former. 31% of dry nonpregnant sheep exhibited a nonregenerative anaemia. Also, hemoglobin and packed cell volume values varied (P < 0.001) including lymphocyte (P < 0.01) counts, among growing animals compared with other physiological stages. Significant variations also occurred among neutrophil (P < 0.05) and eosinophil (P < 0.05) values in sheep. Highest haemoglobin and packed cell volume, white blood cell counts, and lymphocyte values in growing sheep compared with other stages were probably age related. PMID:24895542

  12. Effect of caffeine supplementation on haematological and biochemical variables in elite soccer players under physical stress conditions

    PubMed Central

    Bassini?Cameron, Adriana; Sweet, Eric; Bottino, Altamiro; Bittar, Christina; Veiga, Carlos; Cameron, Luiz?Claudio

    2007-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the effect of caffeine on white cell distribution and muscle injury markers in professional soccer players during exercise. Methods 22 male athletes completed a placebo controlled double blind test protocol to simulate a soccer match, followed by a Yo?Yo intermittent recovery test. Results Exercise caused an increase in packed cell volume that was enhanced by caffeine. Caffeine and exercise had a synergistic effect on the blood lymphocyte count, which increased by about 38% after exercise, and by an additional 35% when combined with caffeine. Caffeine promoted an exercise independent rise in circulating monocytes, and a synergistic action of exercise and caffeine was observed on segmented neutrophils. Caffeine promoted thrombocytosis. Plasma adenosine deaminase, aspartate aminotransferase, and lactate dehydrogenase concentrations were enhanced by exercise, and alanine transaminase concentration was enhanced in both groups, with a synergistic effect of caffeine. Conclusions The pronounced increase in the white cell count in the group receiving caffeine appeared to be caused by greater muscle stress and consequently more intense endothelial and muscle cell injury. The use of caffeine may augment the risk of muscle damage in athletes. PMID:17473001

  13. Clinical and haematological risk factors for cerebral macrovasculopathy in a sickle cell disease newborn cohort: a prospective study.

    PubMed

    Sommet, Julie; Alberti, Corinne; Couque, Nathalie; Verlhac, Suzanne; Haouari, Zinedine; Mohamed, Damir; François, Martine; Missud, Florence; Holvoet, Laurent; Elmaleh, Monique; Ithier, Ghislaine; Denjean, André; Elion, Jacques; Baruchel, André; Benkerrou, Malika

    2016-03-01

    Children with sickle cell disease (SCD) have a significant vascular morbidity, especially cerebral macrovasculopathy (CV), detectable by transcranial Doppler. This study aimed to identify risk factors for CV using longitudinal biological and clinical data in a SCD newborn cohort followed at the Robert Debre Reference centre (n = 375 SS/Sβ(0) ). Median follow-up was 6·8 years (2677 patient-years). Among the 59 children presenting with CV, seven had a stroke. Overall, the incidence of CV was 2·20/100 patient-years [95% confidence interval (95% CI): 1·64-2·76] and the incidence of stroke was 0·26/100 patient-years (95% CI: 0·07-0·46). The cumulative risk of CV by age 14 years was 26·0% (95% CI: 20·0-33·3%). Risk factors for CV were assessed by a Cox model encompassing linear multivariate modelling of longitudinal quantitative variables. Years per upper-airway obstruction [Hazard ratio (HR) = 1·47; 95% CI: 1·05-2·06] or bronchial obstruction (HR = 1·76; 95% CI: 1·49-2·08) and reticulocyte count (HR = 1·82 per 50 × 10(9) /l increase; 95% CI: 1·10-3·01) were independent risk factors whereas fetal haemoglobin level (HR = 0·68 per 5% increase; 95% CI: 0·48-0·96) was protective. Alpha-thalassaemia was not protective in multivariate analysis (ancillary analysis n = 209). Specific treatment for upper or lower-airway obstruction and indirect targeting of fetal haemoglobin and reticulocyte count by hydroxycarbamide could potentially reduce the risk of CV. PMID:26728571

  14. Folic acid supplemented goat milk has beneficial effects on hepatic physiology, haematological status and antioxidant defence during chronic Fe repletion.

    PubMed

    Alfrez, Mara J M; Rivas, Emilio; Daz-Castro, Javier; Hijano, Silvia; Nestares, Teresa; Moreno, Miguel; Campos, Margarita S; Serrano-Reina, Jose A; Lpez-Aliaga, Inmaculada

    2015-02-01

    The aim of the current study was to asses the effect of goat or cow milk-based diets, either normal or Fe-overloaded and folic acid supplement on some aspects of hepatic physiology, enzymatic antioxidant defence and lipid peroxidation in liver, brain and erythrocyte of control and anaemic rats after chronic Fe repletion. 160 male Wistar rats were placed on 40d in two groups, a control group receiving normal-Fe diet and the Fe-deficient group receiving low Fe diet. Lately, the rats were fed with goat and cow milk-based diets during 30d, with normal-Fe content or Fe-overload and either with normal folic or folic acid supplemented. Fe-overload increased plasma alanine transaminase and aspartate transaminase levels when cow milk was supplied. Dietary folate supplementation reduced plasma transaminases levels in animals fed goat milk with chronic Fe overload. A remarkable increase in the superoxide dismutase activity was observed in the animals fed cow milk. Dietary folate supplement lead to a decrease on the activity of this enzyme in all the tissues studied with both milk-based diets. A concomitant increment in catalase was also observed. The increase in lipid peroxidation products levels in rats fed cow milk with Fe-overload, suggest an imbalance in the functioning of the enzymatic antioxidant defence. In conclusion, dietary folate-supplemented goat milk reduces both plasma transaminases levels, suggesting a hepatoprotective effect and has beneficial effects in situation of Fe-overload, improving the antioxidant enzymes activities and reducing lipid peroxidation. PMID:25394837

  15. Corprological and haematological parameters of albino mice (Mus musculus) concurrently infected with Heligmosomoides bakeri and Trypanosoma brucei

    PubMed Central

    Onyeabor, A.I.; Wosu, M.I.; Ohaeri, C.C.

    2013-01-01

    The effect of concurrent infection with Trypanosoma brucei (T. brucei) and Heligmosomoides bakeri (H. bakeri) was investigated in this study. Thirty adult male albino mice were used for the study. The mice were divided into six groups of five mice each. Group 1 served as uninfected control, Groups 2 and 3 were infected with H. bakeri and T. brucei respectively, Group 4 received both T. brucei and H. bakeri on the same day, Group 5 was experimentally infected with H. bakeri three days after T. brucei infection, while Group 6 was infected with T. brucei three days after H. bakeri infection. Blood and faecal samples were collected and analyzed weekly to determine the faecal egg counts (FEC), packed cell volume (PCV) and level of parasitaemia (LP). Weekly body weights (BW) were also recorded. FEC and parasitaemia increased in all the infected groups during the study, but these were significantly (p<0.05) higher in the multiple-infection (groups 4, 5 and 6) than those with the single infection (groups 2 and 3). The same trend was also observed in the BW and PCV (p<0.05). The level of infection produced by single infection with T. brucei and H. bakeri respectively were similar (p<0.05). All treatment groups were significantly (p<0.05) different from the control group. From the results, it was concluded that concurrent helminth and protozoan parasite infections produced more deleterious effect on the host when compared with single infection with either parasite. However, the pathology produced by concurrent infection was more severe when the host was exposed to the protozoan parasite before the helminth parasite. PMID:26623320

  16. The influence of different lipid sources and levels on growth, body composition and haematology of Huso huso.

    PubMed

    Ahmadi Fackjouri, H; Falahatkar, B; Ershad Langroudi, H

    2011-10-01

    In order to improve feeding and growth of juvenile great sturgeon Huso huso, the effects of various lipid sources in feed were examined. Three hundred juveniles (initial body weight 215 10 g) were distributed into 15 flow-through 1100 l tanks (20 fish per tank). Five experimental diets containing various lipid levels were formulated: diet C (control; without added oil), SO(L) and SO(H) diets containing soybean oil concentrations respectively, (53.5 vs. 174 g/kg), FO(L) and FO(H) diets containing fish oil with low and high concentrations respectively (53.5 vs. 174 g/kg). Fish were fed three times daily based on their appetite for a period of 6 weeks. At the termination of the experiment, growth rate was improved with increasing oil content in the diets. There were significant differences in final weights among fish fed the different experimental diets. Lipid content of muscle and liver significantly increased with increasing dietary lipid levels for both soybean and fish oil. The lowest cholesterol level and the highest haematocrit value were measured in fish fed the FO(H) diet. No significant difference was found among dietary treatments in terms of triacylglycerol concentration, number of red blood cell, mean corpuscular volume, mean corpuscular haemoglobin (MCH) and MCH concentration (MCHC). According to the most growth indices, results of this study suggest that the best results were observed in FO(H) which can be attributed to the greater palatability of diet containing high fish oil, supply of fatty acid requirement and enhanced physiological performance. PMID:21231966

  17. Trigonella foenum-graecum protection against deltamethrin-induced toxic effects on haematological, biochemical, and oxidative stress parameters in rats.

    PubMed

    Abdel-Daim, Mohamed M; Abd Eldaim, Mabrouk A; Mahmoud, Mohamed M

    2014-08-01

    Trigonella foenum-graecum L. is enriched with many active ingredients. TFG oil was evaluated for its protective effect against deltamethrin toxicity in rats. Rats of the control group were administered saline. The 2nd group was administered deltamethrin (DLM) orally at a concentration of 15 mg/kg body mass. The 3rd and 4th groups were administered DLM at a concentration of 15 mg/kg body mass and were fed diets containing 2.5% and 5% TFG oil, respectively. DLM intoxication reduced red blood cell and platelet counts, hemoglobin concentration, and hematocrit value while it induced leucocytosis. Furthermore, it increased serum levels of lactate dehydrogenase, aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, alkaline phosphatase, ?-glutamyltransferase, triglycerides, cholesterol, uric acid, urea, and creatinine; increased hepatic, renal, and brain lipid peroxidation; decreased serum acetylcholine esterase level; and decreased hepatic, renal, and brain antioxidant markers' activities. However, TFG oil kept the studied hematological and biochemical parameters within normal ranges. In addition, it prevented lipid peroxidation and oxidative stress induced by DLM intoxication in a dose-dependent manner. Therefore, these results indicated that TFG oil inhibited the toxic effects of DLM on hematological and biochemical parameters as well as oxidative status by its free radical scavenging and potent antioxidant activities, and it appeared to be a promising protective agent against DLM-induced toxicity. PMID:25029214

  18. Consensus guidelines for diagnosis, prophylaxis and management of Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia in patients with haematological and solid malignancies, 2014.

    PubMed

    Cooley, L; Dendle, C; Wolf, J; Teh, B W; Chen, S C; Boutlis, C; Thursky, K A

    2014-12-01

    Pneumocystis jirovecii infection (PJP) is a common cause of pneumonia in patients with cancer-related immunosuppression. There are well-defined patients who are at risk of PJP due to the status of their underlying malignancy, treatment-related immunosuppression and/or concomitant use of corticosteroids. Prophylaxis is highly effective and should be given to all patients at moderate to high risk of PJP. Trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole is the drug of choice for prophylaxis and treatment, although several alternative agents are available. PMID:25482745

  19. Spatial variation in mortality risk for haematological malignancies near a petrochemical refinery: a population-based case-control study

    PubMed Central

    Di Salvo, Francesca; Meneghini, Elisabetta; Vieira, Veronica; Baili, Paolo; Mariottini, Mauro; Baldini, Marco; Micheli, Andrea; Sant, Milena

    2015-01-01

    Introduction The study investigated the geographic variation of mortality risk for hematological malignancies (HMs) in order to identify potential high-risk areas near an Italian petrochemical refinery. Material and methods A population-based case-control study was conducted and residential histories for 171 cases and 338 sex- and age-matched controls were collected. Confounding factors were obtained from interviews with consenting relatives for 109 HM deaths and 267 controls. To produce risk mortality maps, two different approaches were applied. We mapped (1) adptive kernel density relative risk estimation (KDE) for case-control studies which estimates a spatial relative risk function using the ratio between cases and controls’ densities, and (2) estimated odds ratios for case-control study data using generalized additive models (GAMs) to smooth the effect of location, a proxy for exposure, while adjusting for confounding variables. Results No high-risk areas for HM mortality were identified among all subjects (men and women combined), by applying both approaches. Using the adaptive KDE approach, we found a significant increase in death risk only among women in a large area 2–6 km southeast of the refinery and the application of GAMs also identified a similarly-located significant high-risk area among women only (global p-value<0.025). Potential confounding risk factors we considered in the GAM did not alter the results. Conclusion Both approaches identified a high-risk area close to the refinery among women only. Those spatial methods are useful tools for public policy management to determine priority areas for intervention. Our findings suggest several directions for further research in order to identify other potential environmental exposures that may be assessed in forthcoming studies based on detailed exposure modeling. PMID:26073202

  20. Integrated Haematological Profiles of Redox Status, Lipid, and Inflammatory Protein Biomarkers in Benign Obesity and Unhealthy Obesity with Metabolic Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Lubrano, Carla; Valacchi, Giuseppe; Specchia, Palma; Gnessi, Lucio; Rubanenko, Elizaveta P.; Shuginina, Elena A.; Trukhanov, Arseny I.; Korkina, Liudmila G.; De Luca, Chiara

    2015-01-01

    The pathogenesis of obesity (OB) and metabolic syndrome (MetS) implies free radical-, oxidized lipid- (LOOH-), and inflammatory cytokine-mediated altered pathways in target organs. Key elements of the transition from benign OB to unhealthy OB+MetS remain unclear. Here, we measured a panel of redox, antioxidant, and inflammation markers in the groups of OB patients (67 with, 45 without MetS) and 90 controls. Both OB groups displayed elevated levels of adipokines and heavy oxidative stress (OS) evidenced by reduced levels of glutathione, downregulated glutathione-S-transferase, increased 4-hydroxynonenal-protein adducts, reactive oxygen species, and membrane-bound monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA). Exclusively in OB+MetS, higher-than-normal glutathione peroxidase activity, tumor necrosis factor-α, and other proinflammatory cytokines/chemokines/growth factors were observed; a combination of high adipokine plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 and MUFA was consistent with increased cardiovascular risk. The uncomplicated OB group showed features of adaptation to OS such as decreased levels of vitamin E, activated superoxide dismutase, and inhibited catalase, suggesting H2O2 hyperproduction. Proinflammatory cytokine pattern was normal, except few markers like RANTES, a suitable candidate for therapeutic approaches to prevent a setting of MetS by inhibition of LOOH-primed leukocyte chemotaxis/recruitment to target tissues. PMID:26090072

  1. The Effects of Exposure to Petrol Vapours on Growth, Haematological Parameters and Oxidative Markers in Sprague-Dawley Male Rats

    PubMed Central

    ABUBAKAR, Murtala Bello; ABDULLAH, Wan Zaidah; SULAIMAN, Siti Amrah; ANG, Boon Suen

    2015-01-01

    Background: Petrol is known to be hazardous to human health and is associated with various health effects, such as haematotoxicity and oxidative stress. Although Malaysia has adopted the European fuel quality standards in recent years in order to reduce petroleum pollutants and to improve air quality, gasoline with research octane number 95 (RON95), believed to contain benzene and other toxic substances, is still widely used all over the country. This study assessed the effect of RON95 gasoline on haemtological parameters of rats after 11 weeks of exposure. Methods: A total of 16 male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into two groups: control (exposed to ambient air daily) and gasoline exposed (exposed to petrol fumes at 11.13 ± 1.1cm3/h for 6h daily, 6 days/week) groups. Body weight was monitored daily. At the end of 11 weeks, the rats were sacrificed, bone marrow was extracted for cytological examination, and blood samples were collected for a full blood picture examination, full blood counts and oxidative markers. Results: The results show that gasoline inhalation was associated with a significant (P < 0.05) reduction in the rate of weight gain and a reduction in mean corpuscular haemoglobin concentration and red cell distribution width. It was also observed that the inhalation of gasoline was associated with changes in the nuclei of megakaryocytes, hence causing an increase in the percentage of abnormal megakaryocytes with detached nuclei, hypo-lobulation and/or disintegration. However, the inhalation of gasoline did not cause significant changes in oxidative markers in the erythrocytes. Conclusion: This study shows that 11 weeks of inhaling RON95 petrol vapours caused adverse effects on weight gain, blood cell indices and bone marrow megakaryocytes, but did not cause significant changes in oxidative markers in erythrocytes. The definitive effects of these changes on health require further confirmation. PMID:25892947

  2. Lymphoma incidence, survival and prevalence 20042014: sub-type analyses from the UK's Haematological Malignancy Research Network

    PubMed Central

    Smith, A; Crouch, S; Lax, S; Li, J; Painter, D; Howell, D; Patmore, R; Jack, A; Roman, E

    2015-01-01

    Background: Population-based information about cancer occurrence and survival are required to inform clinical practice and research; but for most lymphomas data are lacking. Methods: Set within a socio-demographically representative UK population of nearly 4 million, lymphoma data (N=5796) are from an established patient cohort. Results: Incidence, survival (overall and relative) and prevalence estimates for >20 subtypes are presented. With few exceptions, males tended to be diagnosed at younger ages and have significantly (P<0.05) higher incidence rates. Differences were greatest at younger ages: the <15 year male/female rate ratio for all subtypes combined being 2.2 (95% CI 1.33.4). These gender differences impacted on prevalence; most subtype estimates being significantly (P<0.05) higher in males than females. Outcome varied widely by subtype; survival of patients with nodular lymphocyte predominant Hodgkin lymphoma approached that of the general population, whereas less than a third of those with other B-cell (e.g., mantle cell) or T-cell (e.g., peripheral-T) lymphomas survived for ?5 years. No males/female survival differences were detected. Conclusions: Major strengths of our study include completeness of ascertainment, world-class diagnostics and generalisability. The marked variations demonstrated confirm the requirement for real-world' data to inform aetiological hypotheses, health-care planning and the future monitoring of therapeutic changes. PMID:25867256

  3. The haematological values of European badgers (Meles meles) in health and in the course of tuberculosis infection.

    PubMed Central

    Mahmood, K. H.; Stanford, J. L.; Machin, S.; Watts, M.; Stuart, F. A.; Pritchard, D. G.

    1988-01-01

    Captive, healthy, adult badgers have blood containing haemoglobin at 13.3 g/dl, and 8.4 x 10(12)/l red cells with an MCV of 46.2 fl and an MCH of 15.6 pg. They have 5.1 x 10(9) white cells/l of which 3.29 x 10(9) are polymorphs, 1.49 x 10(9) are lymphocytes, 0.26 x 10(9) are monocytes, 0.07 x 10(9) are eosinophils and 0.01 x 10(9) are basophils. These values are somewhat less in adult animals just trapped from the wild, and are lower still in wild cubs. Changes associated with tuberculosis are a rise, and then a fall in red blood count and white blood count, an increase in the proportion of polymorphs and monocytes and a fall in lymphocytes late in the disease. This picture is similar to that seen in widespread, disseminated, tuberculin negative, tuberculosis in humans, a type of disease similar to that occurring in many badgers. BCG vaccination of badgers did not produce any measurable change in the blood picture. PMID:3181308

  4. Effects of organohalogen pollutants on haematological and urine clinical-chemical parameters in Greenland sledge dogs (Canis familiaris).

    PubMed

    Sonne, Christian; Dietz, Rune; Kirkegaard, Maja; Letcher, Robert J; Shahmiri, Soheila; Andersen, Steen; Møller, Per; Olsen, Aage Kristian; Jensen, Asger L

    2008-03-01

    Seven West Greenland sledge dog bitches (Canis familiaris) and their three pups were fed 50-200 g of contaminated West Greenland minke whale (Balaenoptera acutorostrata) blubber, and in a control cohort eight sister bitches and their five pups were fed a similar amount pork fat. Blood plasma and urine clinical-chemical parameters were measured and compared between the bitches and pups form the control and exposed cohorts. Based on existing reference intervals, Arctic mammals may have blood clinical-chemical endpoint levels that differ from comparable species at lower latitudes. The cortisol:creatinine ratio, protein:creatinine ratio, alkaline phosphatase, cholesterol and inorganic phosphate were significantly highest (ANCOVA: all p<0.05) in the pup generation. The cortisol:creatinine ratio, cholesterol, lactate dehydrogenase and creatinine kinase were significantly higher (ANCOVA: all p<0.05) in the control group, while glucose was significantly highest (ANCOVA: p<0.05) in the exposed group. Furthermore, the blood cholesterol levels indicate that exposure via the diet to marine mammal blubber has a preventive effect on the development of cardiovascular diseases. We therefore suggest that the consumption of contaminated Arctic marine blubber impacted liver and kidney function in adult and pup sledge dogs. PMID:17434585

  5. Collagenase digestion of bone marrow trephine biopsy specimens: an important adjunct to haematological diagnosis when marrow aspiration fails.

    PubMed Central

    Maung, Z T; Bown, N P; Hamilton, P J

    1993-01-01

    Failure to obtain sufficient material from marrow aspiration (dry tap) posed a diagnostic problem in two patients with pancytopenia. By using collagenase digestion of the trephine biopsy specimen, a precise diagnosis was reached. This technique is very useful because it permits flow cytometric and immunocytochemical analyses of cell suspensions obtained after collagenase digestion of the trephine biopsy specimen core. Acute leukaemia presenting with a dry tap can therefore be accurately immunophenotyped. The technique is easy to perform and merits wider use. PMID:8331187

  6. Acute effects of chemically dispersed crude oil on gill ion regulation, plasma ion levels and haematological parameters in tambaqui (Colossoma macropomum).

    PubMed

    Duarte, Rafael Mendona; Honda, Rubens Tomio; Val, Adalberto Luis

    2010-04-15

    The main goal of this study was to investigate the toxicological effects of the chemical dispersant Corexit 9500, crude oil and the combination of the two components in the form of chemically dispersed crude oil (CO+DIS) on the ion regulation of the tropical fish tambaqui (Colossoma macropomum). Gill ion regulation was evaluated on the basis of unidirectional flux measurements (influx-J(in), efflux-J(out) and net flux-J(net)) of Na(+), Cl(-) and K(+). Plasma ion composition, haematocrit, haemoglobin and glucose concentrations in the blood of tambaqui were determined by classical methods. The exposure of fish to chemically dispersed crude oil promoted a significant increase in J(out) Na(+) across the gills, which, together with the inability of fish to stimulate Na(+) uptake to compensate for these losses resulted in significantly higher J(net) Na(+) outward, particularly within the first 3h of exposure. Increased outward J(net) Cl(-) was also seen in fish that were exposed to dispersed crude oil, whereas outward J(net) K(+) was only increased at crude oil dispersed in higher concentration of Corexit 9500. Plasma Na(+) and Cl(-) concentrations decreased between 6 and 12h of exposure, whereas Ca(2+) concentrations remained significantly lower than those of the control group over the entire experimental period. There were significant increases in plasma K(+) concentrations and in the haematocrit after 6 and 24h of exposure to dispersed crude oil, suggesting significant changes in the permeability of the erythrocytic membrane. Collectively, our results suggest that chemically dispersed crude oil promotes a more extensive impairment of gill ion regulation, in addition to changes in plasma ion levels and blood parameters, in tambaqui compared with exposure to Urucu crude oil or Corexit 9500 alone. Thus, in the event of an oil spill in Amazonian waters, the chemical dispersion of Urucu crude oil could represent a great risk to tambaqui, challenging their ability to maintain ionic and osmotic gradients in native ion-poor waters. PMID:20097436

  7. Effect of sulphurous mineral water in haematological and biochemical markers of muscle damage after an endurance exercise in well-trained athletes.

    PubMed

    Soria, Marisol; González-Haro, Carlos; Esteva, Santiago; Escanero, Jesús F; Pina, José R

    2014-01-01

    To investigate the effects of sulphurous mineral water (SMW) after a hydroponic treatment on muscle damage, antioxidant activity and peripheral blood changes induced by submaximal exercise. Thirty well-trained male triathletes were supplemented with SMW or placebo: 3 weeks of placebo, 30 days of wash out and 3 weeks of SMW. After both periods, participants ran for 2 h at 70% maximal aerobic speed. Antioxidant enzymes, lipid peroxidation, antioxidant capacity and blood cell markers were compared between placebo and SMW at pre-exercise (T0), immediately post-exercise (T1), 24 h post-exercise (T2) and 48 h post-exercise (T3). Total thiols decreased until T3 vs. T0 for both placebo and SMW; transient red blood cells, haemoglobin and haematocrit increased were shown at T1 vs. T0 and for leucocytes until T2 vs. T0, only for placebo group. Total thiols increased significantly in SMW vs. placebo at T0; Thiobarbituric acid reactive species was significantly higher at T0, T1, T2 and T3; catalase increased significantly at T1; creatine phosphokinase decreased significantly at T1, T2 and T3, although no significant differences were found at T0. Furthermore, red blood cells, haemoglobin and haematocrit were significantly higher and leucocytes were significantly lower at T0 and T1 in SMW group vs. placebo group. This study suggests that three weeks of SMW supplementation may protect from exercise-induced muscle damage. PMID:24499262

  8. Ivermectin treatment of free-ranging endangered Australian sea lion (Neophoca cinerea) pups: effect on hookworm and lice infection status, haematological parameters, growth, and survival.

    PubMed

    Marcus, Alan D; Higgins, Damien P; Gray, Rachael

    2015-07-01

    A placebo-controlled study was used to investigate the effectiveness of ivermectin to treat hookworm (Uncinaria sanguinis) and lice (Antarctophthirus microchir) infections in free-ranging Australian sea lion (Neophoca cinerea) pups and to test the hypotheses that these parasitic infections cause anaemia, systemic inflammatory responses, and reduced growth, and contribute towards decreased pup survival. Ivermectin was identified as an effective and safe anthelmintic in this species. Pups administered ivermectin had significantly higher erythrocyte counts and significantly lower eosinophil counts compared to controls at 1-2months post-treatment, confirming that U. sanguinis and/or A. microchir are causatively associated with disease and demonstrating the positive effect of ivermectin treatment on clinical health parameters. Higher growth rates were not seen in ivermectin-treated pups and, unexpectedly, relatively older pups treated with ivermectin demonstrated significantly reduced growth rates when compared to matched saline-control pups. Differences in survival were not identified between treatment groups; however, this was attributed to the unexpectedly low mortality rate of recruited pups, likely due to the unintended recruitment bias towards pups >1-2months of age for which mortality due to hookworm infection is less likely. This finding highlights the logistical and practical challenges associated with treating pups of this species shortly after birth at a remote colony. This study informs the assessment of the use of anthelmintics as a tool for the conservation management of free-ranging wildlife and outlines essential steps to further the development of strategies to ensure the effective conservation of the Australian sea lion and its parasitic fauna. PMID:25911163

  9. Evaluation of Biochemical, Haematological, and Histopathological Responses and Recovery Ability of Common Carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) after Acute Exposure to Atrazine Herbicide

    PubMed Central

    Blahova, Jana; Modra, Helena; Sevcikova, Marie; Marsalek, Petr; Zelnickova, Lenka; Skoric, Misa; Svobodova, Zdenka

    2014-01-01

    The aim of study was to evaluate the effect of atrazine exposure (5, 15, 20, and 30 mg·L−1) on common carp and the ability of regeneration. During 96 h exposure we observed abnormal behavior in fish exposed to 20 and 30 mg·L−1. Mortality and histological alterations were noticed only in the group exposed to 30 mg·L−1. Most experimental groups showed significantly (P < 0.05) lower values of haemoglobin, haematocrit, leukocyte, and lymphocyte and significantly higher values of monocytes, segmented and band neutrophile granulocytes, and also metamyelocytes and myelocytes. A significantly lower (P < 0.05) leukocyte count was also recorded in experimental groups (5 and 15 mg·L−1) after recovery period. Statistically significant (P < 0.05) alterations in glucose, total protein, lactate, phosphorus, calcium, and biopterin as well as in activities of ALT, AST, ALP, and LDH were found in most experimental groups. These changes were most apparent in the groups exposed to 20 and 30 mg·L−1. Most of the indices were found to be restored after the 7-day recovery period with the exception of LDH, ALT, and lactate in the group exposed to 15 mg·L−1. Our results showed that atrazine exposure had a profound negative influence on selected indices and also on histological changes of common carp. PMID:24791011

  10. Diagnosis of invasive aspergillosis using bronchoalveolar lavage in haematology patients: influence of bronchoalveolar lavage human DNA content on real-time PCR performance.

    PubMed

    Fréalle, E; Decrucq, K; Botterel, F; Bouchindhomme, B; Camus, D; Dei-Cas, E; Costa, J M; Yakoub-Agha, I; Bretagne, S; Delhaes, L

    2009-03-01

    In order to improve invasive pulmonary aspergillosis (IPA) diagnosis, a real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay detecting Aspergillus spp. was developed. Its detection limit reached 2-20 conidia. The retrospective evaluation on 64 bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluids from 57 patients at risk for IPA, including 20 probable and five proven IPA patients, revealed a 88% or 38% sensitivity in direct examination (DE)/culture-positive or culture-negative BAL, respectively, whereas galactomannan (GM) sensitivity reached 88% or 58%, respectively. Influence on the Aspergillus-PCR yield of BAL fluid volume, cellular count and DNA content (evaluated by human beta-globin quantification) was assessed. Significantly higher beta-globin levels were detected in Aspergillus PCR-positive (median 5,112 pg/microl) than negative (median 1,332 pg/microl) BAL fluids, suggesting that the beta-globin level could reflect BAL yields and DNA extraction. Using beta-globin for the interpretation of fungal PCR could improve the negative predictive value of this test. PMID:18763000

  11. Studies on Parasitologic and Haematologic Activities of an Enaminone Derivative of 4-Hydroxyquinolin-2(1H)-one Against Murine Schistosomiasis Mansoni

    PubMed Central

    El-Shennawy, Amal M.; Mohamed, Amira H.; Mohamed Abass

    2007-01-01

    The activity of a novel enaminone derivative of 4–hydroxyquinoline, BDHQ, was screened for its effectiveness against murine schistosomiasis by electron microscopy and parasitologic studies. The correlation of these studies with serum levels of IFN–gamma and IgE is described. Two groups of 10 mice each were treated with different doses of BDHQ, and their results were correlated with the control and praziquantel (PZQ)–treated groups. Parasitologic study revealed significant reduction in mature worms and tissue egg loads in BDHQ– and PZQ–treated groups, whereas immature worms revealed significant reduction in BDHQ groups only. The group treated with a higher dose of BDHQ showed significant reductions in intestinal ova count when compared with the PZQ–treated group. Ultrastructural examination of the worm revealed significant degeneration of the spines and tegument in all treated groups, while the genital system was affected in BDHQ–treated groups only. BDHQ showed considerable effect on cellular activation where serum levels of IFN–gamma were significantly increased in comparison to control, while anti–soluble worm antigen preparation (SWAP) IgE was significantly increased in comparison to both the control and PZQ–treated groups. Ultrastructural examination revealed cellular activation in buffy coat and the liver in both the BDHQ– and PZQ–treated groups in comparison to the untreated one, whereas in the bone marrow and spleen, evidence of cellular activation was remarkable in the BDHQ–treated groups. In conclusion, BDHQ exhibits high levels of activity against adult and juvenile stages of these parasites, which may be due to its mixed cellular and humoral immunologic mechanisms, as demonstrated by the significant increase of serum levels of IgE and IFN–gamma shown on electron microscopy. Therefore, our results support the comparative advantage that BDHQ has over PZQ. PMID:17435624

  12. Guidelines on selection of laboratory tests for monitoring the acute phase response. International Committee for Standardization in Haematology (expert panel on blood rheology).

    PubMed Central

    1988-01-01

    These guidelines refer to laboratory tests for monitoring changes in acute phase proteins in patients with an inflammatory response to tissue damage. Quantitative measurements of acute phase proteins are a valuable indicator of the presence, extent, and response of inflammation to treatment. When short term (less than 24 hours) changes in the inflammatory response are expected, quantitative assay of C reactive protein is the test of choice. The hyperproteinaemia that develops in response to a longer term (more than 24 hours) inflammatory response is complex and may vary from one disease to another. A test that is sensitive to the combined effect of several plasma proteins is therefore indicated, and appropriate tests include the erythrocyte sedimentation rate and plasma viscosity--the latter having several advantages. Tests for monitoring short term and long term changes in acute phase proteins are complementary and should be used for different clinical purposes; no one test is ideal for all clinical situations. A quality control programme is an essential component of laboratory tests for monitoring the acute phase response. PMID:2463272

  13. The Effects of Probiotic Soymilk Fortified with Omega-3 on Blood Glucose, Lipid Profile, Haematological and Oxidative Stress, and Inflammatory Parameters in Streptozotocin Nicotinamide-Induced Diabetic Rats

    PubMed Central

    Mohammadi Sartang, Mohsen; Mazloomi, Seyed Mohammad; Tanideh, Nader; Rezaian Zadeh, Abbas

    2015-01-01

    Objective. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effects of probiotic soymilk fortified with omega-3 in diabetic rats. Methods. Soymilk (SM), fermented soymilk (FSM), and fermented soymilk fortified with omega-3 (FSM + omega-3) were prepared. Rats were randomly assigned to five groups of 13 animals per group. Diabetes was induced by a single injection of streptozotocin (STZ) 15 min after the intraperitoneal administration of nicotinamide (NA). Normal control (NC) and diabetic control (DC) rats received 1 mL/day of distilled water and three groups of diabetic rats were given 1 mL/day of SM, FSM, and FSM + omega-3 products by oral gavage for 28 days. Results. Three products significantly (P < 0.05) reduced blood glucose, total cholesterol (TC), triglyceride (TG), and malondialdehyde (MDA) concentrations compared to the DC group, with the maximum reduction seen in the FSM + omega-3 group. Body weight, red blood cells (RBC), haemoglobin (Hb), haematocrit, and superoxide dismutase (SOD) also significantly increased in the FSM + omega-3 group. In the FSM + omega-3 group, MDA level compared with the SM and FSM groups and high sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) concentrations compared with the DC and FSM groups were significantly lower (P < 0.05). Conclusion. Fermented soymilk fortified with omega-3 may be beneficial in diabetes. PMID:26347893

  14. Nature and nurture: a case of transcending haematological pre-malignancies in a pair of monozygotic twins adding possible clues on the pathogenesis of B-cell proliferations.

    PubMed

    Hansen, Marcus C; Nyvold, Charlotte G; Roug, Anne S; Kjeldsen, Eigil; Villesen, Palle; Nederby, Line; Hokland, Peter

    2015-05-01

    We describe a comprehensive molecular analysis of a pair of monozygotic twins, who came to our attention when one experienced amaurosis fugax and was diagnosed with JAK2+ polycythaemia vera. He (Twin A) was also found to have an asymptomatic B-cell chronic lymphocytic leukaemia (B-CLL). Although JAK2-, Twin B was subsequently shown to have a benign monoclonal B-cell lymphocytosis (MBL). Flow cytometric and molecular analyses of the B-cell compartments revealed different immunoglobulin light and heavy chain usage in each twin. We hypothesized that whole exome sequencing could help delineating the pattern of germline B-cell disorder susceptibility and reveal somatic mutations potentially contributing to the differential patterns of pre-malignancy. Comparing bone marrow cells and T cells and employing in-house engineered integrative analysis, we found aberrations in Twin A consistent with a myeloid neoplasm, i.e. in TET2, RUNX1, PLCB1 and ELF4. Employing the method for detecting high-ranking variants by extensive annotation and relevance scoring, we also identified shared germline variants in genes of proteins interacting with B-cell receptor signalling mediators and the WNT-pathway, including IRF8, PTPRO, BCL9L, SIT1 and SIRPB1, all with possible implications in B-cell proliferation. Similar patterns of IGHV-gene usage to those demonstrated here have been observed in inherited acute lymphoblastic leukaemia. Collectively, these findings may help in facilitating identification of putative master gene(s) involved in B-cell proliferations in general and MBL and B-CLL in particular. PMID:25752595

  15. Anti-thymocyte globulin treatment of marrow aplasia associated with paroxysmal nocturnal haemoglobinuria (PNH) resulted in haematological improvement due to an expansion of the PNH clone.

    PubMed

    Cheung, W C; Lam, C C K; Kwong, Y L

    2003-01-01

    A patient with aplastic anaemia developed paroxysmal nocturnal haemoglobinuria (PNH) 4 years after diagnosis, with an ensuing haematopoietic improvement. The PNH clone subsequently declined, leading to pancytopenia again. Anti-thymocyte globulin had to be administered 14 years later, which resulted in haematopoietic improvement once more. Flow cytometric analysis showed that this was attributable to expansion of the PNH clone, owing probably to alleviation of its suppression by immune-mediated mechanisms. PIG-A gene analysis showed that the same PNH clone had waned and waxed in the clinical course. Our results suggest that the PNH clone might rarely be an immune target as well. PMID:12542494

  16. Association of haematological indices with the degree of microvascular injury in patients with acute anterior wall myocardial infarction treated with primary percutaneous coronary intervention

    PubMed Central

    Sezer, Murat; Okcular, Irem; Goren, Taner; Oflaz, Huseyin; Nisanci, Y?lmaz; Umman, Berrin; Mercanoglu, Fehmi; Bilge, Ahmet K; Meric, Mehmet; Umman, Sabahattin

    2007-01-01

    Background In acute myocardial infarction (AMI), increased neutrophil count has been associated with more severe coronary artery disease and larger infarct size. Increased mean platelet volume (MPV) is also associated with poor clinical outcome and impaired angiographic reperfusion in patients with AMI. However, the associations of neutrophil count and MPV with the indices of tissue level reperfusion were not fully elucidated. Aim To elucidate the relationship between baseline neutrophil count and MPV on presentation and microvascular injury in patients with anterior AMI treated with primary percutaneous coronary intervention (pPCI). Methods 41 patients with anterior wall AMI treated successfully with pPCI were included. The leucocyte count, neutrophil count and MPV were obtained on admission, and the percentage of neutrophils was calculated. After PCI thrombolysis in myocardial infarction, grade 3 flow was established in all patients. The coronary flow velocity pattern (diastolic deceleration time (DDT)) was examined with transthoracic echocardiography and measured intracoronary pressures with fibreoptic pressuretemperature sensor?tipped guidewire in the left anterior descending artery within 48?h after pPCI. Thermodilution?derived coronary flow reserve (CFR) was calculated. Index of microvascular resistance (IMR) was defined as simultaneously measured distal coronary pressure divided by the inverse of the thermodilution?derived hyperaemic mean transit time. Subsequently, a short compliant balloon was placed in the stented segment and inflated to measure coronary wedge pressure (CWP). Results Higher neutrophil counts were strongly associated with higher IMR (r?=?0.86, p<0.001), lower CFR (r?=??0.60, p<0.001), shorter DDT (r?=??0.73, p<0.001) and higher CWP (r?=?0.73, p<0.001). Likewise, there were significant correlations among the percentage of neutrophils and CFR (r?=??0.34, p?=?0.02), IMR (r?=?0.46, p?=?0.002), DDT (r?=??0.36, p?=?0.01) and CWP (r?=?0.49, p?=?0.001). Relationships among leucocyte count and IMR (r?=?0.38, p?=?0.01), CFR (r?=??0.33, p?=? 0.03), DDT (r?=??0.36, p?=?0.01) and CWP (r?=?0.32, p?=?0.026) were slightly significant. Higher neutrophil count remained independently associated with indices of microvascular perfusion in multivariable models controlling for age, smoking habits and time to treatment. Also, higher MPV on admission was strongly associated with higher IMR (r?=?0.89, p<0.001), steeper DDT (r?=??0.64, p<0.001), lower CFR (r?=??0.43, p?=?0.004) and higher CWP (r?=?0.77, p<0.001). Conclusion Absolute and relative neutrophilia and higher MPV on admission were independently associated with impaired microvascular perfusion in patients with anterior AMI treated with pPCI. It is possible that neutrophilia and high MPV are simple surrogate markers of worse microvascular injury in patients with AMI. PMID:16940390

  17. An initial investigation into the effects of isolation and enrichment on the welfare of labratory pigs housed in the PigTurn® system, assessed using tear staining, behaviour, physiology and haematology

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The pig is an increasingly important laboratory animal species. However, a laboratory often requires individual, sterile housing, which may impose stress. Our objective was to determine the effects of isolation and enrichment in pigs housed for 7 days within the PigTurn™ - a novel penning system wit...

  18. Outcomes of haematopoietic stem cell transplantation for inherited metabolic disorders: a report from the Australian and New Zealand Children's Haematology Oncology Group and the Australasian Bone Marrow Transplant Recipient Registry.

    PubMed

    Mitchell, R; Nivison-Smith, I; Anazodo, A; Tiedemann, K; Shaw, P J; Teague, L; Fraser, C J; Carter, T L; Tapp, H; Alvaro, F; O'Brien, T A

    2013-09-01

    We report a retrospective analysis of 53 haematopoietic stem cell transplants for inherited metabolic disorders performed at ANZCHOG transplant centres between 1992 and 2008. Indications for transplant included Hurler syndrome, ALD, and MLD. The majority of transplants utilized unrelated donor stem cells (66%) with 65% of those being unrelated cord blood. Conditioning therapy was largely myeloablative, with Bu plus another cytotoxic agent used in 89% of recipients. Primary graft failure was rare, occurring in three patients, all of whom remain long-term survivors following the second transplant. The CI of grade II-IV and grade III-IV acute GVHD at day +100 was 39% and 14%, respectively. Chronic GVHD occurred in 17% of recipients. TRM was 12% at day +100 and 19% at one yr post-transplant. OS at five yr was 78% for the cohort, 73% for patients with ALD and 83% for patients with Hurler syndrome. There was no statistically significant difference in overall survival between unrelated marrow and unrelated cord blood donor groups. The development of interstitial pneumonitis was an independent variable shown to significantly impact on TRM and OS. In summary, we report a large cohort of patients with inherited metabolic disorders with excellent survival post-allogeneic transplant. PMID:23802616

  19. Compliance with Home-based Fortification Strategies for Delivery of Iron and Zinc: Its Effect on Haematological and Growth Markers among 6-24 months Old Children in North India

    PubMed Central

    Dhingra, Pratibha; Dhingra, Usha; Gupta, Shilpi; Iyengar, Venkatesh; Menon, Venugopal P.; Sarkar, Archana; Black, Robert E.

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Compliance is a key component in successful implementation of the delivery of micronutrients among children. The present study evaluates the compliance with two home-based food fortification strategies (fortified complementary food or sprinkle) for providing iron and zinc among children aged 6-24 months. A total of 292 children were randomly allocated to receive either rice-based fortified complementary food and nutrition education (Cf=101), sprinkle and nutrition education (Mp=97), or nutrition education alone as control (Ed=94). All the enrolled children were breastfed at the beginning of the study and were advised to continue breastfeeding. Biweekly information on compliance and anthropometry was collected. Complete haemogram estimation was conducted at baseline and end of the study. Compliance with the fortified complementary food was higher compared to sprinkle (Cf=81%, Mp=64% child-days). Consumption of the fortified complementary food for 6 months resulted in a significant increase in mean haemoglobin in the intervention group compared to control group (Cf 1.291.6 g/dL; Ed 0.231.3 g/dL; p<0.001). Our results showed that fortified complementary food had higher compliance than sprinkle and is a suitable delivery mechanism for iron and zinc in preschool children. PMID:25076659

  20. Enumeration of bacteria in clinically significant blood cultures in neutropenic and non-neutropenic patients using a pour plate method.

    PubMed

    Rice, P; Spencer, R C

    1991-03-01

    A 3-year review of clinically significant positive blood cultures was undertaken to assess any differences in the blood bacterial count between haematological neutropenic and other non-neutropenic patients. The pour-plate method was used. In Gram-positive infections the pour plate contained colonies in 61% of haematological patients and in 41% of others. In Gram-negative infection the figures were 54% and 25% respectively. The mean numbers of bacteria per ml of blood were increased in haematological patients compared with the others for both groups of organisms. PMID:1675652

  1. ANALYSIS OF THE VOLUME OF RED BLOOD CELLS: APPLICATION OF THE EXPECTATION-MAXIMIZATION ALGORITHM TO GROUPED DATA FROM THE DOUBLY-TRUNCATED LOGNORMAL DISTRIBUTION

    EPA Science Inventory

    In accordance with general principles recommended by the International Committee for Standardization in Haematology (1982, Journal of Clinical Pathology 35, 1320-1322), the authors have developed statistical methods for the analysis of red cell volume distributions. To select an ...

  2. Graves' disease mimicking beta-thalassemia trait.

    PubMed Central

    Akasheh, M. S.

    1994-01-01

    A case of Graves' disease associated with splenomegaly, lymphadenopathy, microcytic hypochromic anaemia, and a raised haemoglobin A2 is presented. The haematological indices returned to normal after conventional treatment with anti-thyroid medication. PMID:8183779

  3. Graves' disease mimicking beta-thalassemia trait.

    PubMed

    Akasheh, M S

    1994-04-01

    A case of Graves' disease associated with splenomegaly, lymphadenopathy, microcytic hypochromic anaemia, and a raised haemoglobin A2 is presented. The haematological indices returned to normal after conventional treatment with anti-thyroid medication. PMID:8183779

  4. Rule based processing of the CD4000, CD3200 and CD Sapphire analyser output using the Cerner Discern Expert Module.

    PubMed

    Burgess, P; Robin, H; Langshaw, M; Kershaw, G; Pathiraja, R; Yuen, S; Coad, C; Xiros, N; Mansy, G; Coleman, R; Brown, R; Gibson, J; Holman, R; Hubbard, J; Wick, V; Lammers, M; Johnson, R; Huffman, K; Bell, J; Ibrahim, A; Estepa, F; Lovegrove, J; Joshua, D

    2009-12-01

    The latest version of our Laboratory Information System haematology laboratory expert system that handles the output of Abbott Cell-Dyn Sapphires, CD4000s and a CD3200 full blood count analyser in three high-volume haematology laboratories is described. The three hospital laboratories use Cerner Millennium Version 2007.02 software and the expert system uses Cerner Millennium Discern Expert rules and some small Cerner Command Language in-house programs. The entire expert system is totally integrated with the area-wide database and has been built and maintained by haematology staff members, as has the haematology database. Using patient demographic data, analyser numeric results, analyser error and morphology flags and previous results for the patient, this expert system decides whether to validate the main full blood count indices and white cell differential, or if the analyser results warrant further operator intervention/investigation before verifying, whether a blood film is required for microscopic review and if abnormal results require phoning to the staff treating the patient. The principles of this expert system can be generalized to different haematology analysers and haematology laboratories that have different workflows and different software. PMID:18691345

  5. Specific treatment for cancer-associated thrombosis.

    PubMed

    Laffan, Mike; Westcott, Gemma

    2015-11-01

    Mike Laffan speaks to Gemma Westcott, Commissioning Editor: Michael Laffan is Professor of Haemostasis and Thrombosis in the Department of Haematology at Imperial College, London, UK, and Director of the Hammersmith Hospital Haemophilia Centre. He trained in medicine at Oxford University and hematology at the Hammersmith and Royal Free hospitals in London. His principal research interests are the structure-function relationship of von Willebrand factor, in particular the role of glycosylation, and the mechanisms and regulation of thrombin generation. He has published extensively on hemostasis and recently edited the 11th edition of Practical Haematology. He also served on NEQAS and the British Committee for Standards in Haematology Task force on Haemostasis and Thrombosis. PMID:26467092

  6. [Leukemia, lymphogranulomatosis and histiocytosis of Langerhans in children with a history of enlarged thymus gland].

    PubMed

    Kuz'menko, L G; Minin, G I; Inozemtseva, E A

    1994-01-01

    The group consisted of 1056 children with enlarged thymus and a monitored catamnesis in 317 of 0.5-23 years. In 5 examinations in different periods after the diagnosis of enlarged thymus, haematological malignancies were diagnosed: acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (2 children), lymphogranulomatosis (1 child), chronic myeloid leukaemia (monocytic variant) and histiocytosis of Langerhans (1 child). The comparison of these data with other publications on the prevalence of these diseases in the population and the rate of mortality in Moscow place the children with enlarged thymus to high-risk group for haematological malignancies. PMID:7875516

  7. Leucocyte Variation, an Insight of Host Defenses During Hymenolepiasis and Restoration with Praziquantel

    PubMed Central

    Parvathi, J.; Karemungikar, Aruna

    2011-01-01

    Haematological studies in helminthiasis reveal drastic alterations in the white blood cells (leucocytes), and its various components like neutrophils, lymphocytes, monocytes and eosinophils. The use of proper anthelmintic agent, restores normalcy in the infected host. These variations during helminth infections reflect the host defense status in combating the parasitic attack. The present study involves the evaluation of these total and differential haematological alterations, induced in the laboratory mouse Mus musculus, infested with the intestinal helminth, Hymenolepis nana (dwarf tapeworm), and treated with the praziquantel, using an automatic Coulter Counter. PMID:22131626

  8. Altitude exposure in sports: the Athlete Biological Passport standpoint.

    PubMed

    Sanchis-Gomar, Fabian; Pareja-Galeano, Helios; Brioche, Thomas; Martinez-Bello, Vladimir; Lippi, Giuseppe

    2014-03-01

    The Athlete Biological Passport (ABP) is principally founded on monitoring an athlete's biological variables over time, to identify abnormal biases on a longitudinal basis. Several factors are known to influence the results of these markers. However, the manner in which the altitude factor is taken into account still needs to be standardized. Causal relationships between haematological variables should be correctly integrated into ABP software. In particular, modifications of haematological parameters during and after exposure to different altitudes/hypoxic protocols need to be properly included within detection models. PMID:24115763

  9. Consensus Report of the XI Congress of the Spanish Society of Odontology for the Handicapped and Special Patients

    PubMed Central

    Cabrerizo-Merino, Carmen; Cutando-Soriano, Antonio; Gimnez-Prats, Mara J.; Silvestre-Donat, Farncisco J.; Toms-Carmona, Inmaculada

    2014-01-01

    This article summarizes the findings of consensus of the XI congress of the SEOEME. All of these conclusions are referring to the review articles responsible to the general rapporteurs in order to bringing up to date knowledge with regard to the use of implants in patients medically compromised and with special needs and, in the dental management of autism and cerebral palsy, in the dental treatment of patients with genetic and adquired haematological disorders, the dental implications of cardiovascular disease and hospital dentistry. Key words:Autism, cardiovascular diseases, cerebral palsy, dental implants, disabled patients, haematological disorders, hospital dentistry. PMID:24608224

  10. Prolonged remission in a child with chronic myeloid leukemia following Parvo virus B19 (B19V) infection.

    PubMed

    Kumar, A; Moulik, N Roy; Kishore, J; Kumar, A; Jain, A

    2015-01-01

    Parvovirus B19 (B19V) has been associated with a wide spectrum of clinico-pathological disorders in human beings depending upon the host immunity. The present report describes a child with chronic myeloid leukemia ( CML) on hydroxyurea in haematological remission, who developed profound erythroid suppression following B19V infection requiring multiple transfusions and withdrawal of hydroxyurea. Despite being off-therapy the child remained in complete clinical and haematological remission till anti B19V antibodies appeared. This case illustrates the ability of B19V infection in suppressing neoplastic myeloid clone, a phenomenon not described earlier. PMID:26068352

  11. Changes in non-specific biomarkers in the Mediterranean barbel (Barbus meridionalis) exposed to sewage effluents in a Mediterranean stream (Catalonia, NE Spain).

    PubMed

    Maceda-Veiga, Alberto; Monroy, Mario; Viscor, Gins; De Sostoa, Adolfo

    2010-11-01

    The effluents from sewage treatment plants strongly influence the water quality and flow of Mediterranean streams. These effluents play a crucial role in maintaining the aquatic communities of these ecosystems, particularly in the absence of natural flow resulting from climate constraints or intensive water use. To detect the ecological effects of these effluents, we used non-lethal biomarkers in Barbus meridionalis and traditional assessment protocols in the Ripoll River (NE of Spain). Our results demonstrate the utility of haematological parameters. In comparison with fish at reference sites, we detected a decrease in haematocrit and haemoglobin, neutrophilia, lymphopenia, monocytosis, a rise in the nucleo-cytoplasmatic ratio of erythrocytes and an increase in the frequency of abnormal, immature and senescent erythrocytes. Many haematological parameters correlated significantly with the environmental parameters measured. In addition to these haematological alterations, histopathological examination also revealed damage in fish livers but no impact was detected by the regional index of biotic integrity using fish as bioindicators. To the best of our knowledge, this study is the first to report this battery of haematological parameters as biomarkers on a freshwater fish in a Mediterranean stream. In a region in which more than 50% of native fish species are classified as endangered or vulnerable, there is an urgent need to find biomarkers that do not harm the animals. PMID:20810176

  12. Case Report. Prevention of Clozapine-Induced Granulocytopenia/Agranulocytosis with Granulocyte-Colony Stimulating Factor (G-CSF) in an Intellectually Disabled Patient with Schizophrenia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rajagopal, G.; Graham, J. G.; Haut, F. F. A.

    2007-01-01

    Background: While clozapine is an effective treatment for refractory schizophrenia, its use is limited by haematological side effects. Treatment options that allow continued prescription of clozapine by tackling these side effects will greatly aid patients for whom this medication is all too often their only hope of recovery. Method: In this case

  13. Gloriosa superba ingestion: Hair loss and acute renal failure

    PubMed Central

    Khanam, P. S.; Sangeetha, B.; Kumar, B. V.; Kiran, U.; Priyadarshini, P. I.; Ram, R.; Sridhar, M. S.; Kumar, V. S.

    2015-01-01

    Gloriosa superba is a plant that grows wild in several parts of South India. Tubers of this plant contain several alkaloids. Acute intoxication following the ingestion of G. superba results in gastrointestinal and haematological abnormalities, hepatic and renal insufficiency, cardiotoxicity and hair loss. We present a case with typical features of G superba toxicity. PMID:26060369

  14. West Syndrome in an Infant with Vitamin B[subscript 12] Deficiency in the Absence of Macrocytic Anaemia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Erol, Ilknur; Alehan, Fusun; Gumus, Ayten

    2007-01-01

    Vitamin B[subscript 12] deficiency in infants often produces haematological and neurological deficits, including macrocytic anaemia, neurodevelopmental delay or regression, irritability, weakness, hypotonia, ataxia, apathy, tremor, and seizures. The diagnosis of vitamin B[subscript 12] deficiency can be difficult when the typical macrocytic

  15. Hair Zinc Level in Down Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yenigun, Ayse; Ozkinay, Ferda; Cogulu, Ozgur; Coker, Canan; Cetiner, Nurten; Ozden, Gonca; Aksu, Oguz; Ozkinay, Cihangir

    2004-01-01

    Immunological, endocrinological, and haematological abnormalities are relatively common in people with Down syndrome (Cuadrado & Barrena, 1996; Decoq & Vincker, 1995; Hestnes et al., 1991; Sustrova & Strbak, 1994; Nespoli, Burgio, Ugazio & Maccario, 1993; Kempski, Chessells & Reeves, 1997; Kivivuori, Rajantie, & Siimes, 1996; David et al., 1996;…

  16. West Syndrome in an Infant with Vitamin B[subscript 12] Deficiency in the Absence of Macrocytic Anaemia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Erol, Ilknur; Alehan, Fusun; Gumus, Ayten

    2007-01-01

    Vitamin B[subscript 12] deficiency in infants often produces haematological and neurological deficits, including macrocytic anaemia, neurodevelopmental delay or regression, irritability, weakness, hypotonia, ataxia, apathy, tremor, and seizures. The diagnosis of vitamin B[subscript 12] deficiency can be difficult when the typical macrocytic…

  17. Hair Zinc Level in Down Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yenigun, Ayse; Ozkinay, Ferda; Cogulu, Ozgur; Coker, Canan; Cetiner, Nurten; Ozden, Gonca; Aksu, Oguz; Ozkinay, Cihangir

    2004-01-01

    Immunological, endocrinological, and haematological abnormalities are relatively common in people with Down syndrome (Cuadrado & Barrena, 1996; Decoq & Vincker, 1995; Hestnes et al., 1991; Sustrova & Strbak, 1994; Nespoli, Burgio, Ugazio & Maccario, 1993; Kempski, Chessells & Reeves, 1997; Kivivuori, Rajantie, & Siimes, 1996; David et al., 1996;

  18. Visceral Leishmaniasis in a UK Toddler following a Short Trip to a Popular Holiday Destination in Spain

    PubMed Central

    Ladhani, Shamez N.

    2014-01-01

    We herein present the case of a 15-month-old with visceral leishmaniasis diagnosed in the UK following a short trip to a popular holiday destination in Spain. Four months after the initial symptoms, the diagnosis was made incidentally on microscopy of a bone marrow biopsy taken for suspected haematological malignancy after the child developed hepatosplenomegaly, pancytopaenia, and Klebsiella pneumoniae septicaemia. PMID:25180113

  19. QTL analysis of white blood cell, platelet and red blood cell-related traits in an F2 intercross between Landrace and Korean native pigs.

    PubMed

    Cho, I C; Park, H B; Yoo, C K; Lee, G J; Lim, H T; Lee, J B; Jung, E J; Ko, M S; Lee, J H; Jeon, J T

    2011-12-01

    Haematological traits play important roles in disease resistance and defence functions. The objective of this study was to locate quantitative trait loci (QTL) and the associated positional candidate genes influencing haematological traits in an F(2) intercross between Landrace and Korean native pigs. Eight blood-related traits (six erythrocyte traits, one leucocyte trait and one platelet trait) were measured in 816?F(2) progeny. All experimental animals were genotyped with 173 informative microsatellite markers located throughout the pig genome. We report that nine chromosomes harboured QTL for the baseline blood parameters: genomic regions on SSC 1, 4, 5, 6, 8, 9, 11, 13 and 17. Eight of twenty identified QTL reached genome-wide significance. In addition, we evaluated the KIT locus, an obvious candidate gene locus affecting variation in blood-related traits. Using dense single nucleotide polymorphism marker data on SSC 8 and the marker-assisted association test, the strong association of the KIT locus with blood phenotypes was confirmed. In conclusion, our study identified both previously reported and novel QTL affecting baseline haematological parameters in pigs. Additionally, the positional candidate genes identified here could play an important role in elucidating the genetic architecture of haematological phenotype variation in swine and in humans. PMID:22035003

  20. Dissemination via the lymphatic or angiogenic route impacts the pathology, microenvironment and hypoxia-related drug response of lung metastases.

    PubMed

    Gieling, Roben G; Fitzmaurice, Richard J; Telfer, Brian A; Babur, Muhammad; Williams, Kaye J

    2015-08-01

    Complications associated with the development of lung metastases have a detrimental effect on the overall survival rate of many cancer patients. Preclinical models that mimic the clinical aspects of lung metastases are an important tool in developing new therapy options for these patients. The commonly used intravenous models only recapitulate dissemination of cancer cells to the lungs via the haematological route. Here we compared spontaneous and intravenous lung metastases of the highly metastatic KHT mouse fibrosarcoma cells after injecting KHT cells into the subcutaneous layer of the skin or directly into the tail vein. In contrast to the intravenous model, metastases spontaneously arising from the subcutaneous tumours disseminated most consistent with the lymph nodes/lymphatics route and were more hypoxic than the metastases observed following tail-vein administration and haematological spread. To ascertain whether this impacted on drug response, we tested the effectiveness of the hypoxia-sensitive cytotoxin AQ4N (Banoxantrone) in both models. AQ4N was more effective as an anti-metastatic drug in mice with subcutaneous KHT tumours, significantly reducing the metastatic score. Complementing the KHT studies, pathology studies in additional models of spontaneous lung metastases showed haematological (HCT116 intrasplenic implant) or mixed haematological/lymphatic (B16 intradermal implant) spread. These data suggest that preclinical models can demonstrate differing, clinically relevant dissemination patterns, and that careful selection of preclinical models is required when evaluating new strategies for targeting metastatic disease. PMID:26112891

  1. Blastic plasmacytoid dendritic cell neoplasm (BPDCN): a rare entity.

    PubMed

    Lim, Ming Sheng; Lemmert, Karla; Enjeti, Anoop

    2016-01-01

    Blastic plasmacytoid dendritic cell neoplasm (BPDCN) is a rare and aggressive haematological malignancy in the elderly, with a high frequency of cutaneous and bone marrow involvement and poor prognosis. We report a case of BPDCN with classic presentation and discuss its treatment and the value of different investigation tools used in diagnosis and response assessment. PMID:26791132

  2. Case Report. Prevention of Clozapine-Induced Granulocytopenia/Agranulocytosis with Granulocyte-Colony Stimulating Factor (G-CSF) in an Intellectually Disabled Patient with Schizophrenia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rajagopal, G.; Graham, J. G.; Haut, F. F. A.

    2007-01-01

    Background: While clozapine is an effective treatment for refractory schizophrenia, its use is limited by haematological side effects. Treatment options that allow continued prescription of clozapine by tackling these side effects will greatly aid patients for whom this medication is all too often their only hope of recovery. Method: In this case…

  3. Effects of social isolation and environmental enrichment on laboratory housed pigs

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The pig is becoming an increasingly important laboratory animal species. However, a laboratory setting often requires individual and sterile housing, which may impose stress. The objective of this study was to determine physiological, haematological and behavioral effects of isolation and environmen...

  4. Malaria Diagnosis Using Automated Analysers: A Boon for Hematopathologists in Endemic Areas

    PubMed Central

    Narang, Vikram; Sood, Neena; Garg, Bhavna; Gupta, Vikram Kumar

    2015-01-01

    Background Haematological abnormalities are common in acute febrile tropical illnesses. Malaria is a major health problem in tropics. In endemic areas especially in the post monsoon season, it is not practical to manually screen all peripheral blood films (PBF) for malarial parasite. Automated analysers offer rapid, sensitive and cost effective screening of all samples. Aim The study was done to evaluate the usefulness of automated cell counters analysing their histograms, scatter-grams and the flaggings generated in malaria positive and negative cases. The comparison of other haematological parameters were also studied which could help to identify malaria parasite in peripheral blood smear. Materials and Methods The blood samples were analysed using Beckman coulter LH-750. The abnormal scatter grams and additional peaks in WBC histograms were observed diligently & compared with normal controls. Haematological abnormalities were also evaluated. Statistical Analysis Statistical analysis was done by using software Epi-Info version 7.1.4 freely available from CDC website. Fisher exact test was applied to calculate the p-value and value < 0.05 was considered as significant. Final identification of malarial parasite species was done independently by peripheral blood smear examination by two pathologists. Results Of all the 200 cases evaluated abnormal scatter grams were observed in all the cases of malaria while abnormal WBC histogram peaks were noted in 96% cases demonstrating a peak at the threshold of the histogram. The difference between number of slides positive for abnormal WBC scatter gram and abnormal WBC histogram peaks were statistically highly significant (p=0.007). So abnormal WBC scatter gram can better give idea of malarial parasite presence. Of the haematological parameters thrombocytopenia (92% cases) emerged as the strongest predictor of malaria. Conclusion It is recommended for haematopathologists to review the haematological data and the scatter plots on the analyser along with peripheral blood smear examination. PMID:26557525

  5. [Corticoid-sensitive nephrotic syndrome in children with myelodysplastic syndromes].

    PubMed

    Bogdanovi?, Radovan; Kuzmanovi?, Milos; Markovi?-Lipkovski, Jasmina; Ognjanovi?, Milos; Mi?i?, Dragan; Stankovi?, Ivica; Staji?, Natasa; Nikoli?, Vesna; Bunjevacki, Gordana

    2002-01-01

    Several reports have documented various forms of glomerular diseases in adults with myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS), but similar reports in children are lacking. We describe two children with MDS-associated with steroid-responsive nephrotic syndrome (NS). Patient 1, who had MDS with myelofibrosis, presented also hepatosplenomegaly, pancytopenia, chronic hepatitis, moderate proteinuria, hypocomplementamia and elevated ANA titer. During initial prednisone treatment proteinuria markedly diminished and partial but transient haematological improvement occurred. Relapse subsequently occurred that was manifested by overt NS and pancytopenia. High doses of prednisolone led to remission of the renal disease but haematological remission did not occur. Persisting pancytopenia and repeated infections terminated in sepsis, two years after the onset of MDS. Patient 2, who had refractory anaemia with clonal monosomy 19, manifested bowel disease, hepatosplenomegaly, anaemia and non-organic specific autoantibodies. Prednisone led to both clinical and haematological remission. Haematologic disease relapsed 12 months later, when nephrotic-range proteinuria, haematuria and mild azotaemia were also found. Corticosteroid treatment led to long-lasting renal and haematologic remission, maintained by a small dosage of prednisone. In both patients, renal biopsy findings were consistent with those seen in idiopathic NS. A Medline search disclosed 16 cases of glomerulopathy in the course of MDS in adult patients. Clinical features included NS, usually accompanied by renal insufficiency with either acute, chronic, or rapidly progressive glomerulonephritis. On biopsy, membranous nephropathy, crescentic or mesangial proliferative glomerulonephritis and AL amyloidosis, were found. We conclude: (1) that glomerular disease may be present and should be searched for in patients with MDS; (2) that MDS can be added to the list of rare conditions associated with corticosteroid-responsive NS in children. PMID:12577674

  6. Distribution of Different PML/RARα bcr Isoforms in Indian Acute Promyelocytic Leukemia (APL) Patients and Clinicohematological Correlation

    PubMed Central

    Chatterjee, Tathagata; Gupta, Srishti; Sharma, Sanjeevan; Ganguli, Prosenjit

    2014-01-01

    Context Acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL), an AML subtype, is characterized morphologically by abnormal promyelocytes. Molecular studies show three possible bcr isoforms of PML-RARα fusion gene. This study undertakes analysis of PML-RARα bcr isoforms and their correlation with haematological parameters and response to treatment in Indian patients. Aims To study different PML-RARα bcr isoforms in Indian patients and to find any correlation with various haematological parameters and response to treatment Settings and Design Patients diagnosed as APL on morphology or flowcytometry and confirmed by RQ PCR were included in the study. Treated APL patients or patients with relapse and on follow-up were excluded from the study. Methods and Material Twenty patients over thirty one months period were included. The clinical, haematological & morphological features were analysed, the latter using routine & special cytochemical stains on blood and bone marrow. Flow cytometric evaluation using 4-color Beckman Coulter FC 500 and molecular studies using RT PCR Fusion Quant® kits for bcr-1, bcr-2 and bcr-3 of PML-RARα bcr isoforms on the instrument Rotor Gene™ 3000 were performed. Statistical analysis used Student t test was applied to correlate different bcr isoforms with various haematological parameters and response to treatment. Results In our study, M:F ratio was 1.5:1 with median age 42 years, Hb - 8.0 g/dl, TLC-7900/μl, and platelet – 35000/μl and varied clinical presentation. Four patients were microgranular variants, and the rest were hypergranular. MPO and CAE positivity were100% and for NSE it was 33.33%. Molecular analysis revealed PML-RARα isoforms of bcr1 in 42.85%, bcr2 in 14.28% and bcr3 in 38.09% patients. No correlation was found between PML-RARα bcr isoforms, different haematological parameters and response to treatment. Conclusions Higher incidence of PML-RARα bcr-1 isoform was found in Indian APL patients with no significant correlation between different haematological parameters and response to treatment. PMID:24455113

  7. Frequent de novo mutations of the ANK1 gene mimic a recessive mode of transmission in hereditary spherocytosis: three new ANK1 variants: ankyrins Bari, Napoli II and Anzio.

    PubMed

    Randon, J; Miraglia del Giudice, E; Bozon, M; Perrotta, S; De Vivo, M; Iolascon, A; Delaunay, J; Morle, L

    1997-03-01

    A subset of spherocytosis cases associated with mutations of the ANK1 gene present an apparently recessive inheritance pattern on a clinical and haematological basis. We identified three novel out-of-frame deletions in the ANK1 gene: allele Bari (1361delG), Napoli II (2883delC) and Anzio (3032delCA) in three Italian patients, two of whom have been splenectomized. Analysis of the cDNA showed small or trace amounts of ankyrin mRNAs in Bari, Napoli II and Anzio. The parents were normal clinically and haematologically and did not carry the mutations exhibited by their children. We confirmed the de novo character of the HS mutations based on paternity testing. Recessive HS associated with the ANK1 gene is probably rarer than initially thought, and spherocytosis may often be due to de novo mutations. PMID:9054656

  8. Isolated folate deficiency causing profound pancytopenia in pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Obaji, Samya Gwen; Al-Ismail, Saad

    2015-01-01

    New-onset pancytopenia in pregnancy is challenging in the clinical setting particularly as the management and outcome of pregnancy are entirely dependent on the underlying aetiology. In the absence of increased peripheral destruction, for example, hypersplenism, bone marrow (BM) failure should be considered as the cause of pancytopenia. Profound folate or B12 deficiency may result in BM failure and are relatively easy to diagnose and manage. Other causes include aplastic anaemia (AA), infiltration by a haematological malignancy and other non-haematological disorders. We report a 26-year-old woman presenting with severe pancytopenia due to folate deficiency with complete recovery observed after folic acid replacement. This case highlights the importance of recognising folate deficiency as a reversible cause of pancytopenia, since prompt replacement can lead to rapid normalisation of counts with no subsequent clinical sequelae. We also consider the indications for measuring serum folate in pregnancy. PMID:25666248

  9. Secondary Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia after Hodgkin's Lymphoma or a Coincidental Association of Two Hematological Malignancies?

    PubMed Central

    TEVET, Mihaela; DRAGAN, Cornel; SAGUNA, Carmen; BARBU, Doina; LUPU, Anca Roxana

    2013-01-01

    ABSTRACT Secondary acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (sALL), defined as acute lymphoblastic leukaemia following another malignancy, irrespective of previous treatment, is a rare disease, and its biological characteristics have not been accurately described. We report the case of a 24-year old patient followed for Hodgkin's lymphoma at our clinic, who develops and is diagnosed, less than a year after obtaining complete remission, as having pro-B acute lymphoblastic leukaemia This case has been a real diagnostic and treatment challenge, as sALL following another haematological malignancy is quite rare. Conclusion: It is necessary to better identify the prognostic factors of haematological malignancies in order to prevent the appearance of sALL. PMID:24790671

  10. Bioaccumulation of heavy metals in blood and tissue of striped mullet in two Italian lakes.

    PubMed

    Fazio, Francesco; Piccione, Giuseppe; Tribulato, Katia; Ferrantelli, Vincenzo; Giangrosso, Giuseppe; Arfuso, Francesca; Faggio, Caterina

    2014-12-01

    Water and sediment from Faro and Ganzirri lakes were tested for cadmium, mercury, and lead. These heavy metals have been assessed in serum and muscles of Striped Mullet Mugil cephalus. A haemogram was performed to find effects of heavy metals on haematological variables. Student's t-test showed higher Pb levels in sediments of Ganzirri Lake than Faro Lake. Two-way analysis of variance showed higher Cd and Pb concentration in muscles samples of Striped Mullet from Ganzirri Lake than from Faro Lake. Significant differences were found among haematological parameters as well. Mullet from Ganzirri Lake had lower white and red blood cell and trombocyte counts and higher mean corpuscular haemoglobin and mean corpuscular haemoglobin concentration than those from Faro Lake. Our results indicate a significant presence of lead in the environmental produces an accumulation of this metal in fish muscles. PMID:25369146

  11. [Plasma lipoprotein levels in relation to dietary habits].

    PubMed

    Seu, A; Carbini, L; D'Antonio, C; Pellegrini, R; Rocchitta, A

    1980-10-15

    We carried out a nutritional and haematological survey on 130 pupils of a boarding school in Cagliari in order to determine the relationship between plasma lipoprotein and nutritional habits, particularly, we determined beta/alpha ratio of lipoprotein comparing it with plasma values in hospitalized patients, suffering from metabolic and cardiovascular disease. The results allowed us to observe that 92% of hospitalized patients and 17% of subjects, presumably in good health, showed beta/alpha ratio greater than 2,5. The latter, apparently insignificant, is very important because it was detected in young subjects; as their diet was high-fat and high-carbohydrate, a nutritional and haematological survey will be always necessary in order to prevent illnesses. PMID:7193038

  12. Moving Cages Further Offshore: Effects on Southern Bluefin Tuna, T. maccoyii, Parasites, Health and Performance

    PubMed Central

    Kirchhoff, Nicole T.; Rough, Kirsty M.; Nowak, Barbara F.

    2011-01-01

    The effects of offshore aquaculture on SBT health (particularly parasitic infections and haematology) and performance were the main aim of this study. Two cohorts of ranched Southern Bluefin tuna (SBT) (Thunnus maccoyii) were monitored throughout the commercial season, one maintained in the traditional near shore tuna farming zone and one maintained further offshore. SBT maintained offshore had reduced mortality, increased condition index at week 6 post transfer, reduced blood fluke and sealice loads, and haematological variables such as haemoglobin or lysozyme equal to or exceeding near shore maintained fish. The offshore cohort had no Cardicola forsteri and a 5% prevalence of Caligus spp., compared to a prevalence of 85% for Cardicola forsteri and 55% prevalence for Caligus spp. near shore at 6 weeks post transfer. This study is the first of its kind to examine the effects of commercial offshore sites on farmed fish parasites, health and performance. PMID:21901129

  13. Rare association of Visceral leishmaniasis with Hodgkin's disease: A case report

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    We present here a case of young male with complaints of fever and swelling in the neck for eight months. History of progressive weakness associated with weight loss was present. Physical examination revealed pallor, multiple enlarged cervical lymph nodes and hepatosplenomegaly. Investigations showed pancytopenia, hyperglobinemia and Leishman-Donovan bodies on bone marrow aspiration. Serological test confirmed diagnosis of visceral leishmaniasis. However, cervical lymph node aspiration and biopsy were suggestive of Mixed cellularity Hodgkin's disease. This made it a very rare case of Leishmaniasis as an opportunistic infection in a patient of pre-chemotherapy Hodgkin's disease. There was marked improvement in haematological profile and regression of hepatosplenomegaly with Amphotericin B treatment followed by favourable response to chemotherapy. The case emphasizes the suspicion for leishmaniasis as a masquerader and as an opportunistic infection in haematological malignancies. PMID:22011565

  14. Cerebral atrophy in a vitamin B12-deficient infant of a vegetarian mother.

    PubMed

    Kocaoglu, Celebi; Akin, Fatih; Caksen, Hseyin; Bke, Saltuk Bu?ra; Arslan, Skr; Aygn, Serhat

    2014-06-01

    In developed countries, vitamin B12 (cobalamin) deficiency usually occurs in children, exclusively breastfed ones whose mothers are vegetarian, causing low body stores of vitamin B12. The haematologic manifestation of vitamin B12 deficiency is pernicious anaemia. It is a megaloblastic anaemia with high mean corpuscular volume and typical morphological features, such as hyperlobulation of the nuclei of the granulocytes. In advanced cases, neutropaenia and thrombocytopaenia can occur, simulating aplastic anaemia or leukaemia. In addition to haematological symptoms, infants may experience weakness, fatigue, failure to thrive, and irritability. Other common findings include pallor, glossitis, vomiting, diarrhoea, and icterus. Neurological symptoms may affect the central nervous system and, in severe cases, rarely cause brain atrophy. Here, we report an interesting case, a 12-month old infant, who was admitted with neurological symptoms and diagnosed with vitamin B12 deficiency. PMID:25076673

  15. Cerebral Atrophy in a Vitamin B12-deficient Infant of a Vegetarian Mother

    PubMed Central

    Akin, Fatih; Çaksen, Hüseyin; Böke, Saltuk Buğra; Arslan, Şükrü; Aygün, Serhat

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT In developed countries, vitamin B12 (cobalamin) deficiency usually occurs in children, exclusively breastfed ones whose mothers are vegetarian, causing low body stores of vitamin B12. The haematologic manifestation of vitamin B12 deficiency is pernicious anaemia. It is a megaloblastic anaemia with high mean corpuscular volume and typical morphological features, such as hyperlobulation of the nuclei of the granulocytes. In advanced cases, neutropaenia and thrombocytopaenia can occur, simulating aplastic anaemia or leukaemia. In addition to haematological symptoms, infants may experience weakness, fatigue, failure to thrive, and irritability. Other common findings include pallor, glossitis, vomiting, diarrhoea, and icterus. Neurological symptoms may affect the central nervous system and, in severe cases, rarely cause brain atrophy. Here, we report an interesting case, a 12-month old infant, who was admitted with neurological symptoms and diagnosed with vitamin B12 deficiency. PMID:25076673

  16. The development of integrated haematopathology laboratories: a new approach to the diagnosis of leukaemia and lymphoma.

    PubMed

    Richards, S J; Jack, A S

    2003-12-01

    The diagnosis and monitoring of leukaemia and lymphoma requires the effective integration of a wide range of diagnostic techniques and expertise. The need to develop this type of service that crosses traditional boundaries of laboratory specialities is being recommended in national guidance. The Haematological Malignancy Diagnostic Service based within the Leeds Teaching Hospitals NHS Trust was established in 1993 to provide specialist laboratory services for the diagnosis of haematological malignancy for Yorkshire and Humberside in the UK. The department uses a wide range of methodologies including morphology, immunocytochemistry, flow cytometry and molecular genetics [fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) and polymerase chain reaction (PCR)] in a systematic and co-ordinated way. We describe how the department was established, its current working practices and highlight the advantages of an integrated laboratory for diagnosis of tumours of the haematopoietic system. PMID:14641135

  17. Time-dependent biodistribution, clearance and biocompatibility of magnetic fibrin nanoparticles: an in vivo study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prabu, Periyathambi; Vedakumari, Weslen S.; Sastry, Thotapalli P.

    2015-05-01

    Recently, bioretention and toxicity of injected nanoparticles in the body has drawn much attention in biomedical research. In the present study, 5 mg Fe per kg body weight of magnetic fibrin nanoparticles (MFNPs) were injected into mice intravenously and investigated for their blood clearance profile, biodistribution, haematology and pathology studies for a time period of 28 days. Moderately long circulation of MFNPs in blood was observed with probable degradation and excretion into the bloodstream via monoatomic iron forms. Inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES) and Prussian blue staining results showed increased accumulation of MFNPs in the liver, followed by spleen and other organs. Body weight, spleen/thymus indexes, haematology, serum biochemistry and histopathology studies demonstrated that MFNPs were biocompatible. These results suggest the feasibility of using MFNPs for drug delivery and imaging applications.

  18. Establishing the characteristics of an effective pharmacogenetic test for clozapine-induced agranulocytosis

    PubMed Central

    Verbelen, M; Collier, D A; Cohen, D; MacCabe, J H; Lewis, C M

    2015-01-01

    Clozapine is the only evidence-based therapy for treatment-resistant schizophrenia, but it induces agranulocytosis, a rare but potentially fatal haematological adverse reaction, in less than 1% of users. To improve safety, the drug is subject to mandatory haematological monitoring throughout the course of treatment, which is burdensome for the patient and one of the main reasons clozapine is underused. Therefore, a pharmacogenetic test is clinically useful if it identifies a group of patients for whom the agranulocytosis risk is low enough to alleviate monitoring requirements. Assuming a genotypic marker stratifies patients into a high-risk and a low-risk group, we explore the relationship between test sensitivity, group size and agranulocytosis risk. High sensitivity minimizes the agranulocytosis risk in the low-risk group and is essential for clinical utility, in particular in combination with a small high-risk group. PMID:25732907

  19. Blood collection procedures in hematology: knowledge and practice among laboratory personnel.

    PubMed

    Chaturvedi, Sujata; Suri, Vaishali; Pant, Ishita; Rusia, Usha

    2006-07-01

    Blood collection is an important preanalytical component of haematological testing. This questionnaire based study was conducted on laboratory personnel to elicit their knowledge and practice regarding blood collection procedures for haematological testing. Questionnaire comprised of 37 multiple choice questions, of which 10 questions each were related to essential and desirable knowledge, 10 to practice and 7 to educational and job profile. Ninety four laboratory personnel participated in the study. Analysis was done on SPSS software. Percentages of unsatisfactory scores were 42.6%, 4.3%, 17% and 6% in the essential knowledge, desirable knowledge, practice and total scoring respectively. 91.5%, however, had a satisfactory total score. Importance needs to be given to blood collection procedures both, individually and collectively. The study highlights the deficient areas which need to addressed by all laboratorians. Such studies should also be conducted among nursing and resident staff- the other groups concerned with blood collection. PMID:17001890

  20. Current clinical efficacy of chloroquine for the treatment of Plasmodium falciparum infections in urban Dar es Salaam, United Republic of Tanzania.

    PubMed Central

    Premji, Z.; Makwaya, C.; Minjas, J. N.

    1999-01-01

    Reported is the use of a 14-day WHO protocol, which takes into account the clinical, parasitological and haematological responses to antimalarial drugs, to determine the efficacy of chloroquine in the treatment of uncomplicated malaria in young children (n = 200) in urban Dar es Salaam. Chloroquine failure was found in 43% of the children. Of these, 12.5% were considered to be early treatment failures and were given a single dose of sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine. Fever subsided in all children treated with sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine and there were no parasitological failures. In addition, children treated with sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine because of early treatment failure with chloroquine had better haematological recovery than the chloroquine-sensitive group. It is concluded that chloroquine can no longer be considered an effective therapy for P. falciparum malaria in young children in Dar es Salaam. PMID:10534897

  1. Pathophysiology of white-nose syndrome in bats: a mechanistic model linking wing damage to mortality.

    PubMed

    Warnecke, Lisa; Turner, James M; Bollinger, Trent K; Misra, Vikram; Cryan, Paul M; Blehert, David S; Wibbelt, Gudrun; Willis, Craig K R

    2013-08-23

    White-nose syndrome is devastating North American bat populations but we lack basic information on disease mechanisms. Altered blood physiology owing to epidermal invasion by the fungal pathogen Geomyces destructans (Gd) has been hypothesized as a cause of disrupted torpor patterns of affected hibernating bats, leading to mortality. Here, we present data on blood electrolyte concentration, haematology and acid-base balance of hibernating little brown bats, Myotis lucifugus, following experimental inoculation with Gd. Compared with controls, infected bats showed electrolyte depletion (i.e. lower plasma sodium), changes in haematology (i.e. increased haematocrit and decreased glucose) and disrupted acid-base balance (i.e. lower CO2 partial pressure and bicarbonate). These findings indicate hypotonic dehydration, hypovolaemia and metabolic acidosis. We propose a mechanistic model linking tissue damage to altered homeostasis and morbidity/mortality. PMID:23720520

  2. Pathophysiology of white-nose syndrome in bats: a mechanistic model linking wing damage to mortality

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Warnecke, Lisa; Turner, James M.; Bollinger, Trent K.; Misra, Vikram; Cryan, Paul M.; Blehert, David S.; Wibbelt, Gudrun; Willis, Craig K.R.

    2013-01-01

    White-nose syndrome is devastating North American bat populations but we lack basic information on disease mechanisms. Altered blood physiology owing to epidermal invasion by the fungal pathogen Geomyces destructans (Gd) has been hypothesized as a cause of disrupted torpor patterns of affected hibernating bats, leading to mortality. Here, we present data on blood electrolyte concentration, haematology and acidbase balance of hibernating little brown bats, Myotis lucifugus, following experimental inoculation with Gd. Compared with controls, infected bats showed electrolyte depletion (i.e. lower plasma sodium), changes in haematology (i.e. increased haematocrit and decreased glucose) and disrupted acidbase balance (i.e. lower CO2 partial pressure and bicarbonate). These findings indicate hypotonic dehydration, hypovolaemia and metabolic acidosis. We propose a mechanistic model linking tissue damage to altered homeostasis and morbidity/mortality.

  3. Hematological parameters associated with parasitism in pike, Esox lucius caught from Anzali wetland.

    PubMed

    Fallah, Farzin Jamalzad; Khara, Hossein; Rohi, Javad Daghigh; Sayadborani, Mohammad

    2015-06-01

    This study involved 120 pike, Esox lucius, captured from Anzali wetland. Parasite fauna were identified in captured fish. Also, changes of haematological parameters were compared both infected and uninfected fish. Parasitological inspections revealed the following infestations: Skin: Lernea cyprinacea, Argulus foliaceus (Crustacean) and Tricodina sp. (Ciliatea). Gill: Dactylogyrus sp. (Digenea) and Tetraonchus monenteron (Monogenea). Eye: Diplostomum spathaceum (Digenea). Gut: Eustrongylides exises, Rhipdocotyle illense, Raphidascaris acus (Nematode), Corynosoma Strumosum (Acanthocephala). Most prevalence and intensity were related to Eustrongylides exises and Rhipdocotyle illense. Following haematological parameters were evaluated: haematocrit, haemoglobin concentration, erythrocyte and leukocyte counts, mean cell volume (MCV), mean cell haemoglobin, mean cell haemoglobin concentration lymphocytes, monocytes and eosinophils. Significant difference was found for MCV between infected and uninfected fish. PMID:26064009

  4. Establishing the characteristics of an effective pharmacogenetic test for clozapine-induced agranulocytosis.

    PubMed

    Verbelen, M; Collier, D A; Cohen, D; MacCabe, J H; Lewis, C M

    2015-10-01

    Clozapine is the only evidence-based therapy for treatment-resistant schizophrenia, but it induces agranulocytosis, a rare but potentially fatal haematological adverse reaction, in less than 1% of users. To improve safety, the drug is subject to mandatory haematological monitoring throughout the course of treatment, which is burdensome for the patient and one of the main reasons clozapine is underused. Therefore, a pharmacogenetic test is clinically useful if it identifies a group of patients for whom the agranulocytosis risk is low enough to alleviate monitoring requirements. Assuming a genotypic marker stratifies patients into a high-risk and a low-risk group, we explore the relationship between test sensitivity, group size and agranulocytosis risk. High sensitivity minimizes the agranulocytosis risk in the low-risk group and is essential for clinical utility, in particular in combination with a small high-risk group. PMID:25732907

  5. Serum ferritin in juvenile chronic polyarthritis.

    PubMed Central

    Craft, A W; Eastham, E J; Bell, J I; Brigham, K

    1977-01-01

    Six children with juvenile chronic polyarthritis were studied and their disease activity correlated with haematological values including serum ferritin. The latter is often raised above reference values, but even when within them appears to fluctuate significantly and correlates more closely with disease activity than any of the other parameters measured. We conclude that the serial measurement of serum ferritin may be a useful guide to the management of such children. PMID:879866

  6. Putative clinical piroplasmosis in a Burchell's zebra (Equus quagga burchelli).

    PubMed

    Lampen, F; Bhoora, R; Collins, N E; Penzhorn, B L

    2009-12-01

    A 10-year-old tame zebra gelding was presented after suffering from lethargy, nervousness, reported anaemia and icterus as well as a decreased appetite. These symptoms were seen over some months, with changing severity. The animal was immobilised, treated, and blood specimens were submitted for haematology and biochemistry. This report describes molecular characterisation of Theileria equi recovered from this animal, as well as the clinical findings, treatment and historical relevance of piroplasmosis in zebra in southern Africa. PMID:20458869

  7. Comparative efficacy of drugs in bovine anaplasmosis.

    PubMed

    Mishra, A K; Sharma, N N

    1979-11-01

    Calves experimentally infected with Anaplasma marginale were subjected to chemotherapeutic treatment in groups, each group receiving one drug only. Observations were made on clinical signs, haematological changes, parasitaemias and levels of antibodies as measured by the complement fixation test. The most effective treatment was with imidocarb; other drugs which were apparently effective were steclin, terramycin and aureomycin in that order, while chloroquin diphosphate and camoquin gave little indication of therapeutic value. PMID:552672

  8. Sweet syndrome: a lesson in the management of the cutaneous lesions of malignancy

    PubMed Central

    Leighton, Philippa; Amirfeyz, Rouin

    2015-01-01

    We present the case of a lady with rapidly growing haemorraghic bullae in the digits of both hands. There was no effect of antibiotics and surgical debridement was detrimental. The lesions regressed following steroid therapy. We discuss the cutaneous complications of haematological malignancies. We emphasize the importance of avoiding surgery in these cases and explain that immunosuppressive therapy should form the basis of treatment. PMID:25672975

  9. Pancytopenia in Lyme disease

    PubMed Central

    Mehrzad, Raman; Bravoco, Joseph

    2014-01-01

    We present a 49-year-old man with subacute onset of fever, weakness, shortness of breath, unilateral lower extremity oedema and pancytopenia who was found to have positive serology for Lyme disease. The patient presented with an intravascular haemolytic pattern on laboratory findings where an extensive infectious disease and haematological workup ruled out ehrlichiosis, anaplasmosis, babesiosis, Rocky Mountain spotted fever, HIV, hepatitis B and other parasitic infections. This left a very atypical presentation of Lyme disease. PMID:24596410

  10. Haemoglobin E trait and probable alpha-thalassaemia in a black American family: a family study.

    PubMed Central

    El-Shirbiny, A F; Parkhurst, S; Bettigole, R E; Tourbaf, K D

    1980-01-01

    This is a report of haemoglobin E trait in a black American family with no known Asian ancestory. The father appears to be heterozygous for both haemoglobin E and alpha-thalassaemia. The mother is normal both clinically and haematologically. These children carry Hb E trait alone. The youngest son has a normal haemoglobin pattern and appears to have alpha-thalassaemia. Images PMID:7205904

  11. Practical experience with the implementation of an athlete's biological profile in athletics, cycling, football and swimming.

    PubMed

    Zorzoli, M; Pipe, A; Garnier, P Y; Vouillamoz, M; Dvorak, J

    2014-05-01

    The introduction of the athlete's biological passport (ABP) has been a milestone in the fight against doping. The ABP is a collection of measurements of different biological parameters influenced by the administration of doping agents through the time and for each athlete. Two different modules have been developed and validated so far: the haematological module, which aims to identify enhancement of oxygen transport, including use of erythropoiesis-stimulating agents and any form of blood transfusion or manipulation, which became effective in 2010; and the steroidal module, which intends to detect the use of endogenous anabolic androgenic steroids when administered exogenously and other anabolic agents, which was introduced in 2014. Prior to the implementation of the haematological module, it is important to define an athlete's testing pool on whom to collect blood and/or urine in-competition and out-of-competition (for the steroidal module, this is irrelevant because all collected urine samples will be subjected to analysis for the steroidal variables) and to be compliant with the strict requirements of the World Anti-Doping Agency ABP Operating Guidelines. The established individual profile can be used either to target traditional antidoping tests (recombinant erythropoietins, or homologous blood transfusion tests for the haematological module; isotope ratio mass spectrometry (IRMS) for the steroidal module) or to support an antidoping rule violation due to the use of a forbidden substance or method. In this article, we present the experience of four major International Federations which have implemented an ABP programme, focusing on the haematological module. They constitute examples which could be followed by other antidoping organisations wishing to introduce this new, efficient and innovative antidoping tool. PMID:24648438

  12. Disseminated fusariosis by Fusarium proliferatum in a patient with aplastic anaemia receiving primary posaconazole prophylaxis - case report and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Ricna, Dita; Lengerova, Martina; Palackova, Martina; Hadrabova, Marketa; Kocmanova, Iva; Weinbergerova, Barbora; Pavlovsky, Zdenek; Volfova, Pavlina; Bouchnerova, Jana; Mayer, Jiri; Racil, Zdenek

    2016-01-01

    Disseminated fusariosis is a life-threatening, invasive, opportunistic infection in immunocompromised patients, especially those with haematological malignancies. The prognosis is poor because these fungi are resistant to many of the available antifungal agents. We present a case of disseminated fusariosis caused by Fusarium proliferatum in a patient with severe aplastic anaemia complicated by a secondary infection of Aspergillus flavus, with a fatal outcome. We also review the documented Fusarium infections in immunocompromised hosts. PMID:26661324

  13. Successful treatment of aplastic anaemia associated with HIV infection with eltrombopag: implications for a possible immunomodulatory role.

    PubMed

    Bart-Smith, Emily E; Kordasti, Shahram; Kulasekararaj, Austin G; Richardson, Daniel; Mufti, Ghulam J; Marsh, Judith C W

    2014-11-28

    We report the first successful treatment with the thrombopoietin receptor mimetic eltrombopag in a patient with severe aplastic anaemia (SAA) associated with HIV infection, thereby avoiding the use of standard immunosuppressive agents for treatment of SAA. Eltrombopag induced a trilineage haematological response. We also show that eltrombopag had an immunomodulatory role with a decrease in proinflammatory T helpers (Th1 and Th17 cells) with increased T-regulatory cell/T-helper ratio, thus contributing to recovery of haemopoiesis. PMID:25333665

  14. [Brucellosis and splenic infarction: a case in pediatric age].

    PubMed

    Ruggeri, C; Tulino, V; Foti, T; Carcione, L; Vita, D; Visalli, C; Zimbaro, G

    2001-12-01

    Splenic infarction has been associated with haematologic and tromboembolic disorders and, more rarely, with infectious diseases. A case of splenic infartion during an attack of brucellosis is reported. Symptoms included persistent left upper quadrant pain and fever. An abdomen scan confirmed the presence of a triangular area of hypodensity in the spleen. Serum and culture exams confirmed the diagnosis of brucellosis. The patient recovered once a course of antibiotic therapy was completed, after 2 and half months. PMID:11740440

  15. Characterization of coagulase-negative staphylococcal isolates from blood with reduced susceptibility to glycopeptides and therapeutic options

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background Coagulase-negative staphylococci (CoNS) are a major cause of nosocomial blood stream infection, especially in critically ill and haematology patients. CoNS are usually multidrug-resistant and glycopeptide antibiotics have been to date considered the drugs of choice for treatment. The aim of this study was to characterize CoNS with reduced susceptibility to glycopeptides causing blood stream infection (BSI) in critically ill and haematology patients at the University Hospital Tor Vergata, Rome, Italy, in 2007. Methods Hospital microbiology records for transplant haematology and ICU were reviewed to identify CoNS with elevated MICs for glycopeptides, and isolates were matched to clinical records to determine whether the isolates caused a BSI. The isolates were tested for susceptibility to new drugs daptomicin and tigecycline and the genetic relationship was assessed using f-AFLP. Results Of a total of 17,418 blood cultures, 1,609 were positive for CoNS and of these, 87 (5.4%) displayed reduced susceptibility to glycopeptides. Clinical review revealed that in 13 cases (7 in haematology and 6 in ICU), CoNS with reduced susceptibility to glycopeptides were responsible for a BSI. Staphylococcus epidermidis was the causative organism in 11 instances and Staphylococcus haemolyticus in 2. The incidence of oxacillin resistance was high (77%), although all isolates remained susceptible to linezolid, daptomycin and tigecycline. Fingerprinting of CoNS identified one clonal relationship between two isolates. Conclusion Multi-resistant CoNS with reduced susceptibility to glycopeptides, although still relatively infrequent in our hospital, are emerging pathogens of clinical concern. Surveillance by antibiotyping with attention to multi-resistant profile, and warning to clinicians, is necessary. PMID:19497104

  16. [A severe case of infectious mononucleosis associated with ciprofloxacin and salazopyrin administration].

    PubMed

    Miftode, Egidia; Leca, Daniela; Luca, V

    2008-01-01

    We report a case of rash probably induced by ciprofloxacin and/or salazopyrin administration in a patient with infectious mononucleosis. A 22 year woman developed a maculopapular and petechial eruption in the 3-rd day of ciprofloxacin (given for a genital tract infection) and the 32-nd day of salazopyrin (for a spondylodiscitis). Subsequently she developed a severe hepatitis, shock, and very severe leucocytosis (88 000/mmc) that occasioned haematological investigations for a lymphoproliferative syndrome. PMID:20201247

  17. Metachronous small bowel metastasis from a mixed Mllerian mesodermal tumour.

    PubMed

    Williamson, Jml; Stevens, M; Mahon, D

    2016-02-01

    A mixed Mllerian mesodermal tumour (MMMT) is a rare aggressive carcinosarcoma. Metastatic progression is uncommon, and occurs via haematological, lymphatic and intraperitoneal spread. Although the latter is seen most frequently, the small intestine seems to be relatively preserved from disease progression with only one reported case of synchronous involvement. We report a case of metachronous MMMT involvement of the small bowel presenting with subacute obstruction that was successfully resected at operation. PMID:26741677

  18. Diphenylhydantoin-induced pure red cell aplasia.

    PubMed

    Rusia, Usha; Malhotra, Purnima; Joshi, Panul

    2006-01-01

    Pure red cell aplasia is an uncommon complication of diphenylhydantoin therapy. It has not been reported in Indian literature. Awareness of the entity helps in establishing the cause of anaemia in these patients and alerts the physicians to the need of comprehensive haematological monitoring in these patients. A case of 58-year-old male who developed pure red cell aplasia following three months of diphenylhydantoin therapy is reported here. PMID:16850864

  19. Partial splenectomy in cystic fibrosis patients with hypersplenism.

    PubMed

    Thalhammer, G H; Eber, E; Uranüs, S; Pfeifer, J; Zach, M S

    2003-02-01

    We report three cystic fibrosis (CF) patients with hypersplenism who underwent partial splenectomy. The postoperative course was uneventful in two patients; one patient developed a complication necessitating resection of the rest of the spleen. Haematological parameters improved and oesophageal varices regressed in all patients. On follow up, one patient showed a normal spleen, the other a normally functioning accessory spleen; the third patient again developed splenomegaly with hypersplenism. Partial splenectomy is a promising therapeutic option for CF patients with hypersplenism. PMID:12538318

  20. Non-O1 Vibrio cholerae inguinal skin and soft tissue infection with bullous skin lesions in a patient with a penis squamous cell carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Aguinaga, Aitziber; Portillo, Mara E; Yuste, Jose R; del Pozo, Jose L; Garca-Tutor, Emilio; Prez-Gracia, Jose L; Leiva, Jos

    2009-01-01

    Vibrio spp. is a pathogen rarely isolated in cancer patients, and in most cases it is associated with haematological diseases. Cutaneous manifestations of this organism are even rarer. We report a case of Non-O1 Vibrio cholerae inguinal skin and soft tissue infection presenting bullous skin lesions in a young type II diabetic patient with a penis squamous cell carcinoma having a seawater exposure history. PMID:19454006

  1. Necrobiotic xanthogranuloma without paraproteinaemia: marked improvement with psoralen ultraviolet A treatment.

    PubMed

    Al-Niaimi, F A; Dawn, G; Cox, N H

    2010-04-01

    Necrobiotic xanthogranuloma (NXG) is a rare granulomatous condition that is often associated with a paraproteinaemia and in some cases multiple myeloma. Treatment is therefore aimed at the underlying associated haematological abnormality. However, isolated NXG cases have been reported. We report a case of isolated NXG that responded very well to systemic psoralen ultraviolet A (PUVA) treatment. The rationale for this treatment was the successful use of PUVA treatment in other necrobiotic conditions such as granuloma annulare and necrobiosis lipoidica. PMID:19663852

  2. Prenatal and early postnatal intoxication by inorganic mercury resulting from the maternal use of mercury containing soap.

    PubMed

    Lauwerys, R; Bonnier, C; Evrard, P; Gennart, J P; Bernard, A

    1987-05-01

    A case of slight renal tubular dysfunction associated with cataract and anaemia was diagnosed in a 3-month-old black boy in whom high levels of mercury were found in blood and urine. Several arguments suggest that the renal, ocular and haematological defects may have resulted from exposure to mercury during foetal life and the 1-month lactation period due to the extensive use of inorganic mercury containing cosmetics by the mother. PMID:3596613

  3. Bioavailability of iron in multiple fortified milk.

    PubMed

    Sachdeva, Bhawana; Kaushik, Ravinder; Arora, Sumit; Kapila, Suman

    2015-09-01

    The objectives of the study were to evaluate the bioavailability of iron in milk fortified with ferric pyrophosphate (FPP) soluble and vitamin A acetate and to establish the role of vitamin A in enhancement of iron absorption. Balance indices viz. apparent digestibility coefficient, % retention/intake of iron and haematological parameters viz. blood haemoglobin, plasma ferritin, plasma transferrin and iron content in rat livers were analyzed to evaluate iron bioavailability. Anaemia was induced in one group of rats to evaluate the effect of iron status of body on iron absorption from diet. The results of in vivo study showed that feeding of rats with lyophilates of milk fortified with FPP soluble and FPP soluble + vitamin A acetate had a significant effect on the balance indices of the iron as well as on the haematological parameters and iron liver status. The utilization of iron in the body, as indicated by the results of balance indices, haematological parameters and iron status of livers was significantly higher in anaemic rats compared to control group rats. Vitamin A appeared to be playing role in enhancement of iron absorption and utilization in body. PMID:26345022

  4. Does Oral Ingestion of Piper sarmentosum Cause Toxicity in Experimental Animals?

    PubMed Central

    Zakaria, Zaiton; Megat Mohd Nordin, Nor Anita; Othman, Faizah

    2013-01-01

    The prevalence of diabetes mellitus has reached epidemic proportion in Malaysia and worldwide. Scientific studies have shown that herbal plant Piper sarmentosum exhibits an antidiabetic property. Despite the extensive usage and studies of this herb as alternative medicine, there is paucity of the literature on the safety information of this plant. Thus, the present study aimed to observe the subacute toxic effects of Piper sarmentosum aqueous extract (PSAE) on the haematological profile, liver, and kidney in rats. The extract was administered by oral gavage to 6 male and female Sprague Dawley rats in daily dose of 50?mg/kg, 300?mg/kg, and 2000?mg/kg for 28 consecutive days. The control group received normal saline. General behavior of the rats, adverse effects, and mortality were observed for 28 days. The haematological and biochemical parameters were determined at baseline and after the treatment. PSAE did not show abnormality on the body weight and gross observation of internal organs. The haematological, biochemical and histopathological profiles showed minimal changes and variation within normal clinical range except for significant increase in serum potassium level that suggests the need of regular monitoring. Nevertheless, these findings suggested that PSAE up to 2000?mg/kg/day did not show subacute toxicity in Sprague Dawley rats. PMID:24228062

  5. Guideline on aspects of cancer-related venous thrombosis.

    PubMed

    Watson, Henry G; Keeling, David M; Laffan, Mike; Tait, Robert Campbell; Makris, Mike

    2015-09-01

    The guideline was drafted by a writing group identified by the Haemostasis and Thrombosis Task Force of the British Committee for Standards in Haematology (BCSH). All the authors are consultants in haematology in the UK. A search was performed of PubMed and Embase using the term 'cancer' combined with 'thrombosis', 'treatment', 'prophylaxis' and 'clinical presentation'. The search covered articles published up until December 2014. Only human studies were included and articles not written in English were excluded. References in recent reviews were also examined. The writing group produced the draft guideline, which was subsequently revised by consensus by members of the Haemostasis and Thrombosis Task Force of the BCSH and the BCSH executive. The guideline was then reviewed by the sounding board of the British Society for Haematology (BSH). This comprises 50 or more members of the BSH who have reviewed the guidance and commented on thecontent and application to the UK setting. The 'GRADE' system was used to quote levels and grades of evidence, details of which can be found at: http://www.bcshguidelines.com/BCSH_PROCESS/EVIDENCE_LEVELS_AND_GRADES_OF_RECOMMENDATION/43_GRADE.html. The objective of this guideline is to provide healthcare professionals with clear guidance on the prevention and management of venous thromboembolism (VTE) in patients with cancer and to advise on an approach to screening for cancer in patients with unprovoked VTE in whom cancer was not initially suspected based on clinical grounds. PMID:26114207

  6. Incidence of distal bone metastases in patients treated for palliative radiotherapy and associations with primary tumour types

    PubMed Central

    Barnes, Mark; Tiwana, Manpreet S.; Kiraly, Andrew; Hutchison, Mitch; Olson, Robert A.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose This study assesses the incidence of distal bone metastases in palliative radiotherapy (RT) patients. Material and methods All courses of RT for bone metastases from 2007–2011 for patient living in British Columbia (BC) were identified in a provincial RT programme. Treated bone metastases (BoM) were categorized as distal if the BoM was located within or distal to the elbow or knee. Patients were grouped by primary tumour site as breast, lung, prostate gastrointestinal, haematological, melanoma, and other. The incidence of distal bone metastases and associations with primary tumour types were determined. Results From 2007 to 2011, 8008 patients were treated with 16,277 courses of RT, of which 425 (3%) were courses of RT for distal BoM. The incidence of distal BoM in decreasing order by primary tumour type was melanoma (5%), haematological (3%), lung (2%), other (2%), prostate (2%), breast (1%) and gastrointestinal (1%). Distal BoM where more commonly identified in the lower extremity (87%, p<0.001). Single fraction RT was used more commonly for distal vs non-distal BoM (66% vs. 49%; p<0.001). Conclusion The incidence of distal BoM among patients treated with palliative RT was 3% and most commonly identified in patients with melanoma and haematological malignancies. PMID:26730358

  7. Obesity associated pathophysiological & histological changes in WNIN obese mutant rats

    PubMed Central

    Harishankar, Nemani; Kumar, Putcha Uday; Sesikeran, Boindala; Giridharan, Nappanveettil

    2011-01-01

    Background & objectives: WNIN/Ob (obese and euglycaemic) and WNIN/GR-Ob (obesity with impaired glucose tolerance), were isolated and established from Wistar rat stock (WNIN). Both strains showed physical, physiological and biochemical indices related to obesity. We present here haematology, histology and pathophysiological changes between the phenotypes of these strains, lean (+/+), carrier (+/-) and obese (-/-). Methods: A total of 72 animals of equal gender consisting of three phenotypes were used for the study. Haematology, organ weights were measured and histopathology of the tissues studied using standard procedures. In 12 lean and obese rats (equal gender) of WNIN/GR-Ob group morphometry of pancreatic islets was done immunohistochemically (IHC). Results: Obese rats of both the strains showed normal haematology (except low platelet count), but exhibited changes in the organ weights and in histopathology in organs like liver, kidney, brain and testis/ovary. Hyperplasia of adipocytes was seen in obese rats as compared to lean and carrier. IHC of obese rat pancreas showed that both islet density and volume were significantly (P<0.05) increased compared to lean littermates. Interpretation & conclusions: The histological and pathophysiological changes seen in these mutants were in tune with obese phenotype exhibited by these animals. PMID:21985816

  8. Deferasirox chelation therapy in patients with transfusion-dependent MDS: a 'real-world' report from two regional Italian registries: Gruppo Romano Mielodisplasie and Registro Basilicata.

    PubMed

    Maurillo, Luca; Breccia, Massimo; Buccisano, Francesco; Voso, Maria Teresa; Niscola, Pasquale; Trap, Giulio; Tatarelli, Caterina; D'Addosio, Ada; Latagliata, Roberto; Fenu, Susanna; Piccioni, Anna Lina; Fragasso, Alberto; Aloe Spiriti, Maria A; Refrigeri, Marco; Criscuolo, Marianna; Musto, Pellegrino; Venditti, Adriano

    2015-07-01

    Deferasirox (DFX) is an orally administered iron chelator approved for use in patients with transfusion-dependent iron overload due to myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS). The safety and efficacy of DFX has been explored in clinical trial settings, but there is little data on unselected patients with MDS. The aim of this study was to retrospectively evaluate the safety, compliance, efficacy and effect on haematopoiesis of DFX in a large 'real-world' MDS population. One hundred and eighteen patients with transfusion-dependent MDS were treated with DFX across 11 centres in Italy. Serum ferritin levels, haematological response, dosing, adverse events and transfusion dependence were recorded at baseline, 3, 6, 12 and 24 months following initiation of treatment. DFX reduced mean serum ferritin levels from 1790 to 1140 ng/mL (P < 0.001), with 7.1% of patients achieving transfusion independence. Significant haematological improvement was seen in erythroid (17.6%), platelet (5.9%) and neutrophil counts (7.1%). Adverse events were reported in 47.5% of patients, including gastrointestinal and renal toxicity. Regression analysis showed that higher starting doses of DFX are associated with transfusion independence at 24 months. DFX is a safe, effective treatment for transfusion-dependent MDS that can lead to transfusion independence and haematological improvement in a subset of patients. PMID:25764148

  9. Predictors of delay in diagnosis and treatment in diffuse large B-cell lymphoma and impact on survival.

    PubMed

    Nikonova, Anna; Guirguis, Hany R; Buckstein, Rena; Cheung, Matthew C

    2015-02-01

    There is a paucity of data on the impact of diagnostic and treatment delays on outcomes in haematological malignancies, particularly in patients with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL). Our database of patients treated for DLBCL between 2002 and 2010 was interrogated. Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed to determine the relationship between sociodemographic or disease-specific variables and delays. Cox Regression analysis was used to discern the impact of delays on survival. Patients (n = 278) waited a median of 4 weeks before seeking medical attention. It took a median of 8 weeks for a non-haematology physician to diagnose DLBCL and refer to a haematologist. A median of 3 weeks elapsed between specialist consultation and chemotherapy initiation. In multivariate logistic regression analysis, bone marrow involvement [odds ratio (OR) = 0·41, P = 0·018], Charlson comorbidity index (OR = 1·42, P = 0·017) and urgent inpatient chemotherapy (OR = 0·40, P = 0·012) were associated with diagnostic delays >6 weeks. Lack of pathological diagnosis at the time of haematology referral was the only factor that independently predicted for treatment delays >4 weeks (OR = 8·25, P < 0·01). Diagnostic or treatment delays did not impact survival or progression-free survival. In conclusion, selected disease and patient-related factors are associated with delays in management of DLBCL, but do not impact outcomes. PMID:25324181

  10. Nutritional status of children with congenital heart disease.

    PubMed Central

    Mitchell, I. M.; Logan, R. W.; Pollock, J. C.; Jamieson, M. P.

    1995-01-01

    OBJECTIVE--To assess the nutritional status of children with congenital heart disease. DESIGN--Six anthropometric, 24 biochemical, and five haematological markers of nutritional wellbeing were measured in children with congenital heart disease. SETTING--The west of Scotland. PATIENTS--48 children admitted consecutively for surgical correction of congenital heart disease. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES--Height, weight, and triceps and subscapular skin fold thicknesses were considered abnormal if they were below the third centile compared with standard reference data for age matched British children. Mid-arm circumference and arm muscle circumference were considered abnormal if they fell below the fifth centile compared with standard data. Biochemical and haematological data were compared with age matched and locally validated laboratory normals. RESULTS--A marked degree of undernutrition was evident in all children; 52% had weight less than the third centile, 37% were below the third centile for height, and 12.5% were below the third centile for triceps skin fold thickness and 18.8% for subscapular skin fold thickness. Mid-arm circumference and arm muscle circumference were below the fifth centile in 20.1% and 16.7% of children respectively. Five or more of the 29 biochemical and haematological measurements were abnormal in 83.3% of patients; 10 or more were abnormal in 12.5% of patients. CONCLUSIONS--Children with congenital heart disease are frequently undernourished, irrespective of the nature of cardiac defect and the presence or absence of cyanosis. PMID:7727190

  11. Sequelae and survivorship in patients treated with 131I-MIBG therapy

    PubMed Central

    Sze, W C C; Grossman, A B; Goddard, I; Amendra, D; Shieh, S C C; Plowman, P N; Drake, W M; Akker, S A; Druce, M R

    2013-01-01

    Background: 131I-meta-iodobenzylguanidine (131I-MIBG) has been in therapeutic use since 1980s. Newer treatment modalities are emerging for neuroendocrine tumours (NETs) and chromaffin cell tumours (CCTs), but many of these do not yet have adequate long-term follow-up to determine their longer term efficacy and sequelae. Methods: Fifty-eight patients with metastatic NETs and CCTs who had received 131I-MIBG therapy between 2000 and 2011 were analysed. Survival and any long-term haematological or renal sequelae were investigated. Results: In the NET group, the overall median survival and median survival following the diagnosis of metastatic disease was 124 months. The median survival following the commencement of 131I-MIBG was 66 months. For the CCT group, median survival had not been reached. The 5-year survival from diagnosis and following the diagnosis of metastatic disease was 67% and 67.5% for NETs and CCTs, respectively. The 5-year survival following the commencement of 131I-MIBG therapy was 68%. Thirty-two patients had long-term haematological sequelae: 5 of these 32 patients developed haematological malignancies. Two patients developed a mild deterioration in renal function. Conclusion: Long follow up of 131I-MIBG therapy reveals a noteable rate of bone marrow toxicities and malignancy and long term review of all patients receiving radionuclide therapies is recommended. PMID:23860527

  12. The histological diagnosis of metastases to the breast from extramammary malignancies

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Andrew H S

    2007-01-01

    This study aims to review histological and immunohistochemical features that are useful in the diagnosis of metastases to the breast. Histological features were compared between non‐haematological metastases to the breast and 100 consecutive core biopsy specimens of primary invasive carcinomas of the breast. 18 non‐haematological metastases to the breast were diagnosed over a 10‐year period (0.3% of malignant mammary tumours). Elastosis and carcinoma in situ were seen only in primary mammary cancers. Two‐thirds of tumours had features raising the possibility of metastasis, such as clear cell carcinoma suggestive of renal origin and small cell carcinoma suggestive of pulmonary origin. The features observed in haematological metastases are also described. Immunohistochemical panels to distinguish mammary carcinoma (oestrogen receptor, gross cystic fluid protein‐15) from common metastases to the breast, including carcinoma of the lung (thyroid transcription factor‐1), malignant melanoma (S100, HMB45, melan‐A) and ovarian serous papillary carcinoma (Wilms' tumour 1), are discussed. The pathologist has a key role in considering the diagnosis of metastasis to the breast if the histological features are unusual for a primary mammary tumour. The clinical history is vital in some cases. Immunohistochemistry plays a useful supplementary role. PMID:18042689

  13. Controversy on iron needs, intake levels, deficiency stigmata and benefits from iron supplementation

    PubMed Central

    Walker, Alexander R. P.

    1969-01-01

    At present there is considerable controversy over many aspects of iron nutrition, including: (1) iron needs and intake levels; (2) the bearing of iron intake on haematological levels; (3) iron deficiency anaemia and deficiency stigmata; and (4) iron therapy, prophylaxis, and the haematological and clinical benefits accruing. Differences of opinion prevail because of inadequacies of knowledge of the level of haemoglobin (or other parameter of iron status) below which unequivocal signs and symptoms of ill-health become manifest in the major proportion of those affected. Difficulties arise equally from lack of knowledge of the level of haemoglobin above which no clinical benefit, short-term or long-term, can be detected from iron supplementation. Clarification of the situation can be obtained only by carrying out the same meticulous and time-consuming procedures that have been used in respect of requirements and deficiency stigmata of other nutrients. Comprehensive iron depletion studies, real and simulated, and repletion studies, including the use of placebos, will be required. Epidemiological investigations bearing on haematological status and morbidity will also need to be undertaken, and include groups of subjects in both Western, and developing countries. PMID:4905446

  14. Praziquantel treatment for yellowtail kingfish (Seriola lalandi): dose and duration safety study.

    PubMed

    Forwood, James M; Bubner, Erin J; Landos, Matt; D'Antignana, Trent; Deveney, Marty R

    2016-02-01

    Regulatory approval is being sought to use praziquantel (PZQ) to treat flukes infecting yellowtail kingfish (YTK), but accurate safety data were not available. We investigated the effect of increased doses or prolonged exposure of orally administered PZQ on YTK by assessing changes in haematological and biochemical characteristics, and mortality. Fish were intubated daily for 3 days with 0, 100, 300 and 500 mg PZQ kg(-1) BW day(-1) or once daily for 9 days at 0 and 100 mg PZQ kg(-1) BW day(-1). Blood was taken 24 h after the cessation of treatment. There was no significant difference between any of the haematological or biochemical indices in YTK treated with PZQ and controls, indicating that PZQ is safe for use at 100 mg PZQ kg(-1) BW day(-1) in YTK and that exposure to high doses or prolonged duration does not have negative effects on the YTK haematological or biochemical parameters we measured. PMID:26314575

  15. Correlation of Clinicohaematological Parameters in Paediatric Dengue: A Retrospective Study.

    PubMed

    Pai Jakribettu, Ramakrishna; Boloor, Rekha; Thaliath, Andrew; Yesudasan George, Sharanya; George, Thomas; Ponadka Rai, Manoj; Rafique Sheikh, Umran; Avabratha, Kadke Shreedhara; Baliga, Manjeshwar Shrinath

    2015-01-01

    Dengue is one of the arthropod-borne (arbo) viral diseases transmitted by female mosquito Aedes aegypti. Dengue fever has a wide spectrum of clinical presentation ranging from flu-like illness to severe complicated stage of dengue hemorrhagic fever leading to mortality. This was a retrospective study conducted in a tertiary care hospital in Coastal Karnataka, South India, to know the correlation between the clinical presentation and haematological parameters in the paediatric cases presented with dengue symptoms. A total of 163 paediatric cases who presented fever and dengue-like illness were included in the study. Of which, 69 were confirmed dengue patients. Critical analysis showed that there was a significant difference in the haematological parameters like total leucocyte count, percent differential leucocyte count, and platelets count, in the erythrocyte sedimentation rate (P < 0.05 to 0.0001). Additionally, when compared to nondengue patients, even the liver function and renal function parameters were significantly deranged (P < 0.05 to 0.0001). Stratification based on NS1, IgG, and IgM showed significant alterations in the haematological, hepatic, and renal parameters. With respect to the treatment a small percentage of patients, that is, 8% (4 patients), required platelet transfusion as their counts went below 20,000/μL. Two patients succumbed to their illness while three required ICU stay. PMID:26819620

  16. [Secondary iron overload].

    PubMed

    Galactéros, F

    2000-05-01

    Secondary iron overload (SIO) constitutes a growing clinical problem, particularly in haematological diseases in which the improvements of life expectancy give the iron overload enough duration to play its own prognostic role. Iron may accumulate by two ways: transfusion and/(or) digestive hyperabsorption which is proportional to erythroïd plasma iron turnover. To properly evaluate the iron overloading one must be able to appreciate the cumulative red blood cell transfusion volumes. That is to say: weighting and counting red blood cell units. The magnitude of red blood cell precursor mass might be conveniently but indirectly evaluated by the measurement of the plasma transferrin receptor concentration. The group of haematological diseases, complicated by SIO to the contrary of primary haemochromatosis, is very heterogeneous. Some of them like hereditary dyserythropoiesis may not be obviously detectable on standard haematological observation. They can combine or not with hereditary haemochromatosis. A SIO must be treated when it may add a specific prognostic effect. In some cases, regular blood letting are usable without major problems. In all other cases iron chelation therapy is an effective way to reduce SIO, provided long term compliance is obtained. PMID:10865498

  17. Mutation screening for thalassaemia in the Jino ethnic minority population of Yunnan Province, Southwest China

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Shiyun; Zhang, Rong; Xiang, Guangxin; Li, Yang; Hou, Xuhong; Jiang, Fusong; Jiang, Feng; Hu, Cheng; Jia, Weiping

    2015-01-01

    Objectives This study aimed to detect ?- and ?-thalassaemia mutations in the Jino ethnic minority population of Yunnan Province, Southwest China. Design A total of 1613 Jino adults were continuously recruited from February 2012 to April 2012. Fasting venous blood samples were obtained to determine haematological variables. Haemoglobin analysis was conducted using high-performance liquid chromatography. Participants with hypochromic microcytic anaemia or positive haemoglobin analysis profiles were confirmed by ?- and ?-globin genetic testing, including DNA microarray analysis, direct sequencing methods and multiplex gap-PCR assays. Setting Shanghai Diabetes Institute, Shanghai Key Laboratory of Diabetes Mellitus, Shanghai Jiao Tong University Affiliated Sixth People's Hospital. Results We found 363 suspected cases by primary screening of haematological variables and haemoglobin analysis. After further genetic testing, four types of ?- and ?-thalassaemia mutation were detected in 203 out of 363 individuals. Both ?0- and ?+-thalassaemia mutations, --SEA and -?3.7, were identified. ?-Thalassaemia mutations included CD17 (HBB:c.52A>T) and CD26 (HbE or HBB:c.79G>A). In addition, 13 HbE carriers had coexisting ?0- or ?+-thalassaemia deletions. Clinical haematological variables indicated that, in this study, carriers of all thalassaemic genotypes had more severe hypochromic microcytic anaemia than non-thalassaemic individuals. Conclusions Our results provide information on the Jino ethnic minority that may be useful for further genetic counselling, prenatal screening and clinical diagnosis of thalassaemia in this region. PMID:26715484

  18. Inappropriate use of laboratory services: long term combined approach to modify request patterns.

    PubMed Central

    Bareford, D; Hayling, A

    1990-01-01

    OBJECTIVE--To see whether changes in request patterns for haematological tests could be influenced in the long term by information released from a haematology department. DESIGN--Analysis of request patterns by hospital divisions before and after intervention and of costs of intervention and savings achieved. SETTING--Haematology laboratory of an inner city district general hospital. INTERVENTIONS--Monthly release of a comparison of clinicians' workload statistics, issue of on call guidelines, and promulgation of information (by seminars and factsheets) on appropriate use of tests. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES--Request patterns before and after intervention. RESULTS--During the year after intervention requests fell by at least a fifth, and the reduction persisted over the next two years. The reduction was most pronounced in relation to inpatients within the division of medicine, for whom requests fell from an average of 4.0 per patient in the six months before intervention to 2.9 per patient in the six months after. CONCLUSIONS--A definite and sustained reduction in inappropriate requests for laboratory investigations may be achieved by an ongoing policy of intervention including issuing guidelines and factsheets and holding seminars, but a positive attitude among senior consultant staff is crucial. PMID:2271854

  19. Correlation of Clinicohaematological Parameters in Paediatric Dengue: A Retrospective Study

    PubMed Central

    Pai Jakribettu, Ramakrishna; Boloor, Rekha; Thaliath, Andrew; Yesudasan George, Sharanya; George, Thomas; Ponadka Rai, Manoj; Rafique Sheikh, Umran; Avabratha, Kadke Shreedhara; Baliga, Manjeshwar Shrinath

    2015-01-01

    Dengue is one of the arthropod-borne (arbo) viral diseases transmitted by female mosquito Aedes aegypti. Dengue fever has a wide spectrum of clinical presentation ranging from flu-like illness to severe complicated stage of dengue hemorrhagic fever leading to mortality. This was a retrospective study conducted in a tertiary care hospital in Coastal Karnataka, South India, to know the correlation between the clinical presentation and haematological parameters in the paediatric cases presented with dengue symptoms. A total of 163 paediatric cases who presented fever and dengue-like illness were included in the study. Of which, 69 were confirmed dengue patients. Critical analysis showed that there was a significant difference in the haematological parameters like total leucocyte count, percent differential leucocyte count, and platelets count, in the erythrocyte sedimentation rate (P < 0.05 to 0.0001). Additionally, when compared to nondengue patients, even the liver function and renal function parameters were significantly deranged (P < 0.05 to 0.0001). Stratification based on NS1, IgG, and IgM showed significant alterations in the haematological, hepatic, and renal parameters. With respect to the treatment a small percentage of patients, that is, 8% (4 patients), required platelet transfusion as their counts went below 20,000/μL. Two patients succumbed to their illness while three required ICU stay. PMID:26819620

  20. Masked polycythaemia vera: presenting features, response to treatment and clinical outcomes.

    PubMed

    Alvarez-Larrn, Alberto; Angona, Anna; Ancochea, Agueda; Garca-Pallarols, Francesc; Fernndez, Concepcin; Longarn, Raquel; Bellosillo, Beatriz; Besses, Carlos

    2016-01-01

    Masked polycythaemia vera (PV) has been proposed as a new entity with poorer outcome than overt PV. In this study, the initial clinical and laboratory characteristics, response to treatment and outcome of masked and overt PV were compared using red cell mass and haemoglobin or haematocrit levels for the distinction between both entities. Sixty-eight of 151 PV patients (45%) were classified as masked PV according to World Health Organisation diagnostic criteria, whereas 16 (11%) were classified as masked PV using the British Committee for Standards in Haematology (BCSH). In comparison with overt PV, a higher platelet count and a lower JAK2V617F allele burden at diagnosis were observed in masked PV. Patients with masked PV needed lower phlebotomies and responded faster to hydroxcarbamide than those with overt PV. Complete haematological response was more frequently achieved in masked than in overt PV (79% vs. 58%, P=0.001). There were no significant differences in the duration of haematological response, the rate of resistance or intolerance to hydroxycarbamide and the probability of molecular response according to type of PV (masked vs. overt). Overall survival, rate of thrombosis and major bleeding, and probability of transformation was superimposable among patients with masked and overt PV. PMID:25810304

  1. Epidemiology of candidaemia in a tertiary care university hospital: 10-year experience with 381 candidaemia episodes between 2001 and 2010.

    PubMed

    Alp, Sehnaz; Arikan-Akdagli, Sevtap; Gulmez, Dolunay; Ascioglu, Sibel; Uzun, Omrum; Akova, Murat

    2015-08-01

    Defining the epidemiology of and risk factors for candidaemia is necessary to guide empirical treatment. The objectives of this study were to determine the ranking of Candida among positive blood cultures, to define the epidemiology of candidaemia and to investigate patient characteristics and their relationship with C. albicans vs. non-albicans Candida (NAC) candidaemia. Candidaemia episodes between January 2001 and December 2010 were evaluated retrospectively. Patient characteristics were compared across Candida species. Candida ranked as the fifth most frequently isolated pathogen. Among 381 candidaemia episodes, 58.3% were due to C. albicans, followed by C. parapsilosis (15.2%), C. tropicalis (13.4%) and C. glabrata (6.8%). No statistically significant difference was observed in the distribution of C. albicans vs. NAC (P = 0.432). Patients with NAC had significantly higher rates of haematological disorders (P < 0.001) and neutropenia (P = 0.003), and were older (P = 0.024) than patients with C. albicans, whereas patients with urinary catheters had higher rates of C. albicans (P = 0.007). On species basis, C. tropicalis was more frequently isolated from patients with haematological disorders (P < 0.001) and neutropenia (P = 0.008). Patients with urinary catheters were less likely to have C. parapsilosis (P = 0.043). C. glabrata was most prevalent among patients with solid organ tumours (P = 0.038), but not evident in patients with haematological disorders. Local epidemiological features and risk factors may have important implications for the management of candidaemia. PMID:26155849

  2. Iron profile in children with behavioural disorders: a prospective study in a tertiary care hospital in north India.

    PubMed

    Mahajan, Garima; Sikka, Meera; Rusia, Usha; Bhatia, M S

    2011-06-01

    Iron deficiency anemia is the most frequent micronutrient deficiency in the developing countries like India especially affecting pregnant women and young children. Iron is an essential element involved in myelin formation, neurotransmitter synthesis and neuro-metabolism. Several behavioural disturbances have been reported in iron deficient children. In the present study, we determined the prevalence of iron deficiency anemia in children with behavioural disorders and assessed the improvement in terms of symptoms (by child behaviour check list), haematological parameters and iron status after treatment with oral iron. In this prospective study, 44 children in the age group of 3-12years who were diagnosed with behavioural disorders were evaluated. Complete blood counts using automated hematology analyzer and iron parameters (serum iron, total iron binding capacity, % transferrin saturation and serum ferritin) were measured in all the patients to assess the prevalence of iron deficiency in these children. Thirty age matched controls were also studied. Iron deficiency was found in 32 (73%) children, as assessed by transferrin saturation <16% and/or serum ferritin <16?g/l. Following treatment with iron for 10010days, there was a statistically (P?0.05) significant improvement in the clinical features, haematological profile and iron status. The presence of iron deficiency in children with behavioural disorders and subsequent improvement in clinical features, haematological profile and iron status suggests a possible causal relationship between iron deficiency and behavioural disorders. PMID:22654296

  3. Influence of Protein Intake from Haem and Non-haem Animals and Plant Origin on Inflammatory Biomarkers among Apparently-healthy Adults in Greece

    PubMed Central

    Vallianou, Natalia G.; Bountziouka, Vassiliki P.; Georgousopoulou, Ekavi; Evangelopoulos, Angelos A.; Bonou, Maria S.; Vogiatzakis, Evangelos D.; Barbetseas, John D.; Avgerinos, Peter C.

    2013-01-01

    Intake of different types of protein may be associated with differences in biomarkers among various populations. This work investigated the influence of protein intake from haem and non-haem animals as well as protein from plants on haematological and biochemical parameters in inflammation among apparently-healthy adults living in Greece, a Mediterranean country. Four hundred and ninety apparently-healthy subjects (46±16 years, 40% men), who consecutively visited Polykliniki General Hospital for routine examinations, voluntarily agreed to participate in the study (participation rate 85%). Demographic, anthropometric and lifestyle characteristics were recorded. Participants completed a valid, semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire. Protein intake was classified into three sources: protein from haem animals, protein from non-haem animals, and protein from plant origin. Fasting blood samples were taken from all participants; uric acid, creatinine, lipids, cystatin C, haptoglobin, haemoglobin, haematocrit, iron, ferritin, white blood cells, monocytes, platelets, and C-reactive protein were measured. Protein intake from only haem animals was associated with increased haemoglobin and haematocrit levels (p<0.05) whereas intake of protein from non-haem animals and plant origin was not associated with the investigated haematological and biochemical markers of low-grade chronic inflammation when lifestyle factors and overall dietary habits were taken into account. Intake of protein from only haem animals seems to be consistently associated with haematological markers. The confounding role of dietary habits and lifestyle variables on the tested parameters deserves further attention in future research. PMID:24592585

  4. Follow up of New Zealand participants in British atmospheric nuclear weapons tests in the Pacific.

    PubMed Central

    Pearce, N; Prior, I; Methven, D; Culling, C; Marshall, S; Auld, J; de Boer, G; Bethwaite, P

    1990-01-01

    OBJECTIVE--To study the health of Royal New Zealand Navy personnel who participated in atmospheric nuclear weapons tests conducted by the United Kingdom at Malden Island and Christmas Island in 1957 and 1958. DESIGN--Blinded, controlled follow up of up to 30 years. SETTING--New Zealand. SUBJECTS--528 Men known to have participated in the tests and a control group of 1504 men who were in the Royal New Zealand Navy during the same period but did not participate in the tests. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES--Mortality and incidence of cancer. RESULTS--Follow up for the period 1957-87 was 94% complete in test participants and 91% complete in the controls. There were 70 deaths among test participants and 179 deaths among controls, yielding a relative risk of 1.08 (90% confidence interval 0.85 to 1.38, p = 0.29). The relative risk of death from causes other than cancer was 0.96 (0.71 to 1.29, p = 0.59) whereas the relative risk of death from cancer was 1.38 (0.90 to 2.10, p = 0.09) and of the incidence of cancer was 1.12 (0.78 to 1.60, p = 0.29). For cancers other than haematological malignancies the relative risk was 1.14 (0.69 to 1.83, p = 0.31) for mortality and 1.01 (0.67 to 1.50, p = 0.48) for incidence. There were seven deaths from haematological cancers among test participants (relative risk 3.25, 90% confidence interval 1.12 to 9.64, p = 0.02), including four leukaemias (5.58, 1.04 to 41.6, p = 0.03). The relative risk for incidence of haematological cancers was 1.94 (0.74 to 4.84, p = 0.10) and that for leukaemia was 5.51 (1.03 to 41.1, p = 0.03). There were no cases of multiple myeloma in the test participants during the follow up period, but the expected number was only 0.3. CONCLUSIONS--Although the numbers are small, the findings for leukaemia are similar to those for British participants in the nuclear weapons test programme. Some leukaemias, and possibly some other haematological cancers, may have resulted from participation in this programme. There is little evidence of an increased risk for non-haematological cancers, and there is no evidence of an increased risk for causes of death other than cancer. PMID:2346802

  5. The haemotoxicity of mitomycin in a repeat dose study in the female CD-1 mouse

    PubMed Central

    Molyneux, Gemma; Gibson, Frances M; Gordon-Smith, Edward C; Pilling, Andrew M; Liu, Kai Chiu; Rizzo, Sian; Sulsh, Susan; Turton, John A

    2005-01-01

    Mitomycin (MMC), like many antineoplastic drugs, induces a predictable, dose-related, bone marrow depression in man and laboratory animals; this change is generally reversible. However, there is evidence that MMC may also cause a late-stage or residual bone marrow injury. The present study in female CD-1 mice investigated the haematological and bone marrow changes induced by MMC in a repeat dose study lasting 50 days. Control and MMC-treated mice were dosed intraperitoneally on eight occasions over 18 days with vehicle, or MMC at 2.5 mg/kg, autopsied (n = 6–12) at 1, 7, 14, 28, 42 and 50 days after the final dose and haematological changes investigated. Femoral nucleated bone marrow cell counts and levels of apoptosis were also evaluated and clonogenic assays carried out; serum levels of FLT3 ligand (FL) were assessed. At day 1 post-dosing, MMC induced significant reductions in RBC, Hb and haematocrit (HCT) values, and there were decreases in reticulocyte, platelet, and femoral nucleated cell counts (FNCC); neutrophil, lymphocyte and monocyte values were also significantly reduced. On days 7 and 14 post-dosing, all haematological parameters showed evidence of a return towards normal values, but at these times, and at day 28, values for RBC and FNCC remained significantly reduced in comparison with controls. At days 42 and 50 post-dosing, many haematological parameters in MMC-treated mice had returned to control levels; however, there remained evidence of late-stage effects on RBC, Hb and HCT values, and FNCC also continued to be significantly decreased. Results for granulocyte-macrophage colony-forming units and erythroid colonies showed a profound decrease immediately post-dosing, but a return to normal values was evident at day 50. Serum FL concentrations demonstrated very significant increases in the immediate post-dosing period, but a return to normal was seen at day 50 post-dosing; a relatively similar pattern was seen in the number of apoptotic femoral marrow nucleated cells. The histopathological examination of kidney tissues from MMC animals at day 42 and 50 post-dosing showed evidence of hydronephrosis with cortical glomerular/tubular atrophy and degeneration. It is therefore concluded that MMC administered on eight occasions over 18 days to female CD-1 mice at 2.5 mg/kg induced profound changes in haematological and bone marrow parameters in the immediate post-dosing period with a return to normal levels at day 50 post-dosing; however, there was evidence of mild but significant late-stage/residual effects on RBC and FNCC, and on cells of the erythroid lineage in the bone marrow. PMID:16309546

  6. UGT1A and TYMS genetic variants predict toxicity and response of colorectal cancer patients treated with first-line irinotecan and fluorouracil combination therapy

    PubMed Central

    Martinez-Balibrea, E; Abad, A; Martnez-Cards, A; Gins, A; Valladares, M; Navarro, M; Aranda, E; Marcuello, E; Benavides, M; Massut, B; Carrato, A; Layos, L; Manzano, J L; Moreno, V

    2010-01-01

    Background: The impact of thymidylate synthase (TYMS) and UDP-glucoronosyltransferase 1A (UGT1A) germline polymorphisms on the outcome of colorectal cancer (CRC) patients treated with irinotecan plus 5-fluorouracil (irinotecan/5FU) is still controversial. Our objective was to define a genetic-based algorithm to select patients to be treated with irinotecan/5FU. Methods: Genotyping of TYMS (5?TRP and 3?UTR), UGT1A1*28, UGT1A9*22 and UGT1A7*3 was performed in 149 metastatic CRC patients treated with irinotecan/5FU as first-line chemotherapy enrolled in a randomised phase 3 study. Their association with response, toxicity and survival was investigated by univariate and multivariate statistical analysis. Results: TYMS 3TRP/3TRP genotype was the only independent predictor of tumour response (OR=5.87, 95% confidence interval (CI)=1.6820.45; P=0.005). UGT1A1*28/*28 was predictive for haematologic toxicity (OR=6.27, 95% CI=1.0936.12; P=0.04), specifically for neutropenia alone (OR=6.40, 95% CI=1.1137.03; P=0.038) or together with diarrhoea (OR=18.87, 95% CI=2.14166.67; P=0.008). UGT1A9*1/*1 was associated with non-haematologic toxicity (OR=2.70, 95% CI=1.076.82; P=0.035). Haplotype VII (all non-favourable alleles) was associated with non-haematologic toxicity (OR=2.11, 95% CI=1.123.98; P=0.02). Conclusion: TYMS and UGT1A polymorphisms influence on tumour response and toxicities derived from irinotecan/5FU treatment in CRC patients. A genetic-based algorithm to optimise treatment individualisation is proposed. PMID:20628391

  7. Evaluation of antiarthritic activity of Strychnos potatorum Linn seeds in Freund's adjuvant induced arthritic rat model

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Strychnos potatorum Linn (Loganiaceae) is a moderate sized tree found in southern and central parts of India, Sri Lanka and Burma. In traditional system of medicine, Strychnos potatorum Linn seeds were used for various ailments including inflammation, diabetes etc. To investigate the folkloric use of the seeds the present study was carried out on Freund's adjuvant induced arthritic rats. Methods The present study states the effect of the aqueous extract (SPE) and the whole seed powder (SPP) of Strychnos potatorum Linn seeds on the Freund's complete adjuvant (FCA) induced arthritic rat paw edema, body weight changes and alterations in haematological and biochemical parameters in both developing and developed phases of arthritis. Histopathology of proximal interphalangeal joints and radiology of hind legs were studied. Results In FCA induced arthritic rats, there was significant increase in rat paw volume and decrease in body weight increment, whereas SPP and SPE treated groups, showed significant reduction in paw volume and normal gain in body weight. The altered haematological parameters (Hb, RBC, WBC and ESR) and biochemical parameters (blood urea, serum creatinine, total proteins and acute phase proteins) in the arthritic rats were significantly brought back to near normal by the SPP and SPE treatment at the dose of 200 mg/kg/p.o in both developing and developed phases of arthritis. Further the histopathological and radiological studies revealed the antiarthritic activity of SPP and SPE by indicating fewer abnormalities in these groups when compared to the arthritic control group. Conclusion In conclusion, both SPP and SPE at the specified dose level of 200 mg/kg, p.o. showed reduction in rat paw edema volume and it could significantly normalize the haematological and biochemical abnormalities in adjuvant induced arthritic rats in both developing and developed phases of FCA induced arthritis. Further the histopathological and radiological studies confirmed the antiarthritic activity of SPP and SPE. PMID:20939932

  8. Vinflunine–gemcitabine versus vinflunine–carboplatin as first-line chemotherapy in cisplatin-unfit patients with advanced urothelial carcinoma: results of an international randomized phase II trial (JASINT1)†

    PubMed Central

    De Santis, M.; Wiechno, P. J.; Bellmunt, J.; Lucas, C.; Su, W.-C.; Albiges, L.; Lin, C.-C.; Senkus-Konefka, E.; Flechon, A.; Mourey, L.; Necchi, A.; Loidl, W. C.; Retz, M. M.; Vaissière, N.; Culine, S.

    2016-01-01

    Background There is no standard first-line chemotherapy for advanced urothelial carcinoma (aUC) in cisplatin-ineligible (cisplatin-unfit) patients. The study assessed the efficacy and tolerability profile of two vinflunine-based cytotoxic regimens in this setting. Patients and methods Patients with aUC a creatinine clearance (CrCl) of <60 but ≥30 ml/min, performance status 0 or 1 and no prior chemotherapy for advanced disease were randomized (1 : 1). They received vinflunine 250 or 280 mg/m2 (based on baseline CrCl) on day 1, plus either gemcitabine [750 mg/m2 escalated to 1000 mg/m2 in cycle 2 if no toxicity grade (G) ≥2 on days 1 and 8 (VG) or plus carboplatin area under the curve 4.5 day 1 (VC) every 21 days]. To detect a 22% improvement in each arm compared with H0 (41%) in the primary end point, disease control rate (DCR = complete response + partial response + stable disease), 31 assessable patients per arm were required (α = 5%, β = 20%). Results Sixty-nine patients were enrolled (34 VG, 35 VC). Less G3/4 haematological adverse events (AEs) were reported with VG: neutropaenia was seen in 38% (versus 68% with VC) and febrile neutropaenia in 3% (versus 14% with VC) of patients. No major differences were observed for non-haematological AEs. DCR was 77% in both groups; overall response rate (ORR) was 44.1% versus 28.6%, with a median progression-free survival of 5.9 versus 6.1 months and median OS of 14.0 versus 12.8 months with VG and VC, respectively. Conclusion Both vinflunine-based doublets offer a similar DCR, ORR and OS. The better haematological tolerance favours the VG combination, which warrants further study. ClinicalTrials.gov protocol identifier NCT 01599013. PMID:26673352

  9. Growth, clinical chemistry and immune function in domestic piglets fed varying ratios of arachidonic acid and DHA.

    PubMed

    Tyburczy, Cynthia; Kothapalli, Kumar S D; Park, Woo Jung; Blank, Bryant S; Liu, Ying-Chun; Nauroth, Julie M; Zimmer, J Paul; Salem, Norman; Brenna, J Thomas

    2012-03-01

    In the USA, infant formulas contain long-chain PUFA arachidonic acid (ARA) and DHA in a ratio of 2:1 and comprise roughly 066 g/100 g and 033 g/100 g total fatty acids (FA). Higher levels of dietary DHA appear to provide some advantages in visual or cognitive performance. The present study evaluated the effect of physiologically high dietary ARA on growth, clinical chemistry, haematology and immune function when DHA is 10 g/100 g total FA. On day 3 of age, formula-reared (FR) piglets were matched for weight and assigned to one of six milk replacer formulas. Diets varied in the ratio of ARA:DHA as follows (g/100 g FA/FA): A1, 01/10; A2, 053/10; A3-D3, 069/10; A4, 11/10; D2, 067/062; D1, 066/033. A seventh group was maternal-reared (MR) and remained with the dam during the study. Blood collection and body weight measurements were performed weekly, and piglets were killed on day 28 of age. No significant differences were found among any of the FR groups for formula intake, growth, clinical chemistry, haematology or immune status measurements. A few differences in clinical chemistry, haematology and immune function parameters between the MR pigs and the FR groups probably reflected a difference in growth rate. We conclude that the dietary ARA level up to 10 g/100 g total FA is safe and has no adverse effect on any of the safety outcomes measured, and confirm that DHA has no adverse effect when ARA is at 066 g/100 g FA. PMID:22040360

  10. National survey on intra-laboratory turnaround time for some most common routine and stat laboratory analyses in 479 laboratories in China

    PubMed Central

    Fei, Yang; Zeng, Rong; Wang, Wei; He, Falin; Zhong, Kun

    2015-01-01

    Introduction To investigate the state of the art of intra-laboratory turnaround time (intra-TAT), provide suggestions and find out whether laboratories accredited by International Organization for Standardization (ISO) 15189 or College of American Pathologists (CAP) will show better performance on intra-TAT than non-accredited ones. Materials and methods 479 Chinese clinical laboratories participating in the external quality assessment programs of chemistry, blood gas, and haematology tests organized by the National Centre for Clinical Laboratories in China were included in our study. General information and the median of intra-TAT of routine and stat tests in last one week were asked in the questionnaires. Results The response rate of clinical biochemistry, blood gas, and haematology testing were 36% (479 / 1307), 38% (228 / 598), and 36% (449 / 1250), respectively. More than 50% of laboratories indicated that they had set up intra-TAT median goals and almost 60% of laboratories declared they had monitored intra-TAT generally for every analyte they performed. Among all analytes we investigated, the intra-TAT of haematology analytes was shorter than biochemistry while the intra-TAT of blood gas analytes was the shortest. There were significant differences between median intra-TAT on different days of the week for routine tests. However, there were no significant differences in median intra-TAT reported by accredited laboratories and non-accredited laboratories. Conclusions Many laboratories in China are aware of intra-TAT control and are making effort to reach the target. There is still space for improvement. Accredited laboratories have better status on intra-TAT monitoring and target setting than the non-accredited, but there are no significant differences in median intra-TAT reported by them. PMID:26110033

  11. No evidence of dehydration with moderate daily coffee intake: a counterbalanced cross-over study in a free-living population.

    PubMed

    Killer, Sophie C; Blannin, Andrew K; Jeukendrup, Asker E

    2014-01-01

    It is often suggested that coffee causes dehydration and its consumption should be avoided or significantly reduced to maintain fluid balance. The aim of this study was to directly compare the effects of coffee consumption against water ingestion across a range of validated hydration assessment techniques. In a counterbalanced cross-over design, 50 male coffee drinkers (habitually consuming 3-6 cups per day) participated in two trials, each lasting three consecutive days. In addition to controlled physical activity, food and fluid intake, participants consumed either 4200 mL of coffee containing 4 mg/kg caffeine (C) or water (W). Total body water (TBW) was calculated pre- and post-trial via ingestion of Deuterium Oxide. Urinary and haematological hydration markers were recorded daily in addition to nude body mass measurement (BM). Plasma was analysed for caffeine to confirm compliance. There were no significant changes in TBW from beginning to end of either trial and no differences between trials (51.51.4 vs. 51.41.3 kg, for C and W, respectively). No differences were observed between trials across any haematological markers or in 24 h urine volume (2409660 vs. 2428669 mL, for C and W, respectively), USG, osmolality or creatinine. Mean urinary Na(+) excretion was higher in C than W (p?=?0.02). No significant differences in BM were found between conditions, although a small progressive daily fall was observed within both trials (0.40.5 kg; p<0.05). Our data show that there were no significant differences across a wide range of haematological and urinary markers of hydration status between trials. These data suggest that coffee, when consumed in moderation by caffeine habituated males provides similar hydrating qualities to water. PMID:24416202

  12. Health studies on a group of captive helmeted guineafowl (Numida meleagris) in Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Cooper, J E; Max, R A; Mbassa, G K

    1996-03-01

    A small group of housed helmeted guineafowl (Numida meleagris) was studied over a 6-week period. Blood samples were taken on three occasions and basic haematology was performed. Clinical examination of the birds revealed a number of abnormalities including bumblefoot, inflammatory lesions on the wings and body, impaction of the preen gland and traumatic injuries. Supporting laboratory tests provided further information on the aetiology and pathogenesis of some of these disorders. Four birds died during the study: postmortem findings included oviductitis and septicaemia, visceral gout and nephropathy. Virological investigations were not carried out. The importance, when keeping guineafowl, of good husbandry, including regular handling and examination, is stressed. PMID:18645844

  13. Prospective study of aetiological factors in burning mouth syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Lamey, P-J; Lamb, A B

    1988-01-01

    A prospective study of 150 consecutive patients with burning mouth syndrome and with a minimum follow up period of 18 months is reported. Factors related to dentures, to vitamin B complex deficiency, and to psychological abnormalities were found to be important, and undiagnosed diabetes mellitus, reduced salivary gland function, haematological deficiencies, candidal infection, parafunctional habits, and allergy might also play a part. Given a protocol for management which takes all these factors into account, some two thirds of patients can be cured or have their symptoms improved. PMID:3133028

  14. Pulmonary hypertension in patients with chronic myeloproliferative disorders.

    PubMed

    Adir, Yochai; Elia, Davide; Harari, Sergio

    2015-09-01

    Pulmonary hypertension (PH) is a major complication of several haematological disorders. Chronic myeloproliferative diseases (CMPDs) associated with pulmonary hypertension have been included in group five of the clinical classification for pulmonary hypertension, corresponding to pulmonary hypertension for which the aetiology is unclear and/or multifactorial. The aim of this review is to discuss the epidemiology, pathogenic mechanism and treatment approaches of the more common forms of pulmonary hypertension in the context of CMPD's: chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension, precapillary pulmonary hypertension and drug-induced PH. PMID:26324801

  15. ACTH-adrenal system and exogenous steroids.

    PubMed

    Palmieri, G; Perego, M; Alkabes, M; Palmieri, R

    1979-01-01

    The results obtained from a research on 100 patients of both sexes affected with bronchial asthma, chronic obstructive bronchopathy, rheumatoid arthritis, haematological disorders and some other pathological forms, all depending on steroid therapy, are reported in this paper. The treatment was carried out using a new chronopluricorticoid (Dutimelan 8 15). The clinical efficiency is comparable to that obtained by the traditional steroid treatment with the advantage that symptoms of hypercorticism were absent or insignificant. The authors believe that such excellent results are to be attributed to the particular chronopharmacological characteristics of this preparation. PMID:232569

  16. [Visceral leishmaniasis in two children after vacation in Southern Europe].

    PubMed

    Castberg, Filip Christian; Poulsen, Anja; Petersen, Bodil Laub; Lausen, Birgitte

    2013-09-16

    Pancytopenia, fever and splenomegaly are frequent causes for referrals to paediatric haematology departments, on the suspicion of acute leukaemia. We report two cases of Danish children with the tropical disease visceral leishmaniasis (VL) contracted on short vacations in Southern Europe. One of the patients developed secondary haemophagocytic lymphohistocytosis (HLH). Both children were successfully treated with liposomal amphotericin B. In Denmark, VL is a rare but important differential diagnosis to acute leukaemia and HLH, and should be ruled out after journeys to endemic areas, including Southern Europe. PMID:24044542

  17. Gastric adenocarcinoma in a patient with X-linked agammaglobulinaemia.

    PubMed

    Bachmeyer, C; Monge, M; Cazier, A; Le Deist, F; de Saint Basile, G; Durandy, A; Fischer, A; Mougeot-Martin, M

    2000-09-01

    Patients with primary immunodeficiencies are at high risk for developing haematological malignancies and, to a lesser degree, carcinoma. We report a patient with ascertained X-linked agammaglobulinaemia who developed a gastric carcinoma involving the distal part of the stomach associated with chronic atrophic gastritis and intestinal metaplasia. These latter conditions are considered to be precursor conditions and the role of chronic infections is likely. Patients with X-linked agammaglobulinaemia, as with other primary immunodeficiencies, could benefit from regular gastrointestinal evaluation, leading to early diagnosis and treatment of carcinoma. PMID:11007143

  18. Acute myeloid leukaemia after treatment for acute lymphoblastic leukaemia in girl with Bloom syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Adams, Madeleine; Jenney, Meriel; Lazarou, Laz; White, Rhian; Birdsall, Sanda; Staab, Timo; Schindler, Detlev; Meyer, Stefan

    2014-01-01

    Bloom syndrome (BS) is an inherited genomic instability disorder caused by disruption of the BLM helicase and confers an extreme cancer predisposition. Here we report on a girl with BS who developed acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL) at age nine, and treatment-related acute myeloid leukaemia (t-AML) aged 12. She was compound heterozygous for the novel BLM frameshift deletion c.1624delG and the previously described c.3415C>T nonsense mutation. Two haematological malignancies in a child with BS imply a fundamental role for BLM for normal haematopoiesis, in particular in the presence of genotoxic stress. PMID:24932421

  19. Cyclic chemotherapy in acute lymphoblastic leukaemia of childhood

    PubMed Central

    Vowels, M. R.; Willoughby, M. L. N.

    1973-01-01

    Of 31 children with acute lymphoblastic leukaemia treated with a cyclical scheme of chemotherapy, 19% survived for over 5 years, 16% remained in continuing haematological remission for 5 years, and 13% remained leukaemia free for 5 years. These findings are relevant to potential cure, unlike the median remission duration, which is a measure of palliation. A relation between the percentage of PAS-positive blast cells at diagnosis and duration of control of the disease still pertains for the long-term results in this series of patients. PMID:4514541

  20. Multiple sclerosis-like neurological manifestations in a coeliac patient: nothing is as it seems.

    PubMed

    Mansueto, Pasquale; Di Stefano, Laura; D'Alcamo, Alberto; Carroccio, Antonio

    2012-01-01

    Cobalamin (vitamin B??) deficiency occurs with several disorders, involving different organs and systems, including blood, bowel, nervous system and eyes. Although the most important features are usually haematological ones, presence of neurological involvement, in the absence of blood count alterations, has just been described in the literature. Here we report the case of a 48-year-old man, suffering from coeliac disease for approximately 5 years, vegetarian, who was admitted to our department, referring dysaesthesia of the left lower limb, decreased libido and erectile dysfunction. Vitamin B?? deficiency was proved, even in the absence of blood count alteration, and treated with a vitamin supplement, resulting in complete remission. PMID:22764158

  1. Monoclonal Antibodies in Cancer Therapy: Mechanisms, Successes and Limitations

    PubMed Central

    Coulson, A; Levy, A; Gossell-Williams, M

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Rituximab was the first chemotherapeutic monoclonal antibody (CmAb) approved for clinical use in cancer therapeutics in 1997 and has significantly improved the clinical outcomes in non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. Since then, numerous CmAbs have been developed and approved for the treatment of various haematologic and solid human cancers. In this review, the classification, efficacy and significantly reduced toxicity of CmAbs available for use in the United States of America are presented. Finally, the limitations of CmAbs and future considerations are explored. PMID:25803383

  2. Moynihan Lecture, 1980. Major surgery in haemophilia.

    PubMed Central

    Rudowski, W. J.

    1981-01-01

    The experience of the Department of Surgery of the Institute of Haematology, Warsaw, in surgery in haemophilic patients is discussed. From 1961 to 1980 131 surgical procedures were carried out on 110 patients with a mortality of 4.5%. The principles of replacement therapy, advantages of factor VIII concentrates, and factors influencing the haemorrhagic complications are described. The management of patients with inhibitors of factor VIII and the effect of the 'Feiba' preparation is discussed. Finally the importance of new work on an antihaemophilic globulin-liposome compound for oral administration to haemophilic patients is emphasised. PMID:6787973

  3. [New common reference intervals for clinical chemistry in the Nordic countries. A better basis for clinical assessment and cooperation].

    PubMed

    Simonsson, Per; Mrtensson, Arne; Rustad, Pl

    2004-03-01

    A project engaging the five Nordic countries has presented common reference intervals for the most frequently used biochemical and haematological analytes. The results are based on samples from up to 3000 healthy adult reference persons and are statistically calculated to include 95% of the reference population's values. Reference samples were analyzed together with commutable control materials traceable to reference methods (IMEP-17). Enzymes were analyzed using methods traceable to IFCC reference methods. The Swedish Society of Clinical Chemistry now recommends its member laboratories to introduce the new reference intervals and new enzyme methods during 2004. PMID:15055053

  4. Extrahepatic manifestations of hepatitis E virus.

    PubMed

    Kamar, Nassim; Marion, Olivier; Abravanel, Florence; Izopet, Jacques; Dalton, Harry R

    2016-04-01

    Hepatitis E virus can cause acute, fulminant and chronic hepatitis and has been associated with a range of extrahepatic manifestations. Guillain-Barré syndrome, neuralgic amyotrophy and encephalitis are the main neurological manifestations associated with acute and chronic hepatitis E virus infection. Renal injuries have been also reported, including membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis with or without cryoglobulinemia and membranous glomerulonephritis. Acute pancreatitis, haematological disorders and other autoimmune extrahepatic manifestations of hepatitis E virus, such as myocarditis and thyroiditis, have been also reported. In this comprehensive article, we review all published reports describing hepatitis E virus-associated extrahepatic manifestations. PMID:27005692

  5. Brief Tale of a Bacteraemia by Rhodococcus equi, With Concomitant Lung Mass: What Came First, the Chicken or The Egg?

    PubMed Central

    Savini, Vincenzo; Salutari, Prassede; Sborgia, Marco; Mancini, Iole; Masciarelli, Gioviana; Catavitello, Chiara; Astolfi, Daniela; D’Amario, Claudio; Fioritoni, Giuseppe; Spadaro, Antonio; D’Antonio, Domenico

    2011-01-01

    Rhodococcus equi is an uncommon Gram positive, variably acid-fast pathogen, that appears as hard to treat mostly owing to the establishment of intracellular niches. Lack of interpretive criteria for susceptibility testing may lead to under-reporting or overestimation of resistances, whereas knowledge about this pathogen’s clinical impact may be affected by erroneous phenotype-based characterization at a genus and species level. We present the case of a bacteraemia with a concomitant lung mass in a lymphoma patient, that further highlights the emergence of rhodococcal diseases as a matter for concern in the fields of infectious diseases and haematology. PMID:21625310

  6. A two-layered classifier based on the radial basis function for the screening of thalassaemia.

    PubMed

    Masala, G L; Golosio, B; Cutzu, R; Pola, R

    2013-11-01

    The thalassaemias are blood disorders with hereditary transmission. Their distribution is global, with particular incidence in areas affected by malaria. Their diagnosis is mainly based on haematologic and genetic analyses. The aim of this study was to differentiate between persons with the thalassaemia trait and normal subjects by inspecting characteristics of haemochromocytometric data. The paper proposes an original method that is useful in screening activity for thalassaemia classification. A complete working system with a friendly graphical user interface is presented. A unique feature of the presented work is the adoption of a two-layered classification system based on Radial basis function, which improves the performance of the system. PMID:24209918

  7. Inhibition of histone deacetylases in cancer therapy: lessons from leukaemia

    PubMed Central

    Ceccacci, Elena; Minucci, Saverio

    2016-01-01

    Histone deacetylases (HDACs) are a key component of the epigenetic machinery regulating gene expression, and behave as oncogenes in several cancer types, spurring the development of HDAC inhibitors (HDACi) as anticancer drugs. This review discusses new results regarding the role of HDACs in cancer and the effect of HDACi on tumour cells, focusing on haematological malignancies, particularly acute myeloid leukaemia. Histone deacetylases may have opposite roles at different stages of tumour progression and in different tumour cell sub-populations (cancer stem cells), highlighting the importance of investigating these aspects for further improving the clinical use of HDACi in treating cancer. PMID:26908329

  8. Cobalamin E defect, a rare inborn error of vitamin B12 metabolism: value of early diagnosis and treatment.

    PubMed

    Kandula, Tejaswi; Peters, Heidi; Fahey, Michael

    2014-10-01

    Cobalamin and its metabolites play a crucial role in DNA synthesis and cellular energy metabolism. Disorders of cobalamin metabolism are rare, autosomal recessive, conditions that present with neurological dysfunction of varying severity. We report a child with cobalamin E defect presenting in early infancy with vertical nystagmus, developmental delay, deceleration in head growth, status epilepticus and leukoencephalopathy, with only mild haematological abnormalities. Resolution of seizures and subsequent improvement in development and head growth was observed following early treatment with parenteral hydroxocobalamin, betaine, folate and methionine, emphasising the importance of early diagnosis and treatment in these conditions. PMID:24844621

  9. Remission of aHUS neurological damage with eculizumab

    PubMed Central

    vila, Ana; Vizcano, Beln; Molina, Pablo; Gavela, Eva; Perez-Ebri, Maria; Pallard, Lus

    2015-01-01

    Atypical haemolytic uraemic syndrome (aHUS) is a rare disease characterized by haemolytic microangiopathic anaemia, thrombocytopaenia and acute onset of renal failure, in the absence of Escherichia coli infection. Renal damage usually progresses to end-stage renal disease (ESRD), sometimes being accompanied by signs of extrarenal thrombotic microangiopathy (TMA). We report a case of full neurological and haematological recovery after eculizumab treatment in a patient with ESRD secondary to chronic aHUS refractory to plasmatherapy while she was under dialysis. It highlights the use of eculizumab for controlling extrarenal manifestations of aHUS in this population. PMID:25815183

  10. Early experience of intraoperative autotransfusion.

    PubMed Central

    Wilson, A J; Cuddigan, B J; Wyatt, A P

    1988-01-01

    Intraoperative autotransfusion of whole blood was performed using the Solcotrans device in 45 patients undergoing major vascular surgery or other procedures in which there was a clean operative field. Overall, 60% of the blood shed during these operations was reinfused. Approximately 50% of patients avoided the potential complications of homologous transfusion. There were no complications attributable to the use of this device although in a sample of 13 patients, 30% of the erythrocytes were haemolysed and there were other minor haematological abnormalities. In conclusion this device provides a simple method of autotransfusing 2 or 3 litres of blood aspirated from an uncontaminated operative field. PMID:3411587

  11. Preliminary Characterization of Erythrocytes Deformability on the Entropy-Complexity Plane

    PubMed Central

    Korol, Ana M; DArrigo, Mabel; Foresto, Patricia; Prez, Susana; Martn, Maria T; Rosso, Osualdo A

    2010-01-01

    We present an application of wavelet-based Information Theory quantifiers (Normalized Total Shannon Entropy, MPR-Statistical Complexity and Entropy-Complexity plane) on red blood cells membrane viscoelasticity characterization. These quantifiers exhibit important localization advantages provided by the Wavelet Theory. The present approach produces a clear characterization of this dynamical system, finding out an evident manifestation of a random process on the red cell samples of healthy individuals, and its sharp reduction of randomness on analyzing a human haematological disease, such as ?-thalassaemia minor. PMID:21611139

  12. Monitoring of biological markers indicative of doping: the athlete biological passport.

    PubMed

    Saugy, Martial; Lundby, Carsten; Robinson, Neil

    2014-05-01

    The athlete biological passport (ABP) was recently implemented in anti-doping work and is based on the individual and longitudinal monitoring of haematological or urine markers. These may be influenced by illicit procedures performed by some athletes with the intent to improve exercise performance. Hence the ABP is a valuable tool in the fight against doping. Actually, the passport has been defined as an individual and longitudinal observation of markers. These markers need to belong to the biological cascade influenced by the application of forbidden hormones or more generally, affected by biological manipulations which can improve the performance of the athlete. So far, the haematological and steroid profile modules of the ABP have been implemented in major sport organisations, and a further module is under development. The individual and longitudinal monitoring of some blood and urine markers are of interest, because the intraindividual variability is lower than the corresponding interindividual variability. Among the key prerequisites for the implementation of the ABP is its prospect to resist to the legal and scientific challenges. The ABP should be implemented in the most transparent way and with the necessary independence between planning, interpretation and result management of the passport. To ensure this, the Athlete Passport Management Unit (APMU) was developed and the WADA implemented different technical documents associated to the passport. This was carried out to ensure the correct implementation of a profile which can also stand the challenge of any scientific or legal criticism. This goal can be reached only by following strictly important steps in the chain of production of the results and in the management of the interpretation of the passport. Various technical documents have been then associated to the guidelines which correspond to the requirements for passport operation. The ABP has been completed very recently by the steroid profile module. As for the haematological module, individual and longitudinal monitoring have been applied and the interpretation cascade is also managed by a specific APMU in a similar way as applied in the haematological module. Thus, after exclusion of any possible pathology, specific variation from the individual norms will be then considered as a potential misuse of hormones or other modulators to enhance performance. PMID:24659506

  13. Antiviral treatment including entecavir plus tenofovir disoproxil fumarate for HBV reactivation following a rituximab-based regimen.

    PubMed

    Rago, Angela; Lichtner, Miriam; Mecarocci, Sergio; Marocco, Raffaella; Cenfra, Natalia; Belvisi, Valeria; Del Borgo, Cosmo; Cimino, Giuseppe; Mastroianni, Claudio M

    2010-01-01

    Entecavir and tenofovir disoproxil fumarate are potent and effective antiviral drugs that now represent recommended treatment options for chronic HBV infection. However, no or very limited clinical evidence is currently available on these drugs for the management of HBV reactivation in patients with haematological malignancies. Herein, we report a case of HBV reactivation in a patient with non-Hodgkin's lymphoma following a rituximab-based regimen, and who was successfully treated with a combination antiviral treatment including entecavir and tenofovir disoproxil fumarate. PMID:20834107

  14. Natural cytotoxicity impairment in familial haemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis.

    PubMed Central

    Aric, M; Nespoli, L; Maccario, R; Montagna, D; Bonetti, F; Caselli, D; Burgio, G R

    1988-01-01

    Ten children with the characteristic clinical and haematological features of haemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis are reported. Four patients treated with a combination of drugs comprising etoposide, methotrexate, and steroids were in complete remission after 10 to 30 months. Natural cytotoxic mechanisms including natural killer cell activity, antibody dependent cell mediated cytotoxicity, lymphokine activated killer cell activity, and natural killer cell like activity were persistently absent or severely impaired in these four patients despite their clinical remission. Their parents and one healthy sibling also had impaired natural cytotoxic mechanisms. Constitutional impairment of natural cytotoxic mechanisms could be important in the pathogenesis of haemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis. PMID:3355209

  15. A comparison of the Monospot with the Paul-Bunnell test in infectious mononucleosis and other diseases.

    PubMed

    Seitanidis, B

    1969-05-01

    The Monospot is a spot test designed for the diagnosis of infectious mononucleosis and its efficacy has been compared with that of the standard Paul-Bunnell test. Three out of 210 (1.4%) sera from normal persons and persons suffering from diseases other than infectious mononucleosis gave ;false' positive results when compared with the Paul-Bunnell test. Using 38 sera from patients with strong clinical and haematological evidence of infectious mononucleosis no false negative results were found with the Monospot test. The sera of 37 patients gave positive results with the Paul-Bunnell test: the one negative result was positive using serum taken a few days later. PMID:5814737

  16. Does bacteriology laboratory automation reduce time to results and increase quality management?

    PubMed

    Dauwalder, O; Landrieve, L; Laurent, F; de Montclos, M; Vandenesch, F; Lina, G

    2016-03-01

    Due to reductions in financial and human resources, many microbiological laboratories have merged to build very large clinical microbiology laboratories, which allow the use of fully automated laboratory instruments. For clinical chemistry and haematology, automation has reduced the time to results and improved the management of laboratory quality. The aim of this review was to examine whether fully automated laboratory instruments for microbiology can reduce time to results and impact quality management. This study focused on solutions that are currently available, including the BD Kiestra Work Cell Automation and Total Lab Automation and the Copan WASPLab(). PMID:26577142

  17. Chronic lymphocytic leukaemia: case control epidemiological study in Yorkshire.

    PubMed Central

    Cartwright, R. A.; Bernard, S. M.; Bird, C. C.; Darwin, C. M.; O'Brien, C.; Richards, I. D.; Roberts, B.; McKinney, P. A.

    1987-01-01

    This is the second report of a large case control study of lymphoma/leukaemia occurring in Yorkshire during 1979-84, and deals with chronic lymphocytic leukaemia presenting either in its haematological (CLL) or more solid lymphomatous (malignant lymphoma-lymphocytic or MLL) forms. In all, 330 cases and 561 controls were interviewed. The results support the concept that CLL/MLL is a condition of multiple aetiologies with evidence for genetic predisposition through an excess of family cases, immune perturbation demonstrated by excessive previous skin diseases and phenylbutazone use, and viral involvement shown by links with infectious diseases and multiple sclerosis. PMID:3304389

  18. A cross sectional study of employees with potential occupational exposure to ethylene oxide.

    PubMed Central

    Currier, M F; Carlo, G L; Poston, P L; Ledford, W E

    1984-01-01

    A cross sectional study was conducted on 84 employees potentially exposed to ethylene oxide (EO) to determine whether they had a higher prevalence of abnormalities of the haematopoietic, hepatic, or renal systems than a control group individually matched on age, hire date, race, smoking habits, alcohol history, and date of examination. Potential exposures were estimated to be generally below the current threshold limit value of 10 ppm, with most below 1 ppm. Results of the haematological and biochemical studies were similar in the two groups. A statistically significant (p = 0.035) increase in the prevalence of proteinuria was noted among the EO group which warrants further investigation. PMID:6333892

  19. 5-year follow-up of cytotoxic chemotherapy as an adjuvant to surgery in carcinoma of the bronchus.

    PubMed Central

    Stott, H.; Stephens, R. J.; Fox, W.; Roy, D. C.

    1976-01-01

    This report gives the 5-year findings of a double-blind study of long-term cytotoxic chemotherapy as an adjuvant to surgery in patients receiving busulphan or cyclophosphamide for carcinoma of the bronchus compared with a group receiving a placebo. Of 243 patients initially allocated busulphan, 234 cyclophosphamide and 249 placebo, 28%, 27% and 34% respectively were alive at 5 years. There were significant associations between mortality from bronchial carcinoma and histological involvement of the resected intrathoracic nodes and the histology of the tumour. Haematological toxicity, especially thrombocytopenia, was frequent and severe in the busulphan series, and low platelet counts continued long after chemotherapy was stopped. PMID:786362

  20. Acute pancreatitis in two five-day-old Appaloosa foals.

    PubMed

    Ollivett, T L; Divers, T J; Cushing, T; Priest, H; Dawson, D R; Peters, R; Stokol, T

    2012-02-01

    Severe acute pancreatitis (SAP) in foals is rare and treatment has not been documented. This paper describes the clinical, haematological and ultrasonographic findings as well as attempted treatment of SAP in two 5-day-old Appaloosa fillies. Clinical signs, including colic, diarrhoea and coma, may be mistaken for sepsis or neonatal encephalopathy. Hyperlipaemic serum and peritoneal fluid, and elevated serum and peritoneal fluid amylase and lipase activities aided the diagnosis. Severe acute pancreatitis should be included as a differential in an acutely ill foal with diarrhoea, colic, cerebral cortica dysfunction and hyperlipaemia. PMID:22594035

  1. Micro-orchestrating differentiation in cancer.

    PubMed

    Taulli, Riccardo; Bersani, Francesca; Ponzetto, Carola

    2010-03-01

    Differentiation involves repression of genes governing proliferation and self-renewal, and transcriptional activation of lineage-specific genes. The mechanisms underlying these changes are epigenetic. In cancer cells differentiation genes are locked into a transcriptionally inactive state. Recent results show that in spite of the diversity of the genetic lesions leading to a cancerous phenotype, it may still be possible to release this block and to force differentiation. The key may be microRNAs (miRNAs) which directly or indirectly target epigenetic modifiers. These miRNAs could allow to apply to solid tumors the non-toxic differentiative approach currently adopted in some haematologic malignancies. PMID:20160508

  2. Giemsa-stained wet mount based method for reticulocyte quantification: a viable alternative in resource limited or malaria endemic settings.

    PubMed

    Lee, Wenn-Chyau; Russell, Bruce; Lau, Yee-Ling; Fong, Mun-Yik; Chu, Cindy; Sriprawat, Kanlaya; Suwanarusk, Rossarin; Nosten, Francois; Renia, Laurent

    2013-01-01

    The quantity of circulating reticulocytes is an important indicator of erythropoietic activity in response to a wide range of haematological pathologies. While most modern laboratories use flow cytometry to quantify reticulocytes, most field laboratories still rely on 'subvital' staining. The specialist 'subvital' stains, New Methylene Blue (NMB) and Brilliant Crésyl Blue are often difficult to procure, toxic, and show inconsistencies between batches. Here we demonstrate the utility of Giemsa's stain (commonly used microbiology and parasitology) in a 'subvital' manner to provide an accurate method to visualize and count reticulocytes in blood samples from normal and malaria-infected individuals. PMID:23565221

  3. Iliopsoas abscess with iliac and femoral vein thrombosis in an adult Siberian husky.

    PubMed

    Grösslinger, K; Lorinson, D; Hittmair, K; Konar, M; Weissenböck, H

    2004-02-01

    A nine-year-old, male Siberian husky was presented with fever, decreased appetite and activity, non-weightbearing lameness, and oedematous swelling of the right inguinal and preputial area and the right hindlimb. An abscess within the right iliopsoas muscle, with severe thrombosis of the iliac and femoral vein, was diagnosed by haematology and diagnostic imaging. The abscess and adjoining lymph node were removed surgically through a median coellotomy. The isolated pathogen was Staphylococcus intermedius. Clinical signs resolved completely after surgery. Antimicrobial therapy was continued for four weeks. Within the follow-up period of six months, no recurrence of the clinical signs was detected. PMID:14984156

  4. Inhibition of histone deacetylases in cancer therapy: lessons from leukaemia.

    PubMed

    Ceccacci, Elena; Minucci, Saverio

    2016-03-15

    Histone deacetylases (HDACs) are a key component of the epigenetic machinery regulating gene expression, and behave as oncogenes in several cancer types, spurring the development of HDAC inhibitors (HDACi) as anticancer drugs. This review discusses new results regarding the role of HDACs in cancer and the effect of HDACi on tumour cells, focusing on haematological malignancies, particularly acute myeloid leukaemia. Histone deacetylases may have opposite roles at different stages of tumour progression and in different tumour cell sub-populations (cancer stem cells), highlighting the importance of investigating these aspects for further improving the clinical use of HDACi in treating cancer. PMID:26908329

  5. Haemoglobin content modulated deformation dynamics of red blood cells on a compact disc.

    PubMed

    Kar, Shantimoy; Ghosh, Uddipta; Maiti, Tapas Kumar; Chakraborty, Suman

    2015-12-21

    We investigate the deformation characteristics of red blood cells (RBCs) on a rotating compact disc platform. Our study brings out the interplay between haemoglobin content and RBC deformability in a centrifugally actuated microfluidic environment. We reveal that RBC deformations follow the similar trend of principal stress distributed throughout the radial direction, rendering an insight into the mechano-physical processes involved. This study can be used as a diagnostic marker to determine haematological disorders in diseased blood samples tested on compact disc based microfluidic platforms. PMID:26502076

  6. Leucine-rich repeat protein PRAME: expression, potential functions and clinical implications for leukaemia

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    PRAME/MAPE/OIP4 is a germinal tissue-specific gene that is also expressed at high levels in haematological malignancies and solid tumours. The physiological functions of PRAME in normal and tumour cells are unknown, although a role in the regulation of retinoic acid signalling has been proposed. Sequence homology and structural predictions suggest that PRAME is related to the leucine-rich repeat (LRR) family of proteins, which have diverse functions. Here we review the current knowledge of the structure/function of PRAME and its relevance in leukaemia. PMID:20799951

  7. Quality of Life and Supportive Care in Multiple Myeloma

    PubMed Central

    Cmert, Melda; Gne?, Ajda Ersoy; ?ahin, Fahri; Saydam, Gray

    2013-01-01

    Multiple myeloma is the second most common haematological malignancy. Novel therapies have led to improvement in survival. Current myeloma management is matching the progress made in improved survival through disease control while optimising quality of life with effective supportive care. Supportive treatment is an essential part of the therapeutic management of myeloma patients because it is directed towards improving the patients quality of life and also can improve survival. The aim of this review is to highlight the relationship among life of quality, supportive care, and improvement in survival. Conflict of interest:None declared. PMID:24385802

  8. Pycnodysostosis with novel gene mutation and severe obstructive sleep apnoea: management of a complex case

    PubMed Central

    Girbal, Ins; Nunes, Teresa; Medeira, Ana; Bandeira, Teresa

    2013-01-01

    Pycnodysostosis is a rare genetic disease. Impaired osteoclastic function is the basis for typical phenotypic features and bone fragility. The main differential diagnosis is osteopetrosis, also associated with altered bone remodelling, but with a more severe prognosis. We describe the case of an 8-year-old boy who presented life-threatening obstructive sleep apnoea successfully managed with non-invasive ventilation. Haematological overlap phenotype included anaemia and altered bone marrow, more common in osteopetrosis. Molecular analysis of the CTSK gene revealed a mutation not previously described in the literature. PMID:24057333

  9. Severe thrombocytopenia soon after drug-eluting stent implantation in ST-elevation myocardial infarction

    PubMed Central

    Po?nik-Kis?o, Anna; B?aszak-Cie?wierska, Wies?awa; D?browski, Marek

    2015-01-01

    Thrombocytopenia is among the most frequent haematological issues in patients hospitalised with myocardial infarction. We discuss the case of a 77-year-old male who was admitted to hospital on the 4th hour of ST-elevation myocardial infarction of the anterior wall. A percutaneous coronary intervention to critically stenoted initial segment of the anterior descending branch was performed. A few days later he started developing symptomatic thrombocytopenia. On the course of his long hospitalization we faced many important problems, concerning both diagnosis and treatment of these co-existing conditions.

  10. Evaluation of stress during transport.

    PubMed

    Fazio, E; Ferlazzo, A

    2003-09-01

    Domestic animals are transported for a variety of reasons including breeding, biomedical purposes, slaughter and, in the case of sporting horses, for competitions, pleasure activities or ceremonial proceedings. Studies to determine the amount of stress on farm animals during transport often have highly variable results and are difficult to interpret. The reaction of animals to stressors depends on the duration and intensity of the stressors, the animal's previous experience, its physiological status and the immediate environmental restraints. Behavioural, haematological, haematochemical, physiological and neuro-hormonal (beta-endorphin, ACTH, cortisol, iodothyronines) variables are discussed on the basis of handling, loading and transport procedures of animals. PMID:14535461

  11. [Snake bite poisoning and compartment syndrome. A report of two cases].

    PubMed

    Hachimi, K; Fnini, S; El Andaloussi, Y; Trafeh, M

    2005-01-01

    Snakebite poisonings are frequent In Morocco, because of the delay in treatment, they can be very serious even lethal. Treatment has two components: firstly correction of the systemic hemodynamic, respiratory and haematological disturbances and secondly administration of specific antivenom. Envenomation of a limb can lead to cutaneous necrosis, compartment syndrome and even necrotising fascitis. Early diagnosis and prompt treatment is needed to prevent these complications. We report two cases of compartment syndrome of which one was combined with systemic manifestations and the other caused residual pathology in the limb. PMID:16121627

  12. Imaging findings of upper abdominal involvement by acute megakaryoblastic leukaemia.

    PubMed

    Amemiya, Shiori; Akahane, Masaaki; Takita, Junko; Igarashi, Takashi; Ohtomo, Kuni

    2008-04-01

    Acute megakaryoblastic leukaemia (AMKL), a relatively rare type of acute myeloid leukaemia, is characterized by frequent involvement of the liver, spleen and lymph nodes in addition to myelofibrosis in children. Diagnosis is difficult both clinically and pathologically, and the hepatic or lymph node involvement is not uncommonly misinterpreted as solid tumour. We report the imaging findings of upper abdominal involvement by AMKL in an infant. The hepatic lesion, initially suspected to be hepatoblastoma, showed a distinctive appearance on MRI suggesting its infiltrative nature. With the association of splenic lesion and lymphadenopathy, the imaging findings were considered indicative of a haematological disorder. PMID:18172635

  13. Synchronous Thyroid Involvement in Plasma Cell Leukemia Masquerading as Hashimoto's Thyroiditis: Role of Ancillary Cytology Techniques in Diagnostic Workup.

    PubMed

    Tandon, Ashwani; Paul, T Roshni; Singh, Rekha; Narendra, A M V R

    2015-12-01

    Neoplastic plasma cell involvement of thyroid is an uncommon condition, and it may involve thyroid in multiple myeloma or solitary plasmacytoma. Its clinical and pathological features are not well understood. We present a rare case of synchronous thyroid involvement in plasma cell leukemia presenting as thyroid nodule with primary hypothyroidism. Simultaneous cytology, immunocytochemistry, FISH analysis with 13q14.3 and TP53 on cytology smears and haematology workup were performed to diagnose and to understand disease pathobiology with poor outcome. PMID:26330190

  14. Chlorpyrifos chronic toxicity in broilers and effect of vitamin C

    PubMed Central

    Kammon, A.M.; Brar, R.S.; Sodhi, S.; Banga, H.S.; Singh, J.; Nagra, N.S.

    2011-01-01

    An experiment was conducted to study chlorpyrifos chronic toxicity in broilers and the protective effect of vitamin C. Oral administration of 0.8 mg/kg body weight (bw) (1/50 LD50) chlorpyrifos (Radar), produced mild diarrhea and gross lesions comprised of paleness, flaccid consistency and slightly enlargement of liver. Histopathologically, chlorpyrifos produced degenerative changes in various organs. Oral administration of 100 mg/kg bw vitamin C partially ameliorated the degenerative changes in kidney and heart. There was insignificant alteration in biochemical and haematological profiles. It is concluded that supplementation of vitamin C reduced the severity of lesions induced by chronic chlorpyrifos toxicity in broilers. PMID:26623275

  15. Selective Histone Deacetylase Inhibitors with Anticancer Activity.

    PubMed

    Ma, Nan; Luo, Ying; Wang, Ying; Liao, Chenzhong; Ye, Wen-Cai; Jiang, Sheng

    2016-01-01

    HDAC inhibitors (HDACIs), which can be used to kill cancer cells through inhibiting histone deacetylase activity or altering the structure of chromatin, have emerged as efficacious agents in the treatment of cancer. With SAHA, FK228, belinostat and panobinostat approved by the FDA, displaying satisfying activity in both haematological and solid tumors of various tissues, efforts to create selective HDACIs have been attracted attention over the past several years. Herein, we mainly review the progress of selective HDAC inhibitors including class-selective and isoform-selective HDAC inhibitors. PMID:26268343

  16. Multiple myeloma and bone disease: pathogenesis and current therapeutic approaches.

    PubMed

    Papadopoulou, E C; Batzios, S P; Dimitriadou, M; Perifanis, V; Garipidou, V

    2010-04-01

    Multiple myeloma is a haematologic malignancy caused by clonal expansion of malignant plasma cells and associated with bone disease and hypercalcaemia. Myeloma cells are in close proximity to sites of active bone resorption and the interactions between those cells, osteoblasts and osteoclasts, are crucial not only for the bone distraction but for the proliferation of bone marrow cells as well. Recent studies have revealed that numerous regulating factors of osteoblast and osteoclast activity interfere with the pathogenesis of multiple myeloma's bone disease and that the understanding of the pathophysiological pathways involved is the first step towards discovering novel potential therapeutic approaches. PMID:20596260

  17. Systemic capillary leak syndrome after granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF).

    PubMed

    Rechner, Ian; Brito-Babapulle, Finella; Fielden, Jonathan

    2003-01-01

    Capillary leak syndrome (CLS) commonly occurs in the intensive care setting. CLS is seen in conditions such as septic shock or may result from conditions such as multitrauma and pancreatitis, which result in the systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS). We present two cases in which both patients suffered with CLS, which we believe was caused following administration of granulocyte colony-stimulating factor, to our knowledge not described in the intensive care patient previously. We discuss how these patients management differs from other intensive care unit patients with CLS and how it is important to diagnose this condition early in haematological oncology cases. PMID:12692521

  18. [Central venous access in adults].

    PubMed

    Thorup, Line; Frederiksen, Joachim Mller

    2014-12-15

    Central venous catheters (CVC) are most commonly used in patients undergoing major surgery, patients admitted to the intensive care unit and in haematological and oncological departments. The placement of a CVC allows life saving and life prolonging treatment. The choice of catheter depends on the disease of the patient, catheter requirement, intended treatment, local preferences and expected period of use. Complications associated with CVC can be severe and potentially life threatening. The incidence of infectious/thrombotic complications and catheter dysfunction increases with the number of indwelling days. PMID:25534225

  19. Arsenic poisoning in dairy cattle from naturally occurring arsenic pyrites.

    PubMed

    Hopkirk, R G

    1987-10-01

    An outbreak of arsenic poisoning occurred in which most of a 200 cow dairy herd were affected and six died. The source of the arsenic was naturally occurring arsenic pyrites from the Waiotapu Stream, near Rotorua. Arsenic levels in the nearby soil were as high as 6618 ppm. There was little evidence to suggest that treatment affected the course of the disease. Haematology was of little use in diagnosis, post-mortem signs were not always consistent and persistence of the element in the liver appeared short. Control of further outbreaks have been based on practical measures to minimise the intake of contaminated soil and free laying water by the stock. PMID:16031332

  20. [Posterior reversible encephalopathy in a girl with systemic lupus erythematosus: Report of a case].

    PubMed

    Marn, Gustavo R

    2015-10-01

    Posterior reversible encephalopathy is a rare disease in children. Clinical manifestations include headache, seizures, visual disturbances and altered consciousness associated with typical magnetic resonance images of the nervous system. The syndrome usually manifests in patients with eclampsia, solid organ transplantation, haematologic, renal and autoimmune diseases among other less common causes and it is often triggered after a hypertensive crisis or use of immunosuppressive drugs. Less common pathogenic factors as blood transfusion, use of immunoglobulins or an underlying infection can be associated. In this case a girl with systemic lupus erythematosus and exposed to multiple etiopathogenic factors developed posterior reversible encephalopathy. PMID:26294160

  1. The Role of Suppressors of Cytokine Signalling in Human Neoplasms

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Anup K.; Mokbel, Kefah

    2014-01-01

    Suppressors of cytokine signalling 17 (SOCS17) and cytokine-inducible SH2-containing protein (CIS) are a group of intracellular proteins that are well known as JAK-STAT and several other signalling pathways negative feedback regulators. More recently several members have been identified as tumour suppressors and dysregulation of their biological roles in controlling cytokine and growth factor signalling may contribute to the development of many solid organ and haematological malignancies. This review explores their biological functions and their possible tumour suppressing role in human neoplasms. PMID:24757565

  2. A study on gender-related differences in laboratory characteristics of dengue fever.

    PubMed

    Chakravarti, A; Roy, P; Malik, S; Siddiqui, O; Thakur, P

    2016-01-01

    Studies have reported significant gender-related differences in serological tests for detection of NS1 antigen and IgM antibody used for diagnosing dengue fever. However, no such study has been undertaken in India though dengue fever is endemic in this country. Therefore, this study was planned to study the association of serological findings with gender in 700 patients suspected to be suffering from dengue fever in the Indian setting. Haematological parameters of seropositive patients were also studied. Seropositivity and haemorrhagic findings were significantly associated with the female gender. Positive NS1 antigen and IgM antibody results were significantly associated with females and males, respectively. PMID:26776124

  3. Autoimmune pernicious anaemia as a cause of collapse, heart failure and marked panyctopaenia in a young patient.

    PubMed

    Carey, Justin; Hack, Ebru

    2012-01-01

    A 35-year-old woman with a history of vitiligo, hypothyroidism and amenorrhoea presented with collapse and clinical features of cardiac failure. Laboratory investigations revealed pancytopaenia, the cause of which was found to be vitamin B12 deficiency due to pernicious anaemia. Treatment with intramuscular hydroxycobalamin was commenced and the patient improved steadily with concomitant improvement in her haematological indices. Clinical features of pernicious anaemia which can include marked pancytopaenia, diagnostic approach, associated conditions and approach to treatment are discussed. The importance of surveillance for gastrointestinal malignancy is emphasised. PMID:22605831

  4. Invasive Fusarium infections: a retrospective survey of 31 cases. The French 'Groupe d'Etudes des Mycoses Opportunistes' GEMO.

    PubMed

    Hennequin, C; Lavarde, V; Poirot, J L; Rabodonirina, M; Datry, A; Aractingi, S; Dupouy-Camet, J; Caillot, D; Grange, F; Kures, L; Morin, O; Lebeau, B; Bretagne, S; Guigen, C; Basset, D; Grillot, R

    1997-01-01

    A retrospective study was conducted in France to investigate Fusarium infections which are now recognized as emerging opportunistic infections. The clinical and mycological findings for 31 cases diagnosed between 1984 and 1993 by members of the French Groupe d'Etudes des Mycoses Opportunistes were analysed. All suffered from haematological disease, most often acute leucaemia (n = 19). Twenty-two had received cytostatic chemotherapy and ten had undergone bone marrow transplantation. Prolonged aplasia and pancytopenia were present in 18 and 11 patients, respectively. Skin (61%) and blood (42%) were the sites most frequently involved. Fusarium solani (n = 7), Fusarium oxysporum (n = 7), Fusarium verticilloides (n = 7) were the species most frequently isolated. Nine antifungal treatments were used, associated with colony-stimulating factors in five cases. None was unambiguously superior to all the others. The overall mortality was 51.6% with a specific mortality > or = 25.8%. The disseminated form of the infection was associated with poor prognosis (P < 0.02) whereas improving granulocyte count improved prognosis (P < 0.001). More aggressive cytostatic regimens used for patients with haematological malignancies have favoured the emergence of Fusarium infections. As prognosis is closely correlated with neutrophil recovery, the promising results obtained with the use of colony-stimulating factors should be further evaluated. PMID:9147270

  5. Glucocorticoid-induced apoptosis of healthy and malignant lymphocytes

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Lindsay K.; Cidlowski, John A.

    2016-01-01

    Glucocorticoids exert a wide range of physiological effects, including the induction of apoptosis in lymphocytes. The progression of glucocorticoid-induced apoptosis is a multi-component process requiring contributions from both genomic and cytoplasmic signaling events. There is significant evidence indicating that the transactivation activity of the glucocorticoid receptor is required for the initiation of glucocorticoid-induced apoptosis. However, the rapid cytoplasmic effects of glucocorticoids may also contribute to the glucocorticoid-induced apoptosis-signaling pathway. Endogenous glucocorticoids shape the T-cell repertoire through both the induction of apoptosis by neglect during thymocyte maturation and the antagonism of T-cell receptor (TCR)-induced apoptosis during positive selection. Owing to their ability to induce apoptosis in lymphocytes, synthetic glucocorticoids are widely used in the treatment of haematological malignancies. Glucocorticoid chemotherapy is limited, however, by the emergence of glucocorticoid resistance. The development of novel therapies designed to overcome glucocorticoid resistance will dramatically improve the efficacy of glucocorticoid therapy in the treatment of haematological malignancies. PMID:20541659

  6. Low level of TERC gene amplification between chronic myeloid leukaemia patients resistant and respond to imatinib mesylate treatment.

    PubMed

    Mohamad Ashari, Zaidatul Shakila; Sulong, Sarina; Hassan, Rosline; Husin, Azlan; Sim, Goh Ai; Abdul Wahid, S Fadilah

    2014-01-01

    The amplification of telomerase component (TERC) gene could play an important role in generation and treatment of haematological malignancies. This present study was aimed to investigate copy number amplification status of TERC gene in chronic myeloid leukaemia (CML) patients who were being treated with imatinib mesylate (IM). Genomic DNA was extracted from peripheral blood of CML-IM Resistant (n=63), CML-IM Respond (n=63) and healthy individuals (n=30). TERC gene copy number predicted (CNP) and copy number calculated (CNC) were determined based on Taqman Copy Number Assay. Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) analysis was performed to confirm the normal signal pattern in C4 (calibrator) for TERC gene. Nine of CML patients showed TERC gene amplification (CNP=3), others had 2 CNP. A total of 17 CML patients expressed CNC>2.31 and the rest had 2.31>CNC>1.5. TERC gene CNP value in healthy individuals was 2 and their CNC value showed in range 1.59-2.31. The average CNC TERC gene copy number was 2.07, 1.99 and 1.94 in CML- IM Resistant patients, CML-IM Respond and healthy groups, respectively. No significant difference of TERC gene amplification observed between CML-IM Resistant and CML-IM Respond patients. Low levels of TERC gene amplification might not have a huge impact in haematological disorders especially in terms of resistance towards IM treatment. PMID:24641422

  7. Cryopreservation of Human Stem Cells for Clinical Application: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Hunt, Charles J.

    2011-01-01

    Summary Stem cells have been used in a clinical setting for many years. Haematopoietic stem cells have been used for the treatment of both haematological and non-haematological disease; while more recently mesenchymal stem cells derived from bone marrow have been the subject of both laboratory and early clinical studies. Whilst these cells show both multipotency and expansion potential, they nonetheless do not form stable cell lines in culture which is likely to limit the breadth of their application in the field of regenerative medicine. Human embryonic stem cells are pluripotent cells, capable of forming stable cell lines which retain the capacity to differentiate into cells from all three germ layers. This makes them of special significance in both regenerative medicine and toxicology. Induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells may also provide a similar breadth of utility without some of the confounding ethical issues surrounding embryonic stem cells. An essential pre-requisite to the commercial and clinical application of stem cells are suitable cryopreservation protocols for long-term storage. Whilst effective methods for cryopreservation and storage have been developed for haematopoietic and mesenchymal stem cells, embryonic cells and iPS cells have proved more refractory. This paper reviews the current state of cryopreservation as it pertains to stem cells and in particular the embryonic and iPS cell. PMID:21566712

  8. Protection against experimental visceral leishmaniasis by immunostimulation with herbal drugs derived from Withania somnifera and Asparagus racemosus.

    PubMed

    Kaur, Sukhbir; Chauhan, Kalpana; Sachdeva, Heena

    2014-10-01

    Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is a vector-borne parasitic disease targeting tissue macrophages. It is among the most neglected infectious diseases. As available therapeutics for treatment of this disease have many side effects, there is a need for safer alternatives. One of the immunopathological consequences of active visceral leishmaniasis is suppression of protective T-helper (Th)-1 cells and induction of disease-promoting Th-2 cells, and thus the treatment of VL relies on immunomodulation. In the current study, herbal drugs derived as whole-plant extracts of Asparagus racemosus and Withania somnifera were used to treat Leishmania donovani-infected BALB/c mice. Keeping the scenario of immunosuppression during VL in mind, the potential of these drugs in the restoration of murine Th-1-type protective immune responses was evaluated. To investigate the propensity of these drugs to treat VL, liver parasite load, delayed-type hypersensitivity responses and parasite-specific immunoglobulin levels were studied. Various biochemical and haematological tests were also carried out. A positive-control group used the standard drug treatment of sodium stibogluconate. Treatment of infected mice with A. racemosus and W. somnifera in combination at the higher dose of 200 mg (kg body weight)(-1) not only resulted in a successful reduction in parasite load but also generated protective Th1-type immune responses with normalization of biochemical and haematological parameters, suggesting their potential as potent anti-leishmanial agents. PMID:25082945

  9. Toxicopathological Evaluation of Hydroethanol Extract of Dianthus basuticus in Wistar Rats

    PubMed Central

    Ashafa, Anofi Omotayo Tom; Kazeem, Mutiu Idowu

    2015-01-01

    Background. Dianthus basuticus is a commonly used medicinal plant in Basotho traditional medicine for the treatment of diabetes, but there is no report on its safety or toxicity. Therefore, we evaluated the toxicity profile of the hydroethanol whole plant extract of Dianthus basuticus in Wistar rats. Methods. Acute toxicity test was performed with single oral administration of 1003200?mg/kg body weight of D. basuticus extract to rats and the animals were observed for 14 days for signs of toxicity. The subacute toxicity experiment was conducted by oral administration of graded doses (200, 400, and 800?mg/kg) of D. basuticus extract daily for 28 days. Behavioural changes as well as haematological, biochemical, and histological parameters were then evaluated. Results. There was no observable sign of toxicity in the acute toxicity test. There were significant decreases (P < 0.05) in the feed and water intake as well as total cholesterol and triglycerides of the D. basuticus extract-treated rats in subacute toxicity study. There were no treatment related differences in the haematological, biochemical, and histopathological evaluations. Conclusions. Administration of hydroethanol extract of D. basuticus may be safe at the dosages tested in this study but its continuous usage can cause anorexia. PMID:26504473

  10. The role of mean platelet volume in patients with non-specific abdominal pain in an emergency department

    PubMed Central

    Coskun, Adil; Yavasoglu, Irfan; Ok, Ismail Murat; Bircan, Metin; Avcil, Mucahit; Kadikoylu, Gurhan; Bolaman, Zahit

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Platelets play an important role in inflammation. Mean platelet volume (MPV) may be a useful parameter for inflammatory conditions, in differentiating between non-specific abdominal pain (NSAP) and conditions requiring surgery, or early diagnosis of abdominal pain as a serious problem for emergency services. Aim To investigate the role of MPV on NSAP admittance to the emergency department. Material and methods The study consisted of 330 patients (186 female and 144 male, with mean age 49 20 years) with NSAP and 249 patients with abdominal pain (144 female and 105 male, with mean age 49 19 years) applied to our emergency service and enrolled to our study. Medical history, physical examination, complete blood count (CBC), and biochemical parameters were evaluated. Haematological parameters were measured by Beckman Coulter LH 780 instrument. Data were compared using Student's t test, and p < 0.05 was accepted as statistically significant. Results The MPV were significantly lower in patients with NSAP than in others (p = 0.025). There was no significant difference between both sexes with regard to MPV (p > 0.05). Moreover, the other haematological parameters (haemoglobin, platelet, or WBC counts) were not statistically different between both groups (p > 0.05). Conclusions The MPV may be a useful, simple, and inexpensive parameter to diagnose or differentiate between NSAP and other conditions. PMID:26516381

  11. Functional hyposplenism following allogeneic bone marrow transplantation.

    PubMed Central

    Cuthbert, R J; Iqbal, A; Gates, A; Toghill, P J; Russell, N H

    1995-01-01

    AIMS--To investigate the incidence of functional hyposplenism in a group of patients who had undergone allogeneic bone marrow transplantation (BMT). METHODS--Splenic function was assessed by counting the number of gluteraldehyde fixed red blood cells containing pits or indentations as examined by interference phase microscopy. Normal values are < 2% whereas splenectomy patients have values of 25 to 40%. RESULTS--Twenty eight BMT recipients (17 men, 11 women) were studied at varying periods post-transplant and the results compared with 20 healthy volunteers and 10 patients who had undergone splenectomy or had splenic atrophy because of haematological conditions. Of the 28 BMT recipients, one had undergone a prior splenectomy; of the remaining 27 patients, four (15%) had evidence of functional hyposplenism with between 5.0 and 34.0% pitted cells. Of these four patients, one had active extensive chronic graft versus host disease (GvHD) which has been previously reported to be associated with functional hyposplenism following transplantation. Only one of the four patients had peripheral blood red cell changes typical of hyposplenism. CONCLUSION--These results confirm that extensive chronic GvHD is associated with hyposplenism. Intermediate degrees of functional hyposplenism may also occur following BMT in the absence of chronic GvHD and in the absence of haematological features of hyposplenism on routine blood films. This may be of significance in mediating the susceptibility to infection with encapsulating bacteria seen following allogeneic BMT. PMID:7730489

  12. Continuing clozapine treatment with lithium in schizophrenic patients with neutropenia or leukopenia: brief review of literature with case reports

    PubMed Central

    Aydin, Memduha; Ilhan, Bilge Cetin; Calisir, Saliha; Yildirim, Seda; Eren, Ibrahim

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Clozapine is a second-generation antipsychotic used for treatment-resistant schizophrenia. Despite its effectiveness, clozapine is largely underused due to serious side effects such as leukopenia or neutropenia. We aimed to review whether to continue, discontinue or rechallenge clozapine treatment after such haematological side effects. Methods: We reviewed and summarized the literature on the use of clozapine, how to deal with its side effects, and suitable options in case of any haematological problems. Then, we described several cases successfully treated with clozapine and lithium after development of neutropenia or leukopenia Results: We present three patients with treatment-resistant schizophrenia. While they had demonstrated poor response to multiple antipsychotic trials, clozapine was started. Clozapine induced neutropenia; or leukopenia developed in some cases that was successfully reversed after lithium onset. Increased serious side effects related with coprescription of lithium and clozapine were not observed. Conclusion: Lithium increases neutrophil and total white blood cell count as a side effect that may be useful in patients who develop neutropenia or leukopenia while being treated with clozapine. PMID:26913176

  13. Oral toxicity evaluation of kefir-isolated Lactobacillus kefiranofaciens M1 in Sprague-Dawley rats.

    PubMed

    Owaga, E E; Chen, M J; Chen, W Y; Chen, C W; Hsieh, R H

    2014-08-01

    Lactobacilli kefiranofaciens M1 has shown novel immunomodulation and anti-allergy probiotic attributes in cell and animal models. An acute oral toxicity assessment of L. kefiranofaciens M1 was evaluated in Sprague-Dawley rats. The rats were randomly assigned to four groups (12 rats/sex/group): the low dose group was orally gavaged with L. kefiranofaciens M1 at 3.0×10(8)cfu/kg bw while the medium dose and high dose groups received 9.0×10(9)cfu/kg bw and 1.8×10(10)cfu/kg bw, respectively, for 28days. The control group received phosphate buffer saline. The body weights were measured weekly while blood samples were collected for haematology and serum biochemistry tests. Histopathology of the organs (heart, liver, kidney, adrenal glands, spleen, ovary, testis), and urinalysis were conducted on study termination. The body weight gain of the L. kefiranofaciens M1 and control groups were comparable during the administration period. Overall, L. kefiranofaciens M1 did not induce adverse effects on haematology, serum biochemistry, and urinalysis parameters. Gross and microscopic histopathology of the organs revealed no toxicity effect of L. kefiranofaciens M1. In conclusion, 1.8×10(10)cfu/kg bw of L. kefiranofaciens M1 was considered as the no-observed-adverse-effect-level (NOAEL), which was the highest dose tested in the present study. PMID:24842838

  14. The iron chelator deferasirox affects redox signalling in haematopoietic stem/progenitor cells.

    PubMed

    Tataranni, Tiziana; Agriesti, Francesca; Mazzoccoli, Carmela; Ruggieri, Vitalba; Scrima, Rosella; Laurenzana, Ilaria; D'Auria, Fiorella; Falzetti, Franca; Di Ianni, Mauro; Musto, Pellegrino; Capitanio, Nazzareno; Piccoli, Claudia

    2015-07-01

    The iron chelator deferasirox (DFX) prevents complications related to transfusional iron overload in several haematological disorders characterized by marrow failure. It is also able to induce haematological responses in a percentage of treated patients, particularly in those affected by myelodysplastic syndromes. The underlying mechanisms responsible for this feature, however, are still poorly understood. In this study, we investigated the effect of DFX-treatment in human haematopoietic/progenitor stem cells, focussing on its impact on the redox balance, which proved to control the interplay between stemness maintenance, self-renewal and differentiation priming. Here we show, for the first time, that DFX treatment induces a significant diphenyleneiodonium-sensitive reactive oxygen species (ROS) production that leads to the activation of POU5F1 (OCT4), SOX2 and SOX17 gene expression, relevant in reprogramming processes, and the reduction of the haematopoietic regulatory proteins CTNNB1 (?-Catenin) and BMI1. These DFX-mediated events were accompanied by decreased CD34 expression, increased mitochondrial mass and up-regulation of the erythropoietic marker CD71 (TFRC) and were compound-specific, dissimilar to deferoxamine. Our findings would suggest a novel mechanism by which DFX, probably independently on its iron-chelating property but through ROS signalling activation, may influence key factors involved in self-renewal/differentiation of haematopoietic stem cells. PMID:25825160

  15. In vivo study of human Plasmodium knowlesi in Macaca fascicularis.

    PubMed

    Anderios, F; Noorrain, A; Vythilingam, I

    2010-02-01

    Plasmodium knowlesi is a malaria parasite of Old World monkeys and is infectious to humans. In this study Macaca fascicularis was used as a model to understand the host response to P. knowlesi using parasitological and haematological parameters. Three M. fascicularis of either sex were experimentally infected with P. knowlesi erythrocytic parasites from humans. The pre-patent period for P. knowlesi infection in M. fascicularis ranged from seven to 14 days. The parasitemia observed was 13,686-24,202 parasites per microL of blood for asexual stage and 88-264 parasites per microL of blood for sexual stage. Periodicity analysis adopted from microfilaria periodicity technique of asexual stage showed that the parasitemia peak at 17:39h while the sexual stage peaked at 02:36 h. Mathematical analysis of the data indicates that P. knowlesi gametocytes tend to display periodicity with a peak (24:00-06:00) that coincides with the peak biting activity (19:00-06:00) of the local vector, Anopheles latens. The morphology of P. knowlesi resembled P. falciparum in early trophozoite and P. malariae in late trophozoite. However, it may be distinguishable by observing the appliqué appearance of the cytoplasm and the chromatin lying inside the ring. Haematological analysis on macaques with knowlesi malaria showed clinical manifestations of hypoglycaemia, anaemia and hyperbilirubinemia. Gross examination of spleen and liver showed malaria pigments deposition in both organs. PMID:19765587

  16. Occupational exposure to solvent mixtures: effects on health and metabolism.

    PubMed Central

    Ukai, H; Takada, S; Inui, S; Imai, Y; Kawai, T; Shimbo, S; Ikeda, M

    1994-01-01

    Exposure monitoring by personal diffusive samplers, biological monitoring of toluene exposure by urinary hippuric acid determination, haematology, serum biochemistry for liver function, and a subjective symptom survey by questionnaire were conducted on 303 male solvent workers. They were exposed to a mixture of solvents including toluene (geometric mean 18 ppm), methyl ethyl ketone (MEK; 16 ppm), isopropyl alcohol (IPA; 7 ppm), and ethyl acetate (9 ppm). The intensity was mostly below unity using the additiveness formula based on current Japanese occupational exposure limits, but more than eight times unity at the maximum. The results were compared with the findings in 135 non-exposed male workers of similar ages. Haematology and liver function tests did not show any exposure related abnormality, and subjective symptoms were mostly related to central nervous system depression and local irritation. Further analysis suggested that the irritation effects were not related to exposure to MEK. Analysis of the relation between toluene exposure and hippuric acid excretion in urine showed that there was no metabolic interaction between MEK and toluene, or between IPA and toluene. Overall, therefore, it is concluded that there was no sign or symptom detected to suggest anything other than toluene toxicity, that there was no evidence to indicate any modification of toluene toxicity or metabolism due to coexposure, and that the additiveness assumption is reasonable for risk assessment for the combination of solvents under these exposure conditions. PMID:7951776

  17. Dental Treatment in Patients with Leukemia

    PubMed Central

    Meurer, Maria Ins; Grando, Liliane Janete; Gonzaga Del Moral, Joanita ngela; da Silva Rath, Ins Beatriz; Schaefer Tavares, Silvia

    2015-01-01

    Dental treatment of patients with leukemia should be planned on the basis of antineoplastic therapy which can be chemotherapy with or without radiotherapy and bone marrow transplantation. Many are the oral manifestations presented by these patients, arising from leukemia and/or treatment. In addition, performing dental procedures at different stages of treatment (before, during, or after) must follow certain protocols in relation to the haematological indices of patients, aimed at maintaining health and contributing to the effectiveness of the results of antineoplastic therapy. Through a literature review, the purpose of this study was to report the hematological abnormalities present in patients with leukemia, trying to correlate them with the feasibility of dental treatment at different stages of the disease. It is concluded in this paper that dental treatment in relation to haematological indices presented by patients with leukemia must follow certain protocols, mainly related to neutrophil and platelet counts, and the presence of the dentist in a multidisciplinary team is required for the health care of this patient. PMID:25784937

  18. Leukaemogenesis, gene interplay, and the role of the haemopoietic environment.

    PubMed

    Lawler, M

    1997-01-01

    Malignant initiation, leukaemic transformation, and disease progression in haematological malignancies involves a series of mutational events in genes involved in normal housekeeping functions of the cell. These acquired genetic changes can lead to either increased proliferation or a decreased rate of apoptosis, thus allowing expansion of the malignant clone. Although leukaemia can arise as a de novo disease, it has become increasingly clear that therapies, including the use of irradiation and/or chemotherapy, can give rise to malignancy. Therapy-associated myelodysplasia (t-MDS) and therapy-associated acute myeloid leukaemia (t-AML) account for 10-20% of new cases of these diseases. Although these secondary malignancies have been recognised as a clinical entity for nearly 30 years, molecular studies are now pinpointing various regions of the genome that are susceptible to DNA damage by these chemotherapeutic/radiotherapeutic strategies. The detection of new malignancies (both solid tumours and haematological tumours) following allogeneic bone marrow transplantation (BMT) is also providing us with some clues to the nature of leukaemogenesis, particularly with the observation that leukaemia can occur in donor cells postallogeneic BMT. PMID:9303075

  19. Acute and sub-acute toxicological assessment of the aqueous seed extract of Persea americana mill (Lauraceae) in rats.

    PubMed

    Ozolua, Raymond I; Anaka, Ogochukwu N; Okpo, Stephen O; Idogun, Sylvester E

    2009-01-01

    The aqueous seed extract of Persea americana Mill (Lauraceae) is used by herbalists in Nigeria for the management of hypertension. As part of our on-going scientific evaluation of the extract, we designed the present study to assess its acute and sub-acute toxicity profiles in rats. Experiments were conducted to determine the oral median lethal dose (LD(50)) and other gross toxicological manifestations on acute basis. In the sub-acute experiments, the animals were administered 2.5 g/kg (p.o) per day of the extract for 28 consecutive days. Animal weight and fluid intake were recorded during the 28 days period. Terminally, kidneys, hearts, blood/sera were obtained for weight, haematological and biochemical markers of toxicity. Results show that the LD(50) could not be determined after a maximum dose of 10 g/kg. Sub-acute treatment with the extract neither affected whole body weight nor organ-to-body weight ratios but significantly increased the fluid intake (P < 0.0001). Haematological parameters and the levels of ALT, AST, albumin and creatinine were not significantly altered. However, the concentration of total proteins was significantly increased in the treated group. In conclusion, the aqueous seed extract of P. americana is safe on sub-acute basis but extremely high doses may not be advisable. PMID:20606779

  20. Non-chemotherapy drug-induced agranulocytosis in a tertiary hospital.

    PubMed

    Navarro-Martnez, R; Chover-Sierra, E; Cauli, O

    2016-03-01

    Drug-induced agranulocytosis is a rare haematological disorder considered as severe adverse drug reaction. Due to its low incidence, the number of studies are low and the variability of clinical features and presentation in hospitalized patients is rarely described. Awe performed an observational, transversal and retrospective study in the haematology and toxicology unit in a tertiary hospital located in Spain (Valencia) (1996-2010) in order to assess its incidence, the drugs involved, the management and outcomes of drug-induced agranulocytosis. Twenty-one cases of agranulocytosis were retrieved. All of them presented severe and symptomatic agranulocytosis (fever and infection). The most common drug associated with drug-induced agranulocytosis was metamizole administration but other drugs belonging to different pharmacological classes as well (carbimazol, sulfasalazine, bisoprolol, itraconazole, amitryptiline, ketorolac and claritomicine+cefuroxime). No differences between sex and age were found in relationship with the manifestations or course of agranulocytosis. In contrast, a significantly negative association was found between age of patients and the percentage of increase in neutrophil count. Administration of human granulocyte colony-stimulating factor did not significantly enhance the recovery of the process or the restoration of leucocytes count, suggesting a limited utility in this type of agranulocytosis. PMID:25845587

  1. Tanespimycin monotherapy in relapsed multiple myeloma: results of a phase 1 dose-escalation study

    PubMed Central

    Richardson, Paul G.; Chanan-Khan, Asher A.; Alsina, Melissa; Albitar, Maher; Berman, David; Messina, Marianne; Mitsiades, Constantine S.; Anderson, Kenneth C.

    2011-01-01

    Summary Tanespimycin, a heat shock protein 90 (HSP90) inhibitor, induces apoptosis in drug-sensitive and -resistant MM cell lines and in tumour cells from patients with relapsed MM. In this phase 1 dose-escalation study, the safety, plasma pharmacokinetics, and biological/antitumour activity of tanespimycin were evaluated in heavily pretreated patients with relapsed/refractory MM. Tanespimycin (150525 mg/m2) was given on days 1, 4, 8, and 11 of each 3-week cycle for up to 8 cycles. Non-haematological AEs included diarrhoea (59%), back pain (35%), fatigue (38%), and nausea (35%); haematological AEs included anaemia (24%) and thrombocytopenia (21%). One patient (3%) achieved minimal response (MR), with a progression-free survival (PFS) of 3 months, a 41% decrease from baseline in urine M protein, and a 33% decrease from baseline in serum M protein. Fifteen patients (52%) achieved SD with a median PFS of 21 months; 5/15 had reductions in serum M protein ranging from 7% to 38% and in urine M protein ranging from 6% to 91%. Mean HSP70 levels increased from day 1 h 0 to day 1 h 4 with further increases on day 11 h 0 and day 11 h 4, consistent with a therapeutic treatment effect. Tanespimycin monotherapy was well tolerated and demonstrated activity across all doses tested. PMID:20618337

  2. Expanded safety experience with lenalidomide plus dexamethasone in relapsed or refractory multiple myeloma

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Christine; Reece, Donna E; Siegel, David; Niesvizky, Ruben; Boccia, Ralph V; Stadtmauer, Edward A; Abonour, Rafat; Richardson, Paul; Matous, Jeffrey; Kumar, Shaji; Bahlis, Nizar J; Alsina, Melissa; Vescio, Robert; Coutre, Steven E; Pietronigro, Dennis; Knight, Robert D; Zeldis, Jerome B; Rajkumar, Vincent

    2009-01-01

    Lenalidomide gained Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approval for treatment of patients with relapsed or refractory multiple myeloma (MM) in combination with dexamethasone in June 2006. In April 2005, the FDA and patient advocacy groups requested an expanded access programme to both provide lenalidomide to patients likely to benefit and obtain additional safety information. Relapsed/refractory MM patients received lenalidomide 25 mg/d (days 121) and dexamethasone 40 mg/d (days 14, 912, and 1720 of cycles 14; days 14 only from cycle 5 onwards), in 4-week cycles until disease progression, study drug discontinuation, or lenalidomide approval. Of the 1438 patients enrolled, ?60% were male, median age was 64 years, and 617% had Durie-Salmon stage III disease. Median time on study was 154 weeks (range: 01491) and median dose was 25 mg. The most common adverse events (AEs) were haematological (49%), gastrointestinal (59%), and fatigue (55%). The most common grade ?3 AEs were haematological (45%), fatigue (10%), and pneumonia (7%). The most common serious AEs were pneumonia (8%), pyrexia (4%), and deep-vein thrombosis (3%). Primary cause of death was disease progression (10%). Safety data confirmed known AEs of lenalidomide plus dexamethasone therapy in patients with relapsed/refractory MM. PMID:19545290

  3. Assessment of potential toxicological aspects of dietary exposure to silicon-rich spirulina in rats.

    PubMed

    Vid, Joris; Romain, Cindy; Feillet-Coudray, Christine; Bonafos, Batrice; Cristol, Jean Paul; Fouret, Gilles; Rouanet, Jean-Max; Gaillet, Sylvie

    2015-06-01

    Silicon has beneficial effects especially on bones and skin and is important in cardiovascular pathophysiology. Furthermore, in spontaneously hypertensive rats, it reduces hypertension and increases antihypertensive and antiatherogenic gene expressions in the aorta. Thus, incorporating silicon into spirulina could be a way to produce a bioavailable food supplement. The potential toxic effects of silicon-rich spirulina (SES) through haematological and biochemical parameters and inflammatory and oxidative status were evaluated in rats' blood and liver tissue. The study consisted in a 90-day experiment on female and male rats supplemented with three doses (28.5, 57 and 285?mg/kg BW/day) of SES. No mortality, abnormal clinical signs, behavioural changes or macroscopic findings were observed whatever the groups. Haematological parameters were not modified in SES treated-groups. No marked change was recorded in biochemical parameters The liver endogenous antioxidant enzymes (SOD, GPx, catalase) activities were not modified whatever the gender and the dose, just as markers of oxidative stress (O2(-), TBARS, thiols) and inflammation such as IL-6 and TNF-alpha. Our findings indicate that dietary supplementation of silicon-rich spirulina on rats has no harmful side nor toxic effects and could be beneficial especially in the case of suspicion or installation of pathologies due to oxidative stress. PMID:25778349

  4. Phase I Clinical Trial of Oral Rigosertib in Patients with Myelodysplastic Syndromes

    PubMed Central

    Komrokji, Rami S.; Raza, Azra; Lancet, Jeffrey E.; Ren, Chen; Taft, David; Maniar, Manoj; Wilhelm, Francois; List, Alan F.

    2015-01-01

    Summary The multi-kinase inhibitor rigosertib (ON 01910.Na) induces mitotic arrest and apoptosis in myeloblasts, while sparing normal cells. The purpose of this study was to determine the pharmacokinetic profile, maximum-tolerated dose (MTD), safety, and clinical activity of an oral formulation of rigosertib in patients with myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS). For pharmacokinetic studies, patients received rigosertib in single escalating weekly doses. To determine the MTD, patient cohorts received escalating doses of rigosertib twice daily for 14 days of a 21-day cycle. Overall, 37 patients were treated. Rigosertib exposure increased with escalating oral doses. Mean absolute oral bioavailability ranged from 13.9% (fed) to 34.8% (fasting) in 12 patients treated at the 560 mg dose level. Dose-limiting toxicity (grade 3 dysuria and shortness of breath) occurred at the 700 mg b.i.d. dose. Five patients experienced grade 3 non-haematological toxicity, including symptoms of urothelial inflammation, hypotension and syncope, fatigue and abdominal pain. Encouraging signs of clinical activity included 2 bone marrow complete remissions in refractory anaemia with excess blasts type 1 patients previously treated with azacitidine. In addition, 4 patients each achieved transfusion independence and haematological improvements. In conclusion, oral rigosertib is bioavailable and well tolerated, and has clinical activity in patients with MDS. PMID:23789936

  5. Multicenter phase II study of irinotecan plus bolus fluorouracil/l-leucovorin for metastasic colorectal cancer.

    TOXLINE Toxicology Bibliographic Information

    Mishima H; Ikenaga M; Ishida H; Iwamoto S; Morimoto T; Narahara H; Kato T; Tsujie M; Kitai T; Fukunaga M; Nakanishi M; Tsujinaka T; Furukawa H; Taguchi T; Osaka Gastrointestional Cancer Chemotherapy Study Group

    2007-03-01

    PATIENTS AND METHODS: In a multicentre Phase II study, irinotecan (100 mg/m2), 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) (500 mg/m2), and l-leucovorin (l-LV) (250 mg/m2) were administered on days 1, 8, and 15 of a five-week cycle. Forty-five patients were enrolled.RESULTS: The objective response rate was 26.7%. The median survival time was 21.8 months and the one-year survival rate was 73.3%. The median number of cycles was 4.0, with a median relative dose intensity of 83.3% for both irinotecan and 5-FU. Grade 3 or 4 haematological toxicities were anaemia in four patients, leukopaenia in six patients, and neutropaenia in 15 patients, while non-haematological toxicities were diarrhoea in three patients, and nausea, vomiting, anorexia and increased transaminases in two patients each. No treatment-related deaths occurred.CONCLUSION: Irinotecan plus 5-FU/l-LV can be used to treat metastatic colorectal cancer on an outpatient basis.

  6. The role of JAK/STAT signalling in the pathogenesis, prognosis and treatment of solid tumours

    PubMed Central

    Thomas, S J; Snowden, J A; Zeidler, M P; Danson, S J

    2015-01-01

    Aberrant activation of intracellular signalling pathways confers malignant properties on cancer cells. Targeting intracellular signalling pathways has been a productive strategy for drug development, with several drugs acting on signalling pathways already in use and more continually being developed. The JAK/STAT signalling pathway provides an example of this paradigm in haematological malignancies, with the identification of JAK2 mutations in myeloproliferative neoplasms leading to the development of specific clinically effective JAK2 inhibitors, such as ruxolitinib. It is now clear that many solid tumours also show activation of JAK/STAT signalling. In this review, we focus on the role of JAK/STAT signalling in solid tumours, examining the molecular mechanisms that cause inappropriate pathway activation and their cellular consequences. We also discuss the degree to which activated JAK/STAT signalling contributes to oncogenesis. Studies showing the effect of activation of JAK/STAT signalling upon prognosis in several tumour types are summarised. Finally, we discuss the prospects for treating solid tumours using strategies targeting JAK/STAT signalling, including what can be learned from haematological malignancies and the extent to which results in solid tumours might be expected to differ. PMID:26151455

  7. The role of JAK/STAT signalling in the pathogenesis, prognosis and treatment of solid tumours.

    PubMed

    Thomas, S J; Snowden, J A; Zeidler, M P; Danson, S J

    2015-07-28

    Aberrant activation of intracellular signalling pathways confers malignant properties on cancer cells. Targeting intracellular signalling pathways has been a productive strategy for drug development, with several drugs acting on signalling pathways already in use and more continually being developed. The JAK/STAT signalling pathway provides an example of this paradigm in haematological malignancies, with the identification of JAK2 mutations in myeloproliferative neoplasms leading to the development of specific clinically effective JAK2 inhibitors, such as ruxolitinib. It is now clear that many solid tumours also show activation of JAK/STAT signalling. In this review, we focus on the role of JAK/STAT signalling in solid tumours, examining the molecular mechanisms that cause inappropriate pathway activation and their cellular consequences. We also discuss the degree to which activated JAK/STAT signalling contributes to oncogenesis. Studies showing the effect of activation of JAK/STAT signalling upon prognosis in several tumour types are summarised. Finally, we discuss the prospects for treating solid tumours using strategies targeting JAK/STAT signalling, including what can be learned from haematological malignancies and the extent to which results in solid tumours might be expected to differ. PMID:26151455

  8. Recovery of renal function after long-term dialysis and resolution of cardiomyopathy in a patient with aHUS receiving eculizumab.

    PubMed

    Emirova, Khadizha; Volokhina, Elena; Tolstova, Evgenia; van den Heuvel, Bert

    2016-01-01

    We present the case of a 18-month-old girl with renal and cardiac manifestations of atypical haemolytic uraemic syndrome (aHUS), and a novel complement factor H mutation. Transient haematological remission was achieved with intensive plasmapheresis, but cardiac function deteriorated and renal function was not restored. Initiation of eculizumab after 6?months of dialysis significantly improved organ function. At 43?months after presentation, haematological values had normalised and cardiac function had improved. Dialysis was discontinued after 10?months (the longest reported time in a patient with aHUS) and the estimated glomerular filtration rate had recovered to 70?mL/min/1.73?m(2). In conclusion, treatment of aHUS with eculizumab, even after long-term dialysis, can significantly improve renal function. Discontinuation of dialysis and resolution of cardiac function has implications on the potential recovery and treatment choice of such patients. Earlier initiation of eculizumab, however, might have prevented the irreversible renal sclerosis and cardiac dysfunction. PMID:26880823

  9. Response to peginterferon plus ribavirin and subsequent retreatment with telaprevir-based triple therapy in a patient with chronic lymphocytic leukaemia and chronic HCV genotype 1b infection

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Case-controlled studies have clearly demonstrated a link between chronic hepatitis C infection (CHC) and B cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL). To our knowledge, this is the first case report of outcome in a patient with CLL and chronic HCV infection treated with PEG-IFN/RBV and subsequent retreated with triple therapy. Findings We report the case of a 54-year old, caucasian woman with a history of elevated liver enzymes diagnosed with chronic lymphocytic leukaemia (CLL) detected during investigation for hepatitis C (HCV) infection. The patient showed a haematological response following initially successful anti-HCV therapy with peginterferon plus ribavirin (PEG-IFN/RBV), with normalization of leukocyte and lymphocyte counts. She subsequently showed a late virological relapse at week 24, and was successfully retreated with telaprevir-based triple therapy. Despite an increase in leucocyte and lymphocyte count compared to baseline following triple therapy, to date there is no evidence of progression of CLL and the patient remains asymptomatic. Conclusion Patients with CLL may experience haematological response following successful anti-HCV therapy using IFN-based regimens. Re-treatment with triple therapy including telaprevir following late virological relapse was successful, was not associated with any unexpected safety issues, and did not adversely affect CLL status. PMID:24650206

  10. Assessing the Systemic Toxicity in Rabbits after Sub Acute Exposure to Ocular Irritant Chemicals

    PubMed Central

    Sruthi, Sudhakaran; Syama, Santhakumar; Gayathri, Vishwanath; Mohanan, Parayanthala Valappil

    2015-01-01

    Eye is a highly vascularised organ. There are chances that a foreign substance can enter the systemic circulation through the eye and cause oxidative stress and evoke immune response. Here the eyes of rabbits were exposed, for a period of 7 days, to 5 known ocular irritants: Cetyl pyridinium chloride (CPC), sodium salicylate (SS), imidazole (IMI), acetaminophen (ACT) and nicotinamide (NIC). The eyes were scored according to the draize scoring. Blood collected from the treated rabbit were analyzed for haematological and biochemical parameters. After sacrifice, histological analysis of the eye and analysis of pro-inflammatory biomarkers (IL-1?, IL-1?, IL-8 and TNF-?) in the cornea using ELISA was carried out. Spleen was collected and the proliferation capacities of spleenocytes were analyzed. Liver and brain were collected and assessed for oxidative stress. The eye irritation potential of the chemicals was evident from the redness and swelling of the conjunctiva and cornea. Histopathological analysis and ELISA assay showed signs of inflammation in the eye. However, the haematological and biochemical parameters showed no change. Spleenocyte proliferations showed only slight alterations which were not significant. Also oxidative stress in the brain and liver were negligible. In conclusion, chemicals which cause ocular irritation and inflammation did not show any systemic side-effects in the present scenario. PMID:25874033

  11. [Selected parasitic and infectious diseases in persons returning from the tropics].

    PubMed

    Jeske, J; Bergiel, A; Kamerys, J; Malinowska, B; Malowiejska, M

    1999-01-01

    Due to dramatic development of modern means of transport, exotic countries located on distant continents are today within a few-hour reach by a jet. Every year several million people travelled by air in business or as a tourists. This results in easy transmission of parasitic and infectious factors from continent to continent or from country to country. Plasmodium vivax infection: diagnosis concerned 6 men who had returned from Thailand, India, Senegal and Zaire. The parasitosis was detected as a result of thin smear of periferal blond tests - there were found P. vivax trophozoites an shizontes in erythrocytes. In the patients we found haematologic and termoregulation disturbances as well as hapepatosplenomegaly. Halfan was applied in therapy. Plasmodium falciparum infection: the infection was found in a man and a women after return from Kenya and Sudan. The parasitosis was detected as a result of thin smear of peripheral blond test - there found trophozoites of the parasite in erthorocytes. The course of malaria in the woman was very severe with cerebral malaria, DIC syndrome and blond circulation disturbances, hepatocellular and nephrocellular damage. Entamoeba histolytica, HAV and Candida albicans mixed infections: found in men who had returned from India. Severe E. histolytica infection: diagnosed in a women after return from Greece. There were found massive lesion of large intestine mucosa and high-degree disturbances. Leptospirosis icterohaemorrhagiae infection: found in a man after return from Belarus. Haematologic disturbance and hepatocellular and nephrocellular damage were observed. PMID:16886451

  12. Ileal impaction in 22 cows.

    PubMed

    Nuss, K; Lejeune, B; Lischer, C; Braun, U

    2006-05-01

    The clinical signs, diagnosis, treatment and outcome of 22 cows with ileal impaction were investigated using the medical records of bovine patients referred to the Department of Farm Animals, Vetsuisse Faculty, University of Zurich from 1993 to 2003. Only 15 of the cows had signs of colic, which were subtle but slowly increased in severity in some patients. The results of haematological and biochemical analyses were mildly abnormal in only few animals. There was no correlation between the duration of the disorder before admission, the severity of symptoms and the results of the haematological and biochemical analyses. Dilated loops of small intestine in the right dorsal quadrant of the abdomen could be palpated transrectally and imaged via ultrasonography. A definitive diagnosis of ileal impaction was made during exploratory laparotomy by finding the impaction and ruling out other abnormalities. In 19 cows, the obstructing food mass was easily massaged into the caecum, and in three animals an enterotomy was carried out. All cows had an uneventful recovery with no recurrence of the disorder. It is concluded that the cause of the impaction was most likely due to seasonal influences and winter-feeding with a hay based ration. The short and long-term prognosis after surgical intervention was good. PMID:16040260

  13. Haematobiochemical parameters of goats fed tannin rich Psidium guajava and Carissa spinarum against Haemonchus contortus infection in India.

    PubMed

    Jan, Owais Qadir; Kamili, Neyaz; Ashraf, Ajmal; Iqbal, Asif; Sharma, R K; Rastogi, Ankur

    2015-03-01

    The antihelminthic properties of tannin-rich plants are being explored as an alternative to chemical drugs to minimise the effects of gastro intestinal nematodes (GIN). The present study was, therefore, conducted to investigate the effect of condensed tannins (CT), obtained from regional tanniferous tree leaves, in the Haemonchus contortus infected goats on the heamatobiochemical parameters to assess the goat health. Twelve adult male goats were randomly divided into three equal groups, namely negative control, infected control and treatment. H. contortus infected goats were allocated into infected control and treatment groups and their feeds contained 0 and 1.96 % of CT, respectively. Feeding trial was conducted for the duration of 90 days during which haematological and serum biochemical parameters were monitored on fortnightly basis. The animals ingesting the CT-rich leaf meal mixture had increased levels of haemoglobin, packed cell volume, total protein, globulin, glucose and calcium, and decreased levels of blood urea; indicating a beneficial effect of CT supplementation at the selected level. However, the phosphorus balance, serum albumin levels and serum enzyme activity were not affected significantly. The study revealed that inclusion of CT in the diets of the adult male goats did not pose any threat to the health of the goats. Further, the CT based diet had beneficial impact on the haematological parameters and could therefore be included in small ruminant diets to minimize the impact of GIN. PMID:25698858

  14. Epigenetic treatment of solid tumours: a review of clinical trials.

    PubMed

    Nervi, Clara; De Marinis, Elisabetta; Codacci-Pisanelli, Giovanni

    2015-01-01

    Epigenetic treatment has been approved by regulatory agencies for haematological malignancies. The success observed in cutaneous lymphomas represents a proof of principle that similar results may be obtained in solid tumours. Several agents that interfere with DNA methylation-demethylation and histones acetylation/deacetylation have been studied, and some (such as azacytidine, decitabine, valproic acid and vorinostat) are already in clinical use. The aim of this review is to provide a brief overview of the molecular events underlying the antitumour effects of epigenetic treatments and to summarise data available on clinical trials that tested the use of epigenetic agents against solid tumours. We not only list results but also try to indicate how the proper evaluation of this treatment might result in a better selection of effective agents and in a more rapid development. We divided compounds in demethylating agents and HDAC inhibitors. For each class, we report the antitumour activity and the toxic side effects. When available, we describe plasma pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamic evaluation in tumours and in surrogate tissues (generally white blood cells). Epigenetic treatment is a reality in haematological malignancies and deserves adequate attention in solid tumours. A careful consideration of available clinical data however is required for faster drug development and possibly to re-evaluate some molecules that were perhaps discarded too early. PMID:26692909

  15. Distribution of alpha thalassaemia gene variants in diverse ethnic populations in malaysia: data from the institute for medical research.

    PubMed

    Ahmad, Rahimah; Saleem, Mohamed; Aloysious, Nisha Sabrina; Yelumalai, Punithawathy; Mohamed, Nurul; Hassan, Syahzuwan

    2013-01-01

    Alpha thalassaemia is highly prevalent in the plural society of Malaysia and is a public health problem. Haematological and molecular data from 5016 unrelated patients referred from various hospitals to the Institute for Medical Research for ? thalassaemia screening from 2007 to 2010 were retrieved. The aims of this retrospective analysis were to describe the distribution of various alpha thalassaemia alleles in different ethnic groups, along with their genotypic interactions, and to illustrate the haematological changes associated with each phenotype. Amongst the patients, 51.2% (n = 2567) were diagnosed with ? thalassaemia. Of the 13 ? thalassaemia determinants screened, eight different deletions and mutations were demonstrated: three double gene deletions, --(SEA), --(THAI), --(FIL); two single-gene deletions, ?-? and -??; and three non-deletion mutations, Cd59G > A (haemoglobin [Hb] Adana), Cd125T > C (Hb Quong Sze) and Cd142 (Hb Constant Spring). A high incidence of ?-? deletion was observed in Malays, Indians, Sabahans, Sarawakians and Orang Asli people. However, the --SEA deletion was the most common cause of alpha thalassaemia in Chinese, followed by the ?-? deletion. As many as 27 genotypic interactions showed 1023 ? thalassaemia silent carriers, 196 homozygous ?? thalassaemia traits, 973 heterozygous ?? thalassaemia carriers and 375 patients with Hb H disease. Statistical analysis showed a significant difference in the distribution of ? thalassaemia determinants amongst the various ethnic groups. Hence, the heterogeneous distribution of common determinants indicated that the introduction of an ethnicity-targeted hierarchical ? thalassaemia screening approach in this multi-ethnic Malaysian population would be effective. PMID:24025420

  16. Plasma cell leukaemia and HIV co-infection: profile of patients and experience at Universitas Academic Hospital in Bloemfontein, South Africa.

    PubMed

    Bidmos, Mubarak Ariyo; Joubert, Sunette; van Jaarsveld, Magdalena F P C; Louw, Vernon J

    2013-12-01

    Plasma cell leukaemia (PCL) is a rare condition with high mortality. HIV-positive patients have a propensity to develop malignancy; however, the occurrence of PCL with HIV infection in South Africa has not been documented. We describe patients with PCL in Universitas Hospital in Bloemfontein, South Africa, and report two new cases of HIV infection concurrent with PCL. A retrospective case series of PCL patients (2006-2012) seen at our Clinical Haematology unit is reported. Patient files were used to obtain information. The median age of patients (n=9) was 51years, and 66.7% of cases were of African ethnicity. The condition was equally distributed between genders. Two patients were HIV positive. Both received combination antiretroviral therapy. The diagnosis of PCL was usually made as an incidental finding, subsequently confirmed on bone marrow aspirate and trephine. Deranged haematological and biochemical parameters, including severe anaemia, hypoalbuminaemia, and hyper-cellular bone marrow, were observed. Only one patient improved markedly on treatment, and remains alive at the time of writing. PCL shows poor response to treatment and predominates among Africans. The small sample size made it difficult to determine whether co-infection with HIV was a coincidental finding or the two diseases are pathophysiologically linked. PMID:24258709

  17. A mouse model to study the alterations in haemostatic and inflammatory parameters induced by Lonomia achelous caterpillar haemolymph.

    PubMed

    Barrios, M; Taylor, P; Rodrguez-Acosta, A; Snchez, E E; Arocha-Piango, C L; Gil, A; Salazar, A M; Carvajal, Z; Abad, M J; Guerrero, B

    2012-04-01

    A mouse model was established to reproduce the haemorrhagic syndrome which occurs in humans after accidental contact with the hairs of the caterpillar Lonomia achelous (LA) and measures the haemostatic and inflammatory alterations that occur as a result of this contact. Mice were injected intradermally with different doses (0.4, 0.8 and 1.6mg/animal) of L. achelous haemolymph (LAH). Haematological (haemoglobin, haematocrit, platelet count, differential leukocyte count), haemostatic (fibrinogen, plasminogen, factor XIII [FXIII], fibrinolytic activity) and inflammatory parameters (tumour necrosis factor alpha [TNF-?], nitric oxide [NO]) were measured at different times up to 48h. C57BL/6 mice responded to LAH injection, in terms of these parameters, in a manner similar to that seen in humans, whereas the BALB/c mice were unresponsive. In C57BL/6 mice injected with LAH, time course measurements showed: a) a reduction in the haemoglobin, haematocrit, fibrinogen, FXIII and plasminogen levels, b) no effect on the platelet count and c) immediate leukocytosis and an increase in the fibrinolytic activity in plasma. An inflammatory response (TNF-?) was observed within 1h post-injection, followed by a more persistent increase in serum NO. These findings suggest that C57BL/6 mice represent a useful model of the haemorrhagic syndrome observed in humans who have suffered contact with the caterpillar, permitting a deeper understanding of the role of the inflammatory response in the haematological and haemostatic manifestations of this syndrome. PMID:22310207

  18. Effect of sucrose acetate isobutyrate (SAIB) ingestion on the hepatobiliary function of normal human male and female volunteers.

    PubMed

    Chiang, M; Gray, K; Chappel, C I

    1998-02-01

    A study of the effects of sucrose acetate isobutyrate (SAIB) ingestion was conducted in 13 male and 14 female healthy human volunteers. SAIB, in a gum arabic/water emulsion diluted with orange juice, was ingested once daily, at a dose of 20 mg SAIB/kg body weight in a total volume of 1.16 ml/kg body weight, for a period of 2 wk following a 1-week control period. During the control period, the subjects consumed the same preparation without SAIB. The study was performed in a single-blind manner, each subject serving as his or her own control. Haematology and clinical chemistry tests were conducted on blood samples taken on day -6 and day 0 of the control period and at 7 and 15 days during the SAIB dosing period. In addition to routine haematology and clinical chemistry, specific tests of hepatobiliary function included serum alkaline phosphatase, aspartate and alanine aminotransferases, lactic dehydrogenase, gamma-glutamyltransferase, total and direct bilirubin, bile acids and proteins. None of these parameters were affected by ingestion of SAIB. It was concluded that ingestion of 20 mg SAIB/kg body weight daily for 14 days does not affect the hepatobiliary function of human volunteers. PMID:9519853

  19. Investigation of diseases through red blood cells' shape using photoacoustic response technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biswas, Deblina; Gorey, Abhijeet; Chen, Goerge C. K.; Sharma, Norman; Vasudevan, Srivathsan

    2015-03-01

    Photoacoustic (PA) imaging is a non-invasive real-time technique, widely applied to many biomedical imaging studies in the recent years. While most of these studies have been focussed on obtaining an image after reconstruction, various features of time domain signal (e.g. amplitude, width, rise and relaxation time) would provide very high sensitivity in detecting morphological changes in cells during a biological study. Different haematological disorders (e.g., sickle cell anaemia, thalassemia) exhibit significant morphological cellular changes. In this context, this study explores the possibility of utilizing the developed photoacoustic response technique to apply onto blood samples. Results of our preliminary study demonstrate that there is a significant change in signal amplitude due to change in concentration of the blood. Thus it shows the sensitivity of the developed photoacoustic technique towards red blood cell count (related to haematological disease like anaemia). Subsequently, morphological changes in RBC (i.e. swollen and shrunk compared to normal RBC) induced by hypotonic and hypertonic solutions respectively were also experimented. The result shows a distinct change in PA signal amplitude. This would serve as a diagnostic signature for many future studies on cellular morphological disorders.

  20. Alpha-thalassemia changes the cell density profile in sickle cell anaemia.

    PubMed

    Tejuca, M; Martinez, G; Ferreira, R; Hernndez, A; Ferrer, L; Goicochea, A; Hernndez, A C; Coyula, R; Wade, M; Colombo, B

    1989-01-01

    Several factors are implied in the haematological and clinical picture of sickle cell anaemia. Attention has been focused on the concomitant presence of -alpha-thalassemia and high levels of HbF, but contradictory results have been reported in different populations. We compared the blood cell density profile, obtained by the phtalate esther method, of normal subjects with those of patients with sickle cell anaemia - with or without heterozygous alpha-thalassemia. We found that the density profile of both groups of patients differs from normal subjects, and that a difference can also be demonstrated between normal alpha genotype patients with sickle cell anaemia and patients with heterozygous alpha-thalassemia. These results are in agreement with the findings obtained in other countries in which a gene from Caucasian to African populations have been demonstrated, and are different from the results obtained in populations of more pure African ancestry. It can be suggested, therefore, that these data, in addition with findings of other authors in different geographical areas, support the hypothesis that the genetic make up plays an important role in the haematologic and clinical picture of sickle cell anaemia. PMID:2583597