Rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss weighing 87 ± 15 g (mean ± SD) were infected with viral haemorrhagic septicaemia virus (VHSV) and the haematological and biochemical profiles of peripheral blood examined. Depending on the clinical signs and gross pathology, the fish were divided into 2 groups: Group A included fish in the acute stage, Group B comprised fish in the chronic
Viral haemorrhagic septicaemia virus (VHSV) and its associated disease state, viral haemorrhagic septicaemia (VHS), is hypothesized to be a proximate factor accounting for the decline and failed recovery of Pacific herring populations in Prince William Sound, AK (Marty et al. 1998, 2003, 2010). Survivors of laboratory-induced VHSV epizootics develop resistance to subsequent viral exposure (Kocan et al. 2001; Hershberger et al. 2007, 2010), which is likely the result of immune system recognition of the viral glycoprotein (G) (Lecocq-Xhonneux et al. 1994), a surface antigen that contains neutralizing epitopes (Lorenzen, Olesen & Jorgensen 1990; Jørgensen et al. 1995) and cell attachment domains (Lecocq-Xhonneux et al. 1994; Estepa & Coll 1996). These properties have proven useful in the development of G-gene-based DNA vaccines for VHSV and a related rhabdovirus, infectious haematopoietic necrosis virus (IHNV) (Anderson et al. 1996; Heppell et al. 1998; Corbeil et al. 1999; Einer-Jensen et al. 2009). Rainbow trout fingerlings, Oncorhynchus mykiss (Walbaum), vaccinated with 1 µg of either the VHS or IHN vaccine are protected from VHS when exposed to virus as early as 4 days (44 degree days) post-vaccination (p.v.) (Lorenzen et al. 2002). At later time points (80 days p.v.; 880 degree days), the level of cross-protection against VHS by IHN vaccination is either completely lost (60 days p.v.; 660 degree days) (3 g rainbow trout; 1 µg vaccine dose) (Lorenzen et al. 2002) or present at intermediate levels (6.5 g rainbow trout; 1 µg vaccine dose) (Einer-Jensen et al. 2009). Comparatively, VHS vaccination remains effective as long as 9 months (2520 degree days) p.v. (100 g rainbow trout; 0.5 µg vaccine dose) (McLauchlan et al. 2003). These results suggest that IHN and VHS vaccination activate a rapid transitory innate immune response against VHSV that is followed by long-term adaptive immunity in VHS-vaccinated trout (Lorenzen et al. 2002).
Hart, L. M.; Lorenzen, Niels; LaPatra, S. E.; Grady, C. A.; Roon, S. E.; O’Reilly, J.; Gregg, J. L.; Hershberger, P. K.
Information based on field observations of Veterinary Officers in nine districts of Punjab, Pakistan showed 11% incidence, 9% mortality and 78% case fatality rates of haemorrhagic septicaemia in buffalo, whereas these values were 4%, 2.5% and 62% in cattle. Disease incidence was higher in 0-24-month-old animals and groups of less than 10 animals. The disease was seasonal, occurring only in rainy seasons of the year, and victims were only cattle and buffalo. The clinical course of the disease was generally 1-2 days. symptoms included high temperature, salivation, swelling of the throat and difficulty in breathing and could result in death. Successful treatment was reported if antibiotics were given at the initial stages of the disease. Various combinations of sulphur drugs and antibiotics were considered more effective. The results of the questionnaire survey suggest that a favourable response was obtained using clamoxyl LA, farmox 15%, vesulong, gentakel and chloramphenicol. Previous vaccination of livestock with the alum-precipitated formalinized broth culture of Pasteurella multocida vaccine (bacterin) was not considered to protect against field outbreaks. PMID:8779811
Sheikh, M A; Anzam, M; Shakoori, A R
In the European Union Viral Haemorrhagic Septicaemia (VHS) eradication is still based on stamping out. Due to the lack of effective low cost vaccines immune prophylaxis is currently not used to combat VHS. This paper describes a new oral delivery method for immunisation of trout with attenuated virus. The vaccine consists of lyophilised virus surrounded by polyethylene glycol (PEG) and was extruded under low temperature. In the stomach of trout, the use of additional neutralising and adsorbing bases resulted in a neutral pH around the vaccine pellets, thus protecting the antigen against gastric acid. The in vivo efficacy of this delivery method was examined in three animal challenge experiments using an attenuated VHS virus (VHSV) strain as a vaccine. After vaccination, VHSV mRNA in gut, heart, kidney, spleen and blood was amplified by semi-nested PCR after RT-PCR. Indirect immune fluorescence test detected VHS vaccine virus in the gut. The expression of MHC class II, CD4 and CD8alpha mRNAs after oral vaccination was measured in gut using real-time RT-PCR. Antibody levels were measured by ELISA one week before vaccination and five weeks after vaccination. Animals were challenged six weeks after vaccination with highly virulent VHSV and mortality was recorded. The experiments showed that orally delivered vaccine virus was released from the vaccine preparation, penetrated the gut mucosa and led to higher expression levels of MHC class II and CD4 mRNAs when compared to control guts. VHSV antibodies were detected after oral vaccination. Immunisation with this new vaccine formulation was followed by a significant protection against VHSV. While the cumulative mortality in the non-vaccinated control group reached 70%, more than 75% of the orally vaccinated fish were protected upon challenge. PMID:18191880
Adelmann, Malte; Köllner, Bernd; Bergmann, Sven M; Fischer, Uwe; Lange, Bodo; Weitschies, Werner; Enzmann, Peter-Joachim; Fichtner, Dieter
The Great Lakes strain of viral haemorrhagic septicaemia virus IVb (VHSV-IVb) is capable of infecting a wide number of naive species and has been associated with large fish kills in the Midwestern United States since its discovery in 2005. The yellow perch, Perca flavescens (Mitchill), a freshwater species commonly found throughout inland waters of the United States and prized for its high value in sport and commercial fisheries, is a species documented in several fish kills affiliated with VHS. In the present study, differences in survival after infection with VHSV IVb were observed among juvenile fish from three yellow perch broodstocks that were originally derived from distinct wild populations, suggesting innate differences in susceptibility due to genetic variance. While all three stocks were susceptible upon waterborne exposure to VHS virus infection, fish derived from the Midwest (Lake Winnebago, WI) showed significantly lower cumulative % survival compared with two perch stocks derived from the East Coast (Perquimans River, NC and Choptank River, MD) of the United States. However, despite differences in apparent susceptibility, clinical signs did not vary between stocks and included moderate-to-severe haemorrhages at the pelvic and pectoral fin bases and exophthalmia. After the 28-day challenge was complete, VHS virus was analysed in subsets of whole fish that had either survived or succumbed to the infection using both plaque assay and quantitative PCR methodologies. A direct correlation was identified between the two methods, suggesting the potential for both methods to be used to detect virus in a research setting.
Olson, W.; Emmenegger, E.; Glenn, J.; Winton, J.; Goetz, F.
The applicability of conventional and molecular methods for rapid detection and differentiation ofPasteurella multocida serogroup B isolates involved in an outbreak of haemorrhagic septicaemia affecting Indian buffaloes was studied. Five isolates were obtained and were subjected to phenotypic and genotypic characterization. None of the five isolates could be differentiated on the basis of cultural, biochemical, pathogenicity and antimicrobial sensitivity patterns.
A. Biswas; S. B. Shivachandra; M. K. Saxena; A. A. Kumar; V. P. Singh; S. K. Srivastava
The pathogenesis of haemorrhagic septicaemia in buffalo infected with Pasteurella multocida is poorly understood. However, the characteristic of sudden onset leading to the rapid death of infected animals is similar to that seen in other clinical conditions known to involve endotoxic shock. The objectives of the work were to assess the contribution of endotoxaemia to the disease's pathogenesis and to
N. U. Horadagoda; J. C. Hodgson; G. M. Moon; T. G. Wijewardana; P. D. Eckersall
A qualitative import risk assessment was undertaken to assess the likelihood of introduction and establishment of viral haemorrhagic septicaemia virus (VHSV) genotype 1a in England and Wales (E&W), via the processing of imported rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) carcasses from continental Europe. The likelihood was estimated for one import from an infected farm. Four main routes by which susceptible populations could be exposed to VHSV via processing waste were considered: (i) run-off from solid waste to watercourses, (ii) contamination of birds or rodents with VHSV by scavenging solid waste, (iii) discharge of liquid waste to mains drainage, and (iv) discharge of liquid waste directly to watercourses. Data on the biophysical characteristics of VHSV, its epidemiology, fish processing practices and waste management were collected. Likelihoods for each step of the four pathways were estimated. Pathway 4 (discharge of liquid waste to a watercourse) was judged as the most likely to result in infection of susceptible individuals. Levels of virus entering the aquatic environment via pathways 1-3 were judged to be many times lower than pathway 4 due mainly to the treatment of solid waste (pathways 1 and 2) and high levels of dilution (pathways 1, 2 and 3). Thirty-four trout farms process fish, of which seven have imported carcasses for processing. Compared with other processing facilities, on-farm processing results in a higher likelihood of VHSV exposure and establishment via all four pathways. Data availability was an issue; the analysis was particularly constrained by a lack of data on the prevalence of VHSV in Europe, volume of trade of carcasses into the UK and processing practices in E&W. It was concluded that the threat of VHSV introduction into E&W could be reduced by treatment of liquid effluent from processing plants and by sourcing carcasses for on-farm processing only from approved VHSV free areas. PMID:23095349
Pearce, F M; Oidtmann, B C; Thrush, M A; Dixon, P F; Peeler, E J
Species diversity in the Black Sea ecosystem has been declining rapidly over the last 2 decades. To assess the occurrence and distribution of viral haemorrhagic septicaemia virus (VHSV) in various wild fish species, a wild marine fish survey was carried out in 2009, 2010, and 2011. The pooled or individual samples of kidney, liver, and spleen of 5025 specimens, belonging to 17 fish species, were examined virologically using cell culture. The cells showing cytopathic effects (CPE) were subjected to ELISA and multiplex reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-mPCR), for VHSV and infectious pancreatic necrosis virus (IPNV), after blind passaging to determine the virus species causing CPE. The virus species and possibility of co-infection with IPNV were verified by the RT-mPCR developed in this study. Twelve species of fish (pontic shad Alosa immaculata, red mullet Mullus barbatus, three-bearded rockling Gaidropsarus vulgaris, black scorpionfish Scorpaena porcus, Mediterranean horse mackerel Trachurus mediterraneus, whiting Merlangius merlangus euxinus, stargazer Uranoscopus scaber, pilchard Sardina pilchardus, garfish Belone belone, round goby Neogobius melanostomus, thornback ray Raja clavata, and anchovy Engraulis encrasicolus) tested positive for VHSV Genotype Ie (VHSV-Ie). Except whiting, pilchard, and round goby, the rest are new host records for VHSV. The extent and spread of VHSV-Ie was significantly higher among bottom fish than among pelagic fish. Sensitivity and specificity of the RT-mPCR developed was sufficiently high, suggesting that this assay may be used for both diagnostic and surveillance testing. According to the RT-mPCR results, IPNV was not present in wild fish. These results support the hypothesis that the VHSV-Ie genotype, highly prevalent among fish species in the Black Sea, may have a serious impact on the population dynamics of wild fish stocks. PMID:24991737
Ogut, H; Altuntas, C
Pattern recognition receptor (PRR) toll-like receptors (TLRs), antiviral agent interferon (IFN) and the effector IFN stimulated genes (ISGs) play pivotal role in antiviral innate immunity of a host. The present in-vivo experiment was conducted to investigate the role of these innate immune factors in early phase as well as during recovery of viral haemorrhagic septicaemia virus (VHSV) infection by quantitative real-time reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction. A less lethal VHSV infection was generated in olive flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus) and was sampled at 3, 6, and 12h post infection (hpi), and 1, 2, 4, and 7 days post infection (dpi). At 3 hpi, the VHSV N gene was detected in three out of five fish and all five fish showed a relative fold increase of TLR 2, TLR 7, interleukin 8 (IL 8), IFN regulatory factor 3 (IRF 3), IRF 7, and ISG 15. Viral copies rapidly increased at 12 hpi then remained high until 2 dpi. When viral copy numbers were high, a higher expression of immune genes IL 1?, IRF 3, IRF 7, Type I IFN, ISG 15 and Mx was observed. Viral copies were drastically reduced in 4 and 7 dpi fish, and also the immune response was considerably reduced but remained elevated, except for ISG 15 which found equal to control in 7 dpi fish. A high degree of correlation was observed between immune genes and viral copy number in each of the sampled fish at 12 hpi. A fish with ascites sampled at 7 dpi displayed high viral copy but under-expressed immune genes except for Mx. When viral copies were high at 1 and 2 dpi, both TLR 2 and TLR 7 were down-regulated, perhaps indicating immune suppression by the virus. The quick and prolonged elevated expression of the immune genes indicates their crucial role in survival of host against VHSV. PMID:21689758
Avunje, Satheesha; Kim, Wi-Sik; Park, Chang-Su; Oh, Myung-Joo; Jung, Sung-Ju
We developed a model to calculate a quantitative risk score for individual aquaculture sites. The score indicates the risk of the site being infected with a specific fish pathogen (viral haemorrhagic septicaemia virus (VHSV); infectious haematopoietic necrosis virus, Koi herpes virus), and is intended to be used for risk ranking sites to support surveillance for demonstration of zone or member state freedom from these pathogens. The inputs to the model include a range of quantitative and qualitative estimates of risk factors organised into five risk themes (1) Live fish and egg movements; (2) Exposure via water; (3) On-site processing; (4) Short-distance mechanical transmission; (5) Distance-independent mechanical transmission. The calculated risk score for an individual aquaculture site is a value between zero and one and is intended to indicate the risk of a site relative to the risk of other sites (thereby allowing ranking). The model was applied to evaluate 76 rainbow trout farms in 3 countries (42 from England, 32 from Italy and 2 from Switzerland) with the aim to establish their risk of being infected with VHSV. Risk scores for farms in England and Italy showed great variation, clearly enabling ranking. Scores ranged from 0.002 to 0.254 (mean score 0.080) in England and 0.011 to 0.778 (mean of 0.130) for Italy, reflecting the diversity of infection status of farms in these countries. Requirements for broader application of the model are discussed. Cost efficient farm data collection is important to realise the benefits from a risk-based approach. PMID:24815039
Oidtmann, Birgit C; Pearce, Fiona M; Thrush, Mark A; Peeler, Edmund J; Ceolin, Chiara; Stärk, Katharina D C; Pozza, Manuela Dalla; Afonso, Ana; Diserens, Nicolas; Reese, R Allan; Cameron, Angus
Turbot (Scophthalmus maximus) is a high-value farmed marine flatfish with growing demand and production levels in Europe susceptible to turbot-specific viral haemorrhagic septicaemia virus (VHSV) strains. To evaluate the possibility of controlling the outbreaks of this infectious disease by means of DNA vaccination, the gpG of a VHSV isolated from farmed turbot (VHSV(860)) was cloned into an expression plasmid containing the human cytomegalovirus (CMV) promoter (pMCV1.4-G(860)). In our experimental conditions, DNA immunised turbots were more than 85% protected against VHSV(860) lethal challenge and showed both VHSV-gpG specific and neutralizing antibodies. To our knowledge this is the first report showing the efficacy of turbot genetic immunisation against a VHSV. Work is in progress to determine the contribution of innate and adaptive immunity to the protective response elicited by the immunization. PMID:22554577
Pereiro, P; Martinez-Lopez, A; Falco, A; Dios, S; Figueras, A; Coll, J M; Novoa, B; Estepa, A
Viral haemorrhagic septicaemia virus, Genogroup IVa (VHSV), was highly infectious to Pacific herring, Clupea pallasii (Valenciennes), even at exposure doses occurring below the threshold of sensitivity for a standard viral plaque assay; however, further progression of the disease to a population-level epizootic required viral amplification and effective fish-to-fish transmission. Among groups of herring injected with VHSV, the prevalence of infection was dose-dependent, ranging from 100%, 75% and 38% after exposure to 19, 0.7 and 0.07 plaque-forming units (PFU)/fish, respectively. Among Pacific herring exposed to waterborne VHSV (140PFUmL-1), the prevalence of infection, geometric mean viral tissue titre and cumulative mortality were greater among cohabitated herring than among cohorts that were held in individual aquaria, where fish-to-fish transmission was prevented. Fish-to-fish transmission among cohabitated herring probably occurred via exposure to shed virus which peaked at 680PFUmL-1; shed virus was not detected in the tank water from any isolated individuals. The results provide insights into mechanisms that initiate epizootic cascades in populations of wild herring and have implications for the design of VHSV surveys in wild fish populations. ?? Published 2011. This article is a US Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.
Hershberger, P. K.; Gregg, J. L.; Grady, C. A.; Hart, L. M.; Roon, S. R.; Winton, J. R.
Haemorrhagic septicaemia (HS) is an endemic disease of bovines, occurring in most tropical regions of Asia and Africa. In the present study, the suitability of using mice to study pathogenesis of HS was assessed using mortality, mean death time and bacterial multiplication in vital organs after infection with live P multocida. Mice were infected with 10(5), 10(3) and 10(1)cfu of P. multocida B:2 via intranasal and subcutaneous routes along with control groups. Bacterial multiplication in lung, liver and spleen of mice were determined at 24 h interval after intranasal and subcutaneous challenge. More than 80 % of challenged mice died within 48 h of inoculation, irrespective of the dose and route of inoculation. A heavy bacterial load (up to 10(8)cfu) was observed in lung, liver and spleen of mice titrated at 24 h and following death of mice. Results of the present study indicate that even ten bacteria are enough to cause mortality in mice and the organism multiplies rapidly in respiratory epithelium and disseminated to other vital organs viz liver and spleen suggesting the important role of mouse model in investigating the pathogenesis and challenge studies during vaccine development. PMID:23239257
Kharb, Subhash; Charan, Shiv
Viral haemorrhagic septicaemia virus (VHSV) is one of the major threats to the development of the aquaculture industry worldwide. The present study was aimed to identify genes differentially expressed in several turbot (Scophthalmus maximus) families showing different mortality rates after VHSV. The expression analysis was conducted through genome-wide expression profiling with an oligo-microarray in the head kidney. A significant proportion of the variation in the gene expression profiles seemed to be explained by the genetic background, indicating that the mechanisms by which particular species and/or populations can resist a pathogen(s) are complex and multifactorial. Before the experimental infections, fish from resistant families (low mortality rates after VHSV infection) showed high expression of different antimicrobial peptides, suggesting that their pre-immune state may be stronger than fish of susceptible families (high mortality rates after VHSV infection). After infection, fish from both high- and low-mortality families showed an up-modulation of the interferon-induced Mx2 gene, the IL-8 gene and the VHSV-induced protein 5 gene compared with control groups. Low levels of several molecules secreted in the mucus were observed in high-mortality families, but different genes involved in viral entrance into target cells were down-regulated in low-mortality families. Moreover, these families also showed a strong down-modulation of marker genes related to VHSV target organs, including biochemical markers of renal dysfunction and myocardial injury. In general, the expression of different genes involved in the metabolism of sugars, lipids and proteins were decreased in both low- and high-mortality families after infection. The present study serves as an initial screen for genes of interest and provides an extensive overview of the genetic basis underlying the differences between families that are resistant or susceptible to VHSV infection. PMID:22790792
Díaz-Rosales, P; Romero, A; Balseiro, P; Dios, S; Novoa, B; Figueras, A
We examined the occurrence of viral haemorrhagic septicaemia virus (VHSV) in the main spawning stocks of wild European river lamprey Lampetra fluviatilis in the rivers of Finland from 1999 to 2008. Pooled samples of internal organs (kidney, liver and heart or brain) from 2621 lampreys were examined for the presence of VHSV by standard virological techniques. VHSV was isolated from 5 samples from the rivers Lestijoki and Kalajoki, which flow from Finland into the Bothnian Bay of the Baltic Sea. The presence of VHSV was confirmed by immunofluorescent antibody technique (IFAT), ELISA and RT-PCR. Phylogenetic analysis based on the full-length VHSV glycoprotein (G) gene sequence revealed that the isolates were most closely related to the VHSV strain isolated in 1996 from herring Clupea harengus and sprat Sprattus sprattus in the Eastern Gotland Basin of the Baltic Sea, and were therefore assigned to VHSV genotype II. The partial G gene sequences obtained (nt 1 to 672-1129) of all 5 lamprey VHSV isolates were identical, and so were the entire G genes (nt 1 to 1524) of 2 isolates sequenced. The virulence of one of the lamprey isolates was evaluated by an experimental infection trial in rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss fry. No mortality was induced postinfection by waterborne and intraperitoneal challenge, respectively, while 2 genotype Id isolates originating from Finnish rainbow trout caused marked mortality under the same conditions. The infection in the European river lamprey is thought to be independent from the epidemic in farmed rainbow trout in Finnish brackish waters, because the isolates from rainbow trout were of a different genotype. This is the first report of VHSV found in the European river lamprey. The role of wild river lampreys in maintaining the infection in the marine environment remains unclear. PMID:20377008
Gadd, Tuija; Jakava-Viljanen, Miia; Einer-Jensen, Katja; Ariel, Ellen; Koski, Perttu; Sihvonen, Liisa
Inflammation and infection have been noted to increase stroke risk. However, the association between septicaemia and increased risk of stroke remains unclear. This population-based cohort study, using a National Health Insurance database, aimed to investigate whether patients with septicaemia are predisposed to increased stroke risk. The study included all patients hospitalised for septicaemia for the first time between 2000 and 2003 without prior stroke. Patients were followed until the end of 2010 to evaluate incidence of stroke. An age-, gender- and co-morbidities-matched cohort without prior stroke served as the control. Cox’s proportional hazards regressions were used to assess differences in stroke risk between groups. Based on hazard ratios (HRs), patients with septicaemia had greater stroke risk, especially in the younger age groups (age <45: HR?=?4.16, 95% CI: 2.39–7.24, p<0.001; age 45–64: HR?=?1.76, 95% CI: 1.41–2.19, p<0.001; age ?65: HR?=?1.05, 95% CI: 0.91–1.22, p>0.05). Haemorrhagic stroke was the dominant type (ischaemic stroke: HR?=?1.20, 95% CI: 1.06–1.37, p<0.01; haemorrhagic stroke: HR?=?1.82, 95% CI: 1.35–2.46, p<0.001) and patients without co-morbidities were at slightly higher risk (without co-morbidities: HR?=?1.49, 95% CI: 1.02–2.17, p<0.05; with co-morbidities: HR?=?1.24, 95% CI: 1.10–1.41, p<0.001). The impact of septicaemia on stroke risk was highest within 6 months of the event and gradually declined over time. Our results suggest that septicaemia is associated with an increase in stroke risk, which is greatest in haemorrhagic stroke. Closer attention to patients with history of septicaemia may be warranted for stroke preventive measures, especially for younger patients without co-morbidities.
Lee, Jiunn-Tay; Chung, Wen Ting; Lin, Jin-Ding; Peng, Giia-Sheun; Muo, Chih-Hsin; Lin, Che-Chen; Wen, Chi-Pang; Wang, I-Kuan; Tseng, Chun-Hung; Kao, Chia-Hung; Hsu, Chung Y.
Intracerebral haemorrhage is an important public health problem leading to high rates of death and disability in adults. Although the number of hospital admissions for intracerebral haemorrhage has increased worldwide in the past 10 years, mortality has not fallen. Results of clinical trials and observational studies suggest that coordinated primary and specialty care is associated with lower mortality than is typical community practice. Development of treatment goals for critical care, and new sequences of care and specialty practice can improve outcome after intracerebral haemorrhage. Specific treatment approaches include early diagnosis and haemostasis, aggressive management of blood pressure, open surgical and minimally invasive surgical techniques to remove clot, techniques to remove intraventricular blood, and management of intracranial pressure. These approaches improve clinical management of patients with intracerebral haemorrhage and promise to reduce mortality and increase functional survival.
Qureshi, Adnan I; Mendelow, A David; Hanley, Daniel F
This article reviews the current state of knowledge on the viral haemorrhagic fevers that infect man, namely smallpox, chikungunya fever, dengue fever, Rift Valley fever, yellow fever, Crimean haemorrhagic fever, Kyasanur Forest disease, Omsk haemorrhagic fever, Argentinian haemorrhagic fever (Junin virus), Bolivian haemorrhagic fever (Machupo virus), Lassa fever, haemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome, and Marburg and Ebola virus diseases.
Simpson, D. I. H.
Massive obstetric haemorrhage is a major cause of maternal death and morbidity; abruptio placentae, placenta praevia and postpartum haemorrhage being the main causes. A delay in the correction of hypovolaemia, a delay in the diagnosis and treatment of defective coagulation and a delay in the surgical control of bleeding are the avoidable factors in most maternal deaths caused by haemorrhage.
Summary. The clinical and bacteriological findings in five cases of septicaemia with cysteine-requiring isolates of Escherichia coli are reported. Infections with these nutritionally-dependent organisms have been found previously in the urinary tract only, associated usually with chronic rather than acute conditions. The urinary tract was considered to be the source of the septicaemia in our patients and that site should
J. W. TAPSALL; C. J. McIVER
iSCSI builds on SCSI command for storage and TCP/IP protocols for networking. As a new storage technology, VHS has advantage of huge capability and fast data transfer rate. This paper presents a detailed design, based on Intel's network processor and embedded Linux OS, to implement embedded VHS system in which unites iSCSI and VHS technologies.
Wu, Ming; Xie, Changsheng
A prospective study of 486 high risk neonates admitted to a level II nursery in a relatively poor and rural area of Malaysia was carried out to determine the incidence, the spectrum of micro-organisms and predisposing factors in relation to early onset septicaemia. The incidence of proven or probable septicaemia was 57.61 per 1000 high risk newborns over 1.5 kg. The case fatality was 10.71 per cent. Coagulase negative staphylococci, Streptococcus Group B and Klebsiella species were the most commonly isolated organisms. Meconium staining of liquor was the most common risk factor for admission to the nursery, and prematurity was the most significant risk factor for early neonatal infection (P < 0.005) followed by small for gestational age (P < 0.04). Although the incidence of septicaemia was quite high in the level II nursery, the mortality rate was comparable to established figures. PMID:8057985
Malik, A S; Pennie, R A
The management of a patient in post-traumatic haemorrhagic shock will meet different logics that will apply from the prehospital setting. This implies that the patient has beneficiated from a "Play and Run" prehospital strategy and was sent to a centre adapted to his clinical condition capable of treating all haemorrhagic lesions. The therapeutic goals will be to control the bleeding by early use of tourniquet, pelvic girdle, haemostatic dressing, and after admission to the hospital, the implementation of surgical and/or radiological techniques, but also to address all the factors that will exacerbate bleeding. These factors include hypothermia, acidosis and coagulopathy. The treatment of these contributing factors will be associated to concepts of low-volume resuscitation and permissive hypotension into a strategy called "Damage Control Resuscitation". Thus, the objective in situation of haemorrhagic shock will be to not exceed a systolic blood pressure of 90 mmHg (in the absence of severe head trauma) until haemostasis is achieved. PMID:23896213
David, J-S; Spann, C; Marcotte, G; Reynaud, B; Fontaine, O; Lefèvre, M; Piriou, V
Haemorrhagic colitis by Klebsiella oxytoca has been described as an antibiotic-associated colitis, particularly with the use of ampicillin. Here we report a patient with haemorrhagic colitis caused by K oxytoca after the use of clarithromycin. A 67-year-old Japanese woman with diabetes presented with mucobloody diarrhoea and abdominal pain. Stool culture grew K oxytoca. Colonoscopy showed the appearance of haemorrhagic colitis. Further history taking revealed that she had received a course of oral clarithromycin for upper respiratory tract infection. She had recovered by conservative treatment. We should be careful about gastrointestinal symptoms in patients on clarithromycin, which can cause haemorrhagic colitis associated with K oxytoca. PMID:23964038
Miyauchi, Ryosuke; Kinoshita, Kensuke; Tokuda, Yasuharu
Digital format is rapidly emerging as a preferred method for displaying and retrieving echocardiographic studies. The qualitative diagnostic accuracy of Moving Pictures Experts Group (MPEG-1) compressed digital echocardiographic studies has been previously reported. The goals of the present study were to compare quantitative measurements derived from MPEG-1 recordings with the super-VHS (sVHS) videotape clinical standard. Six reviewers performed blinded measurements from still-frame images selected from 20 echocardiographic studies that were simultaneously acquired in sVHS and MPEG-1 formats. Measurements were obtainable in 1401 (95%) of 1486 MPEG-1 variables compared with 1356 (91%) of 1486 sVHS variables (P <.001). Excellent agreement existed between MPEG-1 and sVHS 2-dimensional linear measurements (r = 0.97; MPEG-1 = 0.95[sVHS] + 1.1 mm; P <.001; Delta = 9% +/- 10%), 2-dimensional area measurements (r = 0.89), color jet areas (r = 0.87, p <.001), and Doppler velocities (r = 0.92, p <.001). Interobserver variability was similar for both sVHS and MPEG-1 readings. Our results indicate that quantitative off-line measurements from MPEG-1 digitized echocardiographic studies are feasible and comparable to those obtained from sVHS.
Garcia, M. J.; Thomas, J. D.; Greenberg, N.; Sandelski, J.; Herrera, C.; Mudd, C.; Wicks, J.; Spencer, K.; Neumann, A.; Sankpal, B.; Soble, J.
The usefulness of serial study of C reactive protein in the early detection of neonatal septicaemia was evaluated in a neonatal unit using a commercially available latex agglutination slide test as a rapid screening method and electroimmunoassay as a reference method for C reactive protein determination. A positive latex test was obtained in 11 infants with verified septicaemia (positive blood
P Hindocha; C A Campbell; J D Gould; A Wojciechowski; C B Wood
At his residence, a victim in a double homicide had installed a home-built video surveillance system. The suspects either knew of or discovered this system and removed it. In a backyard at a location associated with the suspects was a barrel used for burning trash. Could charred debris recovered from a metal bowl found among the contents of the barrel be the remains of a VHS video cassette? A positive answer to the question was obtained through a combination of optical microscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy (EDS).
Fruchtenicht, Tara; Blackledge, Robert D.; Williams, Teresa R.
Aneurysmal subarachnoid haemorrhage (aSAH) occurs as a result of rupture of an intracranial aneurysm and affects a younger population compared with ischaemic stroke or intracerebral haemorrhage. Although it makes up only about 5% of all cerebrovascular events, it accounts for over a quarter of the productive life-years lost to stroke. Its surgical and medical treatment represents a multidisciplinary effort. We herein provide an overview of current management options for aSAH. PMID:24782062
Schattlo, Bawarjan; Fathi, Ali-Reza; Fandino, Javier
Objectives: In this article we review the literature concerning the frequency and management of severe haemorrhagic radiation–induced cystitis.Methods: A Medline search was performed from 1966 to 1999 for articles in English. A total of 309 references were found. Abstracts and complete articles were reviewed.Results: Severe haemorrhagic cystitis following radiotherapy remains a relatively rare event. However, the fact that it is
Jeremy P. Crew; Catherine R. Jephcott; John M. Reynard
Intracranial haemorrhage is a major cause of severe morbidity and mortality in child abuse cases in developed countries. However, similar data are not available in most developing countries. This study therefore aimed to determine the incidence of intracranial haemorrhage amongst all cases of child physical abuse, the nature of the injuries incurred, and the morbidity and mortality resulting therefrom. Among 369 cases of physical abuse seen over a 4-year period, 41 (11.4%) had intracranial haemorrhage, of whom 37 (90%) were 2 years old or less. A history of trauma was present in only eight (20%), of which only two were compatible with the injuries incurred. Subdural haemorrhages accounted for 80% of the cases, with skull fractures present in only nine cases. Fifty-four per cent of the 37 children aged 2 years of age or less had no external signs of trauma, but 11 of them had retinal haemorrhages. This is in contrast to the children older than 2 years of age who all had external signs of trauma. The overall prognosis was dismal with an early mortality of almost 30% (13 cases) and at least seven cases with severe neurological sequelae. These findings are comparable with studies from developed countries which have established that non-accidental injury must be considered as a cause of intracranial haemorrhage in any young child, despite the absence of external signs of trauma. PMID:7880096
Cheah, I G; Kasim, M S; Shafie, H M; Khoo, T H
The authors present a case of spontaneous adrenal haemorrhage, in a 28-year-old woman at 36 weeks of a twin pregnancy. Initial symptom was sudden onset chest pain which soon migrated to abdomen, accompanied by hypovolaemic shock and fetal bradycardia. Subsequent caesarean section for suspected placental abruption and resuscitation with nine units of blood, 10 of cryoprecipitate, four of fresh frozen plasma and two of platelets, in order to treat anaemia of Hgb of 3.6 g/dl and disseminated intravascular coagulation, failed to stabilise the woman. A CT scan of abdomen and pelvis then revealed a 15×17×17 cm retroperitoneal haematoma, secondary to right adrenal haemorrhage. Management was with laparotomy drainage and packing of the retroperitoneal haematoma along with the use of activated factor VII. Adrenal haemorrhage in pregnancy is an extremely rare, acute, life-threatening condition, presenting with non-specific symptoms.
A, Anagnostopoulos; S, Sharma
A World Health Organization page devoted to the control of dengue. Many excellent informative PDF files are available from this page dealing with vector control, as well as recognition of symptoms, and treatment of dengue haemorrhagic fever. Estimated numbers of at risk people are staggering. A powerful resource for teaching the importance of vector borne diseases.
For many years clinicians have used antifibrinolytic agents to try to reduce rebleeding after subarachnoid haemorrhage. Early studies of their effectiveness produced conflicting results. This paper re-evaluates the available trials and considers benefits in the light of potential complications. Present evidence conclusively demonstrates that epsilon-aminocaproic acid and tranexamic acid administered in standard dosage, reduce the risk of rebleeding but, as
K. W. Lindsay
The labour records of 1000 consecutive deliveries were studied to compare the incidence of postpartum haemorrhage after induced labour with that after spontaneous labour. The discovery of an increased incidence of postpartum haemorrhage in the induced group prompted further analysis of the incidence of haemorrhage among 3674 normal deliveries. This analysis confirmed that the incidence of postpartum haemorrhage was increased after induction of labour; among primiparous patients the increased incidence after induced labours was nearly twice that after spontaneous labours, even when only normal deliveries were considered. These findings indicate that postpartum haemorrhage is another complication of induction that needs to be taken into account when induction is being considered.
Brinsden, P R; Clark, A D
BACKGROUND: Digital recording of echocardiographic studies is on the clinical horizon. However, full digital capture of complete echocardiographic studies in traditional video format is impractical, given current storage capacity and network bandwidth. To overcome these constraints, we evaluated the diagnostic image quality of digital video by using MPEG (Motion Picture Experts Group) compression. METHODS AND RESULTS: Fifty-eight complete, consecutive studies were recorded simultaneously with the use of MPEG-1 and sVHS videotape. Each matched MPEG and sVHS study pair was reviewed by two from a total of six readers, and findings were recorded with the use of a detailed, computerized reporting tool. Intrareader and interreader discrepancies were characterized as major or minor and analyzed in total and for specific subgroups of findings (left and right ventricular parameters, valvular insufficiency, and left ventricular regional wall motion). Intrareader discrepancies were reviewed by a consensus panel for agreement with either MPEG or sVHS findings. There was an exact concordance between MPEG and sVHS readings in 83% of findings. The majority of discrepancies were minor, with major discrepancies in only 2.7% of findings. There was no difference in the rate of consensus panel agreement with MPEG or sVHS for instances of intrareader discrepancy, either in total or for any subgroup of findings. Interreader discrepancy rates were nearly identical for both MPEG and sVHS. CONCLUSIONS: MPEG-1 digital video is equivalent to sVHS videotape for diagnostic echocardiography. MPEG increases the range of practical options for digital echocardiography and offers, for the first time, the advantages of digital recording in a familiar video format.
Soble, J. S.; Yurow, G.; Brar, R.; Stamos, T.; Neumann, A.; Garcia, M.; Stoddard, M. F.; Cherian, P. K.; Bhamb, B.; Thomas, J. D.
The following non-specific indices of infection were studied in septicaemic and non-septicaemic babies: haemoglobin, total white blood cell count, differential white count, ESR, platelet count, C-reactive protein (CRP), serum immunoglobulins, plasma C3 and haptoglobin. Forty-three low-birthweight (LBW) infants with clinical features suggesting septicaemia were investigated; blood cultures were positive in 19 and negative in 24. The mortality was 53% in the culture-positive and 13% in the culture negative group. Comparisons between the two groups of babies showed that the CRP titre (measured by Latex agglutination) was the only reliable non-specific indicator of infection. The titre was elevated more often in culture positive (16/19) than culture negative (7/17) babies (P less than 0.001). The CRP titre (Mean +/- 2 S.D.) was 15.75 +/- 12 in blood culture positive and 6.13 +/- 11.72 in culture negative neonates respectively (P less than 0.0004). Positive CRP titres were found in 5 of 20 healthy controls (4 +/- 8.4). Sequential CRP titres showed a gradual decline with clinical improvement in both groups of patients. The IgM was unhelpful as it was raised (greater than or equal to 40 mg%) in 37 of the patients. PMID:2428291
Adhikari, M; Coovadia, H M; Coovadia, Y M; Smit, S Y; Moosa, A
A 67-year-old woman was admitted with aneurysmal subarachnoid haemorrhage and a 12-lead ECG showed ST segment elevation. Transthoracic echocardiography confirmed akinesis of the left ventricular mid-apical segment, with an ejection fraction of 26%, features characteristic of takotsubo cardiomyopathy. Five days later, we identified thrombus in the apex of the left ventricle. Sixteen days after onset, the thrombus had disappeared and wall motion improved (ejection fraction 58%) without evidence of cardioembolism. Takotsubo cardiomyopathy is a cause of cardiac dysfunction after stroke, including SAH. It is characterised by transiently depressed contractile function of the left mid and apical ventricle, without obstructive coronary artery disease. Clinicians should suspect takotsubo cardiomyopathy in patients with subarachnoid haemorrhage who have an ECG abnormality. Echocardiography is needed to detect the distinctive regional wall motion abnormality. Despite its severity in the acute phase, takotsubo cardiomyopathy is self-limiting and its management is conservative. PMID:24101552
Maekawa, Hidetsugu; Hadeishi, Hiromu
Staphylococcus (S.) aureus has been associated with septicaemia, mastitis, vaginitis, metritis, osteomyelitis, and endocarditis. This case report demonstrates S. aureus-induced septicaemia in suckling pig- lets. Three days after birth, littermates displayed severe ecchymosis and cyanosis, with a 50% mortality rate. The surviving littermates were cross-fostered, but died 1 day later. Other piglets, which were allowed to suck at the sow, developed similar clinical signs. Haematological findings were anaemia, thrombocytopenia, and leukopenia; therefore, neither isohaemolytic anaemia nor septicaemia could be excluded as differential diagnoses. At necropsy, petechial bleeding on inner organ surfaces and free blood in body cavities were found. Bacteriological examination of the sow's milk and of the spleen of one piglet detected a methicillin-resistent S. aureus strain (MRSA CC398), which was in all likelihood the cause of the disease. Potential differential diagnoses are discussed. PMID:24920090
Graage, R; Ganter, M; Verspohl, J; Strommenger, B; Waldmann, K-H; Baumgärtner, W; Hennig-Pauka, I
The delivery haemorrhage is actually a problem of public health. It is responsible of 31.5 % of the maternal death in Tunisia. The goal of this work is to study the frequency of this complication, its gravity, its risk factors, its etiologists and its methods of treatment. It is a retrospective study. of 65 cases of delivery haemorrhage recorded to the obstetric gynaecology service "C" of the centre of motherhood and neonatology of Tunis during 4 years. The frequency of the delivery haemorrhage in our study is 1.19%. The middle age of the patient is of 31 years. Their middle parity is 2.4. Factors of risk taking out again our set are: gestational toxemia (35.4%), primiparity (33.8%), advanced maternal age (30.7%), pre-existent anaemia (24.6%). the uterine surdistension (21.3%), an abnormal middle length of labour (69.6%). use of oxytocin during labour (34%), induction (21.5%). Etiologists in our set are: atone in 63% of cases, retained placenta in 31.2% des cases, coagulopathie (9.2%), placenta previa (1.5%), uterine inversion (1.5%). The hold must be in charge multidisciplinary, systematized, precocious and dynamic. PMID:16915778
Ben Hmid, Rim; El Houssaini, Sonia; Mahjoub, Sami; Mourali, Mecheal; Zeghal, Dorra; Zouari, Faouzia; El Kamel, Moez; Bouchnek, Mourad; Maghrebi, Hayen
The efficacy of enrofloxacin against Riemerella anatipestifer (formerly Pasteurella anatipestifer) septicaemia of Muscovy and Pekin ducklings was assessed in an artificial challenge model which reproduced typical duck riemerellosis with very high mortality. Mortality, clinical signs, gross lesions, microbiological clearance, feed intake and body weight gain were the efficacy criteria studied. A pulsing medication in drinking water for 4 h at 25, 50 or 100 ppm enrofloxacin on the first day, followed by 12.5, 25 or 50 ppm, respectively, on the following 4 days, provided clinical cure of R. anatipestifer septicaemia at all dosages tested. An optimum dosage of 50 ppm enrofloxacin, followed by 25 ppm was established. PMID:18483945
Turbahn, A; De Jackel, S C; Greuel, E; De Jong, A; Froyman, R; Kaleta, E F
Primary intraventricular haemorrhage is a rare presentation of a dural arteriovenous fistula. We describe the case of a 52-year-old woman with a past history of idiopathic intracranial hypertension who presented with sudden-onset severe headache. The CT scan on admission showed primary intraventricular haemorrhage with no associated haemorrhage in the brain parenchyma or the extra-axial compartment. The cerebral angiogram demonstrated a
R PADMANABHAN; R STACEY; S WIMALARATNA; W KUKER
Arctic char Salvelinus alpinus farmed in different places in Austria and free of the viral diseases viral haemorrhagic septcaemia (VHS), infectious haematopoietic necrosis (IHN) and infectious pancreatic necrosis (IPN) experienced disease and mortality. Diseased fish showed skin ulceration and pathological signs of sepsis. Aeromonas sp. was isolated as pure culture from the kidney of freshly euthanized diseased fish. Three independent isolates from outbreaks that occurred on 2 of the affected farms were analyzed phylogenetically by DNA sequence analysis of the rrs and gyrB genes and phenotypically with biochemical reactions. All 3 isolates were identified as Aeromonas salmonicida subsp. smithia. Analysis of virulence genes in these isolates revealed the presence of a Type III secretion system as well as several related virulence effector genes including aexT, encoding the Aeromonas exotoxin AexT, aopP and aopH. These genes are characteristic for virulent strains of typical and atypical subspecies of A. salmonicida. PMID:19899353
Goldschmidt-Clermont, E; Hochwartner, O; Demarta, A; Caminada, A-P; Frey, J
The efficacy of enrofloxacin against Riemerella anatipestifer (formerly Pasteurella anatipestifer) septicaemia of Muscovy and Pekin ducklings was assessed in an artificial challenge model which reproduced typical duck riemerellosis with very high mortality. Mortality, clinical signs, gross lesions, microbiological clearance, feed intake and body weight gain were the efficacy criteria studied. A pulsing medication in drinking water for 4 h at
A. Turbahn; Sonia Cortez De Jäckel; E. Greuel; A. De Jong; R. Froyman; E. F. Kaleta
A severe case of reptile-associated salmonellosis which caused septicaemia and meningitis in a 2-month-old baby is reported. The infrequent serotype Salmonella enterica subsp.(I) enterica serotype Abony (4,5 : b : enx) was detected in the human sample as well as in the pet turtle's faeces. The importance of regulation and public awareness is highlighted. PMID:19528160
Van Meervenne, Eva; Botteldoorn, Nadine; Lokietek, Sophie; Vatlet, Monique; Cupa, Alexandre; Naranjo, Maria; Dierick, Katelijne; Bertrand, Sophie
Three cases of haemorrhage after the use of a silastic dural substitute are presented. In all cases the implant was removed and further haemorrhage has not occurred. Published work is reviewed and the implications for the continued use of silastic are discussed. Images
Thompson, D; Taylor, W; Hayward, R
Quality of life was measured by means of the sickness impact profile (SIP) questionnaire in a prospectively collected, consecutive series of 25 patients with perimesencephalic haemorrhage. A mean of two years and four months (range six months to six years) after the perimesencephalic haemorrhage, quality of life scores of the (former) patients were comparable with those of a random sample
Eva H Brilstra; Jeanette W Hop; Gabriel J E Rinkel
Haemorrhagic infarction of the breast induced by anticoagulant therapy is rare and has been infrequently reported in the literature. The following report illustrates such a case in which there was development of massive haemorrhagic infarction of the breast during treatment with nicoumalone for deep venous thrombosis after an operation for carcinoma of the colon. PMID:7088760
Banik, S; Brun, C
Haemorrhagic infarction of the breast induced by anticoagulant therapy is rare and has been infrequently reported in the literature. The following report illustrates such a case in which there was development of massive haemorrhagic infarction of the breast during treatment with nicoumalone for deep venous thrombosis after an operation for carcinoma of the colon. Images Fig. 1
Banik, S.; Brun, C.
Patients with oesophageal varices frequently present with gastrointestinal haemorrhage but bleeding from varices at other sites is rare. We present a patient with hepatitis C-induced cirrhosis and partial portal vein occlusion who developed spontaneous haemorrhage from anterior abdominal wall varices into the rectus abdominus muscle and peritoneal cavity. Images Figure 1
Hunt, J. B.; Appleyard, M.; Thursz, M.; Carey, P. D.; Guillou, P. J.; Thomas, H. C.
The non-pneumatic anti-shock garment (NASG) is a first-aid device that reverses hypovolaemic shock and decreases obstetric haemorrhage. It consists of articulated neoprene segments that close tightly with Velcro, shunting blood from the lower body to the core organs, elevating blood pressure and increasing preload and cardiac output. This chapter describes the controversial history of the predecessors of NASG, pneumatic anti-shock garments (PASGs), relates case studies of PASG for obstetric haemorrhage, compares pneumatic and non-pneumatic devices and posits why the NASG is more appropriate for low-resource settings. This chapter discusses the only evidence available about NASGs for obstetric haemorrhage - two pre-post pilot trials and three case series - and describes recently initiated randomized cluster trials in Africa. Instructions and an algorithm for ASGs in haemorrhage and shock management are included. Much remains unknown about the NASG, a promising intervention for obstetric haemorrhage management. PMID:18805742
Miller, Suellen; Martin, Hilarie B; Morris, Jessica L
Placentae were examined from 120 women whose pregnancy and delivery was normal, from 264 women whose pregnancy or delivery was complicated, and from 98 women who were Rh-negative without antibodies and 35 women Rh-negative with antibodies. The presence of Kline's haemorrhages, intervillous thrombi, infarcts, and retroplacental haemorrhages was positively correlated with the presence of foetal cells in the maternal circulation. When there were no maternal antibodies transplacental haemorrhages occurred occasionally in the absence of such placental lesions but more frequently when these lesions were present. Moreover, the greater the number of lesions in a placenta the greater the size of the transplacental haemorrhage. In Rh-negative women with antibodies the observed incidence of transplacental haemorrhage was significantly less despite an appreciable increase in placental lesions. Images
Devi, Banti; Jennison, R. F.; Langley, F. A.
Treatment and outcome of neonatal haemorrhagic brain injury In this thesis we have described the treatment and outcome of preterm infants with a severe intraventricular haemorrhage (IVH) who subsequently developed post haemorrhagic ventricular dilatation (PHVD). In addition we described the treatment and outcome of term infants who suffered from an intracranial haemorrhage (ICH). There are considerable differences in the diagnostic
A. J. Brouwer
Intracranial haemorrhages are rare but potentially life-threatening complications of spine surgery. Most reported cases involved subdural or cerebellar haemorrhages; supratentorial parenchymal bleeding is very uncommon. We report a 28-year-old woman who underwent resection of a thoracic Ewing's sarcoma, and developed fatal haemorrhages around her cerebral metastases during surgery. The clinical presentations, possible pathogenesis and potential preventive measures are discussed. Patients with disseminated metastases within the neural axis are at risks of intracranial complications during spine surgery. The presence of intracranial mass lesions should be considered as a relative contraindication to intradural spine surgery. PMID:24653806
Leung, Gilberto Ka Kit; Chan, Johnny Ping Hon
Summary Purpura fulminans is a rare and severe complication of meningococcal septicaemia. It presents as a petechial rash spreading rapidly in extent and depth, evolving into full-thickness skin necrosis. The condition is extremely uncommon in the adult population. We report the case of a 28-yr-old man with extensive meningococcal-related skin necrosis. The initial diagnosis was made and first treatment given in the emergency department of a local hospital, from where after 12 days he was transferred to our hospital. Our approach was based on the continuation of intensive treatment and on staged aggressive debridement. Temporary alloplastic skin grafts were used to prepare the wound bed and the wounds were closed with autologous skin grafts. The patient survived but subsequently, owing to chronic skin ulceration and scar instability, he underwent late bilateral below-the-knee amputation. The patient returned to normal deambulation with an orthopaedic prosthesis 18 months after the onset of meningococcal septicaemia.
Bollero, D.; Stella, M.; Gangemi, E.N.; Spaziante, L.; Nuzzo, J.; Sigaudo, G.; Enrichens, F.
Paediatric abusive head injury may have grave consequences, especially when characterized by repetitive acceleration-deceleration forces (shaken baby syndrome). Death occurs in approximately 30% and permanent neurologic damage in up to 80% of the victims. Retinal haemorrhages are a cardinal sign seen in approximately 85% of cases. In most cases haemorrhages are preretinal, intraretinal and subretinal, too numerous to count, and involving the entire retinal surface extending to the ora serrata. Traumatic macular retinoschisis is a lesion with important diagnostic significance. Vitreoretinal traction appears to be the mechanism of haemorrhage and schisis formation along with a possible role of orbital tissue trauma from repetitive acceleration-deceleration forces. Ophthalmologists must carefully document ocular findings. Appropriate autopsy examination should include ocular and orbital tissue removal. Although there is a wide differential diagnosis for retinal haemorrhages, clinical appearance, when considered in the context of systemic and laboratory findings, usually leads to the correct diagnosis. PMID:20584025
Morad, Yair; Wygnansky-Jaffe, Tamara; Levin, Alex V
We summarised the challenges faced in an ex ante cost-benefit appraisal of United Kingdom government spending on disease surveillance for three notifiable fish diseases: infectious salmon anaemia (ISA), viral haemorrhagic septicaemia (VHS) and infectious haemorrhagic necrosis (IHN). We used a social cost-benefit analysis and adopted a national perspective. We compared costs of current public and private surveillance effort with the benefits stated in terms of the avoided private and social costs of potential disease outbreaks. Spending on ISA and VHS were predicted to be efficient; the benefit-cost ratios were always >or=3.2 for ISA and >or=5.8 for VHS for all nine scenarios examined for each infection. However, the benefit-cost ratio for IHN was predicted never to exceed 1.6, and was <1.0 in five of the nine scenarios-so spending on IHN would be harder to justify. PMID:17391788
Moran, Dominic; Fofana, Abdulai
Subarachnoid haemorrhage (SAH) is a subset of stroke with a poor prognosis, up to 40% of patients die. Besides the impact of the initial haemorrhage, several neurological and systemic complications contribute to a poor clinical outcome.\\u000a\\u000aThe first part of this thesis describes several complications after SAH. It is well known that SAH patients often have hyperglycaemia, and in chapter
S. M. Dorhout Mees
ObjectiveTo determine the frequency and pattern of cerebellar haemorrhage (CBH) on routine cranial ultrasound (cUS) imaging in infants of ?32 weeks gestation, and to investigate how extremely preterm infants with CBH differ from those with severe intraventricular haemorrhage (IVH).Methods672 infants of ?32 weeks gestation were prospectively examined for CBH on serial cUS imaging. In a separate case–control analysis, the clinical
L K McCarthy; V Donoghue; J F A Murphy
Streptococcus pneumonia and Haemophilus influenzae account for more than 50% of bacterial acute sinusitis. Isolated sphenoid sinusitis is a rare disease with potentially devastating complications such as cranial nerve involvement, brain abscess, and meningitis. It occurs at an incidence of about 2.7% of all sinus infections. There have been no previous reported cases of unilateral sphenoid sinusitis presenting as septicaemia in an otherwise healthy young immunocompetent adult.
Rimal, D; Hashmi, S M; Prinsley, P R
From January 1981 to June 1986 116 patients with anticoagulation-related intracranial haemorrhage were referred to hospital. Seventy six of these haemorrhages were extracerebral, 69 were in the subdural and seven in the subarachnoid space. No epidural haemorrhages were identified. Compared with non-anticoagulation-related haematomas, the risk of haemorrhage was calculated to be increased fourfold in men and thirteenfold in women. An acute subdural haematoma, mostly due to contusion, was more frequently accompanied by an additional intracerebral haematoma than a chronic subdural haematoma. Trauma was a more important factor in acute subdural haematomas than in chronic. Almost half of the patients (48%) had a history of hypertension, more than a third (35%) had heart disease and about one fifth (18%) were diabetic. Headache was the most frequent initial symptom. Later decreased level of consciousness and focal neurological signs exceeded the frequency of headache. Three patients with subarachnoid haemorrhage and nine patients with acute subdural haematomas died, while those with chronic subdural haematomas all survived and had at the most mild, non-disabling sequelae. Myocardial infarction (22%), pulmonary embolism (20%), and arterial disease (20%) were the most frequent reasons for anticoagulant treatment. Critical review based on established criteria for anticoagulation treatment suggests there was no medical reason to treat a third of these patients. The single most useful measure that could be taken to reduce the risk of anticoagulation-induced intracranial haemorrhage would be to identify patients who are being unnecessarily treated and to discontinue anticoagulants.
Mattle, H; Kohler, S; Huber, P; Rohner, M; Steinsiepe, K F
BACKGROUND—Fresh intrapulmonary and oronasal haemorrhages in cases of sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) might be markers for accidental or intentional smothering inappropriately diagnosed as SIDS.?AIM—To compare the incidence, epidemiological association, and inter-relation of nasal haemorrhage, intrapulmonary haemorrhage, and intrathoracic petechiae in infant deaths certified as SIDS.?METHODS—In SIDS cases from a large nationwide case-control study, a wide range of variables were compared in cases with and without reported nasal haemorrhage and, in a subgroup of cases, in those with and without pathologically significant intrapulmonary haemorrhage.?RESULTS—Nasal haemorrhage was reported in 60 of 385 cases (15%) whose parents were interviewed. Pathologically significant intra-alveolar pulmonary haemorrhage was found in 47% of 115 cases studied, but was severe in only 7%. Infants with nasal haemorrhage had more haemorrhage into alveoli and air passages than age matched cases without nasal haemorrhage. In multivariate analysis, nasal haemorrhage was associated with younger infant age, bed sharing, and the infant being placed non-prone to sleep. Intrapulmonary haemorrhage was associated with the same three factors in univariate analysis, but in multivariate analysis only younger infant age remained statistically significant. There was no significant association between nasal or intra-alveolar haemorrhages and intrathoracic petechiae.?CONCLUSIONS—Nasal and intrapulmonary haemorrhages have common associations not shared with intrathoracic petechiae. Smothering is a possible common factor, although is unlikely to be the cause in most cases presenting as SIDS.??
Becroft, D; Thompson, J; Mitchell, E
Severe pulmonary haemorrhage is a rare necropsy finding in dogs but the leptospiral pulmonary haemorrhagic syndrome (LPHS) is a well recognized disease in humans. Here we report a pulmonary haemorrhagic syndrome in dogs that closely resembles the human disease. All 15 dogs had massive, pulmonary haemorrhage affecting all lung lobes while haemorrhage in other organs was minimal. Histologically, pulmonary lesions were characterized by acute, alveolar haemorrhage without identifiable vascular lesions. Seven dogs had mild alveolar wall necrosis with hyaline membranes and minimal intraalveolar fibrin. In addition, eight dogs had acute renal tubular necrosis. Six dogs had a clinical diagnosis of leptospirosis based on renal and hepatic failure, positive microscopic agglutination test (MAT) and/or positive blood/urine Leptospira-specific PCR. Leptospira could not be cultured post mortem from the lungs or kidneys. However, Leptospira-specific PCR was positive in lung, liver or kidneys of three dogs. In summary, a novel pulmonary haemorrhagic syndrome was identified in dogs but the mechanism of the massive pulmonary erythrocyte extravasation remains elusive. The lack of a consistent post mortem identification of Leptospira spp. in dogs with pulmonary haemorrhage raise questions as to whether additional factors besides Leptospira may cause this as yet unrecognized entity in dogs. PMID:21274452
Klopfleisch, R; Kohn, B; Plog, S; Weingart, C; Nöckler, K; Mayer-Scholl, A; Gruber, A D
Severe pulmonary haemorrhage is a rare necropsy finding in dogs but the leptospiral pulmonary haemorrhagic syndrome (LPHS) is a well recognized disease in humans. Here we report a pulmonary haemorrhagic syndrome in dogs that closely resembles the human disease. All 15 dogs had massive, pulmonary haemorrhage affecting all lung lobes while haemorrhage in other organs was minimal. Histologically, pulmonary lesions were characterized by acute, alveolar haemorrhage without identifiable vascular lesions. Seven dogs had mild alveolar wall necrosis with hyaline membranes and minimal intraalveolar fibrin. In addition, eight dogs had acute renal tubular necrosis. Six dogs had a clinical diagnosis of leptospirosis based on renal and hepatic failure, positive microscopic agglutination test (MAT) and/or positive blood/urine Leptospira-specific PCR. Leptospira could not be cultured post mortem from the lungs or kidneys. However, Leptospira-specific PCR was positive in lung, liver or kidneys of three dogs. In summary, a novel pulmonary haemorrhagic syndrome was identified in dogs but the mechanism of the massive pulmonary erythrocyte extravasation remains elusive. The lack of a consistent post mortem identification of Leptospira spp. in dogs with pulmonary haemorrhage raise questions as to whether additional factors besides Leptospira may cause this as yet unrecognized entity in dogs.
Klopfleisch, R.; Kohn, B.; Plog, S.; Weingart, C.; Nockler, K.; Mayer-Scholl, A.; Gruber, A. D.
Objectives To identify the incidence, clinical outcome, and associated factors of subdural haemorrhage in children under 2 years of age, and to determine how such cases were investigated and how many were due to child abuse. Design Population based case series. Setting South Wales and south west England. Subjects Children under 2 years of age who had a subdural haemorrhage. We excluded neonates who developed subdural haemorrhage during their stay on a neonatal unit and infants who developed a subdural haemorrhage after infection or neurosurgical intervention. Main outcome measures Incidence and clinical outcome of subdural haemorrhage in infants, the number of cases caused by child abuse, the investigations such children received, and associated risk factors. Results Thirty three children (23 boys and 10 girls) were identified with subdural haemorrhage. The incidence was 12.8/100?000 children/year (95% confidence interval 5.4 to 20.2). Twenty eight cases (85%) were under 1 year of age. The incidence of subdural haemorrhage in children under 1 year of age was 21.0/100?000 children/year and was therefore higher than in the older children. The clinical outcome was poor: nine infants died and 15 had profound disability. Only 22 infants had the basic investigations of a full blood count, coagulation screen, computed tomography or magnetic resonance imaging, skeletal survey or bone scan, and ophthalmological examination. In retrospect, 27 cases (82%) were highly suggestive of abuse. Conclusion Subdural haemorrhage is common in infancy and carries a poor prognosis; three quarters of such infants die or have profound disability. Most cases are due to child abuse, but in a few the cause is unknown. Some children with subdural haemorrhage do not undergo appropriate investigations. We believe the clinical investigation of such children should include a full multidisciplinary social assessment, an ophthalmic examination, a skeletal survey supplemented with a bone scan or a skeletal survey repeated at around 10 days, a coagulation screen, and computed tomography or magentic resonance imaging. Previous physical abuse in an infant is a significant risk factor for subdural haemorrhage and must be taken seriously by child protection agencies. Key messagesSubdural haemorrhage in children under 2 years of age is a relatively common occurrence. The majority are due to child abuseThe mortality and morbidity of this condition are both high and seriousThe high probability of child abuse in cases is still not being recognised, and cases are not being investigated fullyThe clinical investigation of subdural haemorrhage must include a full series of basic investigationsPrevious child abuse in an infant is a strong risk factor for subdural haemorrhage, and social services must be aware of this in the future care plans for that child and family
Jayawant, S; Rawlinson, A; Gibbon, F; Price, J; Schulte, J; Sharples, P; Sibert, J R; Kemp, A M
When panned with a transient heat denaturation approach against target enzymes, a human V(H) (antibody heavy chain variable domain) phage display library yielded V(H)s with composite characteristics of binding, non-aggregation and reversible thermal unfolding. Moreover, selection was characterized by enrichment for V(H)s with (i) an even number of disulfide forming Cys residues in complementarity-determining region (CDR) 1 and CDR3 and (ii) acidic isoelectric points. This parallels naturally occurring camelid and shark single-domain antibodies (sdAbs) which are also characterized by (i) solubility and reversible unfolding, (ii) a high occurrence of disulfide forming Cys in their CDRs, particularly, in CDR1 and CDR3 and (iii) acidic V(H)s as inferred here by a pI distribution analysis, reported here, of pools of human and camelid V(H) and V(H)H (camelid heavy chain antibody V(H)) sequences. Our results, reinforced by previous observations by others, suggest that protein acidification may yet be another mechanism nature has devised to create functional sdAbs and that this concept along with the inclusion of inter-CDR disulfide linkages may be applied to human V(H) domains/libraries for non-aggregation optimization. In addition, calculation of theoretical pIs of V(H)s selected by panning may be used for rapid and precise identification of non-aggregating V(H)s. PMID:19033278
Arbabi-Ghahroudi, M; To, R; Gaudette, N; Hirama, T; Ding, W; MacKenzie, R; Tanha, J
Subarachnoid haemorrhage in children is uncommon. In a review of 110 children with an intracranial tumour over a 20 year period there were four patients (3.6%) who presented with the typical features of a subarachnoid haemorrhage. During the same period of time there were 15 children who presented with subarachnoid haemorrhage of which 26% were secondary to a cerebral tumour. This study suggests that cerebral tumour is a common cause of subarachnoid haemorrhage in children.
Wong, G; Knuckey, N W; Gubbay, S S
Patients presenting with flank pain are likely to have urological pathology but when features of hypotension are present high index of suspicion is needed to reach the cause such as perirenal haemorrhage. Spontaneous perirenal haemorrhage (SPH) is an uncommon presentation of vasculitis, autoimmune disease or malignancy. It is common in males in the age group between 30 and 60 years. Polyarteritis nodosa (PAN) is one of the commonest vascular diseases associated with SPH. Angiography adds valuable information to the diagnosis and management and can prevent unnecessary nephrectomy. We report a case of SPH that was successfully managed with angioembolization. PMID:23763812
Nandwani, Ghulam Mustafa; Musker, Mathew Paul; Chaplin, Brian John; El Madhoun, Ihab; Akbani, Habib
Haemorrhage in pituitary adenoma is an unusual cause of recurrent oculomotor palsy. Three episodes of right oculomotor palsy are reported from a patient having haemorrhage in pituitary adenoma. Early operation and decompression of haemorrhagic pituitary adenoma should be performed so that vision may be preserved and recovery of oculomotor palsy be assured. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3
Three cases of fatal septicaemia due to Plesiomonas shigelloides and one due to Edwardsiella tarda were diagnosed in newborn penguins from the Basle Zoo, Switzerland from 2003 to 2007. The affected penguins were of two different species (king penguin, Aptenodytes patagonicus, and African penguin, Spheniscus demersus) and between 2 and 10 days old at the time of death. The causative agents, E. tarda and P. shigelloides are ubiquitous bacteria which are reported to be present in the normal intestinal flora of wild and captive aquatic animals, including penguins. Their occurrence and infectious potential is discussed. PMID:21360449
Nimmervoll, H; Wenker, C; Robert, N; Albini, S
A case of a patient with intracranial haemorrhage thought to have been associated with ingestion of 'Ecstasy' [3-4 methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA)] is presented. The case illustrates the importance of drug analysis in cases involving illicit drug use. Images Fig. 1
Hughes, J C; McCabe, M; Evans, R J
Angiostrongylus cantonensis (A. cantonensis) is a nematode parasite found in Southeast Asia, Australia and the Pacific that is the most common cause of eosinophilic meningitis. We report a case of intraparenchymal cerebral haemorrhage associated with A. cantonensis meningitis. This complication has not previously been reported in the literature. PMID:24316997
Lilic, Nikola; Addison, Ben
A patient with chronic pancreatitis presented with a series of massive upper gastrointestinal haemorrhages due to bleeding into the pancreatic duct. This report emphasizes the value of intensive investigation before surgery, since it may be impossible to identify the site of bleeding at laparotomy. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4
Ribbans, W. J.; Pounder, R. E.; Lindsay, I.
A patient with chronic pancreatitis presented with a series of massive upper gastrointestinal haemorrhages due to bleeding into the pancreatic duct. This report emphasizes the value of intensive investigation before surgery, since it may be impossible to identify the site of bleeding at laparotomy. PMID:3892520
Ribbans, W J; Pounder, R E; Lindsay, I
Perimesencephalic subarachnoid haemorrhage is usually asymptomatic other than meningeal irritation sign. The authors report a case of subarachnoid haemorrhage at the quadrigeminal cistern showing ipsilateral trochlear nerve palsy and discuss the pathogenesis. A 71-year-old man with a history of diabetes mellitus and acute myocardial infarction presented with diplopia. He underwent CT, which revealed subarachnoid haemorrhage at the left quadrigeminal cistern. Neurological examination revealed left isolated trochlear nerve palsy, with results otherwise normal. The diagnosis of perimesencephalic subarachnoid haemorrhage was established on neuroimaging. The amount of haemorrhage is related to symptoms. A dense clot in the quadrigeminal cistern might have been the cause of trochlear nerve palsy.
Adachi, Koji; Hironaka, Kouhei; Suzuki, Hisaharu; Oharazawa, Hideaki
The Foley catheter is described in the emergency treatment of penetrating cardiac injuries, and its intra-operative use to control bleeding while definitive measures for intravascular embolization are being made. We present the first reported case of the use of a urinary catheter to control haemorrhage in an extremity stab injury to obtain haemodynamic stability while awaiting definitive surgical treatment. This quick, easy and useful technique can be used for junctional vascular injuries and wounds with a narrow neck, and can be easily removed once in the operating theatre. This life-saving, simple and cost-effective technique ‘internalises’ the externally applied pressure to control massive haemorrhage while awaiting definitive operative intervention. The catheter can be sutured in place if the patient is to be transferred to another department or hospital.
Singh, R. A.; Asprou, F.; Patel, Amit; Trickett, R. W.
Percutaneous dilatational tracheostomy (PDT) is associated with a number of life-threatening complications. We present a case of massive and fatal arterial haemorrhage that occurred in the intensive care unit during an elective PDT on an 86-year-old woman following earlier evacuation of a traumatic subdural haematoma. An avulsed right subclavian artery was found at post mortem. Previous thyroid surgery and aberrant arterial anatomy contributed to the fatal outcome. PMID:12644430
Shlugman, D; Satya-Krishna, R; Loh, L
Effective oral immunization systems may be very helpful to the salmon industry, particularly during the seawater growth stages in which vaccination through injection is not possible. During the seawater growing stage, fish become more susceptible to several types of disease, due to the natural decay of vaccine-induced immune responses. In this study, we demonstrate the immune response and efficacy of a new salmonid rickettsial septicaemia (SRS) oral vaccine, developed using MicroMatrix™ Technology. The vaccine, which is administered together with daily feed ration, induces a specific immune response at local and systemic levels. Anti-Piscirickettsia salmonis specific antibodies were detected as soon as 300 degree-days after vaccination. Furthermore, oral vaccination was able to protect fish against a lethal pathogen challenge when administered either as a primary vaccination or as a booster for an injected vaccine. Results show that oral vaccination is an efficacious treatment for the prevention of SRS outbreaks throughout the salmon culture period. PMID:21219985
Tobar, Jaime A; Jerez, Sofía; Caruffo, Mario; Bravo, Catalina; Contreras, Francisco; Bucarey, Sergio A; Harel, Moti
Systemic candidiasis with Candida-induced abscesses, predominantly in the liver and the spleen, was diagnosed in 27 patients with haematologic malignancies after intensive cytostatic therapy. Specific features included septic fever unresponsive to antimicrobial therapy, hepatosplenomegaly with multiple lesions in the liver and spleen (diameter up to 2 cm) as detected by computed tomography (CT) or ultrasound, and an elevation in liver enzymes. During treatment, induced neutropenia, hepatic and splenic foci were poorly defined histologically and were not identified by imaging procedures. After granulocyte recovery these foci showed characteristic histological patterns. Ultrasound and/or CT investigations of the abdomen now revealed characteristic lesions in the liver and the spleen. Gamma-GT and alkaline phosphatase were early indicators of hepatic involvement in Candida septicaemia and were often already elevated in aplasia. PMID:2337685
von Eiff, M; Essink, M; Roos, N; Hiddemann, W; Büchner, T; van de Loo, J
The simultaneous development of two (or more) spontaneous, hypertensive, non-traumatic intraparenchymal cerebral haemorrhages is rare and constitutes less than 5.6% of all hypertensive cerebral haemorrhages. In addition to having a high early mortality, these haemorrhages carry a considerable morbidity figure in patients who survive the event. We report a 68-year-old hypertensive and diabetic woman who presented with a sudden onset of headache, vomiting, and dense right-sided weakness. In less than an hour, she became obtunded. An urgent non-contrast CT brain scan revealed two left-sided supratentorial hemispheric haemorrhages; putamenal and thalamic. PMID:23345495
Amin, Osama S M
The bleeding from various veins can be intense and may be mistaken for arterial haemorrhage. Several fatal cases are reported due to delay of treatment and inappropriate first aid. We describe five cases of haemorrhage from varicose veins that were treated with foam sclerotherapy. Polidocanol foam was injected in the various veins using ultrasound guidance. There was no recurrence of haemorrhage in any patient during the 17.4 months follow-up period. Foam sclerotherapy can be performed easily in an out-patient clinic setting. This method is an ideal therapy for haemorrhage from varicose veins because it mitigates problematic varicose veins. PMID:21420881
Hamahata, A; Yamaki, T; Osada, A; Fujisawa, D; Sakurai, H
The incidence of cerebral haemorrhage was studied from a population-based stroke registry. The incidence was 12.3 per 100,000 per year in women and 13.9 per 100,000 per year in men, with a peak in the eighth decade and a male preponderance. Haemorrhages were deep seated and mostly due to hypertension. Recognised clinical characteristics of haemorrhage are acute onset, convulsion, vomiting, and disturbed consciousness. This study showed that cerebral haemorrhage may present with pure motor deficit or transient deficit preceding the stroke. The mortality was 51% in the first month, and 61% by two years.
Giroud, M; Gras, P; Chadan, N; Beuriat, P; Milan, C; Arveux, P; Dumas, R
We describe a patient with thrombocytopenia who developed episodes of dyspnoea due to recurrent cardiac arrhythmia. Necropsy revealed that the apparent mechanism was extensive myocardial haemorrhage. Images
Wyld, PJ; Beck, S; Slater, DN
Background There is a paucity of clinical studies focused specifically on intracerebral haemorrhages of subcortical topography, a subject matter of interest to clinicians involved in stroke management. This single centre, retrospective study was conducted with the following objectives: a) to describe the aetiological, clinical and prognostic characteristics of patients with thalamic haemorrhage as compared with that of patients with internal capsule-basal ganglia haemorrhage, and b) to identify predictors of in-hospital mortality in patients with thalamic haemorrhage. Methods Forty-seven patients with thalamic haemorrhage were included in the "Sagrat Cor Hospital of Barcelona Stroke Registry" during a period of 17 years. Data from stroke patients are entered in the stroke registry following a standardized protocol with 161 items regarding demographics, risk factors, clinical features, laboratory and neuroimaging data, complications and outcome. The region of the intracranial haemorrhage was identified on computerized tomographic (CT) scans and/or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the brain. Results Thalamic haemorrhage accounted for 1.4% of all cases of stroke (n = 3420) and 13% of intracerebral haemorrhage (n = 364). Hypertension (53.2%), vascular malformations (6.4%), haematological conditions (4.3%) and anticoagulation (2.1%) were the main causes of thalamic haemorrhage. In-hospital mortality was 19% (n = 9). Sensory deficit, speech disturbances and lacunar syndrome were significantly associated with thalamic haemorrhage, whereas altered consciousness (odds ratio [OR] = 39.56), intraventricular involvement (OR = 24.74) and age (OR = 1.23), were independent predictors of in-hospital mortality. Conclusion One in 8 patients with acute intracerebral haemorrhage had a thalamic hematoma. Altered consciousness, intraventricular extension of the hematoma and advanced age were determinants of a poor early outcome.
Arboix, Adria; Rodriguez-Aguilar, Raquel; Oliveres, Montserrat; Comes, Emili; Garcia-Eroles, Luis; Massons, Joan
Repeated vitreous haemorrhage is a common occurrence in Eales disease. 25 eyes of unresolving vitreous haemorrhage were subjected to pars plana vitrectomy. 18 eyes improved to 1/60 or better. Vitreous rebleed was the commonest problem encountered. We discuss our experience, complications and limitations. PMID:1452278
Gadkari, S S; Kamdar, P A; Jehangir, R P; Shah, N A; Adrianwala, S D
We describe two patients of alveolar haemorrhage in patients with eosinophilic granulomatosis with polyangiitis (eGPA). This report adds to the evidence that pulmonary haemorrhage is a rare but severe manifestation of eGPA. It may not be associated with positive ANCA antibodies and requires aggressive treatment. PMID:24464436
Jagadeesh, L Yalakki; Sangle, S R; Verma, H; D'Cruz, D
A unilateral parenchymal haemorrhage associated with a germinal matrix–intraventricular haemorrhage (GMH–IVH) is still an important problem in the preterm infant and especially in those who are very immature. This type of lesion is now considered mainly to be caused by impaired drainage of the veins in the periventricular white matter and is often referred to as a venous infarction. The
Linda S de Vries; Ariadne M Roelants-van Rijn; Karin J Rademaker; Ingrid C van Haastert; Frederik JA Beek; Floris Groenendaal
The aim of this study was to determine the rate of acute hydrocephalus in patients with aneurysmal subarachnoid haemorrhage (SAH) and evaluate its clinical prognosis and treatment options. We recruited 152 patients who had cerebral aneurysms between 2006 and 2010. Sequential CT scans were performed 24–72hours after haemorrhage to examine the development of acute hydrocephalus following aneurysmal SAH. If hydrocephalus
Jingjing Lu; Nan Ji; Zhonghua Yang; Xingquan Zhao
Postpartum haemorrhage is an infrequent but potentially life-threatening obstetrical emergency amenable to simulation. An educational programme consisting of a lecture and high-fidelity simulation exercise was given to incoming obstetrics and gynaecology (OB) and family medicine (FM) residents. Residents reported pre- and post-intervention confidence scores on a 1-5 Likert scale and a subset completed a postpartum haemorrhage knowledge assessment. Residents reported significant improvements in confidence in parameters involved in diagnosis and management of postpartum haemorrhage. The postpartum haemorrhage test mean scores significantly increased (57.4 ± 9.6% vs 77.1 ± 7.9%, p < 0.01) and were significantly correlated to confidence scores (Spearman's coefficient of 0.651, p < 0.001). In conclusion, an education programme that incorporates high-fidelity simulation of postpartum haemorrhage improves the confidence and knowledge of incoming residents and appears to be an effective educational approach. PMID:24219716
Straub, H L; Morgan, G; Ochoa, P; Grable, I; Wang, E; Kharasch, M; Plunkett, B A
Background and Aims: The prevalence of retinal haemorrhages after convulsions is not well established. As these haemorrhages are considered characteristic of child abuse, we investigated their occurrence after convulsive episodes to see whether the finding of haemorrhage should prompt further investigation. Methods: Prospective study of 153 children (aged 2 months to 2 years), seen in the emergency department after a convulsive episode. After a thorough history and physical examination, a retinal examination was performed by an ophthalmologist. If findings were positive, further investigation was undertaken to rule out systemic disorder or child abuse. Results: One child was found with unilateral retinal haemorrhages following an episode of a simple febrile convulsion. A thorough investigation uncovered no other reason for this finding. Conclusion: Retinal haemorrhages following a convulsive episode are rare. Such a finding should trigger an extensive search for other reasons, including child abuse.
Mei-Zahav, M; Uziel, Y; Raz, J; Ginot, N; Wolach, B; Fainmesser, P
Subarachnoid haemorrhage (SAH) causes early brain injury (EBI) that is mediated by effects of transient cerebral ischaemia during bleeding plus effects of the subarachnoid blood. Secondary effects of SAH include increased intracranial pressure, destruction of brain tissue by intracerebral haemorrhage, brain shift, and herniation, all of which contribute to pathology. Many patients survive these phenomena, but deteriorate days later from delayed cerebral ischaemia (DCI), which causes poor outcome or death in up to 30% of patients with SAH. DCI is thought to be caused by the combined effects of angiographic vasospasm, arteriolar constriction and thrombosis, cortical spreading ischaemia, and processes triggered by EBI. Treatment for DCI includes prophylactic administration of nimodipine, and current neurointensive care. Prompt recognition of DCI and immediate treatment by means of induced hypertension and balloon or pharmacological angioplasty are considered important by many physicians, although the evidence to support such approaches is limited. This Review summarizes the pathophysiology of DCI after SAH and discusses established treatments for this condition. Novel strategies--including drugs such as statins, sodium nitrite, albumin, dantrolene, cilostazol, and intracranial delivery of nimodipine or magnesium--are also discussed. PMID:24323051
Macdonald, R Loch
The herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) virion host shutoff protein (vhs) degrades viral and cellular mRNAs. Here, we demonstrate for the first time that vhs also boosts translation of viral true late mRNAs in a cell type-dependent manner and that this effect determines the viral growth phenotype in the respective cell type. Our study was prompted by the detection of stress granules, indicators of stalled translation initiation, in cells infected with vhs mutants but not in wild-type-virus-infected cells. Accumulation of true late-gene products gC and US11 was strongly reduced in the absence of vhs in HeLa cells and several other restrictive cell lines but not in Vero and other permissive cells and was independent of phosphorylation of the ? subunit of eukaryotic initiation factor 2 (eIF2?). Polysome analysis showed that gC and US11 transcripts were poorly translated in vhs-null-virus-infected HeLa cells, while translation of a cellular mRNA was not affected. Interestingly, hippuristanol, an eIF4A inhibitor, produced a similar phenotype in HeLa cells infected with wild-type HSV-1, while Vero cells were much more resistant to the inhibitor. These results suggest that translation of true late-gene transcripts is particularly sensitive to conditions of limited access to translation factors and that vhs is able either to prevent the limiting conditions or to facilitate translation initiation under these conditions. The varied permissivity of cell lines to vhs-null infection may stem from differences in the resilience of the translation machinery or the ability to control the accumulation of mRNAs.
Dauber, Bianca; Pelletier, Jerry; Smiley, James R.
The use of antithrombotic medicines in patients who have a history of intracerebral haemorrhage is widely perceived as being contraindicated. However, many patients with intracerebral haemorrhage may suffer from conditions for which antithrombotic medicines are indicated. Such scenarios represent a therapeutic dilemma whereby treating infers an increased risk of recurrent intracerebral haemorrhage, but not treating infers an increase of thrombotic complications. Despite the importance of this dilemma, there is very little guidance for prescribers. This perspective review considered previous systematic reviews that addressed this issue, together with recently published research findings from the Tayside Stroke Cohort. Systematic reviews of experimental and observational studies have concluded that there is a marked lack of data on which to judge the safety of oral anticoagulant agents following intracerebral haemorrhage. In addition, the limited data available regarding the use of antiplatelet medicines following intracerebral haemorrhage provide no evidence that they are harmful, and again further data are required. In the absence of such data, a decision analysis approach has been proposed. This considers the findings of other studies to infer the likely impact of using antithrombotic agents in patients with intracerebral haemorrhage. The success of this approach is contingent on the availability of reliable data that describe the rate of recurrent intracerebral haemorrhage; however, published data on this varies widely. There are a number of factors that conspire against researchers addressing this issue. The current paucity of evidence to guide prescribers faced with this therapeutic dilemma seems likely to remain for some time.
Objective: To assess the effect of concurrent arterial aneurysms on the risk of incident haemorrhage from brain arteriovenous malformations (AVMs). Methods: In a cross sectional study, 463 consecutive, prospectively enrolled patients from the Columbia AVM Databank were analysed. Concurrent arterial aneurysms on brain angiography were classified as feeding artery aneurysms, intranidal aneurysms, and aneurysms unrelated to blood flow to the AVM. Clinical presentation (diagnostic event) was categorised as intracranial haemorrhage proved by imaging or non-haemorrhagic presentation. Univariate and multivariate statistical models were applied to test the effect of age, sex, AVM size, venous drainage pattern, and the three types of aneurysms on the risk of AVM haemorrhage at initial presentation. Results: Arterial aneurysms were found in 117 (25%) patients with AVM (54 had feeding artery aneurysms, 21 had intranidal aneurysms, 18 had unrelated aneurysms, and 24 had more than one aneurysm type). Intracranial haemorrhage was the presenting symptom in 204 (44%) patients with AVM. In the univariate model, the relative risk for haemorrhagic AVM presentation was 2.28 (95% confidence interval (CI) 1.12 to 4.64) for patients with intranidal aneurysms and 1.88 (95% CI 1.14 to 3.08) for those with feeding artery aneurysms. In the multivariate model an independent effect of feeding artery aneurysms (odds ratio 2.11, 95% CI 1.18 to 3.78) on haemorrhagic AVM presentation was found. No significant effect was seen for intranidal and unrelated aneurysms. The attributable risk of feeding artery aneurysms for incident haemorrhage in patients with AVM was 6% (95% CI 1% to 11%). Conclusions: The findings suggest that feeding artery aneurysms are an independent determinant for increased risk of incident AVM haemorrhage.
Stapf, C; Mohr, J; Pile-Spellman, J; Sciacca, R; Hartmann, A; Schumacher, H; Mast, H
A 32-year-old primigravida presented at our emergency room at 6 weeks of gestation with acute severe right upper quadrant abdominal pain, radiating to the right flank. Vital signs were stable. Abdominal ultrasound showed a round inhomogeneous mass of 10 cm diameter behind the right kidney, suspected for adrenal haemorrhage. The patient was admitted for observation. An MRI showed some right-sided pleural effusion and a round mass in the adrenal region with no recognisable adrenal gland, therefore most likely originating from the right adrenal. After 10 days the patient was discharged with no change in size of the haematoma. MRI was carried out every 2 months which showed a decrease in size of the haematoma, with no other abnormalities. Based on stable MRI and the patient's preference, a vaginal delivery mode was chosen. At 37 weeks of gestation labour was induced, followed by an uncomplicated delivery. PMID:23955977
Keizer, Alieke L; Peters, Louisette W; de Vries, Cees; Smets, Yves F C; de Wit, Laurens Th; van Pampus, Mariëlle G
Crimea-Congo haemorrhagic fever is a tick-borne viral zoonosis with the potential of human-to-human transmission. The disease occurs in extensive areas in Asia, South-eastern Europe and Africa. Haemorrhagic manifestations constitute a prominent symptom of the late disease stage, with case fatality rates from 9 to 50%. The recent increase in the number of cases in Eastern Europe and the potential for nosocomial outbreaks indicate the advisability of diagnosis in every patient hospitalized in Italy with haemorrhagic fever. PMID:19838084
Pittalis, Silvia; Meschi, Silvia; Castilletti, Maria Concetta; Di Caro, Antonino; Puro, Vicenzo
A case of prolonged thrombocytopenia following dengue haemorrhagic fever in a 15 year old boy is reported. The mechanism was presumed to be immunological and he responded dramatically to oral prednisolone. PMID:8183156
Leong, K W; Srinivas, P
Background Hong Kong population has experienced drastic changes in its economic development in the 1940s. Taking advantage of Hong Kong’s unique demographic and socioeconomic history, characterized by massive, punctuated migration waves from Southern China, and recent, rapid transition from a pre-industrialized society to the first ethnic Chinese community reaching “first world” status over the last 60 years (i.e., in two or three generations), we examined the longitudinal trends in infection related mortality including septicemia compared to trends in non-bacterial pneumonia to generate hypotheses for further testing in other recently transitioned economies and to provide generalized aetiological insights on how economic transition affects infection-related mortality. Methods We used deaths from septicemia and pneumonia not specified as bacterial, and population figures in Hong Kong from 1976–2005. We fitted age-period-cohort models to decompose septicemia and non-bacterial pneumonia mortality rates into age, period and cohort effects. Results Septicaemia-related deaths increased exponentially with age, with a downturn by period. The birth cohort curves had downward inflections in both sexes in the 1940s, with a steeper deceleration for women. Non-bacterial pneumonia-related deaths also increased exponentially with age, but the birth cohort patterns showed no downturns for those born in the 1940s. Conclusion The observed changes appeared to suggest that better early life conditions may enable better development of adaptive immunity, thus enhancing immunity against bacterial infections, with greater benefits for women than men. Given the interaction between the immune system and the gonadotropic axis, these observations are compatible with the hypothesis that upregulation of the gonadotropic axis underlies some of the changes in disease patterns with economic development.
Wong, Irene O. L.; Cowling, Benjamin J.; Leung, Gabriel M.; Schooling, C. Mary
Acute graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) is the most important complication of allogeneic haemopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT), increasing susceptibility to haemorrhage and risk of early mortality. We evaluated 807 allogeneic HSCT patients to assess both the association between bleeding and GVHD, and the influence of haemorrhagic complications on clinical outcome. Up to 55% of patients with grade III–IV GVHD experienced bleeding,
Most surgeons have adopted damage control surgery for severely injured patients, in which the initial operation is abbreviated after control of bleeding and contamination to allow ongoing resuscitation in the intensive-care unit. Developments in early resuscitation that emphasise rapid control of bleeding, restrictive volume replacement, and prevention or early management of coagulopathy are making definitive surgery during the first operation possible for many patients. Improved topical haemostatic agents and interventional radiology are becoming increasingly useful adjuncts to surgical control of bleeding. Better understanding of trauma-induced coagulopathy is paving the way for the replacement of blind, unguided protocols for blood component therapy with systemic treatments targeting specific deficiencies in coagulation. Similarly, treatments targeting dysregulated inflammatory responses to severe injury are under investigation. As point-of-care diagnostics become more suited to emergency environments, timely targeted intervention for haemorrhage control will result in better patient outcomes and reduced demand for blood products. Our Series paper describes how our understanding of the roles of the microcirculation, inflammation, and coagulation has shaped new and emerging treatment strategies. PMID:22998719
Gruen, Russell L; Brohi, Karim; Schreiber, Martin; Balogh, Zsolt J; Pitt, Veronica; Narayan, Mayur; Maier, Ronald V
Background Survivors of bacterial meningitis and septicaemia can experience a range of after-effects. There is little published research on the needs and provision of aftercare for children surviving bacterial meningitis and septicaemia. Methods Mixed methods study employing a survey and follow-up interviews with a sample of survey participants recruited from Meningitis Research Foundation’s member database and social media. Results Of 194 eligible survey respondents, 77% reported at least moderate short-term after-effects, and 57% a need for aftercare or support. Most parents reported that their child received a hearing test (98%) and follow-up appointment with a paediatrician (66%). Psychosocial after-effects were most common and the greatest need was for educational support. About half of participants felt their children’s needs for aftercare were met. We conducted interviews with 18 parents. Findings suggest access could be limited by: parents’ inability to navigate systems in place, child’s age, and delayed identification of sequelae. Parents felt a comprehensive explanation of possible after-effects on discharge from hospital was required, and found uncertain prognoses difficult. Good communication between professionals enabled a service tailored to the child’s needs. Conclusions Our study supports the NICE and SIGN guidelines and highlights areas for improvement in the aftercare of these children.
Background Membrane trafficking involves the complex regulation of proteins and lipids intracellular localization and is required for metabolic uptake, cell growth and development. Different trafficking pathways passing through the endosomes are coordinated by the ENTH/ANTH/VHS adaptor protein superfamily. The endosomes are crucial for eukaryotes since the acquisition of the endomembrane system was a central process in eukaryogenesis. Results Our in silico analysis of this ENTH/ANTH/VHS superfamily, consisting of proteins gathered from 84 complete genomes representative of the different eukaryotic taxa, revealed that genomic distribution of this superfamily allows to discriminate Fungi and Metazoa from Plantae and Protists. Next, in a four way genome wide comparison, we showed that this discriminative feature is observed not only for other membrane trafficking effectors, but also for proteins involved in metabolism and in cytokinesis, suggesting that metabolism, cytokinesis and intracellular trafficking pathways co-evolved. Moreover, some of the proteins identified were implicated in multiple functions, in either trafficking and metabolism or trafficking and cytokinesis, suggesting that membrane trafficking is central to this co-evolution process. Conclusions Our study suggests that membrane trafficking and compartmentalization were not only key features for the emergence of eukaryotic cells but also drove the separation of the eukaryotes in the different taxa.
Between 1 September and 24 October 1976, 318 cases of acute viral haemorrhagic fever occurred in northern Zaire. The outbreak was centred in the Bumba Zone of the Equateur Region and most of the cases were recorded within a radius of 70 km of Yambuku, although a few patients sought medical attention in Bumba, Abumombazi, and the capital city of Kinshasa, where individual secondary and tertiary cases occurred. There were 280 deaths, and only 38 serologically confirmed survivors. The index case in this outbreak had onset of symptoms on 1 September 1976, five days after receiving an injection of chloroquine for presumptive malaria at the outpatient clinic at Yambuku Mission Hospital (YMH). He had a clinical remission of his malaria symptoms. Within one week several other persons who had received injections at YMH also suffered from Ebola haemorrhagic fever, and almost all subsequent cases had either received injections at the hospital or had had close contact with another case. Most of these occurred during the first four weeks of the epidemic, after which time the hospital was closed, 11 of the 17 staff members having died of the disease. All ages and both sexes were affected, but women 15-29 years of age had the highest incidence of disease, a phenomenon strongly related to attendance at prenatal and outpatient clinics at the hospital where they received injections. The overall secondary attack rate was about 5%, although it ranged to 20% among close relatives such as spouses, parent or child, and brother or sister. Active surveillance disclosed that cases occurred in 55 of some 550 villages which were examined house-by-house. The disease was hitherto unknown to the people of the affected region. Intensive search for cases in the area of north-eastern Zaire between the Bumba Zone and the Sudan frontier near Nzara and Maridi failed to detect definite evidence of a link between an epidemic of the disease in that country and the outbreak near Bumba. Nevertheless it was established that people can and do make the trip between Nzara and Bumba in not more than four days: thus it was regarded as quite possible that an infected person had travelled from Sudan to Yambuku and transferred the virus to a needle of the hospital while receiving an injection at the outpatient clinic. Both the incubation period, and the duration of the clinical disease averaged about one week. After 3-4 days of non-specific symptoms and signs, patients typically experienced progressively severe sore throat, developed a maculopapular rash, had intractable abdominal pain, and began to bleed from multiple sites, principally the gastrointestinal tract. Although laboratory determinations were limited and not conclusive, it was concluded that pathogenesis of the disease included non-icteric hepatitis and possibly acute pancreatitis as well as disseminated intravascular coagulation. This syndrome was caused by a virus morphologically similar to Marburg virus, but immunologically distinct. It was named Ebola virus. The agent was isolated from the blood of 8 of 10 suspected cases using Vero cell cultures. Titrations of serial specimens obtained from one patient disclosed persistent viraemia of 106.5-104.5 infectious units from the third day of illness until death on the eighth day. Ebola virus particles were found in formalin-
Background: The prevalence of overweight and obesity is increasing worldwide. The impact of overweight on post-tonsillectomy haemorrhage rates in children and adults is unclear. Methods: Body mass index and post-tonsillectomy haemorrhage were evaluated in all patients treated with tonsillectomy within one year in a tertiary referral centre. Bleeding episodes were categorised according to the Austrian Tonsil Study. Results: Between June 2011 and June 2012, 300 adults and children underwent tonsillectomy. Post-tonsillectomy haemorrhage occurred in 55 patients. Of those, 29 were type A (history of blood in saliva only, no active bleeding), 15 were type B (active bleeding, treatment under local anaesthesia) and 11 were type C (active bleeding, treatment under general anaesthesia). The return to operating theatre rate was 3.7 per cent. Post-tonsillectomy haemorrhage was more frequent in adolescents and adults than in children. Overweight or obesity was positively correlated with age. Post-tonsillectomy bleeding was recorded in 11.1 per cent of underweight patients, 18.9 per cent of normal weight patients and 18.7 per cent of overweight patients (p = 0.7). Data stratification (according to age and weight) did not alter the post-tonsillectomy bleeding risk (p = 0.8). Conclusion: Overweight or obesity did not increase the risk of post-tonsillectomy haemorrhage in either children or adults. PMID:24849331
Riechelmann, H; Blassnigg, E C; Profanter, C; Greier, K; Kral, F; Bender, B
Haemorrhagic shock remains a leading cause of death in trauma patients. The concept of haematologic damage control is gradually taking place in the management of traumatic haemorrhagic shock. It is based primarily on the early implementation of a quality blood transfusion involving erythrocytes, plasmas and platelets transfusion. Red blood cell transfusion is mainly supported by the oxygen carrier properties of erythrocytes. However, it appears that erythrocytes ability to modulate the bioavailability of nitric oxide (NO) plays a major role in capillary opening and perfusion. Erythrocytes are also actively involved in the processes of hemostasis and coagulation. In this context, it seems difficult to define a threshold of hemoglobin concentration to determine the implementation of a blood transfusion in traumatic haemorrhagic shock. PMID:23611789
Morel, N; Biais, M; Delaunay, F; Dubuisson, V; Cassone, O; Siméon, F; Morel, O; Janvier, G
Perioperative mortality in the pa tients with acute haemorrhage from upper gastrointestinal tract undergo ng unsuccessful routine endoscopic procedures is relatively high. The study evaluates the effective ness of upper gastrointestinal tract arterial vessels embolization as the alternative procedure to surgery. The analyses was conducted in 48 patients who underwent unsuccessful endoscopic procedures. All patients were subjected to diagnostic angiogra phy, which allowed to localize or con firm the haemorrhage site in 37 (77%) cases. Twenty eight (58%) out of 48 analyzed patients underwent embolizaion and hemorrhage was successfully controlled in 19 (68%) of these cases There were no complications in the analyzed group related to the perfor med intravascular procedures. Intravascular embolization of upper gastrointestinal tract is the alternative to surgical operations and effective method to be used in the treatment of acute haemorrhages from upper ga strointestinal tract in the patients who underwent unsuccessful endoscopic procedures. PMID:23944102
Popiela, Tadeusz J; Brzegowy, Pawe?; Paciorek, Anna
Massive haemorrhage is an uncommon complication in pancreatitis. Most affected patients suffer from chronic disease with associated pseudocyst. We present five patients (four male) with a mean age of 41 years (range 34-48 years). All patients had alcohol-induced pancreatitis complicated either by haematemesis (3), intraperitoneal haemorrhage (1) or both haematemesis and intraperitoneal haemorrhage (1). Source of bleeding was pseudocyst wall (2), splenic artery pseudoaneurysm (2) and splenic artery rupture (1). Distal pancreatectomy and splenectomy was performed in two patients, intracystic ligation and drainage in two, and packing with subsequent external drainage in one. Rebleeding occurred in two patients and required subsequent distal pancreatectomy and splenectomy in one; the other patient died of splenic rupture. No rebleeding and no mortality occurred after resection. Primary pancreatic resection is recommended whenever possible. Other management options include embolisation and ligation. Images Figure 1
Ammori, B. J.; Madan, M.; Alexander, D. J.
Hospitals must have a major haemorrhage protocol in place and this should include clinical, laboratory and logistic responses. Immediate control of obvious bleeding is of paramount importance (pressure, tourniquet, haemostatic dressings). The major haemorrhage protocol must be mobilised immediately when a massive haemorrhage situation is declared. A fibrinogen < 1 g.l?1 or a prothrombin time (PT) and activated partial thromboplastin time (aPTT) of > 1.5 times normal represents established haemostatic failure and is predictive of microvascular bleeding. Early infusion of fresh frozen plasma (FFP; 15 ml.kg?1) should be used to prevent this occurring if a senior clinician anticipates a massive haemorrhage. Established coagulopathy will require more than 15 ml.kg?1 of FFP to correct. The most effective way to achieve fibrinogen replacement rapidly is by giving fibrinogen concentrate or cryoprecipitate if fibrinogen is unavailable. 1:1:1 red cell:FFP:platelet regimens, as used by the military, are reserved for the most severely traumatised patients. A minimum target platelet count of 75 × 109.l?1 is appropriate in this clinical situation. Group-specific blood can be issued without performing an antibody screen because patients will have minimal circulating antibodies. O negative blood should only be used if blood is needed immediately. In hospitals where the need to treat massive haemorrhage is frequent, the use of locally developed shock packs may be helpful. Standard venous thromboprophylaxis should be commenced as soon as possible after haemostasis has been secured as patients develop a prothrombotic state following massive haemorrhage.
Thomas, D; Wee, M; Clyburn, P; Walker, I; Brohi, K; Collins, P; Doughty, H; Isaac, J; Mahoney, PF; Shewry, L
We report one case of posterior fossa intracranial haemorrhage in a full-term Malay baby boy following vacuum assisted delivery. The patient, a term baby boy was delivered by a vacuum extraction and later developed signs of increased intracranial pressure 72 hours after birth. Computed tomography (CT) of the brain showed a posterior fossa intracranial haemorrhage with acute obstructive hydrocephalus. He was initially treated with isolated ventricular shunting which later caused an upward cerebellar herniation. An immediate suboccipital craniectomy for evacuation of cerebellar haematoma was performed which resulted in a gradual recovery. PMID:16708744
Ghani, A R I; Prakash, R G; Abdullah, J
The management of bleeding complications following a dental extraction is an essential skill for the dental practitioner. Extractions are often carried out on patients with complex medical histories and a long list of medications. This paper aims to help the clinician manage post-extraction haemorrhage. A review of the management of patients on anti-thrombotic medications will be covered in a subsequent paper. Clinical Relevance: This article reviews the management of haemorrhage following tooth extraction; from the risk assessment of any underlying medical conditions and medications, to the clinical techniques used to control bleeding following an extraction. PMID:24930250
McCormick, Neal J; Moore, Undrell J; Meechan, John G
Massive haemorrhage into a acoustic neurinoma is very rare. A large size, mixed Antoni type and secondary vascular changes are thought to be causative factors. We describe a patient with a rapidly growing acoustic neurinoma which led to a massive haemorrhage. Rapid growth of the tumour seems to be another risk factor for haemorrhage. PMID:10070453
Ohta, S; Yokoyama, T; Nishizawa, S
Haemorrhage and hypoxic-ischaemic lesions are relatively frequent post-mortem findings in neonates, particularly in the context of low birth weight and prematurity. The most common of the acute abnormalities is germinal matrix haemorrhage, which is often accompanied by haemorrhage into the ventricles. Resolution of haematomas in the germinal matrix and brain parenchyma leaves gliotic cysts. The more severe grades of ventricular
Coagulation disorders in traumatic-haemorrhagic shock need not represent a simple coagulation problem. They may also occur as a complex of local and disseminated intravascular consumption, dilution, extravascular loss and depressed synthesis of coagulation factors. In the severely bleeding patient with a haemorrhagic diathesis heparin is contraindicated because it does not normalize coagulability immediately. Therefore, it fails to stop haemorrhage and
H. J. Helme; D. Nyman; H. Burri; G. Wolff
In a retrospective study of 462 in-patients with traumatic hyphaema, secondary haemorrhage occurred in 8.7% of patients. A multivariate analysis demonstrated that the size of hyphaema on presentation and the presence of retinal damage did not affect the probability of secondary haemorrhage. The incidence of secondary haemorrhage was found to decrease by approximately half with the use of topical steroid
C S Ng; N P Strong; J M Sparrow; A R Rosenthal
The changes in arterial blood pressure and cardiac output following rapid removal of 10% of the blood volume have been compared in non-pregnant and pregnant anaesthetized rabbits close to term (28 or 29 days gestation). Immediately after the end of haemorrhage the fall in arterial pressure was greater in the pregnant group (27.7 vs. 17.8 mmHg), but as recovery proceeded the difference diminished and by the tenth minute the reduction from pre-haemorrhage levels was similar in pregnant and non-pregnant rabbits. Cardiac output fell by about 30% in both groups and increased only very slightly during the ensuing 10 min. 1 h after section of the carotid sinus and aortic nerves the haemorrhage was repeated. The fall in arterial pressure in the non-pregnant rabbits was now more than doubled (47.2 vs. 17.8 mmHg). By contrast it was little changed in the pregnant rabbits (32.0 vs. 27.7 mmHg). It is concluded that pregnancy diminishes the role of the baroreceptor reflexes in the response of the rabbit to haemorrhage. Other mechanisms, such as an increased compliance of the resistance vessels and/or a more effective chemically mediated vasoconstriction, probably become of more importance to the maintenance of arterial pressure.
Humphreys, P W; Joels, N
A study examining the utility of transcranial Doppler ultrasound for the determination of cerebral vasospasm following subarachnoid haemorrhage is reported. A control group of 21 patients and a second group of 20 patients suffering from subarachnoid haemorrhage or aneurysm and a group of 26 with other intracranial pathologies were studied. The Doppler flow velocity (DFV) was significantly higher when vasospasm was present. If it was higher than 100 cm/s, the patients were found to have vasospasm in 80% of cases. If Doppler flow velocity was below 100, less than 10% had spasm. Doppler flow velocity was not found to increase following craniotomy in patients not suffering from subarachnoid haemorrhage. In subarachnoid haemorrhage patients there was a trend to increased Doppler flow velocity especially in patients who developed neurological deficit. Doppler flow velocity and Initial Slope Index by xenon clearance (ISI) were not found to correlate with clinical grade. The ISI/DFV quotient (which can be shown mathematically to be related to vessel diameter) was found to correlate well with clinical grade. In this largely post-operative group, absolute levels, or rate of change of Doppler flow velocity could not be shown to be related to the onset or existence of neurological deficit.
Compton, J S; Redmond, S; Symon, L
Although the pathology of Crimean Congo haemorrhagic fever (CCHF) is mainly related to a haemorrhagic process with secondary cytokine storm, there have been no published reports of this fatal disease being a cause of diffuse alveolar haemorrhage (DAH). There are many aetiological factors emphasizing the direct role of endothelial injury on DAH. We present the case of a young adult Turkish man with diffuse bilateral alveolar haemorrhage without an episode of gross haemoptysis caused by the CCHF virus. Successful clinical results and a rapid clinical and radiological clearance were obtained within few days after starting daily oral ribavirin treatment. This fatal infection should be considered to exist in any patient presenting with DAH, and should rapidly be treated with ribavirin. Another very important factor which should always be borne in mind is the contagious character of the CCHF virus. It is one of the most dangerous microorganisms transmitted from person to person. Even the bronchoscopes contaminated with patient blood carry a high risk for nosocomial spread to medical staff and other patients. PMID:18820205
Doganci, Levent; Ceyhan, Meltem; Tasdeler, Nuriye Fisgin; Sarikayalar, Hanife; Tulek, Necla
Objective: To analyse consecutive material over a period of 4 years concerning the incidence and consequences of post-tonsillectomy haemorrhages (PTH). Design: Prospective study. Setting: University hospital. Participants: All non-oncological cases of tonsillectomy (TE) and adenotonsillectomy (TA) performed at the ENT department at the Karolinska University Hospital between March 2000 and April 2004. Main Outcome Measures: Rate, timing and classification of
Per Attner; Per-Olle Haraldsson; Claes Hemlin; Anne-Charlotte Hessén Söderman
We report on two girls, 10 and 13 years old, who died suddenly from ruptured vascular malformations of the choroid plexus. Both presented with headache, vomiting, loss of conciousness and coma. The rare cause of massive primary intraventricular haemorrhage and malignant, rapidly increasing brain pressure was not recognized. The communication highlights the urgency of an early accurate diagnosis with prompt
Erich Reusche; Christian Gaebel; Katharina Gloeckner; Parviz Mehraein; Abolghassem Sepehrnia
Virus associated haemophagocytic syndrome (VAHS), a distinct clinico-pathologic entity, is characterised by systemic proliferation of non-neoplastic histotiocytes showing haemophagocytosis resulting in blood cytopaenia. It has been described in relation to several viruses earlier. Here we describe a young girl who developed this reactive process during the course of dengue haemorrhagic fever (DHF). PMID:1803975
Ramanathan, M; Duraisamy, G
Two cases of peracute haemorrhagic enteritis in the dog are reported. Gram-positive bacilli, which were shown in one case to be Clostridium welchii were found adhering to the necrotic epithelial surfaces in parts of the gastrointestinal tract in both cases. Large numbers of C welchii were recovered from the intestines of both dogs. PMID:211699
Prescott, J F; Johnson, J A; Patterson, J M; Bulmer, W S
Two cases of spontaneous intracerebral haemorrhage in adolescent girls suspected of having multiple sclerosis are reported. Surgical evacuation of haematomas in the left thalamus and left side of the pons, respectively, was performed with excellent recovery in both cases. Some clinical and pathological aspects of small arteriovenous malformations are discussed and the pertinent literature reviewed.
I. F. Abroms; L. Yessayan; J. Shillito; C. F. Barlow
Background: Hyperglycaemia is a common finding and an independent risk factor for increased morbidity and mortality in aneurysmal subarachnoid haemorrhage (SAH). Although in these patients hyperglycaemia is commonly ascribed to insulin resistance, there is little understanding of underlying mechanisms. Aims: To prospectively study temporal disturbances of glucose metabolism after aneurysmal SAH in patients without known abnormalities of glucose metabolism and
N. D. Kruyt; A. Musters; G. J. Biessels; J. H. DeVries; B. A. Coert; M. D. I. Vergouwen; J. Horn; Y. B. Roos
The cardiovascular effects of an acute haemorrhage (2% of the body weight) were studied over a 60 min period in three groups of rats: (a) Brattleboro rats with hereditary hypothalamic diabetes insipidus (b.d.i.) lacking circulating vasopressin, (b) control rats of the parent Long Evans (l.e.) strain, and (c) l.e. rats treated with an antagonist of the vascular action of vasopressin. Prior to the haemorrhage there were no significant differences between the three groups of rats with respect to mean arterial blood pressure, cardiac output, stroke volume or total peripheral resistance. Following the haemorrhage cardiac output and stroke volume were severely reduced in all three groups of rats. Total peripheral resistance was relatively unaffected in antagonist-treated l.e. rats and b.d.i. rats, but rose substantially in response to the loss of blood in the control l.e. group. Both total peripheral resistance and mean arterial blood pressure were markedly greater in the untreated l.e. control rats than in the other two groups of animals during the first 20 min after haemorrhage. The mean heart rate measured in Brattleboro rats was elevated compared with that of control l.e. rats throughout the experiment and, in addition, significantly greater than that of antagonist-treated l.e. rats during the first 40 min after the haemorrhage. Survival rate for the b.d.i. rats following the 2% haemorrhage was lower than that for l.e. control rats and antagonist-treated l.e. rats. The results indicate that the recovery of the blood pressure following an acute arterial haemorrhage is significantly influenced by vasopressin, particularly during the first 20 min, and that the predominant effect of the hormone is to increase the total peripheral resistance. The higher mortality associated with volume depletion in the b.d.i. rats is unlikely to be directly related to the absence of the vascular action of vasopressin, since administration of the vasopressin antagonist to normal l.e. rats does not reduce their survival rate.
Chapman, J T; Hreash, F; Laycock, J F; Walter, S J
Tryptase, the most abundant mast cell (MC) granule protein, plays an important role in atherosclerosis plaque development. To test the hypothesis that tryptase participates directly in atherosclerosis plaque haemorrhage, the gene sequence and siRNA for tryptase were cloned into a lentivirus carrier and atherosclerosis plaque haemorrhage models in ApoE-/- mice were constructed. After a cuffing-cervical artery operation, the mice were randomly divided into 6 groups. Hematoxylin and eosin(HE) staining showed that the cervical artery plaque area was much larger in the tryptase overexpression group compared to the other groups, and there was greater artery stenosis. The artery stenosis from the cuff-side in all groups was more than 90%, except the siRNA group. Tryptase promotes plaque haemorrhage distinctively because 50% of the mice in the tryptase overexpression group had plaque haemorrhage, while only 10% in the siRNA group did. The immunohistochemistry of the cervical artery plaque showed that plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) expression was the lowest while tissue plasminogen activator (tPA), CD31, CD34 and VEGF was the highest in the tryptase overexpression groups. This observation was completely contrary to what was observed in the siRNA group. Tryptase promoted bEnd.3 cell growth, migration and capillary-like tube formation, which suggests that tryptase can promote microvessel angiogenesis. PAI-1 expression was inhibited, while tPA expression was increased by tryptase in bEnd.3 cells. Our in vivo and in vitro studies suggest that trypase can promote atherosclerotic plaque haemorrhage by promoting angiogenesis and regulating the balance of PAI-1 and tPA. Thus, regulating tryptase expression in MCs may provide a potential target for atherosclerosis treatment.
Tian, Dai; Li, Xiaobo; Ning, Yanxia; Yin, Lianhua
Current management guidelines for CT scan-negative subarachnoid haemorrhage (SAH) patients recommend cerebral digital subtraction angiography (DSA). We aimed to investigate the utility of CT angiography (CTA) as a substitute for DSA in these patients. We included patients who presented with SAH confirmed by spectrophotometric xanthochromia analysis of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) whereby the CT scan was negative. Electronic records were reviewed to collect data on non-contrast CT scan, CTA and DSA results. Patients without DSA or with other explanations for CSF xanthochromia were excluded. Sixty-three patients with CT scan-negative SAH were included. The diagnosis of SAH was confirmed by CSF analysis. All 63 patients underwent both DSA and CTA. Using DSA as the benchmark, CTA demonstrated a negative predictive value, positive predictive value, sensitivity and specificity of 98%, 82%, 90% and 96%, respectively, for the detection of intracranial aneurysms. CTA correctly identified patients in whom there were no underlying aneurysms responsible for SAH, with one patient with suspected dissection referred for further evaluation using MRI and DSA. PMID:23954458
Lim, Lee Kai; Dowling, Richard J; Yan, Bernard; Mitchell, Peter J
Background Hypertensive putaminal haemorrhage comprises major part of intra-cerebral haemorrhages, with particularly high morbidity and mortality. However, the optimal treatments for these individuals remain controversial. Methods From June 2010 to August 2013, patients with hypertensive putaminal haemorrhages were treated in the Department of Neurosurgery, West China Hospital. Information regarding the age, signs of cerebral herniation, haematoma volume, intra-ventricular haemorrhage, intra-cerebral haemorrhage score and the treatments of each patient were analyzed retrospectively. The outcome was evaluated by the 30-day mortality rate. Results The 30-day mortality rate of the patients with haematomas volume greater than or equal to 30 ml and intra-cerebral haemorrhage scores of 1 or 2 was decreased in the surgical group compared with those in the conservative group (1.92% VS. 21.40%, OR?=?0.072, p?=?0.028; 15.40% VS. 33.3%, OR?=?0.365, p?=?0.248, respectively). The mortality rate of the patients with signs of cerebral herniation was not significantly different between the surgical and conservative groups (83.30% VS. 100%; p?=?0.529). The intra-cerebral haemorrhage score was significantly associated with the 30-day mortality rate of patients with intra-cerebral haemorrhages (r?=?-0.798, p?0.001). Conclusion Patients with basal ganglia haematomas volume greater than or equal to 30 ml and intra-cerebral haemorrhage scores of 1 or 2 could benefit from the surgical removal of haematomas. The intra-cerebral haemorrhage score can accurately predict the 30-day mortality rate of patients with hypertensive putaminal haemorrhages.
Haemorrhagic cholecystitis is a known rare life-threatening complication of acute cholecystitis. In this case report, we describe clinical presentation and radiological findings of acute cholecystitis presenting with massive intra-abdominal haemorrhage. We present a case of a 57-year-old male presenting to the emergency department with clinical symptoms of acute cholecystitis. Initially, the patient was haemodynamically stable. Gallbladder could not be visualized by ultrasound. Computed tomography with IV contrast showed a large haematoma in the gallbladder fossa, with active extravasation of IV contrast. On angiography the bleeding was localized to a branch of the cystic artery, which was embolized using gelfoam material. The patient was taken to the operating room for an urgent laparotomy and cholecystectomy.
Aljiffry, Murad M.; Almulhim, Amna N.; Jamal, Mohammad H.; Hassanain, Mazen M.
Haemorrhagic cholecystitis is a known rare life-threatening complication of acute cholecystitis. In this case report, we describe clinical presentation and radiological findings of acute cholecystitis presenting with massive intra-abdominal haemorrhage. We present a case of a 57-year-old male presenting to the emergency department with clinical symptoms of acute cholecystitis. Initially, the patient was haemodynamically stable. Gallbladder could not be visualized by ultrasound. Computed tomography with IV contrast showed a large haematoma in the gallbladder fossa, with active extravasation of IV contrast. On angiography the bleeding was localized to a branch of the cystic artery, which was embolized using gelfoam material. The patient was taken to the operating room for an urgent laparotomy and cholecystectomy. PMID:24876458
Aljiffry, Murad M; Almulhim, Amna N; Jamal, Mohammad H; Hassanain, Mazen M
A 51-year-old woman was admitted with left-sided flank pain initially thought to be renal colic. However, a CT urogram was normal. During the course of the admission the pain persisted and she developed severe sustained hypertension. A repeat CT scan of the abdomen revealed a 5×3 cm left adrenal abnormality consistent with haemorrhage, not seen on the original scan. Further assessment revealed elevated urine catecholamines and a short synacthen test showed a suboptimal cortisol response. The diagnosis was initially considered as a phaeochromocytoma, she received phenoxybenzamine with good resolution of hypertension and was referred for surgical opinion. However, serial urinary catecholamine concentrations returned to within the normal range and the diagnosis was revised to adrenal infarction and haemorrhage due to antiphospholipid syndrome. This case illustrates the importance of recognising adrenal infarction as a potential cause of 'pseudophaeochromocytoma'. PMID:22802465
Wordsworth, Simon; Thomas, Ben; Agarwal, Neera; Hoddell, Kate; Davies, Steve
Intracerebral haemorrhage (ICH) accounts for about 10–15% of all strokes. ICH is associated with high mortality and morbidity and there has been no successful Phase III clinical trial for this condition. The last six years has seen a great increase in the number of pre-clinical and clinical studies focused on ICH. There have been significant advances in the animal models available to study ICH and in our understanding of the mechanisms underlying brain injury following haemorrhage. This has led to the identification of several therapeutic targets that are now being pursued into clinical trials. These advances are described in this review in addition to information on past and current clinical trials. Many of the former were based on very limited pre-clinical data and possible guidelines on the nature of pre-clinical results that justify proceeding to the clinic are discussed.
Keep, Richard F.; Hua, Ya; Xi, Guohua
Postpartum haemorrhage is the leading cause of maternal mortality worldwide: 67–80% of cases are caused by uterine atony. Preventive measures include prophylactic drug use to aid uterine contraction after delivery, thus avoiding severe blood loss and reducing maternal morbidity and mortality. Carbetocin is a synthetic analogue of oxytocin with a half-life approximately 4–10 times longer than that reported for oxytocin.
Acute upper gastrointestinal (GI) bleeding is a common medical emergency and associated with significant morbidly and mortality. The risk of bleeding from peptic ulceration and oesophagogastric varices can be reduced by appropriate primary and secondary preventative strategies. Helicobacter pylori eradication and risk stratification with appropriate gastroprotection strategies when used with antiplatelet drugs and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are effective in preventing peptic ulcer bleeding, whilst endoscopic screening and either nonselective beta blockade or endoscopic variceal ligation are effective at reducing the risk of variceal haemorrhage. For secondary prevention of variceal haemorrhage, the combination of beta blockade and endoscopic variceal ligation is more effective. Recent data on the possible interactions of aspirin and NSAIDs, clopidogrel and proton pump inhibitors (PPIs), and the increased risk of cardiovascular adverse events associated with all nonaspirin cyclo-oxygenase (COX) inhibitors have increased the complexity of choices for preventing peptic ulcer bleeding. Such choices should consider both the GI and cardiovascular risk profiles. In patients with a moderately increased risk of GI bleeding, a NSAID plus a PPI or a COX-2 selective agent alone appear equivalent but for those at highest risk of bleeding (especially those with previous ulcer or haemorrhage) the COX-2 inhibitor plus PPI combination is superior. However naproxen seems the safest NSAID for those at increased cardiovascular risk. Clopidogrel is associated with a significant risk of GI haemorrhage and the most recent data concerning the potential clinical interaction of clopidogrel and PPIs are reassuring. In clopidogrel-treated patients at highest risk of GI bleeding, some form of GI prevention is indicated.
Brooks, Johanne; Warburton, Richard
Extravasation of blood in the spinal epidural space is an uncommon but often disastrous problem. Severe trauma, anticoagulants, bleeding diatheses, and intraspinal vascular malformations have been associated with such haemorrhage, but occasionally it occurs without apparent cause. It may then be confused with transverse myelopathy or vascular occlusion. Early diagnosis by myelography and treatment by surgery can result in good recovery, as illustrated by two cases.
Grollmus, J; Hoff, J
Extravasation of blood in the spinal epidural space is an uncommon but often disastrous problem. Severe trauma, anticoagulants, bleeding diatheses, and intraspinal vascular malformations have been associated with such haemorrhage, but occasionally it occurs without apparent cause. It may then be confused with transverse myelopathy or vascular occlusion. Early diagnosis by myelography and treatment by surgery can result in good recovery, as illustrated by two cases. PMID:1117304
Grollmus, J; Hoff, J
Summary \\u000a Background. Electrocardiographic (ECG) abnormalities frequently occur after subarachnoid haemorrhage (SAH), and have been linked with\\u000a poor outcome. The pathogenesis behind this relation is unclear. We hypothesized that cardiac dysfunction may contribute to\\u000a the development of delayed cerebral ischemia (DCI) and investigated if electrocardiographic repolarization abnormalities on\\u000a admission, representing this cardiac dysfunction, are related to DCI. We also assessed the
W. J. Schuiling; A. Algra; A. W. de Weerd; P. Leemans; G. J. E. Rinkel
Life-threatening post-partum haemorrhage (PPH) occurs with a frequency of 1 per 1000 deliveries in the developed world. In the 1994–1996 Triennial Confidential Enquiry into Maternal Deaths in the United Kingdom primary PPH was responsible for five deaths. In this chapter we discuss briefly the assessment and initial medical management of the patient with primary PPH but concentrate on the surgical
Onnig Tamizian; S. Arulkumaran
OBJECTIVE--To see whether fibrinolytic inhibitors are of value when given to patients with upper gastrointestinal haemorrhage. DESIGN--Meta-analysis of six randomised double blind placebo controlled trials. Two methods used for obtaining an overall estimate of effect, including a random effects model incorporating any heterogeneity of outcome in the estimate of the overall treatment effect. SETTING--Inpatient care in hospitals in the United
D. A. Henry; D. L. OConnell
Thirty pigs were inoculated with a virulent isolate (Quillota strain) of classical swine fever (hog cholera) virus to establish the chronological occurrence of lesions in the kidney and to determine the mechanism responsible for renal haemorrhages. The study included the use of histopathological, ultrastructural, immunohistochemical (detection of viral antigen gp55, MAC387, lambda chains, CD3 and C1q) and morphometrical techniques (vascular area). Renal interstitial oedema and haemorrhages were detected from 7 days post-inoculation (dpi), associated with a slight interstitial mononuclear infiltrate and evidence of viral infection in macrophages and fibroblasts, and in a small proportion of lymphocytes. Viral infection was not detected in capillary endothelial cells. An intense mononuclear infiltrate, with B cells, T cells and small numbers of macrophages, was detected from 10 dpi. In the final phase of the experiment (14 dpi), slight proliferation and degranulation of mast cells were observed. Increased expression of the C1q component of complement was also detected. A significant increase in vascular area was observed from 7 dpi. These results suggest that haemorrhages observed in the kidneys of pigs inoculated with the Quillota strain resulted from erythrodiapedesis and increased vascular permeability, probably aggravated by mast cell degranulation in the final stage of the experiment. The results suggested that mast cell degranulation was linked to activation of the complement system. PMID:10906255
Gómez-Villamandos, J C; Ruiz-Villamor, E; Bautista, M J; Quezada, M; Sánchez, C P; Salguero, F J; Sierra, M A
To examine the incidence of haemorrhage following tonsillectomy, to explore the usefulness of antibiotic in preventing postoperative haemorrhage and to examine if the haemorrhage depended on the level of expertise of the surgeon. A retrospective review analysing tonsillectomy method, the rate secondary haemorrhage, the grade of operating surgeon. A ?(2) analysis was used to determine the statistical difference between the haemorrhage rates of different tonsillectomy methods. One thousand three hundred and thirty-six tonsillectomies were performed during this period by four different methods: 615 by cold steel dissection, 582 by Coblation, 32 by bipolar dissection and 107 by Helica thermal coagulation. 621 tonsillectomies were performed by Consultant grade and middle grades performed 693 operations. 124 patients (9.3 %) were readmitted with haemorrhage. The secondary haemorrhage requiring surgery for controlling bleeding for cold steel dissection method was 1.5 % compared to 6.7 % for coblation method (P < 0.01 %), 6.3 % for bipolar dissection and 1.9 % for Helica thermal coagulation method. Overall consultants had a post tonsillectomy haemorrhage rate of 5.5 % and middle grades had a rate of 3.7 %. 86.5 % of the patients were already on routine prophylactic oral antibiotics at the time of presentation with haemorrhage needing surgical arrest and 13.5 % were not on antibiotics (P < 0.05 %). There was statistically significant difference in secondary haemorrhage rate between coblation and cold steel dissection methods. Coblation tonsillectomies had an increased need for operative intervention to control secondary haemorrhage. Routine use of antibiotic and expertise of operating surgeon had no bearing on secondary haemorrhage rate. PMID:24381914
Praveen, C V; Parthiban, Subashini; Terry, R M
Dengue infection is now known to present with wide spectrum of complications. Isolated cases of acute pancreatitis complicating dengue haemorrhagic fever have been reported in literature. Here the authors report a case of dengue haemorrhagic fever that develops acute pancreatitis and presented with acute onset of breathlessness, which then progressed to full-blown acute respiratory distress syndrome. To our knowledge, this is the first reported case of dengue haemorrhagic fever complicated with acute pancreatitis and acute respiratory distress syndrome.
Agrawal, Avinash; Jain, Nirdesh; Gutch, Manish; Shankar, Amit
Kleihauer examination of peripheral blood cannot be used reliably to detect transplacental fetal-maternal haemorrhage in mothers with hereditary persistence of fetal haemoglobin (HPFH). In Rh(D) negative pregnancies diagnostic confusion with a large fetal-maternal haemorrhage could result in the administration of inappropriately excessive amounts of anti-D immunoglobulin, and the inability to diagnose and quantify transplacental haemorrhage in maternal HPFH by current
W N Patton; G S Nicholson; A H Sawers; I M Franklin; F A Ala; A W Simpson
BACKGROUND: Hypogastric artery ligation is a therapeutic option for severe post-partum haemorrhage. Little is known about the outcomes of subsequent fertility and pregnancy. We studied these parameters in women who required hypogastric artery ligation for severe post-partum haemorrhage in our institution over a 13-year period. METHODS: All patients who required hypogastric artery ligation for severe intractable post-partum haemorrhage from January,
J. Nizard; L. Barrinque; R. Frydman; H. Fernandez
Acute postpartum uterine inversion is a relatively rare complication. The uterus inverts and the uterine fundus prolapses to or through the dilated cervix. It is associated with major postpartum haemorrhage with or without shock. Shock is sometimes out of proportion to the haemorrhage. Minimal maternal morbidity and mortality can be achieved when uterine inversion is promptly and aggressively managed. We present this report of three cases of acute uterine inversion complicated with major postpartum haemorrhage and managed with Rusch balloon. The paper highlights the importance of early recognition and the safety of the use of intrauterine balloon to manage major postpartum haemorrhage in these cases.
Keriakos, Remon; Chaudhuri, Smriti Ray
Background Postpartum haemorrhage is a leading cause of maternal morbidity and mortality worldwide. Identifying risk indicators for postpartum haemorrhage is crucial to predict this life threatening condition. Another major contributor to maternal morbidity and mortality is pre-eclampsia. Previous studies show conflicting results in the association between pre-eclampsia and postpartum haemorrhage. The primary objective of this study was to investigate the association between pre-eclampsia and postpartum haemorrhage. Our secondary objective was to identify other risk indicators for postpartum haemorrhage in the Netherlands. Methods A nationwide cohort was used, containing prospectively collected data of women giving birth after 19 completed weeks of gestation from January 2000 until January 2008 (n?=? 1 457 576). Data were extracted from the Netherlands Perinatal Registry, covering 96% of all deliveries in the Netherlands. The main outcome measure, postpartum haemorrhage, was defined as blood loss of ?1000 ml in the 24 hours following delivery. The association between pre-eclampsia and postpartum haemorrhage was investigated with uni- and multivariable logistic regression analyses. Results Overall prevalence of postpartum haemorrhage was 4.3% and of pre-eclampsia 2.2%. From the 31 560 women with pre-eclampsia 2 347 (7.4%) developed postpartum haemorrhage, compared to 60 517 (4.2%) from the 1 426 016 women without pre-eclampsia (odds ratio 1.81; 95% CI 1.74 to 1.89). Risk of postpartum haemorrhage in women with pre-eclampsia remained increased after adjusting for confounders (adjusted odds ratio 1.53; 95% CI 1.46 to 1.60). Conclusion Women with pre-eclampsia have a 1.53 fold increased risk for postpartum haemorrhage. Clinicians should be aware of this and use this knowledge in the management of pre-eclampsia and the third stage of labour in order to reach the fifth Millenium Developmental Goal of reducing maternal mortality ratios with 75% by 2015.
von Schmidt auf Altenstadt, Joost F.; Hukkelhoven, Chantal W. P. M.; van Roosmalen, Jos; Bloemenkamp, Kitty W. M.
Although more than thirty years have lapsed since the first cases of dengue haemorrhagic fever, then known as Philippine haemorrhagic fever, were reported, studies on the various aspects of this disease were handicapped by the lack of valuable laboratory ...
R. S. Songco C. G. Hayes C. D. Leus C. O. Manaloto
Postpartum haemorrhage is the leading cause of maternal mortality worldwide: 67-80% of cases are caused by uterine atony. Preventive measures include prophylactic drug use to aid uterine contraction after delivery, thus avoiding severe blood loss and reducing maternal morbidity and mortality. Carbetocin is a synthetic analogue of oxytocin with a half-life approximately 4-10 times longer than that reported for oxytocin. It combines the safety and tolerability profile of oxytocin with the sustained uterotonic activity of injectable ergot alkaloids. Furthermore, carbetocin can be administered as a single dose injection either intravenously or intramuscularly rather than as an infusion over several hours as is the case with oxytocin. Carbetocin is currently indicated for prevention of uterine atony after delivery by caesarean section in spinal or epidural anaesthesia. Data from three randomised controlled trials in caesarean delivery and a meta-analysis indicate that carbetocin significantly reduces the need for additional uterotonic agents or uterine massage to prevent excessive bleeding compared with placebo or oxytocin. The risk of headache, tremor, hypotension, flushing, nausea, abdominal pain, pruritus and feeling of warmth was similar in women who received carbetocin or oxytocin. The findings from two more recent double-blind randomised trials and one retrospective study suggest that carbetocin may also represent a good alternative to conventional uterotonic agents for prevention of postpartum haemorrhage after vaginal deliveries. A reduced need for additional uterotonics was observed with carbetocin vs. oxytocin in high-risk women and carbetocin was at least as effective as syntometrine in low-risk women. In these studies of vaginal deliveries, carbetocin was associated with a low incidence of adverse effects and demonstrated a better tolerability profile than syntometrine. Carbetocin had a long duration of action compared with intravenous oxytocin alone and a better cardiovascular side effect profile compared with syntometrine. In addition to being an effective treatment for the prevention of postpartum haemorrhage following caesarean delivery, carbetocin may also become the drug of choice for postpartum haemorrhage prevention after vaginal delivery in high-risk women and those who suffer from hypertensive disorders in pregnancy. Preeclampsia is still a contraindication to the administration of carbetocin in the EU, and further studies would be required to assess the cardiovascular effects of carbetocin before it can be advocated for routine use in preeclamptic patients. Further research is required to assess whether prophylactic carbetocin is superior to conventional uterotonic agents following vaginal delivery in low-risk women. PMID:19616358
Summary.\\u000a Summary. \\u000a ?\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Background: Cerebral vasospasm has been commonly described following subarachnoid haemorrhage (SAH) though its impact on neurological\\u000a outcome, especially in head trauma, has not been yet elucidated. The purpose of this study was to monitor and correlate neurological\\u000a condition and flow velocities (FVs) in the arteries of the brain after SAH and more particularly to investigate the influence
J. F. Soustiel; V. Shik; M. Feinsod
Adrenocortical carcinoma (ACC) is an extremely rare tumour. We are reporting a 45-year-male patient who had a history of sudden severe worsening epigastric pain and fullness in abdomen, with giddiness. The radiological investigations showed a large right suprarenal mass with extensive destruction and retroperitoneal haemorrhage, with extra capsular, periportal and liver metastases. Exploratory laparotomy was done for excisions of mass and surrounding tissue. On histopathological examination, diagnosis was given as Adreno Cortical Carcinoma with capsular, vascular, and soft tissue nodular involvement.
Jagtap, Sunil Vitthalrao; Desai, Sushama; Halder, Sandeepan; Jagtap, Swati S.; Badwe, Anuya Shrikant
Caspase-9 is an initiator caspase in the apoptotic process whose function is to activate effector caspases that are downstream in the mitochondrial pathway of apoptosis. This work reports for the first time the complete sequencing and characterisation of caspase-9 in fish. A 1924bp cDNA of sea bass caspase-9 was obtained, consisting of 1308bp open reading frame coding for 435 amino acids, 199bp of the 5'-UTR and 417bp of the 3'-UTR including a canonical polyadenilation signal 10 nucleotides upstream the polyadenilation tail. The sequence retains the pentapeptide active-site motif (QACGG) and the putative cleavage sites at Asp(121), Asp(325) and Asp(343). The sequence of sea bass caspase-9 exhibits a very close homology to the sequences of caspase-9 from other vertebrates, particularly with the putative caspases-9 of Danio rerio and Tetraodon nigroviridis (77.5 and 75.4% similarity, respectively), justifying the fact that the phylogenetic analysis groups these species together with sea bass. The sea bass caspase-9 gene exists as a single copy gene and is organised in 9 introns and 10 exons. The sea bass caspase-9 showed a basal expression in all the organs analysed, although weaker in spleen. The expression of sea bass caspase-9 in the head kidney of sea bass infected with the Photobacterium damselae ssp. piscicida (Phdp) strain PP3, showed increased expression from 0 to 12h returning to control levels at 24h. Caspase-9 activity was detected in Phdp infected sea bass head kidney from 18 to 48h post-infection, when the fish were with advanced septicaemia. PMID:16989898
Reis, Marta I R; do Vale, Ana; Pinto, Cristina; Nascimento, Diana S; Costa-Ramos, Carolina; Silva, Daniela S P; Silva, Manuel T; Dos Santos, Nuno M S
AIMS/BACKGROUND: Human recombinant tissue plasminogen activator (rt-PA) fibrinolysis of subretinal haemorrhage with concomitant removal has been shown to reverse the natural history of photoreceptor degeneration in experimental subretinal haemorrhages if evacuated within 7 days. The aim of the study was to determine whether fibrinolysis of subretinal haemorrhage without concomitant removal would offer a simpler approach with similar photoreceptor sparing. METHODS: A neodymium YAG laser was used to create experimental subretinal haemorrhages beneath the holangiotic retina of the cat. Tissue plasminogen activator (10 micrograms/ml) was injected into 4 day old subretinal haemorrhages to evaluate its effect on altering the natural history of retinal degeneration. Light and electron microscopy were used to study the histopathological effect. RESULTS: The injection of rt-PA into large 4 day old subretinal haemorrhages without concomitant removal did not alter the natural history of retinal degeneration. In fact, a second focus of retinal degeneration occurred at a gravity dependent inferior site where the subretinal haemorrhages had migrated. CONCLUSIONS: There was no therapeutic benefit from the injection of rt-PA into subretinal haemorrhages without con-comitant removal in this cat model. Images
Morse, L. S.; Benner, J. D.; Hjelmeland, L. M.; Landers, M. B.
Hereditary haemorrhagic telangiectasia (HHT) is an autosomal dominant genetic condition affecting the vascular system and is characterised by epistaxis, arteriovenous malformations and mucocutaneous and gastrointestinal telangiectases. This disorder affects approximately 1 in 8,000 people worldwide. Significant morbidity is associated with this condition in affected individuals, and anaemia can be a consequence of repeated haemorrhages from telangiectasia in the gut and
Bassam R. Ali; Imen Ben-Rebeh; Anne John; Nadia A. Akawi; Reham M. Milhem; Nouf A. Al-Shehhi; Mouza M. Al-Ameri; Shamma A. Al-Shamisi; Lihadh Al-Gazali; David Holowka
A case report is presented of a 20-year-old man, who had posttraumatic choroidal rupture and thick submacular haemorrhage. The haemorrhage was successfully removed with vitrectomy and intraoperative fibrinolysis with subretinal tissue plasminogen activator. Six months postoperatively the visual acuity was 0.7 (6/9). PMID:8646587
Laatikainen, L; Mattila, J
Alphafetoprotein (AFP) levels were determined in 62 patients undergoing termination of first-trimester pregnancy in order to ascertain the incidence of fetomaternal haemorrhage. The apparent frequency of this phenomenon (58%) was higher than that previously reported. There was no evidence of fetomaternal haemorrhage associated with simple bimanual examination. PMID:2454850
Naik, K; Kitau, M; Setchell, M E; Chard, T
Patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) are predisposed to upper gastrointestinal (GI) haemorrhage with bleeding gastro-oesophageal varices and peptic ulcers being the common aetiologies. On rare occasions, HCC with direct invasion into the upper GI tract can lead to haemorrhage. Recognizing the possibility of invasive HCC causing upper GI haemorrhage is of paramount importance as acute management differs from the usual aetiologies. We describe a 76-year-old lady with long-standing liver cirrhosis who presented with upper GI haemorrhage due to an HCC invading into the greater curvature of the stomach. Trans-arterial embolization was performed which led to successful cessation of bleeding. Direct invasion of the GI tract by HCC causing haemorrhage is an extremely rare condition. Compared with endoscopic therapy, trans-arterial embolization offers the best chance of successful haemostasis and should be considered first-line therapy in these patients.
Tan, Winson Jianhong; Chia, Claramae Shulyn; Ong, Hock Soo
Clinical studies were carried out on two groups of patients with acute haemorrhagic conjunctivitis (AHC) during an epidemic in 1985 in Northern Nigeria. Group 1 consisted of 99 students attending a girls' boarding school, group 2 of 200 patients selected randomly from 1000 examined at the local clinic. Moderate to severe hyperaemia and papillary responses were present in the palpebral conjunctiva of all patients, and 234 (66%) had subconjunctival haemorrhages. Transient superficial punctate keratitis was noted in over 60% of patients. A transient flare suggestive of a low grade iritis was seen in five patients. No neurological disorders were noted. Serological studies were carried out on patients from group 2. Fifteen paired and 20 single serum samples were titrated against adenovirus type 4 (Ad-4) and enterovirus type 70 (EV-70). Two pairs of sera showed a 4-fold rise in antibody levels to EV-70, whereas the antibody titres to EV-70 in the rest of the sera ranged from 1:20 (no antibody) to 1:160. None of the paired serum samples showed a 4-fold rise in antibody levels to adenovirus. The results of clinical studies and serological findings support EV-70 as a probable cause of AHC in Nigeria. PMID:2155654
Babalola, O E; Amoni, S S; Samaila, E; Thaker, U; Darougar, S
Adrenal haemorrhage (AH) is a rare but potentially devastating complication of heparin-induced thrombocytopenia (HIT). Neither the prevalence nor the natural history of AH due to HIT are known. The objectives of this study were to identify the spectrum of AH causes, to characterise the frequency of AH due to HIT and determine the natural history of HIT-associated AH. All patients with incident adrenal haemorrhage from January 2002 through June 2012 seen at the Mayo Clinic were identified. Over this time frame, there were a total of 115 patients with AH of which 11 cases (10%; mean age 67 ± 8 years; 73% female) were associated with HIT. Of these, all but one occurred in the postoperative setting and involved both adrenal glands (89%) with acute adrenal insufficiency at the time of diagnosis. Cases were found incidentally during an evaluation for fever, shock, abdominal pain or mental status changes. All HIT patients experienced venous thrombosis at other locations including deep venous thromboses (n=14), pulmonary emboli (n= 4) and arterial thrombosis (n=2). Four patients undergoing total knee arthroplasty had "spontaneous HIT" with AH in the absence of identifiable heparin exposure. Other causes of AH included trauma (29%), sepsis (15%), antiphospholipid antibody syndrome (10%), and metastatic disease (12%). In conclusion, AH is an important but seldom recognised presumed thrombotic complication of HIT, which usually occurs in the postoperative period, especially after orthopaedic procedures. This syndrome can occur in the apparent absence of heparin exposure, especially following major joint replacement surgery. PMID:23389301
Ketha, Siva; Smithedajkul, Patrick; Vella, Adrian; Pruthi, Rajiv; Wysokinski, Waldemar; McBane, Robert
Abstract 1. The aim of this study was to investigate the occurrence of aminoglycoside resistance and the prevalence of 6 important modifying enzyme genes, i.e. (strA, strB, aph(3?')-IIa, aac(3)-IIa, aac(6?')-Ib and ant(3??)-Ia), in Escherichia coli strains in broilers with septicaemia in Hebei, China. 2. A total of 111 clinical isolates of E. coli were collected from 46 large-scale farms. Antimicrobial susceptibility tests, using the Kirby-Bauer disc diffusion method, were performed on all 111 isolates. In addition, all were screened for the presence of modifying enzyme genes using the polymerase chain reaction (PCR). 3. The results show that the rates of resistance were as follows: streptomycin: 97.3%, kanamycin: 97.0%, gentamicin: 95.5%, neomycin: 50.5%, amikacin: 46.0%, spectinomycin: 22.5%. Of the genes examined, strB (73.9%) was the most frequently identified gene in the phenotypic resistant isolates, followed in order by: ant(3??)-Ia, aac(3)-IIa, aac(6?')-Ib, aph(3?')-IIa and strA. 4. It is concluded that aminoglycoside resistance in E. coli from broilers with septicaemia remains a serious problem in Hebei, China. This emphasises the need to ban the non-therapeutic use of antibiotics, discourage their misuse and to be continually vigilant by providing appropriate scientific and technological support for the poultry industry. PMID:24571237
Zhang, F Y; Huo, S Y; Li, Y R; Xie, R; Wu, X J; Chen, L G; Gao, Y H
Between March and August 2002 a cluster of nosocomial septicaemia associated with Extended Spectrum beta lactamase (ESBL)-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae was observed in 11 neonates from the neonatal intensive care unit of a 200-bed tertiary hospital in Abuja, the Federal Capital territory of Nigeria. An investigation was conducted to identify the possible reservoirs and mode of transmission. Infection control measures and epidemiologic surveillance were executed. The environment was investigated by collecting and processing several swab samples for microbiological studies. Antibiogram tests and extended spectrum beta lactamase production test were performed on all K. pneumoniae isolates from both the environment and the patients, and all bacteraemic and environmental isolates of K. pneumoniae compared. A total of 30 K. pneumoniae isolates made up of 17 from the patients and 13 from the environment were analysed. An identical antibiogram was found in 24 isolates, which included all the 17 from the patients and the 7 from the hands of staff, sink and incubator surface in the NICU. Mortality rate from the outbreak was 36.4% and constituted 10.8% of all deaths in the unit in 2002. Overall mortality in the unit for 2002 was 28.9%. The outbreak significantly caused more deaths than usual in the unit. The nosocomial septicaemia was caused by a single ESBL-producing strain of K. pneumnoniae brought into the hospital by a neonate delivered and admitted from an external health institution. Sink and the incubator were also contaminated by the same strain. PMID:18390061
Iregbu, K C; Anwaal, U
Background & objectives: Information about the genetic diversity of the extended-spectrum ?-lactamases (ESBLs) and the clonal relationship of the organisms causing neonatal infections is limited, particularly from India where neonatal mortality is high. This study was undertaken to investigate the molecular epidemiology and risk factors associated with neonatal septicaemia caused by ESBL-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae and Escherichia coli. Methods: Bloodstream isolates (n=26) of K. pneumoniae (n=10) and E. coli (n=16) from the neonates admitted in a tertiary care hospital in New Delhi during January to May 2008 were characterized. Antimicrobial susceptibility tests were carried out and ESBL production was assessed phenotypically. PCR was carried out for ESBL and ampC genes. Genotyping was performed by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). Conjugation experiments were done to determine the mobility of ESBL genes. Risk factors associated with ESBL-producing K. pneumoniae and E. coli infections were analysed. Results: Resistance rates to most of the antibiotics tested were high, except for imipenem. Among the isolates tested, 60 per cent of K. pneumoniae and 75 per cent of E. coli were ESBL producers. PFGE of the isolates demonstrated a vast diversity of genotypes with no epidemic clones. Despite the clonal diversity, blaCTX-M-15 was detected in 100 per cent of ESBL-positive isolates. The other genes present in ESBL-positive isolates were blaTEM-1, blaSHV-1, blaSHV-28, blaSHV-11, and blaSHV-12. Class 1 integrons were detected in 7 of 18 ESBL-positive isolates. Moreover, the plasmid carrying blaCTX-M-15, in E. coli and K. pneumoniae were self transferable. Feeding through an enteral tube was identified as the only risk factor for sepsis by ESBL-producing organisms. Interpretation & conclusions: The study emphasises the presence of blaCTX-M-15 in clonally diverse isolates indicating probable horizontal transfer of this gene. The widespread dissemination of CTX-M-15 is of great concern as it further confines the limited therapeutic interventions available for neonates.
Roy, Subhasree; Gaind, Rajni; Chellani, Harish; Mohanty, Srujana; Datta, Saswati; Singh, Arun K.; Basu, Sulagna
We investigated morphological alterations induced by s.c. injection of 2.5 microg of Bothrops jararaca venom in rats. Intense disorganisation of collagen fibres was observed 1 min after the venom injection, particularly at regions near vessels and nerves. Mast cells were degranulated, and erythrocytes were seen leaving venules throughout the endothelial junctions. At this time, damaged endothelial cells were not observed. In rats envenomed as above, but immediately after cardiorespiratory failure induced by deep ether anaesthesia, alterations in the connective tissue structures, as previously described, were not observed. The mediation of this haemorrhage was investigated by injecting the venom into the foot pad of mice and compared to the mediation of oedema. Local haemorrhage was significantly reduced in mice pre-treated with capsaicin or guanethidine or submitted to a surgical section of sciatic and saphenous nerves. In these animals, oedema was not affected. Groups treated with methysergide or morphine showed both haemorrhage and oedema significantly reduced. Indomethacin or dexamethasone pre-treatments significantly reduced the oedema, but not the haemorrhage. Moreover, in animals treated with promethazine or mepyramine, oedema and haemorrhage were not affected. These data suggest that local haemorrhage induced by Bothrops jararaca venom is partially controlled by serotonin and neurohumoral mediators. Furthermore, results indicate that haemorrhage and oedema are mediated by different pharmacological systems.
Goncalves, L R; Mariano, M
Clinical and neuropathological findings are reported in 63 patients with hereditary cerebral haemorrhage with amyloid angiopathy. Patients had mostly recurrent strokes, and at least 80% of these were haemorrhages. Almost a third of the patients died within a year of their first and only recorded haemorrhage, half of them within two weeks. This angiopathy was restricted to the cerebral and cerebellar cortex and its covering leptomeninges. As the most important consequence, haemorrhagic infarcts and haemorrhages occurred in the subcortical white matter--that is, the region most vulnerable to impaired cortical circulation. Further development of these subcortical lesions gives rise to the fatal haemorrhages seen at necropsy. In so far as dementia occurs this is likely to result from multiple microinfarcts or haemorrhages. In most cases preamyloid lesions or diffuse plaques and early plaques were seen. No other type of plaque or neurofibrillary degeneration was found. The plaques occur in conjunction with the angiopathy, but may not occur even when the angiopathy is severe. In one patient plaques were totally absent. Angiopathy and plaques may be the result of the same mutation, the expression of which is governed by tissue factors or phenotypic differences between individual subjects. Images
Wattendorff, A R; Frangione, B; Luyendijk, W; Bots, G T
Summary In children undergoing tonsillectomy, dexamethasone is recommended to reduce the risk of postoperative nausea and vomiting while non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are used for pain relief. We aimed to determine whether children who receive dexamethasone or dexamethasone with NSAID are more likely to experience haemorrhage post-tonsillectomy. Randomized and non-randomized studies in which children undergoing tonsillectomy received dexamethasone or dexamethasone and NSAID were sought within bibliographic databases and selected tertiary sources. The risk of bias assessment and evaluation of haemorrhage rate data collection and reporting were assessed using the Cochrane Risk of Bias Tool and McHarm tool. Synthesis methods comprised pooled estimate of the effect of dexamethasone on the risk of haemorrhage rate using the Peto odds ratio (OR) method. The pooled estimate for haemorrhage rate in children who received dexamethasone was 6.2%, OR 1.41 (95% confidence interval 0.89-2.25, P=0.15). There was risk of bias and inconsistent data collection and reporting rates of haemorrhage in many of the included studies. Clinical heterogeneity was observed between studies. The pooled analysis did not demonstrate a statistically significant increase in the risk of post-tonsillectomy haemorrhage with dexamethasone with/without NSAID use in children. However, the majority of the included studies were not designed to investigate this endpoint, and thus large studies which are specifically designed to collect data on haemorrhage rate are needed. PMID:24942713
Bellis, J R; Pirmohamed, M; Nunn, A J; Loke, Y K; De, S; Golder, S; Kirkham, J J
This study assessed the incidence, presenting symptoms, diagnosis, and management of patients with life-threatening postoperative haemorrhage after total Le Fort I osteotomy and surgically assisted rapid palatal expansion (SARPE). The medical records of 750 consecutive Le Fort I osteotomies and 376 consecutive SARPEs, both of which involved pterygomaxillary separation with a curved osteotome and a mallet, were analysed prospectively. Two cases of life-threatening haemorrhage were observed in the Le Fort I osteotomy group, both initiated on postoperative day 7. Anterior and posterior nasal packing were successful in one patient; the other required two embolizations for bleeding control (incidence of life-threatening postoperative haemorrhage: 2/750; confidence interval: 0.03-0.96%). In the SARPE group, one brisk epistaxis on the first postoperative day was controlled with anterior and posterior nasal packing under general anaesthesia. This haemorrhage was not considered life threatening (incidence of life-threatening postoperative haemorrhage: 0/376; confidence interval: 0-0.98%). In no case could the source of bleeding be established during re-explorative surgery or during diagnostic arteriography. The authors conclude that life-threatening haemorrhage is an exceptional finding after Le Fort I osteotomy; the observed incidence was 2/750, and life-threatening haemorrhage was not observed after SARPE in this series, despite the use of identical pterygomaxillary separation. PMID:22480877
The aim of this study is to examine the incidence of return to theatre (RTT) for post-operative haemorrhage following coblation and dissection tonsillectomy and to investigate those that required RTT more than 10 days post-surgery. Retrospective review of post-tonsillectomy haemorrhages requiring RTT from April 2005 to March 2009 was conducted. Of 2,541 tonsillectomies performed, 81% were by coblation and 19% by dissection methods. The overall RTT rate was 1.7%. No difference was found in the overall RTT rates for primary and secondary haemorrhage between the two techniques. However, the overall RTT rates for primary and secondary haemorrhage were higher in adults than children (P = 0.0456 and P = 0.0215, respectively). RTT for secondary haemorrhage during the first ten post-operative days occurred in both coblation and dissection tonsillectomy with no significant difference. After the first post-operative week, late secondary bleeding requiring RTT occurred only in the coblation group (P = 0.0676). Four patients required blood transfusion; all were in the coblation group, three of which were required during RTT in the late secondary haemorrhage (after 10 days). The post-operative RTT rates for coblation tonsillectomy did not reveal a change of trend over the 4-year study period. Our RTT rate for secondary haemorrhage is higher than earlier published results. A learning curve could not be identified in RTT for coblation tonsillectomy haemorrhage. Late secondary haemorrhages requiring surgical intervention have only been identified in cases performed by coblation and could potentially be life threatening as 33% (3/9) required blood transfusion. This phenomenon may be explained by a particular physiological healing process associated with coblation. PMID:21706319
Amir, Ida; Belloso, Antonio; Broomfield, Stephen J; Morar, Pradeep
A 43-year-old previously healthy solicitor presented with a 9-day history of cough productive of yellow sputum with a prodrome of sore throat and myalgia. The cough was paroxysmal in nature and severe enough to cause extensive bilateral subconjunctival haemorrhages and cough syncopes multiple times a day, with one bout of associated haematemesis on the day of admission. He was isolated, treated for a presumed atypical chest infection with tazocin and clarithromycin, and monitored carefully until the hyponatraemia on presentation was resolved. Atypical screen and blood cultures were sent off, though unexciting at first, eventually confirmed the unlikely; Bordetella pertussis, much to the surprise of many who had Legionella as the top differential. PMID:24943139
Shah, Mitsu; Kandil, Hala
Leptospirosis, a disease of protean manifestations occurs sporadically throughout the year with a peak seasonal incidence during the rainy season mimicking other febrile viral illness. In the rare case, the disease leads to renal and hepatic involvement with hemorrhage which may be associated with multisystem organ dysfunction in form of pulmonary, cardiac and central nervous system, when it is known as Weil's disease. Rarely haemorrhagic manifestations are assosciated. Early diagnosis is important as sometimes the disease may be life threatening. Proper antibiotics results in dramatic improvement. We hereby presented a case that had clinical features of Weil's disease with cough, dyspnoea and haemoptysis. Leptospirosis was detected on ELISA testing. Patient was cured rapidly with antibiotics.
Chakrabarti, Abhiram; Nandy, Manab; Pal, Dipankar; Mallik, Sudesna
Over the past 12 years, the United Kingdom Defence Medical Services have evolved an integrated 'damage control resuscitation - damage control surgery' sequence for the management of patients sustaining complex injuries. During 2009, over 3200 units of blood products were administered as massive transfusions to severely injured UK personnel. An important part of the approach to traumatic bleeding is the early, empirical use of predefined ratios of blood and clotting products. As soon as control of bleeding is achieved, current practice is to switch towards a tailored transfusion, based on clinical and laboratory assessments, including point-of-care coagulation testing. A key goal is to provide resuscitation seamlessly throughout surgery, so that patients leave the operating room with their normal physiology restored. This article outlines the current management of haemorrhage and coagulation employed in Afghanistan from the point of wounding to transfer back to the National Health Service. PMID:23210556
Mercer, S J; Tarmey, N T; Woolley, T; Wood, P; Mahoney, P F
Inadequate resuscitation of major haemorrhage is an important cause of avoidable death in severely injured patients. Early recognition of blood loss, control of bleeding and restoration of circulating volume are critical to the management of trauma shock, and transfusion of blood components is a key intervention. Vital signs may be inadequate to determine the need for transfusion, and resuscitation regimens targeting vital signs may be harmful in the context of uncontrolled bleeding. This article addresses current concepts in haemostatic resuscitation. Recent guidelines on the diagnosis and treatment of coagulopathy in major trauma, and the role of component and adjuvant therapies, are considered. Finally, the potential role of thromboelastography and rotational thromboelastometry are discussed. PMID:22328635
Mahambrey, Tushar; Pendry, Katherine; Nee, Alexandra; Bonney, Samantha; Nee, Patrick A
Continuous measurements of arterial pressures, heart rates, respiratory movements, and respiratory rates were made from birth in 44 infants at risk from intraventricular haemorrhage (IVH). 17 babies died with IVH, in 10 of whom the event was timed objectively. Events in these babies were compared with survivors of similar birthweights, gestational ages, severity of birth asphyxia, and severity of hyaline membrane disease (HMD). IVH followed severe HMD and was associated with cessation of the babies' own respiratory efforts while on a ventilator and also with characteristic cardiorespiratory events. The minimum arterial pressure before IVH was lower than in comparable babies who survived. It is suggested that fluctuations of systemic blood pressure from initial low levels may be important in the pathogenesis of IVH. It is possible that changes in cerebral blood flow are of even greater significance.
Fujimura, M; Salisbury, D M; Robinson, R O; Howat, P; Emerson, P M; Keeling, J W; Tizard, J P
Background During recent outbreak of dengue fever in Delhi, there has been a significant increase in dengue-associated admission in hospitals. To better understand the pathology of dengue haemorrhagic fever, we conducted autopsies of dengue infections deaths within our hospital. Method This was an autopsy study of dengue-associated deaths at a large tertiary care hospital. Results From Sep 2009 to Dec 2010, a total of 1032 patients with serological evidence of dengue infection were admitted to our hospital. There were twelve deaths and autopsies were conducted in six. Adult respiratory distress syndrome, bleeding diathesis, hypotension, hepatic failure and acute renal failure were the common causes of death despite early hospitalization, intravenous fluid, and blood-product support. Conclusion Dengue is associated with severe disease, and deaths do occur despite current supportive management. Early predictors of disease severity and better clinical interventions are needed.
Rathi, K.R.; Arora, M.M.; Sahai, K.; Tripathi, S.; Singh, S.P.; Raman, D.K.; Anand, K.B.
Dengue fever, a viral infectious disease characteristic of tropical climates, is considered to be a re-emergent pathology responsible for several serious outbreaks in the last decade. Some factors have been involved in the spread of the virus and its vectorial mosquito carrier: human alteration of the ecosystems, improvement and speed in the transit of goods and people and climate changes. As a reflection of this, an increase in imported cases is probable, especially in tourists coming from endemic areas, considering its short period of incubation (7-10 days). The recognition of personal antecedents of journeys, the main symptoms of the disease and the potential presence of complications (haemorrhagic dengue) should be included in the examination of fever of unknown origin or feverish exanthema. The case of a patient is presented whose clinical picture of classic dengue fever was worsened by self-treatment with acetylsalicylic acid. PMID:17224945
Valerio, L; de Balanzó, X; Jiménez, O; Pedro-Bolet, M L
In the Netherlands, 20 per cent of women give birth at home. In 0.7 per cent, referral to secondary care because of postpartum haemorrhage (PPH) is indicated. Midwives are regularly trained in managing obstetric emergencies. A postgraduate training programme developed for Dutch community-based midwives called 'CAVE' (pre-hospital obstetric emergency course) focuses on the identification and management of obstetric emergencies, including timely and adequate referral to hospital. This descriptive study aims to identify substandard care (SSC) in PPH after home birth in the Netherlands. Sixty seven cases of PPH reported by community-based midwives were collected. After applying selection criteria, seven cases were submitted to audit. The audit panel consisted of 12 midwives (of which seven contributed a case), 10 obstetricians, an educational expert and an ambulance paramedic. First, an individual assessment was performed by all members. Subsequently, at a plenary audit meeting, SSC factors were determined and assigned incidental, minor and major substandard care. PMID:24371910
Smit, Marrit; Dijkman, Anneke; Rijnders, Marlies; Bustraan, Jacqueline; van Dillen, Jeroen; Middeldorp, Johanna; Havenith, Barbara; van Roosmalen, Jos
Chondrosarcomas are rare sarcomas that produce malignant cartilage, infrequently arising as a primary intracranial tumour. We present a patient with intracranial chondrosarcoma with intratumoural haemorrhage arising in an unusual location and with unusual imaging findings. A 46-year-old man presented with headache, nausea, and vomiting over the previous 24 hours. Physical and neurological examinations were normal. Cranial CT scans and MRI revealed a large right pre-frontal (subdural) and interhemispheric heterogeneous density associated with a frontal, partially calcified mass and midline shift. An awake craniotomy was performed. With the intra-operative quick section favouring subdural hematoma, the lesion was subtotally resected. Follow-up imaging confirmed residual mass. Pathology examination revealed a high-grade malignant neoplasm with chondroid differentiation, diagnosed as conventional Grade III chondrosarcoma. The patient was referred to oncology for follow-up and radiation therapy. Intracranial chondrosarcoma was first reported in 1899, and since then continues to be an extremely rare malignancy of the brain. These tumours commonly present as extra-axial masses, originating from the skull base, and produce symptoms due to progressive enlargement and compression of local structures. Unusual presentations of these tumours, such as vascularity, intratumoural haemorrhage, and intra-axial location, may complicate pre-surgical decision making by altering the provisional diagnosis prior to intervention. This patient emphasises the importance of careful analysis and incorporation of imaging findings into surgical decision making. Specific imaging characteristics that, in such unusual situations, are suggestive of chondrosarcoma should motivate an aggressive surgical approach to optimise adjuvant interventions. PMID:23746570
Little, Anjuli; Chung, Caroline; Perez-Ordonez, Bayardo; Mikulis, David; Valiante, Taufik A
The aim of this study was to determine the rate of acute hydrocephalus in patients with aneurysmal subarachnoid haemorrhage (SAH) and evaluate its clinical prognosis and treatment options. We recruited 152 patients who had ruptured cerebral aneurysms between 2006 and 2010. Sequential CT scans were performed 24-72 hours after haemorrhage to examine the development of acute hydrocephalus following aneurysmal SAH. If hydrocephalus was present but the patient's condition was stable, the patient was closely monitored for 48 hours before undergoing a repeat CT scan to evaluate ventricular changes. To exclude aneurysm rebleeding, repeat CT scans were performed frequently in patients who continued to deteriorate clinically, and external ventricular drainage was performed if the deterioration was due to worsening hydrocephalus. In clinically stable patients with persistent hydrocephalus and patients with external ventricular drainage, lamina terminalis fenestration was performed during aneurysm clipping, and the procedure's therapeutic efficacy was evaluated at the postoperative follow-up. The overall incidence of acute hydrocephalus following aneurysmal SAH was 17.8% (27/152). Of these patients, 29.6% (eight of 27) recovered spontaneously within 48 hours of hydrocephalus development, 37.0% (10/27) required external ventricular drainage, and 33.3% (nine of 27) remained clinically stable with persistent hydrocephalus during the observational period. Hydrocephalus was significantly alleviated in eight of 11 patients who underwent lamina terminalis fenestration, and no related complications were observed during follow-up. Three patients, for whom intraoperative fenestration was ineffective, underwent shunt surgery. Our results showed approximately 30% of patients with acute hydrocephalus following aneurysmal SAH recover spontaneously. In the majority of patients with persistent hydrocephalus, lamina terminalis fenestration performed during aneurysm clipping is effective. Ventriculoperitoneal shunting can be considered in the remaining patients. PMID:22361252
Lu, Jingjing; Ji, Nan; Yang, Zhonghua; Zhao, Xingquan
A 14-month-old male infant was brought by parents for redness of the right eye of 18 days duration. Exam and B-scan ultrasonography revealed total hyphema, dense vitreous haemorrhage and lens subluxation in the right eye while CT disclosed right small epidural haematoma. The left eye had neither retinal haemorrhage nor disc oedema. There was no sign of shaken baby syndrome. Fibrinogen level in the blood was very low. The parents are first-degree cousins with two family members having hypofibrinogenaemia. Vitreous haemorrhage recurred after surgical intervention resulting in phthisis and loss of vision. Hypofibrinogenaemia needs to be included in the differential diagnosis of ocular haemorrhage and vision loss. PMID:22778479
Mansour, Ahmad M; Jaroudi, Mahmoud O
Hypertensive intracerebral haemorrhage is usually a once in a lifetime event and recurrences are rare. Most recurrences usually develop within 2 years of the first event and the majority usually target the basal ganglia and thalami. Failure of blood pressure control is the most important, potentially preventable, culprit behind the development of primary intracerebral haemorrhages. However, the occurrence of a recurrent bleed in patients with optimally controlled hypertension should always prompt the physician to think of a new co-operating factor. We report on a 60-year-old hypertensive woman who developed right-sided thalamic haemorrhage 5 days after sustaining a lacunar infarct of the left thalamus for which she had been prescribed a dual antiplatelet therapy: aspirin and clopidrogrel. She had a history of two bilateral sequential hypertensive deep cerebellar haemorrhages which were developed 2 years ago. PMID:23264163
Amin, Osama S M
After 15 mg/kg dexamethasone pretreatment, conscious dogs in haemorrhagic shock demonstrated an augmented plasma noradrenaline increase. Increasing early compensatory adrenergic neuroeffector response could be one of the mechanisms of the protective effect of steroids in shock. PMID:6650192
Nagy, S; Tárnoky, K; Adamicza, A
Background Cardiac arrhythmias occur during the acute stage of Dengue Haemorrhagic Fever. Dengue myocarditis is the most likely cause of the arrhythmias. Case presentation We report a 55-year-old patient with Dengue Haemorrhagic Fever presenting with transient ventricular trigeminy which has not been reported before. Conclusion Among many other known cardiac arrhythmia seen in DHF, ventricular trigeminy is also a possibility. Clinicians should be aware of this cardiac rhythm abnormality that can occur in dengue patients.
The aim of this study is to examine the incidence of return to theatre (RTT) for post-operative haemorrhage following coblation\\u000a and dissection tonsillectomy and to investigate those that required RTT more than 10 days post-surgery. Retrospective review\\u000a of post-tonsillectomy haemorrhages requiring RTT from April 2005 to March 2009 was conducted. Of 2,541 tonsillectomies performed,\\u000a 81% were by coblation and 19% by
Ida Amir; Antonio Belloso; Stephen J. Broomfield; Pradeep Morar
PurposeTo study the results of intravitreal tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) and expansile gas injection for submacular haemorrhage in Thai patients.MethodsThe medical records of Thai patients who presented with submacular haemorrhage between January 1998 and December 2002 were reviewed. The inclusion criteria were acute onset of bleeding (<1 month), treatment with intravitreal injection of tPA solution (50–100 ?g in 0.1 ml)
M Ratanasukon; A Kittantong
Non-typhoidal salmonellosis is rarely encountered in immunodeficient individuals, including HIV\\/AIDS, where pleural effusion is an unlikely manifestation as well. Tuberculosis and Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia are the two leading causes of pleural effusion, which are mainly non-haemorrhagic. We report a rare case of haemorrhagic pleural effusion in an HIV-positive patient with Salmonella typhimurium as the only opportunistic infection. It was diagnosed
MUKHOPADHYAY C; RAO P S; VIDYASAGAR S
Information on the replication of viral haemorrhagic fever viruses is not readily available and has never been analysed in\\u000a a comparative approach. Here, we compared the cell culture growth characteristics of haemorrhagic fever viruses (HFV), of\\u000a the Arenaviridae, Filoviridae, Bunyaviridae, and Flavivridae virus families by performing quantitative analysis of cell culture supernatants by (i) electron microscopy for the quantification\\u000a of
Manfred Weidmann; Amadou A Sall; Jean-Claude Manuguerra; Lamine Koivogui; Aime Adjami; Faye Fatou Traoré; Kjell-Olof Hedlund; Gunnel Lindegren; Ali Mirazimi
Summary ?We present clinical details of three patients with posterior fossa haemorrhage after supratentorial surgery and discuss possible\\u000a pathomechanisms of this rare complication. All patients were males of advanced age. Two patients presented with a history\\u000a of hypertension. In all patients the occurence of haemorrhage was associated with loss\\/removal of large amounts of cerebrospinal\\u000a fluid (CSF) either intra-operatively (one patient undergoing
M. Koller; M. Ortler; J. Langmayr; K. Twerdy
Fabry's disease is a rare, X linked recessive disease affecting 1 in 40 000 persons. The symptoms result from a lack of or a non-functioning enzyme ? galactosidase, which leads to globotriaosylceramide accumulation in the walls of blood vessels. Mortality is generally from cardiac or renal complications and death from subarachnoid haemorrhage is distinctly rare. The authors report a man with Fabry's disease who died after subarachnoid haemorrhage from a progressively enlarging fusiform basilar aneurysm. PMID:22761201
Cormican, Michael T; Paschalis, Thanasis; Viers, Angela; Alleyne, Cargill H
Non-accidental injury should be suspected and excluded in any infant found to have intracranial and retinal haemorrhage of unknown aetiology. This can be a sensitive issue for both medical staff and parents. We present a case in which the underlying cause of intracranial and retinal haemorrhage was fibromuscular dysplasia. It was a diagnosis made only at postmortem examination and it illustrates the diagnostic difficulty such cases may present.??
Currie, A; Bentley, C; Bloom, P
Variceal haemorrhage is one of the most devastating consequences of portal hypertension, with a 1-year mortality of 40%. With the passage of time, acute management strategies have developed with improved survival. The major historical treatment landmarks in the management of variceal haemorrhage can be divided into surgical, medical, endoscopic and radiological breakthroughs. We sought to provide a historical overview of the management of variceal haemorrhage and how treatment modalities over time have impacted on clinical outcomes. A PubMed search of the following terms: portal hypertension, variceal haemorrhage, gastric varices, oesophageal varices, transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt was performed. To complement this, Google™ was searched with the aforementioned terms. Other relevant references were identified after review of the reference lists of articles. The review of therapeutic advances was conducted divided into pre-1970s, 1970/80s, 1990s, 2000-2010 and post-2010. Also, a summary and review on the pathophysiology of portal hypertension and clinical outcomes in variceal haemorrhage was performed. Aided by the development of endoscopic therapies, medication and improved radiological interventions; the management of variceal haemorrhage has changed over recent decades with improved survival from an often-terminating event in recent past.
Rajoriya, Neil; Tripathi, Dhiraj
OBJECTIVE: To measure the sensitivity of modern CT in patients presenting to the emergency department and evaluated for possible subarachnoid haemorrhage, with particular attention to those presenting within 12 h of ictus. DESIGN: Retrospective cohort study. SETTING: Large district general hospital emergency department seeing 73 500 new attendances per year. PARTICIPANTS: Patients presenting to the emergency department and screened for suspected subarachnoid haemorrhage. OUTCOME MEASURES: Subarachnoid haemorrhage was defined by either the presence of subarachnoid blood on CT, positive CSF spectrophotometry defined by national guidelines or aneurysm identified on subsequent angiography if either of the former were equivocal. RESULTS: 244 patients were screened for subarachnoid haemorrhage during the 24 months between March 2006 and April 2008 (mean age 48.5 years). The sensitivity of CT overall for subarachnoid haemorrhage was 93.8% (95% CI 84% to 98%) increasing to 95% (95% CI 82% to 99%) if performed within 12 h of ictus. CONCLUSIONS: While modern CT has a high sensitivity for the diagnosis of acute subarachnoid haemorrhage, particularly within 12 h of ictus, it is still not sufficient to act as the sole diagnostic tool, and patients with a negative CT will require further investigation with a lumbar puncture. PMID:23756363
Stewart, Hannah; Reuben, Adam; McDonald, James
Aim: Postpartum haemorrhage rates have been increasing in NSW and internationally, and blood transfusion is required in severe cases. Using routinely collected administrative data provides a convenient method with which to monitor trends in both postpartum haemorrhage and associated transfusion use. In order for this to be feasible however, the reliability of reporting of the conditions needs to be assessed. Methods: This study used linked data to compare the reporting of postpartum haemorrhage with transfusion as reported in the NSW Admitted Patient Data Collection (hospital data), with the same information obtained from the Perinatal Data Collection (birth data), for births in NSW from 2007 to 2010. Results: The rate of postpartum haemorrhage requiring blood transfusion was 1.0% based on the hospital data and 1.1% based on the birth data, with a rate of 1.7% if identifying cases from either source. Agreement between the two sources improved from fair to moderate over the time period. Conclusion: Postpartum haemorrhage requiring transfusion recorded in the birth data shows only moderate agreement with hospital data, so caution is recommended when using this variable for analysis. Linkage of both datasets is recommended to identify birth information from birth data and postpartum haemorrhage with transfusion from hospital data until further validation work has been undertaken. PMID:24939224
Patterson, Jillian A; Roberts, Christine L; Taylor, Lee K; Ford, Jane B
Japanese flounder, Paralichthys olivaceus juveniles were vaccinated against viral hemorrhagic septicemia (VHS) by intramuscular injection of 10 microg of a plasmid DNA vector which encodes the viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus (VHSV) glycoprotein (G) gene under the control of the cytomegalovirus promoter. Experimental challenge of two viral doses (1 x 10(2) TCID50 and 1 x 10(3) TCID50) one month post-vaccination revealed that the G gene was able to induce protective immunity against VHS and this lasted until 21 days after the challenge. The VHSV G-protein gene DNA vaccine had a high protective efficiency, giving relative percentage survival (RPS) values of at least 93%. The defense mechanisms activated by the DNA vaccine were further elucidated by microarray analysis. Non-specific immune response genes such as NK, Kupffer cell receptor, MIP1-alpha and Mx1 protein gene were observed to be up-regulated by the VHSV G-protein DNA vaccine at 1 and 3 days post-immunization. Also, specific immune-related genes including the CD20 receptor, CD8 alpha chain, CD40 and B lymphocyte cell adhesion molecule were also up-regulated during that time. We observed significant up-regulation of some immune-related genes that are necessary for antiviral defense. Significant up- and/or down-regulation of unknown genes was also observed upon DNA vaccination. Our results confirm previous reports that the VHSV G gene elicits strong humoral and cellular immune responses which may play a pivotal role in protecting the fish during virus infections. PMID:15475310
Byon, Ju Yong; Ohira, Tsuyoshi; Hirono, Ikuo; Aoki, Takashi
The epidemiology of Argentine haemorrhagic fever (AHF) is closely related to cricetine rodents acting as natural hosts of Junin virus. The endemo-epidemic area, which has increased 5 times since the disease was first recognized 15-20 years ago, is located in a densely populated region of Argentina. It has been shown that the virus of LCM is active in humans and rodents of the AHF endemic area; this demonstrates the simultaneous presence of two arenaviruses pathogenic for man in a given geographic location. The disease is characterized by haematological, renal, neurological and cardiovascular changes. Electron microscopy and immunohistochemical studies have shown cytopathic changes, characteristic intracellular virus-like particles, and antigenic determinants of Junin virus in different organs from 9 cases of AHF. No deposits of immunoglobulins or C3 were found in the kidneys; in addition, an absence of fibrinogen and C3 in the hepatocytes and of immunoglobulins in the spleen was observed. These findings suggest a direct viral pathogenic action in the human disease. Ultrastructural and immunofluorescence studies in tissues of guinea-pigs inoculated with two strains of Junin virus revealed the presence of the same types of virus-like particles and antigenic determinants of Junin virus as were encountered in the human subjects with AHF. ImagesFig. 2Fig. 3
Maiztegui, J. I.
Treatment with anticoagulants and antiplatelet agents are well-known risk factors for an unfavourable outcome after traumatic brain injury (TBI). Guidelines for decision making in patients who sustained mild head injury do not apply to anticoagulated patients and therefore, in these cases diagnostic and therapeutic procedures have to be tailored patient-specific. A 69-year-old patient was referred to our hospital after sustaining mild head injury. Due to anticoagulation therapy, a cranial computed tomography was carried out and was without pathologic findings. After negative workup for TBI, the patient was admitted to the ward solely because of intermittent cardiac arrhythmia. The next day, the patient developed a hemiparesis and repeated brain imaging showed a large posttraumatic intracranial haematoma which had to be evacuated surgically. In the further clinical course, the patient recovered completely and a cardiac pacemaker was implanted. Emergency physicians have to be highly alert with anticoagulated patients after head injury, even if the trauma was mild and initial diagnostic procedures demonstrate no acute pathology. Delayed traumatic intracranial haemorrhage may have fatal consequences for patients and while the threshold for admission to a hospital ward should be low, adequate observation at home has to be ensured if patients are discharged.
Beynon, Christopher; Orakcioglu, Berk; Winkler, Harald; Geis, Nicolas A.; Unterberg, Andreas W.; Sakowitz, Oliver W.
Hereditary haemorrhagic telangiectasia (HHT) is an autosomal dominantly inherited vascular disease characterized by the presence of mucocutaneous telangiectasia and visceral arteriovenous malformations (AVM). The clinical diagnosis of HHT is based on the Curaçao criteria. About 85% of HHT patients carry mutations in the ENG, ACVRL1 or SMAD4 genes. Here, we report on the genetic heterogeneity in the Danish national HHT population and address the prevalence of pulmonary arteriovenous malformations (PAVM). Probands of 107 apparently unrelated families received genetic testing, including sequencing and multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification (MLPA) analyses of ENG, ACVRL1 and SMAD4. These 107 families included 320 patients confirmed to have HHT either clinically or genetically. In 89% of the probands (n?=?95), a mutation was identified. We detected 64 unique mutations of which 27 (41%) were novel. Large deletions were identified in ENG and ACVRL1. The prevalence of PAVM was 52.3% in patients with an ENG mutation and 12.9% in the ACVRL1 mutation carriers. We diagnosed 80% of the patients clinically, fulfilling the Curaçao criteria, and those remaining were diagnosed by genetic testing. It is discussed when to assign pathogenicity to missense and splice site mutations. The adding of an extra criterion to the Curaçao criteria is suggested. PMID:24001356
Tørring, P M; Brusgaard, K; Ousager, L B; Andersen, P E; Kjeldsen, A D
Dengue fever (DF) is endemic in tropical and subtropical zones and the prevalence is increasing across South-east Asia, Africa, the Western Pacific and the Americas. In recent years, the spread of unplanned urbanisation, with associated substandard housing, overcrowding and deterioration in water, sewage and waste management systems, has created ideal conditions for increased transmission of the dengue virus in tropical urban centres. While dengue infection has traditionally been considered a paediatric disease, the age distribution of dengue has been rising and more cases have been observed in adolescents and adults. Furthermore, the development of tourism in the tropics has led to an increase in the number of tourists who become infected, most of whom are adults. Symptoms and risk factors for dengue haemorrhagic fever (DHF) and severe dengue differ between children and adults, with co-morbidities and incidence in more elderly patients associated with greater risk of mortality. Treatment options for DF and DHF in adults, as for children, centre round fluid replacement (either orally or intravenously, depending on severity) and antipyretics. Further data are needed on the optimal treatment of adult patients.
Objective: To assess the current place of embolization of the uterine arteries in the treatment of severe post-partum haemorrhages. Materials and methods: A retrospective study of 13,160 deliveries in a level III maternity unit between January 1996 and December 2001. Five hundred and forty-nine post-partum haemorrhages were diagnosed. Seventeen (0.13%) patients had a haemorrhage which did not respond to treatment
Gaudérique Tourné; Frédérique Collet; Pierre Seffert; Charles Veyret
Summary \\u000a Background. Multiple simultaneous intracerebral haemorrhages (ICH) occur rarely and the mechanism remains unknown. In this report, we\\u000a compare several clinical factors of multiple haemorrhages, including microbleeds, with single intracerebral haemorrhages and\\u000a discuss a potential explanation for their occurrence.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods. One hundred and ninety consecutive patients with intracerebral haemorrhage who were admitted within 24 hours after onset\\u000a from January 2003
T. Sorimachi; Y. Ito; K. Morita; Y. Fujii
Haemorrhage induced by snake venom metalloproteinases (SVMPs) is a complex phenomenon resulting in capillary disruption and extravasation. This study analysed structural elements important for the interaction of four Bothrops jararaca SVMPs of different domain organisation and glycosylation levels with plasma and extracellular matrix proteins: HF3 (P-III class) is highly glycosylated and ~80 times more haemorrhagic than bothropasin (P-III class), which has a minor carbohydrate moiety; BJ-PI (P-I class) is not haemorrhagic and the DC protein is composed of disintegrin-like/cysteine-rich domains of bothropasin. HF3, bothropasin and BJ-PI showed different degradation profiles of fibrinogen, fibronectin, vitronectin, von Willebrand factor, collagens IV and VI, laminin and Matrigel; however, only bothropasin degraded collagen I. In solid-phase binding assays HF3 and bothropasin interacted with fibrinogen, fibronectin, laminin, collagens I and VI; the DC protein bound only to collagens I and VI; however, no binding of BJ-PI to these proteins was detected. N-deglycosylation caused loss of structural stability of bothropasin and BJ-PI but HF3 remained intact, although its haemorrhagic and fibrinogenolytic activities were partially impaired. Nevertheless, N-deglycosylated HF3 bound with higher affinity to collagens I and VI, although its proteolytic activity upon these collagens was not enhanced. This study demonstrates that features of carbohydrate moieties of haemorrhagic SVMPs may play a role in their interaction with substrates of the extracellular matrix, and the ability of SVMPs to degrade proteins in vitro does not correlate to their ability to cause haemorrhage, suggesting that novel, systemic approaches are necessary for understanding the mechanism of haemorrhage generation by SVMPs. PMID:20664911
Oliveira, Ana K; Paes Leme, Adriana F; Asega, Amanda F; Camargo, Antonio C M; Fox, Jay W; Serrano, Solange M T
AIMS (i) To determine the effects of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRI) and other classes of antidepressants on upper gastro-intestinal (GI) haemorrhage and (ii) to assess the drug–drug interaction effects of antidepressants and warfarin or clopidogrel on the risk of GI haemorrhage. METHODS This was a population-based case control study in the General Practice Research Database (GPRD). Cases with a first episode of upper GI haemorrhage between 2000 and 2005 were matched with up to 10 controls. Exposure to the study drugs was defined by a prescription issued in the 90 days before the index date. Rate ratios were estimated using conditional logistic regression. RESULTS Four thousand and twenty-eight cases of GI haemorrhage and 40 171 controls were identified. The excess risk of GI haemorrhage with SSRI use was small (Rate Ratio [RR]: 1.3; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.1, 1.6) and null with exposure to tricyclic antidepressants (TCAs) (RR 1.0; 95% CI: 0.8, 1.3). The risk of GI haemorrhage was highest with venlafaxine use (RR: 1.9; 95% CI: 1.3, 2.6). There was no drug–drug interaction between warfarin anticoagulation and antidepressant use. CONCLUSIONS This study supports a small increased risk of upper GI haemorrhage with the use of SSRI antidepressants compared with the older TCA drugs, but to a lesser extent than previously reported due to confounding by alcohol use. The small elevation in risk of GI haemorrhage with SSRI and venlafaxine should be weighed against the therapeutic benefit of their use. WHAT IS ALREADY KNOWN ABOUT THIS SUBJECT The known biological effects of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRI) on platelets are consistent with an increased risk of gastrointestinal haemorrhage in patients on SSRI therapy.Previous research supports this increased risk among SSRI users with a large increase in bleeding risk observed. WHAT THIS STUDY ADDS This large study was able to compare the effects of different classes of antidepressant as well as to test for drug–drug interactions with warfarin.The discovery of alcohol abuse as a strong confounder may partially explain the very high risks of bleed seen in previous studies that did not adjust for this confounder.
Opatrny, Lucie; Delaney, J A 'Chris'; Suissa, Samy
The annual survival rates and incidence of cerebral haemorrhage in 2618 preterm infants of 34 weeks' gestation or less were examined in one referral centre over a 10 year period from January 1980 to December 1989. Survival was independently related to weight, gestation, sex, and inborn delivery. When these variables had been taken into account, survival was 56% greater at the end of the decade compared with 1980. The incidence of cerebral haemorrhage (diagnosed by cranial ultrasound scanning) was related to birth weight, gestation, sex, inborn delivery, and caesarean section, but there was no significant trend in the incidence with time. Rates of caesarean section in this group increased from 31% in 1980 to over 50% more recently. Haemorrhage affecting the brain parenchyma was related to gestation and inborn delivery, and showed a small but significant decline over time. The lack of association between changes in survival rates and rates of cerebral haemorrhage may indicate that factors associated with both neonatal mortality and the incidence of cerebral haemorrhage may not be causally related as previously assumed.
Cooke, R W
OBJECTIVE--To determine the incidence of haemorrhagic disease of the newborn in the British Isles, study risk factors, and examine the effect of vitamin K prophylaxis. DESIGN--Prospective survey of all possible cases of haemorrhagic disease of the newborn as reported by consultant paediatricians using the monthly notification cards of the British Paediatric Surveillance Unit and a follow up questionnaire for each case to validate the diagnosis and accrue further data. SETTING--Britain (England, Scotland, and Wales) and Ireland (Northern Ireland and the Irish Republic) during December 1987 to March 1990. PATIENTS--27 infants classified as having confirmed (n = 25) or probable (n = 2) haemorrhagic disease of the newborn. RESULTS--24 of the 27 infants were solely breast fed. 10 suffered intracranial haemorrhage; two of these died and there was clinical concern about the remainder. 20 infants had received no vitamin K prophylaxis, and seven had received oral prophylaxis. Relative risk ratios for these groups compared with babies who had received intramuscular vitamin K were 81:1 and 13:1 respectively. Six infants had hepatitis (alpha 1 antitrypsin deficiency in four), unsuspected until presentation with haemorrhagic disease of the newborn, of whom four had received oral prophylaxis. One other baby had prolonged jaundice. One mother had taken phenytoin during pregnancy. CONCLUSIONS--All newborn infants should receive vitamin K prophylaxis. Intramuscular vitamin K is more effective than oral prophylactic regimens currently used in the British Isles.
McNinch, A W; Tripp, J H
Background and Aim: In patients suspected of having a subarachnoid haemorrhage (SAH), a normal CT should be followed by lumbar puncture (LP) to detect xanthochromia. We studied the practice of performing a LP following a normal CT in patients with a clinical suspicion of SAH in a District General Hospital. We aimed to assess whether patients were being fully investigated for SAH and whether standards were being met. Methods: This was a prospective study aiming to improve the patient's care by implementing the best practice. We initially recorded CT and LP results of patients with suspected SAH (phase 1) and presented the results to the referring clinicians. After a period of time, data was re–collected to study any change in practice (phase 2). Results: In phase 1, 36 of 61 patients (59.0%) with a normal CT had a subsequent LP compared to 67/104 (64.4%) in the second phase (p=0.51). In the first phase, xanthochromia was detected in 1 of 36 patients (2.8%) who had a LP following a normal CT, compared to 1 of 67 patients (1.5%) in the second phase (p=1.0). Conclusion: Approximately a third of patients with symptoms of SAH in both study periods did not undergo LP following a normal CT scan. This is an important finding, as it is known that a normal CT does not exclude the diagnosis of SAH and by not proceeding to LP, patients have not been fully investigated for a SAH.
Sookhoo, S; Kolla, S; Halbert, H; Lavell, K; England, S
Haemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS) is a public health problem throughout most of the European and Asian land mass. Although predominantly associated with rural areas, it is now being recognized as an urban problem in some countries, and also presents a particular hazard to laboratory staff who use rodents for biomedical research. In wild rodents (rats, mice and voles) the infection is asymptomatic. Human infection with the HFRS agent(s) is sporadic, but under special circumstances epidemics occur; the infection may be completely silent, or associated with mild or severe disease. Severe cases are usually seen in the Far East. The epidemiological features of the disease vary from country to country and depend upon a variety of factors, the elucidation of which requires a multidisciplinary approach. The recently discovered Hantaan virus is the etiologic agent of HFRS in Asia. It is now possible to detect Hantaan virus antigen by immunofluorescence using either infected mouse lung or infected human cells as substrate. Prevention measures to date have concentrated on rodent control; the role played by the ectoparasites of rodents, if any, has still to be elucidated. Antigens have been detected in rodents captured in HFRS-endemic areas in China, Finland, Japan, Sweden, and the Soviet Union. None of these have been cultured as yet, but preliminary results with the Puumala agent detected in Finland indicate a relationship with the Hantaan virus. Sera collected from Scandinavian patients react to a high titre with both Puumala and Hantaan agents, whereas sera collected from patients in East Asia have much higher titres against the homologous antigen. Surveillance is very important and further research on the virus is needed, especially to identify the virus in the West and to determine strain differences.
Atherothrombosis remains one of the main causes of morbidity and mortality in the western countries. Human atherothrombotic disease begins early in life in relation to circulating lipid retention in the inner vascular wall. Risk factors enhance the progression towards clinical expression: dyslipidaemia, diabetes, smoking, hypertension, ageing, etc. The evolution from the initial lipid retention in the arterial wall to clinical events is a continuum of increasingly complex biological processes. Current strategies to fight the consequences of atherothrombosis are orientated either towards the promotion of a healthy life style1 and preventive treatment of risk factors, or towards late interventional strategies.2 Despite this therapeutic arsenal, the incidence of clinical events remains dramatically high,3 dependent, at least in part, on the increasing frequency of type 2 diabetes and ageing. But some medical treatments, focusing only on prevention of the metabolic risk, have failed to reduce cardiovascular mortality, thus illustrating that our understanding of the pathophysiology of human atherothrombosis leading to clinical events remain incomplete. New paradigms are now emerging which may give rise to novel experimental strategies to improve therapeutic efficacy and prediction of disease progression. Recent studies strengthen the concept that the intraplaque neovascularization and bleeding (Figure 1, upper panel) are events that could play a major role in plaque progression and leucocyte infiltration, and may also serve as a measure of risk for the development of future events. The recent advances in our understanding of IntraPlaque Hemorrhage as a critical event in triggering acute clinical events have important implications for clinical research and possibly future clinical practice. Figure 1Macroscopic view and schematic representation of the detrimental consequences of intraplaque haemorrhages on plaque biology and stability.
Michel, Jean-Baptiste; Virmani, Renu; Arbustini, Eloisa; Pasterkamp, Gerard
Alveolar haemorrhage is a rare and serious medical emergency with many causes. Diffuse alveolar haemorrhage due to warfarin therapy has been rarely reported in the literature. In this paper, we describe the case of 62-year-old woman with a history of chronic atrial fibrillation treated with warfarin, who was admitted to our institution with haemoptysis and dyspnoea. Alveolar haemorrhage was suspected clinically and subsequently confirmed by bronchoscopy. The patient required aggressive treatment with fresh frozen plasma, vitamin K and mechanical ventilation with a successful outcome. We emphasise the need for early diagnosis and fast therapeutic intervention, especially with over-anticoagulation (INR >9), in patients with this rare and potentially lethal condition.
Waness, Abdelkarim; Aldabbagh, Tarek; Harakati, Mohammed
The incidence of rebleeding was studied prospectively in 177 patients with acute gastrointestinal haemorrhage from peptic ulceration with reference to the degree of haemodynamic insult on admission and the presence of endoscopic signs of recent haemorrhage on initial endoscopy. Rebleeding occurred in two (2%) of 114 patients without shock, in seven (18%) of 38 with tachycardia (pulse rate greater than
P C Bornman; N A Theodorou; R D Shuttleworth; H P Essel; I N Marks
In May 2012, a Coxsackievirus A24 haemorrhagic conjunctivitis was diagnosed in Marseille, France, in a traveller returning from the Comoros Islands. This case allowed identification of the cause of an ongoing outbreak of haemorrhagic conjunctivitis in Indian Ocean Islands, illustrating that returning travellers may serve as sentinels for infectious diseases outbreaks in tropical areas where laboratory investigation is limited. PMID:22687914
Aubry, C; Gautret, P; Nougairede, A; Dussouil, A S; Botelho-Nevers, E; Zandotti, C; De Lamballerie, X; Brouqui, P; Parola, P
Understanding the response of the brain to haemorrhagic damage is important in haemorrhagic stroke and increasingly in the understanding the cerebral degeneration and dementia that follow head trauma and head-impact sports. In addition, there is growing evidence that haemorrhage from small cerebral vessels is important in the pathogenesis of age-related dementia (Alzheimer’s disease). In a penetration injury model of rat cerebral cortex, we have examined the neuropathology induced by a needlestick injury, with emphasis on features prominent in the ageing and dementing human brain, particularly plaque-like depositions and the expression of related proteins. Needlestick lesions were made in neo- and hippocampal cortex in Sprague Dawley rats aged 3–5 months. Brains were examined after 1–30 d survival, for haemorrhage, for the expression of hyperphosphorylated tau, A?, amyloid precursor protein (APP), for gliosis and for neuronal death. Temporal cortex from humans diagnosed with Alzheimer’s disease was examined with the same techniques. Needlestick injury induced long-lasting changes–haem deposition, cell death, plaque-like deposits and glial invasion–along the needle track. Around the track, the lesion induced more transient changes, particularly upregulation of A?, APP and hyperphosporylated tau in neurons and astrocytes. Reactions were similar in hippocampus and neocortex, except that neuronal death was more widespread in the hippocampus. In summary, experimental haemorrhagic injury to rat cerebral cortex induced both permanent and transient changes. The more permanent changes reproduced features of human senile plaques, including the formation of extracellular deposits in which haem and A?-related proteins co-localised, neuronal loss and gliosis. The transient changes, observed in tissue around the direct lesion, included the upregulation of A?, APP and hyperphosphorylated tau, not associated with cell death. The findings support the possibility that haemorrhagic damage to the brain can lead to plaque-like pathology.
Purushothuman, Sivaraman; Marotte, Lauren; Stowe, Sally; Johnstone, Daniel M.; Stone, Jonathan
Background Postoperative intracranial haemorrhage can be a dramatic event, carrying significant morbidity and mortality. Bleeding at\\u000a sites remote from the operation area represents a small percentage of haemorrhages whose aetiology remains unclear (Harders\\u000a et al. Acta Neurochir (Wien) 74(1-2):57–60, 1985).\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Aim We present the case of a 60-year-old patient who underwent posterior fossa craniotomy for the removal of a space-occupying\\u000a lesion and
Charikleia Spyridon Vrettou; Lampis C. Stavrinou; Spyridon Halikias; Magdalini Kyriakopoulou; Spyridon Kollias; George Stranjalis; Antonia Koutsoukou
Embolisation of the internal iliac artery was preformed under local anaesthesia in eight patients with severe bladder haemorrhage and in two with severe bleeding from the prostatic bed after prostatectomy. Good and effective control of the bleeding was achieved in six of the patients with bladder haemorrhage, with a partial response in the other two. Both patients with post-prostatectomy bleeding responded well to embolisation, with prompt cessation of the bleeding. This technique is recommended for the control of severe bleeding from the bladder or prostate in the seriously ill patient. PMID:3342300
Appleton, D S; Sibley, G N; Doyle, P T
Maxillary tuberosity fracture is a potential complication of routine exodontia of posterior maxillary teeth. On rare occasions, such a complication can result in torrential haemorrhage due to the close proximity of significant vessels to the area. We present a case of life-threatening haemorrhage complicating a tuberosity fracture during simple extraction of a maxillary posterior tooth. The local anatomy of the region is discussed and we provide guidelines for general dental practitioners for the management of the complication of a tuberosity fracture during routine exodontia. PMID:21623815
Bertram, A R; Rao, A C A; Akbiyik, K M; Haddad, S; Zoud, K
Summary Background Magnesium sulphate is a neuroprotective agent that might improve outcome after aneurysmal subarachnoid haemorrhage by reducing the occurrence or improving the outcome of delayed cerebral ischaemia. We did a trial to test whether magnesium therapy improves outcome after aneurysmal subarachnoid haemorrhage. Methods We did this phase 3 randomised, placebo-controlled trial in eight centres in Europe and South America. We randomly assigned (with computer-generated random numbers, with permuted blocks of four, stratified by centre) patients aged 18 years or older with an aneurysmal pattern of subarachnoid haemorrhage on brain imaging who were admitted to hospital within 4 days of haemorrhage, to receive intravenous magnesium sulphate, 64 mmol/day, or placebo. We excluded patients with renal failure or bodyweight lower than 50 kg. Patients, treating physicians, and investigators assessing outcomes and analysing data were masked to the allocation. The primary outcome was poor outcome—defined as a score of 4–5 on the modified Rankin Scale—3 months after subarachnoid haemorrhage, or death. We analysed results by intention to treat. We also updated a previous meta-analysis of trials of magnesium treatment for aneurysmal subarachnoid haemorrhage. This study is registered with controlled-trials.com (ISRCTN 68742385) and the EU Clinical Trials Register (EudraCT 2006-003523-36). Findings 1204 patients were enrolled, one of whom had his treatment allocation lost. 606 patients were assigned to the magnesium group (two lost to follow-up), 597 to the placebo (one lost to follow-up). 158 patients (26·2%) had poor outcome in the magnesium group compared with 151 (25·3%) in the placebo group (risk ratio [RR] 1·03, 95% CI 0·85–1·25). Our updated meta-analysis of seven randomised trials involving 2047 patients shows that magnesium is not superior to placebo for reduction of poor outcome after aneurysmal subarachnoid haemorrhage (RR 0·96, 95% CI 0·86–1·08). Interpretation Intravenous magnesium sulphate does not improve clinical outcome after aneurysmal subarachnoid haemorrhage, therefore routine administration of magnesium cannot be recommended. Funding Netherlands Heart Foundation, UK Medical Research Council.
Mees, Sanne M Dorhout; Algra, Ale; Vandertop, W Peter; van Kooten, Fop; Kuijsten, Hans AJM; Boiten, Jelis; van Oostenbrugge, Robert J; Salman, Rustam Al-Shahi; Lavados, Pablo M; Rinkel, Gabriel JE; van den Bergh, Walter M
We have cloned and characterized members of a novel family of proteins, the GGAs. These proteins contain an NH2-terminal VHS domain, one or two coiled-coil domains, and a COOH-terminal domain homologous to the COOH-terminal “ear” domain of ?-adaptin. However, unlike ?-adaptin, the GGAs are not associated with clathrin-coated vesicles or with any of the components of the AP-1 complex. GGA1 and GGA2 are also not associated with each other, although they colocalize on perinuclear membranes. Immunogold EM shows that these membranes correspond to trans elements of the Golgi stack and the TGN. GST pulldown experiments indicate that the GGA COOH-terminal domains bind to a subset of the proteins that bind to the ?-adaptin COOH-terminal domain. In yeast there are two GGA genes. Deleting both of these genes results in missorting of the vacuolar enzyme carboxypeptidase Y, and the cells also have a defective vacuolar morphology phenotype. These results indicate that the function of the GGAs is to facilitate the trafficking of proteins between the TGN and the vacuole, or its mammalian equivalent, the lysosome.
Hirst, Jennifer; Lui, Winnie W.Y.; Bright, Nicholas A.; Totty, Nicholas; Seaman, Matthew N.J.; Robinson, Margaret S.
Mortality from Dengue Haemorrhagic Fever (DHF) is still increasing in Indonesia particularly in Jakarta. Diagnosis of the dengue shall be made as early as possible so that first aid can be given in expectation of decreasing death risk. The Study will be conducted by developing expert system based on Computational Intelligence Method. On the first year, study will use the Fuzzy Inference System (FIS) Method to diagnose Dengue Haemorrhagic Fever particularly in Mobile Device consist of smart phone. Expert system application which particularly using fuzzy system can be applied in mobile device and it is useful to make early diagnosis of Dengue Haemorrhagic Fever that produce outcome faster than laboratory test. The evaluation of this application is conducted by performing accuracy test before and after validation using data of patient who has the Dengue Haemorrhagic Fever. This expert system application is easy, convenient, and practical to use, also capable of making the early diagnosis of Dengue Haemorraghic to avoid mortality in the first stage.
Salman, Afan; Lina, Yen; Simon, Christian
Arenaviruses such as Lassa virus cause a spectrum of disease in humans ranging from mild febrile illness to lethal haemorrhagic fever. The contributions of innate immunity to protection or pathogenicity are unknown. We compared patterns of expression of cytokines of innate immunity in mild versus severe arenavirus disease using an established guinea pig model based on the macrophage-tropic arenavirus Pichinde
Erin P. Scott; Judith F. Aronson
OBJECTIVES—The purpose was to define the incidence and case fatality rates of subarachnoid haemorrhage in the population of Devon and Cornwall.?METHODS—A retrospective population based design was employed with multiple overlapping methods of case ascertainment. A strict definition of subarachnoid haemorrhage was used. Age and sex specific incidence rates and relative risks for death at different time intervals are calculated.?RESULTS—Eight hundred cases of first ever subarachnoid haemorrhage were identified; 77% of cases were verified by CT, 22% by necropsy, and 1% by lumbar puncture. The incidence rates are higher than those previously reported in the United Kingdom. The age standardised incidence rate (/100 000 person-years) for females was 11.9 (95% confidence interval (95% CI) 9.5-15.0), for males 7.4 (5.4-10.0), and the total rate was 9.7 (7.5-12.6). The case fatality rates at 24 hours, 1 week, and 30 days were 21 (18-24)%, 37 (33-41)%, and 44 (40-49)% respectively. The relative risk for death at 30days for those over 60 years:under 60 years was 2.95 (2.18-3.97).?CONCLUSION—The incidence of subarachnoid haemorrhage in the United Kingdom is higher than previously reported. Three quarters of the mortality occurs within 3days.??
The underlying diagnosis and clinical course of 52 patients who presented with severe acute gastrointestinal haemorrhage while taking the anticoagulant warfarin is reviewed. A bleeding site was identified in 83% of cases, only slightly fewer than the 92% found in a control of group of 710 patients not taking warfarin who presented in the same four year period. The degree
C P Choudari; C Rajgopal; K R Palmer
The secretion of vasopressin (estimated in terms of its plasma concentration — AVP) in response to haemorrhage was analysed as a function of blood volume (expressed in terms of % removed plasma — PV) and of mean arterial blood pressure (MABP). Blood was removed from lightly anaesthetized dogs in a carefully controlled, graded manner, so as to ensure a very
M. Rocha e Silva; W. Celso de Lima; Elizabeth M. Castro de Souza
Diagnosis of Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever (CCHF) virus infections is hampered by the problems of handling this human pathogen, which requires the highest levels of biological containment. Recombinant antigens were examined for their potential as non- hazardous diagnostic reagents. The nucleocapsid (N) gene of the Greek AP92 isolate of CCHF virus was sequenced from cloned PCR products and the open reading
Anthony C. Marriott; Thalia Polyzoni; Antony Antoniadis; Patricia A. Nuttall
SummaryBackground Calcium antagonists are used frequently in management of hypertension. In addition to their cardiovascular effects, these drugs inhibit platelet aggregation. Therefore we examined whether the use of calcium antagonists was associated with an increased risk of gastrointestinal haemorrhage (GIH).Methods A prospective cohort study was conducted from 1985 through 1992 on 1636 hypertensive persons aged ?68 years living in three
M Pahor; P Carbonin; J. M Guralnik; R. J Havlik; C. D Furberg
A 24-year-old woman presented with a history of high-grade fever with rigours since 3?days and bilateral sudden loss of vision since 6?h. She was conscious, oriented and her vitals were stable. She had a temperature of 101°F, anaemia, thrombocytopaenia, normal white cell count and moderate splenomegaly. On testing visual activity, she could only perceive hand movements although her pupils were bilaterally equal, and normal in size and reaction. On indirect ophthalmoscopy, optic discs were normal bilaterally; however, fovea of both eyes was masked by subhyaloid haemorrhage. Peripheral smear showed gametocytes of Plasmodium falciparum. The patient was started on arteminsinin-combined therapy and advised to be in propped-up position to help resolution of the haemorrhage. The patient was afebrile in 4?days and follow-up fundus examination showed gradual resolution of the haemorrhage. After two months, the patient regained normal visual acuity in both eyes; however, it took nearly 3?months for complete resolution of the haemorrhage. PMID:24862605
Abdali, Nasar; Malik, Azharuddin Mohammed; Shamim, Md Dilawez; Rizvi, Syed Wajahat Ali
Summary In clinical practice and in many reported studies about incidences and time courses of vasospasm the angiographic spasms are judged by eye without clear definition of vessel narrowings. To evaluate the reliability of this diagnostic method two experienced neuroradiologists and two experienced neurosurgeons independently in two sessions, examined 30 carotid angiograms performed after an aneurysmal subarachnoid haemorrhage. The intra-
V. Eskesen; A. Karle; A. Kruse; Chr Kruse-Larsen; J. Præstholm; K. Schmidt
The mean arterial blood pressure (MABP), heart rate, and skin temperature were monitored every 15 minutes in the first 10 days after birth in 34 preterm infants, gestational age 24 to 33 weeks. Ultrasound brain scans carried out daily showed that a periventricular haemorrhage (PVH) occurred in a subgroup of infants (n = 15) of lower birthweight and gestational age.
S. W. DSouza; H. Janakova; D. Minors; R. Suri; J. Waterhouse; G. Appleton; C. Ramesh; D. G. Sims; M. L. Chiswick
During the 1975 British Everest Expedition, which made the first ascent of the south-west face, observations were made in relation to mountain sickness and the appearance of retinal changes. Two Sherpas with cerebral oedema and one Briton with pulmonary oedema were treated. Retinal haemorrhages occurred in four out of six Britons who were newcomers to altitudes over 6000 m (19
C Clarke; J Duff
EIT has been proposed for acute stroke differentiation, specifically to determine the type of stroke, either ischaemia (clot) or haemorrhage (bleed) to allow the rapid use of clot-busting drugs in the former (Romsauerova et al 2006) . This addresses an important medical need, although there is little treatment offered in the case of haemorrhage. Also the demands on EIT are high with usually no availability to take a 'before' measurement, ruling out time difference imaging. Recently a new treatment option for haemorrhage has been proposed and is being studied in international randomised controlled trial: the early reduction of elevated blood pressure to attenuate the haematoma. This has been shown via CT to reduce bleeds by up to 1mL by Anderson et al 2008. The use of EIT as a continuous measure is desirable here to monitor the effect of blood pressure reduction. A 1mL increase of haemorrhagic lesion located near scalp on the right side of head caused a boundary voltage change of less than 0.05% at 50 kHz. This could be visually observed in a time difference 3D reconstruction with no change in electrode positions, mesh, background conductivity or drift when baseline noise was less than 0.005% but not when noise was increased to 0.01%. This useful result informs us that the EIT system must have noise of less than 0.005% at 50 kHz including instrumentation, physiological and other biases.
Nasehi Tehrani, J.; Anderson, C.; Jin, C.; van Schaik, A.; Holder, D.; McEwan, A.
Marburg virus causes a highly infectious and lethal haemorrhagic fever in primates and may be exploited as a potential biothreat pathogen. To combat the infection and threat of Marburg haemorrhagic fever, there is a need to develop and license appropriate medical countermeasures. To determine whether the common marmoset (Callithrix jacchus) would be an appropriate model to assess therapies against Marburg haemorrhagic fever, initial susceptibility, lethality and pathogenesis studies were performed. Low doses of virus, between 4 and 28 TCID50, were sufficient to cause a lethal, reproducible infection. Animals became febrile between days 5 and 6, maintaining a high fever before succumbing to disease between 8 and 11 days postchallenge. Typical signs of Marburg virus infection were observed including haemorrhaging and a transient rash. In pathogenesis studies, virus was isolated from the animals’ lungs from day 3 postchallenge and from the liver, spleen and blood from day 5 postchallenge. Early signs of histopathology were apparent in the kidney and liver from day 3. The most striking features were observed in animals exhibiting severe clinical signs, which included high viral titres in all organs, with the highest levels in the blood, increased levels in liver function enzymes and blood clotting times, decreased levels in platelets, multifocal moderate-to-severe hepatitis and perivascular oedema.
Smither, Sophie J; Nelson, Michelle; Eastaugh, Lin; Laws, Thomas R; Taylor, Christopher; Smith, Simon A; Salguero, Francisco J; Lever, Mark S
OBJECTIVESA hyperintense putamen on either CT or MRI as a finding associated with chorea has occasionally been described and is almost always associated with non-ketotic hyperglycaemia. The cause of the hyperintensity of the striatum in these images is still controversial. Some reports have found that calcification was responsible whereas others have advocated petechial haemorrhage as the cause. The purpose of
Ming-Hong Chang; Hung-Ting Chiang; Ping-Hong Lai; Chern-Guey Sy; Susan Shin-Jung Lee; Yeung-Yuk Lo
BACKGROUND: The mechanisms of brain injury following intracerebral haemorrhage (ICH) are incompletely understood. Gene expression studies using quantitative real-time RT-PCR following ICH have increased our understanding of these mechanisms, however the inconsistent results observed may be related to inappropriate reference gene selection. Reference genes should be stably expressed across different experimental conditions, however, transcript levels of common reference genes have
Naomi L Cook; Timothy J Kleinig; Corinna van den Heuvel; Robert Vink
An outbreak of Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever occurred in the county of Birjand in eastern Iran in November 2011. Four cases were involved in this outbreak. Two patients died after admission to hospital, one of whom was a nurse who acquired the infection nosocomially, and the others were treated successfully. PMID:23266037
Chinikar, Sadegh; Shayesteh, Majid; Khakifirouz, Sahar; Jalali, Tahmineh; Rasi Varaie, Fereshteh Sadat; Rafigh, Mahboubeh; Mostafavi, Ehsan; Shah-Hosseini, Nariman
Bluetongue virus (BTV) and epizootic haemorrhagic disease virus (EHDV) in deer have already been isolated in Reunion Island and have caused more or less severe clinical signs in cattle (EHDV) or in sheep (BTV), as observed in 2003. In January 2009, cattle in Reunion Island showed clinical signs suggesting infection by one or the other of these arboviral diseases. A
Corinne Sailleau; Gina Zanella; Emmanuel Breard; Cyril Viarouge; Alexandra Desprat; Damien Vitour; Micheline Adam; Laurent Lasne; Arnaud Martrenchar; Labib Bakkali-Kassimi; Laura Costes; Stéphan Zientara
Cardiac injury and pulmonary oedema occurring after acute neurological injury have been recognised for more than a century. Catecholamines, released in massive quantities due to hypothalamic stress from subarachnoid haemorrhage (SAH), result in specific myocardial lesions and hydrostatic pressure injury to the pulmonary capillaries causing neurogenic pulmonary oedema (NPO). The acute, reversible cardiac injury ranges from hypokinesis with a normal
C. S. A. Macmillan; I. S. Grant; P. J. D. Andrews
The need for repeat angiography in patients with subarachnoid haemorrhage (SAH) who initially present with a negative angiogram is still debated. The aim of this study was to provide a management protocol for ‘angiogram-negative SAH’. From January 1986 to June 2004, 143 patients with SAH were admitted to our institution with negative initial angiograms. We classified the 143 patients into
Jin Young Jung; Yong Bae Kim; Jae Whan Lee; Seung Kon Huh; Kyu Chang Lee
We present a patient who experienced sudden onset of orbital headache, visual loss and bitemporal visual field defect. MRI of the optic chiasm suggested a diagnosis of haemorrhage and hence a vascular malformation. Pterional craniotomy revealed an intrachiasmatic haematoma with a cavernous angioma. The malformation was totally excised and vision improved after surgery. The syndrome of chiasmal apoplexy is discussed. Images
Regli, L; de Tribolet, N; Regli, F; Bogousslavsky, J
Background Coagulopathy is a major contributing factor to bleeding related mortality even after achieving adequate surgical control of the haemorrhage in trauma and surgical patients. Case presentation A 65 years old Greek man was admitted in our ICU with critical haemorrhage following renal biopsy. Despite surgical exploration the patient continued to bleed resulting in a vicious cycle of transfusion, coagulopathy and re-bleeding. After all standard management options were exhausted, the patient was given rFVIIa (total dose 4,8 mg). Clinical improvement was noted without adverse thrombotic complications. One month later the same patient was operated on for a suspected retroperitoneal infected collection that it was assumed to be the cause of persistent pyrexia. After abdominal washout, he suffered haemorrhagic shock with postoperative coagulopathy. Standard transfusion therapy was again unsuccessful. The patient was given rFVIIa again resulting in an immediate reduction in coagulopathic haemorrhage accompanied by a significant improvement in laboratory measurements and reduction in blood products requirements. Conclusion Published clinical experiences for the use of rFVIIa in trauma patients are limited to small series and case reports. However, in trauma patients, administration of rFVIIa appears to be effective in addition to prompt surgical intervention as an adjunctive haemostatic measure to control life threatening bleeding in appropriately selected patients.
Vlachos, Konstantinos; Archontovasilis, Fotis; Papadima, Artemisia; Maragiannis, Dimitrios; Aloizos, Stavros; Lagoudianakis, Emmanuel; Dalianoudis, Ioannis G; Koronakis, Nikolaos; Chrysikos, John; Zaravinos, Spyros; Manouras, Andreas
The efficacy of antifibrinolytic therapy in the management of acute upper gastrointestinal haemorrhage has been investigated in a double-blind clinical trial. Two-hundred patients were studied using tranexamic acid, a potent antifibrinolytic agent. Of these, 103 were in the treatment group and 97 in the control group. Patients were analysed to determine severity of initial blood loss, transfusion requirements, together with
J C Biggs; T B Hugh; A J Dodds
A 21-year-old woman presented with acute decreased vision due to massive subretinal haemorrhage with macular exudation in the right eye and vitreous haemorrhage in the left eye. Haematological work-up revealed thrombocytopenia (platelets 14,000/?l) with anaemia (haemoglobin 6.3?gm/100?ml). A diagnosis of idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura (ITP) was confirmed by a haematologist. Systemic therapy resulted in dramatic resolution of the fundus features with near complete restoration of visual acuity over three months. ITP can present with intraocular haemorrhages, especially if accompanied by anaemia. A high index of suspicion and appropriate systemic treatment can lead to a successful outcome. PMID:23763572
Goel, Neha; Arora, Supriya; Jain, Pooja; Ghosh, Basudeb
Pituitary apoplexy is an uncommon but life-threatening condition that is often overlooked and underdiagnosed. We report a 45-year-old man who presented to our emergency department with a sudden onset headache, acute confusion, signs of meningeal irritation and ophthalmoplegia. An initial diagnosis of acute meningoencephalitis was made, which was amended to pituitary apoplexy following thorough investigation within the emergency department.A 45-year-old man was brought to our emergency department by ambulance with a history of sudden onset of frontal headache and acute confusion. His wife provided the history. There was no significant past medical history of diabetes, hypertension, recent travel abroad, exposure to sick contacts, involvement in outdoor pursuits such as hiking/cave diving, or trauma. He worked in a bank and had been well until 24 h prior to the onset of sudden headache, which was gradually worsening in nature and associated with increasing confusion. The patient's wife reported that he had neither experienced any fevers, night sweats, or coryzal symptoms nor received any recent vaccinations. He was not on any regular medications. He was a non-smoker and occasionally consumed alcohol. There was no significant family history. On examination in the ED, his temperature was 37.6°C, his pulse was 110/min, and he was normotensive and normoglycaemic. A macular blanching rash was noted over the patient's trunk. The patient was disoriented to time and place. Neurological examination revealed reduced GCS (11/15-E3, M6, V2), marked neck stiffness, a positive Kernig's sign and a right sixth nerve palsy.A provisional diagnosis of acute meningoencephalitis was made and the patient was started on a course of intravenous antibiotics with benzyl penicillin 1.2 g, cefotaxime 2 g and acyclovir 750 mg. Baseline blood investigations revealed hyponatraemia (122 mmol/l), a white-cell count of 11 × 109/l and a C-reactive protein > 250. Due to the sudden onset of the symptoms and lack of prodrome, an urgent CT head scan was performed to rule out a cerebrovascular event. The scan demonstrated an enlarged pituitary gland (3 cm in diameter) with impingement of the optic chiasm. The centre of the enlarged pituitary gland was noted to be hypodense in comparison to its periphery, which was consistent with a diagnosis of pituitary apoplexy. A subsequent MRI confirmed the diagnosis (Figure 1) of an enlarged sella containing abnormal soft tissue with increased signal intensity suggestive of haemorrhage (Figure 1A).Post-MRI a lumbar puncture was performed revealing glucose 3.4 mmol/l, protein 1.0 g/l, red cells of 53/mm3 and white cells of 174/mm3 with predominant neutrophilia. No organisms were seen, and CSF cultures and HSV DNA tests were found to be negative. Endocrinological investigations demonstrated low concentrations of thyroid hormones [TSH: 0.14 mIu/l (0.35-5.5 mlU/l), FT3: 1.1 nmol/l (1.2-3.0 nmol/l), FT4: 9.6 pmol/l (8-22 pmol/l)], gonadal hormones (LH: < 1 u/l) and prolactin: 16 u/l (<450 u/l). Serum FSH was 2.9 u/l (0.8-11.5 u/L) and cortisol 575 nmol/l (450-700 nmol/l). The patient was treated for hypopituitarism based on clinical and radiological findings with intravenous fluids, hydrocortisone (100 mg) and thyroxine (50 ?g) as loading doses in the ED.Within 24 h of commencement of therapy the patient's GCS rose to 15, and within 48 h there was marked improvement in the right sixth cranial nerve palsy. Formal visual field assessment demonstrated temporal visual field loss in the left eye. The patient was discharged to his usual residence a week later and follow-up was organised with both the endocrinologists and ophthalmologists. Follow-up MRI demonstrated that there was no significant change in either size or signal characteristics of the pituitary fossa mass (Figure 1B). PMID:21975129
Sadek, Ahmed-Ramadan; Gregory, Stephen; Jaiganesh, Thiagarajan
Background: Haemorrhagic fluids are samples which are commonly received for cytological examination. The diagnostic efficacy suffers when large numbers of red blood cells are present in the sample. Haemorrhagic fluids are processed by a variety of techniques and the common goal of each technique is selection and concentration of an adequate number of tumour cells with intact cell morphologies, without losing them during processing. Aim: Present study was undertaken to improve the quality of haemorrhagic fluid by using three different haemolysing agents, namely Carnoy’s Fixative (CF), saline in Normal Saline Rehydration Technique (NSRT) and Glacial Acetic Acid (GAA) for haemolysis and to find out the most effective processing technique for better cytomorphological assessment. Material and Methods: This study was carried out on 51 haemorrhagic fluids. Processing of haemorrhagic fluid was done by using haemolysing agents, namely CF, GAA and NSRT. After processing fluids with these three techniques, three smears were prepared from each of them, out of which one was air dried and two were wet fixed. Fourth type of smear made without application of haemolysing agent was used as control.The smears were stained with Leishman’s stain and wet fixed smears were stained with Hematoxylin and Eosin (H and E) , and Papanicolou’s stain (Pap) respectively. Results: NSRT showed lysis of red blood cells (RBCs) in 72.5% of cases, followed by that of CF in 60.8% cases and that of GAA in only 3.9% of cases. Retention of epithelial/mesothelial cells was seen in 70.5% cases with NSRT, followed by that of CF in 57.8% of cases and then by that of GAA in 50.9% of cases. Cytomorphological details were best preserved in CF in 60.6% of cases, followed by GAA in 58.8% of cases and NSRT in 52.9% of cases. Conclusion: The most effective method for RBC lysis in smear background and cell retention is NSRT and cytomorphological details are best preserved with CF. But, considering the overall results and procedural simplicity, it was concluded that NSRT was a better technique for processing of haemorrhagic fluid.
Shabnam, Mirza; Sharma, Sangeeta; Upreti, Sanjay; Bansal, Rani; Saluja, Mahip; Khare, Anjali; Tripathi, Meenakshi; Khanna, Shrey
We report a 54-year-old man who was admitted to the hospital because of acute neurological symptoms due to a cerebral haemorrhage. Postmortem brain examination revealed a lobar haemorrhage and advanced AD neuropathologic changes associated with severe cerebral amyloid angiopathy. Genetic study evidenced the presence of a large APP locus duplication (APPdup) in the patient and a PSEN1 p.E318G polymorphism in him and his older asymptomatic sibling. The APPdup spanned 14.5 Mb and blocks of segmental duplications were detected in the breakpoints. We propose the replication-based mechanism of Fork Stalling Template Switching (FoSTeS) to explain this APPdup rearrangement. PMID:24691562
Lladó, Albert; Grau-Rivera, Oriol; Sánchez-Valle, Raquel; Balasa, Mircea; Obach, Víctor; Amaro, Sergio; Rey, M Jesús; Molinuevo, José L; Gelpi, Ellen; Antonell, Anna
1. Dettol liquid (chloroxylenol 4.8%, pine oil, isopropyl alcohol), a household disinfectant, has a corrosive action on the gastrointestinal mucosa when swallowed. The incidence of upper gastrointestinal haemorrhage and gastroscopic findings following Dettol poisoning was studied in 89 patients. 2. Five patients (5.6%) developed minor haematemesis, in the form of coffee-coloured or blood-stained vomitus. One patient had a gastroscopy performed on the day after admission, showing signs of chemical burns in the oesophagus and stomach. Gastroscopy was performed in one other patient on day 11 to rule out oesophageal stricture; the patient was normal. All patients completely recovered. 3. The data from this study suggest that upper gastrointestinal haemorrhage following Dettol poisoning tends to be mild and self-limiting. Gastroscopy, which may increase the risk of aspiration in patients with impaired consciousness, is not required unless other causes of gastrointestinal bleeding are suspected. PMID:7748610
Chan, T Y; Sung, J J; Critchley, J A
We report on a 57-year-old woman with a pontine haemorrhage and an extremely prolonged activated partial thromboplastin time (aPTT) of more than 240 s, suggestive of a coagulation disorder. Given the location of the haemorrhage, which is associated with a high mortality rate, recombinant factor VIIa was administered, although not all necessary laboratory analyses could be performed at that time. In our case, a deficiency of factor XII was found, which is not associated with an increased bleeding risk. In an acute setting, evaluation of a prolonged aPTT may cause diagnostic and therapeutic challenges, in particular in situations where additional laboratory investigations may not be readily available. PMID:22949911
Schindhelm, Roger K; Wondergem, Mariëlle J; Admiraal, Joke; Nap, Gert; Boekel, Edwin Ten; Hani, Lahcen
This structured case report is a brief case report describing an episode of complete circumferential rectal ulceration and haemorrhage secondary to the use of a faecal management system. An elderly lady was admitted for elective cardiac surgery. Prior to admission, the patient was taking warfarin in view of her atrial fibrillation. Following surgery, the patient developed faecal incontinence, which was managed with a faecal management system. However, the patient subsequently developed massive rectal haemorrhage from an area of complete circumferential ulceration in the rectum. This ulceration resulted from pressure necrosis secondary to the faecal management system balloon placed in the patient’s rectum. The implication for care is that faecal management systems are an important adjunct in the management of faecal incontinence, but caution must be exercised with prolonged use, particularly in anticoagulated patients.
Maile, Edward J.; Telford, Karen J.
Dogs were made tolerant to lethal doses of adrenaline by treatment with increasing doses of the hormone up to 1 mg/kg. The conscious animals were then subjected to haemorrhagic shock with a hypovolaemic period of 3 hours. Survival was 8/17 in the pretreated group and 15/18 in the control group. 12 of 29 dogs died already during adrenaline treatment. Plasma catecholamine levels were higher in the treated group already before bleeding and also during hypovolaemia. Catecholamine induced myocardial lesions were found in the treated group. No evidence of a blunting of the sympathetic response or a protective effect in haemorrhagic shock was seen in adrenaline tolerance. PMID:6670565
Nagy, S; Adamicza, A; Tárnoky, K
Digoxin was measured by radioimmunoassay in the plasma of 25 patients with aneurysmal subarachnoid haemorrhage who had not received digoxin treatment. After heating the plasma an endogenous substance cross reacting with antibodies to digoxin was identified in 18 cases. The presence of this substance was significantly related to the total amount of blood and to the presence of blood in the frontal interhemispheric fissure and could not be explained by hypertension or intake of water and sodium. A negative sodium balance and volume depletion occurred more often in patients who were positive for digoxin, but this relation did not reach statistical significance. It is concluded that a digoxin-like natriuretic factor is released in response to a subarachnoid haemorrhage, probably as a result of hypothalamic damage. Images FIG. 2
Wijdicks, E F; Vermeulen, M; van Brummelen, P; den Boer, N C; van Gijn, J
Cerebrovascular manifestations in Klippel-Trenaunay Syndrome (KTS) have been reported but are extremely rare. Case reports describe brain embolism in KTS-associated coagulopathy as well as bleeding due to arteriovenous malformations. We describe a 45-year-old patient with KTS and both acute ischemic stroke and repeated cerebral haemorrhage. The underlying aetiology of both events remained undetermined despite extensive diagnostic work-up, including coagulation tests and dynamic MR angiography. It is most likely that both a pathological coagulation and increased vessel fragility comparable to amyloid angiopathy were responsible for the combined brain lesions in this patient. We conclude that KTS is a very rare but relevant aetiology of cerebral ischemia and that anticoagulation treatment in these cases should be carefully considered as the risk of cerebral haemorrhage is probably elevated. PMID:23830597
Beume, Lena A; Fuhrmann, Silke C; Reinhard, Matthias; Harloff, Andreas
Gastric duplications are uncommon developmental abnormality reported to present with different clinical scenarios. We present a 2-1/2-year-old Nigerian female who started having intermittent massive lower gastrointestinal haemorrhage at 5 months of age. She subsequently developed a lower chest wall mass and enterocutaneous fistula. She was found to have gastric duplication with fistulous communication with the descending colon, spleen, and lower chest wall. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first paper on gastric duplication resulting in intermittent massive lower gastrointestinal bleeding mainly from splenic capsular erosion and fistula and enterocutaneous fistula resulting from erosion of anterior abdominal wall. Gastric duplication is hence an important rare cause of intermittent massive lower gastrointestinal haemorrhage and spontaneous enterocutaneous fistula in the paediatric population. PMID:22970394
Kesieme, Emeka B; Dongo, Andrew E; Osime, Clement O; Olomu, Sylvia C; Awe, Oluwafemi O; Eze, Gerald I; Eluehike, Sylvester U
This descriptive study aims to identify substandard care (SSC) in PPH after home birth in the Netherlands. Sixty seven cases of postpartum haemorrhage (PPH) reported by community-based midwives were collected. After applying selection criteria, seven cases were submitted to audit. The audit panel consisted of 12 midwives (of whom seven contributed a case), 10 obstetricians, an educational expert and an ambulance paramedic. First, an individual assessment was performed by all members. Subsequently, at a plenary audit meeting, SSC factors were determined and assigned incidental, minor or major status. Major SSC was identified in two out of seven cases. We conclude that communication between different healthcare providers should be optimised and a proactive attitude taken to select women who plan to give birth at home, taking into account the possibility of timely referral in case of PPH or retained placenta. National multidisciplinary guidelines on managing obstetric haemorrhage in home birth are urgently needed. PMID:24386705
Smit, Marrit; Dijkman, Anneke; Rijnders, Marlies; Bustraan, Jacqueline; van Dillen, Jeroen; Middeldorp, Johanna; Havenith, Barbara; van Roosmalen, Jos
Haemorrhagic nephritis enteritis of the goose (HNEG) is an epizootic viral disease in domestic geese. The causal agent is a polyomavirus, namely goose haemorrhagic polyomavirus. To help control the disease, an inactivated vaccine was developed, based on viral particles produced in goose kidney cells. Viral material was quantified using real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction, inactivated with beta-propiolactone and adjuvanted with Carbopol, an acrylic acid polymer. Carbopol proved to be more immunogenic than aluminium hydroxide and was totally safe when administered to young goslings and breeders alike. Carbopol-adjuvanted vaccine induced a high serological response. Moreover, goslings hatched from vaccinated breeders were protected against viral challenge, indicating that maternally-derived neutralizing antibodies (MDA) were efficiently transferred. MDA were still detectable 15 days post-hatch. Clinical trials will be necessary to accurately evaluate a vaccine-based HNEG control strategy under field conditions. PMID:20390545
Gelfi, Jacqueline; Pappalardo, Michael; Claverys, Carine; Peralta, Brigitte; Guerin, Jean-Luc
Corpus callosum heamatoma is a rare feature in subarachnoid haemorrhage (SAH), which may result from aneurysms of the anterior communicating artery (ACoA) or pericallosal artery (PCA). In 348 patients with aneurysmal SAH, bleeding from ACoA aneurysms in 88 cases produced no abnormality on CT in 7. Blood in the cistern of the lamina terminalis was the most frequent abnormality (76\\/88);
A. Jackson; J. B. Fitzgerald; R. W. J. Hartley; A. Leonard; J. Yates
1 Dettol liquid (chloroxylenol 4.8%, pine oil, isopropyl alcohol), a household disinfectant, has a corrosive action on the gastrointestinal mucosa when swallowed. The inci dence of upper gastrointestinal haemorrhage and gastro scopic findings following Dettol poisoning was studied in 89 patients.2 Five patients (5.6%) developed minor haematemesis, in the form of coffee-coloured or blood-stained vomitus. One patient had a gastroscopy
Thomas Y. K. Chan; Joseph J. Y. Sung; Julian A. J. H. Critchley
Objective: To analyse factors related to subjective non- cognitive and cognitive complaints in patients with sponta- neous subarachnoid haemorrhage. Subjects: Twenty-seven patients with subarachnoid haemor- rhage and 27 age-, sex- and education-matched healthy controls. Methods: A battery of cognitive tests measuring visuo-spatial abilities, verbal abilities, and fine-motor skill, Brief Social Support Questionnaire, and Life Orientation Scale were individually presented to
Aaro Toomela; Aleksander Pulver; Tiiu Tomberg; Anu Orasson; Arvo Tikk; Toomas Asser
A 29-yr-old patient with hereditary haemorrhagic telangiectasia was referred to the present authors' centre with progressive exertional dyspnoea. Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) was suspected on Doppler echocardiography and confirmed by right heart catheterisation demonstrating severe PAH. Genetic analysis found an activin receptor-like kinase-1 gene missense mutation. Chest radiography and computed tomodensitometry of the chest revealed a pulmonary arteriovenous malformation with
D. Montani; L. C. Price; B. Girerd; T. Chinet; P. Lacombe; G. Simonneau; M. Humbert
Two commercial pig abattoirs (A and B) equipped with a head-only and head-to-chest electrical stunning systems, and two (C and D) equipped with compact carbon dioxide (CO2) stunning systems, were visited during 3 days to evaluate the effects of the stunning system on meat quality and haemorrhages. Meat quality was evaluated by measuring muscle electrical conductivity (PQM) and colour (Minolta
A Velarde; M Gispert; L Faucitano; X Manteca; A Diestre
A total of 244 long-term survivors of subarachnoid haemorrhage (SAH) were examined at a follow-up concerning change in instrumental activities of daily living (IADL). A decrease from previous independence prevailed for 51 % of the sample. As expected, home-maintenance activities were more common pre-SAH for women than for men, and for these activities post-SAH disabilities were most frequently recorded for
Margareta Lindberg; Axel R Fugl-Meyer
Dengue fever\\/dengue haemorrhagic fever (DF\\/DHF) is the most important emerging viral disease affecting nearly half of the world's population. It is estimated that there are between 50 to 100 million cases of DF and about 500 000 cases of DHF which require hospitalization every year. In the WHO South-East Asia Region, over the past 15 years, DF\\/DHF has become a
Chusak Prasittisuk; A. G. Andjaparidze; Vijay Kumar
OBJECTIVE--To determine the efficacy of oral nimodipine in reducing cerebral infarction and poor outcomes (death and severe disability) after subarachnoid haemorrhage. DESIGN--Double blind, placebo controlled, randomised trial with three months of follow up and intention to treat analysis. To have an 80% chance with a significance level of 0.05 of detecting a 50% reduction in an incidence of cerebral infarction
J. D. Pickard; G. D. Murray; R. Illingworth; M. D. Shaw; G. M. Teasdale; P. M. Foy; P. R. Humphrey; D. A. Lang; R. Nelson; P. Richards
The occurrence of simultaneous spontaneous non-traumatic hypertensive intracerebral haemorrhages (ICHs) is a rare event that carries a considerable morbidity and mortality. These haematomas constitute 0.7-2% of all hypertensive ICHs. We report a 42-year-old man with ischaemic heart disease who presented with sudden severe pancephalic headache, repeated vomiting and left-sided weakness. His work-up revealed two right-sided ICHs: putamenal and cerebellar. PMID:22766571
Amin, Osama Shukir Muhammed; Rasheed, Ata H; Ahmed, Soran M
A patient is reported who developed severe haemorrhagic pancreatitis, without hyperamylasemia, which was complicated by gross hypocalcaemia presenting as tetany. Tetany is very uncommon in acute pancreatitis and is a grave prognostic indicator, recovery being exceptionally rare. The mechanisms responsible for disordered calcium homeostasis associated with acute pancreatitis are reviewed. CT scanning was an important feature of this patient's management and its role in severe pancreatitis is discussed. Images Figure 1
Jones, P. A.
Platelet aggregationin vitro, deterioration of visual field defects (VFD) and the prevalence of disc haemorrhages (DH) were assessed in 49 patients with primary open angle glaucoma (POAG) and compared with the findings for 67 individuals with suspected glaucoma (GS) in a seven-year follow-up study (range 5.8 to 8.2 years). The percentage patients with spontaneous platelet aggregation (SPA) was higher for
Philip F. J. Hoyng; Nynke Jong; Hans Oosting; Jan Stilma
The constantly recurring epistaxis means a great reduction of quality of life for patients with hereditary haemorrhagic telangiectasia\\u000a (HHT). As yet, an ideal treatment has not been found. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) has been described as a possible\\u000a new therapy. In particular, the success of submucosal doses <100 mg has not been analysed before. We injected bevacizumab\\u000a (Avastin) submucosally in
C. Rohrmeier; H. G. Sachs; T. S. Kuehnel
Subarachnoid haemorrhage (SAH) has a high mortality and morbidity rate. Early SAH diagnosis allows the early treatment of a ruptured cerebral aneurysm, which improves the prognosis. Diagnostic cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) analyses may be performed after a negative computed tomography scan, but the precise analytical methods to be used have been debated. Here, we summarize the scientific evidence for different CSF methods for SAH diagnosis and describe their implementation in different countries. The principle literature search was conducted using PubMed and Scopus with the search items "cerebrospinal fluid", "subarachnoid haemorrhage", and "diagnosis". CSF analyses for SAH include visual examination, red blood cell counts, spectrophotometry for oxyhaemoglobin or bilirubin determination, CSF cytology, and ferritin measurement. The methods vary in availability and performance. There is a consensus that spectrophotometry has the highest diagnostic performance, but both oxyhaemoglobin and bilirubin determinations are susceptible to important confounding factors. Visual inspection of CSF for xanthochromia is still frequently used for diagnosis of SAH, but it is advised against because spectrophotometry has a superior diagnostic accuracy. A positive finding of CSF bilirubin is a strong indicator of an intracranial bleeding, whereas a positive finding of CSF oxyhaemoglobin may indicate an intracranial bleeding or a traumatic tap. Where spectrophotometry is not available, the combination of CSF cytology for erythrophages or siderophages and ferritin is a promising alternative. PMID:23729569
Nagy, Karin; Skagervik, Ina; Tumani, Hayrettin; Petzold, Axel; Wick, Manfred; Kühn, Hans-Jürgen; Uhr, Manfred; Regeniter, Axel; Brettschneider, Johannes; Otto, Markus; Kraus, Jörg; Deisenhammer, Florian; Lautner, Ronald; Blennow, Kaj; Shaw, Leslie; Zetterberg, Henrik; Mattsson, Niklas
Background Dengue infection carries a potential risk of death despite stringent management of plasma leak and haemorrhage. It appears that the extent of liver dysfunction determines the outcome. Methods We present a postmortem study of five patients, died of dengue shock syndrome who had markedly elevated liver enzymes and irreparable circulatory failure. Results All were females with a median age of 46 years (range 20–50 years). All had positive NS1 and IgM. Clinically, one patient developed severe degree of hepatic encephalopathy whilst three patients developed uncontrollable bleeding manifestations. Dengue virus was detected in three liver specimens by reverse transcription PCR. Histology of the liver revealed massive necrosis with haemorrhages in these patients with evidence of micro and macrovesicular steatosis with significant periportal inflammatory infiltrate. No significant ischaemic changes or necrosis was observed in the other organs. Conclusions Severe haemorrhagic necrosis of the liver was the cause of death in these patients probably due to direct viral infection. Predilection for severe liver disease remains unknown. Therefore, it is prudent to think beyond plasma leak as the main pathology of dengue infection and attempts should be made to develop other treatment modalities to prevent and manage unforeseen fatal complications of dengue infection.
Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever (CCHF) is a viral zoonotic disease with a high mortality rate in humans. The CCHF virus (CCHFV) is transmitted to humans through the bite of Ixodid ticks or by contact with blood or tissues of infected livestock. In addition to zoonotic transmission, CCHFV can be spread from person to person and is one of the rare haemorrhagic fever viruses able to cause nosocomial outbreaks in hospitals. Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever is a public health problem in many regions of the world such as Eastern Europe, Asia, the Middle East and Africa. In addition to clinical symptoms, the diagnosis of CCHF is based on the use of serological tests for the detection of immunoglobulin M and immunoglobulin G antibodies and on the use of molecular tools such as RT-PCR. From 1970 to 1978, serological and epidemiological studies were performed in humans and in livestock of Iran. After two decades and observations of CCHF in some provinces of Iran, a CCHF surveillance and detection system was established in 1999, leading to a dramatically decreased mortality rate from 20% (year 2000) to 2% (year 2007). PMID:18666963
Chinikar, S; Goya, M M; Shirzadi, M R; Ghiasi, S M; Mirahmadi, R; Haeri, A; Moradi, M; Afzali, N; Rahpeyma, M; Zeinali, M; Meshkat, M
The emergence of bluetongue disease (BT) among livestock in Europe in 2006 raised many questions including the occurrence and epidemiological significance of foetal infections in cattle. To clarify these aspects, vaccinated and unvaccinated pregnant heifers were sequentially infected twice in an isolation facility (biosafety level 3) with a northern European outbreak strain of Bluetongue virus serotype 8 (BTV-8). The study was terminated 2 months after calving with necropsy of the dams and their offspring. The cattle were monitored throughout the study by clinical scoring and for the presence of circulating neutralising antibodies, and after calving for the presence of infectious virus and viral RNA in blood and milk. Four calves, one born from a vaccinated dam and three from non-vaccinated ones, that were infected at 120 days of gestation had obvious haemorrhage of the pulmonary artery at necropsy. Although haemorrhage of the pulmonary artery is highly characteristic of BT, viral RNA was not detected in any of these calves. Furthermore, although none of the calves born from heifers infected prior to mid-gestation had teratogenic BTV typical brain lesions, some had lesions at birth suggestive of in utero BTV infection. Despite the lack of viral RNA detection, the presence of haemorrhage of the pulmonary artery deserves to be reported as a new observation in the context of the multiple investigations having as main subject the BTV placental crossing in cattle. PMID:24035481
Martinelle, Ludovic; Dal Pozzo, Fabiana; Sarradin, Pierre; De Leeuw, Ilse; De Clercq, Kris; Thys, Christine; Thiry, Etienne; Saegerman, Claude
The clinical details are reported of two premature infants who developed late onset haemorrhagic disease after receiving their initial doses of vitamin K1 prophylaxis intravenously. Both reported infants had received two doses of intravenous vitamin K1, 0.1 mg, in the 1st week of life, and a further oral dose, 1.0 mg, at 4 weeks. Bleeding due to vitamin K deficiency occurred on days 74 and 84, respectively. Vitamin K deficiency bleeding is rare in low birthweight infants, probably because it has been routine practice to give such infants intramuscular vitamin K1. One of the reported infants had cytomegalovirus hepatitis, the other did not have liver disease. These findings could be explained if intramuscular vitamin K1 were to have a longer duration of effect than intravenous vitamin K1. This may be because intramuscular vitamin K1 acts as a depot preparation. The findings suggest that intravenous vitamin K1 is less effective than intramuscular for long-term prophylaxis against late onset haemorrhagic disease. Intravenous vitamin K1 should not be used for long-term prophylaxis in the prevention of late onset haemorrhagic disease. PMID:8827551
Loughnan, P M; McDougall, P N; Balvin, H; Doyle, L W; Smith, A L
The cytokine tumour necrosis factor-? (TNF-?) is involved (mostly through the activation of inducible nitric oxide synthase) in the pathogenesis of circulatory shock. On the other hand, melanocortin peptides are potent and effective in reversing haemorrhagic shock, both in animals (rat, dog) and in humans. This prompted us to study the influence of the melanocortin peptide ACTH-(1–24) on the blood levels of TNF-? in haemorrhage-shocked rats and on the in vitro production of TNF-? by lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-activated macrophages. Plasma levels of TNF-? were undetectable before starting bleeding and greatly increased 20?min after bleeding termination in saline-treated rats. In rats treated with ACTH-(1–24) the almost complete restoration of cardiovascular function was associated with markedly reduced levels of TNF-? 20?min after bleeding termination. On the other hand, ACTH-(1–24) did not influence TNF-? plasma levels in sham-operated, unbled rats. In vitro, ACTH-(1–24) (25–100?nM) dose-dependently reduced the LPS-stimulated production of TNF-? by peritoneal macrophages harvested from untreated, unbled rats. These results indicate that inhibition of TNF-? overproduction may be an important component of the mechanism of action of melanocortins in reversing haemorrhagic shock.
Altavilla, Domenica; Cainazzo, Maria-Michela; Squadrito, Francesco; Guarini, Salvatore; Bertolini, Alfio; Bazzani, Carla
We reviewed all cases of massive primary postpartum haemorrhage greater than 1000 mL over a six month period in 1999 to establish the incidence, identify aetiological factors and implement change. Fifty-four cases (1.7%) were identified. We classified four as 'near-miss' maternal mortality. Over 60% were delivered by caesarean section. Seventy-six percent were due to uterine atony, 9% due to genital tract trauma and 15% were associated with significant antepartum haemorrhage from placenta praevia or abruption. No obvious labour or delivery risk factors were identified but deviation from hospital guidelines was common. Following revision of the guidelines, dissemination to staff and use of practice drills, we repeated the study on a prospective basis over the same time period in 2002. There was a significant reduction in the incidence of massive postpartum haemorrhage to 0.45%, and 100% adherence to the guidelines which resulted in a significant reduction in maternal morbidity. We believe that this approach can be replicated in other units. PMID:15104617
Rizvi, Fauzia; Mackey, Rachel; Barrett, Tom; McKenna, Peter; Geary, Michael
Goose haemorrhagic polyomavirus (GHPV) is the viral agent of haemorrhagic nephritis enteritis of geese, a lethal disease of goslings. It was recently shown that GHPV can also be detected in Muscovy and mule ducks. The goal of the present study was to investigate the pathobiology of GHPV in ducks. In the first experiment, field isolates of GHPV from Muscovy or mule ducks were fully sequenced and compared with goose GHPV. These duck isolates were then used to inoculate 1-day-old goslings. Typical clinical signs and lesions of haemorrhagic nephritis enteritis of geese were reproduced, indicating that "duck-GHPV" isolates are virulent in geese. In the second experiment, 1-day-old and 21-day-old Muscovy ducklings were infected by a reference GHPV strain. In both cases, neither clinical signs nor histopathological lesions were observed. However, the virus was detected in cloacal bursae and sera, and serological responses were detected at 12 days post infection. These findings suggest firstly that one common genotype of GHPV circulates among ducks and geese, and secondly that ducks may be infected by GHPV but show no pathologic evidence of infection, whereas geese express clinical signs. GHPV infection should therefore be considered as being carried in ducks and of epidemiological relevance in cases of contact with goose flocks. PMID:21812713
Corrand, Léni; Gelfi, Jacqueline; Albaric, Olivier; Etievant, Mélanie; Pingret, Jean-Luc; Guerin, Jean-Luc
Goose haemorrhagic polyomavirus (GHPV) provoke haemorrhagic nephritis and enteritis of domestic geese. Outbreaks were detected in European countries and caused economic losses for goose keepers. Domestic ducks may be infected with GHPV without any signs typical for geese. The genomic organisation of some isolates was described but the gene functions and the pathomechanisms of the virus was not precisely defined. Here we describe the genome sequence and structure of GHPV of a goose from a Hungarian goose flock showing characteristics of the haemorrhagic nephritis and enteritis. The GHPV genome investigated in this study was 5252 bp long and was very similar (99% nucleotide identity) to sequences deposited in the GenBank. All the whole GHPV genomes possess the same ORFs in length, including the VP1, VP2, VP3, ORF-X, t and T tumour antigens. Amino acid changes are detected mainly in the putative ORF-X region. Data about the GHPV genome imply a conserved genomic structure among isolates from different countries. Genomic and epidemiological studies may help vaccine development efforts and identify potential heterologous reservoirs of GHPV. PMID:24939688
Fehér, Enik?; Lengyel, György; Dán, Adám; Farkas, Szilvia L; Bányai, Krisztián
1. The fall of haematocrit after stepwise bleeding in rabbits and young kittens was not accompanied by an equivalent fall of plasma nitrogen. The relative failure of plasma nitrogen to decrease after haemorrhage was not attributable to the entry of diffusible nitrogen into the circulation. 2. Plasma protein recovery by a combination of stepwise bleeding and viviperfusion was such as to yield values for the whole body/great vessel haematocrit ratio (Fcells) in the normal range in adult cats but significantly below the normal range in young kittens and rabbits. If viviperfusion was not preceded by stepwise bleeding Fcells in the normal range was obtained in young kittens and rabbits. 3. The results of electrophoretic examination of pre- and post-haemorrhagic plasma were consistent with the entry of fresh protein into the circulation after haemorrhage occurring preferentially in the albumin fraction, but increase of albumin/globulin ratio was small in adult cats. 4. It was concluded that the fall of haematocrit after haemorrhage in young kittens and rabbits was mainly due to the entry of protein rich tissue fluid into the circulation. In adult cats, however, the haematocrit did not always fall and any such fall may have been partly due to a shift of plasma from the periphery to the great vessels. 5. The bearing of these observations on the validity of calculation of blood volume from red cell mass and haematocrit during stepwise haemorrhage was considered.
Mott, Joan C.
Objective: To assess the relationship of coping style with depression, burden and life satisfaction in caregivers of patients with subarachnoid haemorrhage. Design: Cross-sectional study. Participants: Forty-one primary caregivers of patients with subarachnoid haemorrhage. Methods: Caregivers completed several questionnaires within the first year after subarachnoid haemorrhage. Coping style was assessed using the Utrecht Coping List, depression with the Goldberg Depression Scale (GDS), burden with the Sense of Competence Questionnaire, and life satisfaction with the Life Satisfaction Questionnaire. Results: Caregivers had a mean burden score of 37.8 (standard deviation (SD)?=?7.4) and a life satisfaction score of 5.0 (SD?=?0.6). Nine caregivers (23%) had depressive symptoms (GDS ??2). A palliative coping style was positively associated with the presence of depressive symptoms (odds ratio (OR)?=?1.45, p?=?0.016). A passive coping style was positively related to burden (ß?=?1.61, p?=?0.024), adjusted for morbidity of the caregiver (ß?=?11.90, p?=?0.013), and inversely related to life satisfaction (ß?=?-0.10, p?=?0.025). Conclusion: In caregivers of patients with subarachnoid haemorrhage palliative or passive coping styles are related to depressive symptoms, higher burden and life dissatisfaction. This implies that rehabilitation programmes for patients with subarachnoid haemorrhage should also include caregiver support programmes that focus on coping style. PMID:24626873
Boerboom, Wendy; Jacobs, Esther A C; Khajeh, Ladbon; van Kooten, Fop; Ribbers, Gerard M; Heijenbrok-Kal, Majanka H
Abstract: Background: The global incidence of fatal head injuries as the result of assault is greater than the number of non-fatal cases. The important factors that determine the outcome in terms of survival of such head injury cases include the type of weapon used, type and site of skull fracture, intra cranial haemorrhage and the brain injury. The present study aims to highlight the role of skull fractures as an indirect indicator of force of impact and the intra cranial haemorrhage by a comparative study of assault victims with fatal and nonfatal head injuries. Methods: 91 head injury cases resulting from assault were studied in the Department of Forensic Medicine, IMS, BHU Varanasi over a period of 2 years from which 18 patients survived and 73 cases had a lethal outcome. Details of the fatal cases were obtained from the police inquest and an autopsy while examination of the surviving patients was done after obtaining an informed consent. The data so obtained were analyzed and presented in the study. Results: Assault with firearms often led to fatality whereas with assault involving blunt weapons the survival rate was higher. Multiple cranial bones were involved in 69.3% cases while comminuted fracture of the skull was common among the fatal cases. Fracture of the base of the skull was noted only in the fatal cases and a combination of subdural and subarachnoid haemorrhage was found in the majority of the fatal cases. Conclusions: The present study shows skull fractures to be an important indicator of severity of trauma in attacks to the head. Multiple bone fracture, comminuted fracture and base fractures may be considered as high risk factors in attempted homicide cases.
Chattopadhyay, Saurabh; Tripathi, Chandrabhal
A seroepidemiological survey was carried out to determine the prevalence of antibodies to Crimean-haemorrhagic fever - Congo(CHF-C) virus among cattle in 3 ranches with varying degree of tick infestation. Sera were collected from 1164 animals and were tested by agar gel diffusion precipitation test (AGPT) for antibodies to CHF-C virus. About 25.7% of the sera had precipitating antibodies against CHF-C virus. There was no significant difference in the prevalence of antibodies between the ranches despite the varying degree of tick infestation. PMID:6427128
Umoh, J U; Ezeokoli, C D; Ogwu, D
Thalidomide was recently reported to reduce the severity and frequency of epistaxes in patients with hereditary haemorrhagic telangiectasia (HHT). We here describe the case of a patient with HHT and severe epistaxes refractory to medical and local surgical treatments who developed an extensive deep vein thrombosis shortly after initiation of treatment with thalidomide. This is the first report of venous thromboembolic complication induced by thalidomide prescribed in this setting. Although thalidomide was recently found to provide an alternative therapeutic strategy in patients with HHT and refractory epistaxes, this agent should be used with great caution in this indication, given its thrombogenicity and difficulties to manage systemic anticoagulation in patients with HHT. PMID:21885956
Penaloza, Andrea; Vekemans, Marie-Christiane; Lambert, Catherine; Hermans, Cedric
Carotid-cavernous sinus fistula is an arteriovenous fistula between the internal carotid artery and the cavernous sinus, and is usually caused by a traumatic tear or a ruptured aneurysm of the cavernous segment of the internal carotid artery. We describe a rare case of delayed intracranial haemorrhage and carotid-cavernous sinus fistula that presented 3 weeks after fracture of the facial bones. The patient developed orbital apex syndrome including ptosis of upper eyelid, pulsatile exophthalmos, chemosis, loss of ocular motility, monocular blindness on the right, and numbness of the right infraorbital region. After transcatheter intra-arterial embolisation, the ptosis and chemosis improved. PMID:23958350
Chang, Chien-Ming; Cheng, Chi-Sheng
The diagnosis, work-up, and treatment of sudden sensorineural hearing loss and sudden vestibular loss vary widely between units. With the increasing access to both magnetic resonance imaging and objective vestibular testing, our understanding of the various aetiologies at hand is increasing. Despite this, the therapeutic options are limited and without a particularly strong evidence base. We present a rare, yet increasingly diagnosed, case of intralabyrinthine haemorrhage (ILH) together with radiological, audiological, and vestibular test results. Of note, this occurred spontaneously and has shown partial recovery in all the mentioned modalities.
Pezier, Thomas; Hegemann, Stefan
Objectives To evaluate the results of emergency embolisation in acute arterial bleeding of the gastrointestinal tract with a liquid polyvinyl\\u000a alcohol copolymer from two centres.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods We retrospectively analysed 16 cases (15 patients) of acute arterial bleeding of the gastrointestinal tract where emergency\\u000a embolotherapy was performed by using the copolymer when acute haemorrhage was not treatable with endoscopic techniques alone.\\u000a Cause of
Markus Lenhart; Christian Paetzel; Michael Sackmann; Hans Schneider; Ernst Michael Jung; Andreas G. Schreyer; Stefan Feuerbach; Niels Zorger
A large outbreak of haemorrhagic fever (subsequently named Ebola haemorrhagic fever) occurred in southern Sudan between June and November 1976. There was a total of 284 cases; 67 in the source town of Nzara, 213 in Maridi, 3 in Tembura, and 1 in Juba. The outbreak in Nzara appears to have originated in the workers of a cotton factory. The disease in Maridi was amplified by transmission in a large, active hospital. Transmission of the disease required close contact with an acute case and was usually associated with the act of nursing a patient. The incubation period was between 7 and 14 days. Although the link was not well established, it appears that Nzara could have been the source of infection for a similar outbreak in the Bumba Zone of Zaire.In this outbreak Ebola haemorrhagic fever was a unique clinical disease with a high mortality rate (53% overall) and a prolonged recovery period in those who survived. Beginning with an influenza-like syndrome, including fever, headache, and joint and muscle pains, the disease soon caused diarrhoea (81%), vomiting (59%), chest pain (83%), pain and dryness of the throat (63%), and rash (52%). Haemorrhagic manifestations were common (71%), being present in half of the recovered cases and in almost all the fatal cases.Two post mortems were carried out on patients in November 1976. The histopathological findings resembled those of an acute viral infection and although the features were characteristic they were not exclusively diagnostic. They closely resembled the features described in Marburg virus infection, with focal eosinophilic necrosis in the liver and destruction of lymphocytes and their replacement by plasma cells. One case had evidence of renal tubular necrosis.Two strains of Ebola virus were isolated from acute phase sera collected from acutely ill patients in Maridi hospital during the investigation in November 1976. Antibodies to Ebola virus were detected by immunofluorescence in 42 of 48 patients in Maridi who had been diagnosed clinically, but in only 6 of 31 patients in Nzara. The possibility of the indirect immunofluorescent test not being sufficiently sensitive is discussed.Of Maridi case contacts, in hospital and in the local community, 19% had antibodies. Very few of them gave any history of illness, indicating that Ebola virus can cause mild or even subclinical infections. Of the cloth room workers in the Nzara cotton factory, 37% appeared to have been infected, suggesting that the factory may have been the prime source of infection. PMID:307455
(1) Haemorrhagic disease of the newborn is due to vitamin K deficiency. Although rare, it is life-threatening and can have neurological sequelae. Prevention is based on routine vitamin K1 administration at birth. (2) The oral route is suitable for healthy term neonates, but dosing must be repeated if the infant is mainly breastfed. (3) The intramuscular route is reserved for neonates at risk (prematurity, neonatal disease, maternal treatment with antiepileptics or antibiotics), because of a possible risk of carcinogenicity. PMID:10342952
A case of coexistent acute myeloid leukaemia and sarcoidosis is reported. This was complicated by recurrent pulmonary haemorrhage during reinduction and consolidation chemotherapy. A review of published papers on malignancy and sarcoidosis, in particular acute leukaemia is given. The outcome of most cases of acute leukaemia and sarcoidosis is poor with respiratory complications a frequent cause of death in this group. It is proposed that modifications to treatment to avoid pulmonary toxicity and maintenance of platelet counts above 40 x 10(9)/l are warranted to reduce the risk of this complication. Images
Williams, B; Francis, A; Durrant, S
Hereditary haemorrhagic telangiectasia (HHT) affects one in 5-8000, and no longer can be viewed as solely causing anaemia (due to nasal and gastrointestinal bleeding) and characteristic mucocutaneous telangiectasia. Arteriovenous malformations commonly occur, and in the pulmonary and cerebral circulations demand knowledge of risks and benefits of asymptomatic screening and treatment. HHT is inherited as an autosomal dominant trait and there is no age cut off when apparently unaffected offspring of an individual with HHT can be told they are unaffected. This review focuses on the evolving evidence base for HHT management, issues regarding pregnancy and prothrombotic treatments, and discusses the molecular and cellular changes that underlie this disease.
Begbie, M; Wallace, G; Shovlin, C
The use of pre-operative embolisation has been described for small neurofibromas, but not for giant lesions. Advances in embolisation techniques are extending the indications for this procedure, in particular to assist with operative intervention on a range of lesions. This case report describes a 45-year-old male with a giant neurofibroma who underwent embolisation to stabilise intratumoural haemorrhage and to assist with haemostasis during the subsequent surgical resection. Minimal transfusion was required and the patient has made a good recovery. This case demonstrates that pre-operative embolisation of these large and challenging lesions is technically feasible and appears to be beneficial in reducing perioperative blood loss and morbidity.
Jones, R G; Kiatisevi, P; Morris, D C; Munk, P L; Clarkson, P W; Masri, B A
Spontaneous pure acute bilateral subdural haematoma (ASDH) without intraparenchymal or subarachnoid haemorrhage caused by a ruptured cerebral aneurysm is extremely rare. It can follow rupture of different aneurysms specially located in anterior incisural space; the most frequently encountered location is the PcoA aneurysms as demonstrated in the present case. We present a case report of a PcoA aneurysm presenting as pure bilateral ASDH. A high level of suspicion for bleeding of arterial origin should be maintained in all cases of acute subdural haematoma without history of trauma. The neurological status on admission dictates the appropriate timing and methodology of the neuroradiological investigations.
Mansour, Ossama; Hassen, Tamer; Fathy, Sameh
The first recognized case in Scandinavia with potential man to man transmission of viral haemorrhagic fever occurred in Linköping, Sweden, in January 1990. Following a visit to Kenya a 21-year-old male student suffered a very severe illness including extremely prolonged high grade fever, rash, disseminated intravascular coagulation with thrombocytopenia and severe bleedings. This necessitated one month of intensive care support including respirator treatment. The patient was discharged after 2 1/2 months in good condition, with a partial femoral nerve paresis. About 100 medical personnel were exposed to aerosol or blood before a strict containment regimen was established. No secondary cases occurred. PMID:1853161
Foberg, U; Frydén, A; Isaksson, B; Jahrling, P; Johnson, A; McKee, K; Niklasson, B; Normann, B; Peters, C; Bengtsson, M
Spontaneous intraperitoneal haemorrhage can occur in any age group. It is defined as presence of free blood in the peritoneal cavity which can results from a non-traumatic and non-iatrogenic cause. Common causes are visceral, coagulopathy related and vascular. The clinical presentation is usually non-specific; it can vary from mild abdominal pain to a shock status. We report a very rare case of a 17-year-old male patient who presented to our institution with spontaneous intraperitoneal bleeding secondary to avulsion of one of the short gastric artery following forceful retching. PMID:23813991
Faraj, Walid; Alaeddine, Mohamed; Haydar, Ali; Khalife, Mohammad
Aim To report a case of a patient with myeloperoxidase-antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibody (ANCA)-negative microscopic polyangiitis (MPA) and IgA nephropathy associated with severe pulmonary haemorrhage. Case Report A 59-year-old man presented with ANCA-negative systemic vasculitis accompanied by purpura, nephritis and pulmonary haemorrhage. A skin biopsy specimen revealed pandermal leucocytoclastic vasculitis without IgA deposition and a kidney biopsy showed mesangial nephritis with IgA deposition. Considering these findings, the patient was diagnosed as having MPA with IgA nephropathy. Discussion In most cases, MPA presents with rapidly progressive necrotizing glomerulonephritis and sometimes lung haemorrhage, while IgA nephropathy is less common among MPA cases. As recent research suggested that in MPA immunoglobulin deposition in the kidney may be an exacerbating factor for renal dysfunction and poor prognosis, close observation is required in these cases.
Endo, Yuichiro; Minato, Haruka; Taki, Reiko; Kato, Mayumi; Kore-Eda, Satoshi; Miyachi, Yoshiki; Tanioka, Miki
We report three cases of post-partum haemorrhage following caesarean delivery attributed to a false aneurysm of the uterine pedicle and treated with artery embolization. These lesion were probably post-traumatic in origin related to hysterotomy. Angiographic study of the anterior division of hypogastric arteries confirmed the diagnosis and embolization of the false aneurysm was successful in controlling the haemorrhage.
Gérôme Descargues; Françoise Douvrin; Antoine Gravier; Jean Paul Lemoine; Erick Clavier
Intraventricular haemorrhage is a major complication of prematurity that results in neurological dysfunctions, including cerebral palsy and cognitive deficits. No therapeutic options are currently available to limit the catastrophic brain damage initiated by the development of intraventricular haemorrhage. As intraventricular haemorrhage leads to an inflammatory response, we asked whether cyclooxygenase-2, its derivative prostaglandin E2, prostanoid receptors and pro-inflammatory cytokines were elevated in intraventricular haemorrhage; whether their suppression would confer neuroprotection; and determined how cyclooxygenase-2 and cytokines were mechanistically-linked. To this end, we used our rabbit model of intraventricular haemorrhage where premature pups, delivered by Caesarian section, were treated with intraperitoneal glycerol at 2 h of age to induce haemorrhage. Intraventricular haemorrhage was diagnosed by head ultrasound at 6 h of age. The pups with intraventricular haemorrhage were treated with inhibitors of cyclooxygenase-2, prostanoid receptor-1 or tumour necrosis factor-?; and cell-infiltration, cell-death and gliosis were compared between treated-pups and vehicle-treated controls during the first 3 days of life. Neurobehavioural performance, myelination and gliosis were assessed in pups treated with cyclooxygenase-2 inhibitor compared to controls at Day 14. We found that both protein and messenger RNA expression of cyclooxygenase-2, prostaglandin E2, prostanoid receptor-1, tumour necrosis factor-? and interleukin-1? were consistently higher in the forebrain of pups with intraventricular haemorrhage relative to pups without intraventricular haemorrhage. However, cyclooxygenase-1 and prostanoid receptor 2–4 levels were comparable in pups with and without intraventricular haemorrhage. Cyclooxygenase-2, prostanoid receptor-1 or tumour necrosis factor-? inhibition reduced inflammatory cell infiltration, apoptosis, neuronal degeneration and gliosis around the ventricles of pups with intraventricular haemorrhage. Importantly, cyclooxygenase-2 inhibition alleviated neurological impairment, improved myelination and reduced gliosis at 2 weeks of age. Cyclooxygenase-2 or prostanoid receptor-1 inhibition reduced tumour necrosis factor-? level, but not interleukin-1?. Conversely, tumour necrosis factor-? antagonism did not affect cyclooxygenase-2 expression. Hence, prostanoid receptor-1 and tumour necrosis factor-? are downstream to cyclooxygenase-2 in the inflammatory cascade induced by intraventricular haemorrhage, and cyclooxygenase-2-inhibition or suppression of downstream molecules—prostanoid receptor-1 or tumour necrosis factor-?—might be a viable neuroprotective strategy for minimizing brain damage in premature infants with intraventricular haemorrhage.
Vinukonda, Govindaiah; Csiszar, Anna; Hu, Furong; Dummula, Krishna; Pandey, Nishi Kant; Zia, Muhammad T.; Ferreri, Nicholas R.; Ungvari, Zoltan; LaGamma, Edmund F.
Background Upper gastrointestinal haemorrhage is mainly caused by ulcers. Gastric varicosis due to portal hypertension can also be held responsible for upper gastrointestinal bleeding. Portal hypertension causes the development of a collateral circulation from the portal to the caval venous system resulting in development of oesophageal and gastric fundus varices. Those may also be held responsible for upper gastrointestinal haemorrhage. Case presentation In this study, we describe the case of a 69-year-old male with recurrent severe upper gastrointestinal bleeding caused by arterial submucosal collaterals due to idiopathic splenic artery thrombosis. The diagnosis was secured using endoscopic duplex ultrasound and angiography. The patient was successfully treated with a laparoscopic splenectomy and complete dissection of the short gastric arteries, resulting in the collapse of the submucosal arteries in the gastric wall. Follow-up gastroscopy was performed on the 12th postoperative week and showed no signs of bleeding and a significant reduction in the arterial blood flow within the gastric wall. Subsequent follow-up after 6 months also showed no further gastrointestinal bleeding as well as subjective good quality of life for the patient. Conclusion Submucosal arterial collaterals must be excluded by endosonography via endoscopy in case of recurrent upper gastrointestinal bleeding. Laparoscopic splenectomy provides adequate treatment in preventing any recurrent bleeding, if gastric arterial collaterals are caused by splenic artery thrombosis.
Background The tonsillectomy is one of the most frequently performed surgical procedures. Given the comparatively frequent postsurgical bleeding associated with this procedure, particular attention has been paid to reduction of the postoperative bleeding rate. In 2006, we introduced routine suturing of the faucial pillars at our clinic to reduce postoperative haemorrhage. Methods Two groups from the years 2003–2005 (n?=?1000) and 2007–2009 (n?=?1000) have been compared. We included all patients who had an elective tonsillectomy due to a benign, non-acute inflammatory tonsil illness. In the years 2007–2009, we additionally sutured the faucial pillars after completing haemostasis. For primary haemostasis we used suture ligation and bipolar diathermy. Results The rate of bleeding requiring second surgery for haemostasis was 3.6% in 2003–2005 but only 2.0% in 2007–2009 (absolute risk reduction 1.6% (95% CI 0.22%–2.45%, p?=?0.04)). The median surgery time—including adenoidectomy and paracentesis surgery—increased from 25 to 31 minutes (p<0.01). Conclusions We have been able to substantiate that suturing of the faucial pillars nearly halves the rate of postoperative haemorrhage. Surgery takes 8 minutes longer on average. Bleeding occurs later, mostly after 24 h. The limitations of this study relate to its retrospective character and all the potential biases related to observational studies.
Senska, Gotz; Schroder, Hilal; Putter, Carolin; Dost, Philipp
Viral haemorrhagic fevers (VHFs) represent a challenge for public health because of their epidemic potential, and their possible use as bioterrorism agents poses particular concern. In 1999 the World Health Organization (WHO) proposed a case definition for VHFs, subsequently adopted by other international institutions with the aim of early detection of initial cases/outbreaks in western countries. We applied this case definition to reports of Ebola and Marburg virus infections to estimate its sensitivity to detect cases of the disease. We analyzed clinical descriptions of 795 reported cases of Ebola haemorrhagic fever: only 58.5% of patients met the proposed case definition. A similar figure was obtained reviewing 169 cases of Marburg diseases, of which only 64.5% were in accordance with the case definition. In conclusion, the WHO case definition for hemorrhagic fevers is too specific and has poor sensitivity both for case finding during Ebola or Marburg outbreaks, and for early detection of suspected cases in western countries. It can lead to a hazardous number of false negatives and its use should be discouraged for early detection of cases. PMID:20128442
Pittalis, Silvia; Fusco, Francesco Maria; Lanini, Simone; Nisii, Carla; Puro, Vincenzo; Lauria, Francesco Nicola; Ippolito, Giuseppe
Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever (CCHF) is a life-threatening viral haemorrhagic fever. This paper reports on the first multifocal outbreak recorded in the Afghanistan. The outbreak was detected in 2008 in the Western Region of the country and 30 cases (17 males and 13 females) were detected between 10 July and 22 October 2008. Standard case definitions based on World Health Organization sources were used. Most of the cases (27) occurred in Herat province; 25 were aged between 18-55, 1 was > 55 years and 4 were 12-18 years (median age was 27 years). The case fatality rate was 33%; 41% among males and 23% among females (P = 0.29). Significantly more patients infected by contact with meat and body fluids died that those whose contact was through animal husbandry or ticks (P = 0.0048). Of the 30 cases, 33 close contacts were traced; 3 were positive for CCHF IgM with no symptomatic evidence of the disease. PMID:22764441
Mofleh, J; Ahmad, Z
OBJECTIVE: To assess the efficacy of long term octreotide as adjuvant treatment to programmed endoscopic sclerotherapy after acute variceal haemorrhage in cirrhotic portal hypertension. DESIGN: Randomised clinical trial. SETTING: University hospital. SUBJECTS: 32 patients with cirrhotic portal hypertension. INTERVENTIONS: Programmed injection sclerotherapy with subcutaneous octreotide 50 micrograms twice daily for 6 months, or programmed injection sclerotherapy alone. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Episodes of recurrent variceal bleeding and survival. RESULTS: Significantly fewer patients receiving combined octreotide and sclerotherapy had episodes of recurrent variceal bleeding compared with patients given sclerotherapy alone (1/16 v 7/16; P = 0.037, Fisher's exact test), and their survival was significantly improved (P < 0.02, log rank test); this improvement was maintained for 12 months after the end of the study. Combined treatment also resulted in a sustained decrease in portal pressure (median decrease -6.0 mm Hg, interquartile range -10 to -4.75 mm Hg, P = 0.0002) compared with sclerotherapy alone (median increase 1.5 mm Hg, interquartile range 0.25 to 3.25 mm Hg), as well as a significant improvement in liver function as assessed by plasma concentrations of bilirubin, albumin, and alanine aminotransferase and by hepatocyte metabolism of aminopyrine labelled with carbon-14. CONCLUSION: Long term octreotide may be a valuable adjuvant to endoscopic sclerotherapy for acute variceal haemorrhage in cirrhotic portal hypertension.
Jenkins, S. A.; Baxter, J. N.; Critchley, M.; Kingsnorth, A. N.; Makin, C. A.; Ellenbogen, S.; Grime, J. S.; Love, J. G.; Sutton, R.
Changes of plasma catecholamine levels, dopamine-beta-hydroxylase (DBH) activity and survival were studied in pentobarbital anaesthetized dogs during haemorrhagic hypotension. Shock was elicited by bleeding the animals to a mean arterial pressure of 4 kPa. This pressure was maintained until 15% of the maximum bleeding volume had been taken up spontaneously, then the remaining shed blood was reinfused. Twelve out of 28 animals died within 24 hours. Catecholamine and DBH levels were measured by radioenzymatic methods. Haemorrhagic hypotension caused a significant rise in the plasma catecholamine and DBH levels but the magnitude and time course of the rise was different. The increase of the plasma catecholamine level was higher than that of DBH activity. The highest catecholamine level was observed at the time of the maximum bleeding volume. DBH activity reached its peak during spontaneous blood re-uptake, whereas at the same time the catecholamine level decreased. These results suggest that the decrease of sympathetic activity, as represented by the decreasing catecholamine level was not followed immediately by a similar trend in DBH activity, presumably due to the delayed transport of the enzyme. Both the catecholamine and the DBH levels were significantly higher in non-surviving animals in which an extremely high level represents the stage of irreversibility of the shock. PMID:6637523
Tárnoky, K; Nagy, S
Haemorrhagic-aneurismal bone cysts (HABCs) are quite rare, benign, non-neoplastic, expansive, and vascular locally destructive lesions. They are generally considered sequelae of an earlier trauma causing an overflow of blood into the bone. HABCs are classified as pseudocysts and they should be differentiated from true cysts because their treatment is different. Since few of these cysts involve subjective symptoms, most are discovered accidentally during radiography, while a sure diagnosis is likely to be obtained only during surgery, on discovery of a non-epithelialised cavity. Here, we report a typical case of a haemorrhagic-mandibular cyst in a 13-year-old girl, which was treated by opening the cavity and scraping its walls following diagnostic arteriography and post-operative transcutaneous intralesional embolization. No further complications were recorded in the post-operative period, although the convalescence lasted for a time longer than expected, because of anemia. No further surgery was performed. She has been disease-free for two years. Evaluation of intralesional blood flow is important for HABCs because of the hemorrhagic risk in surgery. Embolization seems to be a useful procedure in the treatment of HABCs and could be tried as the treatment modality in the standard protocol for the treatment of HABCs. PMID:23814588
Grecchi, Francesco; Zollino, Ilaria; Candotto, Valentina; Gallo, Francesco; Rubino, Giuseppe; Bianco, Raffaella; Carinci, Francesco
Haemorrhagic-aneurismal bone cysts (HABCs) are quite rare, benign, non-neoplastic, expansive, and vascular locally destructive lesions. They are generally considered sequelae of an earlier trauma causing an overflow of blood into the bone. HABCs are classified as pseudocysts and they should be differentiated from true cysts because their treatment is different. Since few of these cysts involve subjective symptoms, most are discovered accidentally during radiography, while a sure diagnosis is likely to be obtained only during surgery, on discovery of a non-epithelialised cavity. Here, we report a typical case of a haemorrhagic-mandibular cyst in a 13-year-old girl, which was treated by opening the cavity and scraping its walls following diagnostic arteriography and post-operative transcutaneous intralesional embolization. No further complications were recorded in the post-operative period, although the convalescence lasted for a time longer than expected, because of anemia. No further surgery was performed. She has been disease-free for two years. Evaluation of intralesional blood flow is important for HABCs because of the hemorrhagic risk in surgery. Embolization seems to be a useful procedure in the treatment of HABCs and could be tried as the treatment modality in the standard protocol for the treatment of HABCs.
Grecchi, Francesco; Zollino, Ilaria; Candotto, Valentina; Gallo, Francesco; Rubino, Giuseppe; Bianco, Raffaella; Carinci, Francesco
Summary CT findings, angiography and clinical course were analyzed in a series of 31 patients with a recent subarachnoid haemorrhage (SAH) from an aneurysm of the anterior communicating artery (ACoAA). It is shown that 3 types of bleedings can be distinguished according to the CT findings. In thefirst group (52%), suffering a mild or moderate bleeding into the basal cisterns
P. Stoeter; H.-J. Reulen; U. Groeger
ABSTRACT: Critical care physicians are increasingly facing patients receiving oral anticoagulation for either cessation of major haemorrhage or to reverse the effects of vitamin K antagonists ahead of emergency surgery. Rapid reversal of anticoagulation is particularly essential in cases of life-threatening bleeding. In these situations, guidelines recommend the concomitant administration of prothrombin complex concentrates (PCCs) and oral or intravenous vitamin
Regional inhomogeneity of cerebrovascular CO2-sensitivity as well as its changes at three different levels of standardized haemorrhagic hypotension were studied in ten distinct brain and spinal cord regions of anesthetized, ventilated cats. Regional cerebral blood flow was measured with radiolabelled microspheres in hypocapnic, normocapnic, and hypercapnic conditions, and CO2-responsiveness was determined from the equation of the slopes of the best fit regression lines to the obtained flow values. It was concluded that in normotensive, normoxic cats response of the cerebral and spinal vessels to PaCO2 alterations can be assigned to four major categories. The CO2-responsiveness of a brain region is not solely determined by the rate of its basal steady state blood flow: CO2-reactivity of the hypothalamus was significantly different from that of any other investigated regions with almost identical steady state flow values. Vulnerability of the cerebrovascular CO2-sensitivity during hypotension was different from region to region, with the vessels of the pons-medulla oblongata region being the most sensitive to haemorrhage. Reduced regional cerebral and spinal CO2-responsiveness during haemorrhage is not a consequence of a reduced L-arginine supply for nitric oxide generation since administration of an excess amount of the precursor L-arginine failed to restore the haemorrhage-induced reduction of regional CO2-sensitivity at the 60 mm Hg mean arterial pressure level. PMID:9219594
Komjáti, K; Sándor, P; Reivich, M; Greenberg, J H; Kovách, A G; Jaggi, J L; Nyáry, I
BACKGROUND: Vector-borne diseases are the most dreaded worldwide health problems. Although many campaigns against it have been conducted, Dengue Fever (DF) and Dengue Haemorrhagic Fever (DHF) are still the major health problems of Thailand. The reported number of dengue incidences in 1998 for the Thailand was 129,954, of which Sukhothai province alone reported alarming number of 682. It was the
Kanchana Nakhapakorn; Nitin Kumar Tripathi
A 40-year-old man with known definite Behçet's disease (BD) was admitted with confusional state which had started 4 days before admission with an acute headache and vomiting. Neurological examination revealed confusion, stiff neck, right facial weakness, left hemiparesis, dysartria and truncal ataxia. CSF was haemorrhagic and xanthochromic. Cranial CT scans were negative, but MRI showed a right pontine hyperintense lesion
S. Bahar; O. Çoban; I. H. Gürvit; G. Akman-Demir; A. Gökyigit
Seroepidemiological surveys were conducted to determine the frequency and distribution of haemorrhagic fever virus (HFV) activity in the Central African Republic. Human serum specimens (4295) were collected from 5 ecologically distinct zones. Serological evidence of HFV activity was found in all the zones. The filo- virus antibody prevalence (24.4%, 1051\\/4295) was greater than the combined prevalence for Lassa virus, Rift
E. D. Johnson; J. P. Gonzalez; Alain Georges
Leptospirosis is a zoonotic infection associated with severe diseases such as leptospirosis pulmonary haemorrhage syndrome (LPHS). The cause of pulmonary haemorrhage is unclear. Understanding which mechanisms and processes are involved in LPHS will be important in treatment regimens under development for this life-threatening syndrome. In the present study, we evaluated 30 lung specimens from LPHS patients and seven controls using histology and immunohistochemistry (detection of IgM, IgG, IgA and C3) in order to describe the pathological features associated with this syndrome. Immunoglobulin deposits were detected on the alveolar surface in 18/30 LPHS patients. Three staining patterns were observed for the immunoglobulins and C3 in the lung tissues of LPHS patients: AS, delicate linear staining adjacent to the alveolar surface, which was indicative of a membrane covering the luminal surface of type I and II pneumocyte cells; S, heterogeneous staining which was sporadically distributed along the alveolar septum; and IA, weak, focal intra-alveolar granular staining. Human LPHS is associated with individual and unique histological patterns that differ from those of other causes of pulmonary haemorrhage. In the present study, it was found that the linear deposition of immunoglobulins (IgA, IgG and IgM) and complement on the alveolar surface may play a role in the pathogenesis of pulmonary haemorrhage in human leptospirosis. PMID:19778300
Croda, J; Neto, A N D; Brasil, R A; Pagliari, C; Nicodemo, A C; Duarte, M I S
Soft tissue haemorrhage in the foot is a possible precursor of ulceration in patients with diabetic peripheral neuropathy. High resolution 'targetted' magnetic resonance imaging was used to scan the forefoot. Neuropathic patients with and without previous ulceration were matched for degree of neuropathy, mean vibration perception threshold 33.5 +/- 4.2 V (previous ulcer) vs 31.0 +/- 6.9 V (no ulcer), age, sex, and duration of diabetes against non-neuropathic controls. There were nine patients in each category. Paramagnetic materials, e.g. iron compounds, cause a signal void ('drop-out') on gradient-echo images which disappear on spin-echo images. Evidence of haemorrhage was seen in 6 patients with previous ulceration, and none in the other groups (p = 0.009, chi square test). Autologous injection of 20 microliters of blood into the foot of a healthy volunteer produced similar images, a 'drop-out' 1 cm across being visible on magnetic resonance scanning 3 days later. Peak vertical forefoot pressures were not significantly different in the neuropathic groups 0.67 +/- 0.20 vs 0.60 +/- 0.13 Pa but were lower in the non-neuropathic group, 0.43 +/- 0.11 Pa (p = 0.0004, Mann-Whitney), and do not explain the appearance of these haemorrhages. Magnetic resonance imaging provides a sensitive way of detecting micro-haemorrhage and its presence may predict an increased risk of foot ulceration. PMID:8946156
Brash, P D; Foster, J E; Vennart, W; Daw, J; Tooke, J E
A 67 year old Japanese male patient had pure agraphia after a haemorrhage in the left superior parietal lobule. He developed difficulty in letter formation but showed no linguistic errors, consistent with the criteria of apraxic agraphia. He manifested a selective disorder of sequencing writing strokes, although he was able to orally state the correct sequences. The patient’s complete recovery
Mika Otsuki; Yoshiaki Soma; Toshiko Arai; Atsuko Otsuka; Shoji Tsuji
BackgroundThe risks and benefits of low molecular weight heparins (LMWH) for the prevention of deep-vein thrombosis (DVT) and pulmonary embolism (PE) after intracerebral haemorrhage (ICH) have not been assessed. The few studies on this subject have revealed conflicting results.
Sami Tetri; Johanna Hakala; Seppo Juvela; Pertti Saloheimo; Juhani Pyhtinen; Harri Rusanen; Eeva-Riitta Savolainen; Matti Hillbom
Objective: In the poor underdeveloped countries, anaemia is very common in pregnant women. Maternal mortality is four times higher in severely anaemic women than non-anaemic ones and postpartum haemorrhage (PPH) is the most common cause of death. Its main cause is uterine atony, which accounts for more than 70%. The objective of this study is to evaluate the use of sublingual misoprostol in different doses of 600, 800 and1000?g in management of the third stage of labor, with regards to blood loss and incidence of atonic postpartum haemorrhag (APPH). Study Design: Double blind randomized controlled study Methods : One thousand and two hundred parturient were studied in a control and three study groups, each composed of 300 women. Methylergometrine 0.2 mg IM injection and sublingual misoprostol 600, 800 and 1000 ?g tablets were given to women in control and the three study groups respectively, immediately after delivery. Outcome Measures: Duration of the third stage of labour, Blood loss in the third stage of labour, Outcomes in anaemic compared to non-anaemic women, Incidance of atonic postpartum haemorrhage in different groups, Haemoglobin deficit after 24 hrs of delivery, Changes in the women’s blood pressure during the study, Side effects of the drug, and, Women’s acceptability of sublingual misoprostol administration. Results : Only significant reduction in blood loss and haemoglobin deficits were seen in the third stage of labour and after delivery in women used misoprostol doses of 800 ?g and 1000 ?g. The incidences of PPH in studied women and controls were almost similar, ranging between 2 and 3%. Similar results were seen in anaemic and non-anaemic women with a higher incidence of APPH in the non-misoprostol user anaemic women. Side effects of the drug were dose related. Conclusion : Misoprostol in high dose may be used for managing third stage of labour to reduce maternal morbidity and mortality due to APPH particularly, in the poor underdeveloped countries where, facilities to deliver in health centers, purchase and store the oxytocic ampoules or medically trained persons are not readily available in all places. Benefits of large dose misoprostol outweigh its side effects.
Soltan, M.H.; El-Gendi, E.; Imam, H. H.; Fathi, O
Leptospirosis is a rare notifiable disease with three major clinical manifestations: subclinical disease, a self limiting illness (90% cases) and Weil's disease, a fulminant, life-threatening condition with renal and hepatic failure, haemorrhagic pneumonitis and cardiovascular collapse. Diagnosis is by the detection of IgM antibodies to leptospira produced 7 to 14 days after the onset of illness. It is important for acute physicians to consider this condition in their initial differential diagnosis since early treatment reduces the severity and duration of symptoms and hospital stay. A history of environmental or occupational exposure to animals or potentially infected water should raise suspicions of leptospirosis. This article aims to remind clinicians of the diagnosis and management of this condition. The typical symptoms and signs are illustrated by a recent case which presented to our department. PMID:21611611
Dawson, S; Lind, A; Cannon, C
The landmark publications that gave such impetus to our understanding of proliferative diabetic retinopathy are reviewed in the light of more recent reports. Briefly, confluence of small areas of capillary closure in the midperipheral and peripheral retina results in arteriovenous shunting and abnormal oxygen partial pressure gradients. These gradients embrace a chronic ischaemic penumbra that stimulates neuroglial secretion of angiogenic growth factors and upregulation of their receptors in the retinal venous endothelium and adventitia. The blood shunting produces biomechanical stresses within the veins and induces microvascular intussusception near arteriovenous crossings, giving way to neovascular outgrowths and/or segmental venous lesions (such as omega loops and coils) that penetrate the inner limiting lamina. The lamellar collagenous matrix of the vitreous cortex is then exploited for integrin?dependent rete expansion along chemotactic gradients. During posterior vitreous detachment, haemorrhaging takes place from the arterialised veins as venous neovascular peduncles are avulsed.
Since summer 2010, numerous cases of Rabbit Haemorrhagic Disease (RHD) have been reported in north-western France both in rabbitries, affecting RHD-vaccinated rabbits, and in wild populations. We demonstrate that the aetiological agent was a lagovirus phylogenetically distinct from other lagoviruses and which presents a unique antigenic profile. Experimental results show that the disease differs from RHD in terms of disease duration, mortality rates, higher occurrence of subacute/chronic forms and that partial cross-protection occurs between RHDV and the new RHDV variant, designated RHDV2. These data support the hypothesis that RHDV2 is a new member of the Lagovirus genus. A molecular epidemiology study detected RHDV2 in France a few months before the first recorded cases and revealed that one year after its discovery it had spread throughout the country and had almost replaced RHDV strains. RHDV2 was detected in continental Italy in June 2011, then four months later in Sardinia. PMID:24011218
Le Gall-Reculé, Ghislaine; Lavazza, Antonio; Marchandeau, Stéphane; Bertagnoli, Stéphane; Zwingelstein, Françoise; Cavadini, Patrizia; Martinelli, Nicola; Lombardi, Guerino; Guérin, Jean-Luc; Lemaitre, Evelyne; Decors, Anouk; Boucher, Samuel; Le Normand, Bernadette; Capucci, Lorenzo
A patient is described presenting with an acute lower gastrointestinal haemorrhage as a result of extensive colonic varices. Further investigation revealed that there were no oesophageal varices or splenomegaly. Liver biopsy showed grade II fatty change only, with no other specific or significant pathological features. Transhepatic portography showed a raised portal pressure (20 mm/Hg) but the portal system was patent throughout. There was an abnormal leash of vessels in the caecum thought to represent a variceal plexus. This patient was diagnosed as having idiopathic colonic varices. This case is discussed together with nine other reports of idiopathic colonic varices from the published literature. Four of these reports describe idiopathic colonic varices in more than one member of the same family. Possible modes of inheritance, aetiology of variceal change, natural history, and prognosis are discussed. PMID:1427383
Iredale, J P; Ridings, P; McGinn, F P; Arthur, M J
This paper is a discussion of the case of a 51-year-old female patient admitted urgently for haemorrhage from the upper gastrointestinal tract and increased dysphagia. After preliminary treatment, the patient was qualified for surgery, during which a large lesion was discovered in the shape of a stromal tumor closely connected with the oesophago-gastric junction. A resection of the tumor and part of the oesophagus was carried out, and a cervical fistula was formed. After a 4-month period, the continuity of the gastrointestinal tract was restored by forming a substitute organ out of the ascending colon and the end of the small intestine, anastomosed on the cervix. The patient was discharged in good overall condition. PMID:24868300
Pedowski, Tomasz; Pedowska, Marlena; Masiak, Wioletta; Ciecha?ski, Aleksander; Cwik, Grzegorz; D?browski, Andrzej; Wallner, Grzegorz
We report a rare case of haemorrhagic colitis attributed to dasatinib therapy in a 47-year-old African-American woman who was diagnosed with extramedullary T-lymphoblastic transformation of chronic myeloid leukaemia. The patient received intensive chemotherapy and dasatinib 100 mg/day. After achieving complete cytogenetic and major molecular response after 9 months of therapy, she developed bloody diarrhoea and pancytopenia. Colonoscopy showed inflammation of the descending colon and histopathology revealed patchy increase in intraepithelial lymphocytes. Dasatinib was stopped with prompt resolution of diarrhoea. The current literature suggests that there is an association in a subset of patients on dasatinib between clonal T-cell lymphocytosis in the peripheral blood and developing colitis and pleural effusions. These patients had a good response to dasatinib as did our patient. Our patient illustrates a unique disease presentation along with a rare drug adverse event. PMID:24334470
Chisti, Mohammad Muhsin; Khachani, Amine; Brahmanday, Govinda R; Klamerus, Justin
Hereditary haemorrhagic telangiectasia (HHT) is an autosomal dominant disorder characterised by epistaxis, telangiectases, and multiorgan vascular dysplasia. The two major types of disease, HHT1 and HHT2, are caused by mutations in the ENG (endoglin) and ACVRL1 genes, respectively. The corresponding endoglin and ALK?1 proteins are specific endothelial receptors of the transforming growth factor ? superfamily essential for maintaining vascular integrity. Many mutations have been identified in ENG and ACVRL1 genes and support the haploinsufficiency model for HHT. Two more genes have recently been implicated in HHT: MADH4 mutated in a combined syndrome of juvenile polyposis and HHT (JPHT), and an unidentified HHT3 gene linked to chromosome 5. Current knowledge on the genetics of HHT is summarised, including the pathways that link the genes responsible for HHT and the potential mechanisms underlying the pathogenesis of the disease.
Abdalla, S A; Letarte, M
Ebolavirus has caused highly lethal outbreaks of haemorrhagic fever in the Congo basin. The 2005 outbreak in the Republic of Congo occurred in the Etoumbi district of Cuvette Ouest Department between April and May. The two index cases were infected while poaching. The sanitary response consisted of active surveillance and contact tracing, public awareness campaigns and community mobilization, case management and safe burial practices, and laboratory confirmation. Twelve cases and ten deaths were reported (lethality 83%). A transmission tree was constructed from a sample collected by a medical team. This outbreak was remarkable by its short duration and limited size. Increased awareness among these previously affected populations and the rapid response of the healthcare system probably contributed to its extinction. PMID:21605882
Nkoghe, Dieudonné; Kone, Mamadou Lamine; Yada, Adamou; Leroy, Eric
Crimean–Congo haemorrhagic fever virus (CCHFV) is a member of the Nairovirus genus within the Bunyaviridae family of segmented negative-sense RNA viruses. This paper describes the expression, purification and crystallization of full-length CCHFV nucleocapsid (N) protein and the collection of a 2.1?Å resolution X-ray diffraction data set using synchrotron radiation. Crystals of the CCHFV N protein belonged to space group C2, with unit-cell parameters a = 150.38, b = 72.06, c = 101.23?Å, ? = 110.70° and two molecules in the asymmetric unit. Circular-dichroism analysis provided insight into the secondary structure, whilst gel-filtration analysis revealed possible oligomeric states of the N protein. Structural determination is ongoing.
Carter, S. D.; Barr, J. N.; Edwards, T. A.
A dot enzyme immunoassay (DEIA) for the detection of antibodies to dengue virus was tested for use as a tool in the presumptive diagnosis of dengue fever and dengue haemorrhagic fever. Paired sera from the following groups of patients were tested using the DEIA and the haemagglutination inhibition (HI) test: those with primary dengue fever; those experiencing a second dengue infection; and febrile patients who did not have dengue. The data obtained show that the DEIA can be effectively used at a serum dilution of 1:1000 to confirm presumptive recent dengue in patients with a second dengue infection. However, demonstration of seroconversion proved necessary for patients with primary dengue. At a serum dilution of 1:1000 the DEIA has a specificity of 97.3%. The role of this simple and rapid test in improving the effectivity of programmes for the control of dengue virus infection is discussed.
Cardosa, M. J.; Tio, P. H.
Although massive haemorrhage at caesarean section (CS) for placenta praevia is a serious concern, effective treatment is not yet determined. We performed a new uterine sandwich to achieve haemostasis at CS for total placenta praevia in five consecutive cases in whom the placenta reached up to >5 cm from the internal cervical os in all directions of an uterine wall. A Matsubara-Yano (MY) uterine compression suture was placed, followed by placement of an intrauterine balloon. Haemostasis was achieved in all five cases with median blood loss of 1618 mL. No short-term adverse events were observed. The MY sandwich can be used to achieve haemostasis at CS for placenta praevia. PMID:24506478
Matsubara, Shigeki; Kuwata, Tomoyuki; Baba, Yosuke; Usui, Rie; Suzuki, Hirotada; Takahashi, Hironori; Ohkuchi, Akihide; Suzuki, Mitsuaki
Haemorrhagic transformation (HT) of recently ischaemic brain is a feared complication of thrombolytic therapy that may be caused or compounded by ischaemia-induced activation of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs). The tetracycline antibiotic minocycline inhibits matrix MMPs and reduces macroscopic HT in rodents with stroke treated with tissue plasminogen activator (tPA). The West Australian Intravenous Minocycline and TPA Stroke Study (WAIMATSS) aims to determine the safety and efficacy of adding minocycline to tPA in acute ischaemic stroke. The WAIMATSS is a multicentre, prospective, and randomised pilot study of intravenous minocycline, 200?mg 12 hourly for 5 doses, compared with standard care, in patients with ischaemic stroke treated with intravenous tPA. The primary endpoint is HT diagnosed by brain CT and MRI. Secondary endpoints include clinical outcome measures. Some illustrative cases from the early recruitment phase of this study will be presented, and future perspectives will be discussed.
Blacker, David J.; Prentice, David; Alvaro, Anthony; Bates, Timothy R.; Bynevelt, Michael; Kelly, Andrew; Kho, Lay Kun; Kohler, Edith; Hankey, Graeme J.; Thompson, Andrew; Major, Taryn
This paper is a discussion of the case of a 51-year-old female patient admitted urgently for haemorrhage from the upper gastrointestinal tract and increased dysphagia. After preliminary treatment, the patient was qualified for surgery, during which a large lesion was discovered in the shape of a stromal tumor closely connected with the oesophago-gastric junction. A resection of the tumor and part of the oesophagus was carried out, and a cervical fistula was formed. After a 4-month period, the continuity of the gastrointestinal tract was restored by forming a substitute organ out of the ascending colon and the end of the small intestine, anastomosed on the cervix. The patient was discharged in good overall condition.
Pedowska, Marlena; Masiak, Wioletta; Ciechanski, Aleksander; Cwik, Grzegorz; Dabrowski, Andrzej; Wallner, Grzegorz
Spontaneous external haemorrhage from the umbilical varix is an extremely rare complication of portal hypertension. Bleeding is usually into the peritoneal cavity and the treatment involves urgent laparotomy and ligation of the bleeding varices. We describe a cirrhotic 38-year-old man who presented with spontaneous external haemorrhage from the umbilical varix which was successfully managed laparoscopically by in-situ distal clipping and proximal transcutaneous ligation of the recanalised paraumbilical veins. We therefore feel that laparoscopy can be safely and effectively employed to control external haemorrhage from the umbilical varix associated with liver cirrhosis. This novel technique can help avoid a laparotomy and also help preserve the umbilicus. PMID:22623827
Zachariah, Sanoop K; Krishnankutty, Sreejith L; Raja, Nirmalan
The aim of this study was to investigate the relation between microvascular and venous oxygen pressures during haemorrhagic shock and resuscitation in the pig intestine. To this end microvascular PO2 (?PO2) was measured by quenching of Pd-porphyrin phosphorescence by oxygen and validated for the intestines. In addition, mesenteric venous blood gasses, blood flow, ilial CO2 production and global haemodynamics were also measured.In one group (n= 11), moderate shock was induced by withdrawal of 40% of the circulating blood volume. Seven of these animals were resuscitated with a crystalloid solution and four with the withdrawn blood. In a second group of three animals, a more severe shock was induced by withdrawal of 50% of the circulating blood volume; these animals were not resuscitated.Baseline mesenteric venous PO2 and ?PO2 values were similar (60 ± 9 and 60 ± 11 mmHg, respectively). During moderate shock, ?PO2 dropped significantly below mesenteric venous PO2 (26 ± 10 versus 35 ± 8 mmHg). After resuscitation with crystalloid solution, ?PO2 and mesenteric venous PO2 rose to 44 ± 9 and 44 ± 6 mmHg, respectively. In the group that received the withdrawn blood, values were 41 ± 9 and 53 ± 12 mmHg, respectively. Severe shock resulted in a drop in the mesenteric venous PO2 (n= 3) to a value similar to that seen in the moderate shock group, but the gut ?PO2 dropped to a much lower value than that of the moderate shock group (15 ± 5 versus 26 ± 10 mmHg).The results indicate that the oxygenation of the microcirculation of the gut can become lower than the venous PO2 under conditions of haemorrhagic shock.
Sinaasappel, M; van Iterson, M; Ince, C
Dabigatran is an oral direct thrombin inhibitor (DTI) licensed for stroke prevention in atrial fibrillation and likely to be soon approved in Europe for treatment of venous thrombosis. Predictable pharmacokinetics and a reduced risk of intracranial haemorrhage do not negate the potential risk of haemorrhage. Unlike warfarin, there is no reversal agent and measurement of the anticoagulant effect is not 'routine'. The prothrombin time/international normalised ratio response to dabigatran is inconsistent and should not be measured when assessing a patient who is bleeding or needs emergency surgery. The activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT) provides a qualitative measurement of the anticoagulant effect of dabigatran. Knowledge of the time of last dose is important for interpretation of the APTT. Commercially available DTI assays provide a quantitative measurement of active dabigatran concentration in the plasma. If a patient receiving dabigatran presents with bleeding: omit/delay next dose of dabigatran; measure APTT and thrombin time (consider DTI assay if available); administer activated charcoal, with sorbitol, if within 2 h of dabigatran ingestion; give tranexamic acid (1 g intravenously if significant bleeding); maintain renal perfusion and urine output to aid dabigatran excretion. Dabigatran exhibits low protein binding and may be removed by dialysis. Supportive care should form the mainstay of treatment. If bleeding is life/limb threatening, consider an additional haemostatic agent. There is currently no evidence to support the choice of one haemostatic agent (FEIBA, recombinant factor VIIa, prothrombin complex concentrates) over another. Choice will depend on access to and experience with available haemostatic agent(s). PMID:23435652
Alikhan, Raza; Rayment, Rachel; Keeling, David; Baglin, Trevor; Benson, Gary; Green, Laura; Marshall, Scott; Patel, Raj; Pavord, Sue; Rose, Peter; Tait, Campbell
Hereditary haemorrhagic telangiectasia (HHT) is an autosomal dominant genetic condition affecting the vascular system and is characterised by epistaxis, arteriovenous malformations and mucocutaneous and gastrointestinal telangiectases. This disorder affects approximately 1 in 8,000 people worldwide. Significant morbidity is associated with this condition in affected individuals, and anaemia can be a consequence of repeated haemorrhages from telangiectasia in the gut and nose. In the majority of the cases reported, the condition is caused by mutations in either ACVRL1 or endoglin genes, which encode components of the TGF-beta signalling pathway. Numerous missense mutations in endoglin have been reported as causative defects for HHT but the exact underlying cellular mechanisms caused by these mutations have not been fully established despite data supporting a role for the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) quality control machinery. For this reason, we examined the subcellular trafficking of twenty-five endoglin disease-causing missense mutations. The mutant proteins were expressed in HeLa and HEK293 cell lines, and their subcellular localizations were established by confocal fluorescence microscopy alongside the analysis of their N-glycosylation profiles. ER quality control was found to be responsible in eight (L32R, V49F, C53R, V125D, A160D, P165L, I271N and A308D) out of eleven mutants located on the orphan extracellular domain in addition to two (C363Y and C382W) out of thirteen mutants in the Zona Pellucida (ZP) domain. In addition, a single intracellular domain missense mutant was examined and found to traffic predominantly to the plasma membrane. These findings support the notion of the involvement of the ER's quality control in the mechanism of a significant number, but not all, missense endoglin mutants found in HHT type 1 patients. Other mechanisms including loss of interactions with signalling partners as well as adverse effects on functional residues are likely to be the cause of the mutant proteins' loss of function.
Ali, Bassam R.; Ben-Rebeh, Imen; John, Anne; Akawi, Nadia A.; Milhem, Reham M.; Al-Shehhi, Nouf A.; Al-Ameri, Mouza M.; Al-Shamisi, Shamma A.; Al-Gazali, Lihadh
Haemorrhagic shock (HS) and fluid resuscitation can lead to increased reactive oxygen species (ROS), contributing to ischaemia-reperfusion injury and organ damage. Ubiquinol is a potent antioxidant that decreases ROS. This study examined the effects of ubiquinol administered with fluid resuscitation following controlled HS. Adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly assigned to treatment [ubiquinol, 1 mg (100 g body weight)(-1)] or control groups. Rats were subjected to 60 min of HS by removing 40% of the total blood volume to a mean arterial pressure ?45-55 mmHg. The animals were resuscitated with blood and lactated Ringer solution, with or without ubiquinol, and monitored for 120 min. At the end of the experiments, the rats were killed and the lungs, diaphragm, heart and kidneys harvested. Leucocytes were analysed for mitochondrial superoxide at baseline, end of shock and 120 min following fluid resuscitation using MitoSOX Red. Diaphragms were examined for hydrogen peroxide using dihydrofluorescein diacetate and confocal microscopy. The apoptosis in lungs, diaphragm, heart and kidneys was measured using fluorescence microscopy with acridine orange and ethidium bromide. Leucocyte mitochondrial superoxide levels were significantly lower in rats that received ubiquinol than in the control animals. Production of hydrogen peroxide and apoptosis were significantly reduced in the organs of rats treated with ubiquinol. These findings suggest that ubiquinol, administered with fluid resuscitation after HS, attenuates ROS production and apoptosis. Thus, ubiquinol is a potent antioxidant that may be used as a potential treatment to reduce organ injury following haemorrhagic events. PMID:24860150
Bennetts, Paul; Shen, Qiuhua; Thimmesch, Amanda R; Diaz, Francisco J; Clancy, Richard L; Pierce, Janet D
Visual functions are often impaired in preterm infants with periventricular haemorrhagic infarction, because of the involvement of the region where the optic radiations are located. In some cases an unexpected sparing of the visual fields has been described, and related to the plasticity of thalamo-cortical afferents that are supposedly able to bypass the lesion when it occurs in the early third trimester of gestation. We systematically reviewed the literature in the field to determine the limits and potentials of this type of reorganization. We found four studies meeting our criteria, from which we extracted case reports on 19 individuals with intraventricular haemorrhagic infarction. Eleven of the 19 did not have visual field defects, five had a bilateral visual field defect, and the remaining three had a unilateral visual field defect. The involvement of the optic radiations was often associated with normal visual fields as only one of the four individuals with damaged optic radiations showed visual field defects. Conversely, the presence of basal ganglia/thalamus involvement apparently prevented such reorganization, as the only two individuals with unilateral field restriction and available magnetic resonance imaging data both showed abnormalities in those structures. Consistent with this, we report on a further individual in which visual field restriction was associated with abnormal tractography on brain magnetic resonance imaging. Overall, this review supports the existence of effective mechanisms of plastic reorganization that allow a rewiring of geniculo-calcarine connections with restoration of full field vision but which are hindered by the involvement of the basal ganglia and thalamus. PMID:24237275
Guzzetta, Andrea; Fiori, Simona; Scelfo, Danilo; Conti, Eugenia; Bancale, Ada
Lack of an effective treatment for spontaneous intracerebral haemorrhage (ICH) is partly because the mechanism of neuronal damage in ICH is not fully understood. Animal experiments have shown that there is a zone of ischaemia and oedema around the haematoma which can be reduced by early evacuation of the mass lesion. We set out to study Cerebral Blood Flow (CBF) changes in patients with ICH. We present data on 13 patients (mean age 60). SPECT scans were performed within 48 hours of ictus and 4-7 days later. Four patients had surgical evacuation of the clot; 9 were managed conservatively. The ratio of uptake of the isotope in the cerebral hemisphere containing the haematoma to the isotope uptake in the contra-lateral (un-affected) cerebral hemisphere was taken as an index of perfusion of the affected cerebral hemisphere. The perfusion index of the affected hemisphere improved between the first and the second scans in all the surgically treated patients; in the conservatively managed group, it was worse in 6 patients, the same in 1 and very slightly better in 2. There was an overall mean improvement of 3.87% in the surgical group, and an overall mean deterioration of 3.61% in the medical group. This data suggests that surgical evacuation of the clot may improve perfusion in the ipsilateral cerebral hemisphere in ICH. It underlines the importance of a prospective randomised trial to assess the value of surgery in patients with ICH. The Surgical Trial in Intracerebral Haemorrhage (STICH) is currently underway worldwide. We also describe the application of Difference Based Region Growing (DBRG) to SPECT image analysis. This method overcomes the difficulties posed by 1) the presence of a mass lesion and 2) surgical evacuation of haematoma. PMID:11450081
Siddique, M S; Fernandes, H M; Arene, N U; Wooldridge, T D; Fenwick, J D; Mendelow, A D
Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever (CCHF) is a disease with a severe course including acute viral haemorrhagic fever, ecchymosis, thrombocytopenia, hepatic function disorder and high mortality. Myeloperoxidase (MPO) is an enzyme located in neutrophil granulocytes and plays an important role in the destruction of phagocytosed micro-organisms. The aim of this study was to analyse MPO enzyme activity in CCHF cases compared with a control group. A total of 47 randomly selected CCHF patients admitted to the Department of Infectious Diseases of Cumhuriyet University Hospital in Sivas, Turkey, were studied, and as a control group, 41 age- and sex-matched individuals without any systemic disease were included in this study. MPO enzyme activity was measured in plasma and leukocytes for both groups by the ELISA method. MPO plasma and MPO leukocyte values were calculated as 57.62 ± 8.85 and 44.84 ± 9.71 in CCHF patients, and 0.79 ± 0.29 and 0.49 ± 0.11 in the controls, respectively. MPO enzyme activity was statistically significantly higher in patients with CCHF when compared to the control group. In conclusion, MPO enzyme activity is directly related to the activation of phagocytic leukocytes, and increases in both the plasma and leukocytes in CCHF patients. The increase of the MPO enzyme activity in leukocytes due to viral load leads to the destruction of the leukocyte. It is thought that MPO enzyme activity in plasma was higher in CCHF patients due to the destruction of leukocytes. MPO enzyme activity may be important in terms of the prognosis in patients with CCHF; however, more extensive studies are required on this subject. PMID:23139398
Guven, F M K; Aydin, H; Yildiz, G; Engin, A; Celik, V K; Bakir, D; Deveci, K
Background Acute non-traumatic focal subarachnoid haemorrhage (fSAH) is a rare transient ischaemic attack (TIA)-mimic. MRI is considered to be indispensable by some authors in order to avoid misdiagnosis, and subsequent improper therapy. We therefore evaluated the role of CT and MRI in the diagnosis of fSAH patients by comparing our cases to those from the literature. Methods From 01/2010 to 12/2012 we retrospectively identified seven patients with transient neurological episodes due to fSAH, who had received unenhanced thin-sliced multiplanar CT and subsequent MRI within 3 days on a 1.5 T scanner. MRI protocol included at least fast-field-echo (FFE), diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI), T2-weighted fluid-attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR) and time-of-flight (TOF) MRA sequences. By using MRI as gold-standard, we re-evaluated images and data from recent publications regarding the sensitivity to detect fSAH in unenhanced CT. Results fSAH was detected by CT and by FFE and FLAIR on MRI in all of our own cases. However, DWI and T2w-spin-echo sequences revealed fSAH in 3 of 7 and 4 of 6 cases respectively. Vascular imaging was negative in all cases. FFE-MRI revealed additional multiple microbleeds and superficial siderosis in 4 of 7 patients and 5 of 7 patients respectively. Including data from recently published literature CT scans delivered positive results for fSAH in 95 of 100 cases (95%), whereas MRI was positive for fSAH in 69 of 69 cases (100%). Conclusions Thin-sliced unenhanced CT is a valuable emergency diagnostic tool to rule out intracranial haemorrhage including fSAH in patients with acute transient neurological episodes if immediate MRI is not available. However, MRI work-up is crucial and mandatorily has to be completed within the next 24–72 hours.
The pathogenic mechanisms underlying betel quid chewing (BQC)-induced gastric haemorrhagic ulcer are totally unknown. This study first demonstrated that BQC produced gastric haemorrhagic ulcer via oxidative stress that could be protected by lysozyme chloride and glutathione in rats. Male Wistar rats were fed with regular pellet food or BQC-containing diets. After 1–90 days rats were deprived of food for 24
Objectives: In the current prospective study our aim was to analyse the distribution of the factor V Leiden (G1691A) mutation in preterm and full-term neonates with grade I intraventricular haemorrhage and in control neonates. Study Method: A group of 125 individually selected neonates with grade I intraventricular haemorrhage and 128 controls were investigated. Results: The allele frequency was 7.2% in
K. Komlósi; V. Havasi; J. Bene; J. Storcz; J. Stankovics; G. Mohay; J. Weisenbach; G. Kosztolányi; B. Melegh
The objective of the study is to investigate the anti-snake venom activities of a local plant, Hibiscus aethiopicus L. The H. aethiopicus was dried and extracted with ethanol. Different assays were performed according to standard techniques, to evaluate the plant's acute toxicity and its antivenom activities. The results of evaluating the systemic acute toxicity of the H. aethiopicus extract using "oral and intra-peritoneal" route were normal even at the highest dose (24?g/kg) tested. All guinea pigs (n = 3) when treated with venoms E. c. sochureki (75??g) alone induced acute skin haemorrhage. In contrast, all guinea pigs (n = 18) treated with both venom and the plant extract at a concentration between 500 and 1000?mg/kg showed no signs of haemorrhage. Moreover, all guinea pigs (n = 18) treated with venom and the plant extract below 400?mg/kg showed acute skin haemorrhage. All guinea pigs treated with venom E. c. sochureki (75??g) alone induced acute skin haemorrhage after both 24 and 32 hours. In contrast, all guinea pigs treated with both venom and the plant extract (administered independently) at concentrations between 500 and 1000?mg/kg showed no signs of haemorrhage after 32 hours. However, after 24 hours all tested guinea pigs showed less inhibition (<60%) compared to that obtained after 32 hours. The outcome of this study reflects that the extract of H. aethiopicus plant may contain an endogenous inhibitor of venom induced local haemorrhage. PMID:22666294
Hasson, S S; Al-Balushi, M S; Said, E A; Habbal, O; Idris, M A; Mothana, R A A; Sallam, T A; Al-Jabri, A A
The objective of the study is to investigate the anti-snake venom activities of a local plant, Hibiscus aethiopicus L. The H. aethiopicus was dried and extracted with ethanol. Different assays were performed according to standard techniques, to evaluate the plant's acute toxicity and its antivenom activities. The results of evaluating the systemic acute toxicity of the H. aethiopicus extract using “oral and intra-peritoneal” route were normal even at the highest dose (24?g/kg) tested. All guinea pigs (n = 3) when treated with venoms E. c. sochureki (75??g) alone induced acute skin haemorrhage. In contrast, all guinea pigs (n = 18) treated with both venom and the plant extract at a concentration between 500 and 1000?mg/kg showed no signs of haemorrhage. Moreover, all guinea pigs (n = 18) treated with venom and the plant extract below 400?mg/kg showed acute skin haemorrhage. All guinea pigs treated with venom E. c. sochureki (75??g) alone induced acute skin haemorrhage after both 24 and 32 hours. In contrast, all guinea pigs treated with both venom and the plant extract (administered independently) at concentrations between 500 and 1000?mg/kg showed no signs of haemorrhage after 32 hours. However, after 24 hours all tested guinea pigs showed less inhibition (<60%) compared to that obtained after 32 hours. The outcome of this study reflects that the extract of H. aethiopicus plant may contain an endogenous inhibitor of venom induced local haemorrhage.
Hasson, S. S.; Al-Balushi, M. S.; Said, E. A.; Habbal, O.; Idris, M. A.; Mothana, R. A. A.; Sallam, T. A.; Al-Jabri, A. A.
We present a new MRI finding within the lumbar spine in a series of six patients admitted with CT proven subarachnoid haemorrhage (SAH) where cerebral angiography demonstrated no aneurysm and who had not had a lumbar puncture. A retrospective audit of 130 patients presenting to a regional neurosciences centre over a 13 month period with a suspected diagnosis of SAH was performed. Seven patients with proven SAH underwent MRI of the lumbar spine during the same admission. In six of these patients layering of haemorrhagic blood products was demonstrated within the lumbosacral spine. The process is analogous to the previously ubiquitous bedside erythrocyte sedimentation rate assay and has has been termed the “lumbar sedimentation” sign. This finding has not previously been reported in the literature in relation to SAH. While this is a small unselected group it may provide a useful adjunct in the diagnosis of SAH.
Crossley, R A; Raza, A; Adams, W M
The acceptability of presymptomatic testing in 21 people at 50% risk for the APP-692 mutation causing presenile Alzheimer's disease or cerebral haemorrhage resulting from cerebral amyloid angiopathy (FAD-CH), and in 43 people at 50% risk for hereditary Pick disease (HPD) was assessed. Neither group differed in demographic variables. Thirty-nine people (64%) in the whole group would request presymptomatic testing if
A Tibben; M Stevens; G M de Wert; M F Niermeijer; C M van Duijn; J C van Swieten
Using single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT), cerebral blood flow was studied in eight patients with gradual deterioration in the level of consciousness after subarachnoid haemorrhage. Four had cerebral ischaemia and four had acute hydrocephalus. In patients with cerebral ischaemia, single photon emission computed tomography scanning showed multiple regions with decreased uptake of technetium-99M labelled d,l-hexamethyl-propylene amine oxime (99mTcHM-PAO) mainly
D Hasan; J van Peski; I Loeve; E P Krenning; M Vermeulen
Envenoming by the West African saw-scaled viper, Echis ocellatus resembles that of most vipers, in that it results in local blistering, necrosis and sometimes life-threatening systemic haemorrhage. While effective against systemic envenoming, current antivenoms have little or no effect against local tissue damage. The major mediators of local venom pathology are the zinc-dependant snake venom metalloproteinases (SVMPs). The high degree
J.-M. Howes; R. D. G. Theakston; G. D. Laing
BackgroundIntracerebral haemorrhage (ICH) is an uncommon but devastating complication of regular antiplatelet use: identifying high-risk patients before treatment could potentially reduce this hazard. Brain microbleeds on gradient-recalled echo (GRE) T2*-weighted MRI are considered a biomarker for bleeding-prone small-vessel diseases. The authors hypothesised that microbleeds are a risk factor for antiplatelet-related ICH, and investigated this in a hospital-based matched case–control study.MethodsCases
S. M. Gregoire; H. R. Jager; T. A. Yousry; C. Kallis; M. M. Brown; D. J. Werring
Haemorrhagic shock (60 min) in the anaesthetized rat resulted in a prolonged fall in the mean arterial blood pressure (MAP) and heart rate (HR). Pre-treatment (30 min before shock) or post-treatment (60 min after shock) with inhibitors of cystathionine ? lyase (CSE; converts cysteine into hydrogen sulphide (H2S)), dl-propargylglycine or ?-cyanoalanine (50 mg kg?1, i.v.), or glibenclamide (40 mg kg?1, i.p.), produced a rapid, partial restoration in MAP and HR. Neither saline nor DMSO affected MAP or HR. Plasma H2S concentration was elevated 60 min after blood withdrawal (37.5±1.3 ?m, n=18 c.f. 28.9±1.4 ?m, n=15, P<0.05). The conversion of cysteine to H2S by liver (but not kidney) homogenates prepared from animals killed 60 min after withdrawal of blood was significantly increased (52.1±1.6 c.f. 39.8±4.1 nmol mg protein?1, n=8, P<0.05), as was liver CSE mRNA (2.7 ×). Both PAG (IC50, 55.0±3.2 ?m) and BCA (IC50, 6.5±1.2 ?m) inhibited liver H2S synthesizing activity in vitro. Pre-treatment of animals with PAG or BCA (50 mg kg?1, i.p.) but not glibenclamide (40 mg kg?1, i.p., KATP channel inhibitor) abolished the rise in plasma H2S in animals exposed to 60 min haemorrhagic shock and prevented the augmented biosynthesis of H2S from cysteine in liver. These results demonstrate that H2S plays a role in haemorrhagic shock in the rat. CSE inhibitors may provide a novel approach to the treatment of haemorrhagic shock.
Mok, Ying-Yuan Pamela; Mohammed Atan, Mohammed Shirhan Bin; Ping, Cheong Yoke; Jing, Wang Zhong; Bhatia, Madhav; Moochhala, Shabbir; Moore, Philip K
1. The aim of the present study was to examine the effects of inhibition of the Na(+)/H(+) exchanger (NHE-1) on cardiopulmonary performance, oxygen carrying capacity and tissue inflammation in a pig model of traumatic haemorrhage-resuscitation. 2. In 12 instrumented anaesthetized pigs, traumatic haemorrhage was modelled by producing tibia fractures, followed by haemorrhage of 25 mL/kg for 20 min, and then a 4 mm hepatic arterial tear with surgical repair after 20 min. Animals then underwent low-volume fluid resuscitation with either Hextend (vehicle; n = 6; Hospira, Lake Forest, IL, USA) or 3 mg/kg BIIB513 (an NHE-1 inhibitor) + Hextend (n = 6). The experiment was terminated 6 h after the beginning of resuscitation. 3. Compared with vehicle-treated controls, the addition of NHE-1 inhibition with BIIB513 significantly improved the left ventricle stroke work index and attenuated increases in pulmonary arterial pressure and pulmonary vascular resistance. Furthermore, BIIB513 treatment significantly increased the oxygenated haemoglobin ratio, blood oxygen content and mixed venous blood oxygen saturation and improved blood oxygen delivery. In addition, BIIB513 treatment reduced lung tissue levels of interleukin-6 by 80%, tumour necrosis factor-alpha by 37% and myeloperoxidase activity by 38%. Nuclear factor-kappaB DNA binding activity in the lung was also slightly and significantly attenuated following BIIB513 treatment. 4. In conclusion, the present study shows that NHE-1 inhibition facilitates the response to fluid resuscitation after traumatic haemorrhage by improving cardiac function, pulmonary vascular function and oxygen carrying capacity, which results in reduced tissue inflammatory injury. PMID:19769605
Wu, Dongmei; Qi, Jiansong; Dai, Hui; Doods, Henri; Abraham, William M
BACKGROUND: Pelvic arterial embolization is a safe, effective life-saving procedure in post-partum haemor- rhage, but little information is yet available about its impact on menstruation and fertility. METHODS: A cohort of 28 women who underwent pelvic embolization for post-partum haemorrhage in our tertiary centre was studied. Patients were contacted by telephone to obtain long-term outcome for menstruation, clinical signs of
L. J. Salomon; R. deTayrac; V. Castaigne-Meary; F. Audibert; D. Musset; R. Ciorascu; R. Frydman; H. Fernandez
The change in vascular resistance of the skinned hind limb perfused at constant flow has been measured following rapid removal of 10% of the blood volume in anaesthetized pregnant rabbits (27-29 days gestation) and compared with that of non-pregnant rabbits. 5 s after haemorrhage was completed vascular resistance had risen in all rabbits, but in the pregnant ones this increase was only one-fifth of that in the non-pregnant ones. After section of either the carotid sinus and aortic nerves or the sympathetic innervation to the hind limb the increases of vascular resistance at this time were abolished. It is concluded that the previously described diminution during pregnancy of the protective function of the baroreflexes during haemorrhage results, to some extent, from their diminished role in a vascular bed not associated with the reproductive process. The blood withdrawn was not re-infused for 10 min, throughout which, in all rabbits with sinus, aortic and sympathetic nerves intact, the increase in vascular resistance was sustained. After section of the carotid sinus and aortic nerves and the sympathetic innervation there was, during this 10 min, a slow increase in vascular resistance comparable in final size to that which occurred immediately in the respective innervated preparations, i.e. it was smaller in the pregnant than in the non-pregnant rabbits. A possible difference in action during pregnancy of a vasoconstrictor substance released during haemorrhage is discussed briefly.
Humphreys, P W; Joels, N
The case is reported of a rosette-forming glioneuronal tumour of the fourth ventricle (RGTFV) in a 27-year-old male. Symptoms included headache, severe vomiting and clumsy walking that had progressively worsened over 14 days. Computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging indicated a 3.0 x 2.5 x 2.0 cm solid-cystic mass in the fourth ventricle and obstructive hydrocephalus. The tumour showed evidence of previous intra-tumour haemorrhage, with heterogeneous enhancement after contrast administration. Complete excision of the lesion was performed. Signs of previous intra-tumoural haemorrhage were seen intra-operatively. The detailed clinical, radiological and pathological features in this patient are described and compared with existing literature on this type of tumour. Despite benign histological features and a reported favourable post-operative course, there is still limited clinical experience with this type of tumour, however intratumoural haemorrhage may result in morbidity and mortality. This report will help provide better characterization of this entity, improving the diagnosis and potentially reducing mortality in RGTFV. PMID:19589282
Li, Y M; Li, W Q; Pan, Y; Lu, Y C; Long, N Y; Tao, X F; Yu, H Y
Critical care physicians are increasingly facing patients receiving oral anticoagulation for either cessation of major haemorrhage or to reverse the effects of vitamin K antagonists ahead of emergency surgery. Rapid reversal of anticoagulation is particularly essential in cases of life-threatening bleeding. In these situations, guidelines recommend the concomitant administration of prothrombin complex concentrates (PCCs) and oral or intravenous vitamin K for the fastest normalisation of the international normalised ratio (INR). Despite their universal recommendation, PCCs remain underused by many physicians who prefer to opt for fresh frozen plasma despite its limitations in anticoagulant reversal, including time to reverse INR and high risk of transfusion-related acute lung injury. In contrast, the lower volume required to normalise INR with PCCs and the room temperature storage facilitate faster preparation and administration time, thus increasing the speed at which haemorrhages can be treated. PCCs therefore allow faster, more reliable and complete reversal of vitamin K anticoagulation, especially when administered immediately following confirmation of haemorrhage. In the emergency setting, probabilistic dosing may be considered.
Vasculopathies, including vasculitis of the central nervous system, can lead to stenosed, cicatrized vessels and the development of arterio-arteriolar collateral vessels. Bleeding due to these vascular changes, although rare, does occur. We describe six patients (all female, age range, 21-52 years; mean age, 42 years) with steno-occlusive lesions of intracranial vessels who presented with an acute intracranial haemorrhage. All had arterial steno-occlusive changes in conjunction with extensive leptomeningeal and arterio-arteriolar collaterals. Within the collaterals, focal dilatations could be identified, which were in close spatial relationship with the intracranial haemorrhage. Cause of bleeding was depicted on CT angiography in four out of six patients. One patient presented in childhood with acute stroke, one patient was diagnosed with Buerger's disease and one with sickle cell disease; the other three patients had no relevant history and the exact cause remained unclear. Outcome was favourable in all patients. Despite focal vascular weaknesses, no recurrent haemorrhage was seen during follow-up, supporting, at least in this small patient group, a conservative wait-and-see policy. PMID:24556309
van den Berg, René; Rijssenbeek, Astrid L; Sprengers, Marieke E S; Bot, Joost C J; Majoie, Charles B L M; Roos, Yvo B W E M; Vandertop, William P
A serosurvey was conducted during 1986-87 to determine evidence of prior Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever (CCHF) viral infection among camels imported into Egypt from Sudan and Kenya. Sera obtained from camesl arriving at the Aswan quarantine station, southern Egypt, were tested for CCHF antibody by the agar gel diffusion (AGD) and the indirect fluorescent antibody (IFA) techniques. CCHF viral antibody was demonstrated in 14% (600/4301) of the camels, with both techniques yielding similar results. CCHF viral antibody prevalence among camels imported from Sudan was lower (12%) than among camels imported from Kenya (26%). Ganjam and Qalyub viral antibody was not detected among the 600 CCHF viral antibody positive sera, but 7% (44/600) were positive for Dugbe viral antibody. CCHF viral antibody was not demonstrated in 400 sheep and 200 cows of native animals. These data indicate that camels imported from Sudan and Kenya had previous CCHF viral infection, but evidence of transmission to animals of Egypt was not obtained. Further studies are needed to assess the possible role of imported animals in the ecology and epidemiology of CCHF virus in Egypt. PMID:2112203
Morrill, J C; Soliman, A K; Imam, I Z; Botros, B A; Moussa, M I; Watts, D M
Dengue fever is a mosquito-borne virus that infects 50-100 million people each year. Of these infections, 200,000-500,000 occur as the severe, life-threatening form of the disease, dengue haemorrhagic fever (DHF). Large, unanticipated epidemics of DHF often overwhelm health systems. An understanding of the spatial-temporal pattern of DHF incidence would aid the allocation of resources to combat these epidemics. Here we examine the spatial-temporal dynamics of DHF incidence in a data set describing 850,000 infections occurring in 72 provinces of Thailand during the period 1983 to 1997. We use the method of empirical mode decomposition to show the existence of a spatial-temporal travelling wave in the incidence of DHF. We observe this wave in a three-year periodic component of variance, which is thought to reflect host-pathogen population dynamics. The wave emanates from Bangkok, the largest city in Thailand, moving radially at a speed of 148km per month. This finding provides an important starting point for detecting and characterizing the key processes that contribute to the spatial-temporal dynamics of DHF in Thailand.
Cummings, Derek A. T.; Irizarry, Rafael A.; Huang, Norden E.; Endy, Timothy P.; Nisalak, Ananda; Ungchusak, Kumnuan; Burke, Donald S.
The most common pathological anovulatory condition that occurs spontaneously during the breeding season in the mare is the haemorrhagic anovulatory follicle (HAF). A relatively high proportion of mares, soon after ovulation, develop a corpus haemorrhagicum (CH) with a central lacuna. This type of corpora lutea may resemble an HAF, which may complicate the accurate diagnosis of ovulation. The main objective of this study was to compare the ultrasound data of mares examined frequently with HAFs and CHs to elucidate whether it is possible to distinguish them from each other. A total of 135 ovulating mares were classified according to the morphology of the corpus luteum (CL) in mares with: a solid CL, a CH with small or with large central cavities. Ultrasound characteristics of the development of 11 HAF and 13 CHs with a large central cavity were compared. The pre-ovulatory follicular diameter of ovulatory mares was significantly correlated with the diameter of CH with large central cavities. The percentage of mares with post-ovulatory areas eligible to be mistaken with a CH was <25%. Although a predictive diagnosis of an HAF/CH can be made on the basis of several ultrasonographic endpoints, the only parameter that allows a definitive diagnosis is the thickness of the luteal border. This is <3 mm in HAFs in contrast to >5 mm in CHs. However, this only applies when the unidentified structure has non-organized contents. PMID:22594445
Cuervo-Arango, J; Newcombe, J R
A novel ELISA has been developed which detects oligomerization of beta-amyloid (A beta). Oligomerization, fibrillization and neurotoxicity of native A beta associated with Alzheimer's disease (AD) type has been compared with E22Q A beta (amyloid beta-protein containing residues 1--40 with the native Glu at residue 22 changed to Gln) implicated in Dutch cerebral haemorrhage disease. Solutions of A beta rapidly yield soluble oligomers in a concentration-dependent manner, which are detected by the ELISA, and by size-exclusion gel chromatography. Conformational changes from disordered to beta-sheet occur more slowly than oligomerization, and fibrils are produced after prolonged incubation. The E22Q A beta oligomerizes, changes conformation and fibrillizes more rapidly than the native form and produces shorter stubbier fibrils. Aged fibrillar preparations of E22Q A beta are more potent than aged fibrils of native A beta in inducing apoptotic changes and toxic responses in human neuroblastoma cell lines, whereas low-molecular-mass oligomers in briefly incubated solutions are much less potent. The differences in the rates of oligomerization of the two A beta forms, their conformational behaviour over a range of pH values, and NMR data reported elsewhere, are consistent with a molecular model of oligomerization in which strands of A beta monomers initially overcome charge repulsion to form dimers in parallel beta-sheet arrangement, stabilized by intramolecular hydrophobic interactions, with amino acids of adjacent chains in register.
Sian, A K; Frears, E R; El-Agnaf, O M; Patel, B P; Manca, M F; Siligardi, G; Hussain, R; Austen, B M
An epidemic of acute haemorrhagic conjunctivitis affecting persons of all ages and both sexes occurred in Delhi and surrounding areas during the monsoon season of 1994. The symptoms lasted on an average for 4-5 days. In some of the patients corneal involvement was observed. Conjunctival swabs from the affected patients were processed for viral antigen detection, virus isolation and bacterial culture and sensitivity. Viral antigen was detected in 62% (31/50) of the smears tested by indirect immunofluorescence assay. In 22 (44%) of the specimens Coxackie A 24 (Cox A 24) virus antigen and in 9 (18%) of the specimens Entero Virus 70 (EV 70) antigen were detected. In confluent monolayers of Hep 2 cells cytopathic virus was isolated in 10 (30.30%) of the 33 specimens processed. The isolated viruses were identified as either Cox A 24 (7 isolates) or EV 70 (3 isolates) using indirect immunofluorescence assay. Super added bacterial infection was observed in 33% (89/270) of the cases, Staphylococcus albus being the predominant bacteria isolated. PMID:8828301
Satpathy, G; Mohanty, S; Nayak, N
Incidences of subarachnoid haemorrhage (SAH) in Australia have been reported in regional studies with variable rates. We investigated the national SAH rate and evaluated the trend over the 10 years from 1998 to 2008. The crude SAH incidence, not related to trauma or arteriovenous malformation, was estimated at 10.3 cases per 100,000 person-years (95% confidence interval [CI]: 10.2-10.4). Females have a higher incidence of SAH (12.5 cases per 100,000; 95% CI: 12.3-12.8) compared to males (8.0 cases per 100,000; 95% CI: 7.8-8.3), with age-adjusted incidence increases with increasing age for both sexes. Less than 10% of SAH occurred in the first three decades of life. The peak age group for patients to experience SAH was between 45 years and 64 years, accounting for almost 45% of the overall annual SAH admissions. Aneurysms located in the anterior circulation were a more common source of rupture compared to those located in the posterior circulation (rate ratio 3.9; 95% CI: 3.6-4.2). Contrary to contemporary observations in the literature, we did not observe a decline in the incidence of SAH during this specified study period. PMID:22326203
Lai, Leon; Morgan, Michael Kerin
Severe forms of dengue, such as dengue haemorrhagic fever (DHF) and dengue shock syndrome, are examples of a complex pathogenic mechanism in which the virus, environment and host immune response interact. The influence of the host's genetic predisposition to susceptibility or resistance to infectious diseases has been evidenced in several studies. The association of the human leukocyte antigen gene (HLA) class I alleles with DHF susceptibility or resistance has been reported in ethnically and geographically distinct populations. Due to these ethnic and viral strain differences, associations occur in each population, independently with a specific allele, which most likely explains the associations of several alleles with DHF. As the potential role of HLA alleles in the progression of DHF in Brazilian patients remains unknown, we then identified HLA-A alleles in 67 patients with dengue fever and 42 with DHF from Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, selected from 2002-2008 by the sequence-based typing technique. Statistical analysis revealed an association between the HLA-A*01 allele and DHF [odds ratio (OR) = 2.7, p = 0.01], while analysis of the HLA-A*31 allele (OR = 0.5, p = 0.11) suggested a potential protective role in DHF that should be further investigated. This study provides evidence that HLA class I alleles might be important risk factors for DHF in Brazilian patients. PMID:22415262
Monteiro, Sérgio Pereira; Brasil, Pedro Emmanuel Alvarenga Americano do; Cabello, Giselda Maria Kalil; Souza, Rogério Valls de; Brasil, Patrícia; Georg, Ingebourg; Cabello, Pedro Hernan; De Castro, Liane
The total circulating blood volume (TCBV) and total body/venous haematocrit ratio (Htb/Hv) was determined by simultaneous measurement of the red cell volume (RCV) and the plasma volume (PV) in 10 subarachnoid haemorrhage (SAH) patients, 10 supine bedresting control patients and 20 ambulant out-patients. The mean Htb/Hv of the SAH patients, 0.866, was found to be significantly lower than that of the supine controls, 0.908, and the ambulant patients, 0.909, (p less than 0.01). Using the ratio 0.866 the total circulating blood volume of the SAH patients was calculated from either their RCV or their PV and compared with their measured TCBV. Expressed as a percentage of measured TCBV the mean errors of these single volume determinations were 2.84% and 1.76% respectively. The significance of these changes in the Htb/Hv ratio of SAH patients is discussed in relation to the circulatory disturbances they suffer.
Nelson, R J; Roberts, J; Ackery, D M; Pickard, J D
In the present study, we investigated the in vivo effects of melatonin on SAH-induced cerebral vasospasm and oxidative stress, resulting from SAH in an experimental rat model. Twenty-eight rats (225-250 g) were divided into four groups equally: group 1; control, group 2; SAH, group 3; SAH plus placebo, and group 4; SAH plus melatonin. We used double haemorrhage method for SAH groups. Beginning 6 h after SAH, 20 mg/kg melatonin or equal volume of 0.9% saline was administered intraperitoneally twice daily for 5 days to groups 3 and 4, respectively. Melatonin or 0.9% saline injections were continued up to fifth day after SAH and rats were sacrificed at the end of this period. Brain sections at the level of the pons were examined by light microscopy. The lumen diameter and the vessel wall thickness of basilar artery were measured using a micrometer. The serum levels of cerebral vasodilator nitric oxide (NO), the brain levels of an intrinsic antioxidant superoxide dismutase (SOD) and a NO regulator arginase activities were measured. The brain levels of inducible nitric oxide (iNOS) and nitrotyrosine, a nitrosative stress parameter immunohistochemiacally determined. In conclusion, melatonin administration ameliorated cerebral vasospasm by increasing serum NO level and decreasing the brain the levels of arginase and oxidative stress. It is therefore possible that increased brain arginase activity after SAH may also have a significant role in the pathogenesis of vasospasm by limiting the availability of arginine for NO production. PMID:19415488
Aladag, M A; Turkoz, Y; Parlakpinar, H; Ozen, H; Egri, M; Unal, S C
Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever (CCHF) virus is a tick-borne member of the genus Nairovirus, family Bunyaviridae. CCHF virus has been isolated from at least 31 different species of ticks. The virus is transmitted through the bite of an infected tick or by direct contact with CCHF virus-infected patients or the products of infected livestock. This study was conducted to determine the rate of CCHF virus infection in ticks in the district of Zahedan, in the province of Sistan and Baluchistan, southeastern Iran. A total of 140 ticks were collected from Sistan and Baluchistan. Reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) was used for the detection of the CCHF virus genome in the tick population. This genome was detected in 4.3% of ticks collected from livestock of different regions of Zahedan. The infected tick genera belonged to Hyalomma and Haemaphysalis. Although in the epidemiology of CCHF virus Hyalomma ticks are considered to be the most important vectors and reservoirs, the virus has also been reported to occur in other genera of ticks, which conforms to the current data in our study from Sistan and Baluchistan. Given that animals are common hosts for Hyalomma and Haemaphysalis, regular monitoring programmes for livestock should be applied for CCHF virus control. PMID:23238248
Mehravaran, Ahmad; Moradi, Maryam; Telmadarraiy, Zakyeh; Mostafavi, Ehsan; Moradi, Ali Reza; Khakifirouz, Sahar; Shah-Hosseini, Nariman; Varaie, Fereshteh Sadat Rasi; Jalali, Tahmineh; Hekmat, Soheila; Ghiasi, Seyed Mojtaba; Chinikar, Sadegh
The presence of bluetongue virus (BTV) and Epizootic Haemorrhagic Disease virus (EHDV) in indigenous calves in western Kenya was investigated. Serum was analysed for BTV and EHDV antibodies. The population seroprevalences for BTV and EHDV for calves at 51 weeks of age were estimated to be 0.942 (95% CI 0.902–0.970) and 0.637 (95% CI 0.562–0.710), respectively, indicating high levels of circulating BTV and EHDV. The odds ratio of being positive for BTV if EHDV positive was estimated to be 2.57 (95% CI 1.37–4.76). When 99 calves were tested for BTV and EHDV RNA by real-time RT-PCR, 88.9% and 63.6% were positive, respectively. Comparison of the serology and real-time RT-PCR results revealed an unexpectedly large number of calves that were negative by serology but positive by real-time RT-PCR for EHDV. Eight samples positive for BTV RNA were serotyped using 24 serotype-specific real-time RT-PCR assays. Nine BTV serotypes were detected, indicating that the cattle were infected with a heterogeneous population of BTVs. The results show that BTV and EHDV are highly prevalent, with cattle being infected from an early age.
Toye, P.G.; Batten, C.A.; Kiara, H.; Henstock, M.R.; Edwards, L.; Thumbi, S.; Poole, E.J.; Handel, I.G.; Bronsvoort, B.M.deC.; Hanotte, O.; Coetzer, J.A.W.; Woolhouse, M.E.J.; Oura, C.A.L.
Background Cognitive domain deficits can occur after aneurysmal subarachnoid haemorrhage (aSAH) though few studies systemically evaluate its impact on 1-year outcomes. Objective We aimed to evaluate the pattern and functional outcome impact of cognitive domain deficits in aSAH patients at 1?year. Methods We carried out a prospective observational study in Hong Kong, during which, 168 aSAH patients (aged 21–75?years and had been admitted within 96?h of ictus) were recruited over a 26-month period. The cognitive function was assessed by a domain-specific neuropsychological assessment battery at 1?year after ictus. The current study is registered at ClinicalTrials.gov of the US National Institutes of Health (NCT01038193). Results Prevalence of individual domain deficits varied between 7% to 15%, and 13% had two or more domain deficits. After adjusting for abbreviated National Institute of Health Stroke Scale and Geriatric Depressive Scale scores, unfavourable outcome (Modified Rankin Scale 3–5) and dependent instrumental activity of daily living (Lawton Instrumental Activity of Daily Living<15) were significantly associated with two or more domain deficits and number of cognitive domain deficits at 1?year. Two or more domain deficits was independently associated with age (OR, 1.1; 95% CI 1.1 to 1.2; p<0.001) and delayed cerebral infarction (OR, 6.1; 95% CI 1.1 to 33.5; p=0.036), after adjustment for years of school education. Interpretation In patients with aSAH, cognitive domain deficits worsened functional outcomes at 1?year. Delayed cerebral infarction was an independent risk factor for two or more domain deficits at 1?year.
Wong, George Kwok Chu; Lam, Sandy Wai; Ngai, Karine; Wong, Adrian; Siu, Deyond; Poon, Wai Sang; Mok, Vincent
Objective The objective of the study was to assess the long-term self-reported health status and quality of life (QoL) of patients following an aneurysmal subarachnoid haemorrhage (ASAH) using a self-completed questionnaire booklet. Design A two-cohort study. Setting A regional tertiary neurosurgical centre. Participants 2 cohorts of patients with ASAH treated between 1998 and 2008 and followed up at approximately 1?year. Interventions Routine care. Primary and secondary outcomes A range of standardised scales included: AKC Short Sentences Test, the Barthel Index, the Self-Report Dysexecutive Questionnaire, the Everyday Memory Questionnaire, Stroke Symptom Checklist, Wimbledon Self-Report Scale, Modified Rankin Score (MRS) and a new Stroke-QoL. The data from summated scales were fit to the Rasch measurement model to validate the summed score. Results 214 patients (48%) returned the questionnaires; the majority (76%) had a World Federation of Neurosurgeons grade of 1 or 2. The most frequent aneurysm type was that of the anterior communicating artery (28%) with approximately 90% of aneurysms of the anterior circulation. Of those previously in full or part-time employment, 48.9% were unemployed at follow-up. All summated scales satisfied the Rasch measurement model requirements, such that their summed scores were a sufficient statistic. Given this, one-third of patients were noted to have a significant mood disorder and 25% had significant dysexecutive function. Patients with an MRS of 3, 4 or 5 had significantly worse scores on most outcome measures, but a significant minority of those with a score of zero had failed to return to work and displayed significant mood disorder. Conclusions A range of self-reported cognitive and physical deficits have been highlighted in a cohort of patients with ASAH. While the MRS has been shown to provide a reasonable indication of outcome, in routine clinical follow-up it requires supplementation by instruments assessing dysexecutive function, memory and mood.
Quinn, Audrey C; Bhargava, Deepti; Al-Tamimi, Yahia Z; Clark, Matthew J; Ross, Stuart A; Tennant, Alan
Systemic administration of recombinant erythropoietin (EPO) has been demonstrated to mediate neuroprotection. This effect of EPO may in part rely on a beneficial effect on cerebrovascular dysfunction leading to ischaemic neuronal damage. We investigated the in vivo effects of subcutaneously administered recombinant EPO on impaired cerebral blood flow (CBF) autoregulation after experimental subarachnoid haemorrhage (SAH).Four groups of male Sprague-Dawley rats were studied: group A, sham operation plus vehicle; group B, sham operation plus EPO; group C, SAH plus vehicle; group D, SAH plus EPO. SAH was induced by injection of 0.07?ml of autologous blood into the cisterna magna. EPO (400?iu?kg?1 s.c.) or vehicle was given immediately after the subarachnoid injection of blood or saline. Forty-eight hours after the induction of SAH, CBF autoregulatory function was evaluated using the intracarotid 133Xe method.CBF autoregulation was preserved in both sham-operated groups (lower limits of mean arterial blood pressure: 91±3 and 98±3?mmHg in groups A and B, respectively). In the vehicle treated SAH-group, autoregulation was abolished and the relationship between CBF and blood pressure was best described by a single linear regression line. A subcutaneous injection of EPO given immediately after the induction of SAH normalized autoregulation of CBF (lower limit in group D: 93±4?mmHg, NS compared with groups A and B).Early activation of endothelial EPO receptors may represent a potential therapeutic strategy in the treatment of cerebrovascular perturbations after SAH.
Springborg, Jacob Bertram; Ma, XiaoDong; Rochat, Per; Knudsen, Gitte Moos; Amtorp, Ole; Paulson, Olaf B; Juhler, Marianne; Olsen, Niels Vidiendal
Background and aim To update our 1996 review on the incidence of subarachnoid haemorrhage (SAH) and assess the relation of incidence with region, age, gender and time period. Methods We searched for studies on the incidence of SAH published until October 2005. The overall incidences with corresponding 95% confidence intervals were calculated. We determined the relationship between the incidence of SAH and determinants by means of univariate Poisson regression. Results We included 51 studies (33 new), describing 58 study populations in 21 countries, observing 45?821?896 person?years. Incidences per 100?000 person?years were 22.7 (95% CI 21.9 to 23.5) in Japan, 19.7 (18.1 to 21.3) in Finland, 4.2 (3.1 to 5.7) in South and Central America, and 9.1 (8.8 to 9.5) in the other regions. With age category 45–55?years as the reference, incidence ratios increased from 0.10 (0.08 to 0.14) for age groups younger than 25?years to 1.61 (1.24 to 2.07) for age groups older than 85?years. The incidence in women was 1.24 (1.09 to 1.42) times higher than in men; this gender difference started at age 55?years and increased thereafter. Between 1950 and 2005, the incidence decreased by 0.6% (1.3% decrease to 0.1% increase) per year. Conclusions The overall incidence of SAH is approximately 9 per 100?000 person?years. Rates are higher in Japan and Finland and increase with age. The preponderance of women starts only in the sixth decade. The decline in incidence of SAH over the past 45?years is relatively moderate compared with that for stroke in general.
de Rooij, N K; Linn, F H H; van der Plas, J A; Algra, A; Rinkel, G J E
Background: Postpartum haemorrhage (PPH) is a leading cause of maternal mortality especially in the developing world. Misoprostol, a highly effective drug is highly effective in inducing uterine contractions and has been proposed as a low-cost, easy-to-use intervention for PPH.Objective: This study assessed evidence of the effectiveness of misoprostol for the prevention and treatment of PPH.Method: Databases searched included MEDLINE, PUBMED, CINHAL, Google Scholar, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) and EMBASE. Reference lists and conference proceedings were also searched for more studies. Three studies included in the meta-analysis were limited to randomised controlled trials (RCT). Two reviewers independently screened all articles for methodological quality using a standardised instrument adapted from the Cochrane Collaboration website. Data were entered in Review Manager 5.1 software for analysis.Results: Three trials (n = 2346) compared misoprostol to a placebo. Misoprostol was shown not to be effective in reducing PPH (risk ratios [RR] 0.65; 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.40-1.06). Only one trial reported on the need for a blood transfusion (RR 0.14; 95% CI 0.02-1.15). Shivering (RR 2.75; 95% CI 2.26-3.34) and pyrexia (RR 5.34; 95% CI 2.86-9.96) were significantly more common with misoprostol than with a placebo.Conclusion: The use of misoprostol was not associated with any significant reduction in the incidence of PPH. Therefore, in order to verify the efficacious use of misoprostol in the treatment of PPH, specialised investigations of its dose and routes of administration for clinically significant effects and acceptable side effects are warranted. PMID:23718882
Olefile, Kabelo M; Khondowe, Oswell; M'rithaa, Doreen
Endothelin (ET) is considered one of the most potent vasoconstrictor polypeptides; several experimental studies have suggested its possible role in the pathogenesis of arterial vasospasm after subarachnoid haemorrhage (SAH). Previously reported data on plasma and CSF levels of endothelin in patients with a diagnosis of SAH have been controversial. Cisternal endothelin CSF levels and the possibility that they could be related to vasospasm and other clinical patterns of SAH were investigated. CSF samples were obtained from 55 patients admitted after angiographic diagnosis of intracranial aneurysm. Levels of ET-1 and ET-3 were measured through radio-immunoassay technique. Twelve patients who had operations for unruptured aneurysms were considered control cases; 43 patients with SAH were classified according to: Hunt and Hess grading at admission, vasospasm grading, CT classification and timing of surgery. In all 55 patients ET-1 was measured, while positive levels of ET-3 were found only in 17 cases of 48. No linear correlation was found between cisternal CSF ET-1 levels when considering time of surgery, CT classification, Hunt and Hess grading at admission, and vasospasm grading. The results of ET-3 assay should be considered with great caution because of the low percentage of positive cases. Cisternal CSF levels of ET-1 and ET-3 are not directly related to the occurrence of arterial vasospasm after the aneurysm rupture, or to other major clinical patterns of SAH; however, ET-1 expression occurs either in paraphysiological (unruptured aneurysm) or in pathological conditions (SAH). It is suggested that ET may potentiate, or may be potentiated by, other factors playing a consistent pathophysiological role in the development of vasospasm.
Gaetani, P; Rodriguez y Baena, R; Grignani, G; Spanu, G; Pacchiarini, L; Paoletti, P
Outbreaks of Ebola virus haemorrhagic fever have been reported from 1994 to 1996 in the province of Ogooué Ivindo, a forest zone situated in the Northeast of Gabon. Each time, the great primates had been identified as the initial source of human infection. End of November 2001 a new alert came from this province, rapidly confirmed as a EVHV outbreak. The response was given by the Ministry of Health with the help of an international team under the aegis of WHO. An active monitoring system was implemented in the three districts hit by the epidemic (Zadié, Ivindo and Mpassa) to organize the detection of cases and their follow-up. A case definition has been set up, the suspected cases were isolated at hospital, at home or in lazarets and serological tests were performed. These tests consisted of the detection of antigen or specific IgG and the RT-PCR. A classification of cases was made according to the results of biological tests, clinical and epidemiological data. The contact subjects were kept watch over for 21 days. 65 cases were recorded among which 53 deaths. The first human case, a hunter died on the 28th of October 2001. The epidemic spreads over through family transmission and nosocomial contamination. Four distinct primary foci have been identified together with an isolated case situated in the South East of Gabon, 580 km away from the epicenter. Deaths happened within a delay of 6 days. The last death has been recorded on the 22nd of March 2002 and the end of the outbreak was declared on the 6th of May 2002. The epidemic spreads over the Gabon just next. Unexplained deaths of animals had been mentionned in the nearby forests as soon as August 2001: great primates and cephalophus. Samples taken from their carcasses confirmed a concomitant animal epidemic. PMID:16267965
Nkoghe, D; Formenty, P; Leroy, E M; Nnegue, S; Edou, S Y Obame; Ba, J Iba; Allarangar, Y; Cabore, J; Bachy, C; Andraghetti, R; de Benoist, A C; Galanis, E; Rose, A; Bausch, D; Reynolds, M; Rollin, P; Choueibou, C; Shongo, R; Gergonne, B; Koné, L M; Yada, A; Roth, C; Mve, M Toung
Introduction The usefulness of thoracic damage control (DC) for trauma requiring a thoracotomy is not established. The aim of this study was to clarify the usefulness of thoracic packing as DC surgery. Methods This was a retrospective case series study of 12 patients with thoracic trauma suffering uncontrollable intrathoracic haemorrhage and shock who underwent intrathoracic packing. Our thoracic DC technique consisted of ligation and packing over the bleeding point or filling gauze in the bleeding spaces as well as packing for the thoracotomy wound. The success rates of intrathoracic haemostasis, changes in the circulation and the volume of discharge from the thoracic tubes were evaluated. Results Packing was undertaken for the thoracic wall in five patients, for the lung in four patients, for the vertebrae in two patients and for the descending thoracic aorta in one patient. Haemostasis was achieved successfully in seven cases. Of these, the volume of discharge from the thoracic tube exceeded 400ml/hr within three hours after packing in three patients, decreased to less than 200ml/hr within seven hours in six patients and decreased to 100ml/hr within eight hours in six patients. Systolic pressure could be maintained over 70mmHg by seven hours after packing. Conclusions Intrathoracic packing is useful for some patients, particularly in the space around the vertebrae, at the lung apex, and between the diaphragm and the thoracic wall. After packing, it is advisable to wait for three hours to see whether vital signs can be maintained and then to wait further to see if the discharge from the thoracic tube decreases to less than 200ml/hr within five hours.
Toyoda, H; Harunari, N; Iwashita, M; Kosuge, T; Arata, S; Suzuki, N
Background and aim Postpolypectomy haemorrhage (PPH) is a known adverse event that can occur following polypectomy, occurring in 0.3–6.1% of cases. Previous meta-analysis has included small polyps, which are less likely to bleed, and less amenable to some methods of mechanical haemostasis. No comprehensive cost–benefit analysis of this topic is available. The aim of this study was to perform a meta-analysis of randomized trials and a cost–benefit analysis of prophylactic haemostasis in PPH. Methods A total of 3092 abstracts from prospective trials conducted in human colonoscopic polypectomy were screened. Outpatients undergoing polypectomy in seven suitable studies (1426 episodes), without polyposis syndromes or bleeding diathesis, were identified. The interventions of prophylactic haemostatic measures (clips, loops, and/or adrenaline injection) to prevent PPH were assessed. The main outcome measurements were PPH measured by haematochezia or drop in haematocrit >10% or haemoglobin >1?g/dl. Risk ratio and number needed to treat (NNT) were generated using meta-analysis. Results Comparing any prophylactic haemostasis to none, the pooled risk ratio for PPH was 0.35 (0.21–0.57; p?0.0001), NNT was 13.6, and cost to prevent one PPH was USD652. Using adrenaline alone vs. no prophylactic haemostasis revealed a pooled risk ratio of 0.37 (0.20–0.66; p?=?0.001), NNT 14.0, cost to prevent one PPH USD382. Any prophylactic mechanical haemostasis compared to adrenaline produced a RR for PPH of 0.28 (0.14–0.57; p?0.0001), NNT 12.3, and cost to prevent one PPH USD1368. Conclusions Adrenaline injection or mechanical haemostasis reduces the risk of PPH. Routine prophylactic measures to reduce PPH for polyps larger than 10?mm are potentially cost effective, although more thorough cost–benefit modelling is required.
Burger, Daniel C; Horgan, Gareth; Bailey, Adam A; East, James E
Massive blood loss due to penetrating trauma and internal organ damage can cause severe haemorrhagic shock (HS), leading to a severely compromised haemostatic balance. This study evaluated the effect of bovine polymerized haemoglobin (Hb) (Hb-based oxygen carrier, HBOC) resuscitation on haemostasis in a swine model of uncontrolled HS. Following liver injury/HS, swine received HBOC (n= 8), Hextend (HEX) (n= 8) or no resuscitation (NON) (n= 8). Fluids were infused to increase mean arterial pressure above 60 mmHg and to reduce heart rate to baseline. At 4 h, the animals were eligible for blood transfusions. Prothrombin time (PT), activated partial thromboplastin time, fibrinogen, thromboelastography (TEG) and platelet function analyser closure time (PFA-CT) were compared by using mixed statistical model. At 4 h, blood loss (% estimated blood volume) was comparable for HBOC (65.5 +/- 18.5%) and HEX (80.8 +/- 14.4%) and less for NON (58.7 +/- 10.1%; P < 0.05). Resuscitation-induced dilutional coagulopathy was observed with HBOC and HEX, as indicated by reduced haematocrit, platelets and fibrinogen (P < 0.05). At 4 h, PT was higher in HEX than in HBOC groups (P < 0.01). In the early hospital phase, a trend to increased TEG reaction time and PFA-CT indicates that dilutional effects persist in HBOC and HEX groups. PFA-CT returned to baseline later with HBOC than with HEX (48 vs. 24 h) following blood transfusion. At 4 h, all surviving HEX animals (n= 3) required transfusion, in contrast to no HBOC (n= 7) or NON (n= 1) animals. In this severe uncontrolled HS model, successful resuscitation with HBOC produced haemodilutional coagulopathy less than or similar to that produced by resuscitation with HEX. PMID:16879158
Arnaud, F; Handrigan, M; Hammett, M; Philbin, N; Rice, J; Dong, F; Pearce, L B; McCarron, R; Freilich, D
• To review the published data on predisposing risk factors for cancer treatment-induced haemorrhagic cystitis (HC) and the evidence for the different preventive and therapeutic measures that have been used in order to help clinicians optimally define and manage this potentially serious condition. • Despite recognition that HC can be a significant complication of cancer treatment, there is currently a lack of UK-led guidelines available on how it should optimally be defined and managed. • A systematic literature review was undertaken to evaluate the evidence for preventative measures and treatment options in the management of cancer treatment-induced HC. • There is a wide range of reported incidence due to several factors including variability in study design and quality, the type of causal agent, the grading of bleeding, and discrepancies in definition criteria. • The most frequently reported causal factors are radiotherapy to the pelvic area, where HC has been reported in up to 20% of patients, and treatment with cyclophosphamide and bacillus Calmette-Guérin, where the incidence has been reported as up to 30%. • Mesna (2-mercaptoethane sodium sulphonate), hyperhydration and bladder irrigation have been the most frequently used prophylactic measures to prevent treatment-related cystitis, but are not always effective. • Cranberry juice is widely cited as a preventative measure and sodium pentosanpolysulphate as a treatment, although the evidence for both is very limited. • The best evidence exists for intravesical hyaluronic acid as an effective preventative and active treatment, and for hyperbaric oxygen as an equally effective treatment option. • The lack of robust data and variability in treatment strategies used highlights the need for further research, as well as best practice guidance and consensus on the management of HC. PMID:24000900
Payne, Heather; Adamson, Andrew; Bahl, Amit; Borwell, Jonathan; Dodds, David; Heath, Catherine; Huddart, Robert; McMenemin, Rhona; Patel, Prashant; Peters, John L; Thompson, Andrew
Intracranial haemorrhage (ICH) is the most serious bleeding symptom in haemophiliacs, resulting in high rates of mortality and disabling sequelae. The Association of Italian Haemophilia Centres carried out a retrospective survey (1987-2008) of ICH occurring in haemophiliacs with the goals to establish: (i) incidence, location of bleeding, death rate and disabling sequels; (ii) risk factors for ICH; and (iii) treatment used during the acute phase of ICH and for recurrence prevention. A total of 112 ICH episodes had occurred in 88 patients (78 haemophilia A, 10 haemophilia B), 24 of whom experienced recurrences. The cumulative hazard of ICH for the whole cohort over the entire follow-up period was 26.7 per 1000 patients, and the annualized rate of ICH was 2.50 events per 1000 patients (95% CI 1.90-3.31). The risk of ICH was higher in the youngest children (24.4 per 1000, 95% CI 12.7-47.0 in the first year of age and 14.9, 95% CI 7.1-31.4 in the second year of age) and then progressively rose again after the age of 40. Univariate, bivariate (age-adjusted) and multivariate analysis investigating the effects of patient characteristics on ICH occurrence showed that haemophilia severity and inhibitor status were strongly associated with ICH [severe vs. mild, HR 3.96 (2.39-6.57); inhibitor vs. non-inhibitor 2.52 (1.46-4.35)]. HCV infection was also associated with the risk of ICH [HR 1.83 (1.25-2.69)]. Therapeutic suggestions based upon our experience to control ICH recurrence are provided. PMID:21752159
Zanon, E; Iorio, A; Rocino, A; Artoni, A; Santoro, R; Tagliaferri, A; Coppola, A; Castaman, G; Mannucci, P M; Barillari, Giovanni; Dragani, Alfredo; Gamba, Gabriella; Giuffrida, Anna; Lapecorella, Mario; Mancuso, Giacomo; Lucia, Liguori; Mazzucconi, Maria Gabriella; Messina, Maria; Musso, Roberto; De Martis, Francesco; Rossetti, Gina; Schinco, Piercarla; Spiezia, Luca; Valdrè, Lelia
Aim To report the retinal signs that distinguish abusive head trauma (AHT) from non-abusive head trauma (nAHT). Methods A systematic review of literature, 1950–2009, was conducted with standardised critical appraisal. Inclusion criteria were a strict confirmation of the aetiology, children aged <11 years and details of an examination conducted by an ophthalmologist. Post mortem data, organic disease of eye, and inadequate examinations were excluded. A multivariate logistic regression analysis was conducted to determine odds ratios (OR) and probabilities for AHT. Results Of the 62 included studies, 13 provided prevalence data (998 children, 504 AHT). Overall, retinal haemorrhages (RH) were found in 78% of AHT vs 5% of nAHT. In a child with head trauma and RH, the OR that this is AHT is 14.7 (95% confidence intervals 6.39, 33.62) and the probability of abuse is 91%. Where recorded, RH were bilateral in 83% of AHT compared with 8.3% in nAHT. RH were numerous in AHT, and few in nAHT located in the posterior pole, with only 10% extending to periphery. True prevalence of additional features, for example, retinal folds, could not be determined. Conclusions Our systematic review confirms that although certain patterns of RH were far commoner in AHT, namely large numbers of RH in both the eyes, present in all layers of the retina, and extension into the periphery, there was no retinal sign that was unique to abusive injury. RH are rare in accidental trauma and, when present, are predominantly unilateral, few in number and in the posterior pole.
Maguire, S A; Watts, P O; Shaw, A D; Holden, S; Taylor, R H; Watkins, W J; Mann, M K; Tempest, V; Kemp, A M
Hereditary Haemorrhagic Telangiectasia (HHT) is an autosomal dominantly inherited vascular disease characterized by the presence of mucocutaneous telangiectasia and arteriovenous malformations in visceral organs. HHT is predominantly caused by mutations in ENG and ACVRL1, which both belong to the TGF-? signalling pathway. The exact mechanism of how haploinsufficiency of ENG and ACVRL1 leads to HHT manifestations remains to be identified. As long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) are increasingly recognized as key regulators of gene expression and constitute a sizable fraction of the human transcriptome, we wanted to assess whether lncRNAs play a role in the molecular pathogenesis of HHT manifestations. By microarray technology, we profiled lncRNA transcripts from HHT nasal telangiectasial and non-telangiectasial tissue using a paired design. The microarray probes were annotated using the GENCODE v.16 dataset, identifying 4,810 probes mapping to 2,811 lncRNAs. Comparing HHT telangiectasial tissue with HHT non-telangiectasial tissue, we identified 42 lncRNAs that are differentially expressed (q<0.001). Using GREAT, a tool that assumes cis-regulation, we showed that differently expressed lncRNAs are enriched for genomic loci involved in key pathways concerning HHT. Our study identified lncRNAs that are aberrantly expressed in HHT telangiectasia and indicates that lncRNAs may contribute to regulate protein-coding loci in HHT. These results suggest that the lncRNA component of the transcriptome deserves more attention in HHT. A deeper understanding of lncRNAs and their role in telangiectasia formation possesses potential for discovering therapeutic targets in HHT. PMID:24603890
Tørring, Pernille M; Larsen, Martin Jakob; Kjeldsen, Anette D; Ousager, Lilian Bomme; Tan, Qihua; Brusgaard, Klaus
Thirty-one of 75 extracts of plants used by traditional healers for snakebites, had moderate or high neutralizing ability against the haemorrhagic effect of Bothrops atrox venom from Antioquia and Chocó, north-western Colombia. After preincubation of several doses of every extract (7.8-4000 microg/mouse) with six minimum haemorrhagic doses (10 microg) of venom, 12 of them demonstrated 100% neutralizing capacity when the mixture was i.d. injected into mice (18-20 g). These were the stem barks of Brownea rosademonte (Caesalpiniaceae) and Tabebuia rosea (Bignoniaceae); the whole plants of Pleopeltis percussa (Polypodiaceae), Trichomanes elegans (Hymenophyllaceae) and Senna dariensis (Caesalpiniaceae); rhizomes of Heliconia curtispatha (Heliconiaceae); leaves and branches of Bixa orellana (Bixaceae), Philodendron tripartitum (Araceae), Struthanthus orbicularis (Loranthaceae) and Gonzalagunia panamensis (Rubiaceae); the ripe fruits of Citrus limon (Rutaceae); leaves, branches and stem of Ficus nymphaeifolia (Moraceae). Extracts of another 19 species showed moderate neutralization (21-72%) at doses up to 4 mg/mouse, e.g. the whole plants of Aristolochia grandiflora (Aristolochiaceae), Columnea kalbreyeriana (Gesneriaceae), Sida acuta (Malvaceae), Selaginella articulata (Selaginellaceae) and Pseudoelephantopus spicatus (Asteraceae); rhizomes of Renealmia alpinia (Zingiberaceae); the stem of Strychnos xinguensis (Loganiaceae); leaves, branches and stems of Hyptis capitata (Lamiaceae), Ipomoea cairica (Convolvulaceae), Neurolaena lobata (Asteraceae), Ocimum micranthum (Lamiaceae), Piper pulchrum (Piperaceae), Siparuna thecaphora (Monimiaceae), Castilla elastica (Moraceae) and Allamanda cathartica (Apocynaceae); the macerated ripe fruits of Capsicum frutescens (Solanaceae); the unripe fruits of Crescentia cujete (Bignoniaceae); leaves and branches of Piper arboreum (Piperaceae) and Passiflora quadrangularis (Passifloraceae). When the extracts were independently administered by oral, i.p. or i.v. route either before or after an i.d. venom injection (10 microg), neutralization of haemorrhage dropped below 25% for all the extracts. Additionally, B. rosademonte and P. percussa extracts were able to inhibit the proteolytic activity of B. atrox venom on casein. PMID:11025161
Otero, R; Núñez, V; Barona, J; Fonnegra, R; Jiménez, S L; Osorio, R G; Saldarriaga, M; Díaz, A
Background and purpose: The mechanism for the development of post-haemorrhagic cerebral vasospasm after subarachnoid haemorrhage (SAH) still remains unknown. Experimental approach: We investigated the role of thrombin and its receptor PAR1 in the development of hyper-contractility of the basilar artery in a rabbit double haemorrhage model, which received two injections of autologous blood into the cisterna magna. Key results: In the basilar artery isolated from the control rabbits, thrombin, only at 10?units?ml?1, induced a transient endothelium-dependent relaxation and a slight smooth muscle contraction. In SAH, the contractile response to thrombin was markedly enhanced, while the endothelium-dependent relaxant effect of thrombin remained unchanged. The enhancement of the contractile responses was also observed in the absence of endothelium and thrombin induced an enhanced contraction at concentrations higher than 0.3?units?ml?1. The contractile response to PAR1-activating peptide was also enhanced after SAH. However, the contractile responses to high K+ and endothelin-1, and the myofilament Ca2+-sensitivity remained unchanged after SAH. An immunoblot analysis suggested the up-regulation of PAR1 in the smooth muscle of the basilar artery. The heparinization of blood before injection prevented the enhancement of the contractile responses to thrombin and PAR1-activating peptide. Conclusions and implications: The present study demonstrated, for the first time, that the contractile response of the basilar artery to thrombin was markedly enhanced after SAH. Mechanistically, our findings suggested that the activation of thrombin following hemorrhage up-regulated the expression of PAR1, thereby inducing the hyper-responsiveness to thrombin.
Maeda, Y; Hirano, K; Kai, Y; Hirano, M; Suzuki, S O; Sasaki, T; Kanaide, H
Heat stress results in profound reductions in the capacity to withstand a simulated haemorrhagic challenge; however, this capacity is normalized if the individual is volume loaded prior to the challenge. The present study tested the hypothesis that volume loading during passive heat stress attenuates the reduction in regional blood volumes during a simulated haemorrhagic challenge imposed via lower-body negative pressure (LBNP). Seven subjects underwent 30 mmHg LBNP while normothermic, during passive heat stress (increased internal temperature ?1?C), and while continuing to be heated after intravenous colloid volume loading (11 ml kg?¹). Relative changes in torso and regional blood volumes were determined by gamma camera imaging with technetium-99m labelled erythrocytes. Heat stress reduced blood volume in all regions (ranging from 7 to 16%), while subsequent volume loading returned those values to normothermic levels. While normothermic,LBNP reduced blood volume in all regions (torso: 22 ± 8%; heart: 18 ± 6%; spleen: 15 ± 8%). During LBNP while heat stressed, the reductions in blood volume in each region were markedly greater when compared to LBNP while normothermic (torso: 73 ± 2%; heart: 72 ± 3%; spleen: 72 ± 5%, all P<0.001 relative to normothermia). Volume loading during heat stress did not alter the extent of the reduction in these blood volumes to LBNP relative to heat stress alone (torso: 73 ± 1%; heart: 72 ± 2%; spleen: 74 ± 3%, all P>0.05 relative to heat stress alone). These data suggest that blood volume loading during passive heat stress (via 11 ml kg?¹ of a colloid solution) normalizes regional blood volumes in the torso, but does not mitigate the reduction in central blood volume during a simulated haemorrhagic challenge combined with heat stress. PMID:22219334
Crandall, C G; Wilson, T E; Marving, J; Bundgaard-Nielsen, M; Seifert, T; Klausen, T L; Andersen, F; Secher, N H; Hesse, B
DNA vaccines encoding the viral glycoproteins of viral haemorrhagic septicaemia virus (VHSV) and infectious haematopoietic necrosis virus (IHNV) have proved highly efficient in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) under experimental conditions. Non-specific as well as specific immune mechanisms seem to be activated. Temperature is an important external parameter affecting the immune response in fish. The present study aimed at determining the effectiveness of a DNA vaccine against VHS at different temperatures. Rainbow trout fingerlings acclimated at 5 degrees C, 10 degrees C or 15 degrees C, were given an intramuscular injection of 1 microg purified plasmid DNA and challenged with virulent VHSV 8 or 36-40 days later. The vaccine protected the fish well at all three temperatures, but the involvement of innate and adaptive mechanisms differed: at low temperature, non-specific protection lasted longer and at 36 dpv fish kept at 5 degrees C had no detectable response of neutralizing antibodies while 67% of the fish kept at 15 degrees C had seroconverted. Induction of Mx as measured in liver samples was delayed at 5 degrees C with no detectable response 7 dpv whereas fish maintained at 10 degrees C had significantly elevated levels of Mx3-transcripts at that time point. Immunohistochemical studies of the injection site of vaccinated fish also showed a clear effect of temperature: in fish maintained at 15 degrees C the vhsG-protein appeared earlier on the surface of transfected myocytes and the inflammatory response clearing away these myocytes arose earlier compared to fish kept at the lower temperatures of 5 and 10 degrees C. PMID:19427083
Lorenzen, E; Einer-Jensen, K; Rasmussen, J S; Kjaer, T E; Collet, B; Secombes, C J; Lorenzen, N
Outbreaks of Dengue/Dengue Haemorrhagic Fever have been occurring in the National Capital Territory (NCT) Delhi from time to time. A massive outbreak of Dengue/DHF causing considerable mortality occurred in 1996 in the NCT, Delhi. Since this outbreak regular entomological surveillance has been instituted, for timely preventive action against Dengue/DHF. The Central Cross Checking Organisation (CCO) of the National Malaria Eradication Programme cross-checks Aedes surveillance activities in Delhi. In this paper we present our experiences in entomological surveillance in relation Dengue, to share them with other workers in this field. PMID:10093427
Kaul, S M; Sharma, R S; Sharma, S N; Panigrahi, N; Phukan, P K; Lal, S
A case of fatal haemorrhage is reported among 72 ultrasound (US) guided percutaneous fine-needle aspiration liver biopsies (FNAB) performed in the gastro- intestinal unit of Medicine Department in a tertiary hospital. The patient had primary hepatocellular carcinoma (PHCC) with advanced hepatic cirrhosis. Death was due to bleeding from liver nodule resulting in intra-peritoneal haemorrhage. Pre-procedure laboratory tests did not reveal the existence of major bleeding disorders in the patient. This event is our first experience, but colour flow Doppler ultrasound guidance has been reported to prevent its occurrence. The use of FNAB for the diagnosis of PHCC should therefore be guided with colour flow Doppler ultrasound scan to prevent haemorrhage. In addition, there should be proper selection of patients for FNAB especially in areas where there are no colour flow Doppler ultrasound scans. PMID:24287756
Adekanle, O; Ndububa, D A; Ijarotimi, O; Komolafe, O A; Omonisi, E A; Ojo, S O
Monitoring that can predict fluid responsiveness is an unsettled matter for spontaneously breathing patients. Mechanical ventilation induces cyclic variations in blood pressure, e.g. pulse pressure variation, whose magnitude predicts fluid responsiveness in mechanically ventilated patients. In this study, we hypothesised that a deep breathing manoeuvre with its effect on heart rate variability (HRV) could induce similar cyclic variations in blood pressure in spontaneously breathing healthy subjects and that the magnitude of these variations could predict the hemodynamic response to controlled haemorrhage. 37 blood donors were instructed to perform two simple deep breathing manoeuvres prior to blood donation; one manoeuvre with a respiratory cycle every 10 s (0.1 Hz) and one every 6 s (0.167 Hz). The variation in the pre-ejection period (?PEP) was captured with the electrocardiographic and plethysmographic curves, while the hemodynamic response to haemorrhage was estimated with the cardiac output change assessed with ultrasonography. Respiratory HRV was estimated with root mean square of successive differences (RMSSD). Deep breathing induced cyclic changes in ?PEP magnitude was significantly correlated to RMSSD (p < 0.005). ?PEP indexed to RMSSD increased significantly following haemorrhage at the 0.167 Hz respiratory frequency (p = 0.01). At none of the respiratory manoeuvres was ?PEP nor ?PEP/RMSSD prior to haemorrhage correlated to changes in cardiac output following haemorrhage. Deep breathing induces cyclic changes in blood pressure that are strongly dependent on HRV. These blood pressure variations do, however, not predict the cardiac output response to controlled haemorrhage. PMID:24165897
Vistisen, Simon Tilma; Juhl-Olsen, Peter; Frederiksen, Christian Alcaraz; Kirkegaard, Hans
Background Only one strain (the Czech CAPM-v351) of rabbit haemorrhagic disease virus (RHDV) has been released in Australia and New Zealand to control pest populations of the European rabbit O. cuniculus. Antigenic variants of RHDV known as RHDVa strains are reportedly replacing RHDV strains in other parts of the world, and Australia is currently investigating the usefulness of RHDVa to complement rabbit biocontrol efforts in Australia and New Zealand. RHDV efficiently kills adult rabbits but not rabbit kittens, which are more resistant to RHD the younger they are and which may carry the virus without signs of disease for prolonged periods. These different infection patterns in young rabbits may significantly influence RHDV epidemiology in the field and hence attempts to control rabbit numbers. Methods We quantified RHDV replication and shedding in 4–5 week old rabbits using quantitative real time PCR to assess their potential to shape RHDV epidemiology by shedding and transmitting virus. We further compared RHDV-v351 with an antigenic variant strain of RHDVa in kittens that is currently being considered as a potential RHDV strain for future release to improve rabbit biocontrol in Australia. Results Kittens were susceptible to infection with virus doses as low as 10 ID50. Virus growth, shedding and transmission after RHDVa infection was found to be comparable or non-significantly lower compared to RHDV. Virus replication and shedding was observed in all kittens infected, but was low in comparison to adult rabbits. Both viruses were shed and transmitted to bystander rabbits. While blood titres indicated that 4–5 week old kittens mostly clear the infection even in the absence of maternal antibodies, virus titres in liver, spleen and mesenteric lymph node were still high on day 5 post infection. Conclusions Rabbit kittens are susceptible to infection with very low doses of RHDV, and can transmit virus before they seroconvert. They may therefore play an important role in RHDV field epidemiology, in particular for virus transmission within social groups during virus outbreaks.
Background Approximately 90 haemoglobinopathies have been identified that result in abnormally high oxygen affinity. One of these is haemoglobinopathy York (HbY), first described in 1976. HbY causes an extreme leftward shift of the oxygen dissociation curve with the P50 value changing to 12.5 - 15.5 mmHg (normal value 26.7 mmHg), indicating that approximately half of the haemoglobin is not available as oxygen carrier. Patients with haemoglobinopathies with increased oxygen affinity could suffer from the risk developing ischaemic complications due to a lack of functional oxygen carriers. This is, to best of our knowledge, the first case report on a patient with HbY published in connection with anesthesia. Case Presentation A 42-year-old female with a severe headache and Glasgow coma scale (GCS) of 15 was admitted to the neurosurgical intensive care unit with a ruptured, right sided ICA aneurysm with consecutive subarachnoid haemorrhage [Fisher III, World Federation of Neurosurgical Societies (WFNS) I)]. The medical history of the patient included an erythrocytosis (Hb 17.5?g/dl) on the base of a high-oxygen-affinity haemoglobinopathy, called Hb York (HbY). With no time available to take special preoperative precautions, rapid blood loss occurred during the first attempt to clip the aneurysm. General transfusion procedures, according to the guidelines based on haemoglobin and haematocrit values, could not be applied due to the uncertainty in the oxygen carrier reduction. To maintain tissue oxygen supply, clinical indicators of ischaemia were instead utilized to gauge the appropriate required blood products, crystalloids and colloids replacements. Despite this, the patient survived the neurosurgical intervention without any neurological deficit. Conclusions Family members of patients with HbY (and other haemoglobinopathies with increased oxygen affinity) should undergo clinical assessment, particularly if they are polycythaemic. If the diagnosis of HbY is confirmed, they should carry an "emergency anaesthesiology card" in order to avert perioperative risks arising from their "hidden" anemia.
An expert consultation was conducted to provide quantitative parameters required to inform risk-based surveillance of aquaculture holdings for selected infectious hazards. The hazards were four fish diseases endemic in some or several European countries: infectious salmon anaemia (ISA), viral haemorrhagic septicaemia (VHS), infectious haematopoietic necrosis (IHN), and koi herpes virus disease (KHD). Experts were asked to provide estimates for the relative importance of 5 risk themes for the hazard to be introduced into and infect susceptible fish at the destination. The 5 risk themes were: (1) live fish and egg movements; (2) exposure via water; (3) on-site processing; (4) short distance mechanical transmission and (5) distance independent mechanical transmission. The experts also provided parameter estimates for hazard transmission pathways within the themes. The expert consultation was undertaken in a 2 step approach: an online survey followed by an expert consultation meeting. The expert opinion indicated that live fish movements and exposure via water were the major relevant risk themes. Experts were recruited from several European countries and thus covered a range of farming systems. Therefore, the outputs from the expert consultation have relevance for the European context. PMID:24780587
Oidtmann, Birgit C; Peeler, Edmund J; Thrush, Mark A; Cameron, Angus R; Reese, R Allan; Pearce, Fiona M; Dunn, Peter; Lyngstad, Trude M; Tavornpanich, Saraya; Brun, Edgar; Stärk, Katharina D C
Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever (CCHF) is a viral zoonotic disease with a high mortality rate in humans. The CCHF virus is transmitted to humans through the bite of Ixodid ticks or contact with blood or tissues of CCHF patients or infected livestock. In December 2008, a re-emerging outbreak of CCHF occurred in the southern part of Iran. Five people were hospitalised with sudden fever and haemorrhaging, and CCHF was confirmed by RT-PCR and serological assays. One of the cases had a fulminant course and died. Livestock was identified as the source of infection; all animals in the incriminated herd were serologically analysed and more than half of them were positive for CCHFV. We demonstrated that two routes of transmission played a role in this outbreak: contact with tissue and blood of infected livestock, and nosocomial transmission. Phylogenetic analyses helped to identify the origin of this transmission. This outbreak should be considered as a warning for the national CCHF surveillance system to avoid further outbreaks through robust prevention and control programmes. PMID:21144440
Chinikar, S; Ghiasi, S M; Mojtaba Ghiasi, S; Moradi, M; Goya, M M; Reza Shirzadi, M; Zeinali, M; Mostafavi, E; Pourahmad, M; Haeri, A
1. In a rat model of volume-controlled haemorrhagic shock causing the death of all control (saline-treated) animals within 30 min, the intravenous (i.v.) bolus injection of ACTH-(1-24) at a dose of 160 micrograms kg-1 produced an impressive and sustained restoration of arterial pressure, pulse pressure and respiratory function, with 100% survival at the end of the observation period (2 h). 2. Both intracerebroventricular (i.c.v., 0.015-0.06 microgram kg-1) and i.v. (5 micrograms kg-1) pretreatment with the N-calcium channel blocker, omega-conotoxin GVIA, and i.v. (but not i.c.v.) pretreatment with the L-calcium channel blocker, nicardipine (125-500 micrograms kg-1) dose-dependently prevented the ACTH-induced shock reversal. 3. These results further indicate that the effect of ACTH in haemorrhagic shock may involve a neuronal link and the eventual restoration of vascular tone mediated by N- and L-type calcium channels, respectively.
Guarini, S.; Bazzani, C.; Bertolini, A.
During the last outbreak of Ebola virus haemorrhagic fever that occurred concurrently in Gabon and Congo, several primary foci were identified in the Ogooue Ivindo province (Northeast Gabon), where previous outbreaks had occurred. A 48-year-old woman living in Franceville located 580 Km from the epicentre presented fever with haemorrhagic signs. She was evacuated to Libreville where Ebola infection was suspected. Diagnosis was confirmed at the Centre International de Recherches Médicales of Franceville on the basis of detection of specific antibodies. Symptoms had already subsided by the time diagnosis was documented. An epidemiological investigation was undertaken to identify the source of contamination and detect secondary cases. No human or nonhuman primate source of contamination could be formally identified. Direct contact with the virus reservoir could not be ruled out. No secondary cases were detected. The favourable outcome, absence of secondary, and failure to identify a source of contamination suggest that epidemiologically undefined cases may go unnoticed during and outside of outbreaks. PMID:16548488
Nkoghe, D; Nnegue, S; Mve, M Toung; Formenty, P; Thompson, G; Iba Ba, J; Okome Nkoumou, M; Leroy, E
The tonometric method of detecting decreased gut intramucosal pH (pHi) is based on the fact that carbon dioxide can diffuse through the wall of the silastic balloon of the tonometer. By using deoxified saline and measuring PO2 as well as PCO2 this study aimed to follow changes in mucosal PO2 and relate them to changes in pHi in peritonitis versus haemorrhage. Twenty five pigs were used. Five were controls, in 10 peritonitis was induced by the instillation of faeces in the abdominal cavity, and 10 were bled, half of them stepwise during three hours, and half of them rapidly down to a mean (SEM) arterial pressure of 30 (10) mm Hg. The drop in pHi correlated well with decreasing intraluminal PO2 (r = 0.63 (0.13)) in haemorrhage. In peritonitis this drop occurred within a very limited change in intraluminal PO2 (r = 0.06 (0.17)). Thus oxygen seemed to be present in the mucosa at the same time as there were signs of anaerobic metabolism as evidenced by a low intramucosal pH. Impaired oxygen extraction or utilisation, or both, is proposed as an explanation to this seemingly paradoxical situation.
Antonsson, J B; Haglund, U H
Background At present, there are no guidelines on prevention and management of postpartum haemorrhage in primary midwifery care in the Netherlands. The first step towards implementing guidelines is the development of a set of quality indicators for prevention and management of postpartum haemorrhage for primary midwifery supervised (home) birth in the Netherlands. Methods A RAND modified Delphi procedure was applied. This method consists of five steps: (1) composing an expert panel (2) literature research and collection of possible quality indicators, (3) digital questionnaire, (4) consensus meeting and (5) critical evaluation. A multidisciplinary expert panel consisting of five midwives, seven obstetricians and an ambulance paramedic was assembled after applying pre-specified criteria concerning expertise in various domains relating to primary midwifery care, secondary obstetric care, emergency transportation, maternal morbidity or mortality audit, quality indicator development or clinical guidelines development and representatives of professional organisations. Results After literature review, 79 recommendations were selected for assessment by the expert panel. After a digital questionnaire to the expert panel seven indicators were added, resulting in 86 possible indicators. After excluding 41 indicators that panel members unanimously found invalid, 45 possible indicators were assessed at the consensus meeting. During critical evaluation 18 potential indicators were found to be overlapping and two were discarded due to lack of measurability. Conclusions A set of 25 quality indicators was considered valid for testing in practice.
Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever (CCHF) is an acute viral haemorrhagic disease that is now endemic in south eastern Iran. The most important factor associated with mortality is a platelet count of less than 50,000/mL. The purpose of this study is to compare treated cases with severe thrombocytopenia using ribavirin with high-dose methylprednisolone (HDMP) with patients receiving ribavirin without HDMP. A clinical trial was conducted for confirmed patients with CCHF and severe thrombocytopenia (platelet count less than 50,000/mL) admitted to Boo-Ali Hospital in Zahedan between January 2010 and October 2011. The intervention group was given oral ribavirin, supportive managements and HDMP and the controls were treated with ribavirin and supportive management. Following HDMP therapy in hospitalized patients with severe thrombocytopenia, the platelet count increased within 36?h and the leukocyte count within 48?h of the beginning of treatment. Fewer in the intervention group required a transfusion of blood products than in the controls (P?0.001). No one in the intervention group died. It seems that high-dose methylprednisolone is effective in the treatment of patients with CCHF. The increased platelet count and reduction of blood product requirement for severe CCHF patients after receiving HDMP are promising results. Further investigation is necessary in order to determine the efficacy of corticosteroid and its effect on outcome. PMID:23796671
Sharifi-Mood, Batool; Alavi-Naini, Roya; Metanat, Maliheh; Mohammadi, Mehdi; Shakeri, Asad; Amjadi, Ali
Objectives: The debate on the timing of aneurysm surgery after subarachnoid haemorrhage (SAH) pivots on the balance of the temporal risk for fatal rebleeding versus the risk of surgical morbidity when operating early on an acutely injured brain. By following a strict management protocol for SAH, the hypothesis has been tested that in the modern arena of treatment for aneurysmal SAH the timing of surgery to secure supratentorial aneurysms does not affect surgical outcome. Methods: Over a 6 year period, patients admitted with a diagnosis of SAH to a regional neurosurgical unit have been prospectively studied. All have been on a management protocol in which early transfer and resuscitation has been followed regardless of age and clinical condition. Angiographic investigation and surgery have been pursued in those who have been able to at least flex to pain. A total of 1168 patients (60.7% female, mean age 54.3) with proved SAH were received on median day 1 (86.4% arrived within 3 days) of the ictus. Of these, 784 (67.1%) showed aneurysms on angiography and were prepared for surgery. Those who received surgery for a supratentorial aneurysm within 21 days of the ictus were included in the final analysis (n=550). Patients with an initial negative angiogram, with posterior circulation aneurysms, or aneurysms treated by endovascular means, with aneurysms requiring emergency surgery for space occupying haematomas, with aneurysms which re-bled before surgery, and those who received very late surgery (after 21 days from ictus) were excluded. Surgical outcomes at hospital discharge and after 6 months were assessed using the Glasgow outcome score (GOS). Discharge destination and duration of stay in a neurosurgical ward were also documented. The influence of the timing of surgery (early group day 1–3 postictus, intermediate group day 4–10, or late group day 11–21) was analysed prospectively. Results: 60.2% of cases fell into the early surgery group, 32.4% into the intermediate group, and 7.5% into the late operated group. Late surgery was due to delays in diagnosis, transfer, and logistic factors, but not clinical decision. The demographic characteristics, site of aneurysm, and clinical condition of the patients at the time of initial medical assessment were balanced in the three surgical timing groups. There was no significant difference in GOS between the surgical timing groups at 6 months (favourable GOS score 4 and 5: 83.2%, 80.5%, and 83.8% respectively; p=0.47, Kruskal-Wallis test). Outcome was favourable in 84% of patients under 65 years, and 70% in those over 65. The discharge destinations (home, referring hospital, nursing home, rehabilitation centre) showed no significant difference between surgical timing groups. There was no significant difference in mean time to discharge after admission to this hospital from the referring hospital (16.2, 16.2, and 14.6 days for early, intermediate, and late groups respectively; p=0.789, Analysis of variance (ANOVA)). As a result, there was reduction in the mean duration of total hospital inpatient stay in favour of the earliest operated patients (mean time 18.1, 22.0, and 28.3 days respectively; p=0.001. ANOVA showed that besides age, the only determinant of surgical outcome and duration of stay was presenting clinical grade (p<0.0005). Conclusion: The current management of patients presenting with SAH from anterior circulation aneurysms allows early surgery to be followed safely regardless of age. The only independent variables affecting outcome are age and clinical grade at presentation. The timing of surgery did not significantly affect surgical outcome, promoting a policy for early surgery that avoids the known risks of rebleeding and reduces inpatient stay.
Ross, N; Hutchinson, P; Seeley, H; Kirkpatrick, P
Background Postpartum haemorrhage (PPH) remains a leading cause of maternal mortality worldwide. In Denmark 2% of parturients receive blood transfusion. During the course of bleeding fibrinogen (coagulation factor I) may be depleted and fall to critically low levels, impairing haemostasis and thus worsening the ongoing bleeding. A plasma level of fibrinogen below 2?g/L in the early phase of postpartum haemorrhage is associated with subsequent development of severe haemorrhage. Use of fibrinogen concentrate allows high-dose substitution without the need for blood type crossmatch. So far no publications of randomised controlled trials involving acutely bleeding patients in the obstetrical setting have been published. This trial aims to investigate if early treatment with fibrinogen concentrate reduces the need for blood transfusion in women suffering severe PPH. Methods/Design In this randomised placebo-controlled double-blind multicentre trial, parturients with primary PPH are eligible following vaginal delivery in case of: manual removal of placenta (blood loss???500?ml) or manual exploration of the uterus after the birth of placenta (blood loss???1000?ml). Caesarean sections are also eligible in case of perioperative blood loss???1000?ml. The exclusion criteria are known inherited haemostatic deficiencies, prepartum treatment with antithrombotics, pre-pregnancy weight <45?kg or refusal to receive blood transfusion. Following informed consent, patients are randomly allocated to either early treatment with 2?g fibrinogen concentrate or 100?ml isotonic saline (placebo). Haemostatic monitoring with standard laboratory coagulation tests and thromboelastography (TEG, functional fibrinogen and Rapid TEG) is performed during the initial 24 hours. Primary outcome is the need for blood transfusion. To investigate a 33% reduction in the need for blood transfusion, a total of 245 patients will be included. Four university-affiliated public tertiary care hospitals will include patients during a two-year period. Adverse events including thrombosis are assessed in accordance with International Conference on Harmonisation (ICH) good clinical practice (GCP). Discussion A widespread belief in the benefits of early fibrinogen substitution in cases of PPH has led to increased off-label use. The FIB-PPH trial is investigator-initiated and aims to provide an evidence-based platform for the recommendations of the early use of fibrinogen concentrate in PPH. Trial registration ClincialTrials.gov NCT01359878.
An older lady presented 1 week after being discharged from hospital with acute cholecystitis. She suffered a sudden onset lower abdominal pain and was in hypovolaemic shock upon arrival. It was noted that she had been on antiplatelet therapy after suffering a recent myocardial infarction, an immunosuppressor and steroids for rheumatoid arthritis. Her admission bloods revealed a platelet count of 83 with normal clotting factors. After resuscitation, a CT scan confirmed fluid in the abdomen possibly arising from the right subhepatic space. During laparotomy, bleeding was noted from a perforated and ischaemic-looking gallbladder, with an intact cystic artery and duct and no biliary calculi evident. The gallbladder was removed and the patient was transferred to intensive therapy unit. She recovered well within the subsequent 8 days and was discharged. Her histology described ‘haemorrhage within the gallbladder wall along with oedema, fibrosis and patchy inflammation and no signs of malignancy or gangrene’.
Vijendren, Ananth; Cattle, Kirsty; Obichere, Marion
A 60-year-old man was treated in the hospital for mesenteric vein thrombosis and discharged home on anticoagulation. On warfarin the patient started to bleed profusely from the nose and tongue. He was evaluated by ENT (ears, nose and throat); a nasal endoscopy revealed several vascular ectasias. Subsequent detailed history and general physical examination established the diagnosis of hereditary haemorrhagic telangiectasia also known as Osler-Weber-Rendu syndrome. On further evaluation, pulmonary arteriovenous malformations were diagnosed on imaging and treated by intervention radiology. In hindsight, the diagnosis could have been made in the general practitioner's office with just a routine thorough history and a physical examination at a new patient visit. We report this case to stress upon the importance of vigilant clinical, medical and family history and a thorough examination to establish an early diagnosis of this not-so-rare entity. PMID:24165501
Aggarwal, Aakash; Kahlon, Arundeep Singh; Rane, Meghan; Banas, Emerald
The viral haemorrhagic fevers (VHF) are a growing public health threat in the Eastern Mediterranean Region. Nearly all of them are of zoonotic origin. VHF often cause outbreaks with high fatalities and, except for yellow fever, currently there are no specific treatment or vaccination options available. In response to this growing threat, the Regional Office for the Eastern Mediterranean of the World Health Organization convened a technical consultation in Tehran on 27-30 November 2011 to review the current gaps in prevention and control of VHF outbreaks in the Region. The meeting recommended a number of strategic public health approaches for prevention and control of VHF outbreaks through synergizing effective collaboration between the human and animal health sectors on areas that involve better preparedness, early detection and rapid response. Implementation of these approaches would require working together with vision, commitment and a sense of purpose involving partnerships and cooperation from all relevant sectors. PMID:24313155
Malik, M R; El Bushra, H E; Opoka, M; Formenty, P; Velayudhan, R; Eremin, S
Six patients with juvenile haemorrhagic mascular choroidopathy were studied with fluorescein and indocyanine green fluorescence (ICG) angiography, and red-light and red-free light photography in different stages of the disease. The primary lesion consisted of multifocal, whitish, dot-like areas of choroidal infiltration showing hyperfluorescence in the late phase of the fluorescein angiograms. Red-light photographs revealed depigmentation of the pigment epithelium overlying the choroidal lesion, and clearly demonstrated the subsequent pigment-ring lesion. Fluorescein angiograms revealed subretinal neovascularization at the site of the disciform-stage choroidal lesion. ICG angiograms revealed the choridal lesion to be located in the region of greatest supply of short posterior ciliary arteries, wheras the lesion itself remained underfilled throughout the angiogram suggesting vascular decompensation at the site of the lesion. The results suggest a vascular basis, namely intravascular coagulation in the central choriocapillaris, for this uveitis entity. PMID:577366
An older lady presented 1 week after being discharged from hospital with acute cholecystitis. She suffered a sudden onset lower abdominal pain and was in hypovolaemic shock upon arrival. It was noted that she had been on antiplatelet therapy after suffering a recent myocardial infarction, an immunosuppressor and steroids for rheumatoid arthritis. Her admission bloods revealed a platelet count of 83 with normal clotting factors. After resuscitation, a CT scan confirmed fluid in the abdomen possibly arising from the right subhepatic space. During laparotomy, bleeding was noted from a perforated and ischaemic-looking gallbladder, with an intact cystic artery and duct and no biliary calculi evident. The gallbladder was removed and the patient was transferred to intensive therapy unit. She recovered well within the subsequent 8 days and was discharged. Her histology described 'haemorrhage within the gallbladder wall along with oedema, fibrosis and patchy inflammation and no signs of malignancy or gangrene'. PMID:22778467
Vijendren, Ananth; Cattle, Kirsty; Obichere, Marion
A 67 year old Japanese male patient had pure agraphia after a haemorrhage in the left superior parietal lobule. He developed difficulty in letter formation but showed no linguistic errors, consistent with the criteria of apraxic agraphia. He manifested a selective disorder of sequencing writing strokes, although he was able to orally state the correct sequences. The patient's complete recovery after 1 month, without new learning, showed that he had manifested a selective disorder of writing stroke sequences. These findings indicate that the final stage of the execution of writing according to acquired sequential memory shown as a stroke sequence can be selectively disturbed, and should be considered to be distinct from the ability of character imagery and the knowledge of the writing stroke sequence itself. This case also indicates that the left superior parietal lobule plays an important part in the execution of writing.??
Otsuki, M.; Soma, Y.; Arai, T.; Otsuka, A.; Tsuji, S.
Crimean-Congo Haemorrhagic Fever (CCHF) is a severe tick-borne disease, endemic in many countries in Africa, the Middle East, Eastern Europe and Asia. Between 15-70% of reported cases are fatal. There is no approved vaccine available, and preclinical protection in vivo by an experimental vaccine has not been demonstrated previously. In the present study, the attenuated poxvirus vector, Modified Vaccinia virus Ankara, was used to develop a recombinant candidate vaccine expressing the CCHF virus glycoproteins. Cellular and humoral immunogenicity was confirmed in two mouse strains, including type I interferon receptor knockout mice, which are susceptible to CCHF disease. This vaccine protected all recipient animals from lethal disease in a challenge model adapted to represent infection via a tick bite. Histopathology and viral load analysis of protected animals confirmed that they had been exposed to challenge virus, even though they did not exhibit clinical signs. This is the first demonstration of efficacy of a CCHF vaccine. PMID:24621656
Buttigieg, Karen R; Dowall, Stuart D; Findlay-Wilson, Stephen; Miloszewska, Aleksandra; Rayner, Emma; Hewson, Roger; Carroll, Miles W
The effects of haemorrhagic shock on blood pressure and heart rate responses to exogenous adrenaline (2 microgram/kg i.v.) were studied in conscious dogs with chronically implanted vascular cannulae. The animals were bled to a mean arterial pressure of 40 mmHg, the duration of hypovolaemia being two hours. Adrenaline was injected before bleeding, at the beginning and at the end of controlled hypotension, before and 15 minutes after reinfusion. Plasma adrenaline and noradrenaline levels were determined by a radioenzymatic method. In shock, blood pressure responses and their duration decreased. Heart rate responses were changed from a bradycardia type before bleeding to a tachycardia during shock. After reinfusion biphasic responses were dominating. A significant negative correlation was found between plasma noradrenaline levels and blood pressure responses to adrenaline. PMID:7304193
Adamicza, A; Tárnoky, K; Nagy, S
Oxytocin is recommended by the World Health Organisation as the most effective uterotonic for the prevention and treatment of postpartum haemorrhage. The requirement for parenteral administration by trained healthcare providers and the need for the drug solution to be maintained under cold-chain storage limit the use of oxytocin in the developing world. In this study, a spray-dried ultrafine formulation of oxytocin was developed with an optimal particle size diameter (1-5 µm) to facilitate aerosolised delivery via the lungs. A powder formulation of oxytocin, using mannitol, glycine and leucine as carriers, was prepared with a volume-based median particle diameter of 1.9 µm. Oxytocin content in the formulation was assayed using high-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectroscopy and was found to be unchanged after spray-drying. Ex vivo contractility studies utilising human and ovine uterine tissue indicated no difference in the bioactivity of oxytocin before and after spray-drying. Uterine electromyographic (EMG) activity in postpartum ewes following pulmonary (in vivo) administration of oxytocin closely mimicked that observed immediately postpartum (0-12 h following normal vaginal delivery of the lamb). In comparison to the intramuscular injection, pulmonary administration of an oxytocin dry powder formulation to postpartum ewes resulted in generally similar EMG responses, however a more rapid onset of uterine EMG activity was observed following pulmonary administration (129 ± 18 s) than intramuscular injection (275 ± 22 s). This is the first study to demonstrate the potential for oxytocin to elicit uterine activity after systemic absorption as an aerosolised powder from the lungs. Aerosolised oxytocin has the potential to provide a stable and easy to administer delivery system for effective prevention and treatment of postpartum haemorrhage in resource-poor settings in the developing world. PMID:24376618
Prankerd, Richard J; Nguyen, Tri-Hung; Ibrahim, Jibriil P; Bischof, Robert J; Nassta, Gemma C; Olerile, Livesey D; Russell, Adrian S; Meiser, Felix; Parkington, Helena C; Coleman, Harold A; Morton, David A V; McIntosh, Michelle P
Objectives Postpartum haemorrhage (PPH) is a major cause of maternal mortality and morbidity worldwide. Experimental studies support the hypothesis that oxytocin administration during labour, a common although not evidence-based practice, may increase the risk of atonic PPH. The clinical studies, however, are inconclusive. The objectives of this study was to investigate the association between the level of oxytocin exposure during labour and the risk of severe PPH and to explore whether the prophylactic use of oxytocin after birth modifies this association. Design Population-based, cohort-nested case–control study. Setting 106 French hospitals from December 2004 through November 2006. Participants Women with term singleton vaginal deliveries, after an uncomplicated pregnancy. Cases were 1483 women with severe PPH, defined by peripartum change in haemoglobin of ?4?g/dl or need for blood transfusion. Controls were 1758 women from a random sample of parturients without PPH. Main outcome measures The independent association between the level of oxytocin during labour and the risk of severe PPH was tested and quantified with ORs through two-level multivariable logistic regression modelling. Results Oxytocin was administered during labour to 73% of cases and 61% of controls (crude OR: 1.7, 95% CI 1.5 to 2.0). After adjustment for all potential confounders, oxytocin during labour was associated with a significantly higher risk of severe PPH (adjusted OR: 1.8, 95% CI 1.3 to 2.6) in women who did not receive prophylactic oxytocin after delivery; the OR for haemorrhage increased from 1 to 5 according to the level of oxytocin exposure. In women who had prophylactic oxytocin after delivery, this association was significant only for the highest exposure categories. Conclusions Oxytocin during labour appears to be an independent risk factor for severe PPH. The results emphasise the need for guidelines clarifying the evidence-based indications for this procedure and the minimal useful regimens.
Belghiti, Jeremie; Kayem, Gilles; Dupont, Corinne; Rudigoz, Rene-Charles; Bouvier-Colle, Marie-Helene
Oxytocin is recommended by the World Health Organisation as the most effective uterotonic for the prevention and treatment of postpartum haemorrhage. The requirement for parenteral administration by trained healthcare providers and the need for the drug solution to be maintained under cold-chain storage limit the use of oxytocin in the developing world. In this study, a spray-dried ultrafine formulation of oxytocin was developed with an optimal particle size diameter (1-5 µm) to facilitate aerosolised delivery via the lungs. A powder formulation of oxytocin, using mannitol, glycine and leucine as carriers, was prepared with a volume-based median particle diameter of 1.9 µm. Oxytocin content in the formulation was assayed using high-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectroscopy and was found to be unchanged after spray-drying. Ex vivo contractility studies utilising human and ovine uterine tissue indicated no difference in the bioactivity of oxytocin before and after spray-drying. Uterine electromyographic (EMG) activity in postpartum ewes following pulmonary (in vivo) administration of oxytocin closely mimicked that observed immediately postpartum (0-12 h following normal vaginal delivery of the lamb). In comparison to the intramuscular injection, pulmonary administration of an oxytocin dry powder formulation to postpartum ewes resulted in generally similar EMG responses, however a more rapid onset of uterine EMG activity was observed following pulmonary administration (129 ± 18 s) than intramuscular injection (275 ± 22 s). This is the first study to demonstrate the potential for oxytocin to elicit uterine activity after systemic absorption as an aerosolised powder from the lungs. Aerosolised oxytocin has the potential to provide a stable and easy to administer delivery system for effective prevention and treatment of postpartum haemorrhage in resource-poor settings in the developing world.
Ibrahim, Jibriil P.; Bischof, Robert J.; Nassta, Gemma C.; Olerile, Livesey D.; Russell, Adrian S.; Meiser, Felix; Parkington, Helena C.; Coleman, Harold A.; Morton, David A. V.; McIntosh, Michelle P.
The video was produced in 35mm motion picture film as a theatrical short. With narration by Mercedes McCambridge, it tells the story of grave robbing and pot hunting for native American artifacts in the American southwest, and what the U.S. Department of ...
The video was produced in 35mm motion picture film as a theatrical short. With narration by Mercedes McCambridge it tells the story of grave robbing and pot hunting for native American artifacts in the American southwest, and what the U.S. Department of t...
The program includes discussion and demonstration of the following subjects: pressure dressings, bandages for wounds to the face and arm, hand bandages, foot bandages, collar bone bandages and cravat bandages to the hand. From the EMT video, group two ser...
One out of every ten women will develop breast cancer during her lifetime. Survival depends on early detection through frequent exams (physicals) and mammography. Includes interviews with women who have detected breast cancer through mammography.
Resolution of neurological deficits secondary to spontaneous intracranial haemorrhage and posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome (PRES) in a patient with hepatitis C-associated cryoglobulinaemia: a role for plasmapheresis.
Essential mixed cryoglobulinaemia or type II cryoglobulinaemia is an important extrahepatic manifestation of chronic hepatitis C. Cryoglobulinaemia results in the deposition of immune complexes in small or medium-sized blood vessels leading to palpable purpura, arthralgia, renal disease and peripheral neuropathy. Posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome (PRES) is a distinct phenomenon characterised by vasogenic oedema in the posterior circulation of brain. Cryoglobulinaemic vasculitis leading to spontaneous intracranial haemorrhage and PRES syndrome is rarely reported in the medical literature. In this report, we present an unusual case of spontaneous intracranial haemorrhage and PRES secondary to hepatitis C-associated cryoglobulinaemia presenting as right dense hemiplegia. Prompt institution of plasmapheresis resulted in successful resolution of symptoms in our patient, followed by full neurological recovery. To the best of our knowledge, this case describes the first successful use of plasmapheresis in alleviating neurological complications resulting from cryoglobulinaemic vasculitis and PRES secondary to chronic hepatitis C. PMID:24445850
Ahmad, Delshad; Ilias Basha, Haseeb; Towfiq, Basim; Bachuwa, Ghassan
The sequences of the genes of two of the major capsid proteins of epizootic haemorrhagic disease virus sero- type 1 (EHDV-1, Orbivirus genus, Reoviridae) have been determined by analyses of cDNA clones repre- senting the L2 and $7 RNA segments. The EHDV-1 $7 RNA segment, which encodes the VP7 core protein, is 1162 nucleotides in length and has the capacity
Hiroyuki Iwata; Takehisa Chuma; Polly Roy
Obstetric haemorrhage is one of the leading causes of maternal mortality. In many low-resource settings, delays in transport to referral facilities and in obtaining lifesaving treatment, contribute to maternal deaths. The non-pneumatic anti-shock garment (NASG) is a low-technology pressure device that decreases blood loss, restores vital signs, and has the potential to improve adverse outcomes by helping women survive delays
S. Miller; J. M. Turan; K. Dau; M. Fathalla; M. Mourad; T. Sutherland; S. Hamza; F. Lester; E. B. Gibson; R. Gipson; K. Nada; P. Hensleigh
Introduction Pulmonary oedema and impairment of oxygenation are reported as common consequences of haemorrhagic shock and resuscitation (HSR). Surprisingly, there is little information in the literature examining differences in crystalloid type during the early phase of HSR regarding the development of pulmonary oedema, the impact on oxygenation and the haemodynamic response. These experiments were designed to determine if differences exist because of crystalloid fluid type in the development of oedema, the impact on oxygenation and the haemodynamic response to fluid administration in early HSR. Methods Twenty anaesthetised swine underwent a grade V liver injury and bled without resuscitation for 30 minutes. The animals were randomised to receive, in a blinded fashion, either normal saline (NS; n = 10) or lactated Ringer's solution (LR; n = 10). They were then resuscitated with study fluid to, and maintained at, the preinjury mean arterial pressure (MAP) for 90 minutes. Results Extravascular lung water index (EVLWI) began to increase immediately with resuscitation with both fluid types, increasing earlier and to a greater degree with NS. A 1 ml/kg increase in EVLWI from baseline occurred after administartion of (mean ± standard error of the mean) 68.6 ± 5.2 ml/kg of normal saline and 81.3 ± 8.7 ml/kg of LR (P = 0.027). After 150 ml/kg of fluid, EVLWI increased from 9.5 ± 0.3 ml/kg to 11.4 ± 0.3 ml/kg NS and from 9.3 ± 0.2 ml/kg to 10.8 ± 0.3 ml/kg LR (P = 0.035). Despite this, oxygenation was not significantly impacted (Delta partial pressure of arterial oxygen (PaO2)/fraction of inspired oxygen (FiO2) ? 100) until approximately 250 ml/kg of either fluid had been administered. Animals resuscitated with NS were more acidaemic (with lower lactates), pH 7.17 ± 0.03 NS vs. 7.41 ± 0.02 LR (P < 0.001). Conclusions This study suggests that early resuscitation of haemorrhagic shock with NS or LR has little impact on oxygenation when resuscitation volume is less than 250 ml/kg. LR has more favourable effects than NS on EVLWI, pH and blood pressure but not on oxygenation.
Phillips, Charles R; Vinecore, Kevin; Hagg, Daniel S; Sawai, Rebecca S; Differding, Jerome A; Watters, Jennifer M; Schreiber, Martin A
Objectives To record the current use of tranexamic acid during traumatic haemorrhage and elective arthroplasty of the hip and knee. Design A questionnaire-based postal survey. Setting The questionnaire was sent to the ‘anaesthetic lead’ at all acute trusts in England, excluding centres for children, women’s health, cancer and cardiac care. Participants Ninety-nine (66%) centres replied to the questionnaire. Main outcome measures Is tranexamic acid used as part of routine standardized treatment for traumatic haemorrhage and for elective hip and knee arthroplasty, and if so what dosage regime was administered? Results Few trusts (31%) use tranexamic acid during traumatic haemorrhage, with various dosages used. Its use in hip and knee arthroplasty was also low (38%) with a diverse range of doses prescribed. Conclusions Despite many trials showing its efficacy and low risk of side effect, it is clear that its use is not part of standard practice in most centres. Further studies could clarify these concerns and provide a definitive dosing schedule improving patient care and saving lives.
Several haemorrhagic fevers are caused by highly pathogenic viruses that must be handled in Biosafety level 4 (BSL-4) containment. These zoonotic infections have an important impact on public health and the development of a rapid and differential diagnosis in case of outbreak in risk areas represents a critical priority. We have demonstrated the potential of a DNA resequencing microarray (PathogenID v2.0) for this purpose. The microarray was first validated in vitro using supernatants of cells infected with prototype strains from five different families of BSL-4 viruses (e.g. families Arenaviridae, Bunyaviridae, Filoviridae, Flaviviridae and Paramyxoviridae). RNA was amplified based on isothermal amplification by Phi29 polymerase before hybridization. We were able to detect and characterize Nipah virus and Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever virus (CCHFV) in the brains of experimentally infected animals. CCHFV was finally used as a paradigm for epidemics because of recent outbreaks in Turkey, Kosovo and Iran. Viral variants present in human sera were characterized by BLASTN analysis. Sensitivity was estimated to be 10(5) -10(6) PFU/mL of hybridized cDNA. Detection specificity was limited to viral sequences having ~13-14% of global divergence with the tiled sequence, or stretches of ~20 identical nucleotides. These results highlight the benefits of using the PathogenID v2.0 resequencing microarray to characterize geographical variants in the follow-up of haemorrhagic fever epidemics; to manage patients and protect communities; and in cases of bioterrorism. PMID:23240764
Filippone, C; Marianneau, P; Murri, S; Mollard, N; Avsic-Zupanc, T; Chinikar, S; Desprès, P; Caro, V; Gessain, A; Berthet, N; Tordo, N
Haemorrhagic shock is a life threatening condition, and, as such, it is important to understand the mechanisms taking part in its reversal. In the 1990s, it was shown that activation of serotonin 1A receptors is responsible for the circulatory decompensation and development of the sympathoinhibitory phase. In previous reports, it was demonstrated that activation of serotonin 1A receptors induces resuscitative effects in haemorrhaged rats. However, the effectory mechanisms still require further investigation. The aim of the present study was to determine whether the sympathetic nervous system participates in the effects of serotonin through central serotonin 1A receptors in haemorrhagic shock in rats. In order to determine the role of the sympathetic nervous system alpha-1-, alpha-2-, and beta-adrenergic receptor agonists - prazosin, yohimbine and propranolol, respectively, were used. We found that stimulation of the central serotonin 1A receptors by the administration of a selective agonist - 8-hydroxy-2-(di-n-propylamino)tetralin, 1-(2,5-dimethoxy-4-iodophenyl)-aminopropane (8-OH-DPAT) into the lateral brain ventricle is connected with the activation of compensation mechanisms leading to the increase in the heart rate and blood pressure. The current results demonstrate that the stimulation of peripheral alpha-1-, alpha-2- and beta-adrenergic receptors plays an essential role in the resuscitative effect triggered by the stimulation of central serotonin 1A receptors. PMID:24681056
Sowa, Pawel; Adamczyk-Sowa, Monika; Zwirska-Korczala, Krystyna; Misiolek, Maciej; Pierzchala, Krystyna
5?-reductase inhibitors (5?-RIs), including finasteride and dutasteride, are commonly used medical therapies for benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH). Many studies reported that preoperative 5?-RI had impact on intraoperative haemorrhage during surgery for BPH, but it was still in controversial. So, we conducted a systematic review of the effects and mechanisms of 5?-RIs on intraoperative bleeding for BPH. MEDLINE, EMBASE, the Cochrane Controlled Trail Register of Controlled Trials and the reference lists of retrieved studies were searched in the analysis. Sixteen publications involving 15 different randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and a total of 1156 patients were used in the analysis, including 10 RCTs for finasteride and five RCTs for dutasteride. We found that preoperative finasteride treatment decreases microvessel density (MVD) in resected prostate specimens. Total blood loss, blood loss per gram of resected prostate tissue and decreases in haemoglobin were all greatly reduced in the finasteride group as compared to controls. Dutasteride appeared to have no effect on bleeding. This meta-analysis shows that preoperative finasteride treatment could decrease intraoperative haemorrhage during surgery for BPH. Preoperative dutasteride had no effect on intraoperative haemorrhage, but further high-quality prospective studies are still needed to confirm this observation.
Zong, Huan-Tao; Peng, Xiao-Xia; Yang, Chen-Chen; Zhang, Yong
A survey of policymakers and other influential professionals in four southeast Asian countries (Cambodia, Indonesia, Philippines and Vietnam) was conducted to determine policymakers' views on the public health importance of dengue fever and dengue haemorrhagic fever (DHF), the need for a vaccine and the determinants influencing its potential introduction. The survey, which involved face-to-face interviews with policymakers, health programme managers, researchers, opinion leaders and other key informants, revealed an almost uniformly high level of concern about dengue fever/DHF and a high perceived need for a dengue vaccine. Several characteristics of the disease contribute to this high sense of priority, including its geographic spread, occurrence in outbreaks, the recurrent risk of infection each dengue season, its severity and the difficulty in diagnosis and management, its urban predominance, its burden on hospitals, and its economic toll on governments and families. Research felt to be key to future decision-making regarding dengue vaccine introduction include: disease surveillance studies, in-country vaccine trials or pilot projects, and studies on the economic burden of dengue and the cost-effectiveness of dengue vaccines. The results suggest favourable conditions for public and private sector markets for dengue vaccines and the need for creative financing strategies to ensure their accessibility to poor children in dengue-endemic countries. PMID:14604579
DeRoeck, Denise; Deen, Jacqueline; Clemens, John D
Context Vertebral haemangiomas are recognized to be one of the commonest benign tumours of the vertebral column, occurring mostly in the thoracic spine. The vast majority of these are asymptomatic. Infrequently, these can turn symptomatic and cause neurological deficit (cord compression) through any of four reported mechanisms: (1) epidural extension; (2) expansion of the involved vertebra(e) causing spinal canal stenosis; (3) spontaneous epidural haemorrhage; (4) pathological burst fracture. Thoracic haemangiomas have been reported to be more likely to produce cord compression than lumbar haemangiomas. Findings A forty-nine year old male with acute onset spinal cord compression from a pathological fracture in a first lumbar vertebral haemangioma. An MRI delineated the haemangioma and extent of bleeding that caused the cord compression. These were confirmed during surgery and the haematoma was evacuated. The spine was instrumented from T12 to L2, and a cement vertebroplasty was performed intra-operatively. Written consent for publication was obtained from the patient. Clinical Relevance The junctional location of the first lumbar vertebra, and the structural weakness from normal bone being replaced by the haemangioma, probably caused it to fracture under axial loading. This pathological fracture caused bleeding from the vascularized bone, resulting in cord compression.
Vinay, S; Khan, SK; Braybrooke, JR
In November 1984 a case of Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever (CCHF) occurred in a worker who became ill after slaughtering ostriches (Struthio camelus) on a farm near Oudtshoorn in the Cape province of South Africa. The diagnosis was confirmed by isolation of CCHF virus from the patient's serum and by demonstration of a specific antibody response. It was suspected that infection was acquired either by contact with ostrich blood or by inadvertently crushing infected Hyalomma ticks while skinning ostriches. Reversed passive haemagglutination-inhibition antibody to CCHF virus was detected in the sera of 22/92 ostriches from farms in Oudtshoorn district, including 6/9 from the farm where the patient worked, but not in the sera of 460 birds of 37 other species. In pathogenicity studies domestic chickens proved refractory to CCHF infection, but viraemia of low intensity (maximum titre 2.5 log10 mouse ic LD50/ml) followed by a transient antibody response occurred in blue-helmeted guinea fowl (Numidia meleagris). These results offer the first direct evidence that some bird species are susceptible to CCHF virus infection. PMID:3140434
Shepherd, A J; Swanepoel, R; Leman, P A; Shepherd, S P
Primary intracerebral haemorrhage (ICH) is associated with considerable morbidity and mortality. Local endothelin release following ICH may contribute to the pathophysiology of perilesional ischaemia. In diabetics, endothelin release can be enhanced by hyperglycaemia and cerebrovascular dilation may be inhibited by vascular endothelial dysfunction. To examine the effects of endothelin-mediated vasoconstriction after spontaneous ICH in the normal and diabetic brain, regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) was examined in insulin dependent BB-rats and non-diabetic BB control rats. These experiments were performed 24 h following experimental ICH in both groups of animals that were either given the endothelin antagonist SB209670 or saline. Perilesional oligaemia was similar in control and SB209670 treated diabetic rats, but SB209670 reduced perilesional oligaemia in normal rats. In brain contralateral to the experimental ICH, rCBF was increased by SB209670 in diabetic rats, but not in non-diabetic rats. These studies show that there are differences in the cerebrovascular effects of endothelin in perilesional and contralateral brain in non-diabetic and diabetic rats following ICH. PMID:18224522
Fouyas, I P; Brennan, P; Kelly, P A T; Whittle, I R