Sample records for haemorrhagic septicaemia vhs

  1. Efficacy of a glycoprotein DNA vaccine against viral haemorrhagic septicaemia (VHS) in Pacific herring, Clupea pallasii Valenciennes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hart, L.M.; Lorenzen, Niels; LaPatra, S.E.; Grady, C.A.; Roon, S.E.; O’Reilly, J.; Gregg, J.L.; Hershberger, P.K.

    2012-01-01

    Viral haemorrhagic septicaemia virus (VHSV) and its associated disease state, viral haemorrhagic septicaemia (VHS), is hypothesized to be a proximate factor accounting for the decline and failed recovery of Pacific herring populations in Prince William Sound, AK (Marty et al. 1998, 2003, 2010). Survivors of laboratory-induced VHSV epizootics develop resistance to subsequent viral exposure (Kocan et al. 2001; Hershberger et al. 2007, 2010), which is likely the result of immune system recognition of the viral glycoprotein (G) (Lecocq-Xhonneux et al. 1994), a surface antigen that contains neutralizing epitopes (Lorenzen, Olesen & Jorgensen 1990; Jřrgensen et al. 1995) and cell attachment domains (Lecocq-Xhonneux et al. 1994; Estepa & Coll 1996). These properties have proven useful in the development of G-gene-based DNA vaccines for VHSV and a related rhabdovirus, infectious haematopoietic necrosis virus (IHNV) (Anderson et al. 1996; Heppell et al. 1998; Corbeil et al. 1999; Einer-Jensen et al. 2009). Rainbow trout fingerlings, Oncorhynchus mykiss (Walbaum), vaccinated with 1 µg of either the VHS or IHN vaccine are protected from VHS when exposed to virus as early as 4 days (44 degree days) post-vaccination (p.v.) (Lorenzen et al. 2002). At later time points (80 days p.v.; 880 degree days), the level of cross-protection against VHS by IHN vaccination is either completely lost (60 days p.v.; 660 degree days) (3 g rainbow trout; 1 µg vaccine dose) (Lorenzen et al. 2002) or present at intermediate levels (6.5 g rainbow trout; 1 µg vaccine dose) (Einer-Jensen et al. 2009). Comparatively, VHS vaccination remains effective as long as 9 months (2520 degree days) p.v. (100 g rainbow trout; 0.5 µg vaccine dose) (McLauchlan et al. 2003). These results suggest that IHN and VHS vaccination activate a rapid transitory innate immune response against VHSV that is followed by long-term adaptive immunity in VHS-vaccinated trout (Lorenzen et al. 2002).

  2. Trade practices are main factors involved in the transmission of viral haemorrhagic septicaemia.

    PubMed

    Reichert, M; Matras, M; Skall, H F; Olesen, N J; Kahns, S

    2013-02-01

    Viral haemorrhagic septicaemia (VHS), caused by the novirhabdovirus viral haemorrhagic septicaemia virus (VHSV), causes significant economic problems to European rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss (Walbaum), production. The virus isolates can be divided into four distinct genotypes with additional subgroups. The main source of outbreaks in European rainbow trout farming is sublineage Ia isolates. Recently, this group of isolates has been further subdivided in to two subclades of which the Ia-2 consists of isolates occurring mainly in Continental Europe outside of Denmark. In this study, we sequenced the full-length G-gene sequences of 24 VHSV isolates that caused VHS outbreaks in Polish trout farms between 2005 and 2009. All these isolates were identified as genotype Ia-2; they divided however into two genetically distinct subgroups, that we name Pol I and Pol II. The Pol I isolates mainly caused outbreaks in the southern part of Poland, while Pol II isolates predominantly were sampled in the north of Poland, although it seems that they have been transmitted to other parts of the country. Molecular epidemiology was used for characterization of transmission pathways. This study shows that a main cause of virus transmission appears to be movement of fish. At least in Polish circumstances trading practices appear to have significant impact on spreading of VHSV infection. PMID:23020691

  3. Selection of rainbow trout resistant to viral haemorrhagic septicaemia virus and transmission

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Selection of rainbow trout resistant to viral haemorrhagic septicaemia virus and transmission a programme of selection for resistance to viral haemorrhagic septicaemia virus (VHSV) in rainbow trout poorly as compared with the fins of susceptible fish. rainbow trout / selection / viral haemorrhagic

  4. Development of an oral vaccine for immunisation of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) against viral haemorrhagic septicaemia.

    PubMed

    Adelmann, Malte; Köllner, Bernd; Bergmann, Sven M; Fischer, Uwe; Lange, Bodo; Weitschies, Werner; Enzmann, Peter-Joachim; Fichtner, Dieter

    2008-02-01

    In the European Union Viral Haemorrhagic Septicaemia (VHS) eradication is still based on stamping out. Due to the lack of effective low cost vaccines immune prophylaxis is currently not used to combat VHS. This paper describes a new oral delivery method for immunisation of trout with attenuated virus. The vaccine consists of lyophilised virus surrounded by polyethylene glycol (PEG) and was extruded under low temperature. In the stomach of trout, the use of additional neutralising and adsorbing bases resulted in a neutral pH around the vaccine pellets, thus protecting the antigen against gastric acid. The in vivo efficacy of this delivery method was examined in three animal challenge experiments using an attenuated VHS virus (VHSV) strain as a vaccine. After vaccination, VHSV mRNA in gut, heart, kidney, spleen and blood was amplified by semi-nested PCR after RT-PCR. Indirect immune fluorescence test detected VHS vaccine virus in the gut. The expression of MHC class II, CD4 and CD8alpha mRNAs after oral vaccination was measured in gut using real-time RT-PCR. Antibody levels were measured by ELISA one week before vaccination and five weeks after vaccination. Animals were challenged six weeks after vaccination with highly virulent VHSV and mortality was recorded. The experiments showed that orally delivered vaccine virus was released from the vaccine preparation, penetrated the gut mucosa and led to higher expression levels of MHC class II and CD4 mRNAs when compared to control guts. VHSV antibodies were detected after oral vaccination. Immunisation with this new vaccine formulation was followed by a significant protection against VHSV. While the cumulative mortality in the non-vaccinated control group reached 70%, more than 75% of the orally vaccinated fish were protected upon challenge. PMID:18191880

  5. A mortality event in wrasse species (Labridae) associated with the presence of viral haemorrhagic septicaemia virus.

    PubMed

    Munro, E S; McIntosh, R E; Weir, S J; Noguera, P A; Sandilands, J M; Matejusova, I; Mayes, A S; Smith, R

    2015-04-01

    Viral haemorrhagic septicaemia (VHS) is an infectious disease of farmed and wild fish and has an extensive host range in both freshwater and marine environments. In December 2012, a wrasse population consisting of ballan, Labrus bergylta (Ascanius), corkwing, Symphodus melops (L.), cuckoo, Labrus mixtus L., goldsinny, Ctenolabrus rupestris (L.), and rock cook, Centrolabrus exoletus (L.), held at a marine hatchery in the Shetland Isles, Scotland, experienced a mortality event. Approximately 10 000 wrasse were being held at the facility on behalf of an Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar L., aquaculture company prior to being deployed for the biological control of parasites on marine pen Atlantic salmon, aquaculture sites. Fish Health Inspectors from Marine Scotland Science initiated a diagnostic investigation, and subsequent diagnostic testing confirmed the site to be VHSV positive by qRT-PCR and virus isolation followed by ELISA. A VHSV genotype-specific qRT-PCR assay revealed that the isolates belonged to genotype III, the European marine strain of the virus. The virus genotype was further confirmed by nucleic acid sequencing of the partial nucleoprotein (N) and glycoprotein (G) genes followed by BLAST nucleotide searches. This study reports for the first time the detection of VHSV within multiple wrasse species and highlights the need for a comprehensive risk-based approach to the use of wrasse and other finfish species as biological controls within the aquaculture industry. PMID:24661037

  6. Development and validation of a novel Taqman-based real-time RT-PCR assay suitable for demonstrating freedom from viral haemorrhagic septicaemia virus.

    PubMed

    Jonstrup, S P; Kahns, S; Skall, H F; Boutrup, T S; Olesen, N J

    2013-01-01

    Viral haemorrhagic septicaemia (VHS) is a serious disease in several fish species. VHS is caused by the rhabdovirus viral haemorrhagic septicaemia virus (VHSV). To prevent spreading of the pathogen, it is important to use a fast, robust, sensitive and specific diagnostic tool to identify the infected fish. Traditional diagnosis based on isolation in cell culture followed by identification using, for example, ELISA is sensitive and specific but slow. By switching to RT-PCR for surveillance and diagnosis of VHS the time needed before a correct diagnosis can be given will be considerably shortened and the need for maintaining expensive cell culture facilities reduced. Here we present the validation, according to OIE guidelines, of a sensitive and specific Taqman-based real-time RT-PCR. The assay detects all isolates in a panel of 79 VHSV isolates covering all known genotypes and subtypes, with amplification efficiencies of approximately 100%. The analytical and diagnostic specificity of the real-time RT-PCR is close to 1, and the analytical and diagnostic sensitivity is comparable with traditional cell-based methods. In conclusion, the presented real-time RT-PCR assay has the necessary qualities to be used as a VHSV surveillance tool on par with cell culture assays. PMID:23016520

  7. Experimental susceptibility of Atlantic cod, Gadus morhua (L.), and Atlantic halibut, Hippoglossus hippoglossus (L.), to different genotypes of viral haemorrhagic septicaemia virus.

    PubMed

    Snow, M; King, J A; Garden, A; Raynard, R S

    2005-12-01

    Viral haemorrhagic septicaemia (VHS) is a well-characterized disease of rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss, which has also caused economic losses in marine turbot farms in the British Isles. We have previously demonstrated that turbot, Scophthalmus maximus, are susceptible to isolates of viral haemorrhagic septicaemia virus (VHSV) that are endemic in the marine environment, highlighting a potential risk to marine aquaculture. Given the increasing interest in the intensive rearing of additional aquaculture species such as Atlantic cod, Gadus morhua, and Atlantic halibut, Hippoglossus hippoglossus, this study aimed at investigating the susceptibility of these species to VHSV. Both species were found to be largely resistant to VHS following immersion challenge with a selection of 18 isolates, representing the known marine VHSV genotypes. Only one and two VHSV-associated mortalities occurred out of a total of 1710 and 1254 halibut and cod, respectively. These findings suggest that there is a low direct risk to the development of commercial cod and halibut aquaculture from the existing endemic reservoir of VHSV. This study, coupled to field observations has, however, highlighted the fact that both species can become infected with VHSV. The known adaptability of RNA viruses, together with the selection pressures associated with intensive aquaculture would thus advocate a cautious approach to VHSV surveillance within these emerging industries. PMID:16336475

  8. The olive leaf extract exhibits antiviral activity against viral haemorrhagic septicaemia rhabdovirus (VHSV)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Vicente Micol; Nuria Caturla; Laura Pérez-Fons; Vicente Más; Luis Pérez; Amparo Estepa

    2005-01-01

    A commercial plant extract derived from olive tree leaf (Olea europaea) (LExt) and its major compound, oleuropein (Ole), inhibited the in vitro infectivity of the viral haemorrhagic septicaemia virus (VHSV), a salmonid rhabdovirus. Incubation of virus with LExt or Ole before infection reduced the viral infectivity to 10 and 30%, respectively. Furthermore, LExt drastically decreased VHSV titers and viral protein

  9. Comparative susceptibility among three stocks of yellow perch, Perca flavescens (Mitchill), to viral haemorrhagic septicaemia virus strain IVb from the Great Lakes.

    PubMed

    Olson, W; Emmenegger, E; Glenn, J; Winton, J; Goetz, F

    2013-08-01

    The Great Lakes strain of viral haemorrhagic septicaemia virus IVb (VHSV-IVb) is capable of infecting a wide number of naive species and has been associated with large fish kills in the Midwestern United States since its discovery in 2005. The yellow perch, Perca flavescens (Mitchill), a freshwater species commonly found throughout inland waters of the United States and prized for its high value in sport and commercial fisheries, is a species documented in several fish kills affiliated with VHS. In the present study, differences in survival after infection with VHSV IVb were observed among juvenile fish from three yellow perch broodstocks that were originally derived from distinct wild populations, suggesting innate differences in susceptibility due to genetic variance. While all three stocks were susceptible upon waterborne exposure to VHS virus infection, fish derived from the Midwest (Lake Winnebago, WI) showed significantly lower cumulative % survival compared with two perch stocks derived from the East Coast (Perquimans River, NC and Choptank River, MD) of the United States. However, despite differences in apparent susceptibility, clinical signs did not vary between stocks and included moderate-to-severe haemorrhages at the pelvic and pectoral fin bases and exophthalmia. After the 28-day challenge was complete, VHS virus was analysed in subsets of whole fish that had either survived or succumbed to the infection using both plaque assay and quantitative PCR methodologies. A direct correlation was identified between the two methods, suggesting the potential for both methods to be used to detect virus in a research setting. PMID:23305522

  10. Comparative susceptibility among three stocks of yellow perch, Perca flavescens (Mitchill), to viral haemorrhagic septicaemia virus strain IVb from the Great Lakes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Olson, W.; Emmenegger, E.; Glenn, J.; Winton, J.; Goetz, F.

    2013-01-01

    The Great Lakes strain of viral haemorrhagic septicaemia virus IVb (VHSV-IVb) is capable of infecting a wide number of naive species and has been associated with large fish kills in the Midwestern United States since its discovery in 2005. The yellow perch, Perca flavescens (Mitchill), a freshwater species commonly found throughout inland waters of the United States and prized for its high value in sport and commercial fisheries, is a species documented in several fish kills affiliated with VHS. In the present study, differences in survival after infection with VHSV IVb were observed among juvenile fish from three yellow perch broodstocks that were originally derived from distinct wild populations, suggesting innate differences in susceptibility due to genetic variance. While all three stocks were susceptible upon waterborne exposure to VHS virus infection, fish derived from the Midwest (Lake Winnebago, WI) showed significantly lower cumulative % survival compared with two perch stocks derived from the East Coast (Perquimans River, NC and Choptank River, MD) of the United States. However, despite differences in apparent susceptibility, clinical signs did not vary between stocks and included moderate-to-severe haemorrhages at the pelvic and pectoral fin bases and exophthalmia. After the 28-day challenge was complete, VHS virus was analysed in subsets of whole fish that had either survived or succumbed to the infection using both plaque assay and quantitative PCR methodologies. A direct correlation was identified between the two methods, suggesting the potential for both methods to be used to detect virus in a research setting.

  11. Safety, efficacy and cross-protectivity of a live intranasal aerosol haemorrhagic septicaemia vaccine

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Myint; H. H. Nyunt; T. O. Jones

    2005-01-01

    The safety, efficacy and cross-protectivity of a live intranasal aerosol haemorrhagic septicaemia vaccine containing Pasteurella multocida serotype B:3,4 were tested in young cattle and buffaloes in Myanmar, where more than 1?5 million animals had been inoculated with this vaccine between 1989 and 1999. A recommended dose of 2 × 107 viable organisms was used for the efficacy test. The administration

  12. Genotype-specific Taqman® assays for the detection and rapid characterisation of European strains of viral haemorrhagic septicaemia virus.

    PubMed

    Bland, Fiona; Snow, Michael; Garver, Kyle A; Matejusova, Iveta

    2013-02-01

    Viral haemorrhagic septicaemia virus (VHSV) is the agent of a disease that causes mortality events in marine and freshwater fish. It is one of the most important pathogens in European rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) aquaculture. Four major genotypes of the virus are recognised reflecting different geographic and host ranges. Genotyping of VHS isolates is important for disease management enabling monitoring of disease spread into new geographical regions or susceptible species. This study sought to develop molecular tools for rapid and efficient classification of European VHSV genotypes. Specificity of genotype-specific real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) assays targeting the viral nucleoprotein (N) gene was tested using 66 viral isolates. All designed Taqman(®) RT-qPCR assays were genotype specific, displayed a high sensitivity and together constituted a diagnostic method for the rapid discrimination of European VHSV genotypes. Practical diagnostic applications of such assays demonstrated in this study include: (1) rapid genotype determination of isolates; and (2) identification of mixed-genotype isolates originating from pooled samples in areas where genotype distribution is known to overlap. However, the most important application will be supporting international VHSV surveillance programmes through the provision of a rapid specific and sensitive isolate characterisation method. PMID:23089575

  13. Larval Pacific herring, Clupea pallasii (Valenciennes), are highly susceptible to viral haemorrhagic septicaemia and survivors are partially protected after their metamorphosis to juveniles

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hershberger, P.K.; Gregg, J.; Pacheco, C.; Winton, J.; Richard, J.; Traxler, G.

    2007-01-01

    Pacific herring were susceptible to waterborne challenge with viral haemorrhagic septicaemia virus (VHSV) throughout their early life history stages, with significantly greater cumulative mortalities occurring among VHSV-exposed groups of 9-, 44-, 54- and 76-day-old larvae than among respective control groups. Similarly, among 89-day-1-year-old and 1+year old post-metamorphosed juveniles, cumulative mortality was significantly greater in VHSV-challenged groups than in respective control groups. Larval exposure to VHSV conferred partial protection to the survivors after their metamorphosis to juveniles as shown by significantly less cumulative mortalities among juvenile groups that survived a VHS epidemic as larvae than among groups that were previously nai??ve to VHSV. Magnitude of the protection, measured as relative per cent survival, was a direct function of larval age at first exposure and was probably a reflection of gradual developmental onset of immunocompetence. These results indicate the potential for easily overlooked VHS epizootics among wild larvae in regions where the virus is endemic and emphasize the importance of early life history stages of marine fish in influencing the ecological disease processes. ?? 2007 The Authors.

  14. Protective immunity to VHS in rainbow trout ( Oncorhynchus mykiss , Walbaum) following DNA vaccination

    Microsoft Academic Search

    N. LORENZEN; E. LORENZEN; K. EINER-JENSEN; J. HEPPELL; T. WU; H. DAVIS

    1998-01-01

    Rainbow trout fingerlings were immunized by intramuscular injection of a plasmid DNA vector encoding the viral haemorrhagic septicaemia virus (VHSV) glycoprotein (G) or nucleocapsid protein (N) genes under the control of a cytomegalovirus promoter. Challenge with VHSV 52 days later demonstrated that both viral genes, and the G gene in particular, were able to induce protective immunity against VHS. In

  15. Comparative Genomic Analysis of Asian Haemorrhagic Septicaemia-Associated Strains of Pasteurella multocida Identifies More than 90 Haemorrhagic Septicaemia-Specific Genes

    PubMed Central

    Moustafa, Ahmed M.; Seemann, Torsten; Gladman, Simon; Adler, Ben; Harper, Marina; Boyce, John D.; Bennett, Mark D.

    2015-01-01

    Pasteurella multocida is the primary causative agent of a range of economically important diseases in animals, including haemorrhagic septicaemia (HS), a rapidly fatal disease of ungulates. There is limited information available on the diversity of P. multocida strains that cause HS. Therefore, we determined draft genome sequences of ten disease-causing isolates and two vaccine strains and compared these genomes using a range of bioinformatic analyses. The draft genomes of the 12 HS strains were between 2,298,035 and 2,410,300 bp in length. Comparison of these genomes with the North American HS strain, M1404, and other available P. multocida genomes (Pm70, 3480, 36950 and HN06) identified a core set of 1,824 genes. A set of 96 genes was present in all HS isolates and vaccine strains examined in this study, but absent from Pm70, 3480, 36950 and HN06. Moreover, 59 genes were shared only by the Asian B:2 strains. In two Pakistani isolates, genes with high similarity to genes in the integrative and conjugative element, ICEPmu1 from strain 36950 were identified along with a range of other antimicrobial resistance genes. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that the HS strains formed clades based on their country of isolation. Future analysis of the 96 genes unique to the HS isolates will aid the identification of HS-specific virulence attributes and facilitate the development of disease-specific diagnostic tests. PMID:26151935

  16. Susceptibility of various Japanese freshwater fish species to an isolate of viral haemorrhagic septicaemia virus (VHSV) genotype IVb.

    PubMed

    Ito, Takafumi; Olesen, Niels Jřrgen

    2013-11-25

    Genotype IVb of viral haemorrhagic septicaemia virus (VHSV) was isolated for the first time in the Great Lakes basin in 2003, where it spread and caused mass mortalities in several wild fish species throughout the basin. In order to prevent further spreading of the disease and to assess risks of new genotypes invading new watersheds, basic microbiological information such as pathogenicity studies are essential. In this study, experimental infections were conducted on 7 indigenous freshwater fish species from Japan by immersion with a VHSV genotype IVb isolate. In Expt 1, cumulative mortalities in bluegill Lepomis macrochirus used as positive controls, Japanese fluvial sculpin Cottus pollux, and iwana Salvelinus leucomaenis pluvius were 50, 80 and 0%, respectively. In Expt 2, cumulative mortalities of 100, 100 and 10% were observed in Japanese fluvial sculpin C. pollux, Japanese rice fish Oryzias latipes and yoshinobori Rhinogobius sp., respectively. No mortality was observed in honmoroko Gnathopogon caerulescens, akaza Liobagrus reini or Japanese striped loach Cobitis biwae. VHSV was detected by RT-PCR from samples of kidney, spleen, and brain from all dead fish, and virus re-isolation by cell culture was successful from all dead fish. We detected the virus in the brain from a few surviving bluegill 50 d post exposure by both cell culture and RT-PCR. These results revealed that VHSV IVb could become a serious threat to wild freshwater fish species in Japan, and that some surviving fish might become healthy carriers of the virus. PMID:24270018

  17. Loop?mediated Isothermal Amplification assay (LAMP) based detection of Pasteurella multocida in cases of haemorrhagic septicaemia and fowl cholera.

    PubMed

    Bhimani, Mayurkumar; Bhanderi, Bharat; Roy, Ashish

    2015-06-30

    Twenty two isolates of Pasteurella multocida were obtained from different tissues of dead birds and animals (cattle, buffalo, sheep, and goat) suspected of fowl cholera and haemorrhagic septicaemia. The isolates were confirmed as P. multocida by various biochemical tests and PM PCR. An attempt was made to standardize Loop mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) using newly designed primer sequences of KMT1 gene. Loop mediated isothermal amplification was conducted using 6 sets of primers at 65°C for 30 minutes and the result was confirmed by visual observation using SYBR green fluorescence dye as marker of positive reaction under UV transilluminator. On electrophoretic analysis of the products on 2% agarose gel, a ladder like pattern was observed, which suggested a positive amplification, whereas no amplification was observed in negative controls. Additionally, product of positive reaction yielded a green fluorescence following addition of SYBR green under UV transilluminator. It was observed that LAMP is a more sensitive test than polymerase chain reaction (PCR), as the former could detect DNA to lower limit of 22.8 pg/µl, while the latter could detect DNA to lower limit of 2.28 ng/ µl, thus LAMP could detect 100 times lesser concentration of DNA in comparison to PCR. Loop mediated isothermal amplification is a rather newer molecular technique, which can be used for rapid detection of infectious agent at field level and which does not require sophisticated instrument, i.e. thermal cycler. Furthermore, unlike the conventional PCR technique, LAMP requires lesser time to perform and result can be read visually. PMID:26129662

  18. Model for ranking freshwater fish farms according to their risk of infection and illustration for viral haemorrhagic septicaemia.

    PubMed

    Oidtmann, Birgit C; Pearce, Fiona M; Thrush, Mark A; Peeler, Edmund J; Ceolin, Chiara; Stärk, Katharina D C; Dalla Pozza, Manuela; Afonso, Ana; Diserens, Nicolas; Reese, R Allan; Cameron, Angus

    2014-08-01

    We developed a model to calculate a quantitative risk score for individual aquaculture sites. The score indicates the risk of the site being infected with a specific fish pathogen (viral haemorrhagic septicaemia virus (VHSV); infectious haematopoietic necrosis virus, Koi herpes virus), and is intended to be used for risk ranking sites to support surveillance for demonstration of zone or member state freedom from these pathogens. The inputs to the model include a range of quantitative and qualitative estimates of risk factors organised into five risk themes (1) Live fish and egg movements; (2) Exposure via water; (3) On-site processing; (4) Short-distance mechanical transmission; (5) Distance-independent mechanical transmission. The calculated risk score for an individual aquaculture site is a value between zero and one and is intended to indicate the risk of a site relative to the risk of other sites (thereby allowing ranking). The model was applied to evaluate 76 rainbow trout farms in 3 countries (42 from England, 32 from Italy and 2 from Switzerland) with the aim to establish their risk of being infected with VHSV. Risk scores for farms in England and Italy showed great variation, clearly enabling ranking. Scores ranged from 0.002 to 0.254 (mean score 0.080) in England and 0.011 to 0.778 (mean of 0.130) for Italy, reflecting the diversity of infection status of farms in these countries. Requirements for broader application of the model are discussed. Cost efficient farm data collection is important to realise the benefits from a risk-based approach. PMID:24815039

  19. Induction of rainbow trout MH class I and accessory proteins by viral haemorrhagic septicaemia virus.

    PubMed

    Sever, Lital; Vo, Nguyen T K; Lumsden, John; Bols, Niels C; Dixon, Brian

    2014-06-01

    Major histocompatibility (MH) class I receptors are glycoproteins which play a critical role during responses to intracellular pathogens by presenting endogenous peptides to cytotoxic T cell lymphocytes (CD8+). To date, little is known about MH class I regulation at the protein level during viral infections in fish. In this study, we characterised the MH class I pathway response to polyinosinic-polycytidylic acid (poly I:C) and upon infection with viral haemorrhagic septicemia virus (VHSV) genotype IVa using the rainbow trout monocyte/macrophage cell line RTS11. A 14-day challenge with VHSV IVa at 14°C demonstrated enhanced expression of the class I heavy chain, ?2 microglobulin (?2M) and tapasin, while the expression of other accessory molecules ERp57 and calreticulin remained unchanged. However, when infection occurred at 2°C no change in expression levels of any of these molecules was observed. ?2M accumulated in the media of RTS11 over time, however the ?2M concentrations were 2 fold higher in cultures infected with VHSV 14 days post infection. Strikingly, when cells were maintained at 2°C the secretion of ?2M was significantly reduced in both infected and non-infected cultures. These results indicate that VHSV infection alters the kinetics of ?2M release as well as the expression of MH class I and suggests that cellular immunity against VHSV can be compromised at low temperatures which may increase host susceptibility to this virus during the winter. PMID:24607971

  20. Serotyping of foot and mouth disease virus and Pasteurella multocida from Indian gaurs (Bos gaurus), concurrently infected with foot and mouth disease and haemorrhagic septicaemia.

    PubMed

    Chandranaik, Basavegowdanadoddi Marinaik; Hegde, Raveendra; Shivashankar, Beechagondahalli Papanna; Giridhar, Papanna; Muniyellappa, Handenahally Kaverappa; Kalge, Rajeshwar; Sumathi, Benamanahalli Raju; Nithinprabhu, Kumble; Chandrashekara, Narasimhaiah; Manjunatha, Venkataramanappa; Jaisingh, Nirupama; Mayanna, Asha; Chandrakala, Gowda Kallenahalli; Kanaka, Sermaraja; Venkatesha, Mudalagiri Dasappagupta

    2015-06-01

    We report the serotyping of foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) and Pasteurella multocida from Indian gaurs which were concurrently infected with foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) and haemorrhagic septicaemia. Bannerghatta biological park (BBP), a national park located in the outskirts of Bengaluru city, Karnataka, India, is bordered by several villages. These villages witnessed massive outbreaks of FMD which spread rapidly to the herbivores at BBP. Post-mortem was conducted on carcasses of two Indian gaurs that died with symptoms of FMD. The salient gross findings included extensive vesicular lesions on the tongue, gums, cheeks, upper palate and hooves. Haemorrhagic tracheitis and ecchymotic haemorrhages on the heart were characteristic. The vesicular lesions of oral cavity were positive for 'O' type of FMD virus by sandwich enzyme-linked immuno sorbent assay (ELISA). The heart blood and spleen samples yielded growth of pure cultures of P. multocida. The isolates were typed as P. multocida type B using KTSP61 and KTT72 primers yielding specific amplicons of 620 bp. The phylogenetic analysis of the isolates was carried by sequencing of 1.4-Kbp nucleotides on the 16S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) gene of the isolates. PMID:25894817

  1. Viral replication in excised fin tissues (VREFT) corresponds with prior exposure of Pacific herring, Clupea pallasii (Valenciennes), to viral haemorrhagic septicaemia virus (VHSV)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Grady, C.A.; Gregg, J.L.; Wade, R.M.; Winton, J.R.; Hershberger, P.K.

    2011-01-01

    Procedures for a viral replication in excised fin tissue (VREFT) assay were adapted to Pacific herring, Clupea pallasii, and optimized both to reduce processing time and to provide the greatest resolution between na??ve herring and those previously exposed to viral haemorrhagic septicaemia virus (VHSV), Genogroup IVa. The optimized procedures included removal of the left pectoral fin from a euthanized fish, inoculation of the fin with >105 plaque-forming units (PFU) mL-1 VHSV for 1 h, rinsing the fin in fresh medium six times to remove unadsorbed virions, incubation of the fin in fresh medium for 4 days and enumeration of the viral titre in a sample of the incubation medium by plaque assay. The optimized VREFT assay was effective at identifying the prior exposure history of laboratory-reared Pacific herring to VHSV. The geometric mean VREFT value was significantly greater (P < 0.01) among na??ve herring (1.2 ?? 103 PFU mL-1) than among groups that survived exposure to VHSV (1.0-2.9 ?? 102 PFU mL-1); additionally, the proportion of cultures with no detectable virus was significantly greater (P = 0.0002) among fish that survived exposure to VHSV (39-47%) than among na??ve fish (3.3%). The optimized VREFT assay demonstrates promise for identifying VHSV exposure history and forecasting disease potential in populations of wild Pacific herring. ?? 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  2. Development of a walleye cell line and use to study the effects of temperature on infection by viral haemorrhagic septicaemia virus group IVb.

    PubMed

    Vo, N T K; Bender, A W; Lee, L E J; Lumsden, J S; Lorenzen, N; Dixon, B; Bols, N C

    2015-02-01

    A cell line, WE-cfin11f, with a fibroblast-like morphology was developed from a walleye caudal fin and used to study the intersection of thermobiology of walleye, Sander vitreus (Mitchill), with the thermal requirements for replication of viral haemorrhagic septicaemia virus (VHSV) IVb. WE-cfin11f proliferated from 10 to 32 °C and endured as a monolayer for at least a week at 1-34 °C. WE-cfin11f adopted an epithelial shape and did not proliferate at 4 °C. Adding VHSV IVb to cultures at 4 and 14 °C but not 26 °C led to cytopathic effects (CPE) and virus production. At 4 °C, virus production developed more slowly, but Western blotting showed more N protein accumulation. Infecting monolayer cultures at 4 °C for 7 days and then shifting them to 26 °C resulted in the monolayers being broken in small areas by CPE, but with time at 26 °C, the monolayers were restored. These results suggest that at 26 °C, the VHSV IVb life cycle stages responsible for CPE can be completed, but the production of virus and the initiation of infections cannot be accomplished. PMID:25589167

  3. Microarray-based identification of differentially expressed genes in families of turbot (Scophthalmus maximus) after infection with viral haemorrhagic septicaemia virus (VHSV).

    PubMed

    Díaz-Rosales, P; Romero, A; Balseiro, P; Dios, S; Novoa, B; Figueras, A

    2012-10-01

    Viral haemorrhagic septicaemia virus (VHSV) is one of the major threats to the development of the aquaculture industry worldwide. The present study was aimed to identify genes differentially expressed in several turbot (Scophthalmus maximus) families showing different mortality rates after VHSV. The expression analysis was conducted through genome-wide expression profiling with an oligo-microarray in the head kidney. A significant proportion of the variation in the gene expression profiles seemed to be explained by the genetic background, indicating that the mechanisms by which particular species and/or populations can resist a pathogen(s) are complex and multifactorial. Before the experimental infections, fish from resistant families (low mortality rates after VHSV infection) showed high expression of different antimicrobial peptides, suggesting that their pre-immune state may be stronger than fish of susceptible families (high mortality rates after VHSV infection). After infection, fish from both high- and low-mortality families showed an up-modulation of the interferon-induced Mx2 gene, the IL-8 gene and the VHSV-induced protein 5 gene compared with control groups. Low levels of several molecules secreted in the mucus were observed in high-mortality families, but different genes involved in viral entrance into target cells were down-regulated in low-mortality families. Moreover, these families also showed a strong down-modulation of marker genes related to VHSV target organs, including biochemical markers of renal dysfunction and myocardial injury. In general, the expression of different genes involved in the metabolism of sugars, lipids and proteins were decreased in both low- and high-mortality families after infection. The present study serves as an initial screen for genes of interest and provides an extensive overview of the genetic basis underlying the differences between families that are resistant or susceptible to VHSV infection. PMID:22790792

  4. A retrospective study on the epidemiology of anthrax, foot and mouth disease, haemorrhagic septicaemia, peste des petits ruminants and rabies in Bangladesh, 2010-2012.

    PubMed

    Mondal, Shankar P; Yamage, Mat

    2014-01-01

    Anthrax, foot and mouth disease (FMD), haemorrhagic septicaemia (HS), peste des petits ruminants (PPR) and rabies are considered to be endemic in Bangladesh. This retrospective study was conducted to understand the geographic and seasonal distribution of these major infectious diseases in livestock based on data collected through passive surveillance from 1 January 2010 to 31 December 2012. Data analysis for this period revealed 5,937 cases of anthrax, 300,333 of FMD, 13,436 of HS, 247,783 of PPR and 14,085 cases of dog bite/rabies. While diseases were reported in almost every district of the country, the highest frequency of occurrence corresponded to the susceptible livestock population in the respective districts. There was no significant difference in the disease occurrences between districts bordering India/Myanmar and non-border districts (p>0.05). Significantly higher (p<0.01) numbers of anthrax (84.5%), FMD (88.3%), HS (84.9%) and dog bite/rabies (64.3%) cases were reported in cattle than any other species. PPR cases were reported mostly (94.8%) in goats with only isolated cases (5.2%) in sheep. The diseases occur throughout the year with peak numbers reported during June through September and lowest during December through April, with significant differences (p<0.01) between the months. The annual usages of vaccines for anthrax, FMD, HS and PPR were only 7.31%, 0.61%, 0.84% and 11.59% of the susceptible livestock population, respectively. Prophylactic vaccination against rabies was 21.16% of cases. There were significant differences (p<0.01) in the administration of anthrax, FMD and HS vaccines between border and non-border districts, but not PPR or rabies vaccines. We recommend that surveillance and reporting of these diseases need to be improved throughout the country. Furthermore, all suspected clinical cases should be confirmed by laboratory examination. The findings of this study can be used in the formulation of more effective disease management and control strategies, including appropriate vaccination policies in Bangladesh. PMID:25101836

  5. A survey of wild marine fish identifies a potential origin of an outbreak of viral haemorrhagic septicaemia in wrasse, Labridae, used as cleaner fish on marine Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar L., farms.

    PubMed

    Wallace, I S; Donald, K; Munro, L A; Murray, W; Pert, C C; Stagg, H; Hall, M; Bain, N

    2015-06-01

    Viral haemorrhagic septicaemia virus (VHSV) was isolated from five species of wrasse (Labridae) used as biological controls for parasitic sea lice predominantly, Lepeophtheirus salmonis (Krřyer, 1837), on marine Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar L., farms in Shetland. As part of the epidemiological investigation, 1400 wild marine fish were caught and screened in pools of 10 for VHSV using virus isolation. Eleven pools (8%) were confirmed VHSV positive from: grey gurnard, Eutrigla gurnardus L.; Atlantic herring, Clupea harengus L.; Norway pout, Trisopterus esmarkii (Nilsson); plaice, Pleuronectes platessa L.; sprat, Sprattus sprattus L. and whiting, Merlangius merlangus L. The isolation of VHSV from grey gurnard is the first documented report in this species. Nucleic acid sequencing of the partial nucleocapsid (N) and glycoprotein (G) genes was carried out for viral characterization. Sequence analysis confirmed that all wild isolates were genotype III the same as the wrasse and there was a close genetic similarity between the isolates from wild fish and wrasse on the farms. Infection from these local wild marine fish is the most likely source of VHSV isolated from wrasse on the fish farms. PMID:25102953

  6. Impaired TLR2 and TLR7 response in olive flounder infected with viral haemorrhagic septicaemia virus at host susceptible 15 °C but high at non-susceptible 20 °C.

    PubMed

    Avunje, Satheesha; Oh, Myung-Joo; Jung, Sung-Ju

    2013-05-01

    The olive flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus) is susceptible to viral haemorrhagic septicaemia virus (VHSV) at 15 °C but no mortality is observed at 20 °C even though the virus can grow profusely in vitro. Thus, we designed an experiment to better understand the immune response of olive flounder to VHSV when the host reared at 15 °C or 20 °C and infected with the virus. Olive flounder (18-22 g) reared at 15 ± 0.5 °C or 20 ± 0.5 °C were intra-peritoneally injected with VHSV (10(7.8) TCID50/fish) and sampled (n = 5) for head kidney at 3, 6, 12 hpi, 1, 2, 4 and 7 dpi; similarly, mock injected control groups (n = 5). Real-time PCR-based absolute quantification method was followed to quantify copies of VHSV gRNA and mRNA, while the immune gene expression of the olive flounder was quantified relative to internal control, ?-actin. Viral infection resulted in a cumulative mortality of 24% in olive flounder reared at 15 °C, but no mortality was recorded in the 20 °C group or control groups. TLR2 and TLR7 expression at 15 °C was enhanced during early-infection phase (3-6 hpi) and recovery phase (4-7 dpi) when viral transcription was low, but expression was significantly reduced (12 hpi-1 dpi) at peak-infection period. However, the 20 °C group showed low viral transcription and expressed high level of TLR7 and a moderately higher unchanged level of TLR2. In both the groups, TLR3 expression was unaffected. Nevertheless, expression of MDA5 and LGP2 increased significantly irrespective of rearing temperature at the time of peak infection, hence at 15 °C VHSV down-regulated expression of TLR2 and TLR7 but not MDA5 or LGP2. Comparatively, at 15 °C IRF3 expressed high but IRF7 remained very low. Interleukins (IL-1?, IL-6 and IL-8) were significantly elevated in both the groups, but quicker and for a shorter period at 20 °C. In the 15 °C group, an extended period of expression of ILs could create an unsafe prolonged inflammatory condition. The olive flounders expressed high ISGs at 15 °C but were lagging by 12 h than 20 °C group. Based on these findings, we concluded that viral-mediated disruption of TLR2 and TLR7 expression in the 15 °C group could have delayed the host interferon response and provided a window for high viral growth. However, an effective host immune response at 20 °C contained VHSV from reaching the critical limit. PMID:23462148

  7. Increased risk of stroke after septicaemia: a population-based longitudinal study in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jiunn-Tay; Chung, Wen Ting; Lin, Jin-Ding; Peng, Giia-Sheun; Muo, Chih-Hsin; Lin, Che-Chen; Wen, Chi-Pang; Wang, I-Kuan; Tseng, Chun-Hung; Kao, Chia-Hung; Hsu, Chung Y

    2014-01-01

    Inflammation and infection have been noted to increase stroke risk. However, the association between septicaemia and increased risk of stroke remains unclear. This population-based cohort study, using a National Health Insurance database, aimed to investigate whether patients with septicaemia are predisposed to increased stroke risk. The study included all patients hospitalised for septicaemia for the first time between 2000 and 2003 without prior stroke. Patients were followed until the end of 2010 to evaluate incidence of stroke. An age-, gender- and co-morbidities-matched cohort without prior stroke served as the control. Cox's proportional hazards regressions were used to assess differences in stroke risk between groups. Based on hazard ratios (HRs), patients with septicaemia had greater stroke risk, especially in the younger age groups (age <45: HR = 4.16, 95% CI: 2.39-7.24, p<0.001; age 45-64: HR = 1.76, 95% CI: 1.41-2.19, p<0.001; age ? 65: HR = 1.05, 95% CI: 0.91-1.22, p>0.05). Haemorrhagic stroke was the dominant type (ischaemic stroke: HR = 1.20, 95% CI: 1.06-1.37, p<0.01; haemorrhagic stroke: HR = 1.82, 95% CI: 1.35-2.46, p<0.001) and patients without co-morbidities were at slightly higher risk (without co-morbidities: HR = 1.49, 95% CI: 1.02-2.17, p<0.05; with co-morbidities: HR = 1.24, 95% CI: 1.10-1.41, p<0.001). The impact of septicaemia on stroke risk was highest within 6 months of the event and gradually declined over time. Our results suggest that septicaemia is associated with an increase in stroke risk, which is greatest in haemorrhagic stroke. Closer attention to patients with history of septicaemia may be warranted for stroke preventive measures, especially for younger patients without co-morbidities. PMID:24586739

  8. High throughput screening of scFv antibodies against viral hemorrhagic septicaemia virus by flow cytometry.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Yao; Xie, Zhi-Gang

    2015-07-01

    Viral hemorrhagic septicaemia (VHS) is an economically important disease that affects salmon and trout worldwide. In this study, a recombinant single chain variable fragment (scFv) antibody library derived from rainbow trout immunized with purified viral hemorrhagic septicaemia virus (VHSV) was constructed. The library was subjected to three rounds of screening by flow cytometry (FCM) against VHSV through a bacteria display technology, resulting in the enrichment of scFv. Four scFv clones with different fluorescence intensity were obtained by colony pick up at random following three rounds of screening. The isolated scFv antibodies were expressed and purified. Relative affinity assay showed the four clones had different sensitivity to VHSV, in accordance with FCM. The potential use of the selected VHSV-specific scFv antibodies was demonstrated by the successful application in Western blotting assay, ELISA and immunofluorescence antibody test (IFAT), and one of the isolated scFv molecular showed excellent in vitro and in vivo blocking activities against VHSV. scFv isolated in this study can be promising diagnostic and/or therapeutic reagents for VHS. This study provides powerful strategies for screening antibodies against new diseases. PMID:25813596

  9. Cause of death among patients with Parkinson's disease: a rare mortality due to cerebral haemorrhage

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. Iwasaki; Y. Narabayashi; K. Hamaguchi; A. Iwasaki; M. Takakusagi

    1990-01-01

    Causes of death, with special reference to cerebral haemorrhage, among 240 patients with pathologically verified Parkinson's disease were investigated using the Annuals of the Pathological Autopsy Cases in Japan from 1981 to 1985. The leading causes of death were pneumonia and bronchitis (44.1%), malignant neoplasms (11.6%), heart diseases (4.1%), cerebral infarction (3.7%) and septicaemia (3.3%). Cerebral haemorrhage was the 11th

  10. Haemorrhagic Fevers, Viral

    MedlinePLUS

    ... haemorrhagic fevers), Filoviridae (Ebola and Marburg) and Flaviviridae (yellow fever, dengue, Omsk haemorrhagic fever, Kyasanur forest disease). Ebola ... topics Dengue Disease outbreaks Infectious diseases Tropical diseases Yellow fever You are here: Health topics Haemorrhagic fevers, Viral ...

  11. Exsanguinated uterus after massive atonic postpartum haemorrhage

    PubMed Central

    Mahadik, Kalpana V; Swami, M B; Pandey, Neha; Pathak, Ashish

    2013-01-01

    This article addresses issues related to pregnancy anaemia and late referral by a village birth attendant in resource poor setting in a central state of India. A young anaemic woman had labour onset at her village, a birth attendant tried to deliver her but failed. When she came to our hospital, had established septicaemia and absolutely non-reassurable uterine tone leading to intractable atonic postpartum haemorrhage. She died after 5?days because of coagulopathy and multiorgan failure. Huge budgets are being spent for the promotion of institutional deliveries but still the maternal mortality ratio has not reduced. The epidemiology of childbirth, social awareness for safe labour and administrative lethargy towards implementation of government programmes have not changed. The tertiary care—blood and components—multidisciplinary approach could not prevent the death of an anaemic woman. Unless there is a grassroot level change in the healthcare delivery system at the village level, the scenario might not change. PMID:23853190

  12. Massive obstetric haemorrhage

    Microsoft Academic Search

    John Bonnar

    2000-01-01

    Massive obstetric haemorrhage is a major cause of maternal death and morbidity; abruptio placentae, placenta praevia and postpartum haemorrhage being the main causes. A delay in the correction of hypovolaemia, a delay in the diagnosis and treatment of defective coagulation and a delay in the surgical control of bleeding are the avoidable factors in most maternal deaths caused by haemorrhage.

  13. Sourced from EVERYBODY.co.nz About meningitis and meningococcal septicaemia

    E-print Network

    Hickman, Mark

    Sourced from EVERYBODY.co.nz About meningitis and meningococcal septicaemia Meningitis). Also see our topic: After meningitis and meningococcal disease Bacterial meningitis and meningococcal septicaemia Bacterial meningitis and meningococcal septicaemia are very serious and need urgent treatment

  14. Crimean-Congo Haemorrhagic Fever

    MedlinePLUS

    Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever Fact sheet N°208 January 2013 Key facts The Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever (CCHF) virus causes severe viral haemorrhagic ... the principal tick vector. The Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever virus in animals and ticks The hosts of ...

  15. Natural history of adrenal haemorrhage in the newborn

    PubMed Central

    Black, John; Williams, David Innes

    1973-01-01

    5 cases of unilateral and 3 cases of bilateral haemorrhage are described. Only 1 infant died, from venous thromboses elsewhere. Apart from this case, all had an above average birthweight. Probable predisposing causes apart from large size were fetal hypoxia, septicaemia, thrombocytopenia, coagulation defect, and disseminated thromboembolic disease. The condition must be distinguished from renal vein thrombosis. In the acute stage pyelography shows depression of the kidney on the affected side, with flattening of the upper calyces. Calcification develops rapidly round the periphery of the mass, then slowly contracts into an area of the size and shape of the original gland. Treatment is with antibiotics and blood transfusion, with intravenous corticosteroids in severely shocked or bilateral cases. Adrenal insufficiency is rarely found on follow-up even in bilateral cases, but renal hypertension should be looked for. No single cause for the haemorrhage could be discovered, but the preponderance of haemorrhage into the right adrenal gland is probably due to anatomical differences between the venous drainage of the two sides. ImagesFIG. 1FIG. 2FIG. 3FIG. 4FIG. 5 PMID:4735041

  16. Peripheral retinal haemorrhages with papilloedema.

    PubMed Central

    Galvin, R; Sanders, M D

    1980-01-01

    Two cases are described with severe intracranial hypertension, papilloedema, and a hitherto unreported haemorrhagic peripheral retinopathy. The marked disc swelling in these patients has probably contributed to a venous occlusive element resulting in the haemorrhagic retinopathy. Images PMID:7387960

  17. Haemorrhagic septicaemia due to Pasteurella Multocida type B2 in Namibia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Voigts; Georginah Ngaisiue; Maryke M. Henton; O. J. B. Hübschle

    1997-01-01

    Two laboratory confirmed outbreaks of Pasteurella multocida Type B2 were diagnosed in cattle of different ages during 1994 and 1995. The first case (1994) occurred at the height of the austral winter (July 1994) in a group of about 150 weaner calves. The calves were assembled in a small camp for routine branding, annual castration and vaccination against lamsiekte (Clostridium

  18. CFRP strengthened butt-welded very high strength (VHS) circular steel tubes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. Jiao; X.-L. Zhao

    2004-01-01

    This paper investigates the behavior of carbon fibre reinforced plastics (CFRP) strengthened butt-welded very high strength (VHS) circular steel tubes. The VHS steel has a yield stress of 1350 MPa and an ultimate strength of 1500 MPa. Three types of epoxy resins with different lap shear strength were used. Tests were conducted to determine the lap shear strength between CFRP

  19. Viral haemorrhagic fever.

    PubMed

    Fhogartaigh, Caoimhe Nic; Aarons, Emma

    2015-02-01

    Viral haemorrhagic fevers (VHF) are a range of viral infections with potential to cause life-threatening illness in humans. Apart from Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever (CCHF), they are largely confined to Africa, distribution being dependent on the ecology of reservoir hosts. At present, the largest ever epidemic of Ebola virus disease (EVD or Ebola) is occurring in West Africa, raising the possibility that cases could be imported into non-endemic countries. Diagnosis and management is challenging due to the non-specificity of early symptoms, limited laboratory facilities in endemic areas, severity of disease, lack of effective therapy, strict infection control requirements and propensity to cause epidemics with secondary cases in healthcare workers. PMID:25650201

  20. Ebola haemorrhagic fever

    PubMed Central

    Feldmann, Heinz; Geisbert, Thomas W

    2012-01-01

    Ebola viruses are the causative agents of a severe form of viral haemorrhagic fever in man, designated Ebola haemorrhagic fever, and are endemic in regions of central Africa. The exception is the species Reston Ebola virus, which has not been associated with human disease and is found in the Philippines. Ebola virus constitutes an important local public health threat in Africa, with a worldwide effect through imported infections and through the fear of misuse for biological terrorism. Ebola virus is thought to also have a detrimental effect on the great ape population in Africa. Case-fatality rates of the African species in man are as high as 90%, with no prophylaxis or treatment available. Ebola virus infections are characterised by immune suppression and a systemic inflammatory response that causes impairment of the vascular, coagulation, and immune systems, leading to multiorgan failure and shock, and thus, in some ways, resembling septic shock. PMID:21084112

  1. Flavobacterium psychrophilum associated with septicaemia and necrotic myositis in Atlantic salmon Salmo salar: a case report.

    PubMed

    Nilsen, Hanne; Johansen, Renate; Colquhoun, Duncan John; Kaada, Inge; Bottolfsen, Kirsten; Vĺgnes, Řyvind; Olsen, Anne Berit

    2011-11-01

    We describe the first case from Norway of increased mortality in Atlantic salmon Salmo salar (L.), with septicaemia and necrotic myositis, associated with infection by Flavobacterium psychrophilum. The outbreak occurred in smolt of 60 to 100 g in fresh water on a land-based farm in Western Norway during winter 2008-2009. The water temperature was < 5 degrees C and the accumulated mortality was 7.0%. Necropsy of dead and moribund fish revealed a swollen dark spleen, pale liver, serohaemorrhagic ascites and haemorrhage in the abdominal fat and muscle. F. psychrophilum was isolated from the kidney and spleen of diseased fish. Muscle biopsy revealed the presence of long filamentous rods in necrotic areas of skeletal muscle. Immunohistochemistry was positive for F. psychrophilum. Identification of cultured isolates as F. psychrophilum was confirmed using phenotypic testing and sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene. Analysis by allele-specific polymerase chain reaction (allele-specific PCR) indicated that 2 different genotypes of the bacterium were present in the outbreak. PMID:22235593

  2. User's guide and documentation manual for BOAST-VHS for the PC''

    SciTech Connect

    Chang, Ming-Ming; Sarathi, P.; Heemstra, R.J.; Cheng, A.M.; Pautz, J.F.

    1992-01-01

    The recent advancement of computer technology makes reservoir simulations feasible in a personal computer (PC) environment. This manual provides a guide for running BOAST-VHS, a black oil reservoir simulator for vertical/horizontal/slant wells, using a PC. In addition to detailed explanations of input data file preparation for simulation runs, special features of BOAST-VHS are described and three sample problems are presented. BOAST-VHS is a cost-effective and easy-to-use reservoir simulation tool for the study of oil production from primary depletion and waterflooding in a black oil reservoir. The well model in BOAST-VHS permits specification of any combination of horizontal, slanted, and vertical wells in the reservoir. BOAST-VHS was designed for an IBM PC/AT, PS-2, or compatible computer with 640 K bytes of memory. BOAST-VHS can be used to model a three-dimensional reservoir of up to 810 grid blocks with any combination of rows, columns, and layers, depending on the input data supplied. This dynamic redimensioning feature facilitates simulation work by avoiding the need to recompiling the simulator for different reservoir models. Therefore the program is only supplied as executable code without any source code.

  3. User`s guide and documentation manual for ``BOAST-VHS for the PC``

    SciTech Connect

    Chang, Ming-Ming; Sarathi, P.; Heemstra, R.J.; Cheng, A.M.; Pautz, J.F.

    1992-01-01

    The recent advancement of computer technology makes reservoir simulations feasible in a personal computer (PC) environment. This manual provides a guide for running BOAST-VHS, a black oil reservoir simulator for vertical/horizontal/slant wells, using a PC. In addition to detailed explanations of input data file preparation for simulation runs, special features of BOAST-VHS are described and three sample problems are presented. BOAST-VHS is a cost-effective and easy-to-use reservoir simulation tool for the study of oil production from primary depletion and waterflooding in a black oil reservoir. The well model in BOAST-VHS permits specification of any combination of horizontal, slanted, and vertical wells in the reservoir. BOAST-VHS was designed for an IBM PC/AT, PS-2, or compatible computer with 640 K bytes of memory. BOAST-VHS can be used to model a three-dimensional reservoir of up to 810 grid blocks with any combination of rows, columns, and layers, depending on the input data supplied. This dynamic redimensioning feature facilitates simulation work by avoiding the need to recompiling the simulator for different reservoir models. Therefore the program is only supplied as executable code without any source code.

  4. Comparison of MPEG digital video with super VHS tape for diagnostic echocardiographic readings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Soble, J. S.; Yurow, G.; Brar, R.; Stamos, T.; Neumann, A.; Garcia, M.; Stoddard, M. F.; Cherian, P. K.; Bhamb, B.; Thomas, J. D.

    1998-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Digital recording of echocardiographic studies is on the clinical horizon. However, full digital capture of complete echocardiographic studies in traditional video format is impractical, given current storage capacity and network bandwidth. To overcome these constraints, we evaluated the diagnostic image quality of digital video by using MPEG (Motion Picture Experts Group) compression. METHODS AND RESULTS: Fifty-eight complete, consecutive studies were recorded simultaneously with the use of MPEG-1 and sVHS videotape. Each matched MPEG and sVHS study pair was reviewed by two from a total of six readers, and findings were recorded with the use of a detailed, computerized reporting tool. Intrareader and interreader discrepancies were characterized as major or minor and analyzed in total and for specific subgroups of findings (left and right ventricular parameters, valvular insufficiency, and left ventricular regional wall motion). Intrareader discrepancies were reviewed by a consensus panel for agreement with either MPEG or sVHS findings. There was an exact concordance between MPEG and sVHS readings in 83% of findings. The majority of discrepancies were minor, with major discrepancies in only 2.7% of findings. There was no difference in the rate of consensus panel agreement with MPEG or sVHS for instances of intrareader discrepancy, either in total or for any subgroup of findings. Interreader discrepancy rates were nearly identical for both MPEG and sVHS. CONCLUSIONS: MPEG-1 digital video is equivalent to sVHS videotape for diagnostic echocardiography. MPEG increases the range of practical options for digital echocardiography and offers, for the first time, the advantages of digital recording in a familiar video format.

  5. Ebolavirus and Haemorrhagic Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Matua, Gerald A; Van der Wal, Dirk M; Locsin, Rozzano C

    2015-05-01

    The Ebola virus is a highly virulent, single-stranded ribonucleic acid virus which affects both humans and apes and has fast become one of the world's most feared pathogens. The virus induces acute fever and death, with haemorrhagic syndrome occurring in up to 90% of patients. The known species within the genus Ebolavirus are Bundibugyo, Sudan, Zaďre, Reston and Taď Forest. Although endemic in Africa, Ebola has caused worldwide anxiety due to media hype and concerns about its international spread, including through bioterrorism. The high fatality rate is attributed to unavailability of a standard treatment regimen or vaccine. The disease is frightening since it is characterised by rapid immune suppression and systemic inflammatory response, causing multi-organ and system failure, shock and often death. Currently, disease management is largely supportive, with containment efforts geared towards mitigating the spread of the virus. This review describes the classification, morphology, infective process, natural ecology, transmission, epidemic patterns, diagnosis, clinical features and immunology of Ebola, including management and epidemic containment strategies. PMID:26052448

  6. Ebolavirus and Haemorrhagic Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Matua, Gerald A.; Van der Wal, Dirk M.; Locsin, Rozzano C.

    2015-01-01

    The Ebola virus is a highly virulent, single-stranded ribonucleic acid virus which affects both humans and apes and has fast become one of the world’s most feared pathogens. The virus induces acute fever and death, with haemorrhagic syndrome occurring in up to 90% of patients. The known species within the genus Ebolavirus are Bundibugyo, Sudan, Zaďre, Reston and Taď Forest. Although endemic in Africa, Ebola has caused worldwide anxiety due to media hype and concerns about its international spread, including through bioterrorism. The high fatality rate is attributed to unavailability of a standard treatment regimen or vaccine. The disease is frightening since it is characterised by rapid immune suppression and systemic inflammatory response, causing multi-organ and system failure, shock and often death. Currently, disease management is largely supportive, with containment efforts geared towards mitigating the spread of the virus. This review describes the classification, morphology, infective process, natural ecology, transmission, epidemic patterns, diagnosis, clinical features and immunology of Ebola, including management and epidemic containment strategies.

  7. Dengue/dengue haemorrhagic fever

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    0000-00-00

    A World Health Organization page devoted to the control of dengue. Many excellent informative PDF files are available from this page dealing with vector control, as well as recognition of symptoms, and treatment of dengue haemorrhagic fever. Estimated numbers of at risk people are staggering. A powerful resource for teaching the importance of vector borne diseases.

  8. Electrocardiographic alterations in subarachnoid haemorrhage

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Traugott Stober; Klaus Kunze

    1982-01-01

    In a retrospective study of 89 patients with subarachnoid haemorrhage (SAH), the frequency and specificity of changes in the electrocardiogram (ECG) were determined, as well as electrocardiographically established arrhythmias. The ECG changes were correlated with neurological as well as angiographic findings (localization of the aneurysm and vascular spasm).

  9. Prevention of neonatal septicaemia due to group B streptococci.

    PubMed

    Adriaanse, A H

    1995-09-01

    Group B streptococcus is the leading cause of neonatal septicaemia. Major risk factors for early-onset disease are heavy maternal GBS colonization preterm delivery (and related low birthweight), preterm rupture of membranes, prelabour rupture of membranes, intrapartum fever, GBS urinary infection and low levels of maternal serum anti-GBS antibodies. Screening for maternal GBS colonization, a part of most current preventive strategies, can be targeted on all pregnant women or only on those with recognizable risk factors, and can be implemented antepartum or intrapartum. A culture in a selective broth is the 'gold standard' for detection of GBS colonization. The lower vagina (introitus) is the most suitable site for culturing, with the optional addition of an anorectal sample. The sensitivity of the available rapid GBS antigen tests for vagina samples seems too low to advocate their general use. Intrapartum prophylaxis with ampicillin, preferably targeted on GBS-colonized parturients with risk factors is, at present, the only strategy with established efficacy and safety to prevent early-onset infection. Vaginal chlorhexidine disinfection during labour in all women may, in addition offer a minor contribution to prevention. Late-onset GBS disease is unlikely to be reduced by these strategies. In the future, immunoprophylaxis may well prove to be the most safe and efficacious alternative to prevent GBS septicaemia, irrespective of age of onset, although protection of (very) preterm infants is unlikely. PMID:8846555

  10. Complete Genome Sequence of Virulence-Enhancing Siphophage VHS1 from Vibrio harveyi

    PubMed Central

    Khemayan, Krit; Prachumwat, Anuphap; Sonthayanon, Burachai; Intaraprasong, Aungkul; Sriurairatana, Siriporn

    2012-01-01

    Vibrio harveyi siphophage 1 (VHS1) is a tailed phage with an icosahedral head of approximately 66 nm in diameter and an unornamented, flexible tail of approximately 153 nm in length. When Vibrio harveyi 1114GL is lysogenized with VHS1, its virulence for the black tiger shrimp (Penaeus monodon) increases by more than 100 times, and this coincides with production of a toxin(s) associated with shrimp hemocyte agglutination. Curiously, the lysogen does not show increased virulence for the whiteleg shrimp (Penaeus [Litopenaeus] vannamei). Here we present and annotate the complete, circular genome of VHS1 (81,509 kbp; GenBank accession number JF713456). By software analysis, the genome contains 125 putative open reading frames (ORFs), all of which appear to be located on the same DNA strand, similar to the case for many other bacteriophages. Most of the putative ORFs show no significant homology to known sequences in GenBank. Notable exceptions are ORFs for a putative DNA polymerase and putative phage structural proteins, including a portal protein, a phage tail tape measure protein, and a phage head protein. The last protein was identified as a component of the species-specific toxin mixture described above as being associated with agglutination of hemocytes from P. monodon. PMID:22307287

  11. Uncontrollable haemorrhage following dabigatran prophylaxis

    PubMed Central

    Sandhu, Pavandeep Singh; Wilson, Caroline; Dalton, Emily; Bogdanov, Alexey

    2013-01-01

    An 88-year-old man, on dabigatran anticoagulation after a total hip replacement 1?week before admission, presented with acute abdominal pain associated with malaena and haematemesis. After examination and investigation, he was found to have a perforated viscus and underwent laparotomy. The perforation was surgically repaired, but the patient suffered from a massive haemorrhage during the operation, requiring intensive care admission postoperatively. The patient subsequently deteriorated despite aggressive treatment and died several days later. PMID:23761516

  12. The Herpes Simplex Virus 2 Virion-Associated Ribonuclease vhs Interferes with Stress Granule Formation

    PubMed Central

    Finnen, Renée L.; Hay, Thomas J. M.; Dauber, Bianca; Smiley, James R.

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT In a previous study, it was observed that cells infected with herpes simplex virus 2 (HSV-2) failed to accumulate stress granules (SGs) in response to oxidative stress induced by arsenite treatment. As a follow-up to this observation, we demonstrate here that disruption of arsenite-induced SG formation by HSV-2 is mediated by a virion component. Through studies on SG formation in cells infected with HSV-2 strains carrying defective forms of UL41, the gene that encodes vhs, we identify vhs as a virion component required for this disruption. Cells infected with HSV-2 strains producing defective forms of vhs form SGs spontaneously late in infection. In addition to core SG components, these spontaneous SGs contain the viral immediate early protein ICP27 as well as the viral serine/threonine kinase Us3. As part of these studies, we reexamined the frameshift mutation known to reside within the UL41 gene of HSV-2 strain HG52. We demonstrate that this mutation is unstable and can rapidly revert to restore wild-type UL41 following low-multiplicity passaging. Identification of the involvement of virion-associated vhs in the disruption of SG formation will enable mechanistic studies on how HSV-2 is able to counteract antiviral stress responses early in infection. In addition, the ability of Us3 to localize to stress granules may indicate novel roles for this viral kinase in the regulation of translation. IMPORTANCE Eukaryotic cells respond to stress by rapidly shutting down protein synthesis and storing mRNAs in cytoplasmic stress granules (SGs). Stoppages in protein synthesis are problematic for all viruses as they rely on host cell machinery to synthesize viral proteins. Thus, many viruses target SGs for disruption or modification. Infection by herpes simplex virus 2 (HSV-2) was previously observed to disrupt SG formation induced by oxidative stress. In this follow-up study, we identify virion host shutoff protein (vhs) as a viral protein involved in this disruption. The identification of a specific viral protein involved in disrupting SG formation is a key step toward understanding how HSV-2 interacts with these antiviral structures. Additionally, this understanding may provide insights into the biology of SGs that may find application in studies on human motor neuron degenerative diseases, like amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), which may arise as a result of dysregulation of SG formation. PMID:25142597

  13. Haemorrhagic rupture of hepatic simple cysts.

    PubMed

    Simon, Tiarah; Bakker, Ilsalien S; Penninga, Luit; Nellensteijn, David R

    2015-01-01

    Haemorrhagic rupture is a life-threatening complication of a hepatic simple cyst. A 63-year-old man presented with severe acute abdominal pain and a massive haemoperitoneum resulting from haemorrhagic rupture of a large hepatic cyst. The haemorrhagic rupture was aggravated by an overdose of vitamin K-antagonist treatment. CT scans revealed a large hepatic simple cyst. The patient was successfully treated conservatively with resuscitation, transfusion therapy and administration of coagulation agents. To date, there is no clear evidence regarding optimal treatment of haemorrhagic hepatic cyst rupture. The risk of recurrent bleeding from the haemorrhagic hepatic simple cyst, and the need for final treatment to avoid rebleeding either by percutaneous sclerotherapy, endovascular embolisation, surgical cyst resection, or surgical deroofing, is discussed. PMID:25697302

  14. Complications and therapy after subarachnoid haemorrhage

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. M. Dorhout Mees

    2012-01-01

    Subarachnoid haemorrhage (SAH) is a subset of stroke with a poor prognosis, up to 40% of patients die. Besides the impact of the initial haemorrhage, several neurological and systemic complications contribute to a poor clinical outcome.\\u000a\\u000aThe first part of this thesis describes several complications after SAH. It is well known that SAH patients often have hyperglycaemia, and in chapter

  15. Nasal and intrapulmonary haemorrhage in sudden infant death syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Becroft, D; Thompson, J; Mitchell, E

    2001-01-01

    BACKGROUND—Fresh intrapulmonary and oronasal haemorrhages in cases of sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) might be markers for accidental or intentional smothering inappropriately diagnosed as SIDS.?AIM—To compare the incidence, epidemiological association, and inter-relation of nasal haemorrhage, intrapulmonary haemorrhage, and intrathoracic petechiae in infant deaths certified as SIDS.?METHODS—In SIDS cases from a large nationwide case-control study, a wide range of variables were compared in cases with and without reported nasal haemorrhage and, in a subgroup of cases, in those with and without pathologically significant intrapulmonary haemorrhage.?RESULTS—Nasal haemorrhage was reported in 60 of 385 cases (15%) whose parents were interviewed. Pathologically significant intra-alveolar pulmonary haemorrhage was found in 47% of 115 cases studied, but was severe in only 7%. Infants with nasal haemorrhage had more haemorrhage into alveoli and air passages than age matched cases without nasal haemorrhage. In multivariate analysis, nasal haemorrhage was associated with younger infant age, bed sharing, and the infant being placed non-prone to sleep. Intrapulmonary haemorrhage was associated with the same three factors in univariate analysis, but in multivariate analysis only younger infant age remained statistically significant. There was no significant association between nasal or intra-alveolar haemorrhages and intrathoracic petechiae.?CONCLUSIONS—Nasal and intrapulmonary haemorrhages have common associations not shared with intrathoracic petechiae. Smothering is a possible common factor, although is unlikely to be the cause in most cases presenting as SIDS.?? PMID:11466185

  16. Post transfusion septicaemia 1980-1989: importance of donor arm cleansing

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A Puckett; G Davison; C C Entwistle; J A Barbara

    1992-01-01

    AIMS: To determine the prevalence of Pseudomonas fluorescens on the arms of blood donors, and to elucidate one possible cause for its predominance (60% of cases during 1980-89) in exogenous post transfusion septicaemia (PTS). METHODS: Skin swabs were taken from the arms of 782 blood donors and cultured on to heated blood agar. After incubation, Oxidase reagent and the Gram

  17. THE ROLE OF AEROMONAS HYDROPHILA BACTERIUM AS A CAUSATIVE AGENT OF SEPTICAEMIA IN DOGS

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Irena Zdovc; Polona Juntes; Tina Kotnik; Manica ?erne

    Summary: Aeromonas hydrophila is an organism commonly found in water, particularly during the warm season, though less commonly isolated as a pathogen in domestic animals and humans. The course of septicaemia caused by Aeromonas hydrophila in puppies is described to illustrate its bacterial pathogenic activity and the diagnostic procedures used. Seven of eight puppies, all clinically healthy at birth, died

  18. Community-acquired septicaemia in southern Viet Nam: the importance of multidrug-resistant Salmonella typhi

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nguyen Thi Tuyet Hoa; To Song Diep; John Wain; Christopher M. Parry; Tran Tinh Hien; Michael D. Smith; Amanda L. Walsh; Nicholas J. White

    1998-01-01

    In a prospective study conducted between mid 1993 and 1994, 437 adults and children were admitted with community-acquired septicaemia to an infectious diseases hospital in southern Viet Nam. Gramnegative aerobes accounted for 90% of isolates and were predominantly Salmonella typhi (67%), Sal. paratyphi A (3%), Escherichia coli (10%), and Klebsiella spp. (5%). Other Salmonella spp. (1%), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (1%), Neisseria

  19. Subarachnoid haemorrhage in children caused by cerebral tumour.

    PubMed Central

    Wong, G; Knuckey, N W; Gubbay, S S

    1983-01-01

    Subarachnoid haemorrhage in children is uncommon. In a review of 110 children with an intracranial tumour over a 20 year period there were four patients (3.6%) who presented with the typical features of a subarachnoid haemorrhage. During the same period of time there were 15 children who presented with subarachnoid haemorrhage of which 26% were secondary to a cerebral tumour. This study suggests that cerebral tumour is a common cause of subarachnoid haemorrhage in children. PMID:6101222

  20. The Herpes Simplex Virus Type 1 vhs-UL41 Gene Secures Viral Replication by Temporarily Evading Apoptotic Cellular Response to Infection: Vhs-UL41 Activity Might Require Interactions with Elements of Cellular mRNA Degradation Machinery

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ari Barzilai; Ifaat Zivony-Elbom; Ronit Sarid; Eran Noah; Niza Frenkel

    2006-01-01

    We have previously shown that herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) infection is associated with early destabilization\\/degradation of infected cell mRNAs and consequent shutoff of host protein synthesis by the activity of the virion-associated host shutoff (vhs) UL41 protein. Wild-type (wt) virus destabilized\\/degraded the housekeeping -actin and -tubulin mRNAs as well host stress functions, like the heat shock 70 protein

  1. The Virion Host Shut-Off (vhs) Protein Blocks a TLR-Independent Pathway of Herpes Simplex Virus Type 1 Recognition in Human and Mouse Dendritic Cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Christopher R. Cotter; Marie L. Nguyen; Jacob S. Yount; Carolina B. López; John A. Blaho; Thomas M. Moran; Derya Unutmaz

    2010-01-01

    Molecular pathways underlying the activation of dendritic cells (DCs) in response to Herpes Simplex Virus type 1 (HSV-1) are poorly understood. Removal of the HSV virion host shut-off (vhs) protein relieves a block to DC activation observed during wild-type infection. In this study, we utilized a potent DC stimulatory HSV-1 recombinant virus lacking vhs as a tool to investigate the

  2. Subarachnoid haemorrhage associated with an intrathecal catheter.

    PubMed

    Rutledge, W Caleb; Miller, Brandon A; Dannenbaum, Mark J; Gross, Robert E; Barrow, Daniel L

    2012-12-01

    Although 15 to 20 percent of patients with subarachnoid haemorrhage (SAH) do not have a vascular lesion on four-vessel cerebral angiography, venous injury is a potential cause. This case describes an intracranial catheter associated with nonaneurysmal SAH. It suggests that intrathecal catheters can cause vascular injury, and that nonaneurysmal perimesencephalic SAH may be due to injury of small blood vessels. PMID:22747249

  3. Pathogenesis and biomechanics of traumatic intracranial haemorrhages

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Daniel A. Crooks

    1991-01-01

    Summary Intracranial haemorrhage is frequently seen by the general pathologist in the context of neural trauma. Thus, the differential diagnosis, pathogenesis and biomechanics are of practical interest in the routine work. Extradural haematomas are produced when branches of the middle meningeal vessels are lacerated. They are commonly located in the temporal fossa, and other intracranial haematomas may be present. Skull

  4. Spontaneous cervical haemorrhage of a parathyroid adenoma

    PubMed Central

    Knee, Graham; Todd, Colin

    2015-01-01

    Summary Haemorrhage of a parathyroid adenoma is a rare clinical presentation. This report describes a previously fit and well 54-year-old woman who presented with acute neck swelling and pain with an overlying ecchymosis. Admission laboratory tests revealed a raised parathyroid hormone and hypercalcaemia. A computed tomography (CT) scan showed widespread anterior cervical haemorrhage and a lesion at the inferior pole of the left thyroid gland. A working diagnosis of spontaneous haemorrhage from a parathyroid adenoma was made. As she was haemodynamically stable, she was treated conservatively with a period of observation in hospital to monitor for signs of neck organ compression. Follow-up imaging with CT, ultrasound and sestamibi confirmed the likely source of haemorrhage as a parathyroid nodule with significant vascularity. The diagnosis was confirmed on histopathological analysis after elective surgical exploration of the neck 6 months after her presentation. This revealed a benign parathyroid adenoma with evidence of acute and chronic bleeding. The patient made a full recovery with immediate normalisation of her biochemistry post-operatively. Despite developing a hoarse voice in the immediate post-operative period, this resolved completely within 1 month. This case report provides further evidence to support a minimal delay for elective surgery after conservative management to reduce the risks associated with recurrent bleeding. Learning points Haemorrhage of a parathyroid adenoma should be a differential for all cases of acute cervical swelling or ecchymosis with no precipitating factor.The clerking should identify any risk factors for endocrine disease.Blood tests to screen for abnormal parathyroid biochemistry should be performed on admission.Detailed imaging of the neck is essential to identify the source of haemorrhage and risk of compression to vital neck organs.Conservative management is a suitable option for patients who remain haemodynamically stable but all should undergo a period of observation in hospital.Conservatively managed patients should be considered for definitive surgical exploration within a month of presentation to avoid the risks of recurrent bleeding. PMID:26124955

  5. Spontaneous Idiopathic Unilateral Adrenal Haemorrhage (SIAH).

    PubMed

    Naqvi, Syed Ali; Zaman, Shamas; Ahmed, Irfan

    2015-04-01

    Spontaneous Idiopathic Adrenal Haemorrhage (SIAH) is an unusual surgical emergency which can present with life threatening massive retroperitoneal bleeding. Most of the cases reported in the literature are associated with use of anticoagulation or underlying adrenal pathology such as tumors or cysts. Since this clinical entity is uncommon and clinical presentation is very indistinct, the diagnosis can be easily missed and can be challenging for the treating physicians. Nevertheless a raised clinical suspicion coupled with advances in radiological imaging have considerably improved the detection of SIAH in recent times. We report an unusual case of a 20 years old healthy female student who presented to our hospital with sudden onset of abdominal pain and shock. She was diagnosed as a case of massive spontaneous idiopathic unilateral adrenal haemorrhage, unaccompanied by any hematologic disorder, trauma or underlying pathology. Although patient was hemodynamically unstable at presentation, she was resuscitated promptly, investigated appropriately, hence recovered uneventfully with conservative management alone. PMID:25933454

  6. From germinal matrix to cerebellar haemorrhage.

    PubMed

    Fumagalli, Monica; Bassi, Laura; Sirgiovanni, Ida; Mosca, Fabio; Sannia, Andrea; Ramenghi, Luca A

    2013-08-23

    Abstract For many years cerebellar development after preterm birth has been poorly investigated and has been studied without taking germinal matrix-intraventricular haemorrhage into account. Advanced neuroimaging techniques like magnetic resonance imaging, as well as the use of various acoustic windows (mastoid fontanelle, occipital foramen) have allowed for in vivo diagnosis of acquired focal haemorrhagic lesions in the cerebellum of very preterm babies. The vulnerability of the cerebellum also seems to be related to specific gestational ages, i.e., between 23 and 27 weeks, when rapid growth in cerebellar volume occurs and at a much faster rate than mean brain volume increase. In this paper, the contribution of the cerebellum in long-term motor cognitive, learning and behavioural functions, including psychiatric ones, is discussed. PMID:23968333

  7. Hyaline membrane disease, alkali, and intraventricular haemorrhage

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J S Wigglesworth; I H Keith; D J Girling; S A Slade

    1976-01-01

    The relation between intraventricular haemorrhage (IVH) and hyaline membrane disease (HMD) was studied in singletons that came to necropsy at Hammersmith Hospital over the years 1966-73. The incidence of IVH in singleton live births was 3-22\\/1000 and of HMD 4-44\\/1000. Although the high figures were partily due to the large number of low birthweight infants born at this hospital, the

  8. Influence of haemorrhagic shock on fracture healing

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mark Bumann; Thomas Henke; Heinz Gerngross; Lutz Claes; Peter Augat

    2003-01-01

    BackgroundThe purpose of the study was to evaluate the effect of haemorrhagic shock on the outcome of fracture healing.Material and methodsForty-two male Wistar rats were randomly divided into a control group and a shock group. After producing a tibia fracture we induced shock by creating a blood loss of 12 ml\\/kg body weight. The rats were isovolumetrically resuscitated with a colloid

  9. Idiopathic bilateral adrenal haemorrhage related to acute adrenal insufficiency

    PubMed Central

    Ogino, Jun; Toda, Joe; Onitsuka, Shiro; Hashimoto, Naotake

    2013-01-01

    A 54-year-old woman presented with sudden epigastralgia and left back pain. She had no significant history. Laboratory data showed mild inflammation and no liver or renal dysfunction. Abdominal CT showed left adrenal enlargement and haemorrhage. Hydrocortisone therapy was started to prevent adrenal insufficiency before laboratory findings for ACTH (adrenocorticotropic hormone) and cortisol levels. On the second hospital day, abdominal CT showed additional right adrenal enlargement and haemorrhage. The serum cortisol level suggested adrenal insufficiency. No specific findings were detected by bilateral adrenal angiography. 6 to 12?months later, abdominal CT showed decreased bilateral adrenal haemorrhage. This case illustrates the importance of prompt diagnosis and treatment of acute adrenal insufficiency, and shows sequential changes in the size of bilateral adrenal haemorrhage. Rapid corticosteroid replacement is important if acute adrenal insufficiency is suspected. In a case with unilateral adrenal haemorrhage, the possibility of additional adrenal haemorrhage on the opposite side should also be considered. PMID:23729712

  10. Severe intracranial haemorrhage in neonatal alloimmune thrombocytopenia

    PubMed Central

    Silva, Francisco; Morais, Sofia; Sevivas, Teresa; Veiga, Ricardo; Salvado, Ramon; Taborda, Adelaide

    2011-01-01

    Neonatal alloimmune thrombocytopenia is a rare (1/1000–5000 births) life-threatening disorder, caused by fetomaternal incompatibility for a fetal human platelet alloantigen inherited from the father, with production of maternal alloantibodies against fetal platelets, leading to severe thrombocytopenia and potential bleeding. Intracranial haemorrhage is the most feared complication. This report presents the case of a term newborn infant, born from caesarean section after a normal pregnancy, presenting signs of skin bleeding with different ages. Obstetric history included a previous spontaneous abortion after amniocentesis. Severe thrombocytopenia (4×109/l platelets) was found and brain ultrasound showed multiple intracranial haemorrhages. Human platelet antigen (HPA) phenotyping showed maternal negative HPA-1a and paternal positive HPA-1a platelets. Strongly positive anti-HPA-1a and weakly positive anti-human leukocyte antigen class I alloantibodies were found in the mother. Multiple platelet transfusions, intravenous immunoglobulin and corticosteroid were given but favourable response was accomplished only after a compatible platelet transfusion. Brain MRI showed multiple subacute and chronic haemorrhages. PMID:22679192

  11. Alveolar haemorrhage in a case of high altitude pulmonary oedema.

    PubMed

    Grissom, C K; Albertine, K H; Elstad, M R

    2000-02-01

    A case of high altitude pulmonary oedema (HAPE) in a climber who made a rapid ascent on Mt McKinley (Denali), Alaska is described. The bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid contained increased numbers of red blood cells and an abundance of haemosiderin laden macrophages consistent with alveolar haemorrhage. The timing of this finding indicates that alveolar haemorrhage began early during the ascent, well before the onset of symptoms. Although evidence of alveolar haemorrhage has been reported at necropsy in individuals dying of HAPE, previous reports have not shown the same abundance of haemosiderin laden macrophages in the BAL fluid. These findings suggest that alveolar haemorrhage is an early event in HAPE. PMID:10639537

  12. Septicaemia caused by Edwardsiella tarda and Plesiomonas shigelloides in captive penguin chicks.

    PubMed

    Nimmervoll, H; Wenker, C; Robert, N; Albini, S

    2011-03-01

    Three cases of fatal septicaemia due to Plesiomonas shigelloides and one due to Edwardsiella tarda were diagnosed in newborn penguins from the Basle Zoo, Switzerland from 2003 to 2007. The affected penguins were of two different species (king penguin, Aptenodytes patagonicus, and African penguin, Spheniscus demersus) and between 2 and 10 days old at the time of death. The causative agents, E. tarda and P. shigelloides are ubiquitous bacteria which are reported to be present in the normal intestinal flora of wild and captive aquatic animals, including penguins. Their occurrence and infectious potential is discussed. PMID:21360449

  13. Evolutionary analysis of the ENTH/ANTH/VHS protein superfamily reveals a coevolution between membrane trafficking and metabolism

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Membrane trafficking involves the complex regulation of proteins and lipids intracellular localization and is required for metabolic uptake, cell growth and development. Different trafficking pathways passing through the endosomes are coordinated by the ENTH/ANTH/VHS adaptor protein superfamily. The endosomes are crucial for eukaryotes since the acquisition of the endomembrane system was a central process in eukaryogenesis. Results Our in silico analysis of this ENTH/ANTH/VHS superfamily, consisting of proteins gathered from 84 complete genomes representative of the different eukaryotic taxa, revealed that genomic distribution of this superfamily allows to discriminate Fungi and Metazoa from Plantae and Protists. Next, in a four way genome wide comparison, we showed that this discriminative feature is observed not only for other membrane trafficking effectors, but also for proteins involved in metabolism and in cytokinesis, suggesting that metabolism, cytokinesis and intracellular trafficking pathways co-evolved. Moreover, some of the proteins identified were implicated in multiple functions, in either trafficking and metabolism or trafficking and cytokinesis, suggesting that membrane trafficking is central to this co-evolution process. Conclusions Our study suggests that membrane trafficking and compartmentalization were not only key features for the emergence of eukaryotic cells but also drove the separation of the eukaryotes in the different taxa. PMID:22748146

  14. Comparative immunogenecity of foot and mouth disease virus antigens in FMD-haemorrhagic septicaemia combined vaccine and FMD vaccine alone in buffalo calves.

    PubMed

    Chhabra, Rajesh; Sharma, R; Kakker, N K

    2004-03-01

    Humoral immune response was evaluated by monitoring the serum antibody titres and virus specific IgM titres against Foot and Mouth Disease (FMD) virus antigens in serum samples obtained from different groups of calves inoculated with combined vaccine or FMD vaccine alone, on 0, 7, 14, 21, 28, 42 and 56 days post-vaccination (DPV). The cellular immune response was monitored by MTT based lymphoproliferation in peripheral blood mononuclear cell cultures. Higher liquid phase blocking (LPB) ELISA antibody titres were observed in calves receiving combined vaccine as compared to calves immunized with FMD vaccine alone with the peak titres in both the groups obtained on 21 days post-vaccination. However, the virus specific IgM titres were significantly higher in group of calves inoculated with combined vaccine than FMD vaccine alone. The lymphoproliferative responses against FMDV types O, A22 and Asia 1 in the groups receiving combined vaccine and FMD vaccine alone started increasing gradually after day 14 and reached peak levels on 28 DPV followed by a gradual decline subsequently. The group receiving combined vaccine showed higher proliferative responses on in vitro stimulation with FMD virus type O, whereas, with FMD virus type Asia 1, the responses were significantly higher on 14 and 21 DPV as compared to the group immunized with FMD vaccine alone. However, in the group receiving combined vaccine, the responses on in vitro stimulation with FMD virus type A22 were significantly higher than FMD vaccine alone group on all DPV except on 42 DPV. PMID:15233294

  15. Viral Haemorrhagic Fevers LUCILLE BLUMBERG | DELIA ENRIA | DANIEL G. BAUSCH

    E-print Network

    Rambaut, Andrew

    171 Viral Haemorrhagic Fevers LUCILLE BLUMBERG | DELIA ENRIA | DANIEL G. BAUSCH 16 Overview INTRODUCTION Viral haemorrhagic fever (HF) is a term first coined by Russian physicians in the 1940s to describe a syndrome comprised of fever, a constellation of initially nonspecific signs and symp- toms

  16. Hypertrophic olivary degeneration secondary to pontine haemorrhage.

    PubMed

    Wein, Sara; Yan, Bernard; Gaillard, Frank

    2015-07-01

    We report a 58-year-old man who developed hyptertrophic olivary degeneration (HOD) after haemorrhage of a cavernous malformation in the pons. Lesions of the triangle of Guillain and Mollaret (the dentatorubro-olivary pathway) may lead to HOD, a secondary transsynaptic degeneration of the inferior olivary nucleus. HOD is considered unique because the degenerating olive initially becomes hypertrophic rather than atrophic. The primary lesion causing pathway interruption is often haemorrhage, either due to hypertension, trauma, surgery or, as in our patient, a vascular malformation such as a cavernoma. Ischaemia and demyelination can also occasionally be the inciting events. The classic clinical presentation of HOD is palatal myoclonus, although not all patients with HOD develop this symptom. The imaging features of HOD evolve through characteristic phases. The clue to the diagnosis of HOD is recognition of the distinct imaging stages and identification of a remote primary lesion in the triangle of Guillain and Mollaret. Familiarity with the classic imaging findings of this rare phenomenon is necessary in order to avoid misdiagnosis and prevent unnecessary intervention. PMID:25863998

  17. Bilateral adrenal gland haemorrhage: an unusual cause

    PubMed Central

    Shenoy, Vasant; Malabu, Usman; Cameron, Donald; Sangla, Kunwarjit

    2014-01-01

    Summary Our patient had drainage of a large amoebic liver abscess. This got complicated by a severe degree of hypotension, which required aggressive fluid resuscitation and hydrocortisone support. Computerised tomography (CT) of the abdomen revealed bilateral adrenal gland haemorrhage (BAH) resulting in primary adrenal gland failure, which was the cause for hypotension. Patient was on long-term warfarin for provoked deep vein thrombosis of lower limb, which was discontinued before the procedure. Thrombophilia profile indicated the presence of lupus anticoagulant factor with prolonged activated partial thromboplastin time (aPTT). Patient was discharged on lifelong warfarin. This case emphasises the need for strong clinical suspicion for diagnosing BAH, rare but life-threatening condition, and its association with amoebic liver abscess and anti-phospholipid antibody syndrome (APLS). Learning points Recognition of BAH as a rare complication of sepsis.APLS can rarely cause BAH. PMID:25276353

  18. Neonatal Septicaemia Caused by Vancomycin Resistant Enterococcus Faecium-A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    T, Nagarathnamma; DR, Pooja; TR, Harsha; R, Karthik

    2014-01-01

    Neonatal bacterial sepsis is one of the major causes of morbidity and mortality in neonates. 10% cases of neonatal bacteraemia and septicaemia are caused by Enterococci. The increasing incidence of Vancomycin resistant enterococci (VRE) is of particular concern because of limited treatment options and increased mortality. We report here a case of neonatal sepsis in a premature baby caused by vancomycin resistant Enterococcus faecium Van A phenotype from a tertiary care Hospital in South India. A preterm baby boy with low birth weight was admitted to the NICU with Respiratory distress and meconium aspiration. On 5th day the baby succumbed to death and a final diagnosis of respiratory distress and meconium aspiration with sepsis was made. Blood cultures sent yielded vancomycin resistant Enterococcus faecium (minimum inhibitory concentration ? 256 ?g/ml). It was confirmed as Enterococcus feacium Van A phenotype by Automated Vitek system. PMID:25584223

  19. Neonatal septicaemia caused by vancomycin resistant enterococcus faecium-a case report.

    PubMed

    Gb, Shantala; T, Nagarathnamma; Dr, Pooja; Tr, Harsha; R, Karthik

    2014-11-01

    Neonatal bacterial sepsis is one of the major causes of morbidity and mortality in neonates. 10% cases of neonatal bacteraemia and septicaemia are caused by Enterococci. The increasing incidence of Vancomycin resistant enterococci (VRE) is of particular concern because of limited treatment options and increased mortality. We report here a case of neonatal sepsis in a premature baby caused by vancomycin resistant Enterococcus faecium Van A phenotype from a tertiary care Hospital in South India. A preterm baby boy with low birth weight was admitted to the NICU with Respiratory distress and meconium aspiration. On 5(th) day the baby succumbed to death and a final diagnosis of respiratory distress and meconium aspiration with sepsis was made. Blood cultures sent yielded vancomycin resistant Enterococcus faecium (minimum inhibitory concentration ? 256 ?g/ml). It was confirmed as Enterococcus feacium Van A phenotype by Automated Vitek system. PMID:25584223

  20. Crimean Congo-Haemorrhagic Fever treated with oral ribavirin

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. A. Khan; S. Rehman; S. P. Fisher-Hoch; S. Mirza; M. Khurshid; J. B. McCormick

    1995-01-01

    Crimean-Congo Haemorrhagic Fever (CCHF) is an often- lethal haemorrhagic fever caused by a tick-borne virus. There are no published data on ribavirin treatment of CCHF-infected patients, despite established in-vitro and in-vivo sensitivity. We report three health workers—two surgeons and a hospital worker—infected with CCHF virus in Pakistan who were treated with oral ribavirin 4 g\\/day for four days, then 2·4

  1. The metabolic effects of moderately severe upper gastrointestinal haemorrhage in man.

    PubMed Central

    Foster, K. J.; Alberti, K. G.; Binder, C.; Holdstock, G.; Karran, S. J.; Smith, C. L.; Talbot, S.; Turnell, D. C.

    1982-01-01

    The metabolic effects of moderately severe gastrointestinal haemorrhage were investigated in man. Before resuscitation, patients had raised circulating concentrations of glucose, lactate, alanine, glycerol and cortisol. After urgent operation for haemorrhage, metabolite concentrations were similar to those of control patients having elective abdominal surgery, but insulin concentrations were higher and cortisol lower in haemorrhage patients. There were no significant differences in nitrogen excretion between haemorrhage patients and their controls, but urinary 3-methyl-histidine excretion by haemorrhage patients was lower indicating decreased muscle protein breakdown. Decreased amino acid release from muscle might account for previously reported imparied wound healing after haemorrhage. PMID:7045838

  2. Inactivated vaccine against viral hemorrhagic septicemia (VHS) emulsified with squalene and aluminum hydroxide adjuvant provides long term protection in olive flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus).

    PubMed

    Vinay, Tharabenahalli-Nagaraju; Kim, Ye-Ji; Jung, Myung-Hwa; Kim, Wi-Sik; Kim, Do-Hyung; Jung, Sung-Ju

    2013-09-23

    Viral hemorrhagic septicemia (VHS) in olive flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus) remains an unsolved health problem in Korean aquaculture. Vaccination plays a significant role in modern aquaculture, and the duration of protection provided is of vital importance. Here, we have demonstrated the efficacy, duration of protection and safety of an inactivated vaccine emulsified with squalene (5%) and aluminum hydroxide (0.5%). The inactivated VHS vaccine provided a moderate protection of 37% and 47% relative percent survival (RPS) at 4 and 10 weeks post vaccination (wpv). Addition of squalene and aluminum hydroxide into inactivated VHS vaccine clearly enhanced the level of protection showing 58% and 83% RPS at 4 and 10 wpv, respectively, indicating the need for adjuvants to enhance the efficacy. The vaccinated fish showed significant protection at 3, 6, 12, 18, 24, and 40 wpv (except week 57) than non-vaccinated fish to an intraperitoneal challenge of 10(7.1)TCID??/fish at 15 °C, with RPS of 60%, 64%, 71%, 55%, 52% and 50% (45% at 57 week), respectively, covering the duration of natural outbreak. Fish challenged at 18 wpv at 6 °C showed 56% RPS and protection at a low temperature. The antibody titer was high at 3 wpv with an OD of 1.08 ± 0.13, but decreased gradually and was undetectable by 24 wpv. The vaccine formulation was safe without injection site reactions, adhesions, or pigmentation observed at 6, 12, 18, or 24 wpv. Inflammatory reactions were observed in the spleen intestine at 6 and 12 wpv but were similar as control by 24 wpv. These results confirm that this vaccine is efficient and safe for olive flounder and could offer an appropriate strategy to prevent VHS without causing side effects. PMID:23896420

  3. Ebola haemorrhagic fever in Zaire, 1976

    PubMed Central

    1978-01-01

    Between 1 September and 24 October 1976, 318 cases of acute viral haemorrhagic fever occurred in northern Zaire. The outbreak was centred in the Bumba Zone of the Equateur Region and most of the cases were recorded within a radius of 70 km of Yambuku, although a few patients sought medical attention in Bumba, Abumombazi, and the capital city of Kinshasa, where individual secondary and tertiary cases occurred. There were 280 deaths, and only 38 serologically confirmed survivors. The index case in this outbreak had onset of symptoms on 1 September 1976, five days after receiving an injection of chloroquine for presumptive malaria at the outpatient clinic at Yambuku Mission Hospital (YMH). He had a clinical remission of his malaria symptoms. Within one week several other persons who had received injections at YMH also suffered from Ebola haemorrhagic fever, and almost all subsequent cases had either received injections at the hospital or had had close contact with another case. Most of these occurred during the first four weeks of the epidemic, after which time the hospital was closed, 11 of the 17 staff members having died of the disease. All ages and both sexes were affected, but women 15-29 years of age had the highest incidence of disease, a phenomenon strongly related to attendance at prenatal and outpatient clinics at the hospital where they received injections. The overall secondary attack rate was about 5%, although it ranged to 20% among close relatives such as spouses, parent or child, and brother or sister. Active surveillance disclosed that cases occurred in 55 of some 550 villages which were examined house-by-house. The disease was hitherto unknown to the people of the affected region. Intensive search for cases in the area of north-eastern Zaire between the Bumba Zone and the Sudan frontier near Nzara and Maridi failed to detect definite evidence of a link between an epidemic of the disease in that country and the outbreak near Bumba. Nevertheless it was established that people can and do make the trip between Nzara and Bumba in not more than four days: thus it was regarded as quite possible that an infected person had travelled from Sudan to Yambuku and transferred the virus to a needle of the hospital while receiving an injection at the outpatient clinic. Both the incubation period, and the duration of the clinical disease averaged about one week. After 3-4 days of non-specific symptoms and signs, patients typically experienced progressively severe sore throat, developed a maculopapular rash, had intractable abdominal pain, and began to bleed from multiple sites, principally the gastrointestinal tract. Although laboratory determinations were limited and not conclusive, it was concluded that pathogenesis of the disease included non-icteric hepatitis and possibly acute pancreatitis as well as disseminated intravascular coagulation. This syndrome was caused by a virus morphologically similar to Marburg virus, but immunologically distinct. It was named Ebola virus. The agent was isolated from the blood of 8 of 10 suspected cases using Vero cell cultures. Titrations of serial specimens obtained from one patient disclosed persistent viraemia of 106.5-104.5 infectious units from the third day of illness until death on the eighth day. Ebola virus particles were found in formalin- PMID:307456

  4. Nosocomial outbreak of Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever.

    PubMed

    Naderi, H R; Sarvghad, M R; Bojdy, A; Hadizadeh, M R; Sadeghi, R; Sheybani, F

    2011-06-01

    We report a nosocomial outbreak of Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever (CCHF) that affected six patients in June 2009 in Ghaem Hospital, Mashhad, Iran, apparently related to one index case. The last four cases were healthcare workers. Infection was spread by percutaneous exposure to two cases, and probably by direct contact with blood, clothes and sheets, to three others. The diagnosis in the two fatal cases was not confirmed virologically. The diagnosis in four cases who survived was confirmed by specific reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. The patients were treated with ribavirin. In endemic areas, every patient presenting with a febrile haemorrhagic syndrome should be considered to have a viral haemorrhagic fever until proven otherwise. Patients who meet the criteria for probable CCHF should be admitted to hospital and treated with ribavirin. Appropriate isolation precautions should be immediately initiated. PMID:20800007

  5. Haemorrhagic complications of pancreatitis: presentation, diagnosis and management.

    PubMed Central

    Ammori, B. J.; Madan, M.; Alexander, D. J.

    1998-01-01

    Massive haemorrhage is an uncommon complication in pancreatitis. Most affected patients suffer from chronic disease with associated pseudocyst. We present five patients (four male) with a mean age of 41 years (range 34-48 years). All patients had alcohol-induced pancreatitis complicated either by haematemesis (3), intraperitoneal haemorrhage (1) or both haematemesis and intraperitoneal haemorrhage (1). Source of bleeding was pseudocyst wall (2), splenic artery pseudoaneurysm (2) and splenic artery rupture (1). Distal pancreatectomy and splenectomy was performed in two patients, intracystic ligation and drainage in two, and packing with subsequent external drainage in one. Rebleeding occurred in two patients and required subsequent distal pancreatectomy and splenectomy in one; the other patient died of splenic rupture. No rebleeding and no mortality occurred after resection. Primary pancreatic resection is recommended whenever possible. Other management options include embolisation and ligation. Images Figure 1 PMID:9849330

  6. Unattended fatal haemorrhage due to spontaneous peripheral varicose vein rupture—Two case reports

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. Doberentz; L. Hagemeier; C. Veit; B. Madea

    2011-01-01

    Venous haemorrhage is a rare complication of varicose veins of the legs. Varicosis is found in 15–50% of the population. Haemorrhage from ruptured varicose veins of the legs can occur spontaneously or after a minor trauma. More frequent complications of varicosis include peripheral oedema of the ankles, skin pigmentation and skin ulcers. In case of venous haemorrhage simple possibilities of

  7. Traumatic haemorrhage into the thyroid simulating major vessel damage from deceleration injury

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. Lawton

    1974-01-01

    Lawton, G. (1974).Thorax, 29, 607-608. Traumatic haemorrhage into the thyroid simulating major vessel damage from deceleration injury. Haemorrhage into the thyroid gland is a well recognized condition but there are few cases in the literature of severe haemorrhage associated with trauma. A case is described of a patient involved in a road traffic accident where the clinical features strongly suggested

  8. Acute neck pain, an atypical presentation of subarachnoid haemorrhage.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, Julian; Blakeley, Chris; Sakar, Ramy; Aktar, Khalida; Hashemi, Kambiz

    2007-04-01

    Subarachnoid haemorrhage can be a massively debilitating condition with long-term repercussions. The "classic" presentation of sudden-onset severe headache normally raises suspicions. However, if the presentation is atypical, the diagnosis may be missed. We report on a 52-year-old man who presented with a 1-day history of progressively worsening right-sided neck pain spreading to the chest with associated symptoms of autonomic dysfunction. After initial stabilisation, the patient's Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) score declined, with subsequent CT scan showing an extensive subarachnoid haemorrhage. PMID:17384369

  9. Acute neck pain, an atypical presentation of subarachnoid haemorrhage

    PubMed Central

    Ahmed, Julian; Blakeley, Chris; Sakar, Ramy; Aktar, Khalida; Hashemi, Kambiz

    2007-01-01

    Subarachnoid haemorrhage can be a massively debilitating condition with long?term repercussions. The “classic” presentation of sudden?onset severe headache normally raises suspicions. However, if the presentation is atypical, the diagnosis may be missed. We report on a 52?year?old man who presented with a 1?day history of progressively worsening right?sided neck pain spreading to the chest with associated symptoms of autonomic dysfunction. After initial stabilisation, the patient's Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) score declined, with subsequent CT scan showing an extensive subarachnoid haemorrhage. PMID:17384369

  10. Prevention of intraventricular haemorrhage by fresh frozen plasma.

    PubMed Central

    Beverley, D W; Pitts-Tucker, T J; Congdon, P J; Arthur, R J; Tate, G

    1985-01-01

    Seventy three preterm infants weighing less than 1500 g or less than 32 weeks' gestation, or both, were allocated randomly to treatment (fresh frozen plasma 10 ml/kg on admission and at 24 hours of age) or control groups. Fifteen (41%) out of 37 control patients sustained intraventricular haemorrhage compared with five (14%) of 36 patients receiving treatment (X2 = 5.24, P = 0.022). No difference was found in coagulation factors measured at birth or at 48 hours of age in both groups. Fresh frozen plasma appears to have a beneficial effect in the prevention of intraventricular haemorrhage. PMID:3899020

  11. Treatment of septicaemia and severe bacterial infections in foals with a new cefquinome formulation: a field study.

    PubMed

    Rohdich, Nadja; Zschiesche, Eva; Heckeroth, Anja; Wilhelm, Cornelia; Leendertse, Ietje; Thomas, Emmanuel

    2009-09-01

    A multicentre field study was conducted in accordance with VICH Guideline on Good Clinical Practice (VICH 2000) to confirm the efficacy and safety of a new formulation of cefquinome for the treatment of naturally occurring severe bacterial infections and septicaemia in foals. Thirty-nine foals suffering from severe bacterial infections (such as pneumonia, gastro-enteritis, arthritis, omphalitis, or wound infections) or acute septicaemia were treated twice daily with the test product (1 mg cefquinome/kg body weight) intravenously for three days and then intramuscularly for three to 11 days. Investigators examined the foals daily and scored both systemic and local clinical signs to assess the response to treatment, treatment success and relapses. On the day of inclusion a blood sample was taken from each foal for IgG determination and blood culture. In case of abnormal clinical findings additional samples were taken for bacteriology. Treatment was successful in 87.2% of cases (34 of 39 foals) and no relapses were observed. The average duration of treatment was 7.5 days. At inclusion, bacterial culture was positive in 40.5% (15 out of 37) of the blood cultures. Escherichia coli, Clostridium perfringens and Staphylococcus spp. were the most common isolates and were all susceptible to cefquinome. E. coli predominated in swabs from umbilical and open wound infections, and in rectal swabs E. coli. There was no correlation between IgG at inclusion and study outcome or treatment duration. The test product was very well tolerated by all of the foals following intravenous and intramuscular injection. The cefquinome formulation tested was effective and safe in the treatment of severe bacterial infections and septicaemia in foals under field conditions. PMID:19813447

  12. An unusual cause of a haemorrhagic stroke: acquired haemophilia A

    PubMed Central

    Araf, Shamzah; Aleem, Sobia; Liu, Boyang; Balikai, Girish

    2013-01-01

    An elderly woman presented with extensive bruising and a haemorrhagic stroke. Initial investigations revealed an abnormal clotting screen with a prolonged activated partial thromboplastin time. Further investigations revealed this to be due to antibodies that the patient had developed against clotting factor VIII also known as acquired haemophilia A. PMID:23833092

  13. Neonatal focal temporal lobe or atrial wall haemorrhagic infarction

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Paul Govaert; K Smets; E Matthys; A Oostra

    1999-01-01

    AIMSTo describe two variants of infarction within the temporal lobe, associated with local matrix bleeding and mild to moderate intraventricular haemorrhage.METHODSThe files of 10 neonates, extracted from a sonographic study of 560 very low birthweight infants conducted between 1993 and 1997, were retrospectively examined.RESULTSSeven lesions were located in the middle to posterior area of the temporal lobe, three others faced

  14. Intracerebral haemorrhage: surgical therapy vs. patient-adapted treatment concept

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Albert Ruth; Schulmeyer Frank Josef; Woertgen Chris; Brawanski Alexander

    2004-01-01

    In spontaneous intracerebral haemorrhage (SICH), the indication for surgery is still controversial. Therefore we developed clinical guidelines for therapy and compared the outcome of these patients to an exclusively surgically treated group. We retrospectively evaluated outcome in 70 patients with SICH, who were treated only surgically and compared this group with 58 prospectively collected patients, who were treated surgically (n=13)

  15. Breathing-Impaired Speech after Brain Haemorrhage: A Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heselwood, Barry

    2007-01-01

    Results are presented from an auditory and acoustic analysis of the speech of an adult male with impaired prosody and articulation due to brain haemorrhage. They show marked effects on phonation, speech rate and articulator velocity, and a speech rhythm disrupted by "intrusive" stresses. These effects are discussed in relation to the speaker's…

  16. Tryptase Promotes Atherosclerotic Plaque Haemorrhage in ApoE-/- Mice

    PubMed Central

    Tian, Dai; Li, Xiaobo; Ning, Yanxia; Yin, Lianhua

    2013-01-01

    Tryptase, the most abundant mast cell (MC) granule protein, plays an important role in atherosclerosis plaque development. To test the hypothesis that tryptase participates directly in atherosclerosis plaque haemorrhage, the gene sequence and siRNA for tryptase were cloned into a lentivirus carrier and atherosclerosis plaque haemorrhage models in ApoE-/- mice were constructed. After a cuffing-cervical artery operation, the mice were randomly divided into 6 groups. Hematoxylin and eosin(HE) staining showed that the cervical artery plaque area was much larger in the tryptase overexpression group compared to the other groups, and there was greater artery stenosis. The artery stenosis from the cuff-side in all groups was more than 90%, except the siRNA group. Tryptase promotes plaque haemorrhage distinctively because 50% of the mice in the tryptase overexpression group had plaque haemorrhage, while only 10% in the siRNA group did. The immunohistochemistry of the cervical artery plaque showed that plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) expression was the lowest while tissue plasminogen activator (tPA), CD31, CD34 and VEGF was the highest in the tryptase overexpression groups. This observation was completely contrary to what was observed in the siRNA group. Tryptase promoted bEnd.3 cell growth, migration and capillary-like tube formation, which suggests that tryptase can promote microvessel angiogenesis. PAI-1 expression was inhibited, while tPA expression was increased by tryptase in bEnd.3 cells. Our in vivo and in vitro studies suggest that trypase can promote atherosclerotic plaque haemorrhage by promoting angiogenesis and regulating the balance of PAI-1 and tPA. Thus, regulating tryptase expression in MCs may provide a potential target for atherosclerosis treatment. PMID:23573292

  17. Bildungstrger 1. VHS Oldenburg

    E-print Network

    Nejdl, Wolfgang

    . Bildungsvereinigung ARBEIT UND LEBEN Nds. Ost gGmbH Frau Christine Beinlich Zu dem Balken 7 38448 Wolfsburg Telefon.aulwob.de und www.aul-nds.info 4. KVHS Aurich Herr Michael Mühlhan Oldersumer Str. 65-73 Telefon: 04941 9580150 ARBEIT UND LEBEN Nds. Ost gGmbH Frau Ruth Hüdepohl Bohlweg 55 38100 Braunschweig E-Mail: ruth.huedepohl@aul-nds

  18. Prevention of upper gastrointestinal haemorrhage: current controversies and clinical guidance

    PubMed Central

    Brooks, Johanne; Warburton, Richard

    2013-01-01

    Acute upper gastrointestinal (GI) bleeding is a common medical emergency and associated with significant morbidly and mortality. The risk of bleeding from peptic ulceration and oesophagogastric varices can be reduced by appropriate primary and secondary preventative strategies. Helicobacter pylori eradication and risk stratification with appropriate gastroprotection strategies when used with antiplatelet drugs and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are effective in preventing peptic ulcer bleeding, whilst endoscopic screening and either nonselective beta blockade or endoscopic variceal ligation are effective at reducing the risk of variceal haemorrhage. For secondary prevention of variceal haemorrhage, the combination of beta blockade and endoscopic variceal ligation is more effective. Recent data on the possible interactions of aspirin and NSAIDs, clopidogrel and proton pump inhibitors (PPIs), and the increased risk of cardiovascular adverse events associated with all nonaspirin cyclo-oxygenase (COX) inhibitors have increased the complexity of choices for preventing peptic ulcer bleeding. Such choices should consider both the GI and cardiovascular risk profiles. In patients with a moderately increased risk of GI bleeding, a NSAID plus a PPI or a COX-2 selective agent alone appear equivalent but for those at highest risk of bleeding (especially those with previous ulcer or haemorrhage) the COX-2 inhibitor plus PPI combination is superior. However naproxen seems the safest NSAID for those at increased cardiovascular risk. Clopidogrel is associated with a significant risk of GI haemorrhage and the most recent data concerning the potential clinical interaction of clopidogrel and PPIs are reassuring. In clopidogrel-treated patients at highest risk of GI bleeding, some form of GI prevention is indicated. PMID:23997925

  19. Liver Enzymes and Ultrastructure in Rabbit Haemorrhagic Disease (RHD)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. G. Ferreira; A. Costa-e-Silva; E. Monteiro; M. J. R. Oliveira; A. P. Águas

    2006-01-01

    Rabbit haemorrhagic disease (RHD) is caused by a calicivirus infection that kills most adult rabbits 24–72 h after viral inoculation.\\u000a Two liver enzymes (AST, aspartate aminotransferase, and ALT, alanine aminotransferase) were monitored in blood samples of\\u000a calicivirus-infected rabbits during the short course of RHD. Values of AST were used to differentiate three stages of hepatocellular\\u000a degeneration in RHD: mild (up

  20. Insights into the mechanism of haemorrhage caused by snake venom metalloproteinases

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Aura S. Kamiguti; Charles R. M. Hay; R. David G. Theakston; Mirko Zuzel

    1996-01-01

    Local and systemic haemorrhage are common consequences of crotaline and viperine envenoming. Several studies carried out using purified toxins have indicated that local haemorrhage can be attributed to a distinct class of venom metalloproteinases. Analyses of their cDNAs predict multi-domain enzymes, with an N-terminal metalloproteinase domain, a disintegrin-like domain and a Cys-rich C-terminus. Haemorrhagic metalloproteinases are responsible for degrading proteins

  1. Haemorrhagic syndrome of cattle associated with the feeding of sweet vernal (Anthoxanthum odoratum) hay containing dicoumarol

    Microsoft Academic Search

    DG Pritchard; LM Markson; PJ Brush; JA Sawtell; PA Bloxham

    1983-01-01

    An outbreak of a haemorrhagic diathesis in cattle fed home produced hay is described. A similar syndrome was reproduced experimentally in calves by feeding them the hay. The experimental disease was characterised by increased prothrombin and partial thromboplastin times while the leucocyte and erythrocyte counts remained normal until the terminal haemorrhage. The calves ate well and grew well until the

  2. Low cerebral blood flow is a risk factor for severe intraventricular haemorrhage

    PubMed Central

    Meek, J.; Tyszczuk, L.; Elwell, C.; Wyatt, J

    1999-01-01

    AIMS—To investigate the relation between cerebral blood flow on the first day of postnatal life and the severity of any subsequent germinal matrix haemorrhage-intraventricular haemorrhage (GMH-IVH).?METHODS—Cerebral blood flow was measured in 24 babies during the first 24 hours of life using near infrared spectroscopy. Repeated cerebral ultrasound examination was performed to define the maximum extent of GMH-IVH. Infants were classified as: normal scan, minor periventricular haemorrhage (haemorrhage that resolved), or severe GMH-IVH (haemorrhage distending the ventricles, that progressed to either post haemorrhagic dilatation or porencephalic cyst formation).?RESULTS—Cerebral blood flow was significantly lower in the infants with GMH-IVH (median 7.0 ml/100 g/min) than those without haemorrhage (median 12.2 ml/100 g/min), despite no difference in carbon dioxide tension and a higher mean arterial blood pressure. On subgroup analysis, those infants with severe GMH-IVH had the lowest cerebral blood flow.?CONCLUSION—A low cerebral blood flow on the first day of life is associated with the subsequent development of severe intraventricular haemorrhage.?? PMID:10375356

  3. Aetiological examination of an outbreak of haemorrhagic syndrome in a broiler flock in Japan

    Microsoft Academic Search

    N. Yuasa; K. Imai; K. Watanabe; F. Saito; M. Abe; K. Komi

    1987-01-01

    The aetiology of an outbreak of haemorrhagic syndrome (HS) in a commercial broiler flock was examined. At a rearing farm, 596 of 6376 chicks (9.3%) in a flock were culled with depression and increased mortality from 12 to 26 days of age, with a peak at 16 to 19 days of age. Most of the affected chicks examined had haemorrhagic

  4. A prospective randomised controlled clinical trial comparing somatostatin and vasopressin in controlling acute variceal haemorrhage.

    PubMed Central

    Jenkins, S A; Baxter, J N; Corbett, W; Devitt, P; Ware, J; Shields, R

    1985-01-01

    Twenty two patients were entered into a randomised controlled clinical trial comparing the efficacy of somatostatin and vasopressin in controlling acute variceal haemorrhage. Somatostatin was significantly more successful in controlling acute variceal haemorrhage than vasopressin (p = 0.003). Furthermore, no complications were observed during treatment with somatostatin. PMID:2857103

  5. Haemorrhagic disease of the newborn in the British Isles: two year prospective study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A W McNinch; J H Tripp

    1991-01-01

    OBJECTIVE--To determine the incidence of haemorrhagic disease of the newborn in the British Isles, study risk factors, and examine the effect of vitamin K prophylaxis. DESIGN--Prospective survey of all possible cases of haemorrhagic disease of the newborn as reported by consultant paediatricians using the monthly notification cards of the British Paediatric Surveillance Unit and a follow up questionnaire for each

  6. Acute adrenal haemorrhage: diagnosis, treatment and follow-up.

    PubMed

    Ferreira, J G; Borri, M L; Menasce, S; Ajzen, S; Kater, C E; Faiçal, S

    1996-01-01

    Acute adrenal haemorrhage (AAH) is a rare disorder with different aetiologies. Aiming to discuss this condition, this report deals with four different cases that will be analysed and examined below, each one of them confirmed by biopsy or surgery and followed clinically and radiologically. In these cases it was found that the patients suffered from localized abdominal pain (4/4) and fever (2/4); one patient had adrenal insufficiency due to bilateral massive AAH. Therefore we concluded that AAH is an uncommon condition with variable clinical manifestations. PMID:9089038

  7. [Unattended fatal haemorrhage associated with spontaneous rupture of peripheral varicosity].

    PubMed

    Hejna, P; Ublova, M; Straka, L; Zatopkova, L

    2012-04-01

    Crural ulcers are found in 3-5 % of the population, venous ulcers appear in 0,15-2 % of the population. Acute hemorrhage from venous ulcer is a rare complication which can lead to unattended and rapid external blood loss. Herein we present a case of 65-year-old man who was found in the kitchen of his flat in a large pool of blood with blood-tinged simple bandage applied on the right leg. At autopsy was revealed rupture of varicose vein at the base of large venous ulcer leading to fatal haemorrhage. PMID:22724651

  8. Prevention of postpartum haemorrhage with the oxytocin analogue carbetocin.

    PubMed

    Rath, Werner

    2009-11-01

    Postpartum haemorrhage is the leading cause of maternal mortality worldwide: 67-80% of cases are caused by uterine atony. Preventive measures include prophylactic drug use to aid uterine contraction after delivery, thus avoiding severe blood loss and reducing maternal morbidity and mortality. Carbetocin is a synthetic analogue of oxytocin with a half-life approximately 4-10 times longer than that reported for oxytocin. It combines the safety and tolerability profile of oxytocin with the sustained uterotonic activity of injectable ergot alkaloids. Furthermore, carbetocin can be administered as a single dose injection either intravenously or intramuscularly rather than as an infusion over several hours as is the case with oxytocin. Carbetocin is currently indicated for prevention of uterine atony after delivery by caesarean section in spinal or epidural anaesthesia. Data from three randomised controlled trials in caesarean delivery and a meta-analysis indicate that carbetocin significantly reduces the need for additional uterotonic agents or uterine massage to prevent excessive bleeding compared with placebo or oxytocin. The risk of headache, tremor, hypotension, flushing, nausea, abdominal pain, pruritus and feeling of warmth was similar in women who received carbetocin or oxytocin. The findings from two more recent double-blind randomised trials and one retrospective study suggest that carbetocin may also represent a good alternative to conventional uterotonic agents for prevention of postpartum haemorrhage after vaginal deliveries. A reduced need for additional uterotonics was observed with carbetocin vs. oxytocin in high-risk women and carbetocin was at least as effective as syntometrine in low-risk women. In these studies of vaginal deliveries, carbetocin was associated with a low incidence of adverse effects and demonstrated a better tolerability profile than syntometrine. Carbetocin had a long duration of action compared with intravenous oxytocin alone and a better cardiovascular side effect profile compared with syntometrine. In addition to being an effective treatment for the prevention of postpartum haemorrhage following caesarean delivery, carbetocin may also become the drug of choice for postpartum haemorrhage prevention after vaginal delivery in high-risk women and those who suffer from hypertensive disorders in pregnancy. Preeclampsia is still a contraindication to the administration of carbetocin in the EU, and further studies would be required to assess the cardiovascular effects of carbetocin before it can be advocated for routine use in preeclamptic patients. Further research is required to assess whether prophylactic carbetocin is superior to conventional uterotonic agents following vaginal delivery in low-risk women. PMID:19616358

  9. Postpartum intracranial haemorrhage in normotensive users of bromocriptine for ablactation.

    PubMed

    Iffy, L; Zito, G E; Jakobovits, A A; Ganesh, V; McArdle, J J

    1998-05-01

    The authors describe three cases of severe intracranial haemorrhage, associated with marked blood pressure elevation, which occurred between the 6th and 10th days postpartum in women taking bromocriptine for ablactation. All of these patients were young, normotensive and apparently healthy during the pregnancy. These incidents probably present the 10-12th reported cases of gross intracranial bleeding among users of bromocriptine in the puerperium. The results suggest that early diagnosis and prompt surgical intervention may improve the outcome for this rare but potentially catastrophic postpartum complication. PMID:15073994

  10. Acute haemorrhagic conjunctivitis in Soweto, 1982. An epidemiological investigation.

    PubMed

    Whitehorn, A; Küstner, H G; Boer, P; Saayman, G; Muller, M M; Sinclair, G S

    1983-10-01

    In mid-March 1982 an epidemic of acute haemorrhagic conjunctivitis (AHC) broke out in Soweto. Over 34 000 people were treated before the epidemic subsided some 13 weeks later, the overall attack rate being 34,1/1 000. The records of 3 945 patients seen at St John's Eye Hospital were analysed, and the populations at greatest risk of contracting the disease were identified. Males were at greatest risk, with a male to female attack rate ratio of 1,8:1. The age-specific attack rates for both sexes show a similar pattern, peaking in the young adult age groups. PMID:6623256

  11. Death from axillary haemorrhage during haemodialysis in a patient with a history of microscopic polyangiitis.

    PubMed

    Unuma, Kana; Uozaki, Hiroshi; Kuroda, Ryouhei; Uemura, Koichi; Yoshida, Ken-ichi

    2012-01-01

    An older female with a history of microscopic polyangiitis underwent haemodialysis through an end-to-side anastomosis between the left basilica vein and brachial artery. During the last haemodialysis session, repeated punctures induced haemorrhage that required brachial compression. Twenty min posthaemodialysis, haemorrhage had expanded from the axilla to the left lateral thorax. Autopsy disclosed axillary haematoma. The haemorrhage was not derived from punctured vessels or the left axillary artery. Although neither an alveolar nor a glomerular microscopic polyangiitis lesion was detected, fragility of the axillary small vessels due to microscopic polyangiitis, ageing, atherosclerosis and steroid therapy were underlying factors in the haematoma. Aspirin and heparin may have promoted haemorrhage, while shunt vessel stenosis with disturbed flow may have increased the axillary vessel pressure when the shunt vessels were compressed for haemostasis. This is the first report of a death due to haemorrhage from ruptured axillary vessels related to haemodialysis or microscopic polyangiitis. PMID:22665880

  12. Death from axillary haemorrhage during haemodialysis in a patient with a history of microscopic polyangiitis

    PubMed Central

    Unuma, Kana; Uozaki, Hiroshi; Kuroda, Ryouhei; Uemura, Koichi; Yoshida, Ken-ichi

    2012-01-01

    An older female with a history of microscopic polyangiitis underwent haemodialysis through an end-to-side anastomosis between the left basilica vein and brachial artery. During the last haemodialysis session, repeated punctures induced haemorrhage that required brachial compression. Twenty min posthaemodialysis, haemorrhage had expanded from the axilla to the left lateral thorax. Autopsy disclosed axillary haematoma. The haemorrhage was not derived from punctured vessels or the left axillary artery. Although neither an alveolar nor a glomerular microscopic polyangiitis lesion was detected, fragility of the axillary small vessels due to microscopic polyangiitis, ageing, atherosclerosis and steroid therapy were underlying factors in the haematoma. Aspirin and heparin may have promoted haemorrhage, while shunt vessel stenosis with disturbed flow may have increased the axillary vessel pressure when the shunt vessels were compressed for haemostasis. This is the first report of a death due to haemorrhage from ruptured axillary vessels related to haemodialysis or microscopic polyangiitis. PMID:22665880

  13. Acute haemorrhagic diarrhoea syndrome in dogs: 108 cases.

    PubMed

    Mortier, F; Strohmeyer, K; Hartmann, K; Unterer, S

    2015-06-13

    No prospective studies including large numbers of dogs with acute haemorrhagic diarrhoea syndrome (AHDS) are published so far. The aim of this case-control study was to describe signalment, history, clinical signs, laboratory values and course of disease in dogs with AHDS. Dogs (108) with idiopathic acute haemorrhagic diarrhoea (<3?days) were prospectively enrolled. Clinical assessment was performed by calculation of the 'AHDS index' (0-18). The hospital population and 21 healthy dogs served as control groups. Dogs with AHDS had a significantly lower body weight (median 9.8?kg) and age (median five years) than other dogs of the hospital population (20?kg; 10?years) (P<0.001). Predisposed breeds were Yorkshire terrier, miniature pinscher, miniature schnauzer and Maltese. The syndrome was more likely to occur during winter. Vomiting preceded the onset of bloody diarrhoea in 80 per cent of dogs and haematemesis was observed in half of those cases. Median AHDS index at presentation was 12 (range 3-17). Haematocrit was generally high (median 57.1 per cent; range 33-76 per cent), but exceeded 60 per cent only in 31.4 per cent of dogs. Haematocrit of 48.1 per cent of dogs was above reference range, as was monocyte (50.0 per cent), segmented (59.6 per cent) and band neutrophil count (45.2 per cent). A rapid clinical improvement occurred during the first 48?hours. PMID:26023146

  14. Surgical management of haemorrhaging renal angiomyolipoma in pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    Preece, P.; Mees, B.; Norris, B.; Christie, M.; Wagner, T.; Dundee, P.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Renal angiomyolipoma (AML) is a benign mesenchymal tumour of the kidney with a tendency of aneurysm formation at risk of rupturing. Due to increased maternal circulation and hormonal influences, rupture risk is greater in pregnancy, often leading to a vascular emergency and premature delivery or termination. Presentation of case A 24-weeks pregnant woman (45 years old, G6P1) presented with haematuria and flank pain. CT showed AML with acute haemorrhage. The patient became haemodynamically unstable and underwent urgent embolisation and follow-on total radical nephrectomy with the foetus being left in-utero. This involved a multidisciplinary team (urologist, vascular surgeon, interventional radiologist and obstetrician). The procedure was uncomplicated and the pregnancy went to term with a healthy girl delivered at 38 weeks. Discussion The incidence of AML is 0.13% in the general population. 21 reports of haemorrhaging AML in pregnancy have been published in the last 35 years. Mean gestational age was 29.6 weeks. Eight were treated conservatively to term, one underwent exploratory laparotomy with evacuation of haematoma only, five were embolised, and seven were managed with nephrectomy. Of the nephrectomy subgroup, one was preceded by vaginal delivery and five underwent concurrent caesarean section (one with pre-op embolisation). There were two associated foetal deaths. Conclusion This case demonstrates that with a multidisciplinary approach, it is possible to successfully leave a foetus undelivered whilst performing a radical nephrectomy for a large bleeding AML in a woman carrying a late second trimester pregnancy. PMID:25598402

  15. Recombinant activated factor VII in post partum haemorrhage

    PubMed Central

    Magon, Navneet; Babu, K. M.; Kapur, Krishan; Chopra, Sanjiv; Joneja, Gurdarshan Singh

    2013-01-01

    Post-partum haemorrhage (PPH) is a life-threatening obstetric complication and the leading cause of maternal death. Any bleeding that results in or could result in haemodynamic instability, if untreated, must be considered as PPH. There is no controversy about the need for prevention and treatment of PPH. The keystone of management of PPH entails first, non-invasive and nonsurgical methods and then invasive and surgical methods. However, mortality remains high. Therefore, new advancements in the treatment are most crucial. One such advancement has been the use of recombinant activated factor VII (rFVIIa) in PPH. First used 12 years back in PPH, this universal haemostatic agent has been effectively used in controlling PPH. The best available indicator of rFVIIa efficacy is the arrest of haemorrhage, which is judged by visual evidence and haemodynamic stabilization. It also reduces costs of therapy and the use of blood components in massive PPH. In cases of intractable PPH with no other obvious indications for hysterectomy, administration of rFVIIa should be considered before surgery. We share our experience in a series of cases of PPH, successfully managed using rFVIIa. PMID:24403703

  16. Local haemorrhage induced by Bothrops jararaca venom: relationship to neurogenic inflammation.

    PubMed Central

    Gonçalves, L R; Mariano, M

    2000-01-01

    We investigated morphological alterations induced by s.c. injection of 2.5 microg of Bothrops jararaca venom in rats. Intense disorganisation of collagen fibres was observed 1 min after the venom injection, particularly at regions near vessels and nerves. Mast cells were degranulated, and erythrocytes were seen leaving venules throughout the endothelial junctions. At this time, damaged endothelial cells were not observed. In rats envenomed as above, but immediately after cardiorespiratory failure induced by deep ether anaesthesia, alterations in the connective tissue structures, as previously described, were not observed. The mediation of this haemorrhage was investigated by injecting the venom into the foot pad of mice and compared to the mediation of oedema. Local haemorrhage was significantly reduced in mice pre-treated with capsaicin or guanethidine or submitted to a surgical section of sciatic and saphenous nerves. In these animals, oedema was not affected. Groups treated with methysergide or morphine showed both haemorrhage and oedema significantly reduced. Indomethacin or dexamethasone pre-treatments significantly reduced the oedema, but not the haemorrhage. Moreover, in animals treated with promethazine or mepyramine, oedema and haemorrhage were not affected. These data suggest that local haemorrhage induced by Bothrops jararaca venom is partially controlled by serotonin and neurohumoral mediators. Furthermore, results indicate that haemorrhage and oedema are mediated by different pharmacological systems. PMID:10958383

  17. [Fruit of the emergence of an enterovirus: acute haemorrhagic conjunctivitis].

    PubMed

    Sane, F; Sauter, P; Fronval, S; Goffard, A; Dewilde, A; Hober, D

    2008-01-01

    First seen in Ghana and Indonesia in the early 70's, acute haemorrhagic conjunctivitis or "Apollo 11" disease is an eye infection caused by Enterovirus type 70 (EV70). The disease appeared to be a highly contagious conjunctivitis which spread rapidly all over the world. EV70 has been considered as an emerging virus and was classified as a new Enterovirus. No human or animal virus genetically similar to EV70 was known before the sudden outcome of the disease in Ghana, West Africa. EV70 appeared as a pretty demonstrative example of virus emergence and virus spreading. Studies of virus genetic mutations emphasized the variations of RNA virus within a short time period. The current review presents the EV70 infection and the genetic profile of the virus from its emergence to nowadays. PMID:18957336

  18. Haemorrhage, hyponatraemia and more than just a hack.

    PubMed

    Shah, Mitsu; Kandil, Hala

    2014-01-01

    A 43-year-old previously healthy solicitor presented with a 9-day history of cough productive of yellow sputum with a prodrome of sore throat and myalgia. The cough was paroxysmal in nature and severe enough to cause extensive bilateral subconjunctival haemorrhages and cough syncopes multiple times a day, with one bout of associated haematemesis on the day of admission. He was isolated, treated for a presumed atypical chest infection with tazocin and clarithromycin, and monitored carefully until the hyponatraemia on presentation was resolved. Atypical screen and blood cultures were sent off, though unexciting at first, eventually confirmed the unlikely; Bordetella pertussis, much to the surprise of many who had Legionella as the top differential. PMID:24943139

  19. Life threatening retroperitoneal haemorrhage due to therapeutic fondaparinux

    PubMed Central

    Pai, Sushma; Payne, Catherine

    2009-01-01

    We report the case of a patient with pulmonary embolism, treated with fondaparinux as bridging therapy until therapeutic levels were achieved on warfarin, who developed a non-traumatic massive retroperitoneal haematoma requiring substantial resuscitation with blood products and arterial embolisation. To our knowledge, this condition has not been reported with therapeutic doses of fondaparinux. Our patient, however, may have been more predisposed to bleeding due to the unpredictable pharmacokinetics of fondaparinux secondary to his morbid obesity, reduced clearance of the drug due to renal insufficiency and concomitant treatment with low dose aspirin and warfarin. Another consideration was the lack of a specific reversing agent for fondaparinux in the setting of a life threatening haemorrhage. PMID:21866233

  20. Intracerebral haemorrhage: surgical therapy vs. patient-adapted treatment concept.

    PubMed

    Ruth, Albert; Schulmeyer, Frank Josef; Woertgen, Chris; Brawanski, Alexander

    2004-04-01

    In spontaneous intracerebral haemorrhage (SICH), the indication for surgery is still controversial. Therefore we developed clinical guidelines for therapy and compared the outcome of these patients to an exclusively surgically treated group. We retrospectively evaluated outcome in 70 patients with SICH, who were treated only surgically and compared this group with 58 prospectively collected patients, who were treated surgically (n=13) or medically (n=45). Initial level of consciousness, haematoma volume, and ventricular extension of blood were inversely correlated with mortality (p<0.0001, respectively). Use of clinical guidelines reduced the number of operations without affecting the outcome. We can formulate the following guidelines according to our data: comatose patients with and without brain herniation signs should be treated conservatively. Patients with a haematoma volume between 25 and 85 ml and a clinical deterioration are candidates for surgical therapy. PMID:14975413

  1. [Foeto-maternal haemorrhage--detection and quantification].

    PubMed

    Gielezy?ska, Agata; Fabija?ska-Mitek, Jadwiga

    2011-03-01

    Quantification of foetal RBCs in maternal blood samples should be essential to establish the dose of prophylactic anti-RhD immunoglobulin. In practice, the volume of foetomaternal haemorrhage (FMH) is rarely calculated and routine anti-RhD doses vary in the world from 100 microg to 300 microg. In Poland the postpartum dose of IgG anti-D is 150 microg, and there is no antepartum prophylaxis. The aim of this review paper is to present that detection and quantification of FMH are important and introduction of some tests for it evaluation is necessary in Poland. Taking into consideration many reports and our preliminary experiences we show principles of some methods and techniques, their advantages and limits. As immunohaematologists we indicate very important multidisciplinary problem which concerns transfusiologists, gynaecologists and haematologists. PMID:21545002

  2. Haemorrhage after home birth: audit of decision making and referral.

    PubMed

    Smit, Marrit; Dijkman, Anneke; Rijnders, Marlies; Bustraan, Jacqueline; van Dillen, Jeroen; Middeldorp, Johanna; Havenith, Barbara; van Roosmalen, Jos

    2013-11-01

    In the Netherlands, 20 per cent of women give birth at home. In 0.7 per cent, referral to secondary care because of postpartum haemorrhage (PPH) is indicated. Midwives are regularly trained in managing obstetric emergencies. A postgraduate training programme developed for Dutch community-based midwives called 'CAVE' (pre-hospital obstetric emergency course) focuses on the identification and management of obstetric emergencies, including timely and adequate referral to hospital. This descriptive study aims to identify substandard care (SSC) in PPH after home birth in the Netherlands. Sixty seven cases of PPH reported by community-based midwives were collected. After applying selection criteria, seven cases were submitted to audit. The audit panel consisted of 12 midwives (of which seven contributed a case), 10 obstetricians, an educational expert and an ambulance paramedic. First, an individual assessment was performed by all members. Subsequently, at a plenary audit meeting, SSC factors were determined and assigned incidental, minor and major substandard care. PMID:24371910

  3. Early enteral nutrition in young dogs suffering from haemorrhagic gastroenteritis.

    PubMed

    Will, K; Nolte, I; Zentek, J

    2005-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate clinical and metabolic effects of combined parenteral and oral nutrition compared with parenteral nutrition in young dogs with haemorrhagic gastroenteritis in a prospective clinical study. Dogs with acute gastroenteritis received either parenteral nutrition (group PN, n = 9) or combined parenteral and early enteral nutrition (group EN, n = 10). Infusions were compounded from amino acids, lipids, glucose and electrolyte/glucose solutions [149 g/l glucose, 20 g/l triglycerides, 40 g/l amino acids and 4009 kJ metabolizable energy/l (957 kcal ME/l)], and supplemented with potassium, phosphate and trace elements. Group EN received additionally a hydrolysed diet (74 kJ/kg BW(0.75) on day 2 and 148 kJ/kg BW(0.75) on days 3 and 4). Glucose, triglycerides, protein, albumin, fibrinogen, urea, creatinine, alkaline phosphatase, glutamate dehydrogenase and glutamate pyruvate transaminase were measured before and during the infusions, haematological traits only before the infusions. Statistics included two-factorial anova and subsequent t-test or Wilcoxon test (P < 0.05). All dogs of group EN survived compared with seven of nine patients in group PN. Most dogs in the EN group vomited within half an hour after introduction of oral feeding on day 2 but tolerance for food increased on days 3 and 4. The general health status and faecal and blood parameters of the surviving dogs were similar (P > 0.05) between the groups. In all dogs leucocytes increased during the treatment period, haematocrit and haemoglobin levels declined. Infusions increased blood glucose and triglycerides (P < 0.05); however, no adverse signs were observed. Early enteral nutrition was possible after a short period of adaptation, however, vomiting can be a severe problem. The evaluation of clinical benefits of early enteral nutrition in young dogs with haemorrhagic gastroenteritis requires further investigations. PMID:16109106

  4. Use of recombinant activated factor VII in a case of severe postpartum haemorrhage.

    PubMed

    Verre, M; Bossio, F; Mammone, A; Piccirillo, M; Tancioni, F; Varano, M

    2006-02-01

    We describe the case of a 24 year old woman, affected by haemorrhagic shock due to post-partum uterine atony, who underwent an emergency hysterectomy with persistent postoperative bleeding, successfully treated with recombinant activated factor VII (Novoseven). PMID:16498374

  5. Elevation of intracranial pressure following transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic stent-shunt for variceal haemorrhage

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rajiv Jalan; Kostas Dabos; Doris N. Redhead; Alistair Lee; Peter C. Hayes

    1997-01-01

    Increased intracranial pressure and cerebral oedema in patients with chronic liver disease is rare and is more typical of acute liver failure. Transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic stent-shunt is being increasingly used in the management of uncontrolled variceal haemorrhage in patients with cirrhosis. In our institution, a total of 160 patients has undergone transjugular intrahepatic porto-systemic stent-shunt for variceal haemorrhage; 56 of

  6. Quantitative analysis of particles, genomes and infectious particles in supernatants of haemorrhagic fever virus cell cultures

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Manfred Weidmann; Amadou A Sall; Jean-Claude Manuguerra; Lamine Koivogui; Aime Adjami; Faye Fatou Traoré; Kjell-Olof Hedlund; Gunnel Lindegren; Ali Mirazimi

    2011-01-01

    Information on the replication of viral haemorrhagic fever viruses is not readily available and has never been analysed in\\u000a a comparative approach. Here, we compared the cell culture growth characteristics of haemorrhagic fever viruses (HFV), of\\u000a the Arenaviridae, Filoviridae, Bunyaviridae, and Flavivridae virus families by performing quantitative analysis of cell culture supernatants by (i) electron microscopy for the quantification\\u000a of

  7. Migraine and risk of haemorrhagic stroke in women: prospective cohort study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tobias Kurth; Carlos S Kase; Markus Schürks; Christophe Tzourio; Julie E Buring

    2010-01-01

    Objectives To examine the association between migraine and migraine aura status with risk of haemorrhagic stroke.Design Prospective cohort study.Setting Women’s Health Study, United States.Participants 27 860 women aged ?45 who were free from stroke or other major disease at baseline and had provided information on self reported migraine, aura status, and lipid values.Main outcome measures Time to first haemorrhagic stroke

  8. [Bilateral adrenal haemorrhage during sepsis does not equal total adrenal insufficiency].

    PubMed

    Pareek, Manan; Nielsen, Mette Lundgren; Smith-Sivertsen, Christian

    2012-05-28

    Bilateral adrenal haemorrhage can occur in the setting of severe clinical sepsis. The clinical presentation may be non-specific, and the degree to which adrenal haemorrhage causes adrenal insufficiency remains unclear. We describe a case of an 18-year-old male presenting with meningococcaemia. The diagnosis was confirmed by a computed tomography, and the patient was treated with antibiotics and corticosteroids. His adrenal function was initially subnormal; however, three months after discharge, he had fully recovered his adrenal function. PMID:22668654

  9. Retroperitoneal Haematom due to Spontaneous Rupture and Haemorrhage of Adrenal Cyst Presenting with Grey Turner's Sign.

    PubMed

    Sonmez, Bedriye Muge; Yilmaz, Fevzi; Ozkan, Fevzi Bircan; Ongar, Murat; Ozturk, Derya; Cesur, Fatma

    2015-07-01

    Spontaneous retroperitoneal haemorrhage is a rare entity and a potentially life-threatening condition. A 41-year-old woman presented to our emergency department with left flank pain and dysuria. Her physical examination disclosed left abdominal and costovertebral angle tenderness, left flank ecchymosis (Grey Turner sign). Abdominal computerised tomography revealed spontaneous retroperitoneal haemorrhage. She was discharged after 10 days with recommendation of urology follow-up. PMID:26160093

  10. Brain and spinal cord haemorrhages associated with Angiostrongylus vasorum infection in four dogs

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Wessmann; D. Lu; C. R. Lamb; B. Smyth; P. Mantis; K. Chandler; A. Boag; G. B. Cherubini; R. Cappello

    2006-01-01

    Multifocal haemorrhages associated with Angiostrongylus vasorum infection were observed in the central nervous system of four dogs with neurological signs including depression, seizures, spinal pain and paresis. In magnetic resonance images the majority of the lesions were isointense or slightly hyperintense in T1-weighted images, hyperintense in T2-weighted images and hypointense in T2*-weighted (gradient echo) images, compatible with haemorrhages more than

  11. Correlation of age and haematoma volume in patients with spontaneous lobar intracerebral haemorrhage

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Joji B Kuramatsu; Roland Sauer; Christoph Mauer; Hannes Lücking; Stephan P Kloska; Ines-Christine Kiphuth; Dimitre Staykov; Martin Köhrmann; Hagen B Huttner

    2010-01-01

    BackgroundLobar intracerebral haemorrhage (LH) is gaining importance in the ageing population, but there are only limited data regarding specific clinical characteristics and risk factors of older patients with LH.MethodsThis retrospective analysis of patients with spontaneous supratentorial haemorrhage included 174 consecutive patients (78 LH and 96 deep ICH (DH)). Clinical data including the preadmission status, neuroradiological findings, initial presentation, treatment and

  12. Transvaginal Oocyte Retrieval Complicated by Life-Threatening Obturator Artery Haemorrhage and Managed by a Vessel-Preserving Technique.

    PubMed Central

    Bolster, Ferdia; Mocanu, Edgar; Geoghegan, Tony; Lawler, Leo

    2014-01-01

    We report the case of a 36-year-old woman with secondary infertility who underwent routine transvaginal oocyte retrieval as part of IVF treatment. Four days following the procedure she presented with life threatening haemorrhagic shock. She underwent surgical laparotomy followed by CT and selective angiography, which demonstrated haemorrhage from a pseudoaneurysm of the obturator artery. The haemorrhage was successfully managed endovascularly with a vessel preserving covered stent. PMID:25484463

  13. Hypotensive effect of nimodipine during treatment for aneurysmal subarachnoid haemorrhage.

    PubMed

    Porchet, F; Chioléro, R; de Tribolet, N

    1995-01-01

    To determine the incidence of induced systemic hypotension in patients after aneurysmal subarachnoid haemorrhage (SAH) and nimodipine treatment 87 consecutive cases were reviewed. The patients were managed according to the same Nimodipine treatment protocol. After confirmation of SAH the nimodipine treatment was started as a continuous intravenous perfusion at a dosage of 0.5 mg/h and gradually increased every 6 hours if haemodynamically tolerated until the maintenance dose of 2 mg/h was reached. Median systemic pressure was continuously measured and tolerated until a lowest limit of 75 mmHg. In 31 patients (36%) hypotension with values below 75 mmHg during at least 30 minutes was noted and needed Nimodipine reduction. Intravenous Nimodipine administration was responsible for hypotension in 26 cases as compared to 5 cases due to oral administration. 38% of all patients required support by vaso-active agents (Dopamine or Nor-adrenaline). There was no statistically significant difference of incidence of delayed ischaemic deterioration comparing the Nimodipine-reduction group with the normal dose group. This study demonstrates that a considerable risk exists of Nimodipine induced hypotension in intravenous administration despite gradually increasing the doses. Correction of hypotension through further induced hypervolaemia accompanied by vasoactive agents can lead to critical haemodynamic situations. We therefore recommend oral Nimodipine administration. PMID:8748871

  14. Tranexamic acid for the prevention and treatment of postpartum haemorrhage.

    PubMed

    Sentilhes, L; Lasocki, S; Ducloy-Bouthors, A S; Deruelle, P; Dreyfus, M; Perrotin, F; Goffinet, F; Deneux-Tharaux, C

    2015-04-01

    Postpartum haemorrhage (PPH) is a major cause of maternal mortality, accounting for one-quarter of all maternal deaths worldwide. Uterotonics after birth are the only intervention that has been shown to be effective for PPH prevention. Tranexamic acid (TXA), an antifibrinolytic agent, has therefore been investigated as a potentially useful complement to this for both prevention and treatment because its hypothesized mechanism of action in PPH supplements that of uterotonics and because it has been proved to reduce blood loss in elective surgery, bleeding in trauma patients, and menstrual blood loss. This review covers evidence from randomized controlled trials (RCTs) for PPH prevention after caesarean (n=10) and vaginal (n=2) deliveries and for PPH treatment after vaginal delivery (n=1). It discusses its efficacy and side effects overall and in relation to the various doses studied for both indications. TXA appears to be a promising drug for the prevention and treatment of PPH after both vaginal and caesarean delivery. Nevertheless, the current level of evidence supporting its efficacy is insufficient, as are the data about its benefit:harm ratio. Large, adequately powered multicentre RCTs are required before its widespread use for preventing and treating PPH can be recommended. PMID:25571934

  15. Rabbit haemorrhagic disease: virus persistence and adaptation in Australia.

    PubMed

    Schwensow, Nina I; Cooke, Brian; Kovaliski, John; Sinclair, Ron; Peacock, David; Fickel, Joerns; Sommer, Simone

    2014-11-01

    In Australia, the rabbit haemorrhagic disease virus (RHDV) has been used since 1996 to reduce numbers of introduced European rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus) which have a devastating impact on the native Australian environment. RHDV causes regular, short disease outbreaks, but little is known about how the virus persists and survives between epidemics. We examined the initial spread of RHDV to show that even upon its initial spread, the virus circulated continuously on a regional scale rather than persisting at a local population level and that Australian rabbit populations are highly interconnected by virus-carrying flying vectors. Sequencing data obtained from a single rabbit population showed that the viruses that caused an epidemic each year seldom bore close genetic resemblance to those present in previous years. Together, these data suggest that RHDV survives in the Australian environment through its ability to spread amongst rabbit subpopulations. This is consistent with modelling results that indicated that in a large interconnected rabbit meta-population, RHDV should maintain high virulence, cause short, strong disease outbreaks but show low persistence in any given subpopulation. This new epidemiological framework is important for understanding virus-host co-evolution and future disease management options of pest species to secure Australia's remaining natural biodiversity. PMID:25553067

  16. Dengue fever and dengue haemorrhagic fever in adolescents and adults.

    PubMed

    Tantawichien, Terapong

    2012-05-01

    Dengue fever (DF) is endemic in tropical and subtropical zones and the prevalence is increasing across South-east Asia, Africa, the Western Pacific and the Americas. In recent years, the spread of unplanned urbanisation, with associated substandard housing, overcrowding and deterioration in water, sewage and waste management systems, has created ideal conditions for increased transmission of the dengue virus in tropical urban centres. While dengue infection has traditionally been considered a paediatric disease, the age distribution of dengue has been rising and more cases have been observed in adolescents and adults. Furthermore, the development of tourism in the tropics has led to an increase in the number of tourists who become infected, most of whom are adults. Symptoms and risk factors for dengue haemorrhagic fever (DHF) and severe dengue differ between children and adults, with co-morbidities and incidence in more elderly patients associated with greater risk of mortality. Treatment options for DF and DHF in adults, as for children, centre round fluid replacement (either orally or intravenously, depending on severity) and antipyretics. Further data are needed on the optimal treatment of adult patients. PMID:22668446

  17. Reversal of haemorrhagic shock in rats by cholinomimetic drugs.

    PubMed Central

    Guarini, S.; Tagliavini, S.; Ferrari, W.; Bertolini, A.

    1989-01-01

    1. In an experimental model of haemorrhagic shock resulting in the death of all rats within 20-30 min, the intravenous (i.v.) injection of the tertiary amine cholinesterase inhibitor physostigmine (17-70 micrograms kg-1) induced a prompt, sustained and dose-dependent improvement of cardiovascular and respiratory function, with marked increase in the volume of circulating blood and survival of all treated animals, at least for the 2 h of observation. 2. Similar results were obtained with the i.v. injection of the cholinoceptor agonist oxotremorine (5-25 micrograms kg-1), while neostigmine (54 or 70 micrograms kg-1), a quaternary cholinesterase inhibitor which cannot cross the blood-brain barrier, had negligible effects. 3. The anti-shock activities of oxotremorine and physostigmine were blocked by the intracerebroventricular injection of either of the combined nicotinic and M2-muscarinic receptor antagonists gallamine and pancuronium, or of the nicotinic antagonist mecamylamine. They were also blocked by intraperitoneal injection of the adrenergic neurone blocking agent guanethidine, but they were not antagonized by either the combined M1- and M2-muscarinic receptor antagonist atropine, the M1-muscarinic receptor antagonist pirenzepine, or the M2-muscarinic receptor 4-diphenylacetoxy-N-methylpiperidine methobromide. 4. It is concluded that cholinomimetic drugs can reverse hypovolaemic shock through central activation (seemingly mediated by nicotinic receptors) of sympathetic tone, with mobilization and redistribution of the residual blood. PMID:2804546

  18. Rabbit haemorrhagic disease: virus persistence and adaptation in Australia

    PubMed Central

    Schwensow, Nina I; Cooke, Brian; Kovaliski, John; Sinclair, Ron; Peacock, David; Fickel, Joerns; Sommer, Simone

    2014-01-01

    In Australia, the rabbit haemorrhagic disease virus (RHDV) has been used since 1996 to reduce numbers of introduced European rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus) which have a devastating impact on the native Australian environment. RHDV causes regular, short disease outbreaks, but little is known about how the virus persists and survives between epidemics. We examined the initial spread of RHDV to show that even upon its initial spread, the virus circulated continuously on a regional scale rather than persisting at a local population level and that Australian rabbit populations are highly interconnected by virus-carrying flying vectors. Sequencing data obtained from a single rabbit population showed that the viruses that caused an epidemic each year seldom bore close genetic resemblance to those present in previous years. Together, these data suggest that RHDV survives in the Australian environment through its ability to spread amongst rabbit subpopulations. This is consistent with modelling results that indicated that in a large interconnected rabbit meta-population, RHDV should maintain high virulence, cause short, strong disease outbreaks but show low persistence in any given subpopulation. This new epidemiological framework is important for understanding virus–host co-evolution and future disease management options of pest species to secure Australia's remaining natural biodiversity. PMID:25553067

  19. Clinical and epidemiological patterns of Argentine haemorrhagic fever

    PubMed Central

    Maiztegui, J. I.

    1975-01-01

    The epidemiology of Argentine haemorrhagic fever (AHF) is closely related to cricetine rodents acting as natural hosts of Junin virus. The endemo-epidemic area, which has increased 5 times since the disease was first recognized 15-20 years ago, is located in a densely populated region of Argentina. It has been shown that the virus of LCM is active in humans and rodents of the AHF endemic area; this demonstrates the simultaneous presence of two arenaviruses pathogenic for man in a given geographic location. The disease is characterized by haematological, renal, neurological and cardiovascular changes. Electron microscopy and immunohistochemical studies have shown cytopathic changes, characteristic intracellular virus-like particles, and antigenic determinants of Junin virus in different organs from 9 cases of AHF. No deposits of immunoglobulins or C3 were found in the kidneys; in addition, an absence of fibrinogen and C3 in the hepatocytes and of immunoglobulins in the spleen was observed. These findings suggest a direct viral pathogenic action in the human disease. Ultrastructural and immunofluorescence studies in tissues of guinea-pigs inoculated with two strains of Junin virus revealed the presence of the same types of virus-like particles and antigenic determinants of Junin virus as were encountered in the human subjects with AHF. ImagesFig. 2Fig. 3 PMID:1085212

  20. General peritonitis and haemorrhage complicating colonic diverticular disease

    PubMed Central

    Tagart, R E B

    1974-01-01

    The very varied pathology which underlies peritonitis caused by colonic diverticular disease makes the comparison of various methods of treatment very difficult. The best results are probably achieved by removal of the affected part of the colon from the abdomen as soon as possible. Really aggressive medical treatment is an essential accompaniment to any form of surgery. A two-stoma or Hartmann procedure is generally the safest form of resection. Immediate anastomosis has no particular advantage since it should always be accompanied by a proximal diverting colostomy, making a second operation necessary in any case. In desperate cases proximal colostomy may be the only possible procedure and can be life-saving. The advantage of a skin-bridge colostomy is stressed. In cases of haemorrhage the source of bleeding is usually impossible to locate. Conservative treatment is successful in most cases, but if there is no alternative to surgery subtotal colectomy with ileorectal anastomosis is the treatment of choice. ImagesFig. 1Fig. 2Fig. 3Fig. 4 PMID:4547577

  1. Genetic contribution to postpartum haemorrhage in Swedish population: cohort study of 466?686 births

    PubMed Central

    Hernandéz-Dia?, Sonia; Frisell, Thomas; Greene, Michael F; Almqvist, Catarina; Bateman, Brian T

    2014-01-01

    Objective To investigate the familial clustering of postpartum haemorrhage in the Swedish population, and to quantify the relative contributions of genetic and environmental effects. Design Register based cohort study. Setting Swedish population (multi-generation and medical birth registers). Main outcome measure Postpartum haemorrhage, defined as >1000 mL estimated blood loss. Participants The first two live births to individuals in Sweden in 1997-2009 contributed to clusters representing intact couples (n=366?350 births), mothers with separate partners (n=53?292), fathers with separate partners (n=47?054), sister pairs (n=97?228), brother pairs (n=91?168), and mixed sibling pairs (n=177?944). Methods Familial clustering was quantified through cluster specific tetrachoric correlation coefficients, and the influence of potential sharing of known risk factors was evaluated with alternating logistic regression. Relative contributions of genetic and environmental effects to the variation in liability for postpartum haemorrhage were quantified with generalised linear mixed models. Results The overall prevalence of postpartum haemorrhage after vaginal deliveries in our sample was 4.6%. Among vaginal deliveries, 18% (95% confidence interval 9% to 26%) of the variation in postpartum haemorrhage liability was attributed to maternal genetic factors, 10% (1% to 19%) to unique maternal environment, and 11% (0% to 26%) to fetal genetic effects. Adjustment for known risk factors only partially explained estimates of familial clustering, suggesting that the observed shared genetic and environmental effects operate in part through pathways independent of known risk factors. There were similar patterns of familial clustering for both of the main subtypes examined (atony and retained placenta), though strongest for haemorrhage after retained placenta. Conclusions There is a maternal genetic predisposition to postpartum haemorrhage, but more than half of the total variation in liability is attributable to factors that are not shared in families. PMID:25121825

  2. A survey of the frequency of aminoglycoside antibiotic-resistant genotypes and phenotypes in Escherichia coli in broilers with septicaemia in Hebei, China.

    PubMed

    Zhang, F Y; Huo, S Y; Li, Y R; Xie, R; Wu, X J; Chen, L G; Gao, Y H

    2014-01-01

    1. The aim of this study was to investigate the occurrence of aminoglycoside resistance and the prevalence of 6 important modifying enzyme genes, i.e. (strA, strB, aph(3')-IIa, aac(3)-IIa, aac(6')-Ib and ant(3")-Ia), in Escherichia coli strains in broilers with septicaemia in Hebei, China. 2. A total of 111 clinical isolates of E. coli were collected from 46 large-scale farms. Antimicrobial susceptibility tests, using the Kirby-Bauer disc diffusion method, were performed on all 111 isolates. In addition, all were screened for the presence of modifying enzyme genes using the polymerase chain reaction (PCR). 3. The results show that the rates of resistance were as follows: streptomycin: 97.3%, kanamycin: 97.0%, gentamicin: 95.5%, neomycin: 50.5%, amikacin: 46.0%, spectinomycin: 22.5%. Of the genes examined, strB (73.9%) was the most frequently identified gene in the phenotypic resistant isolates, followed in order by: ant(3")-Ia, aac(3)-IIa, aac(6')-Ib, aph(3')-IIa and strA. 4. It is concluded that aminoglycoside resistance in E. coli from broilers with septicaemia remains a serious problem in Hebei, China. This emphasises the need to ban the non-therapeutic use of antibiotics, discourage their misuse and to be continually vigilant by providing appropriate scientific and technological support for the poultry industry. PMID:24571237

  3. Haemorrhagic syndrome of cattle associated with the feeding of sweet vernal (Anthoxanthum odoratum) hay containing dicoumarol.

    PubMed

    Pritchard, D G; Markson, L M; Brush, P J; Sawtell, J A; Bloxham, P A

    1983-07-23

    An outbreak of a haemorrhagic diathesis in cattle fed home produced hay is described. A similar syndrome was reproduced experimentally in calves by feeding them the hay. The experimental disease was characterised by increased prothrombin and partial thromboplastin times while the leucocyte and erythrocyte counts remained normal until the terminal haemorrhage. The calves ate well and grew well until the rapid onset of progressive weakness, stiff gait, mucosal pallor, tachycardia, tachypnoea and haematomata ending in sudden death. The absence of blood coagulation was seen at necropsy while petechial, ecchymotic and free haemorrhages were found in most organs. Particularly striking were massive ecchymotic haemorrhages on the peritoneal surface of the rumen, a bloody, gelatinous mass enveloping each kidney and extensive bruising, haemorrhage and haematomata in the subcutis of the limbs. In a second feeding trial the effects of various preparations of vitamin K1 and vitamin K3 were investigated. Oral administration of large quantities of vitamin K1 reduced the elevated prothrombin time; vitamin K3 acted less consistently. Analysis of the hay for trichothecene mycotoxins was negative but floral analysis revealed that sweet vernal grass (Anthoxanthum odoratum) comprised about 80 per cent of the hay. Dicoumarol was detected in the hay and in the serum and ruminal contents of the experimental calves. The diagnosis, treatment, control and importance of this syndrome in the United Kingdom are discussed. PMID:6194608

  4. A Five-Year Experience of Carbapenem Resistance in Enterobacteriaceae Causing Neonatal Septicaemia: Predominance of NDM-1

    PubMed Central

    Datta, Saswati; Roy, Subhasree; Chatterjee, Somdatta; Saha, Anindya; Sen, Barsha; Pal, Titir; Som, Tapas; Basu, Sulagna

    2014-01-01

    Treatment of neonatal sepsis has become a challenge with the emergence of carbapenemase-producing bacteria. This study documents the trend of carbapenem susceptibility in Enterobacteriaceae that caused septicaemia in neonates over a five year period (2007–2011) and the molecular characterisation of Enterobacteriaceae resistant to carbapenems and cephalosporins. Hundred and five Enterobacteriaceae including Escherichia coli (n?=?27), Klebsiella pneumoniae (n?=?68) and Enterobacter spp. (n?=?10) were isolated from blood of septicaemic neonates followed by antibiotic susceptibility tests, determination of MIC values, phenotypic and genotypic detection of ?-lactamases. Carbapenem was the most active antimicrobial tested after tigecycline. CTX-M type was the most prevalent ESBL throughout the period (82%). New Delhi Metallo-?-lactamase-1 (NDM-1), which is a recent addition to the carbapenemase list, was the only carbapenemase identified in our setting. Fourteen percent of the isolates possessed blaNDM-1. Carbapenem non-susceptibility was first observed in 2007 and it was due to loss of Omp F/Ompk36 in combination with the presence of ESBLs/AmpCs. NDM-1 first emerged in E. coli during 2008; later in 2010, the resistance was detected in K. pneumoniae and E. cloacae isolates. NDM-1-producing isolates were resistant to other broad-spectrum antibiotics and possessed ESBLs, AmpCs, 16S-rRNA methylases, AAC(6?)-Ib-cr, bleomycin resistant gene and class 1 integron. Pulsed field gel electrophoresis of the NDM-1-producing isolates indicated that the isolates were clonally diverse. The study also showed that there was a significantly higher incidence of sepsis caused by NDM-1-harbouring isolates in the male sex, in neonates with low birth weight and neonates born at an extramural centre. However, sepsis with NDM-1-harbouring isolates did not result in a higher mortality rate. The study is the first to review the carbapenem resistance patterns in neonatal sepsis over an extended period of time. The study highlights the persistence of ESBLs (CTX-Ms) and the emergence of NDM-1 in Enterobacteriaceae in the unit. PMID:25406074

  5. Intraplaque haemorrhages as the trigger of plaque vulnerability

    PubMed Central

    Michel, Jean-Baptiste; Virmani, Renu; Arbustini, Eloďsa; Pasterkamp, Gerard

    2011-01-01

    Atherothrombosis remains one of the main causes of morbidity and mortality in the western countries. Human atherothrombotic disease begins early in life in relation to circulating lipid retention in the inner vascular wall. Risk factors enhance the progression towards clinical expression: dyslipidaemia, diabetes, smoking, hypertension, ageing, etc. The evolution from the initial lipid retention in the arterial wall to clinical events is a continuum of increasingly complex biological processes. Current strategies to fight the consequences of atherothrombosis are orientated either towards the promotion of a healthy life style1 and preventive treatment of risk factors, or towards late interventional strategies.2 Despite this therapeutic arsenal, the incidence of clinical events remains dramatically high,3 dependent, at least in part, on the increasing frequency of type 2 diabetes and ageing. But some medical treatments, focusing only on prevention of the metabolic risk, have failed to reduce cardiovascular mortality, thus illustrating that our understanding of the pathophysiology of human atherothrombosis leading to clinical events remain incomplete. New paradigms are now emerging which may give rise to novel experimental strategies to improve therapeutic efficacy and prediction of disease progression. Recent studies strengthen the concept that the intraplaque neovascularization and bleeding (Figure 1, upper panel) are events that could play a major role in plaque progression and leucocyte infiltration, and may also serve as a measure of risk for the development of future events. The recent advances in our understanding of IntraPlaque Hemorrhage as a critical event in triggering acute clinical events have important implications for clinical research and possibly future clinical practice. Figure 1Macroscopic view and schematic representation of the detrimental consequences of intraplaque haemorrhages on plaque biology and stability. PMID:21398643

  6. Intracranial haemorrhage among a population of haemophilic patients in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Antunes, S V; Vicari, P; Cavalheiro, S; Bordin, J O

    2003-09-01

    Intracranial haemorrhage (ICH) is a common cause of morbidity and mortality in haemophilic patients. The overall incidence of ICH has been reported to range from 2.2% to 7.5% in patients with haemophilia. From 1987 to 2001, 401 haemophilic patients from the Serviço de Hemofilia, Disciplina de Hematologia e Hemoterapia, Universidade Federal de Săo Paulo were evaluated. The episodes of ICH were documented by CT scan and the anatomic location, clinical presentation, relationship to trauma and clinical factors, including the presence of HIV infection and the presence of inhibitor, were reviewed. Among 401 haemophilic patients, 45 ICH episodes in 35 (8.7%) patients with age ranging from 4 days to 49 years (mean 10.6 years) were observed. A history of recent trauma was documented in 24 (53.3%) cases. Seventeen (37.8%) episodes occurred in more than one site of bleeding, 12 (26.7%) were subdural, seven (15.5%) subarachnoid, four (8.9%) epidural, two (4.4%) intracerebral and one (2.2%) intraventricular. The most frequent symptoms were headache and drowsiness. All patients were submitted to replacement therapy and neurosurgical intervention was performed in eight (17.8%) patients. Despite the treatment, three (8.6%) haemophilia A patients died due to the ICH event and three presented late sequelae. The most important aspect of ICH management is the early replacement therapy in haemophilic patients. This prompt treatment will increase the chances of a better prognosis. Another impact measure consists in the administration of the deficient coagulation factor after every head trauma, even when considered minor. PMID:14511296

  7. Epidemiology of peri/intraventricular haemorrhage in newborns at term.

    PubMed

    Baumert, M; Brozek, G; Paprotny, M; Walencka, Z; Sodowska, H; Cnota, W; Sodowski, K

    2008-09-01

    Peri/intraventricular hemorrhage (PIVH) has significant consequences, particularly leading to cases of adverse neurodevelopment. The aim of this study was to asses the epidemiology of peri/intraventricular haemorrhage in newborns born at term. Study was designed and performed according to epidemiological model of case-controlled studies. The study population was based on 2675 full-term neonates (the mean gestational age was 39.1 +/- 1.2 weeks) admitted to Department of Neonatology of Medical University of Silesia in Katowice (Poland) between the years 2003-2005. Periventricular/intraventricular hemorrhage was diagnosed in 392 neonates (14.65%). In this group of neonates 281 (71.68%) were diagnosed as IVH I degrees , 108 (27.55%) as PIVH II degrees , 2 (0.5%) as PIVH III degrees and in 1 neonate (0.25%) as IVH IV degrees . Further research was carried out on 392 neonates who were diagnosed with PIVH (together I degrees -IV degrees ) and 2283 healthy neonate. The study's inclusion criterion was term delivery (after 37(th) week of gestation). Mean gestational age of the group was 39.11 +/-1.26 weeks and ranged from 37 to 43 weeks. The mean gestational age of neonates with PIVH was 38.91 +/- 1.26 week and -38.14 +/- 1.23 week for those neonates without this pathology. Also, the various potential risk factors of PIVH were analyzed such as: gender, newborn's condition in the 5 minutes after birth (assessed by Apgar score), type of delivery (vaginal, cesarean section, vacuum extractor), umbilical collision, intrauterine infection, hypertension, mother's inflammation of urinary tract and infection of upper airways. We postulate that the etiology of PIVH in term neonates is multifactoral. The findings suggest that male gender, lower birth weight and the mode of delivery are associated with the development of PIVH in term neonates. PMID:18955755

  8. The use of hens' eggs as an alternative to the conventional in vivo rodent assay for antidotes to haemorrhagic venoms

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. G Sells; A. M Richards; G. D Laing; R. D. G Theakston

    1997-01-01

    One of the tests used routinely for the preclinical assessment of antivenom efficacy is the WHO-approved rodent intradermal skin test for assessing neutralization of venom-induced haemorrhagic activity. This is a useful test as in many viperid venoms haemorrhage is considered to be the principal lethal (pathogenic) venom effect in envenomed humans. The main problems with such an assay are, first,

  9. Reversible left ventricular dysfunction associated with raised troponin I after subarachnoid haemorrhage does not preclude successful heart transplantation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E Deibert; V Aiyagari; M N Diringer

    2000-01-01

    Transient abnormalities in ECGs, echocardiograms, and cardiac enzymes have been described in the acute setting of subarachnoid haemorrhage. In addition, left ventricular dysfunction has been reported at the time of brain death. A patient with an acute subarachnoid haemorrhage who presented with raised troponin I (TnI) concentrations and diffuse left ventricular dysfunction is described. After declaration of brain death 32

  10. Use of anti-inflammatory drugs by patients admitted with small or large bowel perforations and haemorrhage

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M J Langman; L Morgan; A Worrall

    1985-01-01

    The intake of anti-inflammatory drugs by 268 patients with colonic or small bowel perforation or haemorrhage was compared with that by a group of patients, matched for age and sex, with uncomplicated lower bowel disease. Patients with perforation or haemorrhage were more than twice as likely to be takers of anti-inflammatory drugs, but no association was detected with the intake

  11. Diagnostic imaging and pathogenesis of the traumatic intratumoural haemorrhage of schwannoma causing acute high radial nerve palsy: case report.

    PubMed

    Okada, Mitsuhiro; Takada, Jun; Ohsawa, Masahiko; Nakamura, Hiroaki

    2012-12-01

    We describe the first report of haemorrhaged schwannoma presenting with acute high radial nerve palsy after traumatic injury of the upper arm. Anticoagulant therapy may induce intratumoural haemorrhage, resulting in symptomatic increases in size within the limited space of the upper arm. The radiological, surgical and pathological findings are discussed. PMID:22612066

  12. Intracerebral haemorrhage, anticoagulation and mechanical heart valves: what should I do next?

    PubMed Central

    Shah, R; Shah, D; Koganti, S; Davies, R

    2013-01-01

    Life-long oral anticoagulant therapy is recommended to all patients with mechanical heart valves to reduce the incidence of thromboembolic events. However, intracerebral haemorrhage is the fatal complication associated with anticoagulation, with an estimated 6-month mortality of 67%. (1) The incidence of cerebral bleeding while on anticoagulation is 0.3–0.7%/year, with as many as 85% of survivors left with permanent neurological deficits. (2) Difficulties in management arise when anticoagulation is temporarily discontinued as mechanical valves, particularly mitral, are exposed to significant thromboembolic and valve dysfunction risk. The decision on when to appropriately restart anticoagulation needs to be balanced with the risk of precipitating further cerebral haemorrhage. There are currently no guidelines on the optimal time to start anticoagulation. We describe a case of the management approach implemented in a patient with a mechanical valve presenting to the emergency department with an acute intracerebral haemorrhage. PMID:23814121

  13. Magnesium for aneurysmal subarachnoid haemorrhage (MASH-2): a randomised placebo-controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Mees, Sanne M Dorhout; Algra, Ale; Vandertop, W Peter; van Kooten, Fop; Kuijsten, Hans AJM; Boiten, Jelis; van Oostenbrugge, Robert J; Salman, Rustam Al-Shahi; Lavados, Pablo M; Rinkel, Gabriel JE; van den Bergh, Walter M

    2012-01-01

    Summary Background Magnesium sulphate is a neuroprotective agent that might improve outcome after aneurysmal subarachnoid haemorrhage by reducing the occurrence or improving the outcome of delayed cerebral ischaemia. We did a trial to test whether magnesium therapy improves outcome after aneurysmal subarachnoid haemorrhage. Methods We did this phase 3 randomised, placebo-controlled trial in eight centres in Europe and South America. We randomly assigned (with computer-generated random numbers, with permuted blocks of four, stratified by centre) patients aged 18 years or older with an aneurysmal pattern of subarachnoid haemorrhage on brain imaging who were admitted to hospital within 4 days of haemorrhage, to receive intravenous magnesium sulphate, 64 mmol/day, or placebo. We excluded patients with renal failure or bodyweight lower than 50 kg. Patients, treating physicians, and investigators assessing outcomes and analysing data were masked to the allocation. The primary outcome was poor outcome—defined as a score of 4–5 on the modified Rankin Scale—3 months after subarachnoid haemorrhage, or death. We analysed results by intention to treat. We also updated a previous meta-analysis of trials of magnesium treatment for aneurysmal subarachnoid haemorrhage. This study is registered with controlled-trials.com (ISRCTN 68742385) and the EU Clinical Trials Register (EudraCT 2006-003523-36). Findings 1204 patients were enrolled, one of whom had his treatment allocation lost. 606 patients were assigned to the magnesium group (two lost to follow-up), 597 to the placebo (one lost to follow-up). 158 patients (26·2%) had poor outcome in the magnesium group compared with 151 (25·3%) in the placebo group (risk ratio [RR] 1·03, 95% CI 0·85–1·25). Our updated meta-analysis of seven randomised trials involving 2047 patients shows that magnesium is not superior to placebo for reduction of poor outcome after aneurysmal subarachnoid haemorrhage (RR 0·96, 95% CI 0·86–1·08). Interpretation Intravenous magnesium sulphate does not improve clinical outcome after aneurysmal subarachnoid haemorrhage, therefore routine administration of magnesium cannot be recommended. Funding Netherlands Heart Foundation, UK Medical Research Council. PMID:22633825

  14. [Intracerebral haemorrhage and postpartum cerebral angiopathy associated with the administration of sulprostone and norepinephrine].

    PubMed

    Ruzic, Y; Tran-Van, D; Omarjee, A; Boukerrou, M; Winer, A

    2012-01-01

    We report the case of a 29-year-old female who had developed a postpartum cerebral angiopathy (PCA) complicated by an intracerebral haematoma and convulsions, after a postpartum haemorrhage with sulprostone and norepinephrine infusion. PCA is an under diagnosed neurovascular pathology, responsible of reversible and non-specific symptoms. However, it can be complicated by haemorrhagic or ischemic stroke with vital or functional risks. As PCA is favored by vasoactive treatments, their administration in peripartum period, when it is imperative, should be strictly controlled. PMID:22154454

  15. An unusual cause of haemorrhagic shock from a subcutaneous haematoma: a Morel-Lavallée lesion

    PubMed Central

    Mao, Renhao Desmond; Tan, Enjiu Pauleon; Goh, Hsin Kai

    2015-01-01

    A 20-year-old man presented to our emergency department after he was hit by a forklift. He developed haemorrhagic shock from a subcutaneous haematoma in his left thigh and required monitoring in the surgical intensive care unit. He stabilised with aggressive fluid resuscitation with crystalloids and blood transfusion. The recovery was complicated by an infection of the subcutaneous haematoma. Following open drainage of the infected subcutaneous haematoma, he improved and was discharged. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first reported case of a subcutaneous haematoma causing haemorrhagic shock. PMID:25917478

  16. Isolation of a virus responsible for an outbreak of acute haemorrhagic conjunctivitis in Morocco

    PubMed Central

    Nejmi, S.; Gaudin, O. G.; Chomel, J. J.; Baaj, A.; Sohier, R.; Bosshard, S.

    1974-01-01

    An epidemic of acute haemorrhagic conjunctivitis occurred in Morocco in 1970-1. It was caused by an enterovirus which appeared to be a new antigenic type similar to a virus isolated in South East Asia during the same period. PMID:4362409

  17. Experimental respiratory Marburg virus haemorrhagic fever infection in the common marmoset (Callithrix jacchus)

    PubMed Central

    Smither, Sophie J; Nelson, Michelle; Eastaugh, Lin; Laws, Thomas R; Taylor, Christopher; Smith, Simon A; Salguero, Francisco J; Lever, Mark S

    2013-01-01

    Marburg virus causes a highly infectious and lethal haemorrhagic fever in primates and may be exploited as a potential biothreat pathogen. To combat the infection and threat of Marburg haemorrhagic fever, there is a need to develop and license appropriate medical countermeasures. To determine whether the common marmoset (Callithrix jacchus) would be an appropriate model to assess therapies against Marburg haemorrhagic fever, initial susceptibility, lethality and pathogenesis studies were performed. Low doses of virus, between 4 and 28 TCID50, were sufficient to cause a lethal, reproducible infection. Animals became febrile between days 5 and 6, maintaining a high fever before succumbing to disease between 8 and 11 days postchallenge. Typical signs of Marburg virus infection were observed including haemorrhaging and a transient rash. In pathogenesis studies, virus was isolated from the animals’ lungs from day 3 postchallenge and from the liver, spleen and blood from day 5 postchallenge. Early signs of histopathology were apparent in the kidney and liver from day 3. The most striking features were observed in animals exhibiting severe clinical signs, which included high viral titres in all organs, with the highest levels in the blood, increased levels in liver function enzymes and blood clotting times, decreased levels in platelets, multifocal moderate-to-severe hepatitis and perivascular oedema. PMID:23441639

  18. Blood outgrowth endothelial cells from Hereditary Haemorrhagic Telangiectasia patients reveal abnormalities compatible with vascular lesions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Africa Fernandez-L; Francisco Sanz-Rodriguez; Roberto Zarrabeitia; Alfonso Perez-Molino; Robert P. Hebbel; Julia Nguyen; Carmelo Bernabeu; Luisa-Maria Botella

    2005-01-01

    Objective: Hereditary haemorrhagic telangiectasia (HHT) is originated by mutations in endoglin (HHT1) and ALK1 (HHT2) genes. The purpose of this work was to isolate and characterize circulating endothelial cells from HHT patients. Methods: Pure primary cultures of blood outgrowth endothelial cells (BOECs) were obtained from 50 ml of peripheral blood by selection on collagen plates with endothelial medium. Results: The

  19. Intracerebral haemorrhage complicating dural arteriovenous fistula: a report of two cases

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A E Harding; B Kendall; T J Leonard; M H Johnson

    1984-01-01

    Two patients presented with unilateral peri-orbital pain, proptosis, chemosis and external ophthalmoplegia. They were shown to have dural arteriovenous fistulae related to the cavernous sinus. Intracerebral haemorrhage occurred in both patients within 18 months of presentation; this gave rise to focal seizures and signs of unilateral hemisphere dysfunction. The haematomas were in the region drained by the superficial middle cerebral

  20. Risk of gastrointestinal haemorrhage with calcium antagonists in hypertensive persons over 67 years old

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M Pahor; P Carbonin; J. M Guralnik; R. J Havlik; C. D Furberg

    1996-01-01

    SummaryBackground Calcium antagonists are used frequently in management of hypertension. In addition to their cardiovascular effects, these drugs inhibit platelet aggregation. Therefore we examined whether the use of calcium antagonists was associated with an increased risk of gastrointestinal haemorrhage (GIH).Methods A prospective cohort study was conducted from 1985 through 1992 on 1636 hypertensive persons aged ?68 years living in three

  1. Pulmonary and cardiac sequelae of subarachnoid haemorrhage: time for active management?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. S. A. Macmillan; I. S. Grant; P. J. D. Andrews

    2002-01-01

    Cardiac injury and pulmonary oedema occurring after acute neurological injury have been recognised for more than a century. Catecholamines, released in massive quantities due to hypothalamic stress from subarachnoid haemorrhage (SAH), result in specific myocardial lesions and hydrostatic pressure injury to the pulmonary capillaries causing neurogenic pulmonary oedema (NPO). The acute, reversible cardiac injury ranges from hypokinesis with a normal

  2. Henoch-Schönlein purpura with intracerebral haemorrhage in an adult patient: a case report

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lazarus Karamadoukis; Linmarie Ludeman; Anthony J Williams

    2008-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Henoch-Schönlein purpura is a small vessel vasculitis that affects mainly the skin, joints, gastrointestinal tract and kidneys. The central nervous system is also occasionally affected, although the majority of patients experience only mild symptoms such as headaches and behavioural changes. Intracerebral haemorrhage is a rare complication of Henoch-Schönlein purpura that so far has mainly been described in children and

  3. Dietary supplementation of tyrosine prevents the rapid fall in blood pressure during haemorrhage

    Microsoft Academic Search

    F. A. Moya-Huff; J. M. B. Pinto; P. J. Kiritsy; T. J. Maher

    1989-01-01

    Summary Previous studies have demonstrated the ability of tyrosine (TYR), the amino acid precursor of catecholamines, to increase blood pressure in rats made hypotensive by haemorrhage. Other studies have shown that supplementation of the diet with TYR can reverse certain neurochemical and behavioural consequences associated with acute stress. Such studies demonstrate that during conditions of enhanced neuronal firing catecholamine synthesis

  4. Genetic background and risk of postpartum haemorrhage: results from an Italian cohort of 3219 women.

    PubMed

    Biguzzi, E; Franchi, F; Acaia, B; Ossola, W; Nava, U; Paraboschi, E M; Asselta, R; Peyvandi, F

    2014-11-01

    Postpartum haemorrhage (PPH) is a leading cause of maternal mortality, particularly in the developing countries, and of severe maternal morbidity worldwide. To investigate the impact of genetic influences on postpartum haemorrhage, in association with maternal and intrapartum risk factors, using a candidate gene approach. All women (n = 6694) who underwent a vaginal delivery at the Obstetric Unit of a large University hospital in Milan (Italy) between July 2007 and September 2009 were enrolled. The first consecutive 3219 women entered the genetic study. Postpartum haemorrhage was defined as ?500 mL blood loss. Eight functional polymorphisms in seven candidate genes were chosen because of their potential role in predisposing to or protecting from haemorrhagic conditions: tissue factor (F3), factor V (F5), tissue factor pathway inhibitor (TFPI), platelet glycoprotein Ia/IIa (ITGA2), prothrombin (F2), platelet glycoproteins Ib? (GP1BA) and angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE). After correction for the already known PPH risk factors, only the promoter polymorphism of the tissue factor gene (F3 -603A>G) showed a significant association with PPH, the G allele exerting a protective effect (P = 0.00053; OR = 0.79, 95% CI = 0.69-0.90). The protective effect against PPH of the TF -603A>G polymorphism is biologically plausible since the G allele is associated with an increased protein expression and Tissue Factor is strongly represented in the placenta at term, particularly in decidual cells of maternal origin. PMID:25333208

  5. Alveolar Haemorrhage in the Immunocompetent Host: A Scale for Early Diagnosis of an Immune Cause

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Clément Picard; Jacques Cadranel; Raphaël Porcher; Hélčne Prigent; Pierre Levy; Muriel Fartoukh; Charles Mayaud; Antoine Parrot

    2010-01-01

    Background: Diffuse alveolar haemorrhage (DAH) is a life-threatening condition due to immune and non-immune causes. Early identification of an underlying immune disorder is essential in order to initiate appropriate treatment. Objective: The purpose of this study was to identify early predictive factors of an immune cause of DAH. Methods: We conducted a retrospective study of 76 immunocompetent patients with DAH

  6. Pituitary-adrenal function in patients with acute subarachnoid haemorrhage: a prospective cohort study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Stepani Bendel; Timo Koivisto; Esko Ruokonen; Jaakko Rinne; Jarkko Romppanen; Ilkka Vauhkonen; Vesa Kiviniemi; Ari Uusaro

    2008-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Subarachnoid haemorrhage (SAH) may damage the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal gland (HPA) axis and disturb cortisol metabolism. There are no available data that relates to the response of the HPA axis in the acute phase of SAH. We aimed to characterise the behavior of serum adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), total cortisol, stimulated total cortisol and free cortisol concentrations in acute aneurysmal SAH. METHODS:

  7. Computational Intelligence Method for Early Diagnosis Dengue Haemorrhagic Fever Using Fuzzy on Mobile Device

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salman, Afan; Lina, Yen; Simon, Christian

    2014-03-01

    Mortality from Dengue Haemorrhagic Fever (DHF) is still increasing in Indonesia particularly in Jakarta. Diagnosis of the dengue shall be made as early as possible so that first aid can be given in expectation of decreasing death risk. The Study will be conducted by developing expert system based on Computational Intelligence Method. On the first year, study will use the Fuzzy Inference System (FIS) Method to diagnose Dengue Haemorrhagic Fever particularly in Mobile Device consist of smart phone. Expert system application which particularly using fuzzy system can be applied in mobile device and it is useful to make early diagnosis of Dengue Haemorrhagic Fever that produce outcome faster than laboratory test. The evaluation of this application is conducted by performing accuracy test before and after validation using data of patient who has the Dengue Haemorrhagic Fever. This expert system application is easy, convenient, and practical to use, also capable of making the early diagnosis of Dengue Haemorraghic to avoid mortality in the first stage.

  8. Use of thermography to monitor sole haemorrhages and temperature distribution over the claws of dairy cattle.

    PubMed

    Wilhelm, K; Wilhelm, J; Fürll, M

    2015-02-01

    Subclinical laminitis, an early pathological event in the development of many claw diseases, is an important factor in the welfare and economics of high-producing dairy cows. However, the aetiology and pathogenesis of this complex claw disease are not well understood. The present study investigated to what extent thermographic examination of claws is able to give information about corium inflammation, and whether the technique may be used as a diagnostic tool for early detection of subclinical laminitis. Moreover, the temperature distribution over the individual main claws was investigated to obtain further knowledge about pressure distribution on the claws. For this purpose the claws of 123 cows were evaluated in the first week after calving as well as after the second month of lactation for presence of sole haemorrhages (a sign of subclinical laminitis). Furthermore, the ground contact area was analysed by thermography. Sole haemorrhages were significantly increased by the second month of lactation. Thermography showed clear differences between the claws of the front limbs and hindlimbs, as well as between lateral and medial claws. Although the distribution of sole haemorrhages was consistent with the pattern of the temperature distribution over the main claws, no clear correlation was found between the claw temperature after calving and the visible laminitis-like changes (sole haemorrhages) eight weeks later. PMID:25380792

  9. Pharmacological manipulation of gastric juice: thrombelastographic assessment and implications for treatment of gastrointestinal haemorrhage

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S E Patchett; D P ODonoghue

    1995-01-01

    The impairment of formation and maintenance of a formed fibrin clot contributes to the prolonged bleeding and high incidence of rebleeding in upper gastrointestinal haemorrhage. To investigate the basis for the use of drug therapy in gastric bleeding, this study used thrombelastography to determine the effects of pharmacological manipulation of gastric juice on coagulation and fibrinolysis. The thrombelastograph is a

  10. Outcome of aneurysmal subarachnoid haemorrhage following the introduction of papaverine angioplasty.

    PubMed

    Morgan, M; Halcrow, S; Sorby, W; Grinnell, V

    1996-04-01

    This is a prospective study reporting the impact of angiographic vasospasm on the outcome following aneurysmal subarachnoid haemorrhage utilising a common regimen that includes nimodipine and angioplasty. The first 100 patients suffering an aneurysmal subarachnoid haemorrhage treated by surgery and this angioplasty driven protocol are reviewed. Angiography was performed if the Glasgow Coma Score (GCS) fell by two, a focal neurological deficit developed, hyponatraemia was detected, or routinely on days 5-7 following the subarachnoid haemorrhage. Angioplasty with papaverine was administered intra-arterially in all patients with significant angiographic vasospasm. Neurological deficits on admission were not present in 49% and associated with a GCS less than 14 in 38%. Angiographic vasospasm was detected in 48% of patients (all of whom received papaverine). Overall 3 month outcome was normal in 60%, neurological deficit but independence with regard to activities of daily living in 18%, loss of independence in 17%, and death in 5% of cases. Analysis of admission neurological condition (GCS < vs GCS > 13), presence of angiographic vasospasm, aneurysm size (less than or greater than 1.5 cm), and aneurysm circulation (anterior vs posterior) on outcome (normal vs abnormal) found that only admission neurological condition significantly influenced outcome (P < 0.0001). The results suggest that with the protocol of nimodipine and angioplasty the impact of vasospasm on outcome is far less significant than the clinical severity of the initial haemorrhage. This is in contradistinction to the experience with aneurysmal subarachnoid haemorrhage prior to this regimen (nimodipine and angioplasty) where vasospasm was the most significant determinant of a poor outcome. PMID:18638856

  11. Surgeons' attitudes to the operative management of duodenal ulcer perforation and haemorrhage.

    PubMed Central

    Stringer, M. D.; Cameron, A. E.

    1988-01-01

    The currently preferred operative management of duodenal ulcer haemorrhage and perforation was assessed by means of a questionnaire sent to 274 consultant general surgeons in England. A 70% response rate was achieved. Simple closure, with or without H2 antagonist treatment, was the most popular management of a perforated acute duodenal ulcer. For perforation of a chronic duodenal ulcer occurring during H2 antagonist therapy, truncal vagotomy and drainage was the definitive procedure of choice. There was no consensus about the operative management of perforation complicating non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug treatment in the elderly patient. Proximal gastric vagotomy appears to have few advocates in the definitive management of either duodenal ulcer perforation or haemorrhage. Of our sample 70% selected truncal vagotomy and drainage with underrunning of the ulcer as the operative treatment of choice for bleeding. Endoscopic coagulation appears to be used only rarely. PMID:2901246

  12. Haemorrhage after home birth: audit of decision making and referral. Part 2: Results and discussion.

    PubMed

    Smit, Marrit; Dijkman, Anneke; Rijnders, Marlies; Bustraan, Jacqueline; van Dillen, Jeroen; Middeldorp, Johanna; Havenith, Barbara; van Roosmalen, Jos

    2013-12-01

    This descriptive study aims to identify substandard care (SSC) in PPH after home birth in the Netherlands. Sixty seven cases of postpartum haemorrhage (PPH) reported by community-based midwives were collected. After applying selection criteria, seven cases were submitted to audit. The audit panel consisted of 12 midwives (of whom seven contributed a case), 10 obstetricians, an educational expert and an ambulance paramedic. First, an individual assessment was performed by all members. Subsequently, at a plenary audit meeting, SSC factors were determined and assigned incidental, minor or major status. Major SSC was identified in two out of seven cases. We conclude that communication between different healthcare providers should be optimised and a proactive attitude taken to select women who plan to give birth at home, taking into account the possibility of timely referral in case of PPH or retained placenta. National multidisciplinary guidelines on managing obstetric haemorrhage in home birth are urgently needed. PMID:24386705

  13. Subdural haemorrhage and severe coagulopathy resulting in transtentorial uncal herniation in a neonate undergoing therapeutic hypothermia.

    PubMed

    Wang, Dianna; McMillan, Hugh; Bariciak, Erika

    2014-01-01

    Therapeutic hypothermia has been shown to be efficacious for improving long-term neurodevelopmental outcomes following perinatal asphyxia. Thus, cooling protocols have been adopted at most tertiary neonatal centres. We present a case of a term neonate who underwent therapeutic whole-body cooling for hypoxic ischaemic encephalopathy following a difficult forceps delivery. She abruptly deteriorated, exhibiting signs of transtentorial uncal herniation and severe disseminated intravascular coagulopathy. CT of the head confirmed a life-threatening subdural haematoma and a concealed skull fracture. Hypothermia has been shown to impair haemostasis in vivo and thus may potentially exacerbate occult haemorrhages in a clinical setting. Newborns that require instrument-assisted delivery are a particularly high-risk group for occult head injuries and should undergo careful clinical assessment for fractures and intracranial haemorrhage prior to initiation of therapeutic hypothermia. PMID:25100805

  14. A retrospective analysis of low dose, intranasal injected bevacizumab (Avastin) in hereditary haemorrhagic telangiectasia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. Rohrmeier; H. G. Sachs; T. S. Kuehnel

    The constantly recurring epistaxis means a great reduction of quality of life for patients with hereditary haemorrhagic telangiectasia\\u000a (HHT). As yet, an ideal treatment has not been found. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) has been described as a possible\\u000a new therapy. In particular, the success of submucosal doses <100 mg has not been analysed before. We injected bevacizumab\\u000a (Avastin) submucosally in

  15. [Juvenile polyposis syndrome and hereditary haemorrhagic telangiectasia syndrome in a patient a with SMAD4 mutation.

    PubMed

    Jelsig, Anne Marie; Třrring, Pernille Mathiesen; Wikman, Friedrik; Mortensen, Michael Bau; Qvist, Niels; Ousager, Lilian Bomme

    2014-10-27

    Germ line mutations in SMAD4 can cause both juvenile polyposis syndrome and hereditary haemorrhagic telangiectasia syndrome. In this case we present a 37-year-old man with a frameshift mutation in SMAD4. The patient had multiple polyps in the gastrointestinal tract and was diagnosed with colon cancer at the age of 21 and gastro-oesophageal junction cancer at the age of 37. Furthermore the patient had telangiectasias and recurrent epistaxis. PMID:25354002

  16. Skin rash and subconjunctival haemorrhage in an adult with pandemic H1N1 influenza

    PubMed Central

    Koul, Parvaiz A; Khan, Umar H; Shah, Tajamul Hussain; Bagdadi, Farhana

    2013-01-01

    A young man presented with erythematous rash that appeared 3?days following upper respiratory symptoms and fever. Diffuse exanthematous rash was seen over whole body, most pronounced over the trunk. A subconjunctival haemorrhage also appeared in the left eye following incessant cough. Reverse transcription-PCR of the nasopharyngeal secretions revealed influenza A (2009 pandemic H1N1). The patient responded to oseltamivir therapy. Influenza should be considered in patients presenting with exanthematous skin rash. PMID:23761514

  17. Acute haemorrhagic conjunctivitis epidemics and outbreaks of Paederus spp. keratoconjunctivitis ('Nairobi red eyes') and dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Mbonile, L

    2011-08-01

    An epidemic of acute conjunctivitis in Dar es Salaam in 2010 demonstrated the importance of a strong infectious diseases epidemiological surveillance network to minimise disease outbreaks. Misunderstanding of the causes and management of diseases explains the repetitive nature of acute haemorrhagic conjunctivitis (AHC) in Dar es Salaam. This paper discusses AHC and Paederus spp. keratoconjunctivitis and periorbital oedema ('Nairobi red eyes') that are confused as being associated with recurrent epidemics of conjunctivitis in Dar es Salaam. PMID:21920128

  18. Cerebral haemorrhage in long-term survivors of childhood acute lymphoblastic leukaemia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. Humpl; K. Brühl; J. Bohl; M. Schwarz; P. Stoeter; P. Gutjahr

    1997-01-01

    Modern treatment of childhood acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL) has dramatically improved the prognosis for children with\\u000a this disease. Therapeutic approaches consist of multimodal chemotherapy and radiotherapy with significant long-term side-effects.\\u000a We report on 4 children out of a group of 120 newly diagnosed patients with ALL, who survived the disease for more than 2\\u000a years and developed a cerebral haemorrhage

  19. Heterogeneity of neurological syndromes in survivors of grade 3 and 4 periventricular haemorrhage

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jean-Pierre Lin; Winnie Goh; J. Keith Brown; A. James W. Steers

    1993-01-01

    To evaluate the topographical neurological distribution, patterns of abnormal tone and related functional neuromotor impairment after grade 3 and grade 4 intraventricular\\/periventricular haemorrhage (IPVH), 33 children with previous grade 3 or 4IPVH of mean gestational age 30.9 weeks (range 25–40 weeks) and mean birth weight 1743 g (range 866–3600 g) were examined neurologically at 4.7 years (range 0.75–10.8 years). Neurological

  20. Pulmonary and cardiac sequelae of subarachnoid haemorrhage: time for active management?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. S. A. Macmillan; I. S. Grant; P. J. D. Andrews

    Cardiac injury and pulmonary oedema occurring after acute neurological injury have been recognised for more than a century.\\u000a Catecholamines, released in massive quantities due to hypothalamic stress from subarachnoid haemorrhage (SAH), result in specific\\u000a myocardial lesions and hydrostatic pressure injury to the pulmonary capillaries causing neurogenic pulmonary oedema (NPO).\\u000a The acute, reversible cardiac injury ranges from hypokinesis with a normal

  1. Spontaneous Adrenal Haemorrhage as a Manifestation of Isolated Relapse of Non-Hodgkin’s Lymphoma

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Charalambos Kartsios; Panayotis Kaloyannidis; Evangelia Yannaki; Photios Iordanidis; Vassilios Penopoulos; Ioanna Sakellari; Achilles Anagnostopoulos

    2003-01-01

    Retroperitoneal haemorrhage due to metastatic disease is a rare event not previously reported in lymphomas. We describe a 36-year-old woman diagnosed with diffuse large B cell lymphoma (DLBCL) of bone marrow, liver and spleen presenting in the leukaemic phase. The patient attained complete remission after ‘ALL-like’ chemotherapy (cyclophosphamide, vincristine, adriamycin, dexamethasone); 22 months later, she developed an isolated central nervous

  2. Angiogenesis in Steno-Occlusive Vasculopathies as a Common Pathway for Intracranial Haemorrhage

    PubMed Central

    van den Berg, René; Rijssenbeek, Astrid L.; Sprengers, Marieke E.S.; Bot, Joost C.J.; Majoie, Charles B.L.M.; Roos, Yvo B.W.E.M.; Vandertop, William P.

    2014-01-01

    Summary Vasculopathies, including vasculitis of the central nervous system, can lead to stenosed, cicatrized vessels and the development of arterio-arteriolar collateral vessels. Bleeding due to these vascular changes, although rare, does occur. We describe six patients (all female, age range, 21-52 years; mean age, 42 years) with steno-occlusive lesions of intracranial vessels who presented with an acute intracranial haemorrhage. All had arterial steno-occlusive changes in conjunction with extensive leptomeningeal and arterio-arteriolar collaterals. Within the collaterals, focal dilatations could be identified, which were in close spatial relationship with the intracranial haemorrhage. Cause of bleeding was depicted on CT angiography in four out of six patients. One patient presented in childhood with acute stroke, one patient was diagnosed with Buerger's disease and one with sickle cell disease; the other three patients had no relevant history and the exact cause remained unclear. Outcome was favourable in all patients. Despite focal vascular weaknesses, no recurrent haemorrhage was seen during follow-up, supporting, at least in this small patient group, a conservative wait-and-see policy. PMID:24556309

  3. New Prognostic Score for the Prediction of 30-Day Outcome in Spontaneous Supratentorial Cerebral Haemorrhage

    PubMed Central

    Szepesi, Rita; Széll, Ibolya Katalin; Hortobágyi, Tibor; Kardos, László; Nagy, Katalin; Lánczi, Levente István; Berényi, Ervin; Bereczki, Dániel; Csiba, László

    2015-01-01

    Aims. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate predictors of outcome in primary supratentorial cerebral haemorrhage. Furthermore, we aimed to develop a prognostic model to predict 30-day fatality. Methods. We retrospectively analyzed a database of 156 patients with spontaneous supratentorial haemorrhage to explore the relationship between clinical and CT characteristics and fatal outcome within 30 days using multiple logistic regression analysis. The analyzed factors included volumetric data assessed by neuropathological and CT volumetry. A second CT scan in survivors or neuropathological ABC/2 volumetry in nonsurvivors was used along with the baseline CT to assess the growth index of haematoma. Results. Systolic blood pressure, serum potassium and glucose levels, platelet count, absolute and relative haematoma volumes, and presence and size of intraventricular haemorrhage statistically significantly predicted the fatal outcome within 30 days. Based on our results we formulated a six-factor scoring algorithm named SUSPEKT to predict outcome. Conclusions. After validation the SUSPEKT score may be applicable in general clinical practice for early patient selection to optimize individual management or for assessment of eligibility for treatment trials. PMID:25648158

  4. Pulmonary artery haemorrhage in newborn calves following bluetongue virus serotype 8 experimental infections of pregnant heifers.

    PubMed

    Martinelle, Ludovic; Dal Pozzo, Fabiana; Sarradin, Pierre; De Leeuw, Ilse; De Clercq, Kris; Thys, Christine; Thiry, Etienne; Saegerman, Claude

    2013-12-27

    The emergence of bluetongue disease (BT) among livestock in Europe in 2006 raised many questions including the occurrence and epidemiological significance of foetal infections in cattle. To clarify these aspects, vaccinated and unvaccinated pregnant heifers were sequentially infected twice in an isolation facility (biosafety level 3) with a northern European outbreak strain of Bluetongue virus serotype 8 (BTV-8). The study was terminated 2 months after calving with necropsy of the dams and their offspring. The cattle were monitored throughout the study by clinical scoring and for the presence of circulating neutralising antibodies, and after calving for the presence of infectious virus and viral RNA in blood and milk. Four calves, one born from a vaccinated dam and three from non-vaccinated ones, that were infected at 120 days of gestation had obvious haemorrhage of the pulmonary artery at necropsy. Although haemorrhage of the pulmonary artery is highly characteristic of BT, viral RNA was not detected in any of these calves. Furthermore, although none of the calves born from heifers infected prior to mid-gestation had teratogenic BTV typical brain lesions, some had lesions at birth suggestive of in utero BTV infection. Despite the lack of viral RNA detection, the presence of haemorrhage of the pulmonary artery deserves to be reported as a new observation in the context of the multiple investigations having as main subject the BTV placental crossing in cattle. PMID:24035481

  5. Serum cholesterol, haemorrhagic stroke, ischaemic stroke, and myocardial infarction: Korean national health system prospective cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Ebrahim, Shah; Sung, Joohon; Song, Yun-Mi; Ferrer, Robert L; Lawlor, Debbie A; Smith, George Davey

    2006-01-01

    Objective To investigate risk factors, such as heavy alcohol consumption, that might explain any increased risk of haemorrhagic stroke associated with low blood cholesterol. Design Prospective cohort study. Setting Korea. Participants 787 442 civil servants (661 700 men, 125 742 women) aged 30-64. Main outcome measures Cardiovascular risk factors were assessed at biennial health check. Data on morbidity and mortality were ascertained from 1990 to 2001 using hospital admissions and mortality surveillance systems. Results 6328 cases of ischaemic stroke (6021 men, 307 women), 3947 cases of haemorrhagic stroke (3748 men, 199 women), 3170 cases of undefined stroke (2902 men, 268 women), and 4417 cases of myocardial infarction (4305 men, 112 women) occurred. Ischaemic stroke and myocardial infarction were strongly and positively associated with blood cholesterol (hazard ratio per 1 mmol/l cholesterol 1.20 (95% confidence 1.16 to 1.24) and 1.48 (1.43 to 1.53), respectively). Haemorrhagic stroke showed an inverse association in fully adjusted models (0.91, 0.87 to 0.95). This inverse association was confined to participants with hypertension. When stratified by concentration of ? glutamyl transferase (GGT), an indicator of alcohol consumption, the association was not seen in participants with low concentrations of GGT, and it was independent of hypertension in those with high concentrations of GGT (> 80 U/l). PMID:16757495

  6. Introduction of an algorithm for ROTEM-guided fibrinogen concentrate administration in major obstetric haemorrhage.

    PubMed

    Mallaiah, S; Barclay, P; Harrod, I; Chevannes, C; Bhalla, A

    2015-02-01

    We compared blood component requirements during major obstetric haemorrhage, following the introduction of fibrinogen concentrate. A prospective study of transfusion requirements and patient outcomes was performed for 12 months to evaluate the major obstetric haemorrhage pathway using shock packs (Shock Pack phase). The study was repeated after the pathway was amended to include fibrinogen concentrate (Fibrinogen phase). The median (IQR [range]) number of blood components given was 8.0 (3.0-14.5 [0-32]) during the Shock Pack phase, and 3.0 (2.0-5.0 [0-26]) during the Fibrinogen phase (p = 0.0004). The median (IQR [range]) quantity of fibrinogen administered was significantly greater in the Shock Pack phase, 3.2 (0-7.1 [0-20.4]) g, than in the Fibrinogen phase, 0 (0-3.0 [0-12.4]) g, p = 0.0005. Four (9.5%) of 42 patients in the Shock Pack phase developed transfusion associated circulatory overload compared with none of 51 patients in the Fibrinogen phase (p = 0.038). Fibrinogen concentrate allows prompt correction of coagulation deficits associated with major obstetric haemorrhage, reducing the requirement for blood component therapy and the attendant risks of complications. PMID:25289791

  7. Dengue virus and antiplatelet autoantibodies synergistically induce haemorrhage through Nlrp3-inflammasome and Fc?RIII.

    PubMed

    Lien, T-S; Sun, D-S; Chang, C-M; Wu, C-Y; Dai, M-S; Chan, H; Wu, W-S; Su, S-H; Lin, Y-Y; Chang, H-H

    2015-04-29

    Dengue haemorrhagic fever (DHF) typically occurs during secondary infections with dengue viruses (DENVs). Although it is generally accepted that antibody-dependent enhancement is the primary reason why patients with secondary infection are at an increased risk of developing DHF, a growing body of evidence shows that other mechanisms, such as the elicitation of antiplatelet autoantibodies by DENV nonstructural protein NS1, also play crucial roles in the pathogenesis of DHF. In this study, we developed a "two-hit" model of secondary DENV infection to examine the respective roles of DENV (first hit) and antiplatelet Igs (second hit) on the induction of haemorrhage. Mice were first exposed to DENV and then exposed to antiplatelet or anti-NS1 Igs 24 hours later. The two-hit treatment induced substantial haemorrhage, coagulopathy, and cytokine surge, and additional treatment with antagonists of TNF-?, IL-1, caspase-1, and Fc?RIII ameliorated such effects. In addition, knockout mice lacking the Fc? receptor III, Toll-like receptor 3, and inflammasome components Nlrp3 and caspase-1 exhibited considerably fewer pathological alterations than did wild type controls. These findings may provide new perspectives for developing feasible approaches to treat patients with DHF. PMID:25740324

  8. Contribution of neovascularization and intraplaque haemorrhage to atherosclerotic plaque progression and instability.

    PubMed

    Chistiakov, D A; Orekhov, A N; Bobryshev, Y V

    2015-03-01

    Atherosclerosis is a continuous pathological process that starts early in life and progresses frequently to unstable plaques. Plaque rupture leads to deleterious consequences such as acute coronary syndrome, stroke and atherothrombosis. The vulnerable lesion has several structural and functional hallmarks that distinguish it from the stable plaque. The unstable plaque has large necrotic core (over 40% plaque volume) composed of cholesterol crystals, cholesterol esters, oxidized lipids, fibrin, erythrocytes and their remnants (haeme, iron, haemoglobin), and dying macrophages. The fibrous cap is thin, depleted of smooth muscle cells and collagen, and is infiltrated with proinflammatory cells. In unstable lesion, formation of neomicrovessels is increased. These neovessels have weak integrity and leak thereby leading to recurrent haemorrhages. Haemorrhages deliver erythrocytes to the necrotic core where they degrade promoting inflammation and oxidative stress. Inflammatory cells mostly presented by monocytes/macrophages, neutrophils and mast cells extravagate from bleeding neovessels and infiltrate adventitia where they support chronic inflammation. Plaque destabilization is an evolutionary process that could start at early atherosclerotic stages and whose progression is influenced by many factors including neovascularization, intraplaque haemorrhages, formation of cholesterol crystals, inflammation, oxidative stress and intraplaque protease activity. PMID:25515699

  9. Neutralization of the haemorrhagic activities of viperine snake venoms and venom metalloproteinases using synthetic peptide inhibitors and chelators.

    PubMed

    Howes, J-M; Theakston, R D G; Laing, G D

    2007-04-01

    Envenoming by the West African saw-scaled viper, Echis ocellatus resembles that of most vipers, in that it results in local blistering, necrosis and sometimes life-threatening systemic haemorrhage. While effective against systemic envenoming, current antivenoms have little or no effect against local tissue damage. The major mediators of local venom pathology are the zinc-dependant snake venom metalloproteinases (SVMPs). The high degree of structural and functional homology between SVMPs and their mammalian relatives the matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) suggests that substrate/inhibitor interactions between these subfamilies are likely to be analogous. In this study, four recently developed MMP inhibitors (MMPIs) (Marimastat, AG-3340, CGS-270 23A and Bay-12 9566) are evaluated in addition to three metal ion chelators (EDTA, TPEN and BAPTA) for their ability to inhibit the haemorrhagic activities of the medically important E. ocellatus venom and one of its haemorrhagic SVMPs, EoVMP2. As expected, the metal ion chelators significantly inhibited the haemorrhagic activities of both whole E. ocellatus venom and EoVMP2, while the synthetic MMPIs show more variation in their efficacies. These variations suggest that individual MMPIs show specificity towards SVMPs and that their application to the neutralization of local haemorrhage may require a synthetic MMPI mixture, ensuring that a close structural component for each SVMP is represented. PMID:17196631

  10. Aggressive management of aneurysmal subarachnoid haemorrhage based on a papaverine angioplasty protocol.

    PubMed

    Morgan, M K; Jonker, B; Finfer, S; Harrington, T; Dorsch, N W

    2000-07-01

    The aim of this study was to analyse the results of intensive therapy unit management of aneurysmal subarachnoid haemorrhage incorporating angioplasty in the protocol. Two hundred consecutive patients were treated using a detailed protocol that included nimodipine, early aneurysm repair, and surveillance angiography. Angiography was performed on days 5 to 7 (or when the clinical state suggested the presence of vasospasm). If angiographic vasospasm was identified, irrespective of whether clinical vasospasm was present or absent, papaverine was selectively administered. In patients with vasospasm blood pressure was elevated to 160-180 mmHg and selective papaverine administration was repeated daily until vasospasm resolved. In cases requiring more frequent administration of papaverine, or in whom papaverine failed to adequately reverse spasm, balloon angioplasty was considered and for clinically refractory cases barbiturate coma was introduced. 43% of patients underwent papaverine administration and of these the average number of separate papaverine procedures was four (maximum 23). 26% of patients developed neurological deficits though to be due to vasospasm whilst 17% underwent papaverine angioplasty without clinical signs of vasospasm. Twelve patients (6%) were entered into barbiturate coma. There was a 5.5% mortality and no difference in outcome between patients who developed angiographic vasospasm and those who did not. For those developing clinical vasospasm, 71% were independent and 10% were dead at follow up compared with 84% reaching independent grades and 4% dead in those not developing clinical vasospasm. These differences failed to reach a significant difference. The average Intensive Therapy Unit stay for aneurysmal subarachnoid haemorrhage patients was 13.1 days with a mean cost to the hospital of $AUD 24,379. This protocol appears to be both a clinically and cost effective method of managing aneurysmal subarachnoid haemorrhage. PMID:10938606

  11. Immunohistochemical detection of IgM and IgG in lung tissue of dogs with leptospiral pulmonary haemorrhage syndrome (LPHS)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Leptospiral pulmonary haemorrhage syndrome (LPHS) is a severe form of leptospirosis. Pathogenic mechanisms are poorly understood. Lung tissues from 26 dogs with LPHS, 5 dogs with pulmonary haemorrhage due to other causes and 6 healthy lungs were labelled for IgG, IgM and leptospiral antigens. Three ...

  12. Gallbladder perforation and massive intra-abdominal haemorrhage complicating acute cholecystitis in a patient with haemophilia A.

    PubMed

    Mechera, Robert; Graf, Lukas; Oertli, Daniel; Viehl, Carsten T

    2015-01-01

    We present an unusual case of a 32-year-old man with haemophilia A, who sustained massive, haemodynamically significant intra-abdominal bleeding from a perforated gallbladder wall and from the greater omentum as a complication of acute ulcerophlegmonous and haemorrhagic cholecystitis. Recombinant coagulation factor VIII was given and an emergency laparotomy was performed, with open cholecystectomy and haemostasis. Coagulation factor VIII was given for a further 2?weeks postoperatively, and the patient was discharged in good condition. In most published cases of haemorrhagic cholecystitis, the haemoperitoneum arises via transhepatic perforation; in this case, there was a free rupture into the peritoneal cavity. Patients with coagulopathies may have severe haemorrhagic complications and therefore need interdisciplinary management before, during and after surgery. Replacement therapy with factor concentrates should be initiated at once, and early surgery for gallbladder disease should be considered. PMID:25935908

  13. Superselective arterial embolisation with a liquid polyvinyl alcohol copolymer in patients with acute gastrointestinal haemorrhage

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Markus Lenhart; Christian Paetzel; Michael Sackmann; Hans Schneider; Ernst Michael Jung; Andreas G. Schreyer; Stefan Feuerbach; Niels Zorger

    2010-01-01

    Objectives  To evaluate the results of emergency embolisation in acute arterial bleeding of the gastrointestinal tract with a liquid polyvinyl\\u000a alcohol copolymer from two centres.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  We retrospectively analysed 16 cases (15 patients) of acute arterial bleeding of the gastrointestinal tract where emergency\\u000a embolotherapy was performed by using the copolymer when acute haemorrhage was not treatable with endoscopic techniques alone.\\u000a Cause of

  14. Viral haemorrhagic fever in Sweden: experiences from management of a case.

    PubMed

    Foberg, U; Frydén, A; Isaksson, B; Jahrling, P; Johnson, A; McKee, K; Niklasson, B; Normann, B; Peters, C; Bengtsson, M

    1991-01-01

    The first recognized case in Scandinavia with potential man to man transmission of viral haemorrhagic fever occurred in Linköping, Sweden, in January 1990. Following a visit to Kenya a 21-year-old male student suffered a very severe illness including extremely prolonged high grade fever, rash, disseminated intravascular coagulation with thrombocytopenia and severe bleedings. This necessitated one month of intensive care support including respirator treatment. The patient was discharged after 2 1/2 months in good condition, with a partial femoral nerve paresis. About 100 medical personnel were exposed to aerosol or blood before a strict containment regimen was established. No secondary cases occurred. PMID:1853161

  15. Spontaneous intraperitoneal haemorrhage from short gastric artery avulsion secondary to forceful retching

    PubMed Central

    Faraj, Walid; Alaeddine, Mohamed; Haydar, Ali; Khalife, Mohammad

    2013-01-01

    Spontaneous intraperitoneal haemorrhage can occur in any age group. It is defined as presence of free blood in the peritoneal cavity which can results from a non-traumatic and non-iatrogenic cause. Common causes are visceral, coagulopathy related and vascular. The clinical presentation is usually non-specific; it can vary from mild abdominal pain to a shock status. We report a very rare case of a 17-year-old male patient who presented to our institution with spontaneous intraperitoneal bleeding secondary to avulsion of one of the short gastric artery following forceful retching. PMID:23813991

  16. Management of heparin-induced thrombocytopenia (HIT) in patients with systemic vasculitis and pulmonary haemorrhage

    PubMed Central

    Thong, Kah Mean; Toth, Peter; Khwaja, Arif

    2013-01-01

    Heparin-induced thrombocytopenia (HIT) is a relatively uncommon but potentially fatal complication of the use of heparin in haemodialysis. It is associated with a risk of venous and arterial thrombosis due to the formation of a heparin-platelet factor 4 antibody. Early recognition and immediate treatment of HIT are crucial to reduce the morbidity and mortality rate. Here, we report two patients with acute kidney injury due to anti-glomerular membrane (GBM) glomerulonephritis and granulomatosis with polyangiitis respectively who developed haemoptysis and pulmonary haemorrhage complicated by HIT. We discuss the diagnostic and management challenges of such patients.

  17. [Placenta praevia totalis et increta. Cause of life-threatening haemorrhaging during a caesarean section].

    PubMed

    Grundmann, U; Ertan, A K; Jacob, S; Kreuer, S

    2007-08-01

    Placenta increta is a rare but potentially life-threatening risk constellation after a previous caesarean section. We present the case of a 29-year-old gravida 2 para 1 patient, who developed dramatic haemorrhaging caused by this abnormal placentation, which could only be resolved by a postpartal hysterectomy. This demonstrates that in the case of a combination of the two most common predisposing factors, repeat caesarean section and placenta praevia, the possibility of a placenta increta should be considered and suitable precautions should be taken. PMID:17520227

  18. Spontaneous intraperitoneal haemorrhage from short gastric artery avulsion secondary to forceful retching.

    PubMed

    Faraj, Walid; Alaeddine, Mohamed; Haydar, Ali; Khalife, Mohammad

    2013-01-01

    Spontaneous intraperitoneal haemorrhage can occur in any age group. It is defined as presence of free blood in the peritoneal cavity which can results from a non-traumatic and non-iatrogenic cause. Common causes are visceral, coagulopathy related and vascular. The clinical presentation is usually non-specific; it can vary from mild abdominal pain to a shock status. We report a very rare case of a 17-year-old male patient who presented to our institution with spontaneous intraperitoneal bleeding secondary to avulsion of one of the short gastric artery following forceful retching. PMID:23813991

  19. Circulating immune complexes in serum from patients with dengue haemorrhagic fever.

    PubMed Central

    Ruangjirachuporn, W; Boonpucknavig, S; Nimmanitya, S

    1979-01-01

    Circulating immune complexes were detectable in 80% of serum from patients with dengue haemorrhagic fever. The immune complexes were detected for the first time on day two after the onset of the fever. The amount of complexes reached the maximum value on day 4 or 5 after onset, or when the patients developed shock or subsidence of fever, after which the complexes decreased in number. The number of complexes also correlated well with the clinical grading (severity) of the disease, i.e. the maximum amount was shown in grade III. These complexes may play a part in the pathogenesis of this disease. PMID:380857

  20. Prolonged venovenous extracorporeal membrane oxygenation without anticoagulation: a case of Goodpasture syndrome-related pulmonary haemorrhage.

    PubMed

    Herbert, David G; Buscher, Hergen; Nair, Priya

    2014-03-01

    We present a 16-year-old male with severe acute respiratory and renal failure as a result of Goodpasture syndrome, requiring venovenous extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (VV-ECMO) for pulmonary haemorrhage. The patient received no systemic anticoagulation for 25 of 26 ECMO days (20 days consecutively) and suffered no coagulation-related adverse events. The patient had a subtherapeutic anticoagulation profile according to recommended ECMO guidelines during most of this time. The patient made a full recovery without respiratory compromise, ECMO circuit failure, thrombotic events or the need for ongoing haemodialysis. PMID:24588439

  1. The prevention and treatment of postpartum haemorrhage: what do we know, and where do we go to next?

    PubMed

    Weeks, A

    2015-01-01

    Postpartum haemorrhage (PPH) remains a major cause of maternal deaths worldwide, and is estimated to cause the death of a woman every 10 minutes. This review presents the latest clinical advice, including new evidence on controlled cord traction, misoprostol, and oxytocin. The controversy around the diagnosis of PPH, the limitations of universal prophylaxis, and novel ways to provide obstetric first aid are also presented. It ends with a call to develop high-quality front-line obstetric services that can deal rapidly with unexpected haemorrhages as well as minimising blood loss at critical times: major abruption, placenta praevia, and caesarean for prolonged labour. PMID:25289730

  2. Successful aquatic animal disease emergency programmes.

    PubMed

    Hĺstein, T; Hill, B J; Winton, J R

    1999-04-01

    The authors provide examples of emergency programmes which have been successful in eradicating or controlling certain diseases of aquatic animals. The paper is divided into four parts. The first part describes the initial isolation of viral haemorrhagic septicaemia (VHS) virus in North America in the autumn of 1988 from feral adult chinook (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) and coho salmon (O. kisutch) returning for spawning. The fish disease control policies at both State and Federal levels in the United States of America required quarantine and emergency eradication measures upon the finding of certain exotic fish pathogens, including VHS virus. The procedures for emergency plans, destruction of stocks and disinfection of facilities are described, as well as challenge experiments with the North American strains of VHS virus and the detection of the virus in marine fish species (cod [Gadus macrocephalus] and herring [Clupea harengus pallasi]) in the Pacific Ocean. The second part of the paper outlines the aquatic animal legislation in Great Britain and within the European Union, in regard to contingency plans, initial investigations, action on the suspicion of notifiable disease and action on confirmation of infection. The legal description is followed by an account of an outbreak of viral haemorrhagic septicaemia in turbot (Scophthalmus maximus) in Great Britain, including the stamping-out process at the affected farm and investigations conducted to screen other farms in the vicinity for possible infection. The third part provides a historical review of the build-up of infectious salmon anaemia (ISA) in Norway and the attempts to control the disease using legal measures in the absence of detailed knowledge of the aetiology, epizootiology, pathogenesis, etc. of the disease. The measures taken show that the spread of ISA can be controlled using restrictions on the movement of fish, disinfection procedures, etc. However, acceptance and understanding of the chosen strategy by the fish farmers is a pre-requisite to reach that goal. Finally, the paper summarises future needs for national and international legislation, including the development of standard approaches for control, the creation of appropriate infrastructures and a better understanding of the epidemiology of aquatic animal diseases. PMID:10190216

  3. Early and widespread injury of astrocytes in the absence of demyelination in acute haemorrhagic leukoencephalitis.

    PubMed

    Robinson, Christopher A; Adiele, Reginald C; Tham, Mylyne; Lucchinetti, Claudia F; Popescu, Bogdan F G H

    2014-01-01

    Acute hemorrhagic leukoencephalitis (AHL) is a fulminant demyelinating disease of unknown etiology. Most cases are fatal within one week from onset. AHL pathology varies with the acuteness of disease. Hemorrhages, vessel fibrinoid necrosis, perivascular fibrin exudation, edema and neutrophilic inflammation are early features, while perivascular demyelination, microglial foci and myelin-laden macrophages appear later. Reactive astrocytosis is not present in early hemorrhagic non-demyelinated lesions, but is seen in older lesions. This case report presents the pathology of an AHL case with fulminant course and fatal outcome within 48 hours from presentation. Severe hemorrhages, edema and neutrophilic inflammation in the absence of circumscribed perivascular demyelination affected the temporal neocortex and white matter, hippocampus, cerebellar cortex and white matter, optic chiasm, mammillary bodies, brainstem, cranial nerve roots and leptomeninges. Perivascular end-feet and parenchymal processes of astrocytes exhibited impressive swelling in haemorrhagic but non-demyelinated white matter regions. Astrocytes were dystrophic and displayed degenerating processes. Astrocytic swellings and remnants were immunoreactive for aquaporin-4, aquaporin-1 and glial fibrillary acidic protein. These morphological changes of astrocytes consistent with injury were also observed in haemorrhagic and normal appearing cortex. Our findings reinforce that perivascular demyelination is not present early in AHL. This is the first study that highlights the early and widespread astrocytic injury in the absence of demyelination in AHL, suggesting that, similarly to neuromyelitis optica and central pontine myelinolysis, demyelination in AHL is secondary to astrocyte injury. PMID:24887055

  4. Resilience to orthostasis and haemorrhage: A pilot study of common genetic and conditioning mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Davydov, Dmitry M; Zhdanov, Renad I; Dvoenosov, Vladimir G; Kravtsova, Olga A; Voronina, Elena N; Filipenko, Maxim L

    2015-01-01

    A major challenge presently is not only to identify the genetic polymorphisms increasing risk to diseases, but to also find out factors and mechanisms, which can counteract a risk genotype by developing a resilient phenotype. The objective of this study was to examine acquired and innate vagal mechanisms that protect against physical challenges and haemorrhages in 19 athletes and 61 non-athletes. These include examining change in heart rate variability (HF-HRV; an indicator of vagus activity) in response to orthostatic challenge, platelet count (PLT), mean platelet volume (MPV), and single-nucleotide polymorphisms in genes that encode several coagulation factors, PAI-1, and MTHFR. Individual differences in PLT and MPV were significant predictors, with opposite effects, of the profiles of the HF-HRV changes in response to orthostasis. Regular physical training of athletes indirectly (through MPV) modifies the genetic predisposing effects of some haemostatic factors (PAI-1 and MTHFR) on vagal tone and reactivity. Individual differences in vagal tone were also associated with relationships between Factor 12 C46T and Factor 11 C22771T genes polymorphisms. This study showed that genetic predispositions for coagulation are modifiable. Its potential significance is promoting advanced protection against haemorrhages in a variety of traumas and injuries, especially in individuals with coagulation deficits. PMID:26024428

  5. First dengue haemorrhagic fever epidemic in the Americas, 1981: insights into the causative agent.

    PubMed

    Rodriguez-Roche, Rosmari; Hinojosa, Yoandri; Guzman, Maria G

    2014-12-01

    Historical records describe a disease in North America that clinically resembled dengue haemorrhagic fever during the latter part of the slave-trading period. However, the dengue epidemic that occurred in Cuba in 1981 was the first laboratory-confirmed and clinically diagnosed outbreak of dengue haemorrhagic fever in the Americas. At that time, the presumed source of the dengue type 2 strain isolated during this epidemic was considered controversial, partly because of the limited sequence data and partly because the origin of the virus appeared to be southern Asia. Here, we present a molecular characterisation at the whole-genome level of the original strains isolated at different time points during the epidemic. Phylogenetic trees constructed using Bayesian methods indicated that 1981 Cuban strains group within the Asian 2 genotype. In addition, the study revealed that viral evolution occurred during the epidemic - a fact that could be related to the increasing severity from month to month. Moreover, the Cuban strains exhibited particular amino acid substitutions that differentiate them from the New Guinea C prototype strain as well as from dengue type 2 strains isolated globally. PMID:25091743

  6. Pathogenetic mechanisms in dengue haemorrhagic fever: Report of an international collaborative study*

    PubMed Central

    1973-01-01

    In a study of 55 persons with dengue haemorrhagic fever—36 of whom showed the dengue shock syndrome—clinical, haematological, virological, and serological changes were correlated with serial measurements of complement components and immunopathological studies. Viruses dengue-1 or dengue-2 were isolated from the sera of 9 patients. Serological responses indicative of secondary dengue virus infections were observed in 53 patients; 2 (infants) had primary infections. During the acute phase of the disease, dengue antibody titres rose logarithmically. Marked depression of complement components, especially C3, was observed. Activation of both the classical and alternative complement pathways was demonstrated, with depression of both C4 and C3 proactivator levels in most instances, although in some cases it appeared that one mechanism was involved to a greater extent than the other. The level of depression of C3 was correlated with the severity of the disease. Relatively stable transferrin levels indicated that depletion of complement proteins was not primarily due to extravasation. Fibrinogen levels were depressed and fibrinogen split products were found in the plasma. The accumulated data provide further evidence of the central role that activated complement components play in the pathogenesis of dengue haemorrhagic fever. PMID:4575523

  7. A nairovirus isolated from African bats causes haemorrhagic gastroenteritis and severe hepatic disease in mice

    PubMed Central

    Ishii, Akihiro; Ueno, Keisuke; Orba, Yasuko; Sasaki, Michihito; Moonga, Ladslav; Hang’ombe, Bernard M.; Mweene, Aaron S.; Umemura, Takashi; Ito, Kimihito; Hall, William W.; Sawa, Hirofumi

    2014-01-01

    Bats can carry important zoonotic pathogens. Here we use a combination of next-generation sequencing and classical virus isolation methods to identify novel nairoviruses from bats captured from a cave in Zambia. This nairovirus infection is highly prevalent among giant leaf-nosed bats, Hipposideros gigas (detected in samples from 16 individuals out of 38). Whole-genome analysis of three viral isolates (11SB17, 11SB19 and 11SB23) reveals a typical bunyavirus tri-segmented genome. The strains form a single phylogenetic clade that is divergent from other known nairoviruses, and are hereafter designated as Leopards Hill virus (LPHV). When i.p. injected into mice, the 11SB17 strain causes only slight body weight loss, whereas 11SB23 produces acute and lethal disease closely resembling that observed with Crimean–Congo Haemorrhagic Fever virus in humans. We believe that our LPHV mouse model will be useful for research on the pathogenesis of nairoviral haemorrhagic disease. PMID:25451856

  8. Novel in vitro assays for assessing the haemorrhagic activity of snake venoms and for demonstration of venom metalloproteinase inhibitors

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A Bee; R. D. G Theakston; R. A Harrison; S. D Carter

    2001-01-01

    Standard methods used for assessing the haemorrhagic toxicity of snake venoms and the effectiveness of antivenoms are laborious, expensive and involve the use of large numbers of laboratory animals. This paper examined the feasibility of using a gelatin degradation ELISA for preliminary screening of snake venom metalloproteinases (MPs). Potent gelatinolytic activity was observed in venoms from snakes of the family

  9. Transjugular intrahepatic portasystemic stent shunting for control of acute and recurrent upper gastrointestinal haemorrhage related to portal hypertension

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K J Simpson; N Chalmers; D N Redhead; N D Finlayson; I A Bouchier; P C Hayes

    1993-01-01

    The insertion of a transjugular intrahepatic portasystemic stent shunt (TIPSS) was evaluated in 22 patients with recurrent upper gastrointestinal haemorrhage related to portal hypertension (bleeding from oesophageal varices 10, gastric varices six, portal hypertensive gastropathy six). TIPSS was successfully performed electively in 15 patients and as an emergency in three patients. Twelve patients have had no further admissions with bleeding

  10. Haemorrhagic fever virus activity in equatorial Africa: distribution and prevalence of filovirus reactive antibody in the Central African Republic

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. D. Johnson; J. P. Gonzalez; Alain Georges

    1993-01-01

    Seroepidemiological surveys were conducted to determine the frequency and distribution of haemorrhagic fever virus (HFV) activity in the Central African Republic. Human serum specimens (4295) were collected from 5 ecologically distinct zones. Serological evidence of HFV activity was found in all the zones. The filo- virus antibody prevalence (24.4%, 1051\\/4295) was greater than the combined prevalence for Lassa virus, Rift

  11. Aedes aegypti (L.) and Aedes albopictus (Skuse) in Singapore City 5. Observations in Relation to Dengue Haemorrhagic Fever

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Y. C. CHAN; B. C. HO; K. L. CHAN

    Dengue haemorrhagic fever in Singapore was a disease of the urban human population, with concentrations of cases occurring in areas of high population density. Mosquito surveys revealed that these areas also had high population densities of Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus. The disease occurred throughout the year but the incidence of cases appeared to follow a seasonal pattern. Observations from

  12. Clinical heterogeneity in hereditary haemorrhagic telangiectasia: are pulmonary arteriovenous malformations more common in families linked to endoglin?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J N Berg; A E Guttmacher; D A Marchuk; M E Porteous

    1996-01-01

    Pulmonary arteriovenous malformations (PAVMs) occur in up to 27% of patients with hereditary haemorrhagic telangiectasia (HHT) and are associated with a rate of paradoxical cerebral embolism at presentation of up to 36%. At least two different loci have been shown for HHT. Mutations in endoglin have been found in some families and the locus designated ORW1. In other families this

  13. Q waves and failed ST resolution: will intra-myocardial haemorrhage be a concern in reperfusing "late presenting" STEMIs?

    PubMed

    Wong, Cheuk-Kit; Bucciarelli-Ducci, Chiara

    2015-03-01

    Animal studies have demonstrated that intra-myocardial haemorrhage does not occur with STEMI unless myocardium is reperfused with blood. Managing late presenting STEMI is a challenge because reperfusion of non-viable myocardium will not salvage myocardium but potentially causes intra-myocardial haemorrhage which has negative connotations. In the infarct leads, there are pathologic Q waves of variable depth and width together with ST elevation. The latter often fails to resolve despite an angiographically successful primary PCI. This article reviews the literature of ST resolution after reperfusion therapy, recent mechanistic insights on intra-myocardial haemorrhage gleaned from cardiac MRI, the patho-physiology of STEMI including also findings from animal models, and the role of Q waves in characterising the evolution of STEMI towards its irreversible destiny. The MRI studies have correlated intra-myocardial haemorrhage with worse ventricular remodelling and worse outcome. A suggestion is made incorporating infarct-lead Q waves and time duration from symptom onset to discern whether late reperfusion attempts should be initiated or aborted. This suggestion should be confirmed through appropriate size randomized trials with mechanistic endpoints from serial MRI evaluations and, more importantly, with clinical endpoints on long-term outcome. Table 4 summarizes current STEMI guidelines for late-presenting patients and Fig. 5 suggests potential future alterations. PMID:25577764

  14. Characterisation of bovine viral diarrhoea virus (BVDV) isolates from an outbreak with haemorrhagic enteritis and severe pneumonia.

    PubMed

    Ye?ilba?, Kadir; Förster, Christine; Ozyi?it, M Ozgür; Alpay, Gizem; Tuncer, Pelin; Thiel, Heinz-Jürgen; König, Matthias

    2014-02-21

    During 2007 a disease outbreak occurred in cattle in the Marmara region of western Turkey characterised by severe pneumonia and haemorrhagic enteritis in calves. Cases from three farms at different locations were examined and bovine viral diarrhoea virus (BVDV) isolated in all cases. Phylogenetic characterisation of the virus isolates allocated them in a new cluster tentatively named as BVDV-1r. PMID:24447942

  15. Antenatal onset of haemorrhagic and\\/or ischaemic lesions in preterm infants: prevalence and associated obstetric variables

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L S de Vries; P Eken; F Groenendaal; K J Rademaker; B Hoogervorst; H W Bruinse

    1998-01-01

    AIMTo assess the prevalence of an antenatal onset of haemorrhagic and\\/or ischaemic lesions in preterm infants; to identify possibly related obstetric risk factors.METHODSA prospective cohort study was made of 1332 infants born at less than 34 completed weeks, using cranial ultrasound, for the presence of antenatal brain lesions (group A) involving the periventricular white matter (PVWM) or central grey matter.

  16. Relation between portal pressure response to pharmacotherapy and risk of recurrent variceal haemorrhage in patients with cirrhosis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    F Feu; J. C García-Pagán; J Bosch; A Luca; A Escorsell; J Rodés; J Terés

    1995-01-01

    SummaryIn patients with variceal bleeding as a complication of hepatic cirrhosis, propranolol therapy reduces the risk of recurrent variceal haemorrhage. However, the relation between portal pressure response to pharmacological treatment and clinical events has not been well defined. This relation was prospectively investigated in 69 cirrhotic patients receiving continued propranolol therapy after an episode of variceal bleeding. Hepatic venous pressure

  17. Spontaneous subarachnoid haemorrhage: expert system for appraisal of the prognosis and computer-supported decision for therapy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. Spitzer; A. Thie; K. Kunze

    1988-01-01

    An expert system is presented which allows appraisal of the prognosis and a computer-supported decision for the therapy of patients with acute spontaneous subarachnoid haemorrhage (SAH). The knowledge of physicians as a synthesis of their own and other clinicians' experience is simulated with methods of artificial intelligence by setting up two data banks. In one data bank, selected information on

  18. Early onset of PRES in a patient with a subarachnoid haemorrhage due to a ruptured intracranial aneurysm.

    PubMed

    Kuroda, Hiroki; Kashimura, Hiroshi; Murakami, Toshiyuki; Endo, Hidehiko; Mase, Tomohiko; Ogasawara, Kuniaki

    2014-12-01

    Posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome (PRES) is rarely associated with subarachnoid haemorrhage (SAH). We present a case involving a patient who developed PRES, prior to induction of hypertensive therapy, 2 days after the onset of a SAH due to a ruptured intracranial aneurysm. PMID:24799279

  19. Laparoscopic management of massive spontaneous external haemorrhage from the umbilical varix due to recanalisation of the paraumbilical vein in a patient with 'Child's Class A' liver cirrhosis.

    PubMed

    Zachariah, Sanoop K; Krishnankutty, Sreejith L; Raja, Nirmalan

    2012-04-01

    Spontaneous external haemorrhage from the umbilical varix is an extremely rare complication of portal hypertension. Bleeding is usually into the peritoneal cavity and the treatment involves urgent laparotomy and ligation of the bleeding varices. We describe a cirrhotic 38-year-old man who presented with spontaneous external haemorrhage from the umbilical varix which was successfully managed laparoscopically by in-situ distal clipping and proximal transcutaneous ligation of the recanalised paraumbilical veins. We therefore feel that laparoscopy can be safely and effectively employed to control external haemorrhage from the umbilical varix associated with liver cirrhosis. This novel technique can help avoid a laparotomy and also help preserve the umbilicus. PMID:22623827

  20. Laparoscopic management of massive spontaneous external haemorrhage from the umbilical varix due to recanalisation of the paraumbilical vein in a patient with ‘Child's Class A’ liver cirrhosis

    PubMed Central

    Zachariah, Sanoop K; Krishnankutty, Sreejith L; Raja, Nirmalan

    2012-01-01

    Spontaneous external haemorrhage from the umbilical varix is an extremely rare complication of portal hypertension. Bleeding is usually into the peritoneal cavity and the treatment involves urgent laparotomy and ligation of the bleeding varices. We describe a cirrhotic 38-year-old man who presented with spontaneous external haemorrhage from the umbilical varix which was successfully managed laparoscopically by in-situ distal clipping and proximal transcutaneous ligation of the recanalised paraumbilical veins. We therefore feel that laparoscopy can be safely and effectively employed to control external haemorrhage from the umbilical varix associated with liver cirrhosis. This novel technique can help avoid a laparotomy and also help preserve the umbilicus. PMID:22623827

  1. SMAD4 mutation and the combined syndrome of juvenile polyposis syndrome and hereditary haemorrhagic telangiectasia.

    PubMed

    Iyer, Nithya K; Burke, Carol A; Leach, Brandie H; Parambil, Joseph G

    2010-08-01

    Juvenile polyposis syndrome (JPS) and hereditary haemorrhagic telangiectasia (HHT) are autosomal dominant disorders with characteristic clinical phenotypes. Recently, reports of the combined syndrome of JPS and HHT have been described in individuals with mutations in the SMAD4 gene, whose product-SMAD4-is a critical intracellular effector in the signalling pathway of transforming growth factor beta (TGFbeta). This report describes a 24-year-old man who presented to the Respiratory Institute after colectomy for JPS with a SMAD4 mutation and who was subsequently diagnosed to have HHT with asymptomatic cerebral and pulmonary arteriovenous malformations (AVMs). Patients with JPS due to a SMAD4 mutation should be screened for the vascular lesions associated with HHT, especially occult AVMs in visceral organs, which may potentially present catastrophically with serious medical consequences. PMID:20685751

  2. The pathophysiology and treatment of delayed cerebral ischaemia following subarachnoid haemorrhage.

    PubMed

    Budohoski, Karol P; Guilfoyle, Mathew; Helmy, Adel; Huuskonen, Terhi; Czosnyka, Marek; Kirollos, Ramez; Menon, David K; Pickard, John D; Kirkpatrick, Peter J

    2014-12-01

    Cerebral vasospasm has traditionally been regarded as an important cause of delayed cerebral ischaemia (DCI) which occurs after aneurysmal subarachnoid haemorrhage, and often leads to cerebral infarction and poor neurological outcome. However, data from recent studies argue against a pure focus on vasospasm as the cause of delayed ischaemic complications. Findings that marked reduction in the incidence of vasospasm does not translate to a reduction in DCI, or better outcomes has intensified research into other possible mechanisms which may promote ischaemic complications. Early brain injury and cell death, blood-brain barrier disruption and initiation of an inflammatory cascade, microvascular spasm, microthrombosis, cortical spreading depolarisations and failure of cerebral autoregulation, have all been implicated in the pathophysiology of DCI. This review summarises the current knowledge about the mechanisms underlying the development of DCI. Furthermore, it aims to describe and categorise the known pharmacological treatment options with respect to the presumed mechanism of action and its role in DCI. PMID:24847164

  3. Bluetongue virus and epizootic haemorrhagic disease of deer virus serotypes in northern Colombian cattle.

    PubMed Central

    Homan, E. J.; Taylor, W. P.; de Ruiz, H. L.; Yuill, T. M.

    1985-01-01

    There is recent evidence of bluetongue (BT) and epizootic haemorrhagic disease (EHD) virus infection of cattle in the American tropics, including BT group reactive antibody in Colombian cattle. These observations prompted a study to determine serologically the specific BT and EHD virus types present, and time of infection and to collect Culicoides spp. as potential vectors. A prospective study of BT and EHD virus infection was done on two farms in the Colombian department of Antioquia. Sequential sampling of young cattle indicated acquisition of neutralizing antibody to BT virus serotypes 12, 14 and 17, and EHD virus serotypes 1 and 2. Insect captures showed a high association of Culicoides insignis with infected cattle. PMID:2991365

  4. Post-traumatic basal ganglia haemorrhage in a child with primary central nervous system lymphoma.

    PubMed

    Jankowski, Pawel P; Levy, Michael L; Crawford, John Ross

    2013-01-01

    Primary central nervous system lymphoma (PCNSL) is a rare tumour of childhood with 15-20 cases reported yearly in North America. We present a case of a 13-year-old boy diagnosed with PCNSL who presented more than one-and-a-half years post-treatment with high dose cytosine arabinoside and methotrexate with a right-sided basal ganglia haemorrhage on MRI following a concussion while playing organised football against medical advice. There was no evidence of an underlying vascular malformation or recurrent disease by MRI, cerebrospinal fluid analysis or positron emission tomography computed tomography (PET-CT). However, 6 months post-injury he presented with asymptomatic disease recurrence of the frontal lobe. Our case reports an unusual MRI pattern of post-traumatic injury in a child previously treated for PCNSL that would support a recommendation for the avoidance of contact sports in this population. PMID:23904430

  5. Crystals seen on CSF microscopy in a case of suspected subarachnoid haemorrhage.

    PubMed

    Weiand, Daniel; Hanning, Ian; Mouhamadou, Moussa; Wearmouth, Debbie

    2015-01-01

    Although crystals are rarely identified on cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) microscopy, their presence can be of significant diagnostic value. We report a case of oxalate crystals seen on CSF microscopy of a 43-year-old woman. The patient presented with headaches, nausea and vomiting. CT of the head showed a small focus of hyper-density, suspicious of haemorrhage, in the right side of the pontine cistern. CSF cell count was within the normal range. Although no organisms were seen on microscopy, copious oxalate crystals were seen. The same crystals were seen on microscopy of CSF collected in a fluoride oxalate container used for glucose analysis. A follow-up contrast-enhanced CT angiogram did not demonstrate any abnormalities. It transpired that excess CSF had been collected into a fluoride oxalate container. This had subsequently been decanted into a plain container for microbiological analysis. Correct specimen collection should be emphasised when teaching lumbar puncture technique. PMID:26139652

  6. Isolated hypoplastic circumflex coronary artery: a rare cause of haemorrhagic myocardial infarction in a young athlete

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Hypoplastic coronary artery disease is a rare condition that may lead to myocardial infarction and sudden death. Here we describe for the first time an isolated hypoplasia of the left circumflex artery (LCX). An otherwise healthy and athletically active 16-year-old boy was admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU) after out-of-hospital cardiac arrest. He died 12 hours after the initial event. Autopsy revealed an isolated hypoplastic LCX and acute haemorrhagic infarction in the posterolateral myocardium. The existence of isolated hypoplasia of the LCX challenges our understanding of coronary artery development. Virtual slides The virtual slide(s) for this article can be found here: http://www.diagnosticpathology.diagnomx.eu/vs/1558483061962648 PMID:23742172

  7. Effects of ubiquinol with fluid resuscitation following haemorrhagic shock on rat lungs, diaphragm, heart and kidneys.

    PubMed

    Bennetts, Paul; Shen, Qiuhua; Thimmesch, Amanda R; Diaz, Francisco J; Clancy, Richard L; Pierce, Janet D

    2014-07-01

    Haemorrhagic shock (HS) and fluid resuscitation can lead to increased reactive oxygen species (ROS), contributing to ischaemia-reperfusion injury and organ damage. Ubiquinol is a potent antioxidant that decreases ROS. This study examined the effects of ubiquinol administered with fluid resuscitation following controlled HS. Adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly assigned to treatment [ubiquinol, 1 mg (100 g body weight)(-1)] or control groups. Rats were subjected to 60 min of HS by removing 40% of the total blood volume to a mean arterial pressure ?45-55 mmHg. The animals were resuscitated with blood and lactated Ringer solution, with or without ubiquinol, and monitored for 120 min. At the end of the experiments, the rats were killed and the lungs, diaphragm, heart and kidneys harvested. Leucocytes were analysed for mitochondrial superoxide at baseline, end of shock and 120 min following fluid resuscitation using MitoSOX Red. Diaphragms were examined for hydrogen peroxide using dihydrofluorescein diacetate and confocal microscopy. The apoptosis in lungs, diaphragm, heart and kidneys was measured using fluorescence microscopy with acridine orange and ethidium bromide. Leucocyte mitochondrial superoxide levels were significantly lower in rats that received ubiquinol than in the control animals. Production of hydrogen peroxide and apoptosis were significantly reduced in the organs of rats treated with ubiquinol. These findings suggest that ubiquinol, administered with fluid resuscitation after HS, attenuates ROS production and apoptosis. Thus, ubiquinol is a potent antioxidant that may be used as a potential treatment to reduce organ injury following haemorrhagic events. PMID:24860150

  8. Cerebral atrophy and subdural haemorrhage after cerebellar and cerebral infarcts in an 8-month-old child after having been stung by a scorpion.

    PubMed

    S???rc?, Ahmet; Öztürk, Mehmet; Yak?nc?, Cengiz

    2014-01-01

    A scorpion sting causing cerebellar and cerebral infarctions with corpus callosum involvement and bilateral cerebral atrophy with subdural haemorrhage in an 8-month-old girl, has not been previously described to the best of our knowledge. PMID:24962491

  9. The impact of the international subarachnoid aneurysm trial (ISAT) on the management of aneurysmal subarachnoid haemorrhage in a neurosurgical unit in the UK

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kanna K. Gnanalingham; Vasilis Apostolopoulos; Sinan Barazi; Kevin O’Neill

    2006-01-01

    ObjectiveTo review the changes in the management of aneurysmal subarachnoid haemorrhage (SAH) in a single neurosurgical unit in the UK, following the publication of the international subarachnoid aneurysm trial (ISAT).

  10. Increased Prevalence of Factor V Leiden Mutation in Premature but Not in Full-Term Infants with Grade I Intracranial Haemorrhage

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. Komlósi; V. Havasi; J. Bene; J. Storcz; J. Stankovics; G. Mohay; J. Weisenbach; G. Kosztolányi; B. Melegh

    2005-01-01

    Objectives: In the current prospective study our aim was to analyse the distribution of the factor V Leiden (G1691A) mutation in preterm and full-term neonates with grade I intraventricular haemorrhage and in control neonates. Study Method: A group of 125 individually selected neonates with grade I intraventricular haemorrhage and 128 controls were investigated. Results: The allele frequency was 7.2% in

  11. Analysis of prognostic variables in the prediction of mortality, shunt failure, variceal rebleeding and encephalopathy following the transjugular intrahepatic protosystemic stent-shunt for variceal haemorrhage

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rajiv Jalan; Robert A. Elton; Doris N. Redhead; Niall D. C. Finlayson; Hayes Peter C

    1995-01-01

    Background\\/Aims: The aim of this study was to analyse prognostic variables predicting mortality, shunt insufficiency, variceal rebleeding and encephalopathy following transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic stent-shunt for variceal haemorrhage.Methods: Sixty-eight patients with cirrhosis who successfully underwent transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic stent-shunt for variceal haemorrhage were studied. Mean age was 54.8 years (s.e. 1.5); 41 were males and 27 were females. Mean Child score

  12. Neutralisation of Local Haemorrhage Induced by the Saw-Scaled Viper Echis carinatus sochureki Venom Using Ethanolic Extract of Hibiscus aethiopicus L.

    PubMed Central

    Hasson, S. S.; Al-Balushi, M. S.; Said, E. A.; Habbal, O.; Idris, M. A.; Mothana, R. A. A.; Sallam, T. A.; Al-Jabri, A. A.

    2012-01-01

    The objective of the study is to investigate the anti-snake venom activities of a local plant, Hibiscus aethiopicus L. The H. aethiopicus was dried and extracted with ethanol. Different assays were performed according to standard techniques, to evaluate the plant's acute toxicity and its antivenom activities. The results of evaluating the systemic acute toxicity of the H. aethiopicus extract using “oral and intra-peritoneal” route were normal even at the highest dose (24?g/kg) tested. All guinea pigs (n = 3) when treated with venoms E. c. sochureki (75??g) alone induced acute skin haemorrhage. In contrast, all guinea pigs (n = 18) treated with both venom and the plant extract at a concentration between 500 and 1000?mg/kg showed no signs of haemorrhage. Moreover, all guinea pigs (n = 18) treated with venom and the plant extract below 400?mg/kg showed acute skin haemorrhage. All guinea pigs treated with venom E. c. sochureki (75??g) alone induced acute skin haemorrhage after both 24 and 32 hours. In contrast, all guinea pigs treated with both venom and the plant extract (administered independently) at concentrations between 500 and 1000?mg/kg showed no signs of haemorrhage after 32 hours. However, after 24 hours all tested guinea pigs showed less inhibition (<60%) compared to that obtained after 32 hours. The outcome of this study reflects that the extract of H. aethiopicus plant may contain an endogenous inhibitor of venom induced local haemorrhage. PMID:22666294

  13. Neutralization of the haemorrhagic activities of viperine snake venoms and venom metalloproteinases using synthetic peptide inhibitors and chelators

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J.-M. Howes; R. D. G. Theakston; G. D. Laing

    2007-01-01

    Envenoming by the West African saw-scaled viper, Echis ocellatus resembles that of most vipers, in that it results in local blistering, necrosis and sometimes life-threatening systemic haemorrhage. While effective against systemic envenoming, current antivenoms have little or no effect against local tissue damage. The major mediators of local venom pathology are the zinc-dependant snake venom metalloproteinases (SVMPs). The high degree

  14. Complications and outcome in patients with aneurysmal subarachnoid haemorrhage: a prospective hospital based cohort study in The Netherlands

    PubMed Central

    Roos, Y; de Haan, R J; Beenen, L; Groen, R; Albrecht, K; Vermeulen, M

    2000-01-01

    OBJECTIVE—The aim of this study was to investigate prospectively in an unselected series of patients with an aneurysmal subarachnoid haemorrhage what at present the complications are, what the outcome is, how many of these patients have "modern treatment"—that is, early obliteration of the aneurysm and treatment with calcium antagonists—what factors cause a delay in surgical or endovascular treatment, and what the estimated effect on outcome will be of improved treatment.?METHODS—A prospective, observational cohort study of all patients with aneurysmal subarachnoid haemorrhage in the hospitals of a specified region in The Netherlands. The condition on admission, diagnostic procedures, and treatments were recorded. If a patient had a clinical deterioration, the change in Glasgow coma score (GCS), the presence of focal neurological signs, the results of additional investigations, and the final diagnosed cause of the deterioration were recorded.? Clinical outcome was assessed with the Glasgow outcome scale (GOS) at 3 month follow up. In patients with poor outcome at follow up, the cause was diagnosed.?RESULTS—Of the 110 patients, 47 (43%) had a poor outcome. Cerebral ischaemia, 31 patients (28%), was the most often occurring complication. Major causes of poor outcome were the effects of the initial haemorrhage and rebleeding in 34% and 30% of the patients with poor outcome respectively. Of all patients 102 (93%) were treated with calcium antagonists and 45 (41%) patients had early treatment to obliterate the aneurysm. The major causes of delay of treatment were a poor condition on admission or deterioration shortly after admission, in 31% and 23% respectively.?CONCLUSIONS—In two thirds of the patients with poor outcome the causes of poor outcome are the effects of the initial bleeding and rebleeding. Improved treatment of delayed or postoperative ischaemia will have only minor effects on the outcome of patients with subarachnoid haemorrhage.?? PMID:10675216

  15. Early vitamin K deficiency bleeding after maternal phenobarbital intake: management of massive intracranial haemorrhage by minimal surgical intervention

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. Renzulli; P. Tuchschmid; G. Eich; S. Fanconi; M. G. Schwöbel

    1998-01-01

    Vitamin K deficiency bleeding within the first 24?h of life is caused in most cases by maternal drug intake (e.g. coumarins,\\u000a anticonvulsants, tuberculostatics) during pregnancy. Haemorrhage is often life-threatening and usually not prevented by vitamin\\u000a K prophylaxis at birth. We report a case of severe intracranial bleeding at birth secondary to phenobarbital-induced vitamin\\u000a K deficiency and traumatic delivery. Burr hole

  16. A recent epidemic of Coxsackie virus type A24 acute haemorrhagic conjunctivitis in Singapore.

    PubMed Central

    Yin-Murphy, M; Baharuddin-Ishak; Phoon, M C; Chow, V T

    1986-01-01

    A recent epidemic of acute conjunctivitis in Singapore showed again the importance of Coxsackie virus type A24 variant as a causative agent of acute haemorrhagic conjunctivitis (AHC). Although the ocular manifestations appeared similar to those described for the 1970 and 1975 outbreaks, a markedly higher rate of respiratory involvements was noted. Not observed in previous epidemics were herpes-like vesicles in the conjunctiva and eyelids of one patient and vesicles in the buccal mucosa and lips of another from whom Coxsackie virus A24 was isolated. The most interesting finding in this study was the isolation of five wild (non-Sabin) poliovirus type 1 strains. Three strains were obtained from conjunctival and two from throat swabs of patients with mild to severe conjunctivitis. It is conceivable that the rare reports of polio-like paralysis or radiculomyelitis accompanying or following AHC in a few Asian countries could be attributed to concurrent infections with a poliovirus and either enterovirus type 70 or Coxsackie virus type A24. Images PMID:3024697

  17. Oligomerization of beta-amyloid of the Alzheimer's and the Dutch-cerebral-haemorrhage types.

    PubMed Central

    Sian, A K; Frears, E R; El-Agnaf, O M; Patel, B P; Manca, M F; Siligardi, G; Hussain, R; Austen, B M

    2000-01-01

    A novel ELISA has been developed which detects oligomerization of beta-amyloid (A beta). Oligomerization, fibrillization and neurotoxicity of native A beta associated with Alzheimer's disease (AD) type has been compared with E22Q A beta (amyloid beta-protein containing residues 1--40 with the native Glu at residue 22 changed to Gln) implicated in Dutch cerebral haemorrhage disease. Solutions of A beta rapidly yield soluble oligomers in a concentration-dependent manner, which are detected by the ELISA, and by size-exclusion gel chromatography. Conformational changes from disordered to beta-sheet occur more slowly than oligomerization, and fibrils are produced after prolonged incubation. The E22Q A beta oligomerizes, changes conformation and fibrillizes more rapidly than the native form and produces shorter stubbier fibrils. Aged fibrillar preparations of E22Q A beta are more potent than aged fibrils of native A beta in inducing apoptotic changes and toxic responses in human neuroblastoma cell lines, whereas low-molecular-mass oligomers in briefly incubated solutions are much less potent. The differences in the rates of oligomerization of the two A beta forms, their conformational behaviour over a range of pH values, and NMR data reported elsewhere, are consistent with a molecular model of oligomerization in which strands of A beta monomers initially overcome charge repulsion to form dimers in parallel beta-sheet arrangement, stabilized by intramolecular hydrophobic interactions, with amino acids of adjacent chains in register. PMID:10861242

  18. Does Preendoscopy Rockall Score Safely Identify Low Risk Patients following Upper Gastrointestinal Haemorrhage?

    PubMed Central

    Johnston, Matthew R.; Murray, Iain A.; Schultz, Michael; McLeod, Peter; O'Donnell, Nathan; Norton, Heather; Baines, Chelsea; Fawcett, Emily; Fesaitu, Terry; Leung, Hin; Park, Jeong-Yoon; Salleh, Adibah; Zhang, Wei; García, José A.

    2015-01-01

    Objective. To determine if preendoscopy Rockall score (PERS) enables safe outpatient management of New Zealanders with upper gastrointestinal haemorrhage (UGIH). Methods. Retrospective analysis of adults with UGIH over 59 consecutive months. PERS, diagnosis, demographics, need for endoscopic therapy, transfusion or surgery and 30-day mortality and 14-day rebleeding rate, and sensitivity and specificity of PERS for enabling safe discharge preendoscopy were calculated. Results. 424 admissions with UGIH. Median age was 74.3 years (range 19–93 years), with 55.1% being males. 30-day mortality was 4.6% and 14-day rebleeding rate was 6.0%. Intervention was required in 181 (46.6%): blood transfusion (147?:?37.9%), endoscopic intervention (75?:?19.3%), and surgery (8?:?2.1%). 42 (10.8%) had PERS = 0 with intervention required in 15 (35.7%). Females more frequently required intervention, OR 1.73 (CI: 1.12–2.69). PERS did not predict intervention but did predict 30-day mortality: each point increase equated to an increase in mortality of OR 1.46 (CI: 1.11–1.92). Taking NSAIDs/aspirin reduced 30-day mortality, OR 0.22 (CI: 0.08–0.60). Conclusion. PERS identifies 10.8% of those with UGIH as low risk but 35.7% required intervention or died. It has a limited role in assessing these patients and should not be used to identify those suitable for outpatient endoscopy. PMID:26089867

  19. Does Preendoscopy Rockall Score Safely Identify Low Risk Patients following Upper Gastrointestinal Haemorrhage?

    PubMed

    Johnston, Matthew R; Murray, Iain A; Schultz, Michael; McLeod, Peter; O'Donnell, Nathan; Norton, Heather; Baines, Chelsea; Fawcett, Emily; Fesaitu, Terry; Leung, Hin; Park, Jeong-Yoon; Salleh, Adibah; Zhang, Wei; García, José A

    2015-01-01

    Objective. To determine if preendoscopy Rockall score (PERS) enables safe outpatient management of New Zealanders with upper gastrointestinal haemorrhage (UGIH). Methods. Retrospective analysis of adults with UGIH over 59 consecutive months. PERS, diagnosis, demographics, need for endoscopic therapy, transfusion or surgery and 30-day mortality and 14-day rebleeding rate, and sensitivity and specificity of PERS for enabling safe discharge preendoscopy were calculated. Results. 424 admissions with UGIH. Median age was 74.3 years (range 19-93 years), with 55.1% being males. 30-day mortality was 4.6% and 14-day rebleeding rate was 6.0%. Intervention was required in 181 (46.6%): blood transfusion (147?:?37.9%), endoscopic intervention (75?:?19.3%), and surgery (8?:?2.1%). 42 (10.8%) had PERS = 0 with intervention required in 15 (35.7%). Females more frequently required intervention, OR 1.73 (CI: 1.12-2.69). PERS did not predict intervention but did predict 30-day mortality: each point increase equated to an increase in mortality of OR 1.46 (CI: 1.11-1.92). Taking NSAIDs/aspirin reduced 30-day mortality, OR 0.22 (CI: 0.08-0.60). Conclusion. PERS identifies 10.8% of those with UGIH as low risk but 35.7% required intervention or died. It has a limited role in assessing these patients and should not be used to identify those suitable for outpatient endoscopy. PMID:26089867

  20. A case of Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever with normal laboratory findings.

    PubMed

    Sari, Tugba; Hatipoglu, Cigdem Ataman

    2014-09-01

    Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever (CCHF) is a tick-borne disease caused by Nairovirus, of the family Bunyaviridae. This is the first case report of a confirmed CCHF case without laboratory abnormality. A 36-year-old woman was admitted to our clinic with the complaints of fever, chills, myalgia and vomiting. She was living in a CCHF-endemic region and had received a tick bite ten days previously. Her complaints had started five days after the tick bite, and bleeding of the nose and vagen followed. Under laboratory analysis, serum white blood cell (WBC) was 7300/mm3, haemoglobin (Hb)11.9 gr/dL, platelet (Plt) count 293000/mm3, aspartate transaminase (AST) was 23 U/L, alanine transaminase (ALT) 14 U/L, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) 139 U/L, creatinine phosphokinase (CPK) 39 U/L, INR 0.8 and APTT 26.2 seconds. Based on these clinical and epidemiological findings, a diagnosis of CCHF infection was suspected, and the diagnosis of CCHF was confirmed with a blood sample tested by TaqMan-based one-step RT-PCR positivity and IgM antibody positivity. We suggest that patients from an endemic region who have typical epidemiological and clinical findings should be evaluated as a possible case for CCHF even if the laboratory findings are not compatible. PMID:25269965

  1. The role of erythropoietin in aneurysmal subarachnoid haemorrhage: from bench to bedside.

    PubMed

    Grasso, Giovanni; Buemi, Michele; Giambartino, Filippo

    2015-01-01

    Subarachnoid haemorrhage (SAH) caused by a ruptured aneurysm accounts for only 5 % of strokes, but occurs at a fairly young age and carries a poor prognosis. Delayed cerebral ischaemia (DCI) is an important cause of death and dependence after aneurysmal SAH. The current mainstay of preventing DCI is nimodipine and maintenance of normovolemia, but even with this strategy DCI occurs in a considerable proportion of patients.Several drugs have been developed that have the potential to limit cerebral vasospasm and delayed ischaemic neurologic deficit, thus improving outcome for patients. However, although numerous agents can prevent arterial narrowing and/or block the excitatory cascade of events leading to ischaemic neuronal death in experimental conditions, there is still no pharmacologic agent that has been shown conclusively to improve the outcome in clinical practice.Erythropoietin (EPO) is a well-known erythropoietic hormone recently found to exert neuroprotective properties and has been shown to reduce cerebral vasospasm and infarct volume after experimental SAH. In humans, although EPO treatment did not impact the overall incidence of vasospasm, it significantly reduced the incidence of severe vasospasm, the incidence of delayed ischaemic deficits with new cerebral infarcts, and the duration of impaired autoregulation. The current study provides new evidence for the potential benefit and relative safety of EPO for the treatment of SAH in humans. Future clinical trials will hopefully provide definite evidence whether EPO treatment is beneficial in SAH patients. PMID:25366603

  2. Is primary postpartum haemorrhage a good predictor of inherited bleeding disorders?

    PubMed

    Kadir, R A; Kingman, C E C; Chi, C; Lee, C A; Economides, D L

    2007-03-01

    A study was conducted to evaluate the value of screening for inherited bleeding disorders in women with primary postpartum haemorrhage (PPH). Over a 2-year period, women identified to have PPH (defined as >500 mL blood loss for spontaneous vaginal delivery, >700 mL for instrumental deliveries and >1000 mL for caesarean sections within 24 h of delivery) were invited to participate in this study testing for a possible underlying bleeding disorder at 3-9 months post-delivery. Women known to have an inherited bleeding disorder were excluded. Of the 5744 deliveries in our unit during the study period, 152 (3%) fulfilled the criteria for primary PPH and 50 women agreed to participate in the study. Of these, 25 (50%) had a spontaneous vaginal delivery, 8 (16%) had an instrumental delivery and 17 (34%) had a caesarean section. Half of the women were multiparous and five (20%) had PPH in their previous pregnancy. Nineteen (38%) and 12 (24%) reported at least one significant personal and family bleeding history, respectively. One (2%) woman was identified to have von Willebrand disease. In conclusion, primary PPH does not appear to be a strong predictor of inherited bleeding disorders. Further studies are required to assess the prevalence of inherited bleeding disorders among these women. PMID:17286771

  3. Genetic variability of Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever virus in Russia and Central Asia.

    PubMed

    Yashina, Lyudmila; Petrova, Irina; Seregin, Sergei; Vyshemirskii, Oleg; Lvov, Dmitrii; Aristova, Valeriya; Kuhn, Jens; Morzunov, Sergey; Gutorov, Valery; Kuzina, Irina; Tyunnikov, Georgii; Netesov, Sergei; Petrov, Vladimir

    2003-05-01

    Hyalomma marginatum ticks (449 pools, 4787 ticks in total) collected in European Russia and Dermacentor niveus ticks (100 pools, 1100 ticks in total) collected in Kazakhstan were screened by ELISA for the presence of Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever virus (CCHFV). Virus antigen was found in 10.2 and 3.0 % of the pools, respectively. RT-PCR was used to recover partial sequences of the CCHFV small (S) genome segment from seven pools of antigen-positive H. marginatum ticks, one pool of D. niveus ticks, four CCFH cases and four laboratory virus strains. Additionally, the entire S genome segments of the CCHFV strains STV/HU29223 (isolated from a patient in European Russia) and TI10145 (isolated from H. asiaticum in Uzbekistan) were amplified, cloned and sequenced. Phylogenetic analysis placed all CCHFV sequences from Russia in a single, well-supported clade (nucleotide sequence diversity up to 3.2 %). Virus sequences from H. marginatum were closely related or identical to those recovered from patients in the same regions of southern Russia. Newly described CCHFV strains from Central Asian countries fell into two genetic lineages. The first lineage was novel and included closely related virus sequences from Kazakhstan and Tajikistan (nucleotide sequence diversity up to 3.2 %). In contrast, a newly described CCHFV strain from Uzbekistan, strain TI10145, clustered on the phylogenetic trees with strains from China. PMID:12692285

  4. Use of ELISAs in field studies of rabbit haemorrhagic disease (RHD) in Australia.

    PubMed Central

    Cooke, B. D.; Robinson, A. J.; Merchant, J. C.; Nardin, A.; Capucci, L.

    2000-01-01

    ELISA techniques developed for the veterinary diagnosis of Rabbit Haemorrhagic Disease (RHD) in domestic rabbits were used for studying the epidemiology of RHD in Australian wild rabbits. The combination of ELISA techniques that distinguished IgA, IgG and IgM antibody responses and a longitudinal data set, mainly based on capture-mark-recapture of rabbits, provided a reliable basis for interpreting serology and set the criteria used to classify rabbits' immunological status. Importantly, young with maternal antibodies, immune rabbits and rabbits apparently re-exposed to RHD were readily separated. Three outbreaks of RHD occurred in 1996-7. The timing of RHD outbreaks was mainly driven by recruitment of young rabbits that generally contracted RHD after they lost their maternally derived immunity. Young that lost maternal antibodies in summer were not immediately infected, apparently because transmission of RHDV slows at that time, but contracted RHD in the autumn when conditions were again suitable for disease spread. PMID:10982081

  5. Use of ELISAs in field studies of rabbit haemorrhagic disease (RHD) in Australia.

    PubMed

    Cooke, B D; Robinson, A J; Merchant, J C; Nardin, A; Capucci, L

    2000-06-01

    ELISA techniques developed for the veterinary diagnosis of Rabbit Haemorrhagic Disease (RHD) in domestic rabbits were used for studying the epidemiology of RHD in Australian wild rabbits. The combination of ELISA techniques that distinguished IgA, IgG and IgM antibody responses and a longitudinal data set, mainly based on capture-mark-recapture of rabbits, provided a reliable basis for interpreting serology and set the criteria used to classify rabbits' immunological status. Importantly, young with maternal antibodies, immune rabbits and rabbits apparently re-exposed to RHD were readily separated. Three outbreaks of RHD occurred in 1996-7. The timing of RHD outbreaks was mainly driven by recruitment of young rabbits that generally contracted RHD after they lost their maternally derived immunity. Young that lost maternal antibodies in summer were not immediately infected, apparently because transmission of RHDV slows at that time, but contracted RHD in the autumn when conditions were again suitable for disease spread. PMID:10982081

  6. Adrenal haemorrhage in term neonates: a retrospective study from the period 2001-2013.

    PubMed

    Gyurkovits, Zita; Maróti, Agnes; Rénes, Lóránd; Németh, Gábor; Pál, Attila; Orvos, Hajnalka

    2014-11-01

    Abstract Objective: To assess the incidence, risk factors and clinical presentations of neonatal adrenal haemorrhage (NAH) in uncomplicated, singleton and term deliveries. Methods: A retrospective analysis of 26?416 term neonates delivered between 2001 and 2013, and screened with abdominal ultrasonography. Results: Of the 26?416 neonates, 74 (0.28%) displayed NAH; the male/female ratio was 1.55:1. Vaginal delivery was significantly more frequent than caesarean section among them (71 versus 3; 95.9% versus 4.1%). Unilateral bleeding occurred on the right side in 36 (48.7%), and on the left in 34 (45.9%), without a significant difference; bilateral haematomas were found in four cases (5.4%). The most common risk factors were macrosomia (16, 21.6%) and fetal acidaemia (23, 31%), while four (5.4%) neonates exhibited pathological acidaemia. Clinical presentations included jaundice in 37 (50%), anaemia in six (8.1%) and an adrenal insufficiency in only one (1.3%) case. In three cases, neuroblastoma was diagnosed. Conclusions: Vaginal delivery, macrosomia and fetal acidaemia are the most important risk factors for NAH. The adrenal glands on both sides were similarly involved. In the healthy neonates with NAH, the clinical presentations were mild, with spontaneous regression. Differentiation of NAH from tumours is of considerable importance. PMID:25327176

  7. Incidence of subarachnoid haemorrhage: an Australian national hospital morbidity database analysis.

    PubMed

    Lai, Leon; Morgan, Michael Kerin

    2012-05-01

    Incidences of subarachnoid haemorrhage (SAH) in Australia have been reported in regional studies with variable rates. We investigated the national SAH rate and evaluated the trend over the 10 years from 1998 to 2008. The crude SAH incidence, not related to trauma or arteriovenous malformation, was estimated at 10.3 cases per 100,000 person-years (95% confidence interval [CI]: 10.2-10.4). Females have a higher incidence of SAH (12.5 cases per 100,000; 95% CI: 12.3-12.8) compared to males (8.0 cases per 100,000; 95% CI: 7.8-8.3), with age-adjusted incidence increases with increasing age for both sexes. Less than 10% of SAH occurred in the first three decades of life. The peak age group for patients to experience SAH was between 45 years and 64 years, accounting for almost 45% of the overall annual SAH admissions. Aneurysms located in the anterior circulation were a more common source of rupture compared to those located in the posterior circulation (rate ratio 3.9; 95% CI: 3.6-4.2). Contrary to contemporary observations in the literature, we did not observe a decline in the incidence of SAH during this specified study period. PMID:22326203

  8. A clinical characteristic analysis of pregnancy-associated intracranial haemorrhage in China

    PubMed Central

    Liang, Zhu-Wei; Lin, Li; Gao, Wan-Li; Feng, Li-Min

    2015-01-01

    Intracerebral haemorrhage (ICH) occurring during pregnancy and the puerperium is an infrequent but severe complication with a high mortality and poor prognosis. Until recently, previous studies have mainly focused on the effect of different treatments on prognosis. However, few studies have provided solid evidence to clarify the key predisposing factors affecting the prognosis of ICH. In the present study, based on a unique sample with a high ICH incidence and mortality rate, we described the main clinical characteristics of ICH patients and found that the prognosis of patients who underwent surgical intervention was not better than that of patients who received other treatment modalities. However, pre-eclampsia patients had higher maternal and neonatal mortality rates than other aetiology groups. Furthermore, univariate regression analysis identified onset to diagnosis time (O-D time) and pre-eclampsia as the only factors showing independent correlation with poor maternal outcomes (modified Rankin Scale, mRS ? 3), and only O-D time was identified as a predictor of maternal mortality. These results revealed that the aetiology of ICH and O-D time might be crucial predisposing factors to prognosis, especially for patients with pre-eclampsia. The study highlighted a novel direction to effectively improve the prognosis of pregnancy-associated ICH. PMID:25819941

  9. Diagnosis of viral haemorrhagic disease of rabbits and the European brown hare syndrome.

    PubMed

    Capucci, L; Scicluna, M T; Lavazza, A

    1991-06-01

    Development of methods for the diagnosis of viral haemorrhagic disease and the European brown hare syndrome has proceeded at a steady pace over the last few years. The studies conducted by the authors demonstrate that, like VHDV, EBHSV is a calicivirus. The degree of correlation between the two viruses is a key question both for understanding their biology and interpreting the diagnostic results. A discussion of the similarities and differences between VHD and EBHS is followed by the presentation of the latest antigenic correlation results of the two viruses. Considering the absence of culture procedures to isolate either virus, the diagnostic methods discussed in this review are the haemagglutination (HA) test, immune electron microscopy (IEM) and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for virus detection, and the haemagglutination inhibition test (HI) and ELISA for antibody detection. The major obstacles, especially for the diagnosis of EBHS, are described; these are represented by morphological, structural and antigenic modifications due to proteolytic degradation. A differential diagnostic method for the two diseases, based on MAb ELISA, is presented. A final conclusion, drawn from the epidemiological analysis of the virological and serological data, is that EBHS and VHD should be considered as two distinct diseases, each caused by its own aetiological agent. PMID:1662098

  10. Nicardipine in the treatment of aneurysmal subarachnoid haemorrhage: a meta-analysis of published data.

    PubMed

    Huang, Ren-qiang; Jiang, Fu-gang; Feng, Zi-min; Wang, Tian-yi

    2013-03-01

    Nicardipine is a dihydropyridine-type Ca(2+) channel blocker with a powerful antihypertensive activity and a unique cerebrovascular profile. Recent studies have examined nicardipine for the treatment of patients with aneurysmal subarachnoid haemorrhage (SAH), but have shown inconsistent results. In the current study, a meta-analysis was performed to assess the clinical effectiveness of nicardipine in the prevention of cerebral vasospasm in patients who had suffered from aneurysmal SAH. Medline, EMBASE, and PubMed databases were searched for the controlled trials evaluating nicardipine for treating SAH after a ruptured aneurysm, without language restrictions. Moreover, a manual search of the bibliographies of relevant articles was also conducted. Two researchers of the present study independently performed the literature search and the data extraction. The meta-analyses were performed using the software RevMan 4.2.10 (provided by the Cochrane Collaboration, Oxford, UK). Five published manuscripts involving 1,154 patients were included in this meta-analysis. Nicardipine infusion reduced the risk of poor outcome (death, vegetative state, or dependency) and mortality, with an odds ratio (OR) of 0.58 [95 % confidence interval (CI) 0.37-0.90] and 0.45 (95 % CI 0.15-1.29), respectively. This meta-analysis suggests that nicardipine therapy reduces the likelihood of poor outcome and mortality in patients after aneurysmal SAH. PMID:23111775

  11. Investigation of nimodipine pharmacokinetics in Chinese patients with acute subarachnoid haemorrhage.

    PubMed

    Kumana, C R; Kou, M; Yu, Y L; Fong, K Y; Fung, C F; Chang, C M; Mück, W; Lauder, I J

    1993-01-01

    Nimodipine pharmacokinetics was investigated in 12 Chinese patients with acute subarachnoid haemorrhage receiving an IV infusion of 1.6 or 2 mg/h (based on estimated body weight) for 10 days. Peripheral venous blood samples were collected for up to 4 days and plasma nimodipine was assayed by GC/ECD. The mean value was taken as the steady state concentration (Css) and Clearance (CL) (hourly dose/Css) was calculated. Eight survivors were given oral nimodipine (60 or 90 mg) every 6h (based on body weight), blood was sampled over 6 h and the plasma nimodipine level determined. The values for Css, CL and CL.kg-1 were 33.5 micrograms.l-1, 58 l.h-1 and 1.0 l.h-1 x kg-1 respectively; in survivors receiving the drug orally, bioavailability of the 30 mg tablet was 9%. In one very sick patient given crushed tablets by naso-gastric tube, the AUC was very low; in vitro studies indicated that adsorption of nimodipine by the tubing was unlikely to have been the cause. The pharmacokinetic findings in Chinese patients are comparable to previously reported values in Caucasians. PMID:8299671

  12. Endoglin gene mutations and polymorphisms in Italian patients with hereditary haemorrhagic telangiectasia.

    PubMed

    Lastella, P; Sabbŕ, C; Lenato, G M; Resta, N; Lattanzi, W; Gallitelli, M; Cirulli, A; Guanti, G

    2003-06-01

    Autosomal-dominant hereditary haemorrhagic telangiectasia (HHT) is a genetically heterogeneous disease caused by mutations in at least two different loci. We screened for mutations in four Italian families where segregation studies showed clear evidence of linkage to the endoglin (ENG) locus. In addition, one sporadic case and three patients with pulmonary arteriovenous malformations, belonging to small nuclear families unsuitable for linkage analysis, were included in the screening. The proband from each family was investigated using single-strand conformation polymorphism and heteroduplex analysis; potential variants were sequenced. Four novel and one previously reported mutation were detected, as well as three new polymorphisms. The novel mutations included deletions in exon 1 (patient 581/02), exon 5 (patient 780/01) and exon 7 (patient 700/01), and a C-->T229 substitution in exon 3 (patient 462/02). When analysing patient 700/01 and his affected daughter, we encountered a mutant ENG allele with two mutations--a deletion in exon 7 and a substitution in exon 12--which converts isoleucine 575 into threonine, in a non-conserved region. Both mutations were absent in the two healthy sons of the patient, while the polymorphic variant in exon 12 was present in his healthy father. These results and haplotype-segregation studies suggest that a de novo deletion had occurred in the gamete of paternal origin. For the first time the parental germline in which a de novo HHT mutation occurred has been identified. PMID:12786761

  13. froide (11 14 C) et nulle en eau rchauffe (20 C); elle est, d'autre part, proportionnelle

    E-print Network

    Boyer, Edmond

    -en-Josas, 78352 Jouy-en-Josas, Cedex, France) C'est le couple truite Arc-en-ciel (Oncorhynchus mykiss) et virus d (1980) Occurrence of viral haemorrhagic septicaemia in rainbow trout Salmo gairdneri Richardson reared

  14. Incidence of subarachnoid haemorrhage: a systematic review with emphasis on region, age, gender and time trends

    PubMed Central

    de Rooij, N K; Linn, F H H; van der Plas, J A; Algra, A; Rinkel, G J E

    2007-01-01

    Background and aim To update our 1996 review on the incidence of subarachnoid haemorrhage (SAH) and assess the relation of incidence with region, age, gender and time period. Methods We searched for studies on the incidence of SAH published until October 2005. The overall incidences with corresponding 95% confidence intervals were calculated. We determined the relationship between the incidence of SAH and determinants by means of univariate Poisson regression. Results We included 51 studies (33 new), describing 58 study populations in 21 countries, observing 45?821?896 person?years. Incidences per 100?000 person?years were 22.7 (95% CI 21.9 to 23.5) in Japan, 19.7 (18.1 to 21.3) in Finland, 4.2 (3.1 to 5.7) in South and Central America, and 9.1 (8.8 to 9.5) in the other regions. With age category 45–55?years as the reference, incidence ratios increased from 0.10 (0.08 to 0.14) for age groups younger than 25?years to 1.61 (1.24 to 2.07) for age groups older than 85?years. The incidence in women was 1.24 (1.09 to 1.42) times higher than in men; this gender difference started at age 55?years and increased thereafter. Between 1950 and 2005, the incidence decreased by 0.6% (1.3% decrease to 0.1% increase) per year. Conclusions The overall incidence of SAH is approximately 9 per 100?000 person?years. Rates are higher in Japan and Finland and increase with age. The preponderance of women starts only in the sixth decade. The decline in incidence of SAH over the past 45?years is relatively moderate compared with that for stroke in general. PMID:17470467

  15. Cerebral vasospasm after subarachnoid haemorrhage of unknown aetiology: a clinical and transcranial Doppler study.

    PubMed

    Schaller, C; Raueiser, B; Rohde, V; Hassler, W

    1996-01-01

    Sixteen patients (6 women, 10 men; mean age: 52.5 years) suffering from spontaneous subarachnoid haemorrhage (SAH) of unknown origin underwent a protocol of initial and then weekly computed tomography (CT), initial four-vessel digital subtraction angiography (DSA) and at least one control pancerebral DSA. Fourteen patients had magnetic resonance imaging before undergoing first control DSA. All patients had calcium-antagonists (Nimodipine) via a central venous catheter, were kept on the neurosurgical intensive care unit and followed daily with transcranial Doppler ultrasonography (TCD). One patient (6.3%) developed moderate and 5 (31.1%) developed severe cerebral vasospasm as documented with TCD and exhibited deterioration of their level of consciousness. These 6 patients were treated with induced hypertension, hypervolaemia and haemodilution. Their blood flow velocities were elevated for a mean of 8 (5-17) days with a peak after 12.5 (9-17) days following SAH. No complications due to treatment were noted. One patient of the non-vasospastic group died of pulmonary embolism, another patient had an ischaemic incident during angiography, which has led to permanent disability. On follow-up 2-24 months after SAH 14 patients had returned to their premorbid state. It is concluded that patients suffering from SAH of unknown origin should undergo repeated angiographic investigation and subsequent daily monitoring of their neurologic status including daily TCD recordings so that haemodynamic treatment can be established in the event of cerebral vasospasm, which may occur in up to one third of these patients. PMID:8800332

  16. Gauze packing as damage control for uncontrollable haemorrhage in severe thoracic trauma

    PubMed Central

    Toyoda, H; Harunari, N; Iwashita, M; Kosuge, T; Arata, S; Suzuki, N

    2013-01-01

    Introduction The usefulness of thoracic damage control (DC) for trauma requiring a thoracotomy is not established. The aim of this study was to clarify the usefulness of thoracic packing as DC surgery. Methods This was a retrospective case series study of 12 patients with thoracic trauma suffering uncontrollable intrathoracic haemorrhage and shock who underwent intrathoracic packing. Our thoracic DC technique consisted of ligation and packing over the bleeding point or filling gauze in the bleeding spaces as well as packing for the thoracotomy wound. The success rates of intrathoracic haemostasis, changes in the circulation and the volume of discharge from the thoracic tubes were evaluated. Results Packing was undertaken for the thoracic wall in five patients, for the lung in four patients, for the vertebrae in two patients and for the descending thoracic aorta in one patient. Haemostasis was achieved successfully in seven cases. Of these, the volume of discharge from the thoracic tube exceeded 400ml/hr within three hours after packing in three patients, decreased to less than 200ml/hr within seven hours in six patients and decreased to 100ml/hr within eight hours in six patients. Systolic pressure could be maintained over 70mmHg by seven hours after packing. Conclusions Intrathoracic packing is useful for some patients, particularly in the space around the vertebrae, at the lung apex, and between the diaphragm and the thoracic wall. After packing, it is advisable to wait for three hours to see whether vital signs can be maintained and then to wait further to see if the discharge from the thoracic tube decreases to less than 200ml/hr within five hours. PMID:23317720

  17. Postpolypectomy haemorrhage following removal of large polyps using mechanical haemostasis or epinephrine: a meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Burger, Daniel C; Horgan, Gareth; Bailey, Adam A; East, James E

    2014-01-01

    Background and aim Postpolypectomy haemorrhage (PPH) is a known adverse event that can occur following polypectomy, occurring in 0.3–6.1% of cases. Previous meta-analysis has included small polyps, which are less likely to bleed, and less amenable to some methods of mechanical haemostasis. No comprehensive cost–benefit analysis of this topic is available. The aim of this study was to perform a meta-analysis of randomized trials and a cost–benefit analysis of prophylactic haemostasis in PPH. Methods A total of 3092 abstracts from prospective trials conducted in human colonoscopic polypectomy were screened. Outpatients undergoing polypectomy in seven suitable studies (1426 episodes), without polyposis syndromes or bleeding diathesis, were identified. The interventions of prophylactic haemostatic measures (clips, loops, and/or adrenaline injection) to prevent PPH were assessed. The main outcome measurements were PPH measured by haematochezia or drop in haematocrit >10% or haemoglobin >1?g/dl. Risk ratio and number needed to treat (NNT) were generated using meta-analysis. Results Comparing any prophylactic haemostasis to none, the pooled risk ratio for PPH was 0.35 (0.21–0.57; p?

  18. [Multiple Ebola virus haemorrhagic fever outbreaks in Gabon, from October 2001 to April 2002].

    PubMed

    Nkoghe, D; Formenty, P; Leroy, E M; Nnegue, S; Edou, S Y Obame; Ba, J Iba; Allarangar, Y; Cabore, J; Bachy, C; Andraghetti, R; de Benoist, A C; Galanis, E; Rose, A; Bausch, D; Reynolds, M; Rollin, P; Choueibou, C; Shongo, R; Gergonne, B; Koné, L M; Yada, A; Roth, C; Mve, M Toung

    2005-09-01

    Outbreaks of Ebola virus haemorrhagic fever have been reported from 1994 to 1996 in the province of Ogooué Ivindo, a forest zone situated in the Northeast of Gabon. Each time, the great primates had been identified as the initial source of human infection. End of November 2001 a new alert came from this province, rapidly confirmed as a EVHV outbreak. The response was given by the Ministry of Health with the help of an international team under the aegis of WHO. An active monitoring system was implemented in the three districts hit by the epidemic (Zadié, Ivindo and Mpassa) to organize the detection of cases and their follow-up. A case definition has been set up, the suspected cases were isolated at hospital, at home or in lazarets and serological tests were performed. These tests consisted of the detection of antigen or specific IgG and the RT-PCR. A classification of cases was made according to the results of biological tests, clinical and epidemiological data. The contact subjects were kept watch over for 21 days. 65 cases were recorded among which 53 deaths. The first human case, a hunter died on the 28th of October 2001. The epidemic spreads over through family transmission and nosocomial contamination. Four distinct primary foci have been identified together with an isolated case situated in the South East of Gabon, 580 km away from the epicenter. Deaths happened within a delay of 6 days. The last death has been recorded on the 22nd of March 2002 and the end of the outbreak was declared on the 6th of May 2002. The epidemic spreads over the Gabon just next. Unexplained deaths of animals had been mentionned in the nearby forests as soon as August 2001: great primates and cephalophus. Samples taken from their carcasses confirmed a concomitant animal epidemic. PMID:16267965

  19. Homology Modeling and Conformational Epitope Prediction of Envelope Protein of Alkhumra Haemorrhagic Fever Virus

    PubMed Central

    Poorinmohammad, Naghmeh; Mohabatkar, Hassan

    2015-01-01

    Background: The aim of this study was to generate in silico 3D-structure of the envelope protein of AHFV using homology modeling method to further predict its conformational epitopes and help other studies to investigate its structural features using the model. Methods: A 3D-structure prediction was developed for the envelope protein of Alkhumra haemorrhagic fever virus (AHFV), an emerging tick-borne flavivirus, based on a homology modeling method using M4T and Modweb servers, as the 3D-structure of the protein is not available yet. Modeled proteins were validated using Modfold 4 server and their accuracies were calculated based on their RSMDs. Having the 3D predicted model with high quality, conformational epitopes were predicted using DiscoTope 2.0. Results: Model generated by M4T was more acceptable than the Modweb-generated model. The global score and P-value calculated by Modfold 4 ensured that a certifiable model was generated by M4T, since its global score was almost near 1 which is the score for a high resolution X-ray crystallography structure. Furthermore, itsthe P-value was much lower than 0.001 which means that the model is completely acceptable. Having 0.46 Ĺ rmsd, this model was shown to be highly accurate. Results from DiscoTope 2.0 showed 26 residues as epitopes, forming conformational epitopes of the modeled protein. Conclusion: The predicted model and epitopes for envelope protein of AHFV can be used in several therapeutic and diagnostic approaches including peptide vaccine development, structure based drug design or diagnostic kit development in order to facilitate the time consuming experimental epitope mapping process.

  20. Chemical- and radiation-induced haemorrhagic cystitis: current treatments and challenges.

    PubMed

    Payne, Heather; Adamson, Andrew; Bahl, Amit; Borwell, Jonathan; Dodds, David; Heath, Catherine; Huddart, Robert; McMenemin, Rhona; Patel, Prashant; Peters, John L; Thompson, Andrew

    2013-11-01

    • To review the published data on predisposing risk factors for cancer treatment-induced haemorrhagic cystitis (HC) and the evidence for the different preventive and therapeutic measures that have been used in order to help clinicians optimally define and manage this potentially serious condition. • Despite recognition that HC can be a significant complication of cancer treatment, there is currently a lack of UK-led guidelines available on how it should optimally be defined and managed. • A systematic literature review was undertaken to evaluate the evidence for preventative measures and treatment options in the management of cancer treatment-induced HC. • There is a wide range of reported incidence due to several factors including variability in study design and quality, the type of causal agent, the grading of bleeding, and discrepancies in definition criteria. • The most frequently reported causal factors are radiotherapy to the pelvic area, where HC has been reported in up to 20% of patients, and treatment with cyclophosphamide and bacillus Calmette-Guérin, where the incidence has been reported as up to 30%. • Mesna (2-mercaptoethane sodium sulphonate), hyperhydration and bladder irrigation have been the most frequently used prophylactic measures to prevent treatment-related cystitis, but are not always effective. • Cranberry juice is widely cited as a preventative measure and sodium pentosanpolysulphate as a treatment, although the evidence for both is very limited. • The best evidence exists for intravesical hyaluronic acid as an effective preventative and active treatment, and for hyperbaric oxygen as an equally effective treatment option. • The lack of robust data and variability in treatment strategies used highlights the need for further research, as well as best practice guidance and consensus on the management of HC. PMID:24000900

  1. Protective effects of lipoic acid and mesna on cyclophosphamide-induced haemorrhagic cystitis in mice.

    PubMed

    Song, Jianbo; Liu, Lichao; Li, Lingrui; Liu, Jing; Song, Erqun; Song, Yang

    2014-03-01

    The protective roles of lipoic acid (LA)/vitamin C (VC) and mesna on preventing cyclophosphamide (CYP)-induced haemorrhagic cystitis (HC) were investigated. Swiss mice were divided into five groups randomly. HC was induced by a single dose of CYP injection (150-mg kg(-1) bodyweight). Group I was injected with saline (four times in total) throughout as control group. Group II received CYP and three equal doses of saline. Group III received CYP and three doses of mesna, whereas Group IV (or Group V) received CYP, mesna + two doses of VC (or LA). All injections were performed intraperitoneally. After 24 h of cystitis induction, the bladders were collected for all the experiments. Histological characterization showed that CYP injection resulted in severe HC. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances' levels were increased in CYP group. The activities of antioxidant enzymes, e.g. superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione S-transferase and glutathione peroxidase, were inhibited significantly in CYP groups, respectively. In addition, activation of c-jun N-terminal kinases (JNK) and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) may be involved in the mechanism of CYP-induced HC but not extracellular signal regulated kinases (ERK). Significant suppression of p38 phosphorylation on Group V suggests that LA and mesna may have synergistic beneficial effect. In Groups III-V, all the parameters of HC and oxidative stress were inhibited significantly. Taking together, we found that these results illustrated that ROS play an important role on CYP-induced HC and the administration of LA/VC with mesna may have therapeutic potential against CYP-induced bladder HC. PMID:23650119

  2. Predictors of good outcome in medium to large spontaneous supratentorial intracerebral haemorrhages

    PubMed Central

    Castellanos, M; Leira, R; Tejada, J; Gil-Peralta, A; Davalos, A; Castillo, J; t for

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To determine potential predictors of good outcome in primary medium to large intracerebral haemorrhages (ICH) which could be useful for selecting patients for surgical procedures. Methods: Subjects were 138 patients with spontaneous hemispheric ICH >20 ml. They were non-surgically treated and were admitted consecutively to 15 hospitals within the first 12 hours of symptom onset (mean (SD), 5.8 (3.1) hours). Haematoma volume was measured on computed tomography (CT) at admission. Stroke severity was assessed by the Canadian stroke scale (CSS). Good outcome was defined as modified Rankin score ?2 at three months. Results: At the end of the follow up period, 45 patients (32.6%) had good outcome. Baseline stroke severity, systolic and diastolic blood pressure, body temperature, and acute phase reaction biochemical markers (ESR, C-reactive protein, fibrinogen, neutrophil count) were significantly associated with good outcome in bivariate analyses. Of the initial CT scan variables, intraventricular contamination, deep location, mass effect, and greater ICH volume were related to poor outcome. On multiple logistic regression analysis, cortical location of bleeding (odds ratio 3.79 (95% confidence interval 1.2 to 12.01); p = 0.023), high CSS score (OR 2.3 (1.6 to 3.1); p<0.0001), and low fibrinogen concentrations (OR 0.92 (0.87 to 0.97); p = 0.001) were independent predictors of good outcome. These three factors correctly classified 85% of patients. Conclusions: Good outcome in medium to large ICH can be predicted on admission by three readily assessable factors (CSS score, ICH location, and fibrinogen levels). These predictors may be helpful in selecting patients for surgical treatment. PMID:15834028

  3. Idiopathic pulmonary calcification and ossification in an elderly woman with a missed diagnosis of subarachnoid haemorrhage.

    PubMed

    Odubanjo, M O; Abdulkareem, F B; Banjo, A; Ekwere, T E; Awelimobor, D I

    2013-09-01

    This is a case of idiopathic pulmonary calcification and ossification in a 70 year old with long-standing diabetes and hypertension. Thirteen years prior to her demise, she was first noticed to have multiple calcific deposits in her lungs on a chest X-ray film. She had no risk factors for soft tissue calcification and ossification. Histology of tissue from autopsy showed intraparenchymal pulmonary calcification and ossification with marrow elements. Idiopathic pulmonary calcification and ossification is rare. At autopsy, she was also found to have had bilateral subarachnoid haemorrhage (SAH), a diagnosis missed during clinical evaluation. We highlight the pertinent details in our patient's management that could have helped to prevent a missed diagnosis of SAH. Even though SAH occurs most commonly following head trauma, the more familiar medical use of SAH is for non-traumatic SAH occurring following a ruptured cerebral aneurysm. This patient had notable risk factors for cerebral aneurysm formation but an aneurysm was not identified at autopsy. The location of the blood high on the cerebral convexities further suggests a traumatic origin rather than a ruptured aneurysm. Heterotopic calcification and ossification (HO) is known to occur in the setting of severe neurologic disorders such as traumatic brain injury but the fact that the lung calcification in our patient predated the brain injury by over 10 years makes it unlikely for the HO to have been due to the brain trauma. Other organ pathologies found at autopsy include chromophobe renal cell carcinoma, renal papillary necrosis, lymphocytic thyroiditis, and seborrheic keratosis. PMID:24391231

  4. Early rebleeding in patients with subarachnoid haemorrhage under intensive blood pressure management.

    PubMed

    Oheda, Motoki; Inamasu, Joji; Moriya, Shigeta; Kumai, Tadashi; Kawazoe, Yushi; Nakae, Shunsuke; Kato, Yoko; Hirose, Yuichi

    2015-08-01

    The objective of this study was to report the frequency and clinical characteristics of early rebleeding in subarachnoid haemorrhage (SAH) patients who underwent intensive blood pressure (BP) management. Patients with aneurysmal SAH frequently present to the emergency department (ED) with elevated BP. Intensive BP management has been recommended to lower the risk of early rebleeding. However, few studies have reported the frequency of early rebleeding in SAH patients undergoing BP management. In our institution, SAH patients with systolic BP (SBP)>140mmHg received continuous intravenous nicardipine to maintain their SBP within 120±20mmHg after diagnosis. An attempt to implement intensive BP management was made on 309 consecutive SAH patients who presented to our ED within 48hours of SAH onset. Overall, 24 (7.8%) of the 309 patients sustained early rebleeding. Fifteen patients sustained early rebleeding before the implementation of BP management, and the other nine sustained early rebleeding after the implementation of BP management. Therefore, the frequency of early rebleeding under BP management was 3.1% (9/294). When the 309 patients were dichotomised using ED SBP of 140mmHg as a cut off (SBP>140mmHg; n=239 versus SBP?140mmHg; n=70), the latter counter-intuitively exhibited a significantly higher frequency of early rebleeding (5.9% versus 14.2%; p=0.04). This relatively low frequency of early rebleeding under BP management may be acceptable. However, early rebleeding is not eradicated even with strict BP control as factors other than elevated BP are involved. ED SBP within the target range (SBP?140mmHg) does not negate the risk of early rebleeding. Other treatment options that reduce the risk should also be explored. PMID:26077940

  5. Retinal haemorrhages and related findings in abusive and non-abusive head trauma: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Maguire, S A; Watts, P O; Shaw, A D; Holden, S; Taylor, R H; Watkins, W J; Mann, M K; Tempest, V; Kemp, A M

    2013-01-01

    Aim To report the retinal signs that distinguish abusive head trauma (AHT) from non-abusive head trauma (nAHT). Methods A systematic review of literature, 1950–2009, was conducted with standardised critical appraisal. Inclusion criteria were a strict confirmation of the aetiology, children aged <11 years and details of an examination conducted by an ophthalmologist. Post mortem data, organic disease of eye, and inadequate examinations were excluded. A multivariate logistic regression analysis was conducted to determine odds ratios (OR) and probabilities for AHT. Results Of the 62 included studies, 13 provided prevalence data (998 children, 504 AHT). Overall, retinal haemorrhages (RH) were found in 78% of AHT vs 5% of nAHT. In a child with head trauma and RH, the OR that this is AHT is 14.7 (95% confidence intervals 6.39, 33.62) and the probability of abuse is 91%. Where recorded, RH were bilateral in 83% of AHT compared with 8.3% in nAHT. RH were numerous in AHT, and few in nAHT located in the posterior pole, with only 10% extending to periphery. True prevalence of additional features, for example, retinal folds, could not be determined. Conclusions Our systematic review confirms that although certain patterns of RH were far commoner in AHT, namely large numbers of RH in both the eyes, present in all layers of the retina, and extension into the periphery, there was no retinal sign that was unique to abusive injury. RH are rare in accidental trauma and, when present, are predominantly unilateral, few in number and in the posterior pole. PMID:23079748

  6. Snakebites and ethnobotany in the northwest region of Colombia. Part III: neutralization of the haemorrhagic effect of Bothrops atrox venom.

    PubMed

    Otero, R; Núńez, V; Barona, J; Fonnegra, R; Jiménez, S L; Osorio, R G; Saldarriaga, M; Díaz, A

    2000-11-01

    Thirty-one of 75 extracts of plants used by traditional healers for snakebites, had moderate or high neutralizing ability against the haemorrhagic effect of Bothrops atrox venom from Antioquia and Chocó, north-western Colombia. After preincubation of several doses of every extract (7.8-4000 microg/mouse) with six minimum haemorrhagic doses (10 microg) of venom, 12 of them demonstrated 100% neutralizing capacity when the mixture was i.d. injected into mice (18-20 g). These were the stem barks of Brownea rosademonte (Caesalpiniaceae) and Tabebuia rosea (Bignoniaceae); the whole plants of Pleopeltis percussa (Polypodiaceae), Trichomanes elegans (Hymenophyllaceae) and Senna dariensis (Caesalpiniaceae); rhizomes of Heliconia curtispatha (Heliconiaceae); leaves and branches of Bixa orellana (Bixaceae), Philodendron tripartitum (Araceae), Struthanthus orbicularis (Loranthaceae) and Gonzalagunia panamensis (Rubiaceae); the ripe fruits of Citrus limon (Rutaceae); leaves, branches and stem of Ficus nymphaeifolia (Moraceae). Extracts of another 19 species showed moderate neutralization (21-72%) at doses up to 4 mg/mouse, e.g. the whole plants of Aristolochia grandiflora (Aristolochiaceae), Columnea kalbreyeriana (Gesneriaceae), Sida acuta (Malvaceae), Selaginella articulata (Selaginellaceae) and Pseudoelephantopus spicatus (Asteraceae); rhizomes of Renealmia alpinia (Zingiberaceae); the stem of Strychnos xinguensis (Loganiaceae); leaves, branches and stems of Hyptis capitata (Lamiaceae), Ipomoea cairica (Convolvulaceae), Neurolaena lobata (Asteraceae), Ocimum micranthum (Lamiaceae), Piper pulchrum (Piperaceae), Siparuna thecaphora (Monimiaceae), Castilla elastica (Moraceae) and Allamanda cathartica (Apocynaceae); the macerated ripe fruits of Capsicum frutescens (Solanaceae); the unripe fruits of Crescentia cujete (Bignoniaceae); leaves and branches of Piper arboreum (Piperaceae) and Passiflora quadrangularis (Passifloraceae). When the extracts were independently administered by oral, i.p. or i.v. route either before or after an i.d. venom injection (10 microg), neutralization of haemorrhage dropped below 25% for all the extracts. Additionally, B. rosademonte and P. percussa extracts were able to inhibit the proteolytic activity of B. atrox venom on casein. PMID:11025161

  7. Novel in vitro assays for assessing the haemorrhagic activity of snake venoms and for demonstration of venom metalloproteinase inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Bee, A; Theakston, R D; Harrison, R A; Carter, S D

    2001-09-01

    Standard methods used for assessing the haemorrhagic toxicity of snake venoms and the effectiveness of antivenoms are laborious, expensive and involve the use of large numbers of laboratory animals. This paper examined the feasibility of using a gelatin degradation ELISA for preliminary screening of snake venom metalloproteinases (MPs). Potent gelatinolytic activity was observed in venoms from snakes of the family Viperidae and, as expected, little or no activity was evident in the venoms of snakes that induce neurotoxic pathology (most elapids). A reverse gelatin zymography assay was used on a variety of venoms to demonstrate a number of inhibitors of MP activity, the first such demonstration of its kind. PMID:11384733

  8. Risk of intracranial haemorrhage in antidepressant users with concurrent use of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs: nationwide propensity score matched study

    PubMed Central

    Shin, Ju-Young; Lee, Shin Haeng; Choi, So-Hyun; Kim, Mi-Hee; Choi, Nam-Kyong; Lee, Joongyub

    2015-01-01

    Objective To define the risk of intracranial haemorrhage among patients treated with antidepressants and non-steroid anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), compared with the risk among those treated with antidepressants without NSAIDs. Design Retrospective nationwide propensity score matched cohort study. Setting Korean nationwide health insurance database between 1 January 2009 and 31 December 2013. Participants Patients who began receiving antidepressants for the first time (index date) without a history of having received a prescription for antidepressants during the preceding year. Patients who had been diagnosed as having cerebrovascular diseases within a year before the index date were excluded. Main outcome measure Time to first hospital admission with intracranial haemorrhage within 30 days after drug use. Matched Cox regression models were used to compare the risk of intracranial haemorrhage among patients who were treated with antidepressants with and without NSAIDs, after propensity score matching with a 1:1 ratio. Results After propensity score estimation and matching in a 1:1 ratio, the cohort used in the analysis included 4?145?226 people. The 30 day risk of intracranial haemorrhage during the entire study period was higher for combined use of antidepressants and NSAIDs than for use of antidepressants without NSAIDs (hazard ratio 1.6, 95% confidence interval 1.32 to 1.85). No statistically meaningful differences were found in risk of intracranial haemorrhage between the antidepressant drug classes. Conclusions Combined use of antidepressants and NSAIDs was associated with an increased risk of intracranial haemorrhage within 30 days of initial combination. PMID:26173947

  9. Neutralization of haemorrhagic activity of viper venoms by 1-(3-dimethylaminopropyl)-1-(4-fluorophenyl)-3-oxo-1,3-dihydroisobenzofuran-5-carbonitrile.

    PubMed

    Sunitha, Kabburalli; Hemshekhar, Mahadevappa; Gaonkar, Santosh Laxman; Sebastin Santhosh, Martin; Suresh Kumar, Muthuvel; Basappa; Priya, Babu Shubha; Kemparaju, Kempaiah; Rangappa, Kanchugarakoppal Subbegowda; Nanjunda Swamy, Shivananju; Girish, Kesturu Subbaiah

    2011-10-01

    Viper envenomation undeniably induces brutal local manifestations such as haemorrhage, oedema and necrosis involving massive degradation of extracellular matrix at the bitten region and many a times results in dangerous systemic haemorrhage including pulmonary shock. Snake venom metalloproteases (SVMPs) are being considered to be the primary culprits for the venom-induced haemorrhage. As a consequence, the venom researchers and medical practitioners are in deliberate quest of SVMP inhibitors. In this study, we evaluated the inhibitory effect of 1-(3-dimethylaminopropyl)-1-(4-fluorophenyl)-3-oxo-1,3-dihydroisobenzofuran-5-carbonitrile (DFD) on viper venom-induced haemorrhagic and PLA(2) activities. DFD effectively neutralized the haemorrhagic activity of the medically important viper venoms such as Echis carinatus, Echis ocelatus, Echis carinatus sochureki, Echis carinatus leakeyi and Crotalus atrox in a dose-dependent manner. The histological examinations revealed that the compound DFD effectively neutralizes the basement membrane degradation, and accumulation of inflammatory leucocytes at the site of Echis carinatus venom injection further confirms the inhibition of haemorrhagic activity. In addition, DFD dose dependently inhibited the PLA(2) activities of Crotalus atrox and E. c. leakeyi venoms. According to the docking studies, DFD binds to hydrophobic pocket of SVMP with the ki of 19.26 × 10(-9) (kcal/mol) without chelating Zn(2+) in the active site. It is concluded that the clinically approved inhibitors of haemorrhagins could be used as a potent first-aid agent in snakebite management. Furthermore, a high degree of structural and functional homology between SVMPs and their relatives, the MMPs, suggests that DFD analogues may find immense value in the regulation of multifactorial pathological conditions like inflammation, cancer and wound healing. PMID:21729242

  10. Retinal haemorrhages in- head trauma resulting from falls: differential diagnosis with non-accidental trauma in patients younger than 2 years of age

    Microsoft Academic Search

    V. Trenchs; A. I. Curcoy; M. Morales; A. Serra; R. Navarro; J. Pou

    2008-01-01

    Introduction  Falls are a common chief complaint among children seeking medical attention in emergency departments and are the leading cause\\u000a of injuries requiring hospitalisation. Falls are also a frequent excuse to conceal cases of maltreatment in small children.\\u000a Retinal haemorrhages could be a useful marker for their differential diagnosis.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Objective  This study aims to determine the prevalence and characteristics of retinal haemorrhages

  11. Effect of desmopressin on immune-mediated haemorrhagic disorders due to canine monocytic ehrlichiosis: a preliminary study.

    PubMed

    Giudice, E; Giannetto, C; Gianesella, M

    2010-12-01

    To evaluate the possible use of desmopressin acetate (DDAVP) in haemorrhagic disorders consequent to canine monocytic ehrlichiosis (CME), three dogs infected by Ehrlichia canis, with a history of thrombocytopenia and recent bleeding, were studied. The dogs were administered desmopressin (1 ?g/kg b.w. s.c.) every 24 h on three occasions. Blood samples were collected immediately before, and after 2 and 48 h the first DDAVP administration, to assess haematological, clinical chemistry and clotting time parameters. Spontaneous bleeding stopped within 1 h after the first DDAVP injection. Buccal mucosa bleeding time (BMBT) was shortened from 9.6 to 2.3 min within 2 h after the treatment. A statistically significant increase in platelet PLT count and fibrinogen, and a statistically significant decrease of PT and aPTT were observed after DDAVP administration. The haemorrhagic disorders caused by CME appear to be quickly corrected by DDAVP administration, giving the clinician the time necessary to administer appropriate chemotherapy. PMID:21108506

  12. Combination treatment with an erythropoiesis-stimulating agent and intravenous iron alleviates anaemia in patients with hereditary haemorrhagic telangiectasia

    PubMed Central

    Cherif, Honar

    2014-01-01

    Background Patients with hereditary haemorrhagic telangiectasia (HHT) suffer from recurrent epistaxis and bleeding from gastrointestinal telangiectasias that occur despite otherwise normal haemostasis and result in iron deficiency anaemia with increasing severity. In advanced disease, anaemia may be severe, be irresponsive to iron supplementation, and may lead to red blood cell transfusion dependency. Methods We conducted a retrospective study at our Centre for Osler’s Disease to evaluate the effectiveness of adding an erythropoiesis-stimulating agent (ESA) to intravenous iron supplementation in the management of anaemic HHT patients. Blood values and treatment parameters were collected for nine months before combination therapy (iron supplementation only) and 12 months during combination therapy (iron supplementation plus ESA). Results Four patients received intravenous iron and an ESA with mean weekly doses of 126 mg and 17,300 units (U), respectively. Mean haemoglobin improved significantly during combination therapy, from 106 g/L to 119 g/L (p < 0.001). Conclusion Conclusion. Anaemia can be alleviated in patients with HHT who are irresponsive to intravenous iron supplementation, by addition of an ESA. The proposed mechanism behind the iron irresponsiveness is that the anaemia is caused by a combination of recurrent haemorrhage and anaemia of chronic disease. PMID:25188751

  13. The pathogenesis of retinal and subdural haemorrhage in non-accidental head injury in infancy: assessment using Bradford Hill criteria.

    PubMed

    Acres, Meghan J; Morris, James A

    2014-01-01

    Fatal non-accidental head injury (NAHI) in infancy is characterised by severe bilateral retinal haemorrhage (sbRH), thin film diffuse bilateral subdural haemorrhage (dbSDH) and severe fatal hypoxic ischaemic encephalopathy (sfHIE). The Geddes hypothesis is that sfHIE is the direct cause of sbRH and dbSDH. The conventional hypothesis (post-Geddes) is that trauma precipitates hypoxia to cause sfHIE and independently tears veins to cause sbRH and dbSDH. These hypotheses are assessed using Bradford Hill criteria of causation. The triad (sbRH, dbSDH and sfHIE) is a strong, specific and consistent association which suggests a causative link. Furthermore sbRH and dbSDH are positively correlated with severity of HIE but negatively correlated with objective evidence of trauma. The conventional hypothesis (post-Geddes) fails the test of biological plausibility because trauma causes asymmetrical and focal bleeding not diffuse bilateral capillary and venular oozing. The conventional hypothesis lacks coherence since it was shown that the encephalopathy of the triad is not traumatic. Arguments by analogy also support the Geddes hypothesis. There is a paucity of experimental evidence for either hypothesis but this is likely to be rectified as molecular methods (genomics and proteomics) are used in the infant autopsy. PMID:24139052

  14. Flavorase, a novel non-haemorrhagic metalloproteinase in Protobothrops flavoviridis venom, is a target molecule of small serum protein-3.

    PubMed

    Shioi, Narumi; Nishijima, Ayumi; Terada, Shigeyuki

    2015-07-01

    Some venomous snakes possess anti-toxic proteins in their sera that may play a role in neutralizing the haemorrhagic factors or toxins in their own venom. Five small serum proteins (SSP-1-SSP-5) were isolated from the serum of Japanese viper (Protobothrops flavoviridis), and were found to act as self-defence proteins against the viper's own toxic components. However, the physiological function of SSP-3 has not been completely elucidated. Affinity chromatography of the venom on an SSP-3-immobilized column identified a novel 55-kDa protein as the target molecule of SSP-3. Sequences of internal fragments of this SSP-3-binding protein showed high homology to those of metalloproteinases from the P. flavoviridis venom. The cDNA sequence revealed that this protein, termed flavorase, is a P-III class metalloproteinase consisting of 423 amino acid residues. The purified protein did not show haemorrhagic and cytotoxic activity. Biacore measurements revealed that SSP-3 was bound to flavorase with a dissociation constant of 6.4 × 10(-9) M. SSP-3 non-competitively inhibited the peptidase activity of flavorase with an inhibition constant of 6.6 × 10(-9) M. PMID:25681613

  15. Impact of Pulmonary Arteriovenous Malformations on Respiratory–Related Quality of Life in Patients with Hereditary Haemorrhagic Telangiectasia

    PubMed Central

    Blivet, Sandra; Cobarzan, Daniel; Beauchet, Alain; El Hajjam, Mostafa; Lacombe, Pascal; Chinet, Thierry

    2014-01-01

    Fifteen to fifty percent of patients with hereditary haemorrhagic telangiectasia have pulmonary arteriovenous malformations. The objective of this study was to measure the effect of the presence of pulmonary arteriovenous malformations and of their embolisation on respiratory-related quality of life (QoL). We prospectively recruited patients with a diagnosis of hereditary haemorrhagic telangiectasia based on the Curaçao criteria and/or the identification of a pathogenic mutation. Respiratory-related quality of life was measured using the Saint George’s Respiratory Questionnaire (SGRQ). Patients who underwent embolisation of pulmonary arteriovenous malformations completed the questionnaire before and 6–12 mo after the procedure. The 56 participants were divided into three groups: no pulmonary arteriovenous malformation (group A, n?=?10), small pulmonary arteriovenous malformations not accessible to embolotherapy (group B, n?=?19), and large pulmonary arteriovenous malformations accessible to embolotherapy (group C, n?=?27). The SGRQ score was significantly higher in group C compared to the other groups, indicating a worse respiratory-specific QoL. There was no significant difference between groups A and B. Among the 17 patients who underwent an embolisation, the SGRQ score decreased significantly after the procedure, to a value similar to that in patients without pulmonary arteriovenous malformation. Our results indicate that the presence of large but not small pulmonary arteriovenous malformations negatively affects the respiratory-related quality of life and that embolisation of pulmonary arteriovenous malformations normalizes the respiratory-related quality of life. PMID:24603803

  16. Pituitary-adrenal function in patients with acute subarachnoid haemorrhage: a prospective cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Bendel, Stepani; Koivisto, Timo; Ruokonen, Esko; Rinne, Jaakko; Romppanen, Jarkko; Vauhkonen, Ilkka; Kiviniemi, Vesa; Uusaro, Ari

    2008-01-01

    Introduction Subarachnoid haemorrhage (SAH) may damage the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal gland (HPA) axis and disturb cortisol metabolism. There are no available data that relates to the response of the HPA axis in the acute phase of SAH. We aimed to characterise the behavior of serum adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), total cortisol, stimulated total cortisol and free cortisol concentrations in acute aneurysmal SAH. Methods A prospective cohort study was conducted of patients with acute aneurysmal SAH (n = 30) admitted to a tertiary university hospital. Patients admitted for elective aneurysmal surgery (n = 16) served as the control group. An ACTH stimulation test was performed twice during the first week and at three months. The main outcome measure was description of the ACTH-cortisol response by calculating serum free cortisol and measuring total cortisol and ACTH concentrations. A mixed models method was used for testing between the groups, allowing heterogeneity between the groups. Results Patients with SAH had higher initial serum total cortisol (mean +/- SD; 793 +/- 312 nmol/L) and free cortisol concentrations (83 +/- 55 nmol/L) than control patients (535 +/- 193 nmol/L, p = 0.001 and 33 +/- 18 nmol/L, p < 0.001, respectively). Thereafter, there were no differences in this respect. Serum free and total cortisol concentrations correlated but were unaffected by the severity of SAH. ACTH concentrations were comparable between SAH and control groups. Patients with Hunt-Hess grades IV to V had higher ACTH concentrations at day one (10.7 +/- 7.1 pmol/l/L) and day five (8.2 +/- 7.7 pmol/L) than patients with grade I-III (day one: 3.8 +/- 2.0 pmol/L, p = 0.002; day five: 4.7 +/- 1.8 pmol/L, p = 0.04). Conclusions Calculation of serum free cortisol concentration was not helpful in identifying patients with potential hypocortisolism. SAH severity did not affect cortisol concentrations, possibly indicating relative pituitary-adrenal insufficiency in patients with more severe bleeding. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier NCT00614887. PMID:18851750

  17. The role of transcranial Doppler in the management of patients with subarachnoid haemorrhage--a review.

    PubMed

    Lindegaard, K F

    1999-01-01

    Introduced 15 years ago, transcranial Doppler (TCD) recordings of blood-velocity in patients with recent subarachnoid haemorrhage (SAH) have two objectives: to detect elevated blood velocities suggesting cerebral vasospasm (VSP) and to identify patients at risk for delayed cerebral ischemic deficits (DID). The pathophysiological cascade causing DID is complex. Discrepancies between blood velocities and DID (presuming that there actually is an "ischemic threshold" for blood velocity in absolute terms, which seems most unlikely) have been demonstrated, particularly in patients with elevated intracranial pressure (ICP) levels. Furthermore, the vessel showing the highest blood velocity is not always the one perfusing the area where ischemic symptoms arise, nor does the site of the greatest subarachnoid blood clot always relate to the ischemic brain region. Moreover, it is probable that the complex haemodynamic changes following SAH and the subsequent development of VSP may be underestimated if only considering the crude intracranial artery blood velocities. Cerebral blood flow measurements combined with TCD to assess both flow and velocity have emphasised this point. Despite these findings and ignoring the basic principles of cerebral haemodynamics, cerebral vasospasm is still being assessed from the intracranial velocity measurement alone. The addition of at least a careful measurement from the extracranial internal carotid artery--using the same TCD equipment and taking only a few short minutes to perform--allows a much more accurate assessment of the degree and the effects of vasospasm. This probably explains why the clinical value of TCD is still debated. There is still uncertainty as to the best method to prevent and to treat VSP, and the overall outcome after SAH depends on so many factors besides VSP. Conclusive evidence may therefore be hard to obtain, and it appears sound to conclude that even with advanced investigation technology available, proper selection, pre- peri- and postoperative care and timing of surgery remain cornerstones in the management of these patients,--equal in importance to their treatment in the operating room or in the interventional angiography suite. PMID:10337413

  18. Self-assembly, antigenicity, and immunogenicity of the rabbit haemorrhagic disease virus (Czechoslovakian strain V-351) capsid protein expressed in baculovirus

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. S. Nagesha; L. F. Wang; A. D. Hyatt; C. J. Morrissy; C. Lenghaus; H. A. Westbury

    1995-01-01

    Summary Rabbit haemorrhagic disease virus (RHDV) capsid protein was expressed in a baculovirus system. Analysis of the expressed product showed that the recombinant protein, which is 60 kDa in size, was antigenic as revealed by its reactions in ELISA and Western blot with the antibodies raised against RHDV. Direct electron microscopy of the cell culture supernatant and the purified protein

  19. The immediate lifesaving management of maxillofacial, life-threatening haemorrhages due to IED and/or shrapnel injuries: "when hazard is in hesitation, not in the action".

    PubMed

    Shuker, Sabri T

    2012-09-01

    Maxillofacial/neck vascular injuries caused by improvised explosive devices IEDs or ballistics injuries are life threatening when they cause severe haemorrhage resulting in airway compromise. One should always keep in mind that the best technique used is that which saves the patient's life and not the most expensive and/or technologically advanced. Medical professionals on the scene should have the necessary experience to handle the emergency situations of airway compromise and haemorrhage control. In this instance there is only, "one to a few minutes" to clear airway obstruction and arrest haemorrhage to prevent death. The patients in this study had life-threatening shrapnel injuries of the carotid and/or jugular vessels, and facial primary blast affect implosion of facial middle third air-containing cavities injuries. In a massive casualties arenas, where time=lifesaving, we should need to replace "non-battlefield" civilian techniques with "time driven", combat management for IEDs injuries. In these cases, the immediate and effective compression tamponade using digital, Foley catheter tamponade, packs and/or vessels ligation for severe facial/neck haemorrhage were used successfully. PMID:22070881

  20. The Massive Bleeding after the Operation of Hip Joint Surgery with the Acquired Haemorrhagic Coagulation Factor XIII(13) Deficiency: Two Case Reports.

    PubMed

    Kanda, Akio; Kaneko, Kazuo; Obayashi, Osamu; Mogami, Atsuhiko

    2013-01-01

    Two women, aged 81 and 61, became haemorrhagic after surgery. Their previous surgeries were uneventful with no unexpected bleeding observed. Blood tests prior to the current surgeries indicated normal values including those related to coagulation. There were no problems with the current surgeries prior to leaving the operating room. At 3 hours after the surgery, the 81-year-old patient had an outflow of the drain at 1290 grams and her blood pressure decreased. She had disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC). The 61-year-old woman had repeated haemorrhages after her current surgery for a long time. Their abnormal haemorrhages were caused by a deficiency of coagulation factor XIII(13). The mechanism of haemorrhagic coagulation factor XIII(13) deficiency is not understood, and it is a rare disorder. The only diagnostic method to detect this disorder is to measure factor XIII(13) activity in the blood. In this paper, we used Arabic and Roman numerals at the same time to avoid confusion of coagulation factor XIII(13) with coagulation factor VIII(8) that causes hemophilia A. PMID:23533879

  1. Endovascular treatment of pulmonary and cerebral arteriovenous malformations in patients affected by hereditary haemorrhagic teleangiectasia.

    PubMed

    De Cillis, E; Burdi, N; Bortone, A S; D'Agostino, D; Fiore, T; Ettorre, G C; Resta, M

    2006-01-01

    Hereditary Haemorrhagic Teleangiectasia (HHT) is a vascular disorder of angiogenesis transmitted in an autosomal dominant pattern, characterised by heterogeneity in clinical manifestations. One of the most important organ involved is lung, including pulmonary arteriovenous malformations (PAVM). PAVM occur in 20 to 30% of the HHT population and recently are considered a marker of disease. PAVM are direct artery-to-vein connections with low pressure and without an interveining capillary bed. PAVM are classified as simple (supplied by one feeding artery) or complex (receiving blood supply from two or more feeding artery). According to the international reports, treatment it's recommendable for all PAVM with feeding vessels 3mm or larger, in order to reduce the risk of cerebral ischaemia and neurologic manifestations frequently attributed to paradoxical embolisation. Transcatheter embolotherapy of PAVM is a form of treatment based on occlusion of the feeding artery to a PAVM by using platinum coils or detachable balloons. The technique of coil embolisation involves the exact localisation of PAVM by pulmonary angiography followed by superselective percutaneous caheterisation of feeding artery obtained by using a dedicated 7F guiding catheter, which coaxially allocates a 5F hydrophilic catheter advanced in order to perform both superselective angiography of feeding artery and embolisation itself. Inside the 5F catheter the platinum coils are advanced using a .035'' guide-wire and released until an optimal occlusion of feeding artery is achieved. At the end of the procedure angiographic control is performed in order to verify the occlusion of feeding artery. The use of platinum coils is preferable over detachable balloons when feeding artery are greater than 7 mm in diameter and have irregular anatomical configuration. On the other hand, the principal advantage of using detachable balloons is that the balloon itself can be deflated and repositioned if necessary. Transcatheter embolotherapy is technically safe and clinically effective and may represent the primary choice of treatment in HHT patients. On the other hand the most common complications of this treatment (pleurisy and air embolism) can be prevented by using some tips during the embolisation procedure like "anchor technique," "scaffold technique" and "balloon assisted technique." Cerebral arteriovenous malformations (CAVM) are present in 10-20% of patients with HHT and multiple in 50% of cases. Cortical surface is the most frequent localisation. Angiography is needed to diagnose all CAVM and to clarify the angioarchitecture of the lesion. In HHT CAVM are usually either micro-AVM, with a nidus not bigger than 1 cm, or small AVM, with a nidus between 1 and 3 cm. Quite frequently there are lesions characterised by arteriovenous fistulas. In the three patterns of CAVM usually found in HHT, small AVM are the most risky for bleeding although the risk is lower than that associated with sporadic ones. It is estimated from 0.38 to 0.69% per year in spite of the general incidence of bleeding in sporadic CAVM that ranges from 2 to 4% per year. In HHT patients, at present, the precise indications and timing of treatment are not established. Trend is to treat small AVM and AVF and to follow-up micro-AVM with MRI and angiography. As for sporadic CAVM, treatment of small AVM is usually referred to stereotactic radiosurgery. Endovascular embolisation is proposable if the lesion is easily reachable by microcatheterism and the position of the microcatheter is safe. Glue is used for embolisation and the technique is briefly discussed. PMID:16611106

  2. Genetic relationship in southern African Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever virus isolates: evidence for occurrence of reassortment.

    PubMed

    Burt, F J; Paweska, J T; Ashkettle, B; Swanepoel, R

    2009-09-01

    Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever (CCHF) is a tick-borne viral zoonosis widely distributed in Africa, Asia and eastern Europe. Reassortment of CCHF genome segments has been shown to occur in nature. We therefore investigated the genetic relationship of southern African isolates using partial sequence data for each RNA segment, S, M and L, and comparing the tree topologies constructed using a neighbour joining method. A total of 21 southern African isolates were studied. The incongruencies which were identified in S, M and L sequence datasets involved group switching implying reassortment for 15 isolates. A higher fatality rate occurred in patients infected with isolates which had apparently acquired M segments from a group in which predominantly Asian strains are usually found. This suggests that reassortment may affect the pathogenicity of the virus. PMID:19161643

  3. Duplex Real-Time RT-PCR Assays for the Detection and Typing of Epizootic Haemorrhagic Disease Virus

    PubMed Central

    Viarouge, Cyril; Breard, Emmanuel; Zientara, Stephan; Vitour, Damien; Sailleau, Corinne

    2015-01-01

    Epizootic haemorrhagic disease virus (EHDV) may cause severe clinical episodes in some species of deer and sometimes in cattle. Laboratory diagnosis provides a basis for the design and timely implementation of disease control measures. There are seven distinct EHDV serotypes, VP2 coding segment 2 being the target for serotype specificity. This paper reports the development and validation of eight duplex real-time RT-PCR assays to simultaneously amplify the EHDV target (S9 for the pan-EHDV real-time RT-PCR assay and S2 for the serotyping assays) and endogenous control gene Beta-actin. Analytical and diagnostic sensitivity and specificity, inter- and intra-assay variation and efficiency were evaluated for each assay. All were shown to be highly specific and sensitive. PMID:26161784

  4. Predicting the risks of venous thromboembolism versus post-pancreatectomy haemorrhage: analysis of 13?771 NSQIP patients

    PubMed Central

    Tzeng, Ching-Wei D; Katz, Matthew H G; Lee, Jeffrey E; Fleming, Jason B; Pisters, Peter W T; Vauthey, Jean-Nicolas; Aloia, Thomas A

    2014-01-01

    Background The fear of an early post-pancreatectomy haemorrhage (PPH) may prevent surgeons from prescribing post-operative venous thromboembolism (VTE) chemoprophylaxis. The primary hypothesis of this study was that the national post-pancreatectomy early PPH rate was lower than the rate of VTE. The secondary hypothesis was that patients at high risk for post-discharge VTE could be identified, potentially facilitating the selective use of extended chemoprophylaxis. Patients and methods All elective pancreatectomies were identified in the 2005 to 2010 American College of Surgeons-National Surgical Quality Improvement Program (ACS-NSQIP) database. Factors associated with 30-day rates of (pre-versus post-discharge) VTE, early PPH (transfusions > 4 units within 72?h) and return to the operating room (ROR) with PPH were analysed. Results Pancreaticoduodenectomies (PD) and distal pancreatectomies (DP) numbered 9140 (66.4%) and 4631 (33.6%) out of 13?771 pancreatectomies, respectively. Event rates included: VTE (3.1%), PPH (1.1%) and ROR+PPH (0.7%). PD and DP had similar VTE rates (P > 0.05) with 31.9% of VTE occurring post-discharge. Independent risk factors for late VTE included obesity [odds ratio (OR), 1.5], age ? 75 years (OR, 1.8), DP (OR, 2.4) and organ space infection (OR, 2.1) (all P < 0.02). Conclusions Within current practice patterns, post-pancreatectomy VTE outnumber early haemorrhagic complications, which are rare. The fear of PPH should not prevent routine and timely post-pancreatectomy VTE chemoprophylaxis. Because one-third of VTE occur post-discharge, high-risk patients may benefit from post-discharge chemoprophylaxis. PMID:23869628

  5. Neuronal tumour necrosis factor-? and interleukin-1? expression in a porcine model of intracerebral haemorrhage: Modulation by U-74389G.

    PubMed

    Bimpis, Alexios; Papalois, Apostolos; Voumvourakis, Konstantinos; Oláh, Orsolya; Tiszlavicz, Lazlo; Liapi, Charis

    2015-07-30

    Tumour necrosis factor ? (TNF-?) and interleukin 1? (IL-1?) are important mediators of intracerebral haemorrhage (ICH) inflammatory response. Lazaroids, established antioxidants and neuroprotectants, have been studied in several brain pathologies. The present study was designed to investigate: a) TNF-? and IL-1? changes, in neurons and b) U-74389G effects, 4 and 24h after haematoma induction in a porcine model of intracerebral haemorrhage. In twenty male landrace pigs (swines) aged 135-150 days old, autologous whole blood was injected around the right basal ganglia territory; in ten of the pigs the lazaroid compound U-74389G was administered. Brain TNF-? and IL-1? immunopositive neurons were determined by immunoarray techniques at 4 and 24h timepoints. After the haematoma induction the number of TNF-? immunopositive neurons ipsilateral to the haematoma was significantly higher compared to the contralateral site at 4h (p<0.0005), while U-74389G significantly reduced the number of TNF-? immunopositive neurons, ipsilateral to the haematoma, at 4h (p=0.002); at 24h, TNF-? immunopositive neurons were found significantly lower in the control group ipsilateral to the haematoma in comparison to 4h timepoint(p<0.0005). The number of IL-1? immunopositive neurons at 4h after the hematoma induction was significantly higher ipsilateral to the haematoma site (p<0.0005). U-74389G had no statistical significant effect. TNF-? and IL-1?, increase in neurons, 4h after the haematoma induction, ipsilateral to the haematoma site. The administration of the antioxidant compound U-74389G, results in early (at 4h) decrease of TNF-? immunopositive neurons but shows no statistical significant effect to IL-1? immunopossitive neurons. PMID:25916578

  6. High virulence differences among phylogenetically distinct isolates of the fish rhabdovirus viral hemorrhagic septicaemia virus are not explained by variability of the surface glycoprotein G or the non-virion protein Nv.

    PubMed

    Einer-Jensen, Katja; Harmache, Abdallah; Biacchesi, Stéphane; Bremont, Michel; Stegmann, Anders; Lorenzen, Niels

    2014-02-01

    Viral hemorrhagic septicaemia virus (VHSV) is an important viral pathogen in European rainbow trout farming. Isolates from wild marine fish and freshwater trout farms show highly different virulence profiles: isolates from marine fish species cause little or no mortality in rainbow trout following experimental waterborne challenge, whilst challenge with rainbow trout isolates results in high levels of mortality. Phylogenetic analyses have revealed that the highly virulent trout-derived isolates from freshwater farms have evolved from VHSV isolates from marine fish host species over the past 60 years. Recent isolates from rainbow trout reared in marine zones show intermediate virulence. The present study aimed to identify molecular virulence markers that could be used to classify VHSV isolates according to their ability to cause disease in rainbow trout. By a reverse genetics approach using a VHSV-related novirhabdovirus [infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus (IHNV)], four chimaeric IHNV-VHSV recombinant viruses were generated. These chimaeric viruses included substitution of the IHNV glyco- (G) or non-structural (Nv) protein with their counterparts from either a trout-derived or a marine VHSV strain. Comparative challenge experiments in rainbow trout fingerlings revealed similar levels of survival induced by the recombinant (r)IHNV-VHSV chimaeric viruses regardless of whether the G or Nv genes originated from VHSV isolated from a marine fish species or from rainbow trout. Interestingly, recombinant IHNV gained higher virulence following substitution of the G gene with those of the VHSV strains, whilst the opposite was the case following substitution of the Nv genes. PMID:24189623

  7. Expert consultation on risk factors for introduction of infectious pathogens into fish farms.

    PubMed

    Oidtmann, Birgit C; Peeler, Edmund J; Thrush, Mark A; Cameron, Angus R; Reese, R Allan; Pearce, Fiona M; Dunn, Peter; Lyngstad, Trude M; Tavornpanich, Saraya; Brun, Edgar; Stärk, Katharina D C

    2014-08-01

    An expert consultation was conducted to provide quantitative parameters required to inform risk-based surveillance of aquaculture holdings for selected infectious hazards. The hazards were four fish diseases endemic in some or several European countries: infectious salmon anaemia (ISA), viral haemorrhagic septicaemia (VHS), infectious haematopoietic necrosis (IHN), and koi herpes virus disease (KHD). Experts were asked to provide estimates for the relative importance of 5 risk themes for the hazard to be introduced into and infect susceptible fish at the destination. The 5 risk themes were: (1) live fish and egg movements; (2) exposure via water; (3) on-site processing; (4) short distance mechanical transmission and (5) distance independent mechanical transmission. The experts also provided parameter estimates for hazard transmission pathways within the themes. The expert consultation was undertaken in a 2 step approach: an online survey followed by an expert consultation meeting. The expert opinion indicated that live fish movements and exposure via water were the major relevant risk themes. Experts were recruited from several European countries and thus covered a range of farming systems. Therefore, the outputs from the expert consultation have relevance for the European context. PMID:24780587

  8. Field evidence for mechanical transmission of rabbit haemorrhagic disease virus (RHDV) by flies (Diptera:Calliphoridae) among wild rabbits in Australia.

    PubMed

    Asgari, S; Hardy, J R; Sinclair, R G; Cooke, B D

    1998-04-01

    Field collected flies were screened for the presence of rabbit haemorrhagic disease virus (RHDV) by applying reverse transcriptase PCR (RT-PCR) in which primers specific to the capsid protein of the virus were used. The virus was detected in flies from locations where rabbit haemorrhagic disease (RHD) was reported and also soon after the release of RHDV in a 'clean' area. Oral and/or anal excretions of flies (flyspots) were found to contain viable virus and oral inoculation of rabbits revealed that a single flyspot was able to cause RHD. We conclude that flyspots are a major potential source of the virus for oral or conjunctival transmission of the virus to rabbits. PMID:9696121

  9. Clinical manifestations and case management of Ebola haemorrhagic fever caused by a newly identified virus strain, Bundibugyo, Uganda, 2007-2008.

    PubMed

    Roddy, Paul; Howard, Natasha; Van Kerkhove, Maria D; Lutwama, Julius; Wamala, Joseph; Yoti, Zabulon; Colebunders, Robert; Palma, Pedro Pablo; Sterk, Esther; Jeffs, Benjamin; Van Herp, Michel; Borchert, Matthias

    2012-01-01

    A confirmed Ebola haemorrhagic fever (EHF) outbreak in Bundibugyo, Uganda, November 2007-February 2008, was caused by a putative new species (Bundibugyo ebolavirus). It included 93 putative cases, 56 laboratory-confirmed cases, and 37 deaths (CFR?=?25%). Study objectives are to describe clinical manifestations and case management for 26 hospitalised laboratory-confirmed EHF patients. Clinical findings are congruous with previously reported EHF infections. The most frequently experienced symptoms were non-bloody diarrhoea (81%), severe headache (81%), and asthenia (77%). Seven patients reported or were observed with haemorrhagic symptoms, six of whom died. Ebola care remains difficult due to the resource-poor setting of outbreaks and the infection-control procedures required. However, quality data collection is essential to evaluate case definitions and therapeutic interventions, and needs improvement in future epidemics. Organizations usually involved in EHF case management have a particular responsibility in this respect. PMID:23285243

  10. Characterization of the genes encoding two of the major capsid proteins of epizootic haemorrhagic disease virus indicates a close genetic relationship to bluetongue virus

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hiroyuki Iwata; Takehisa Chuma; Polly Roy

    1992-01-01

    The sequences of the genes of two of the major capsid proteins of epizootic haemorrhagic disease virus sero- type 1 (EHDV-1, Orbivirus genus, Reoviridae) have been determined by analyses of cDNA clones repre- senting the L2 and $7 RNA segments. The EHDV-1 $7 RNA segment, which encodes the VP7 core protein, is 1162 nucleotides in length and has the capacity

  11. Immunohistochemical detection of IgM and IgG in lung tissue of dogs with leptospiral pulmonary haemorrhage syndrome (LPHS).

    PubMed

    Schuller, Simone; Callanan, John J; Worrall, Sheila; Francey, Thierry; Schweighauser, Ariane; Kohn, Barbara; Klopfleisch, Robert; Posthaus, Horst; Nally, Jarlath E

    2015-06-01

    Leptospiral pulmonary haemorrhage syndrome (LPHS) is a severe form of leptospirosis. Pathogenic mechanisms are poorly understood. Lung tissues from 26 dogs with LPHS, 5 dogs with pulmonary haemorrhage due to other causes and 6 healthy lungs were labelled for IgG (n=26), IgM (n=25) and leptospiral antigens (n=26). Three general staining patterns for IgG/IgM were observed in lungs of dogs with LPHS with most tissues showing more than one staining pattern: (1) alveolar septal wall staining, (2) staining favouring alveolar surfaces and (3) staining of intra-alveolar fluid. Healthy control lung showed no staining, whereas haemorrhagic lung from dogs not infected with Leptospira showed staining of intra-alveolar fluid and occasionally alveolar septa. Leptospiral antigens were not detected. We conclude that deposition of IgG/IgM is demonstrable in the majority of canine lungs with naturally occurring LPHS, similar to what has been described in other species. Our findings suggest involvement of the host humoral immunity in the pathogenesis of LPHS and provide further evidence to support the dog as a natural disease model for human LPHS. PMID:25963899

  12. Clinical decision-making: midwifery students' recognition of, and response to, post partum haemorrhage in the simulation environment

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background This paper reports the findings of a study of how midwifery students responded to a simulated post partum haemorrhage (PPH). Internationally, 25% of maternal deaths are attributed to severe haemorrhage. Although this figure is far higher in developing countries, the risk to maternal wellbeing and child health problem means that all midwives need to remain vigilant and respond appropriately to early signs of maternal deterioration. Methods Simulation using a patient actress enabled the research team to investigate the way in which 35 midwifery students made decisions in a dynamic high fidelity PPH scenario. The actress wore a birthing suit that simulated blood loss and a flaccid uterus on palpation. The scenario provided low levels of uncertainty and high levels of relevant information. The student's response to the scenario was videoed. Immediately after, they were invited to review the video, reflect on their performance and give a commentary as to what affected their decisions. The data were analysed using Dimensional Analysis. Results The students' clinical management of the situation varied considerably. Students struggled to prioritise their actions where more than one response was required to a clinical cue and did not necessarily use mnemonics as heuristic devices to guide their actions. Driven by a response to single cues they also showed a reluctance to formulate a diagnosis based on inductive and deductive reasoning cycles. This meant they did not necessarily introduce new hypothetical ideas against which they might refute or confirm a diagnosis and thereby eliminate fixation error. Conclusions The students response demonstrated that a number of clinical skills require updating on a regular basis including: fundal massage technique, the use of emergency standing order drugs, communication and delegation of tasks to others in an emergency and working independently until help arrives. Heuristic devices helped the students to evaluate their interventions to illuminate what else could be done whilst they awaited the emergency team. They did not necessarily serve to prompt the students' or help them plan care prospectively. The limitations of the study are critically explored along with the pedagogic implications for initial training and continuing professional development. PMID:22443712

  13. A Novel SMAD4 Mutation Causing Severe Juvenile Polyposis Syndrome with Protein Losing Enteropathy, Immunodeficiency, and Hereditary Haemorrhagic Telangiectasia.

    PubMed

    Johansson, Joel; Sahin, Christofer; Pestoff, Rebecka; Ignatova, Simone; Forsberg, Pia; Edsjö, Anders; Ekstedt, Mattias; Stenmark Askmalm, Marie

    2015-01-01

    Juvenile polyposis syndrome (JPS) is a rare genetic disorder characterized by juvenile polyps of the gastrointestinal tract. We present a new pathogenic mutation of the SMAD4 gene and illustrate the need for a multidisciplinary health care approach to facilitate the correct diagnosis. The patient, a 47-year-old Caucasian woman, was diagnosed with anaemia at the age of 12. During the following 30 years, she developed numerous gastrointestinal polyps. The patient underwent several operations, and suffered chronic abdominal pain, malnutrition, and multiple infections. Screening of the SMAD4 gene revealed a novel, disease-causing mutation. In 2012, the patient suffered hypoalbuminemia and a large polyp in the small bowel was found. Gamma globulin was given but the patient responded with fever and influenza-like symptoms and refused more treatment. The patient underwent surgery in 2014 and made an uneventful recovery. At follow-up two months later albumin was 38?g/L and IgG was 6.9?g/L. Accurate diagnosis is essential for medical care. For patients with complex symptomatology, often with rare diseases, this is best provided by multidisciplinary teams including representatives from clinical genetics. Patients with a SMAD4 mutation should be followed up both for JPS and haemorrhagic hereditary telangiectasia and may develop protein loosing enteropathy and immunodeficiency. PMID:25705527

  14. Postpartum Pyomyoma, a Rare Complication of Sepsis Associated with Chorioamnionitis and Massive Postpartum Haemorrhage Treated with an Intrauterine Balloon

    PubMed Central

    Kaler, Mandeep; Gailer, Ruth; Iskaros, Joseph; David, Anna L.

    2015-01-01

    We report the successful treatment of a postpartum pyomyoma, a rare but serious complication of uterine leiomyomata in a 28-year-old primigravida. The patient was treated for an Escherichia Coli (E. Coli) urinary tract infection (UTI) at 16 weeks of gestation. She had asymptomatic short cervical length on ultrasound scan at 20 weeks that was managed conservatively due to the presence of further UTI and received antibiotics. She was known to have a left sided intramural leiomyoma. She presented with abdominal pain and vaginal bleeding at 23+1 weeks of gestation and the next day she had spontaneous vaginal delivery and collapsed with E. Coli septic shock, massive postpartum haemorrhage, and disseminated intravascular coagulation and was successfully treated with oxytocic drugs, a Rusch intrauterine balloon, and intravenous antibiotics. Eleven days postnatally she re-presented with systemic sepsis and was treated for retained products of conception. Sepsis persisted and investigations showed a postpartum pyomyoma that was initially managed with intravenous antibiotics to avoid surgery. Ultimately she required laparotomy, drainage of pyomyoma, and myomectomy. Postoperative recovery was good and the patient had a successful pregnancy two years later. PMID:26199774

  15. Mesna and furosemide for prevention of cyclophosphamide-induced sterile haemorrhagic cystitis in dogs--a retrospective study.

    PubMed

    Laberke, S; Zenker, I; Hirschberger, J

    2014-03-01

    Sterile haemorrhagic cystitis (SHC) is a possible side effect of cyclophosphamide which can severely impact quality of life. Mesna and diuresis are effective in human medicine to prevent SHC. The aim of the present study was to compare the efficacy of mesna versus diuresis with furosemide in preventing SHC in dogs treated with cyclophosphamide within a multidrug chemotherapy induction protocol for malignant lymphoma. Medical records of dogs treated at the Clinic of Small Animal Medicine, Munich, between 1997 and 2009 were analysed retrospectively. Of the 131 dogs included, 33 received no prophylaxis (group 1), 43 received mesna (group 2), and 55 received furosemide (group 3). Age, gender, breed, bodyweight, body surface area, dose and application method of cyclophosphamide, and the method of SHC prophylaxis were compared between dogs with and without SHC. Six dogs (4.6 per cent) developed SHC. The incidence of SHC in groups 1, 2 and 3 was 4/33 (12.1 per cent), 1/43 (2.3 per cent), and 1/55 (1.8 per cent), respectively. Dogs receiving either mesna or furosemide were significantly less likely to develop SHC (P=0.03). Otherwise no significant differences were found. In conclusion, this study demonstrates the efficacy and the medical indication of mesna and furosemide for prevention of cyclophosphamide-induced SHC. PMID:24463993

  16. Haemorrhagic pneumonia in sled dogs caused by Streptococcus equi subsp. zooepidemicus - one fatality and two full recoveries: a case report

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    In spite of yearly vaccination, outbreaks of canine infectious respiratory disease are periodically seen amongst domestic dogs. These infections compromise host defense mechanisms, and, when combined with other stressful events, allow opportunistic pathogens like Streptococcus equi subsp. zooepidemicus to create serious disease. Early recognition and treatment are tremendously important for a successful outcome in these cases. A polyvalent vaccine was given to 22 racing dogs three days after a competition, followed by two days of rest, and then the dogs were returned to regular training. Coughing was noticed among the dogs four days after immunisation. Three days after this outbreak one of the dogs was unusually silent and was found dead the next morning. Simultaneously two other dogs developed haemorrhagic expectorate, depression and dyspnea and were brought in to the veterinary hospital. Streptococcus equi subsp. zooepidemicus was isolated in pure culture from all three cases. They were treated and rehabilitated successfully, and won a sledge race three months later. This paper discusses the necropsy results, treatment regime, rehabilitation and the chronology of vaccination, stressful events and disease. PMID:24020788

  17. Evolution of rabbit haemorrhagic disease virus (RHDV) in the European rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus) from the Iberian Peninsula.

    PubMed

    Muller, A; Freitas, J; Silva, E; Le Gall-Reculé, G; Zwingelstein, F; Abrantes, J; Esteves, P J; Alves, P C; van der Loo, W; Kolodziejek, J; Nowotny, N; Thompson, G

    2009-03-30

    To date information on rabbit haemorrhagic disease virus (RHDV) in Spain and Portugal has been scarce, although the disease is endemic and continues to have a considerable impact on species conservation and hunting industry. We analysed RHDVs obtained between 1994 and 2007 at different geographic locations in Portugal (40 samples), Spain (3 samples) and France (4 samples) from wild European rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus) that succumbed to the disease. Phylogenetic analyses based on partial VP60 gene sequences allowed a grouping of these RHDVs into three groups, termed "Iberian" Groups IB1, IB2 and IB3. Interestingly, these three Iberian groups clustered separately, though not far from earlier RHDVs of Genogroup 1 (containing e.g., strain "AST89"), but clearly distinct from globally described RHDV strains of Genogroups 2-6. This result, supported by a bootstrap value of 76%, gives rise to the hypothesis that the virus evolved independently since its introduction to wild rabbit populations on the Iberian Peninsula, with the Pyrenees acting as a natural barrier to rabbit and hence to virus dispersal. No differences were observed in RHDV sequences obtained from geographic regions where the rabbit subspecies O. c. algirus prevails compared with those obtained from O. c. cuniculus. PMID:18977620

  18. Epizootic haemorrhagic disease virus in Reunion Island: evidence for the circulation of a new serotype and associated risk factors.

    PubMed

    Cętre-Sossah, Catherine; Roger, Matthieu; Sailleau, Corinne; Rieau, Lorčne; Zientara, Stephan; Bréard, Emmanuel; Viarouge, Cyril; Beral, Marina; Esnault, Olivier; Cardinale, Eric

    2014-06-01

    Bluetongue virus (BTV) and epizootic haemorrhagic disease virus (EHDV) are members of the Orbivirus genus of the Reoviridae family transmitted between ruminants by the bites of Culicoides midges. BTV went undetected in Reunion Island between its first documented emergence in 1979 and two other serious outbreaks with both BTV-3 and EHDV-6 in 2003, and both EHDV-6 and BTV-2 in 2009. In these outbreaks, infected animals developed symptoms including hyperthermia, anorexia, congestion, prostration and nasal discharge. Samples were collected in 2011 to assess the prevalence of BT and EHD in ruminants native to Reunion Island by serological analysis. A cross-sectional study was undertaken on 67 farms, including a total of 276 cattle, 142 sheep and 71 goats. The prevalence rates of BT and EHD were 58% (95% CI [54.03-62.94]) and 38% (95% CI [33.85-42.63], respectively. Two further suspected outbreaks were confirmed to involve EHDV and BTV/EHDV. A new circulating EHDV serotype 1 of unknown origin was isolated. Our results confirm that the prevalence of both BT and EHD is high and that both are likely currently circulating. A high risk of BTV and EHDV infections was associated with the introduction of ruminants from neighbouring farms without quarantine, the presence of organic and other waste on the farm, and treatment against ectoparasites and insects. PMID:24636165

  19. Transmission of haemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome in china and the role of climate factors: a review.

    PubMed

    Hansen, Alana; Cameron, Scott; Liu, Qiyong; Sun, Yehuan; Weinstein, Philip; Williams, Craig; Han, Gil-Soo; Bi, Peng

    2015-04-01

    Haemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS) is a rodent-borne disease that poses a serious public health threat in China. HFRS is caused by hantaviruses, mainly Seoul virus in urban areas and Hantaan virus in agricultural areas. Although preventive measures including vaccination programs and rodent control measures have resulted in a decline in cases in recent years, there has been an increase in incidence in some areas and new endemic areas have emerged. This review summarises the recent literature relating to the effects of climatic factors on the incidence of HFRS in China and discusses future research directions. Temperature, precipitation and humidity affect crop yields, rodent breeding patterns and disease transmission, and these can be influenced by a changing climate. Detailed surveillance of infections caused by Hantaan and Seoul viruses and further research on the viral agents will aid in interpretation of spatiotemporal patterns and a better understanding of the environmental and ecological drivers of HFRS amid China's rapidly urbanising landscape and changing climate. PMID:25704595

  20. The liver in hereditary haemorrhagic teleangiectasia: an inborn error of vascular structure with multiple manifestations: a reappraisal.

    PubMed Central

    Martini, G A

    1978-01-01

    Hereditary haemorrhagic teleangiectasia (Rendu-Osler-Weber disease) is an inborn error of vascular structure with multiple manifestations. Its incidence is about 1-2:100 000 in the European population. The incidence of telangiectases and/or fistula formation was estimated to be 1 in 10 carriers of the Osler trait. The findings in the family reported herewith suggest a much higher incidence if angiography is more frequently performed. Apart from the skin and mucous membrane, teleangiectases and/or arteriovenous fistulas may be present in the lungs, intestinal tract, spleen, kidney, brain, and bones. The liver apparently is more involved than was orginally suspected. The vascular derangement includes teleangiectases, arteriovenous fistulas, and connective tissue formation with fibrosis and atypical cirrhosis. In intestinal bleeding laser coagulation seems to be very efficient. The pathogenesis of teleangiectases is not known but involves several factors such as special formation of venules, capillaries and arterioles, abnormal perivascular connective tissue and endothelial cells. Images Fig. 2 Fig. 3 PMID:308029

  1. Predictive model for patients with poor-grade subarachnoid haemorrhage in 30-day observation: a 9-year cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Szklener, Sebastian; Melges, Anna; Korchut, Agnieszka; Zaluska, Wojciech; Trojanowski, Tomasz; Rejdak, Robert; Rejdak, Konrad

    2015-01-01

    Objective The purpose of this study was to identify prognostic factors and build the predictive model based on poor-grade subarachnoid haemorrhage (SAH) population received only supportive symptomatic treatment. Design Prospective observational cohort study. Setting Intensive care unit at the Clinical Department of Neurology. Participants A total of 101 patients with spontaneous SAH disqualified from neurosurgical operative treatment due to poor clinical condition. Data were collected over a 9-year period. Outcome measures Unfavourable outcome was defined as a modified Rankin Score ?5 at 30?days of observation. Results Multivariable logistic regression analysis indicated the World Federation of Neurosurgical Societies Scale score, increasing age, Fisher grade and admission leucocytosis as independent predictive factors. The proposed scale subdivides the study population into four prognostic groups with significantly different outcomes: grade I: probability of favourable outcome 89.9%; grade II: 47.5%; grade III: 4.2%; grade IV: 0%. The receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve for the prediction of outcome performed by the new scale had an area under the curve (AUC)=0.910 (excellent accuracy). Conclusions Unfavourable outcome in non-operated patients with poor-grade SAH is strongly predicted by traditional unmodifiable factors such as age, amount of bleeding in CT, level of consciousness as well as leucocytosis. A new predictive scale based on the above parameters seems to reliably predict the outcome and may contribute to more effective planning of therapeutic management in patients with poor-grade SAH. PMID:26070797

  2. Mortality event in freshwater drum Aplodinotus grunniens from Lake Ontario, Canada, associated with viral haemorrhagic septicemia virus, type IV.

    PubMed

    Lumsden, J S; Morrison, B; Yason, C; Russell, S; Young, K; Yazdanpanah, A; Huber, P; Al-Hussinee, L; Stone, D; Way, K

    2007-06-29

    A mortality event primarily affecting freshwater drum Aplodinotus grunniens was noted during April and May 2005 in the Bay of Quinte, Lake Ontario, Canada. A conservative estimate of the number of dead drum was approximately 100 metric tonnes. Large numbers of dead round goby Neogobius melanostomus were also seen, as well as a few muskellunge Esox masquinongy. In the drum, there was a consistent histological pattern of variably severe panvasculitis, a necrotising myocarditis, meningoencephalitis and a segmental enteritis. Moderate numbers of bullet-shaped viral particles consistent with a rhabdovirus were identified by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) in affected heart tissue. Following primary isolation from pooled tissues on fathead minnow (FHM) cells, a morphologically similar virus, approximately 165 x 60 nm in size, was visualised. Identification of the isolate as viral haemorrhagic septicemia virus (VHSV) was confirmed by enzyme immunoassay and by polymerase chain reaction. An appropriately sized product (468 bp) of the G-glycoprotein gene (nucleotides [nt] 340 to 807) was generated with RNA extracted from FHM cell supernatant. Analysis of a 360 nt partial glycoprotein gene sequence (nt 360 to 720) indicated a 96.4 to 97.2% nucleotide identity with known strains of North American (NA) VHSV. Analysis using Neighbour-joining distance methods assigned the isolate to the same lineage as the NA and Japanese isolates (Genogroup IV). However, there was sufficient sequence divergence from known NA VHSV isolates to suggest that this isolate may represent a distinct subgroup. The effects of ongoing mortality in freshwater drum and in multiple species during spring 2006 suggest that this newly recognised virus in the Great Lakes will have continued impact in the near future. PMID:17760383

  3. Prediction of two month modified Rankin Scale with an ordinal prediction model in patients with aneurysmal subarachnoid haemorrhage

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Aneurysmal subarachnoid haemorrhage (aSAH) is a devastating event with a frequently disabling outcome. Our aim was to develop a prognostic model to predict an ordinal clinical outcome at two months in patients with aSAH. Methods We studied patients enrolled in the International Subarachnoid Aneurysm Trial (ISAT), a randomized multicentre trial to compare coiling and clipping in aSAH patients. Several models were explored to estimate a patient's outcome according to the modified Rankin Scale (mRS) at two months after aSAH. Our final model was validated internally with bootstrapping techniques. Results The study population comprised of 2,128 patients of whom 159 patients died within 2 months (8%). Multivariable proportional odds analysis identified World Federation of Neurosurgical Societies (WFNS) grade as the most important predictor, followed by age, sex, lumen size of the aneurysm, Fisher grade, vasospasm on angiography, and treatment modality. The model discriminated moderately between those with poor and good mRS scores (c statistic = 0.65), with minor optimism according to bootstrap re-sampling (optimism corrected c statistic = 0.64). Conclusion We presented a calibrated and internally validated ordinal prognostic model to predict two month mRS in aSAH patients who survived the early stage up till a treatment decision. Although generalizability of the model is limited due to the selected population in which it was developed, this model could eventually be used to support clinical decision making after external validation. Trial Registration International Standard Randomised Controlled Trial, Number ISRCTN49866681 PMID:20920243

  4. Primary postpartum haemorrhage in women with von Willebrand disease or carriership of haemophilia despite specialised care: a retrospective survey.

    PubMed

    Stoof, S C M; van Steenbergen, H W; Zwagemaker, A; Sanders, Y V; Cannegieter, S C; Duvekot, J J; Leebeek, F W G; Peters, M; Kruip, M J H A; Eikenboom, J

    2015-07-01

    Pregnant women with bleeding disorders require specialised peripartum care to prevent postpartum haemorrhage (PPH). If third trimester coagulation factor levels are <0.50 IU mL(-1) , prophylactic treatment is indicated and administered according to international guidelines. However, optimal dose and duration are unknown and bleeding may still occur. The aim of this study was to investigate the outcome in women with von Willebrand disease (VWD) or haemophilia carriership treated according to current practice guidelines. From the period 2002-2011, 185 deliveries in 154 VWD women or haemophilia carriers were retrospectively included. Data on blood loss, bleeding disorder characteristics and obstetric risk factors were obtained. The outcome was primary PPH, defined as blood loss ?500 mL within 24 h postpartum and severe PPH as blood loss ?1000 mL. Primary PPH was observed in 62 deliveries (34%), 14 (8%) of which resulted in severe PPH. In 26 deliveries prophylactic treatment was administered due to factor levels below the 0.50 IU mL(-1) cut-off in the third trimester, 14 of which (54%) were complicated by PPH. We found an increased PPH risk in deliveries given prophylactic treatment compared with deliveries without (OR 2.7, 95% CI 1.2-6.3). In conclusion, PPH incidence was highest in deliveries with the lowest factor levels in the third trimester. Currently, delivery outcome in women with bleeding disorders is unsatisfactory, given the high PPH incidence despite specialised care. Future studies are required to optimise management of deliveries in this patient population. PMID:25688733

  5. Directional next-generation RNA sequencing and examination of premature termination codon mutations in endoglin/hereditary haemorrhagic telangiectasia.

    PubMed

    Govani, F S; Giess, A; Mollet, I G; Begbie, M E; Jones, M D; Game, L; Shovlin, C L

    2013-04-01

    Hereditary haemorrhagic telangiectasia (HHT) is a disease characterised by abnormal vascular structures, and most commonly caused by mutations in ENG, ACVRL1 or SMAD4 encoding endothelial cell-expressed proteins involved in TGF-? superfamily signalling. The majority of mutations reported on the HHT mutation database are predicted to lead to stop codons, either due to frameshifts or direct nonsense substitutions. The proportion is higher for ENG (67%) and SMAD4 (65%) than for ACVRL1 (42%), p < 0.0001. Here, by focussing on ENG, we report why conventional views of these mutations may need to be revised. Of the 111 stop codon-generating ENG mutations, on ExPASy translation, all except one were premature termination codons (PTCs), sited at least 50-55 bp upstream of the final exon-exon boundary of the main endoglin isoform, L-endoglin. This strongly suggests that the mutated RNA species will undergo nonsense-mediated decay. We provide new in vitro expression data to support dominant negative activity of stable truncated endoglin proteins but suggest these will not generate HHT: the single natural stop codon mutation in L-endoglin (sited within 50-55 nucleotides of the final exon-exon boundary) is unlikely to generate functional protein since it replaces the entire transmembrane domain, as would 8 further natural stop codon mutations, if the minor S-endoglin isoform were implicated in HHT pathogenesis. Finally, next-generation RNA sequencing data of 7 different RNA libraries from primary human endothelial cells demonstrate that multiple intronic regions of ENG are transcribed. The potential consequences of heterozygous deletions or duplications of such regions are discussed. These data support the haploinsufficiency model for HHT pathogenesis, explain why final exon mutations have not been detected to date in HHT, emphasise the potential need for functional examination of non-PTC-generating mutations, and lead to proposals for an alternate stratification system of mutational types for HHT genotype-phenotype correlations. PMID:23801935

  6. Reporting errors, incidence and risk factors for postpartum haemorrhage and progression to severe PPH: a prospective observational study

    PubMed Central

    Briley, A; Seed, PT; Tydeman, G; Ballard, H; Waterstone, M; Sandall, J; Poston, L; Tribe, RM; Bewley, S

    2014-01-01

    Objective To quantify reporting errors, measure incidence of postpartum haemorrhage (PPH) and define risk factors for PPH (?500 ml) and progression to severe PPH (?1500 ml). Design Prospective observational study. Setting Two UK maternity services. Population Women giving birth between 1 August 2008 and 31 July 2009 (n = 10 213). Methods Weighted sampling with sequential adjustment by multivariate analysis. Main outcome measures Incidence and risk factors for PPH and progression to severe PPH. Results Errors in transcribing blood volume were frequent (14%) with evidence of threshold preference and avoidance. The incidences of PPH ?500, ?1500 and ?2500 ml were 33.7% (95% CI 31.2–36.2), 3.9% (95% CI 3.3–4.6) and 0.8% (95% CI 0.6–1.0). New independent risk factors predicting PPH ? 500 ml included Black African ethnicity (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] 1.77, 95% CI 1.31–2.39) and assisted conception (aOR 2.93, 95% CI 1.30–6.59). Modelling demonstrated how prepregnancy- and pregnancy-acquired factors may be mediated through intrapartum events, including caesarean section, elective (aOR 24.4, 95% CI 5.53–108.00) or emergency (aOR 40.5, 95% CI 16.30–101.00), and retained placenta (aOR 21.3, 95% CI 8.31–54.7). New risk factors were identified for progression to severe PPH, including index of multiple deprivation (education, skills and training) (aOR 1.75, 95% CI 1.11–2.74), multiparity without caesarean section (aOR 1.65, 95% CI 1.20–2.28) and administration of steroids for fetal reasons (aOR 2.00, 95% CI 1.24–3.22). Conclusions Sequential, interacting, traditional and new risk factors explain the highest rates of PPH and severe PPH reported to date. PMID:24517180

  7. Protocol for a systematic review of the clinical effectiveness of pre-hospital blood components compared to other resuscitative fluids in patients with major traumatic haemorrhage

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background There is growing interest in the use of blood components for pre-hospital resuscitation of patients with major traumatic haemorrhage. It has been speculated that early resuscitation with blood components may have benefits in terms of treating trauma-induced coagulopathy, which in turn may influence survival. The proposed systematic review will evaluate the evidence on the clinical effectiveness of pre-hospital blood components (red blood cells and/or plasma or whole blood), in both civilian and military settings, compared with other resuscitation strategies in patients with major traumatic haemorrhage. Methods/design Standard systematic review methods aimed at minimising bias will be employed for study identification, selection and data extraction. General medical and specialist databases will be searched; the search strategy will combine terms for the population, intervention and setting. Studies will be selected for review if the population includes adult patients with major traumatic haemorrhage who receive blood components in a pre-hospital setting (civilian or military). Systematic reviews, randomised and non-randomised controlled trials and controlled observational studies will be included. Uncontrolled studies will be considered depending on the volume of controlled evidence. Quality assessment will be tailored to different study designs. Both patient related and surrogate outcomes will be considered. Synthesis is likely to be primarily narrative, but meta-analyses and subgroup analyses will be undertaken where clinical and methodological homogeneity exists. Discussion Given the increasing use by emergency services of blood components for pre-hospital resuscitation, this is a timely systematic review, which will attempt to clarify the evidence base for this practice. As far as the authors are aware, the proposed systematic review will be the first to address this topic. Systematic review registration PROSPERO CRD42014013794 PMID:25344301

  8. Influence of ACTH-(1-24) on free radical levels in the blood of haemorrhage-shocked rats: direct ex vivo detection by electron spin resonance spectrometry.

    PubMed Central

    Guarini, S.; Bazzani, C.; Ricigliano, G. M.; Bini, A.; Tomasi, A.; Bertolini, A.

    1996-01-01

    1. The influence of ACTH-(1-24) on the blood levels of highly reactive free radicals in haemorrhagic shock was studied in rats. 2. Volume-controlled haemorrhagic shock was produced in adult rats under general anaesthesia (urethane, 1.25 g kg-1 intraperitoneally) by stepwise bleeding until mean arterial pressure stabilized at 20-23 mmHg. Rats were intravenously (i.v.) treated with either ACTH-(1-24) (160 micrograms kg-1 in a volume of 1 ml kg-1) or equivolume saline. Free radicals were measured in arterial blood by electron spin resonance spectrometry using an ex vivo method that avoids injection of the spin-trapping agent (alpha-phenyl-N-tert-butylnitrone). 3. Blood levels of free radicals were 6490 +/- 273 [arbitrary units (a.u.) ml-1 whole blood, before starting bleeding, and 30762 +/- 2650 after bleeding termination (means +/- s.e. mean of the values obtained in all experimental groups). All rats treated with saline died within 30 min, their blood levels of free radicals being 35450 +/- 5450 a.u. ml-1 blood, 15 min after treatment. Treatment with ACTH-(1-24) produced a rapid and sustained restoration of arterial pressure, pulse pressure, heart rate and respiratory function, with 100% survival at the end of the observation period (2 h); this was associated with an impressive reduction in the blood levels of free radicals, that were 12807 +/- 2995, 10462 +/- 2850, 12294 +/- 4120, and 10360 +/- 2080 a.u. ml-1 blood, 15, 30, 60 and 120 min after ACTH-(1-24) administration, respectively. 4. These results provide a direct demonstration that (i) in haemorrhagic shock there is a rapid and massive production of highly reactive free radicals, and that (ii) the sustained restoration of cardiovascular and respiratory functions induced by the i.v. injection of ACTH-(1-24) is associated with a substantial reduction of free radical blood levels. It is suggested that ACTH-(1-24) prevents the burst of free radical generation during blood mobilisation and subsequent tissue reperfusion, and this may be an important component of its mechanism of action in effectively preventing death for haemorrhagic shock. PMID:8872353

  9. A worldwide review of the uses of the uterine compression suture techniques as alternative to hysterectomy in the management of severe post-partum haemorrhage

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. El-hamamy; C. B-lynch

    Abstract Postpartum,haemorrhage,(PPH) is a worldwide,problem. The historical background,dates back to William Smelley’s in the seventeenth,century in his famous,treaty of the theory and,practice of midwifery,in 1752. Changes,in clinical factors and surgical expertise compel,the modern,day,midwife,and,obstetrician to be vigilant in identifying risk factors and,apply appropriate,solution early. The recent confidential enquiry,into maternal,death (why mothers,die (2000–2002)) identifies areas of substandard,care. The rising caesarean,section rate adds

  10. An asymmetrical fenestration of the basilar artery coexisting with two aneurysms in a patient with subarachnoid haemorrhage: case report and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Polguj, M; Majos, M; Topol, M; Majos, A

    2014-05-01

    The vertebrobasilar system is a part of the cerebral arterial circle (circle of Willis), which forms the collateral circulation of the brain. A 75-year-old Caucasian female was admitted to hospital because of a strong headache radiating to the neck. On the basis of a neurological examination, the patient was classified into group III of the Hunt and Hess scale. Subarachnoid haemorrhage and 2 aneurysms of the cerebral arteries were diagnosed during multidetector 64-row computed tomography and angiography. An asymmetrical fenestration of the proximal part of the basilar artery was also observed. The bleeding aneurysm locating at anterior communicating artery was diagnosed and clipped surgically by right fronto-parietal craniotomy. The second aneurysm was located just after the junction of the vertebral arteries on the wall of the basilar artery. The presented case firstly illustrates the asymmetric fenestration of the proximal part of the basilar artery coexisting with subarachnoid haemorrhage and 2 aneurysms of brain arteries. Such observation should increase diagnostic attention in the detection of possible associated aneurysms and can help in preventing complications during all endovascular treatment procedures. PMID:24902104

  11. [Twenty-two months old girl with haemorrhagic gastritis as a complication after the nonsteroid anti-inflammatory drugs application--case report].

    PubMed

    Mierzwa, Grazyna; Jakubczyk, Marlena; Parzecka, Monika; Swincow, Grazyna; Pop?awski, Cezary

    2008-01-01

    The aim of case report was to pay attention for possibility of side effects of nonsteroid anti-inflammatory drugs. Child of young and healthy parents was born after normal pregnancy, natural delivery. The disease started in two days before the admission, child had fever, cough and sneezing. Mother gave her two doses of ibuprofen. On the time of admission general state of patient was moderate; girl was apathic. In physical examination features of upper respiratory tract infection were shown. In the course of treatment antibiotic and symptomatic drugs including paracetamol (3x5 ml) were delivered. During the second day of treatment child had no appetite, started to vomit with fresh and haemolized blood. Parenteral hydratation was started. Emergency gastroscopy was done and features of haemorrhagic gastritis were shown. Anti-inflammatory drugs were no more used and delivery of omeprazole was started. Parenteral hydratation was continued. General state of patient was better. In the sixth day after bleeding child was excripted in good general state with order of use of omeprazole. Parents were informed about the restriction of anti-inflammatory drugs use. The aim of case report was to pay attention that haemorrhagic gastritis may be one of side effects of nonsteroid anti-inflammatory drugs used accordingly to actual standards. PMID:18634247

  12. An S-VHS compatible 1\\/3\\

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jan T. Bosiers; Edwin Roks; Herman L. Peek; Agnes C. Kleimann; Arjen G. van der Sijde

    1995-01-01

    A Frame-Transfer CCD imager for consumer applications has been developed with low dark current by using hole accumulation at the entire Si-SiO2 interface of the image pixel during integration, called \\

  13. Management of variceal haemorrhage.

    PubMed Central

    Williams, S. G.; Westaby, D.

    1994-01-01

    Fig 2 gives an algorithm for the treatment of bleeding oesophageal varices. Initial resuscitation of the patient is of paramount importance, ideally followed by early interventional endoscopy. Recent advances in available endoscopic techniques enable the endoscopist to suit the therapeutic approach to the clinical situation. Injection sclerotherapy remains the initial treatment of choice in bleeding patients. Endoscopic banding ligation is an alternative, best used in patients who have spontaneously stopped bleeding or as a complementary treatment a few days after the initial session of injection sclerotherapy. The tissue adhesives and thrombin can be used to treat bleeding gastric varices. [table: see text] Should the endoscopic expertise not be available, drug treatment (with somatostatin or octreotide) or balloon tamponade are the treatments of choice. Transjugular intrahepatic portal-systemic stent shunt is a new effective technique, not yet widely available, which has a documented complication rate that has yet to be fully defined. It is a good alternative to surgery as a "rescue" procedure for patients who continue to bleed despite two sessions of endoscopic intervention. PMID:8180541

  14. High infection rate of bank voles (Myodes glareolus) with Puumala virus is associated with a winter outbreak of haemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome in Croatia.

    PubMed

    Tadin, A; Bjedov, L; Margaletic, J; Zibrat, B; Krajinovic, L Cvetko; Svoboda, P; Kurolt, I C; Majetic, Z Stritof; Turk, N; Rode, O Dakovic; Civljak, R; Kuzman, I; Markotic, A

    2014-09-01

    An outbreak of haemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS) started on Medvednica mountain near Zagreb in January 2012. In order to detect the aetiological agent of the disease in small rodents and to make the link with the human outbreak, rodents were trapped at four different altitudes. Using nested RT-PCR, Puumala virus (PUUV) RNA was detected in 41/53 (77·4%) bank voles (Myodes glareolus) and Dobrava virus (DOBV) RNA was found in 6/61 (9·8%) yellow-necked mice (Apodemus flavicollis). Sequence analysis of a 341-nucleotide region of the PUUV S segment, obtained from all infected bank voles and five HFRS patients, showed 98·8-100% sequence similarity, indicating that the patients were probably exposed to PUUV on Medvednica mountain. A very large bank-vole population combined with an extremely high infection rate of PUUV was responsible for this unusual winter outbreak of HFRS in Croatia. PMID:24800636

  15. Epidemiology of rabbit haemorrhagic disease virus in the United Kingdom: evidence for seasonal transmission by both virulent and avirulent modes of infection.

    PubMed Central

    White, P. J.; Trout, R. C.; Moss, S. R.; Desai, A.; Armesto, M.; Forrester, N. L.; Gould, E. A.; Hudson, P. J.

    2004-01-01

    Rabbit haemorrhagic disease virus (RHDV) has killed many millions of wild rabbits in Europe and Australia, but has had little impact in the United Kingdom, despite outbreaks having occurred since 1994. High seroprevalence detected in the absence of associated mortality had suggested the presence of an endemic non-pathogenic strain which may be 'protecting' UK populations. Following the first detailed field study of RHDV epidemiology in the United Kingdom, using mark-recapture with serum sampling, we report that RHDV caused highly prevalent persistent infection in seropositive rabbits in the absence of associated mortality. Furthermore the virus strains responsible could not be distinguished phylogenetically from known pathogenic isolates, and were clearly very different from the only previously identified non-pathogenic strain of RHDV. These findings suggest that many--perhaps most--strains of RHDV may be propagated through both 'pathogenic' and 'non-pathogenic' modes of behaviour. Transmission occurred predominantly during and just after the breeding season. PMID:15188725

  16. Topical timolol for treatment of epistaxis in hereditary haemorrhagic telangiectasia associated with bradycardia: a look at CYP2D6 metabolising variants.

    PubMed

    Epperla, Narendranath; Brilliant, Murray H; Vidaillet, Humberto

    2014-01-01

    A 59-year-old man presented to the emergency department with lightheadedness. He had started intranasal administration of ophthalmic timolol for the prevention of epistaxis associated with hereditary haemorrhagic telangiectasia approximately 3 weeks earlier with excellent response. His heart rate was about half its normal rate, an ECG revealed sinus bradycardia, and it was determined he had significant cardiac issues in his family history. Essentially all other tests were normal. The discontinuation of the intranasal use of timolol resolved any further episodes of lightheadedness and bradycardia. It was determined through genetic testing that he is an intermediate metaboliser of CYP2D6, the main enzyme contributing to the metabolism of timolol. This explains the development of the bradycardia after intranasal timolol use. The metabolising variants of CYP2D6 need to be considered when prescribing medications metabolised by this enzyme, so possible adverse effects can be avoided. PMID:24518395

  17. Fetal intracranial haemorrhages caused by fetal and neonatal alloimmune thrombocytopenia: an observational cohort study of 43 cases from an international multicentre registry

    PubMed Central

    Tiller, Heidi; Kamphuis, Marije M; Flodmark, Olof; Papadogiannakis, Nikos; David, Anna L; Sainio, Susanna; Koskinen, Sinikka; Javela, Kaija; Wikman, Agneta Taune; Kekomaki, Riitta; Kanhai, Humphrey H H; Oepkes, Dick; Husebekk, Anne; Westgren, Magnus

    2013-01-01

    Objective To characterise pregnancies where the fetus or neonate was diagnosed with fetal and neonatal alloimmune thrombocytopenia (FNAIT) and suffered from intracranial haemorrhage (ICH), with special focus on time of bleeding onset. Design Observational cohort study of all recorded cases of ICH caused by FNAIT from the international No IntraCranial Haemorrhage (NOICH) registry during the period 2001–2010. Setting 13 tertiary referral centres from nine countries across the world. Participants 37 mothers and 43 children of FNAIT pregnancies complicated by fetal or neonatal ICH identified from the NOICH registry was included if FNAIT diagnosis and ICH was confirmed. Primary and secondary outcome measures Gestational age at onset of ICH, type of ICH and clinical outcome of ICH were the primary outcome measures. General maternal and neonatal characteristics of pregnancies complicated by fetal/neonatal ICH were secondary outcome measures. Results From a total of 592 FNAIT cases in the registry, 43 confirmed cases of ICH due to FNAIT were included in the study. The majority of bleedings (23/43, 54%) occurred before 28 gestational weeks and often affected the first born child (27/43, 63%). One-third (35%) of the children died within 4?days after delivery. 23 (53%) children survived with severe neurological disabilities and only 5 (12%) were alive and well at time of discharge. Antenatal treatment was not given in most (91%) cases of fetal/neonatal ICH. Conclusions ICH caused by FNAIT often occurs during second trimester and the clinical outcome is poor. In order to prevent ICH caused by FNAIT, at-risk pregnancies must be identified and prevention and/or interventions should start early in the second trimester. PMID:23524102

  18. European freshwater VHSV genotype Ia isolates divide into two distinct subpopulations.

    PubMed

    Kahns, S; Skall, H F; Kaas, R S; Korsholm, H; Bang Jensen, B; Jonstrup, S P; Dodge, M J; Einer-Jensen, K; Stone, D; Olesen, N J

    2012-05-15

    Viral haemorrhagic septicaemia (VHS), caused by the novirhabdovirus VHSV, often leads to significant economic losses to European rainbow trout production. The virus isolates are divided into 4 distinct genotypes with additional subgroups including sublineage Ia, isolates of which are the main source of outbreaks in European rainbow trout farming. A significant portion of Danish rainbow trout farms have been considered endemically infected with VHSV since the first disease outbreak was observed in the 1950s. However, following a series of sanitary programs starting in 1965, VHSV has not been detected in Denmark since January 2009. Full-length G-genes of all Danish VHSV isolates that were submitted for diagnostic analyses in the period 2004-2009 were sequenced and analysed. All 58 Danish isolates from rainbow trout grouped with sublineage Ia isolates. Furthermore, VHSV isolates from infected Danish freshwater catchments appear to have evolved into a distinct clade within sublineage Ia, herein designated clade Ia-1, whereas trout isolates originating from other continental European countries cluster in another distinct clade, designated clade Ia-2. In addition, phylogenetic analyses indicate that VHSV Ia-1 strains have caused a few outbreaks in Germany and the UK. It is likely that viruses have been transmitted from infected site(s) out of the Danish environment, although a direct transmission pathway has not been identified. Furthermore, VHSV Ia-2 isolates seem to have been transmitted to Denmark at least once. Interestingly, one viral isolate possibly persisted in a Danish watershed for nearly 4 yr without detection whereas other subclades of VHSV isolates appear to have been eliminated, probably because of implemented eradication procedures. PMID:22585300

  19. Effects of 5-aminoisoquinolinone, a water-soluble, potent inhibitor of the activity of poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase on the organ injury and dysfunction caused by haemorrhagic shock.

    PubMed

    McDonald, M C; Mota-Filipe, H; Wright, J A; Abdelrahman, M; Threadgill, M D; Thompson, A S; Thiemermann, C

    2000-06-01

    Poly (ADP-ribose) synthetase (PARP) is a nuclear enzyme activated by strand breaks in DNA, which are caused inter alia by reactive oxygen species (ROS). Here we report on (i) a new synthesis of a water-soluble and potent PARP inhibitor, 5-aminoisoquinolinone (5-AIQ) and (ii) investigate the effects of 5-AIQ on the circulatory failure and the organ injury/dysfunction caused by haemorrhage and resuscitation in the anaesthetized rat. Exposure of human cardiac myoblasts (Girardi cells) to hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2), 3 mM for 1 h, n=9) caused a substantial increase in PARP activity. Pre-treatment of these cells with 5-AIQ (1 microM - 1 mM, 10 min prior to H(2)O(2)) caused a concentration-dependent inhibition of PARP activity (IC(50): approximately 0.01 mM, n=6). Haemorrhage and resuscitation resulted (within 4 h after resuscitation) in a delayed fall in blood pressure (circulatory failure) as well as in rises in the serum levels of (i) urea and creatinine (renal dysfunction), (ii) aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), and gamma-glutamyl-transferase (gamma-GT) (liver injury and dysfunction), (iii) lipase (pancreatic injury) and (iv) creatine kinase (CK) (neuromuscular injury) (n=10). Administration (5 min prior to resuscitation of 5-AIQ) (0.03 mg kg(-1) i.v., n=8, or 0.3 mg kg(-1) i.v., n=10) reduced (in a dose-related fashion) the multiple organ injury and dysfunction, but did not affect the circulatory failure, associated with haemorrhagic shock. Thus, 5-AIQ abolishes the multiple organ injury caused by severe haemorrhage and resuscitation. PMID:10864891

  20. Effects of 5-aminoisoquinolinone, a water-soluble, potent inhibitor of the activity of poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase on the organ injury and dysfunction caused by haemorrhagic shock

    PubMed Central

    McDonald, Michelle C; Mota-Filipe, Helder; Wright, James A; Abdelrahman, Maha; Threadgill, Michael D; Thompson, Andrew S; Thiemermann, Christoph

    2000-01-01

    Poly (ADP-ribose) synthetase (PARP) is a nuclear enzyme activated by strand breaks in DNA, which are caused inter alia by reactive oxygen species (ROS). Here we report on (i) a new synthesis of a water-soluble and potent PARP inhibitor, 5-aminoisoquinolinone (5-AIQ) and (ii) investigate the effects of 5-AIQ on the circulatory failure and the organ injury/dysfunction caused by haemorrhage and resuscitation in the anaesthetized rat.Exposure of human cardiac myoblasts (Girardi cells) to hydrogen peroxide (H2O2, 3?mM for 1?h, n=9) caused a substantial increase in PARP activity. Pre-treatment of these cells with 5-AIQ (1??M–1?mM, 10?min prior to H2O2) caused a concentration-dependent inhibition of PARP activity (IC50: ?0.01?mM, n=6).Haemorrhage and resuscitation resulted (within 4?h after resuscitation) in a delayed fall in blood pressure (circulatory failure) as well as in rises in the serum levels of (i) urea and creatinine (renal dysfunction), (ii) aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), and gamma-glutamyl-transferase (?-GT) (liver injury and dysfunction), (iii) lipase (pancreatic injury) and (iv) creatine kinase (CK) (neuromuscular injury) (n=10).Administration (5?min prior to resuscitation of 5-AIQ) (0.03?mg?kg?1 i.v., n=8, or 0.3?mg?kg?1 i.v., n=10) reduced (in a dose-related fashion) the multiple organ injury and dysfunction, but did not affect the circulatory failure, associated with haemorrhagic shock.Thus, 5-AIQ abolishes the multiple organ injury caused by severe haemorrhage and resuscitation. PMID:10864891

  1. Incidence of Lobar and Non-Lobar Spontaneous Intracerebral Haemorrhage in a Predominantly Hispanic-Mestizo Population – The PISCIS Stroke Project: A Community-Based Prospective Study in Iquique, Chile

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Pablo M. Lavados; Claudio Sacks; Liliana Prina; Arturo Escobar; Claudia Tossi; Fernando Araya; Walter Feuerhake; Marcelo Gálvez; Rodrigo Salinas; Gonzalo Álvarez

    2010-01-01

    Background: The incidence of intracerebral haemorrhage (ICH) in Hispanics is high, especially of non-lobar ICH. Our aim was to ascertain prospectively the incidence of first-ever spontaneous ICH (SICH) stratified by localisation in a Hispanic-Mestizo population of the north of Chile. Methods: Between July 2000 and June 2002 all possible cases of ICH were ascertained from multiple overlapping sources. The cases

  2. Replacement of the human cytomegalovirus promoter with fish enhancer and core elements to control the expression of the G gene of viral haemorrhagic septicemia virus (VHSV).

    PubMed

    Martinez-Lopez, A; Chinchilla, B; Encinas, P; Gomez-Casado, E; Estepa, A; Coll, J M

    2012-12-15

    This work explores some of the possibilities to replace human cytomegalovirus (CMV) core and/or enhancer promoter control elements to create new expression vectors for use with fish. The work is relevant to fish vaccination, since DNA vaccines use eukaryotic expression plasmids controlled by the human cytomegalovirus (CMV) promoter to be effective against novirhabdoviruses, such as viral haemorrhagic septicemia virus (VHSV), one of the most devastating fish viral European diseases. To reduce possible homologous recombination with fish genome, core and enhancer sequences from fish origin, such as trout interferon-inducible myxovirus protein (Mx), zebrafish retrovirus long terminal repeat (LTR) and carp ?-actin (AE6), were combined with those of CMV to design alternative hybrid promoters. The substitution of CMV core and/or enhancer with the corresponding elements of Mx or the LTR core maintained a similar in vitro protein G expression level than that obtained by using the CMV promoter. Vectors using the dsRNA-inducible Mx enhancer followed either by the LTR or the AE6 cores showed the highest in vitro protein G expression levels. Furthermore, synthetic constructs using the Mx enhancer maintained their polyI:C induction capabilities despite the core used. Some of these hybrid promoters might contribute to the development of all-fish-vectors for DNA vaccines while others might be useful for more basic studies. PMID:22954890

  3. Factors influencing the seasonal abundance of Aedes (Stegomyia) aegypti and the control strategy of dengue and dengue haemorrhagic fever in Thanlyin Township, Yangon City, Myanmar.

    PubMed

    Oo, T T; Storch, V; Madon, M B; Becker, N

    2011-08-01

    From June 2006 to May 2007, mosquito surveys were conducted in Thanlyin Township, Yangon City, Myanmar, to determine factors influencing the abundance of Aedes aegypti (Stegomyia aegypti) during the rainy season. Both the biological and environmental factors were included in this study. Increase in the hatchability of egg, larval survival rate, the shortened larval life-span and increased pupation rates supplemented by rainfall (i.e. continuous flooding of the containers, stimulate the continuous hatching of eggs) were observed for correlation with the increase in population density of Ae. aegypti during the rainy season in the study area. Control strategy of Ae. aegypti to analyze the infestation in the community (study area) with larval Ae. aegypti, integrated management measures including health education, attitudes and practices regarding dengue and dengue haemorrhagic fever, transmission of the disease and possible preventive measures, reduction of breeding sites and testing the efficacy of Bacillus thuringiensis israelensis (B.t.i.) with respect to the reduction level of Ae. aegypti larvae in breeding sources, were taken into consideration. PMID:22041749

  4. Next-generation sequencing of southern African Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever virus isolates reveals a high frequency of M segment reassortment.

    PubMed

    Goedhals, D; Bester, P A; Paweska, J T; Swanepoel, R; Burt, F J

    2014-09-01

    Crimean Congo haemorrhagic fever virus (CCHFV) is a bunyavirus with a single-stranded RNA genome consisting of three segments (S, M, L), coding for the nucleocapsid protein, envelope glycoproteins and RNA polymerase, respectively. To date only five complete genome sequences are available from southern African isolates. Complete genome sequences were generated for 10 southern African CCHFV isolates using next-generation sequencing techniques. The maximum-likelihood method was used to generate tree topologies for 15 southern African plus 26 geographically distinct complete sequences from GenBank. M segment reassortment was identified in 10/15 southern African isolates by incongruencies in grouping compared to the S and L segments. These reassortant M segments cluster with isolates from Asia/Middle East, while the S and L segments cluster with strains from South/West Africa. The CCHFV M segment shows a high level of genetic diversity, while the S and L segments appear to co-evolve. The reason for the high frequency of M segment reassortment is not known. It has previously been suggested that M segment reassortment results in a virus with high fitness but a clear role in increased pathogenicity has yet to be shown. PMID:24786748

  5. Effects of Taishan Pinus massoniana pollen polysaccharide on immune response of rabbit haemorrhagic disease tissue inactivated vaccine and on production performance of Rex rabbits.

    PubMed

    Wei, Kai; Sun, Zhenhong; Yan, Zhengui; Tan, Yanling; Wang, Hui; Zhu, Xiaolin; Wang, Xinjian; Sheng, Pengcheng; Zhu, Ruiliang

    2011-03-21

    Varied doses of Taishan Pinus massoniana pollen polysaccharide (TPPPS) and Astragalus polysaccharide (APS) extracted by hot water extraction and ethanol precipitation method were added to the vaccine in order to prepare polysaccharide-rabbit haemorrhagic disease (RHD) tissue inactivated vaccine. The purpose was to study effects of TPPPS on immune response of RHD tissue inactivated vaccine and on production performance of Rex rabbits. Results showed that each index in groups I, II, III and IV was higher than that in group V, especially groups I, II and IV, the difference between which and group V was much more significant (P<0.05); each index in group I was extremely higher than that in group V (P<0.01); each index in group I was significantly higher than that in groups II, III (P<0.05), and generally no significant difference was observed between groups II and III. The overall level in group IV was slightly lower than that in group I. Each index in the polysaccharide groups reached its peak value later than that in the non-polysaccharide groups did. Results suggested that any dose of TPPPS can enhance immunologic function and production performance of rabbits, and the amount of 400mg per rabbit has the most obvious efficacy. Furthermore, it can extend the immune peak period of RHD tissue inactivated vaccine and the growing peak period of Rex rabbits. TPPPS has generally higher efficiency than APS. PMID:21295100

  6. Haemolytic and cytotoxic activities of the Tween 80-extracted putative haemolysin of Pasteurella multocida B:2

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. Chachra; J. G. Coote; R. Parton; S. K. Jand

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the haemolytic and cytotoxic activity of Pasteurella multocida B:2 strains, originally from cases of haemorrhagic septicaemia in cattle. All six P. multocida B:2 strains were non-haemolytic on sheep blood agar (SBA) and horse blood agar (HBA) when grown aerobically and on SBA anaerobically but they were haemolytic on HBA when grown anaerobically.

  7. A sandwich ELISA to detect VHSV and IPNV in turbot

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Vázquez Brańas; J. Coll Morales; A. Estepa

    1994-01-01

    The recent demonstration that reared turbot (Scophthalmus maximus L) is a natural host for salmonid rhabdoviruses has made their rapid detection relevant to these fish species. A unique protocol to select and use non-competitive monoclonal antibodies (Mabs) for two high-sensitivity sandwich ELISAs has been developed to detect both infectious pancreatic necrosis virus (IPNV) and viral haemorrhagic septicaemia virus (VHSV) in

  8. Comparative analysis of the L, M, and S RNA segments of Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever virus isolates from southern Africa.

    PubMed

    Goedhals, Dominique; Bester, Phillip A; Paweska, Janusz T; Swanepoel, Robert; Burt, Felicity J

    2015-05-01

    Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever virus (CCHFV) is a member of the Bunyaviridae family with a tripartite, negative sense RNA genome. This study used predictive software to analyse the L (large), M (medium), and S (small) segments of 14 southern African CCHFV isolates. The OTU-like cysteine protease domain and the RdRp domain of the L segment are highly conserved among southern African CCHFV isolates. The M segment encodes the structural glycoproteins, GN and GC, and the non-structural glycoproteins which are post-translationally cleaved at highly conserved furin and subtilase SKI-1 cleavage sites. All of the sites previously identified were shown to be conserved among southern African CCHFV isolates. The heavily O-glycosylated N-terminal variable mucin-like domain of the M segment shows the highest sequence variability of the CCHFV proteins. Five transmembrane domains are predicted in the M segment polyprotein resulting in three regions internal to and three regions external to the membrane across the G(N), NS(M) and G(C) glycoproteins. The corroboration of conserved genome domains and sequence identity among geographically diverse isolates may assist in the identification of protein function and pathogenic mechanisms, as well as the identification of potential targets for antiviral therapy and vaccine design. As detailed functional studies are lacking for many of the CCHFV proteins, identification of functional domains by prediction of protein structure, and identification of amino acid level similarity to functionally characterised proteins of related viruses or viruses with similar pathogenic mechanisms are a necessary step for selection of areas for further study. PMID:25693737

  9. Training Traditional Birth Attendants on the Use of Misoprostol and a Blood Measurement Tool to Prevent Postpartum Haemorrhage: Lessons Learnt from Bangladesh

    PubMed Central

    Passano, Paige; Bohl, Daniel D.; Islam, Arshadul; Prata, Ndola

    2014-01-01

    A consensus emerged in the late 1990s among leaders in global maternal health that traditional birth attendants (TBAs) should no longer be trained in delivery skills and should instead be trained as promoters of facility-based care. Many TBAs continue to be trained in places where home deliveries are the norm and the potential impacts of this training are important to understand. The primary objective of this study was to gain a more nuanced understanding of the full impact of training TBAs to use misoprostol and a blood measurement tool (mat) for the prevention of postpartum haemorrhage (PPH) at home deliveries through the perspective of those involved in the project. This qualitative study, conducted between July 2009 and July 2010 in Bangladesh, was nested within larger operations research, testing the feasibility and acceptability of scaling up community-based provision of misoprostol and a blood measurement tool for prevention of PPH. A total of 87 in-depth interviews (IDIs) were conducted with TBAs, community health workers (CHWs), managers, and government-employed family welfare visitors (FWVs) at three time points during the study. Computer-assisted thematic data analysis was conducted using ATLAS.ti (version 5.2). Four primary themes emerged during the data analysis, which all highlight changes that occurred following the training. The first theme describes the perceived direct changes linked to the two new interventions. The following three themes describe the indirect changes that interviewees perceived: strengthened linkages between TBAs and the formal healthcare system; strengthened linkages between TBAs and the communities they serve; and improved quality of services/service utilization. The data indicate that training TBAs and CHW supervisors resulted in perceived broader and more nuanced changes than simply improvements in TBAs’ knowledge, attitudes, and practices. Acknowledgeing TBAs’ important role in the community and in home deliveries and integrating them into the formal healthcare system has the potential to result in changes similar to those seen in this study. PMID:24847601

  10. Does variation in interpretation of ultrasonograms account for the variation in incidence of germinal matrix/intraventricular haemorrhage between newborn intensive care units in New Zealand?

    PubMed Central

    Harris, D; Teele, R; Bloomfield, F; Harding, J; on, b

    2005-01-01

    Background: The incidence of germinal matrix/intraventricular haemorrhage (GM/IVH) reported to the Australian and New Zealand Neonatal Network (ANZNN) varies between neonatal intensive care units (NICUs). Hypothesis: Differences in the capture, storage, and interpretation of the cerebral ultrasound scans may account for some of this variation. Methods: A total of 255 infants with birth weight <1500 g and gestation <32 weeks born between 1997 and 2002 were randomly selected from the ANZNN database, 44 from each of the six NICUs in New Zealand. Twenty two infants from each NICU had cerebral ultrasound scans previously reported to ANZNN as normal; another 22 had scans reported as abnormal. The original scans were copied using digital photography and anonymised and independently read by a panel of three experts using a standardised method of reviewing and reporting. Results: There was considerable variation between NICUs in methods of image capture and quality and completeness of the scans. However, there was little variation in the reporting of scans between the reviewers and the reports to ANZNN (weighted ? 0.75–0.91). Grade 1 GM/IVH was generally over-reported and grade 4 under-reported to the ANZNN. Conclusion: For all NICUs, a high level of agreement was found between the reviewers' reports and the reports to the ANZNN. Thus the variation between NICUs in the incidence of GM/IVH reported to the ANZNN is unlikely to be due to differences in capture, storage, and interpretation of the cerebral ultrasound scans. Further investigation is warranted into the reasons for the variation in incidence of GM/IVH between NICUs. PMID:16244209

  11. Liver cirrhosis, other liver diseases, and risk of hospitalisation for intracerebral haemorrhage: A Danish population-based case-control study

    PubMed Central

    Grřnbćk, Henning; Johnsen, Sřren P; Jepsen, Peter; Gislum, Mette; Vilstrup, Hendrik; Tage-Jensen, Ulrik; Sřrensen, Henrik T

    2008-01-01

    Background Liver diseases are suspected risk factors for intracerebral haemorrhage (ICH). We conducted a population-based case-control study to examine risk of ICH among hospitalised patients with liver cirrhosis and other liver diseases. Methods We used data from the hospital discharge registries (1991–2003) and the Civil Registration System in Denmark, to identify 3,522 cases of first-time hospitalisation for ICH and 35,173 sex- and age-matched population controls. Among cases and controls we identified patients with a discharge diagnosis of liver cirrhosis or other liver diseases before the date of ICH. We computed odds ratios for ICH by conditional logistic regressions, adjusting for a number of confounding factors. Results There was an increased risk of ICH for patients with alcoholic liver cirrhosis (adjusted OR = 4.8, 95% CI: 2.7–8.3), non-alcoholic liver cirrhosis (adjusted OR = 7.7, 95% CI: 2.0–28.9) and non-cirrhotic alcoholic liver disease (adjusted OR = 5.4, 95%CI:3.1–9.5) but not for patients with non-cirrhotic non-alcoholic liver diseases (adjusted OR = 0.9, 95%CI:0.5–1.6). The highest risk was found among women with liver cirrhosis (OR = 8.9, 95%CI:2.9–26.7) and for patients younger than 70 years (OR = 6.1, 95%CI:3.4–10.9). There were no sex- or age-related differences in the association between other liver diseases (alcoholic or non-alcoholic) and hospitalisation with ICH. Conclusion Patients with liver cirrhosis and non-cirrhotic alcoholic liver disease have a clearly increased risk for ICH. PMID:18501016

  12. Role of CXCR2 and TRPV1 in functional, inflammatory and behavioural changes in the rat model of cyclophosphamide-induced haemorrhagic cystitis

    PubMed Central

    Dornelles, Fabiana N; Andrade, Edinéia L; Campos, Maria M; Calixto, Joăo B

    2014-01-01

    Background and Purpose:?Cyclophosphamide induces urotoxicity characterized by the development of cystitis, which involves bladder overactivity and inflammation. Here, we investigated the roles of chemokine receptor 2 (CXCR2) and transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1) channels in a rat model of cyclophosphamide-induced cystitis. Experimental Approach:?Cystitis induced by cyclophosphamide in rats was assessed by gross morphology, histology and immunohistochemistry of bladder tissue. mRNA for CXCR2 and TRPV1 channels were measured by RT-PCR. Nociceptive responses in paw and abdomen, along with cystometric measures were recorded. Key Results:?Cyclophosphamide, i.p., induced pain behaviour, bladder inflammation and voiding dysfunction. The CXCR2 antagonist, SB225002, the TRPV1 channel antagonist, SB366791 or their combination reduced the mechanical hypersensitivity of paw and abdominal area and nociceptive behaviour after cyclophosphamide. Cyclophosphamide-induced cystitis was characterized by haemorrhage, oedema, neutrophil infiltration and other inflammatory changes, which were markedly decreased by the antagonists. Up-regulation of CXCR2 and TRPV1 mRNA in the bladder after cyclophosphamide was inhibited by SB225002, SB366791 or their combination. Expression of CXCR2 and TRPV1 channels was increased in the urothelium after cyclophosphamide. Bladder dysfunction was shown by increased number of non-voiding contractions (NVCs) and bladder pressures and a reduction in bladder capacity (BC), voided volume (VV) and voiding efficiency (VE). SB225002 or its combination with SB366791 reduced bladder pressures, whereas SB225002, SB366791 or their combination increased BC, VV and VE, and also reduced the number of NVCs. Conclusions and Implications:?CXCR2 and TRPV1 channels play important roles in cyclophosphamide-induced cystitis in rats and could provide potential therapeutic targets for cystitis. PMID:24117268

  13. Antibody from mice immunized with DNA encoding the carboxyl-disintegrin and cysteine-rich domain (JD9) of the haemorrhagic metalloprotease, Jararhagin, inhibits the main lethal component of viper venom.

    PubMed

    Harrison, R A; Moura-Da-Silva, A M; Laing, G D; Wu, Y; Richards, A; Broadhead, A; Bianco, A E; Theakston, R D

    2000-08-01

    Envenoming by the Brazilian pit viper, Bothrops jararaca, induces extensive local and systemic haemorrhage in humans. The severe and occasionally lethal outcome of envenoming is prevented only by administration of antivenom which is conventionally prepared by hyperimmunization of large animals with an individual venom or a range of venoms. Since snake venoms typically consist of numerous molecules, only some of which are toxic, antivenoms are antigenically crude preparations whose therapeutic value would theoretically be enhanced by restricting antibody specificity to toxic venom molecules. We report here that high-titre IgG antibody from mice immunized by the GeneGun with DNA encoding the carboxy-terminal JD9 domain of Jararhagin, a haemorrhage-inducing metalloprotease in B. jararaca venom, extensively neutralized the main lethal component of B. jararaca venom. This is to our knowledge the first study to apply DNA-based methods to preparation of antivenom; it represents a novel approach with greater immunological specificity and fewer hazards than conventional systems of antivenom production. PMID:10931154

  14. Neutralisation of venom-induced haemorrhage by IgG from camels and llamas immunised with viper venom and also by endogenous, non-IgG components in camelid sera.

    PubMed

    Harrison, R A; Hasson, S S; Harmsen, M; Laing, G D; Conrath, K; Theakston, R D G

    2006-03-01

    Envenoming by snakes results in severe systemic and local pathology. Intravenous administration of antivenom, prepared from IgG of venom immunised horses or sheep, is the only effective treatment of systemic envenoming. Conventional antivenoms, formulated as intact IgG, papain-cleaved (Fab) or pepsin-cleaved F(ab')2 fragments, are however ineffective against the local venom effects because of their inability to penetrate the blood/tissue barrier. We have embarked on a new research program to examine (i) whether the unusually small (15 kDa) antigen-binding fragment of camelid heavy chain IgG (V(H)H) can be exploited to neutralise the local effects of envenoming and (ii) whether a novel antivenom to treat both the systemic and local effects of envenoming can be formulated by combining anti-snake venom V(H)H and conventional F(ab')2. In this preliminary study, we demonstrate that camels and llamas respond to immunisation with Echis ocellatus venom with high antibody titres and broad antigen specificity. These encouraging immunological results were matched by the successful elimination of venom-induced haemorrhage by IgG from the venom-immunised camels and llamas. Unexpectedly, we report for the first time that camelid serum contains a non-IgG, highly potent inhibitor of venom-induced haemorrhage. PMID:16359717

  15. Antibody from mice immunized with DNA encoding the carboxyl-disintegrin and cysteine-rich domain (JD9) of the haemorrhagic metalloprotease, Jararhagin, inhibits the main lethal component of viper venom

    PubMed Central

    Harrison, R A; Moura-Da-Silva, A M; Laing, G D; Wu, Y; Richards, A; Broadhead, A; Bianco, A E; Theakston, R D G

    2000-01-01

    Envenoming by the Brazilian pit viper, Bothrops jararaca, induces extensive local and systemic haemorrhage in humans. The severe and occasionally lethal outcome of envenoming is prevented only by administration of antivenom which is conventionally prepared by hyperimmunization of large animals with an individual venom or a range of venoms. Since snake venoms typically consist of numerous molecules, only some of which are toxic, antivenoms are antigenically crude preparations whose therapeutic value would theoretically be enhanced by restricting antibody specificity to toxic venom molecules. We report here that high-titre IgG antibody from mice immunized by the GeneGun with DNA encoding the carboxy-terminal JD9 domain of Jararhagin, a haemorrhage-inducing metalloprotease in B. jararaca venom, extensively neutralized the main lethal component of B. jararaca venom. This is to our knowledge the first study to apply DNA-based methods to preparation of antivenom; it represents a novel approach with greater immunological specificity and fewer hazards than conventional systems of antivenom production. PMID:10931154

  16. Ethno – veterinary Plants of Nadurbar district of Maharashtra, India

    PubMed Central

    Ramalah, P.V.; Patil, M B

    2005-01-01

    A survey of medicinal plants of Nandurbar district of Maharashtra, India in regard to their veterinary uses, has been done. While collecting the data, special emphasis is given to the foot and Mouth disease, Haemorrhagic Septicaemia, Maggotted Wounds, Retention of Placcenta, Timpany and Worms, which are the most common animal ailment in the district. After short listing, about 29 plant species are found to be in regular use by various tribal veterinary doctors in the district. PMID:22557165

  17. Identification of amino acid residues required for ferric-anguibactin transport in the outer-membrane receptor FatA of Vibrio anguillarum

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Claudia S. Lopez; Alejandro F. Alice; Ranjan Chakraborty; Jorge H. Crosa

    2007-01-01

    Vibrio anguillarum 775 is a fish pathogen that causes a disease characterized by a fatal haemorrhagic septicaemia. It harbours the 65 kbp pJM1 plasmid, which encodes an iron sequestering system specific for the siderophore anguibactin and is essential for virulence. The genes involved in the biosynthesis of anguibactin are located on both the pJM1 plasmid and the chromosome. However, the

  18. Haemorrhagic diarrhoea and reproductive failure in Bonsmara cattle resulting from anomalous heavy metal concentrations in soils, forages and drinking water associated with geochemical anomalies of toxic elements on the farm Puntlyf, South Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elsenbroek, J. H.; Meyer, J.; Myburgh, J.

    2003-05-01

    Poor livestock health conditions are associated with geochemical Pb anomalies on a farm approximately 40km east of Pretoria, South Africa. A generic risk assessment of drinking water for Bonsmara cattle obtained from three separate subterranean water sources on the farm, revealed the presence of several potentially hazardous constituents suspected for the development of adverse health effects in the herd. The two main symptoms of the herd, namely, severe haemorrhagic diarrhoea in calves and reproductive failure in cows, have been investigated. A selenium-induced copper deficiency was proposed as the main cause to the calf diarrhoea, due to complexing between high concentrations of Se, Mo, Hg and Pb in drinking water. It was also anticipated that such Cu deficiencies would lead to low systemic Se inducing hypothyroidism in the cows due to inadequate iodine activation required for thyroid hormone formation and consequently adversely affect reproduction. The anomalous Pb in borehole drinking water on the southem part of the farm, suggests a clear genetic link with the underlying geochemical Pb anomalies detected by means of an ongoing regional geochemical survey.

  19. Major haemorrhage in pubic rami fractures.

    PubMed

    Tang, Chun Hong; Shivji, Faiz; Forward, Daren

    2015-01-01

    A 62-year-old man presented to the emergency department, having fallen 6?ft from a ladder, with pain over his left hip and shoulder. He was managed according to the Advanced Trauma Life Support (ATLS) protocol, and his primary survey showed no haemodynamic compromise. Initial radiographs showed a unilateral left superior and inferior pubic rami fracture, which was treated conservatively. Forty-eight hours post-admission, the patient became tachycardic and hypotensive and was found to have dropped his haemoglobin from 125 to 89?g/L. After resuscitation, a repeat contrast CT scan revealed an enlarging haematoma in his pelvis. This was treated with urgent angioembolisation and the patient was further stabilised in the intensive care unit. This report shows the need for a low threshold in suspecting intrapelvic bleeds in patients with pubic rami fractures, and the need for prompt treatment of such patients, either surgically or radiologically. PMID:25739798

  20. Fatal intraperitoneal haemorrhage of hepatic origin.

    PubMed Central

    Fidas-Kamini, A.; Busuttil, A.

    1986-01-01

    Eight cases of fatal haemoperitoneum due to liver bleeding are reported. Two followed trauma (liver biopsy and cholecystectomy). The remaining six were spontaneous, 5 being due to malignant liver disease. The sixth case due to polycystic liver disease appears to be unique. The aetiology and importance of spontaneous hepatic bleeding is discussed. PMID:3658846

  1. Haemostatic management of cardiac surgical haemorrhage.

    PubMed

    Besser, M W; Ortmann, E; Klein, A A

    2015-01-01

    Almost 30,000 cardiopulmonary bypass operations are performed in the UK every year, consuming a considerable portion of the UK blood supply. Each year, in cardiac surgery, 90% of blood products are used by only 10% of patients, and over the past 25 years, much innovation and research has gone into improving peri-operative diagnosis and therapy for these patients. Visco-elastic tests performed at the bedside, with modifications to allow direct quantification of fibrinogen levels, are probably the biggest advancement. There is no clear advantage of thromboelastometry over thromboelastography, and the published literature remains scarce. Visco-elastic testing has recently been coupled with the systematic replacement of clotting factors by means of factor concentrates, with objective improvement in terms of blood loss, red blood cell usage and surgical re-exploration. The National Institute for Health and Care Excellence has reviewed the available evidence and recommended visco-elastic tests as cost effective in cardiac surgery. Factor concentrates, however, carry significant risks, particularly unnecessary donor exposures, potential selective over-correction of partial deficiencies and the possibility that the postoperative risk of venous thromboembolism is increased; as yet there are no data on risk-benefit analysis. There are a number of promising drugs used in topical haemostasis, but the requirement to apply these before major bleeding is manifest limits their use considerably. Hyperfibrinolysis is less important than in the past due to the wide spread adoption of antifibrinolytic agents and close intra-operative monitoring of heparin effect. PMID:25440401

  2. Deletion of the Marek's disease virus UL41 gene (vhs) has no measurable effect on latency or pathogenesis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Marek’s disease is an economically important disease of poultry and is caused by an alphaherpesvirus, Marek’s disease virus (MDV). Many MDV genes have homologs in other herpesviruses. The predicted protein product of the MDV UL41 open reading frame has significant protein sequence identity with the ...

  3. Septicaemia models using Streptococcus pneumoniae and Listeria monocytogenes: understanding the role of complement properdin.

    PubMed

    Dupont, Aline; Mohamed, Fatima; Salehen, Nur'Ain; Glenn, Sarah; Francescut, Lorenza; Adib, Rozita; Byrne, Simon; Brewin, Hannah; Elliott, Irina; Richards, Luke; Dimitrova, Petya; Schwaeble, Wilhelm; Ivanovska, Nina; Kadioglu, Aras; Machado, Lee R; Andrew, Peter W; Stover, Cordula

    2014-08-01

    Streptococcus pneumoniae and Listeria monocytogenes, pathogens which can cause severe infectious disease in human, were used to infect properdin-deficient and wildtype mice. The aim was to deduce a role for properdin, positive regulator of the alternative pathway of complement activation, by comparing and contrasting the immune response of the two genotypes in vivo. We show that properdin-deficient and wildtype mice mounted antipneumococcal serotype-specific IgM antibodies, which were protective. Properdin-deficient mice, however, had increased survival in the model of streptococcal pneumonia and sepsis. Low activity of the classical pathway of complement and modulation of Fc?R2b expression appear to be pathogenically involved. In listeriosis, however, properdin-deficient mice had reduced survival and a dendritic cell population that was impaired in maturation and activity. In vitro analyses of splenocytes and bone marrow-derived myeloid cells support the view that the opposing outcomes of properdin-deficient and wildtype mice in these two infection models is likely to be due to a skewing of macrophage activity to an M2 phenotype in the properdin-deficient mice. The phenotypes observed thus appear to reflect the extent to which M2- or M1-polarised macrophages are involved in the immune responses to S. pneumoniae and L. monocytogenes. We conclude that properdin controls the strength of immune responses by affecting humoral as well as cellular phenotypes during acute bacterial infection and ensuing inflammation. PMID:24728387

  4. [Septicaemia of chironomid larvae (Diptera: Chironomidae) promoted by Bacillus cereus and B. thuringiensis].

    PubMed

    Khodyrev, V P

    2012-01-01

    Natural factors regulating the population of chironomids were studied. The bacteria Bacillus cereus were isolated from chironomids sampled from Kuyalnitskii Firth after epizooty of Chironomus sp., and bacteria Bacillus thuringiensis spp. israelensis (Bti) were isolated from dead larva of Chironomus plumosus sampled in the Sea of Azov (3-m depth). Bti were characterized by high insecticide activity on midges Anopheles messeae Fall., Aedes cireneus Mg., and Culex pipiens pipiens f. pipiens L. PMID:22988756

  5. Treatment of refractory stomal variceal haemorrhage with embolisation and sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Valaydon, Z; Desmond, P

    2015-02-01

    Stomal variceal bleeding is a rare but life-threatening complication of cirrhosis. As it is an uncommon condition, there is little evidence on the optimum treatment. We report a case of parastomal variceal bleeding in a cirrhotic and haemodynamically unstable patient. The bleeding had failed to respond to local therapy and was not amenable to transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunting. The varix was successfully treated under radiological guidance embolisation in conjunction with Fibrovein (STD Pharmaceuticals, UK) sclerosis. We propose that Fibrovein sclerosis through angiography should be considered as an initial treatment option in patients with parastomal variceal bleeding who are not candidates for transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunting. PMID:25650536

  6. Late epilepsy following open surgery for aneurysmal subarachnoid haemorrhage

    PubMed Central

    Buczacki, S; Kirkpatrick, P; Seeley, H; Hutchinson, P

    2004-01-01

    Design: Subgroup analysis of the East Anglian regional audit of SAH (1994–2000; n = 872) with 12 month follow up. Prophylactic anticonvulsants were not routinely prescribed unless there was a perioperative seizure. Subjects: 472 patients with aneurysmal SAH undergoing surgical clipping of the aneurysm were studied. Patients presenting in WFNS grade V, with space occupying haematomas requiring emergency surgery, or with posterior circulation aneurysms, rebleeds, and surgery after 21 days were excluded. Results: Late epilepsy occurred in 23 patients (4.9%). There was a correlation between the incidence of late epilepsy and both the presenting WFNS grade (p<0.05) (grade 1, 1.4%; grade 2, 3.8%; grade 3, 9.6%; grade 4, 12.5%) and the Glasgow outcome score at discharge (p<0.01) (good recovery, 2.2%; moderate disability, 5.0%; severe disability, 15.5%). There was no relation between the incidence of late epilepsy and sex or the site of the aneurysm. Conclusions: The low incidence of late epilepsy following open surgery for aneurysmal SAH supports the withholding of prophylactic anticonvulsants. Patients with poor WFNS grade and poor recovery after surgery are at increased risk and should be closely monitored. PMID:15489400

  7. Pseudoaneurysm of the carotid artery with haemorrhage into the hypopharynx.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, S; Kimura, Y; Furukawa, M

    1995-09-01

    Pseudoaneurysms of the extracranial carotid arteries are rarely seen following irradiation for cancers of the head and neck. We present a patient with a pseudoaneurysm of the common carotid artery following a radical neck dissection and irradiation for thyroid carcinoma 20 years earlier. Following oesophagoscopical examination, a pseudoaneurysm of the right common carotid artery ruptured into the piriform sinus. The common carotid artery was embolized with multiple coils and the bleeding was halted. The relationship between the carotid artery aneurysm and irradiation, and the treatment of carotid artery aneurysm, is discussed. PMID:7494130

  8. Transfusion Practices in Postpartum Haemorrhage: a Population-Based Study1 Running headline: Transfusion in Postpartum Haemorrhage3

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    -00809169,version1-8Apr2013 #12;4 Abstract1 2 Objective: To describe transfusion practices and blood loss the rate of red blood cell (RBC)8 transfusion in PPH overall and according to transfusion guidelines. Transfusion practices and9 blood loss severity were described by mode of delivery and cause of PPH in women

  9. Spill prevention control and countermeasure training series, parts 5-7: Processing, gathering and shipping oil (vhs 1/2 inch) (video). Audiovisual

    SciTech Connect

    NONE

    1994-12-31

    This segment describes: oil well production facilities, equipment, and processes; gathering line systems and crude oil truck transport; crude oil pipeline systems and inspection of non-transportation-related components; oil storage at terminals and tank farms; and inspection and SPCC requirements at these sites.

  10. Detection of VHSV IVb within the gonads of Great Lakes fish using in situ hybridization.

    PubMed

    Al-Hussinee, L; Lumsden, J S

    2011-05-24

    Viral haemorrhagic septicaemia virus (VHSV) genotype IVb was recently detected as the cause of numerous mortality events in Great Lakes fish. In situ hybridization was used to examine the gonads from 13 fish, including freshwater drum Aplodinotus grunniens and muskellunge Esox masquinongy that were infected naturally, as well as rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss and fathead minnows Pimphales promelas, which were experimentally infected. Although the ovaries and testes of fish infected by VHSV IVb had few lesions, viral RNA was present in the ovaries of the rainbow trout and fathead minnow and was abundant in the gonads of muskellunge and in the ovaries of freshwater drum. Viral RNA was present mainly surrounding yolk vacuoles/granules or adjacent to the germinal vesicle, with lesser amounts found within the germinal vesicle, in the mesovarium and/or tunica albuginea and blood vessels of the ovary. Viral RNA was also found in and surrounding primary and secondary spermatocytes of the muskellunge. PMID:21797039

  11. Overview of recent DNA vaccine development for fish

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kurath, G.

    2005-01-01

    Since the first description of DNA vaccines for fish in 1996, numerous studies of genetic immunisation against the rhabdovirus pathogens infectious haematopoietic necrosis virus (IHNV) and viral haemorrhagic septicaemia virus (VHSV) have established their potential as both highly efficacious biologicals and useful basic research tools. Single small doses of rhabdovirus DNA constructs provide extremely strong protection against severe viral challenge under a variety of conditions. DNA vaccines for several other important fish viruses, bacteria, and parasites are under investigation, but they have not yet shown high efficacy. Therefore, current research is focussed on mechanistic studies to understand the basis of protection, and on improvement of the nucleic acid vaccine applications against a wider range of fish pathogens.

  12. 78 FR 48867 - Nationwide Categorical Waivers Under the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009 (Recovery...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-12

    ...vertical hollow shaft (VHS) electric motors (less than 40 HP) to be utilized...vertical hollow shaft (VHS) electric motors (less than 40 HP) are not produced...vertical hollow shaft (VHS) electric motors (less than 40 HP) to be...

  13. First detection of Pasteurella multocida type B:2 in Hungary associated with systemic pasteurellosis in backyard pigs.

    PubMed

    Ujvári, Barbara; Szeredi, Levente; Pertl, László; Tóth, Gergely; Erdélyi, Károly; Jánosi, Szilárd; Molnár, Tamás; Magyar, Tibor

    2015-06-01

    This is the first report of Pasteurella multocida type B in Hungarian pigs. This disease was observed in backyard-raised pigs in three households within a small area. Neither the source of the infection nor the epidemiological connection between any of the premises could be determined. The most consistent lesion was dark red discolouration of the skin of the ventral neck and brisket, with accompanying oedema and haemorrhages. The morbidity was low and lethality relatively high, with three dead (50%) and two euthanised (33%) out of six affected animals. A total of three isolates of P. multocida (P55, P56 and P57) were cultured from these cases and examined in detail. These were identified as P. multocida ssp. multocida biovar 3. All were toxA negative and belonged to serotype B:2. Multilocus sequence typing was used to assign these to a new sequence type (ST61) that is closely related to other haemorrhagic septicaemia causing strains of P. multocida regardless of the host. M13 polymerase chain reaction and virulence-associated gene typing also show that type B strains form a highly homogeneous, distinct phylogenic group within P. multocida. PMID:26051253

  14. FILMMAKING AND FILM STUDIES

    E-print Network

    Saldin, Dilano

    Women Filmmakers VHS-2110 And God Created Woman DVD-4827 And the Pursuit of Happiness DVD-4843 Cinema VHS-2891 Angus Mustang VHS-3063 Animal Crackers DVD-1385 Animal House DVD-1308 Animaniacs Season 1 Dances VHS-3844 Annie Hall DVD-0852 Ant Farm Video DVD-2480 Anya at 7 DVD-2626 Anya In and Out of Focus

  15. Piscidin is highly active against carbapenem-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii and NDM-1-producing Klebsiella pneumonia in a systemic Septicaemia infection mouse model.

    PubMed

    Pan, Chieh-Yu; Chen, Jian-Chyi; Chen, Te-Li; Wu, Jen-Leih; Hui, Cho-Fat; Chen, Jyh-Yih

    2015-04-01

    This study was designed to investigate the antimicrobial activity of two synthetic antimicrobial peptides from an aquatic organism, tilapia piscidin 3 (TP3) and tilapia piscidin 4 (TP4), in vitro and in a murine sepsis model, as compared with ampicillin, tigecycline, and imipenem. Mice were infected with (NDM-1)-producing K. pneumonia and multi-drug resistant Acinetobacter baumannii, and subsequently treated with TP3, TP4, or antibiotics for different periods of time (up to 168 h). Mouse survival and bacterial colony forming units (CFU) in various organs were measured after each treatment. Toxicity was determined based on observation of behavior and measurement of biochemical parameters. TP3 and TP4 exhibited strong activity against K. pneumonia and A. baumannii in vitro. Administration of TP3 (150 ?g/mouse) or TP4 (50 ?g/mouse) 30 min after infection with K. pneumonia or A. baumannii significantly increased survival in mice. TP4 was more effective than tigecycline at reducing CFU counts in several organs. TP3 and TP4 were shown to be non-toxic, and did not affect mouse behavior. TP3 and TP4 are able at potentiate anti-Acinetobacter baumannii or anti-Klebsiella pneumonia drug activity, reduce bacterial load, and prevent drug resistance, indicating their potential for use in combating multidrug-resistant bacteria. PMID:25874924

  16. Differential effects of viral hemorrhagic septicaemia virus (VHSV) genotypes IVa and IVb on gill epithelial and spleen macrophage cell lines from rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss).

    PubMed

    Pham, P H; Lumsden, J S; Tafalla, C; Dixon, B; Bols, N C

    2013-02-01

    The two most prominent genotypes of viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus (VHSV) are -I in the Northeastern Atlantic region and -IV in North America, but much more is known about the cellular pathogenesis of genotype -I than -IV. VHSV genotype -IV is divided into -IVa from the Northeast Pacific Ocean and -IVb from the Great Lakes and both of which are less virulent to rainbow trout than genotype -I. In this work, infections of VHSV-IVa and -IVb have been studied in two rainbow trout cell lines, RTgill-W1 from the gill epithelium, and RTS11 from spleen macrophages. RTgill-W1 produced infectious progeny of both VHSV-IVa and -IVb. However, VHSV-IVa was more infectious than -IVb toward RTgill-W1: -IVa caused cytopathic effect (CPE) at a lower viral titre, elicited CPE earlier, and yielded higher titres. By contrast, no CPE and no increase in viral titre were observed in RTS11 cultures infected with either genotype. Yet in RTS11 all six VHSV genes were expressed and antiviral genes, Mx2 and Mx3, were up regulated by VHSV-IVb and -IVa. However, replication appeared to terminate at the translational stage as viral N protein, presumably the most abundant of the VSHV proteins, was not detected in either infected RTS11 cultures. In RTgill-W1, Mx2 and Mx3 were up regulated to similar levels by both viral genotypes, while VHSV-IVa induced higher levels of IFN1, IFN2 and LGP2A than VHSV-IVb. PMID:23257204

  17. Salmonella meningitis and septicaemia in an non-immunocompromised adult, associated with a cluster of Salmonella Enteritidis PT 14b, Ireland, November 2009.

    PubMed

    OhAiseadha, C O; Dunne, O M; Desmond, F; O'Connor, M

    2010-02-18

    We report a fatal case of meningitis caused by Salmonella Enteritidis phage type 14b in a middle-aged man who had no history or findings to suggest he was immunocompromised. To our knowledge, this is the first reported case of Salmonella meningitis in an adult in Ireland, and the first case of meningitis in an adult caused by phage type 14b. This case was associated with a nationwide cluster of salmonellosis which is still under investigation at the time of writing. PMID:20184853

  18. Ivelina Alexandrova, Generating VHs Using Predefined Bodily and Facial Emotions in Real-Time VEs 17.01.11 Abstract This thesis proposes a pipeline for generating a virtual human that can express realistic

    E-print Network

    -Time VEs 17.01.11 Abstract Abstract This thesis proposes a pipeline for generating a virtual human that can motions, using the blendshape method. In addition, to make our virtual human more expressive, we integrate these case studies to show that that our pipeline can be used in different fields for different purposes

  19. Blood stain pattern interpretation in cases of fatal haemorrhage from ruptured varicose veins

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Roger W. Byard; David Veldhoen; Colin Manock; John D. Gilbert

    2007-01-01

    Blood stain patterns from wounds are determined in part by the nature of the injuries, but also by the types of vessels that have been traumatised. Characteristic spray from arterial injury usually results in a fine projected bloodstain pattern, often found at some distance from the victim. In contrast, venous bleeding tends to be under much lower pressure and less

  20. Cerebrospinal Fluid from Patients with Subarachnoid Haemorrhage and Vasospasm Enhances Endothelin Contraction in Rat Cerebral Arteries

    PubMed Central

    Assenzio, Barbara; Martin, Erica L.; Stankevicius, Edgaras; Civiletti, Federica; Fontanella, Marco; Boccaletti, Riccardo; Berardino, Maurizio; Mazzeo, AnnaTeresa; Ducati, Alessandro; Simonsen, Ulf; Mascia, Luciana

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Previous studies have suggested that cerebrospinal fluid from patients with subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) leads to pronounced vasoconstriction in isolated arteries. We hypothesized that only cerebrospinal fluid from SAH patients with vasospasm would produce an enhanced contractile response to endothelin-1 in rat cerebral arteries, involving both endothelin ETA and ETB receptors. Methods Intact rat basilar arteries were incubated for 24 hours with cerebrospinal fluid from 1) SAH patients with vasospasm, 2) SAH patients without vasospasm, and 3) control patients. Arterial segments with and without endothelium were mounted in myographs and concentration-response curves for endothelin-1 were constructed in the absence and presence of selective and combined ETA and ETB receptor antagonists. Endothelin concentrations in culture medium and receptor expression were measured. Results Compared to the other groups, the following was observed in arteries exposed to cerebrospinal fluid from patients with vasospasm: 1) larger contractions at lower endothelin concentrations (p<0.05); 2) the increased endothelin contraction was absent in arteries without endothelium; 3) higher levels of endothelin secretion in the culture medium (p<0.05); 4) there was expression of ETA receptors and new expression of ETB receptors was apparent; 5) reduction in the enhanced response to endothelin after ETB blockade in the low range and after ETA blockade in the high range of endothelin concentrations; 6) after combined ETA and ETB blockade a complete inhibition of endothelin contraction was observed. Conclusions Our experimental findings showed that in intact rat basilar arteries exposed to cerebrospinal fluid from patients with vasospasm endothelin contraction was enhanced in an endothelium-dependent manner and was blocked by combined ETA and ETB receptor antagonism. Therefore we suggest that combined blockade of both receptors may play a role in counteracting vasospasm in patients with SAH. PMID:25629621

  1. [Rehabilitation of the patient with cerebrovascular insult with haemorrhage--case study].

    PubMed

    Muji?, Nedzad; Rami?, Ibrahim; Redzi?, Kemal; Kapidzi?, Adnan; Voli?, Aida

    2005-01-01

    This is case study of the patient, 58 years old, occupation merchant, admitted tot he neurological clinic as urgent case with the following diagnosis: insultus cerebrovascularis per haemorrhagiam, Haemathoma cerebrale reg. temporoparietalis lat. sin., Aphasia sensomotoria, Hemiplegia cerebralis lat. dex, Hypertensio art., Cor hypertonicum comp., Status post nephrectomiam lat. dex. After 26 days the patient was moved to the Institute for physical medicine and rehabilitation where started rehabilitation treatment in which was included speech therapist as well. After 30 days,movement of right side was improved very well, especially of the patient's leg, and patient began to walk helped by stick. In the same time, the speech was improved, and we concluded that in rehabilitation of this kind of patients, team work is necessary, and we think that speech therapist should be included as early as possible with maximal involvement of the family. PMID:15875484

  2. Transient 2nd Degree Av Block Mobitz Type II: A Rare Finding in Dengue Haemorrhagic Fever

    PubMed Central

    Nigam, Ashwini Kumar; Agarwal, Ayush; Singh, Amit K; Yadav, Subhash

    2015-01-01

    Dengue has been a major problem as endemic occurs almost every year and causes a state of panic due to lack of proper diagnostic methods and facilities for proper management. Patients presenting with classical symptoms are easy to diagnose, however as a large number of cases occur every year, a number of cases diagnosed with dengue fever on occasion presents with atypical manifestations, which cause extensive evaluation of the patients, unnecessary referral to higher centre irrespective of the severity and therefore a rough idea of these manifestations must be present in the backdrop in order to prevent these problems. Involvement of cardiovascular system in dengue has been reported in previous studies, and they are usually benign and self-limited. The importance of study of conduction abnormalities is important as sometimes conduction blocks are the first sign of acute myocarditis in patients of Dengue Hemorrhagic Fever in shock. We present here a case of 2nd Degree Mobitz Type II atrioventricular AV block in a case of Dengue Hemorrhagic fever reverting to the normal rhythm in recovery phase and no signs thereafter on follow up.

  3. Antifibrinolyticsin aneurysmal subarachnoid haemorrhage. A retrospective comparison of two different forms of antifibrinolytic therapy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Spallone

    1982-01-01

    Summary The results of two different antifibrinolytic therapeutic modalities (A = AMCA 3gm daily + Aprotinin, 3–400000 K.I.U daily, B=AMCA, 6 gm daily) were compared retrospectively in a series of 137 patients harbouring recently ruptured intracranial aneurysms. The rates for rebleeding and thromboembolic complications were similar in both differently treated groups of patients, whilst that for ischaemic complications was significantly

  4. Sequence analysis of rabbit haemorrhagic disease virus (RHDV) in Australia: alterations after its release.

    PubMed

    Asgari, S; Hardy, J R; Cooke, B D

    1999-01-01

    Liver samples from rabbits killed by RHDV, collected from five States in Australia in 1996 and 1997 were analysed by RT-PCR. A 398 bp fragment of the capsid protein (VP60) gene was amplified by PCR and directly sequenced. The alignment of the nucleotide and amino acid sequences and their comparison with the original strain of the virus released in Australia indicated genetic changes after two years have been small with 98.2% to 100% identity. The constructed phylogenetic tree suggests slight differences in nucleotide substitutions in various States but there is no clear evidence of clustering of sequences according to their geographic origin. In practical terms, sequencing of viral RNA provides a means of testing the efficacy of further releases and subsequent spread of the virus if such a strategy is employed as a means of enhancing RHD as a biological control of the wild rabbit in Australia. PMID:10076514

  5. Analysis of mechanisms responsible for the bradycardic action of naloxone after haemorrhage in the conscious rabbit.

    PubMed

    Rutter, P C; Pavia, J M; Ludbrook, J

    1987-02-01

    We have analyzed the efferent mechanisms responsible for the bradycardia that occurs when naloxone (6 mg/kg) is given i.v. to conscious rabbits after acute blood loss of 17-20 ml/kg. Atenolol and hyoscine methyl bromide were given intrapericardially (i.p.c.), singly and in combination, to allow factorial analysis of the contributions of sympathoadrenal beta-adrenergic and vagal cholinergic mechanisms. In addition, the effects of ganglion blockade with mecamylamine on the heart rate response to naloxone, and of i.p.c. naloxone on the cardiac pacemaker, were tested. The treatments had little effect on the pressor response to naloxone. Central nervous mechanisms were responsible for most of the bradycardia of approximately 160 beats/min evoked by naloxone in sham-treated, bled, rabbits. Increased vagal drive accounted for one-half the response, withdrawal of sympathoadrenal drive for 20%, and there was no significant interaction. These effects appeared to be due to evocation of a baroreceptor-heart rate reflex by the concomitant rise in blood pressure. Non-cholinergic, non-adrenergic mechanisms were responsible for a fall in heart rate of approximately 35 beats/min, part of which was due to a direct action of naloxone on the cardiac pacemaker. PMID:2883209

  6. Immunohistological diagnosis of rabbit haemorrhagic disease in experimentally infected rabbits in Spain.

    PubMed

    Carrasco, L; Rodriguez, F; Martin de las Mulas, J; Wohlsein, P; Fernandez, A

    1991-09-01

    The immunoreactivity of routinely processed liver and lung tissue samples obtained from rabbits inoculated with tissue explants from naturally infected animals when antisera directed against parvovirus from different species (canine, feline and porcine) as well as a RHD virus antiserum were employed has been tested by different immunoperoxidase methods. Cross-reactivity between RHD-virus antigens and parvovirus antigens was present. Best results were obtained with RHD and canine parvovirus antisera with the ABC method. The immunoreactivity in the liver was found in hepatocytes, Kupffer and bile duct cells. In the lung, it was exclusively observed in intravascular macrophages. PMID:1663682

  7. Effect of ginkgolide B on brain metabolism and tissue oxygenation in severe haemorrhagic stroke

    PubMed Central

    Chi, Chun-Ling; Shen, Dong-Fang; Wang, Peng-Jun; Li, Hu-Lun; Zhang, Li

    2015-01-01

    Ginkgolide B, a diterpene, is an herbal constituent isolated from the leaves of Ginkgo biloba tree. The present study demonstrates the effect of ginkgolide B in osmotherapy on brain metabolism and tissue oxygenation. Multimodality monitoring including intracranial pressure (ICP), cerebral perfusion pressure (CPP), partial pressure of brain tissue oxygen (PbtO2), lactate/pyruvate ratio (LPR) and microdialysis were employed to study the effect of ginkgolide B osmotherapy. The results demonstrated that administration of 15% solution of ginkgolide B to the comatose patients with raised ICP (> 20 mm Hg) and resistant to standard therapy led to a significant decrease in ICP. The cerebral microdialysis was used to compare mean arterial blood pressure (MAP), ICP, CPP, PbtO2, brain lactate, pyruvate and glucose level after hourly intervals starting 3 h before and up to 4 h after hyperosmolar therapy. There was a decrease in ICP in 45 min from 23 ± 14 mm Hg (P < 0.001) to 18 ± 24 mm Hg and increase in CPP after 1 h of gingkolide B infusion from 74 ± 18 to 85 ± 22 mm Hg (P < 0.002). However there was no significant effect on MAP but PbtO2 was maintained in the range of 22-26. The peak lactate/pyruvate ratio was recorded at the time of initiation of osmotherapy (44 ± 20) with an 18% decrease over 2 h following gingkolide B therapy. Also the brain glucose remained unaffected.

  8. Threat of dengue fever and dengue haemorrhagic fever to Egypt from travelers.

    PubMed

    El-Bahnasawy, Mamdouh M; Khalil, Hazem H M; Morsy, Ayman T A; Morsy, Tosson A

    2011-08-01

    Dengue (DF) and dengue hemorrhagic fevers (DHF) are present in urban and suburban areas in the Americas, South-East Asia, the Eastern Mediterranean and the Western Pacific, but dengue fever is present mainly in the rural areas of Africa. Several factors have combined to produce epidemiological conditions in developing countries in the tropics and subtropics that favour viral transmission by the main mosquito vector, Aedes aegypti as the rapid population growth, rural-urban migration, inadequate basic urban infrastructure (eg. the unreliable water supply leading householders to store water in containers close to homes) and the increase in volume of solid waste, such as discarded plastic containers and other abandoned items which provide larval habitats in urban areas. Geographical expansion of the mosquito has been aided by the international commercial trade particularly in used car-tyres which easily accumulate rainwater. Increased air travel and the breakdown of vector control measures have also contributed greatly to the global burden of dengue and DH fevers. The presence of Ae. aegypti and endemicity of DF and DHF in the neighbor- ing regional countries must be in mind of the Public Health Authorities. PMID:21980768

  9. The Utility of a Board Game for Dengue Haemorrhagic Fever Health Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lennon, Jeffrey L.; Coombs, David W.

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study is to test the effectiveness of an educational board game for increasing knowledge, positive attitudes-beliefs, and self-efficacy for dengue prevention in a sample of Philippine school children and adolescents. Effective board games are more advantageous than lectures because they are adaptable, inexpensive and…

  10. Pulmonary haemorrhage as a predominant cause of death in leptospirosis in Seychelles

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Claude Yersin; Pascal Bovet; Fabrice Mérien; Jan Clément; Manola Laille; Marc Van Ranst; Philippe Perolat

    2000-01-01

    We examined the cause of death during a 12-month period (1995\\/96) in all consecutive patients admitted to hospital with leptospiral infection in Seychelles (Indian Ocean), where the disease is endemic. Leptospirosis was diagnosed by use of the microscopic agglutination test and a specific polymerase chain reaction assay on serum samples. Seventy-five cases were diagnosed and 6 patients died, a case

  11. [Splenic artery pseudoaneurysm: a rare case of gastrointestinal haemorrhage in a patient with chronic pancreatitis].

    PubMed

    Malatesti, R; Coratti, F; Borgogni, V; Ricci, C; Cini, M; Lo Gatto, M; Marzocca, G; Testi, W; Tani, F; Coratti, A

    2010-01-01

    A bleeding pseudoaneurysm in patients with chronic pancreatitis is a rare and potentially lethal complication. This diagnosis may be very difficult and the optimal treatment remains controversial. We report the case of 80 years old female with calcific pancreatitis and severe intestinal bleeding due to a pseudoaneurysm of the splenic artery treated with interventional radiographic embolization. PMID:20843445

  12. Effect of lipid profile upon prognosis in ischemic and haemorrhagic cerebrovascular stroke.

    PubMed

    Bharosay, Anuradha; Bharosay, Vivek V; Bandyopadhyay, Debapriya; Sodani, Ajoy; Varma, Meena; Baruah, Haren

    2014-07-01

    Stroke is the third major cause of death worldwide. Elevated plasma concentration of low density lipoproteins and low plasma concentration of high density lipoprotein concentration are associated with an increased risk of atherosclerosis and coronary heart disease but the relation between serum lipids, and cerebrovascular disease is less clear. The aim of this study was to investigate the reliability and accuracy of serum lipid profile in assessing the prognosis/neurological worsening in patients with ischemic and hemorrhagic cerebrovascular stroke. The subjects in the present study comprised of 101 healthy controls and 150 cerebrovascular stroke patients (including 90 with ischemic stroke and 60 with intracerebral hemorrhagic stroke). In both the groups fasting lipid profile was determined within 72 h of the stroke. A statistically significant association was observed (p < 0.001) between the parameters of lipid profile of cases and healthy controls, and also with the prognosis of the stroke. PMID:24966489

  13. Accelerated vaccination for Ebola virus haemorrhagic fever in non-human primates

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nancy J. Sullivan; Thomas W. Geisbert; Joan B. Geisbert; Ling Xu; Zhi-yong Yang; Mario Roederer; Richard A. Koup; Peter B. Jahrling; Gary J. Nabel

    2003-01-01

    Containment of highly lethal Ebola virus outbreaks poses a serious public health challenge. Although an experimental vaccine has successfully protected non-human primates against disease, more than six months was required to complete the immunizations, making it impractical to limit an acute epidemic. Here, we report the development of accelerated vaccination against Ebola virus in non-human primates. The antibody response to

  14. 9 CFR 93.913 - Health certificate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...c) of this section. (b) Testing. A facility can demonstrate freedom from VHS through negative testing results by a pathogen detection laboratory approved for VHS viral assays by the competent authority of that country. Testing must meet the...

  15. 9 CFR 93.913 - Health certificate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...Section 93.913 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE EXPORTATION...demonstrate freedom from VHS through negative testing results by a pathogen detection laboratory approved for VHS viral assays by the...

  16. Herpes Simplex Virus Type 2 Virion Host Shutoff Protein Regulates Alpha\\/Beta Interferon but Not Adaptive Immune Responses during Primary Infection In Vivo

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jenny A. Murphy; Rebecca J. Duerst; Tracy J. Smith; Lynda A. Morrison

    2003-01-01

    intravaginally (i.vag.) with the HSV type 2 (HSV-2) vhs null mutant 333d41 or the vhs rescue virus 333d41 R. vhs-deficient virus remained severely attenuated in SCID mice compared with rescue virus, indicating that vhs regulation of adaptive immune responses does not influence HSV pathogenesis during acute infection. Innate antiviral effectors remain intact in SCID mice; prominent among these is alpha\\/beta

  17. Resistance to a rhabdovirus (VHSV) in rainbow trout: identification of a major QTL related to innate mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Verrier, Eloi R; Dorson, Michel; Mauger, Stéphane; Torhy, Corinne; Ciobotaru, Céline; Hervet, Caroline; Dechamp, Nicolas; Genet, Carine; Boudinot, Pierre; Quillet, Edwige

    2013-01-01

    Health control is a major issue in animal breeding and a better knowledge of the genetic bases of resistance to diseases is needed in farm animals including fish. The detection of quantitative trait loci (QTL) will help uncovering the genetic architecture of important traits and understanding the mechanisms involved in resistance to pathogens. We report here the detection of QTL for resistance to Viral Haemorrhagic Septicaemia Virus (VHSV), a major threat for European aquaculture industry. Two induced mitogynogenetic doubled haploid F2 rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) families were used. These families combined the genome of susceptible and resistant F0 breeders and contained only fully homozygous individuals. For phenotyping, fish survival after an immersion challenge with the virus was recorded, as well as in vitro virus replication on fin explants. A bidirectional selective genotyping strategy identified seven QTL associated to survival. One of those QTL was significant at the genome-wide level and largely explained both survival and viral replication in fin explants in the different families of the design (up to 65% and 49% of phenotypic variance explained respectively). These results evidence the key role of innate defence in resistance to the virus and pave the way for the identification of the gene(s) responsible for resistance. The identification of a major QTL also opens appealing perspectives for selective breeding of fish with improved resistance. PMID:23390526

  18. Antiviral specificity of the Solea senegalensis Mx protein constitutively expressed in CHSE-214 cells.

    PubMed

    Alvarez-Torres, Daniel; Garcia-Rosado, Esther; Fernandez-Trujillo, M Alejandra; Bejar, Julia; Alvarez, M Carmen; Borrego, Juan J; Alonso, M Carmen

    2013-04-01

    Interferons play a key role in fish resistance to viral infections by inducing the expression of antiviral proteins, such as Mx. The aim of the present study was to test the antiviral activity of the Senegalese sole Mx protein (SsMx) against RNA and DNA viruses pathogenic to fish, i.e. the infectious pancreatic necrosis virus (IPNV, dsRNA), the viral haemorrhagic septicaemia virus (VHSV, ssRNA), and the European sheatfish virus (ESV, dsDNA), using a CHSE-214 cell clone expressing this antiviral protein. A strong inhibition of IPNV and VHSV replication was recorded in SsMx-expressing cells, as has been shown by the virus yield reduction and the decrease in the synthesis of the viral RNA encoding the polyprotein (for IPNV) and the nucleoprotein (for VHSV). The titres of these viruses replicating on SsMx-expressing cells were 100 times lower than those recorded on non-transfected cells. In contrast, SsMx did not inhibit ESV replication since no significant differences were observed regarding the virus yield or the major capsid protein gene transcription in transfected and non-transfected cells. PMID:22886190

  19. Improving the safety of viral DNA vaccines: development of vectors containing both 5' and 3' homologous regulatory sequences from non-viral origin.

    PubMed

    Martinez-Lopez, A; Encinas, P; García-Valtanen, P; Gomez-Casado, E; Coll, J M; Estepa, A

    2013-04-01

    Although some DNA vaccines have proved to be very efficient in field trials, their authorisation still remains limited to a few countries. This is in part due to safety issues because most of them contain viral regulatory sequences to driving the expression of the encoded antigen. This is the case of the only DNA vaccine against a fish rhabdovirus (a negative ssRNA virus), authorised in Canada, despite the important economic losses that these viruses cause to aquaculture all over the world. In an attempt to solve this problem and using as a model a non-authorised, but efficient DNA vaccine against the fish rhabdovirus, viral haemorrhagic septicaemia virus (VHSV), we developed a plasmid construction containing regulatory sequences exclusively from fish origin. The result was an "all-fish vector", named pJAC-G, containing 5' and 3' regulatory sequences of ?-acting genes from carp and zebrafish, respectively. In vitro and in vivo, pJAC-G drove a successful expression of the VHSV glycoprotein G (G), the only antigen of the virus conferring in vivo protection. Furthermore, and by means of in vitro fusion assays, it was confirmed that G protein expressed from pJAC-G was fully functional. Altogether, these results suggest that DNA vaccines containing host-homologous gene regulatory sequences might be useful for developing safer DNA vaccines, while they also might be useful for basic studies. PMID:23001057

  20. Resistance to a Rhabdovirus (VHSV) in Rainbow Trout: Identification of a Major QTL Related to Innate Mechanisms

    PubMed Central

    Verrier, Eloi R.; Dorson, Michel; Mauger, Stéphane; Torhy, Corinne; Ciobotaru, Céline; Hervet, Caroline; Dechamp, Nicolas; Genet, Carine; Boudinot, Pierre; Quillet, Edwige

    2013-01-01

    Health control is a major issue in animal breeding and a better knowledge of the genetic bases of resistance to diseases is needed in farm animals including fish. The detection of quantitative trait loci (QTL) will help uncovering the genetic architecture of important traits and understanding the mechanisms involved in resistance to pathogens. We report here the detection of QTL for resistance to Viral Haemorrhagic Septicaemia Virus (VHSV), a major threat for European aquaculture industry. Two induced mitogynogenetic doubled haploid F2 rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) families were used. These families combined the genome of susceptible and resistant F0 breeders and contained only fully homozygous individuals. For phenotyping, fish survival after an immersion challenge with the virus was recorded, as well as in vitro virus replication on fin explants. A bidirectional selective genotyping strategy identified seven QTL associated to survival. One of those QTL was significant at the genome-wide level and largely explained both survival and viral replication in fin explants in the different families of the design (up to 65% and 49% of phenotypic variance explained respectively). These results evidence the key role of innate defence in resistance to the virus and pave the way for the identification of the gene(s) responsible for resistance. The identification of a major QTL also opens appealing perspectives for selective breeding of fish with improved resistance. PMID:23390526

  1. Complications of unsafe abortion: a case study and the need for abortion law reform in Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Oye-Adeniran, Boniface A; Umoh, Augustine V; Nnatu, Steve N N

    2002-05-01

    Complications of unsafe abortion account for 30-40% of maternal deaths in Nigeria. This paper reports a case of unsafe abortion by dilatation and curettage, carried out by a medical practitioner in a private clinic on a 20-year-old single girl in Lagos, Nigeria. The girl was 16 weeks pregnant. She suffered complications consisting of perforation of the vaginal wall through the utero-vesical space into the abdominal cavity with gangrenous loops of small intestine herniating through it. Information was obtained from her case notes and the operating theatre register. She had a resection and anastomosis of the small intestine and had to remain in hospital, where she made a full recovery, for two weeks. Unsafe abortion is fraught with many complications, including pelvic sepsis, septicaemia, haemorrhage, renal failure, uterine perforation and other genital tract injuries, and gastro-intestinal tract injuries. Where expert, emergency treatment for these is not available, women die. Unsafe abortion procedures, untrained abortion service providers, restrictive laws and high morbidity and mortality from abortion tend to occur together. We advocate for a review of the existing restrictive laws in Nigeria in order to reduce the high morbidity and mortality from unsafe abortion. PMID:12369323

  2. Early steps in the European eel (Anguilla anguilla)-Vibrio vulnificus interaction in the gills: role of the RtxA13 toxin.

    PubMed

    Callol, Agnčs; Pajuelo, David; Ebbesson, Lars; Teles, Mariana; MacKenzie, Simon; Amaro, Carmen

    2015-04-01

    Vibrio vulnificus is an aquatic gram-negative bacterium that causes a systemic disease in eels called warm-water vibriosis. Natural disease occurs via water born infection; bacteria attach to the gills (the main portal of entry) and spread to the internal organs through the bloodstream, provoking host death by haemorrhagic septicaemia. V. vulnificus produces a toxin called RtxA13 that hypothetically interferes with the eel immune system facilitating bacterial invasion and subsequent death by septic shock. The aim of this work was to study the early steps of warm-water vibriosis by analysing the expression of three marker mRNA transcripts related to pathogen recognition (tlr2 and tlr5) and inflammation (il-8) in the gills of eels infected by immersion with either the pathogen or a mutant deficient in rtxA13. Results indicate a differential response that is linked to the rtx toxin in the expression levels of the three measured mRNA transcripts. The results suggest that eels are able to distinguish innocuous from harmful microorganisms by the local action of their toxins rather than by surface antigens. Finally, the cells that express these transcripts in the gills are migratory cells primarily located in the second lamellae that re-locate during infection suggesting the activation of a specific immune response to pathogen invasion in the gill. PMID:25613341

  3. Non-malignant disease mortality in meat workers: a model for studying the role of zoonotic transmissible agents in non-malignant chronic diseases in humans

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, E S; Zhou, Y; Sall, M; Faramawi, M El; Shah, N; Christopher, A; Lewis, N

    2007-01-01

    Background Current research efforts have mainly concentrated on evaluating the role of substances present in animal food in the aetiology of chronic diseases in humans, with relatively little attention given to evaluating the role of transmissible agents that are also present. Meat workers are exposed to a variety of transmissible agents present in food animals and their products. This study investigates mortality from non-malignant diseases in workers with these exposures. Methods A cohort mortality study was conducted between 1949 and 1989, of 8520 meat workers in a union in Baltimore, Maryland, who worked in manufacturing plants where animals were killed or processed, and who had high exposures to transmissible agents. Mortality in meat workers was compared with that in a control group of 6081 workers in the same union, and also with the US general population. Risk was estimated by proportional mortality and standardised mortality ratios (SMRs) and relative SMR. Results A clear excess of mortality from septicaemia, subarachnoid haemorrhage, chronic nephritis, acute and subacute endocarditis, functional diseases of the heart, and decreased risk of mortality from pre-cerebral, cerebral artery stenosis were observed in meat workers when compared to the control group or to the US general population. Conclusions The authors hypothesise that zoonotic transmissible agents present in food animals and their products may be responsible for the occurrence of some cases of circulatory, neurological and other diseases in meat workers, and possibly in the general population exposed to these agents. PMID:17604337

  4. Persistence of viral RNA in fish infected with VHSV-IVb at 15°C and then moved to warmer temperatures after the onset of disease.

    PubMed

    Goodwin, A E; Merry, G E; Noyes, A D

    2012-07-01

    Smallmouth bass, Micropterus dolomieu Lacepčde, bluegill, Lepomis macrochirus Rafinesque (coppernose strain), koi carp, Cyprinus carpio L., and channel catfish Ictalurus punctatus (Rafinesque), were infected by intraperitoneal injection with viral haemorrhagic septicaemia virus genotype IVb (VHSV-IVb) at 15?°C. When clinical signs of disease developed, one-third of the fish was moved to 20°C and one-third to 25°C. Mortality in challenged fish at all three temperatures ranged from 25 to 45% in smallmouth bass and from 70 to 90% in bluegill. No koi carp or channel catfish died during the study. Viral copy numbers detected by quantitative real-time reverse transcriptase PCR (qrt-RTPCR) in fish dying at 20 and 25°C decreased over time. In survivors of the challenge, viral copy numbers were higher in the more susceptible species (smallmouth bass and bluegill) than in the more VHSV-IVb disease-resistant species (koi carp and channel catfish). In fish surviving 28days post-infection, prevalence of infection was 66-100% depending on species and temperature, and VHSV-IVb was detected at 10(3) -10(5) copies ?g(-1) host RNA. Our results show that qrt-RTPCR is a useful tool to investigate fish kills even 28days after temperatures are elevated above those known to be permissive for VHSV replication. PMID:22582793

  5. The improved PCR of the fstA (ferric siderophore receptor) gene differentiates the fish pathogen Aeromonas salmonicida from other Aeromonas species.

    PubMed

    Beaz-Hidalgo, Roxana; Latif-Eugenín, Fadua; Figueras, María José

    2013-10-25

    The members of the genus Aeromonas are autochthonous of aquatic ecosystems and several species have been associated to septicaemia, ulcerative and haemorrhagic diseases in fish, causing significant mortality in both wild and farmed, freshwater and marine fish species. The species Aeromonas salmonicida is generally recognized as the most important fish pathogen responsible for epidemic outbreaks of furunculosis in salmonids, also being able to produce infections in other cultured fish such as turbot, halibut, sea bream or goldfish. New species, i.e. Aeromonas aquariorum, Aeromonas tecta and Aeromonas piscicola, have recently been discovered and isolated from diseased fish. The species A. piscicola and Aeromonas bestiarum are practically impossible to differentiate phenotypically and genetically (when using the 16S rRNA gene) from each other and from A. salmonicida. In the present study, two previously described PCR protocols, based on the fstA and gyrB genes, for the specific detection of A. salmonicida were re-evaluated with the type strains of all Aeromonas species and with a set of A. piscicola and A. bestiarum strains. Contrary to what had been published previously it was demonstrated that the gyrB-PCR is not specific for A. salmonicida because of cross-reactions with other Aeromonas species. However, in agreement with previous results, A. salmonicida was detected on the basis of the fstA-PCR, for which an improved protocol was proposed. PMID:23890674

  6. Symposium sur la vaccination des poissons (de Kinkelin P, Michel C, eds). Office Interna-

    E-print Network

    Boyer, Edmond

    - tecting antibodies against VHS and SVC virus- es. One early report of a VHS antibody ELISA dismissed- ruses contain specific virus antibodies and anti- body surveys have been used to detect carrier fish antibody screening. The sensitivity of the test for VHS virus antibod- ies in rainbow trout sera

  7. Characterisation of a monoclonal antibody capable of neutralising the haemorrhagic activity of West African Echis carinatus (carpet viper) venom.

    PubMed

    Iddon, D; Hommel, M; Theakston, R D

    1988-01-01

    A murine monoclonal antibody (SV-1/F10) was highly specific immunologically for West African E.carinatus venom both by ELISA and immunoblotting. In cross-protection tests in vivo, it possessed strong antihaemorrhagic activity. This IgGl monoclonal antibody recognised an epitope present in a protein band of 124,000 mol. wt using immunoblotting of non-reduced Nigerian and Ghanaian E.carinatus venoms, as well as in a second protein band of 105,000 mol. wt in Ghanaian E.carinatus venom. The SV-1/F10 monoclonal antibody is of potential use for the isolation of West African E.carinatus venom haemorrhagin from whole venom, allowing the possibility of elucidation of the mechanism of its actions as well as its interactions with antibody. PMID:3284002

  8. Antigenic variation of European haemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome virus strains characterized using bank vole monoclonal antibodies

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Lundkvist; A. Fatouros; B. Niklasson

    1991-01-01

    Monocloral antibodies (MAbs) against Puumala (PUU) virus, the aetiological agent of nephropathia epidemica, were produced by fusing activated spleen cells from a bank vole (Clethrionomys glareolus) with the mouse myeloma cell line SP2\\/0. This novel approach, utilizing the natural vector of PUU virus for hybriOoma production, proved to be highly efficient, and eight stable PUU virus-specific heterohybridomas were isolated and

  9. Coagulation and fibrinolysis in blood and cerebrospinal fluid after aneurysmal subarachnoid haemorrhage: Effect of tranexamic acid (AMCA)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. Fodstad; I. M. Nilsson

    1981-01-01

    Summary Serial assays of blood coagulation factors as well as of fibrin\\/fibrinogen degradation products (FDP) and plasminogen activator activity (PA) on fibrin plates in blood and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) were performed in 41 consecutive patients with recently ruptured cerebral aneurysms, 21 of whom were randomly treated with tranexamic acid (AMCA). Coagulation factors were unaffected by the drug and plasminogen and

  10. Determination of tranexamic acid (AMCA) and fibrin\\/fibrinogen degradation products in cerebrospinal fluid after aneurysmal subarachnoid haemorrhage

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. Fodstad; A. Pilbrant; M. Schannon?; S. Strömber?

    1981-01-01

    Summary Six patients with recently ruptured intracranial aneurysms were treated preoperatively with tranexamic acid (AMCA). Two patients received 6 g daily in i.v. infusion, two had 6 g daily by i.v. injection, and two patients were given AMCA 9 g daily by mouth during the first week after bleeding. Serial assays of AMCA and fibrin\\/fibrinogen degradation products (FDP) in cerebrospinal

  11. Some acute phase reactants and cholesterol levels in serum of patient with Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever

    PubMed Central

    Sari, ?smail; Bak?r, Sevtap; Engin, Aynur; Ayd?n, Hüseyin; Poyraz, Ömer

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to determine erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR), C - reactive protein (CRP), serum amyloid-A (SAA) and cholesterol levels in patients with Crimean-Congo Hemorrhagic Fever (CCHF) and determine the relationship of these parameters with the severity of disease. By polymerase chain reaction and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) method 40 patients were diagnosed as CCHF and 39 volunteer without any systemic disease whose blood were taken and their serum separated. SAA, CRP and ESR were measured with ELISA, nephelometry and Mix-Rate x100 vital diagnostic device, respectively, in serum samples. High density lipoprotein (HDL), low density lipoprotein (LDL) and total cholesterol levels were determined by using autoanalyzer HDL, LDL and total cholesterol kit (Syncron LX20). Statistically significant difference was determined between patients and controls in terms of the levels of SAA, CRP, HDL, LDL and total cholesterol (p<0.05). However, there was no significant difference between the groups in terms of the levels of ESR. In addition, neither SAA, CRP, ESR nor HDL, LDL and total cholesterol levels varied with the severity of disease in the cases assessed (p>0.05). Using of CRP and SAA together might increase the sensitivity of diagnosis of CCHF infection. However, none of the parameters investigated in this study were found to be a proper marker of the prognosis in CCHF. Cholesterol levels were significantly decreased in patients with CCHF, which was suggested to be associated with the increased serum levels of SAA in the patient group. PMID:23448606

  12. Complications of Uterine Fibroids and Their Management, Surgical Management of Fibroids, Laparoscopy and Hysteroscopy versus Hysterectomy, Haemorrhage, Adhesions, and Complications

    PubMed Central

    Mettler, Liselotte; Schollmeyer, Thoralf; Tinelli, Andrea; Malvasi, Antonio; Alkatout, Ibrahim

    2012-01-01

    A critical analysis of the surgical treatment of fibroids compares all available techniques of myomectomy. Different statistical analyses reveal the advantages of the laparoscopic and hysteroscopic approach. Complications can arise from the location of the fibroids. They range from intermittent bleedings to continuous bleedings over several weeks, from single pain episodes to severe pain, from dysuria and constipation to chronic bladder and bowel spasms. Very seldom does peritonitis occur. Infertility may result from continuous metro and menorrhagia. The difficulty of the laparoscopic and hysteroscopic myomectomy lies in achieving satisfactory haemostasis using the appropriate sutures. The hysteroscopic myomectomy requires an operative hysteroscope and a well-experienced gynaecologic surgeon. PMID:22619681

  13. Doppler studies in the growth retarded fetus and prediction of neonatal necrotising enterocolitis, haemorrhage, and neonatal morbidity

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G A Hackett; S Campbell; H Gamsu; T Cohen-Overbeek; J M Pearce

    1987-01-01

    In 82 consecutive cases of intrauterine growth retardation managed by established criteria fetal Doppler studies identified 29 fetuses with absence of end diastolic frequencies in the fetal aorta. These same fetuses were significantly more growth retarded (p less than 0.001) and had an earlier gestational age at delivery (p less than 0.001) than those with end diastolic frequencies present. A

  14. Combination of intracerebral haemorrhage and familial hypercholesterolemia in the acute hospital setting - a challenge for statin treatment?

    PubMed

    Vuorio, Alpo; Kaste, Markku; Kovanen, Petri T

    2015-06-01

    It is estimated that worldwide, around 35 million people have familial hypercholesterolemia (FH). Thus, patients affected by the combination of FH and acute intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) are not exceptional and neurologists should be prepared to encounter them. Despite a recent finding of beneficial association between statin use during hospitalization and improved outcomes, the increased risk of recurrent ICH in the long term may make clinicians avoid statins in patients with a history of ICH. However, discontinuing statins in patients with FH worsens cardiovascular outcomes and even increases all-cause mortality. Accordingly, the continuing statin treatment in an FH patient with an acute ICH is advisable. PMID:25973703

  15. [Use of high-speed ultrasonography for differential diagnosis of gestational haemorrhage, following formation of placenta (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Pap, G; Fügedi, L

    1980-01-01

    The "Vidoson 635-S" high-speed ultrasonographic unit was used by the authors to examine 465 women pregnant in the second and third trimenons for the occurrence of bleeding. The following findings were obtained: NAD (no abnormality discovered), Placenta praevia totalis, Placenta praevia partialis lateralis, Placenta praevia partialis marginalis, deep adherence of placenta, early detachment of placenta, and uterus rupture. - Placental displacement was observed by repeated checking in 57 of 196 placentas with pathological findings. Placental prolapse observed between the twelfth and 20th weeks of pregnancy was defined as "early" Placenta praevia, and the birth canal was left in about 50 per cent of those cases. The authors' view about such phenomenon was that while the point of placental adherence was unchanged, some change was undergone by the uterus wall of which that part changed position to which the placenta adhered, the latter dislocation being caused by enlargement of the upper third of the passive uterus region and its part in the formation of the uterus cavity. PMID:7467926

  16. Endoscopy management algorithms: role of cyanoacrylate glue injection and self-expanding metal stents in acute variceal haemorrhage

    PubMed Central

    El Sayed, G; Tarff, S; O'Beirne, J; Wright, G

    2015-01-01

    Mortality from acute variceal bleeding (AVB) has improved markedly over the last 2–3 decades due to increased specialisation and standardisation of medical and endoscopic practice culminating in the production of consensus guidance based on expert opinion. Nonetheless, despite greater exposure, training and endoscopic practices, 30-day mortality still remains high at around 30%. This is a reflection of the high morbidity with liver disease, and limited endoscopic experience and/or endoscopic techniques used by the majority of general endoscopists. Clinical necessity defines our drive for further endoscopic innovation to improve ‘best practice’ and, therefore, clinical outcomes accordingly. Sclerotherpy, variceal band ligation and/or rescue balloon tamponade have been entrenched in most treatment algorithms over the decades. However, in recent years and albeit limited to specialised liver centres, cyanoacrylate glue injection therapy (for oesophageal and gastric varices), and the placement of a self-expanding metallic stent for oesophageal varices have begun to offer improved endoscopic care in experienced hands. Yet even in specialised centres, their application is sporadic and operator dependent. Here, we discuss the evidence of these newer endoscopic approaches, and hope to propose their inclusion in endoscopic therapy algorithms for ‘best practice’ management of AVB in all appropriately supported endoscopy units.

  17. Hallucinations and sleep disturbances in Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Kulisevsky, Jaime; Roldan, Eliana

    2004-10-26

    Visual hallucinations (VHs) occur frequently in Parkinson's disease (PD). VHs occur more frequently in elderly patients with longer duration of illness, cognitive impairment, and sleep disturbances. The relationship between the use of antiparkinsonian drugs and VHs is complicated, but most drugs used to treat parkinsonian motor symptoms induce VHs and psychosis in some PD patients. The "continuum hypothesis" proposing that medication-induced psychiatric symptoms in PD begin with drug-induced sleep disturbances, followed by vivid dreams, with progression to hallucinatory and delusional experiences has been challenged. In some patients, VHs may represent intrusion of REM sleep-related imagery into wakefulness. Improving REM sleep abnormalities in PD (e.g., stimulants, anticholinesterase inhibitors) is one strategy now being tested to improve VHs in PD. PMID:15505140

  18. Incidence, determinants and perinatal outcomes of near miss maternal morbidity in Ile-Ife Nigeria: a prospective case control study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Maternal mortality ratio in Nigeria is one of the highest in the world. Near misses occur in larger numbers than maternal deaths hence they allow for a more comprehensive analysis of risk factors and determinants as well as outcomes of life-threatening complications in pregnancy. The study determined the incidence, characteristics, determinants and perinatal outcomes of near misses in a tertiary hospital in South-west Nigeria. Methods A prospective case control study was conducted at the maternity units of the Obafemi Awolowo University Teaching Hospitals Complex, Ile-Ife Nigeria between July 2006 and July 2007. Near miss cases were defined based on validated disease-specific criteria which included severe haemorrhage, hypertensive disorders in pregnancy, prolonged obstructed labour, infection and severe anemia. Four unmatched controls of pregnant women were selected for every near miss case. Three categories of risk factors (background, proximate, clinical) which derived from a conceptual framework were examined. The perinatal outcomes were also assessed. Bi-variate logistic regressions were used for multivariate analysis of determinants and perinatal outcomes of near miss. Results The incidence of near miss was 12%. Severe haemorrhage (41.3%), hypertensive disorders in pregnancy (37.3%), prolonged obstructed labour (23%), septicaemia (18.6%) and severe anaemia (14.6%) were the direct causes of near miss. The significant risk factors with their odds ratio and 95% confidence intervals were: chronic hypertension [OR=6.85; 95% CI: (1.96 – 23.93)] having experienced a phase one delay [OR=2.07; 95% CI (1.03 – 4.17)], Emergency caesarian section [OR=3.72; 95% CI: (0.93 – 14.9)], assisted vaginal delivery [OR=2.55; 95% CI: (1.34 – 4.83)]. The protective factors included antenatal care attendance at tertiary facility [OR=0.19; 95% CI: (0.09 – 0.37)], knowledge of pregnancy complications [OR=0.47; 95% CI (0.24 – 0.94)]. Stillbirth [OR=5.4; 95% CI (2.17 – 13.4)] was the most significant adverse perinatal outcomes associated with near miss event. Conclusions The analysis of near misses has evolved as a useful tool in the investigation of maternal health especially in life-threatening situations. The significant risk factors identified in this study are amenable to appropriate public health and medical interventions. Adverse perinatal outcomes are clearly attributable to near miss events. Therefore the findings should contribute to Nigeria’s effort to achieving MDG 4 and 5. PMID:23587107

  19. DNA vaccination against a fish rhabdovirus promotes an early chemokine-related recruitment of B cells to the muscle.

    PubMed

    Castro, Rosario; Martínez-Alonso, Susana; Fischer, Uwe; Haro, Neila Álvarez de; Soto-Lampe, Verónica; Wang, Tiehui; Secombes, Christopher J; Lorenzen, Niels; Lorenzen, Ellen; Tafalla, Carolina

    2014-02-26

    In fish, intramuscular (i.m) injection of plasmid DNA encoding viral proteins has proved a highly effective vaccination strategy against some viral pathogens. The efficacy of DNA vaccination in teleost fish is based on the high level of viral antigen expression in muscle cells inducing a strong and long-lasting protection. However, the mechanisms through which this protection is established and effectuated in fish are still not fully understood. Moreover, similarities to mammalian models cannot be established since DNA vaccination in mammals usually induces much weaker responses. In this work, we have focused on the characterization of the immune cells that infiltrate the muscle at the site of DNA injection in vaccinated fish and the chemokines and chemokine receptors that may be involved in their infiltration. We have demonstrated through diverse techniques that B lymphocytes, both IgM? and IgT? cells, represented a major infiltrating cell type in fish vaccinated with a viral haemorrhagic septicaemia virus (VHSV) glycoprotein-encoding DNA vaccine, whereas in control fish injected with an oil adjuvant mainly granulocyte/monocyte-type cells were attracted. Among twelve chemokine genes studied, only CXCL11_L1, CK5B and CK6 mRNA levels were up-regulated in DNA vaccinated fish compared to fish injected with the corresponding vector backbone. Furthermore, the transcription of CXCR3B, a possible receptor for CXCL11_L1 was also significantly up-regulated in vaccinated fish. Finally, experiments performed with recombinant trout CK5B and CK6 and chemokine expression plasmids revealed that these chemokines have chemotactic capacities which might explain the recruitment of B cells to the site of DNA injection. Altogether, our results reveal that there is an early chemokine-related B cell recruitment triggered by i.m. DNA vaccination against VHSV which might play an important role in the initial phase of the immune response. PMID:24291197

  20. Approaches towards DNA Vaccination against a Skin Ciliate Parasite in Fish

    PubMed Central

    von Gersdorff Jřrgensen, Louise; Sigh, Jens; Kania, Per Walter; Holten-Andersen, Lars; Buchmann, Kurt; Clark, Theodore; Rasmussen, Jesper Skou; Einer-Jensen, Katja; Lorenzen, Niels

    2012-01-01

    Rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) were immunized with plasmid DNA vaccine constructs encoding selected antigens from the parasite Ichthyophthirius multifiliis. Two immobilization antigens (I-ags) and one cysteine protease were tested as genetic vaccine antigen candidates. Antigenicity was evaluated by immunostaining of transfected fish cells using I-ag specific mono- and polyclonal antibodies. I. multifiliis specific antibody production, regulation of immune-relevant genes and/or protection in terms of parasite burden or mortality was measured to evaluate the induced immune response in vaccinated fish. Apart from intramuscular injection, needle free injection and gene gun delivery were tested as alternative administration techniques. For the I-ags the complement protein fragment C3d and the termini of the viral haemorrhagic septicaemia virus glyco(G)protein (VHSV G) were tested as opsonisation and cellular localisation mediators, respectively, while the full length viral G protein was tested as molecular adjuvant. Expression of I-ags in transfected fish cells was demonstrated for several constructs and by immunohistochemistry it was possible to detect expression of a secreted form of the Iag52B in the muscle cells of injected fish. Up-regulations of mRNA coding for IgM, MHC I, MHC II and TCR ?, respectively, were observed in muscle tissue at the injection site in selected trials. In the spleen up-regulations were found for IFN-? and IL-10. The highest up-regulations were seen following co-administration of I-ag and cysteine protease plasmid constructs. This correlated with a slight elevation of an I. multifiliis specific antibody response. However, in spite of detectable antigen expression and immune reactions, none of the tested vaccination strategies provided significant protection. This might suggest an insufficiency of DNA vaccination alone to trigger protective mechanisms against I. multifiliis or that other or additional parasite antigens are required for such a vaccine to be successful. PMID:23144852

  1. The first characterization of two type I interferons in turbot (Scophthalmus maximus) reveals their differential role, expression pattern and gene induction.

    PubMed

    Pereiro, P; Costa, M M; Díaz-Rosales, P; Dios, S; Figueras, A; Novoa, B

    2014-08-01

    Type I interferons (IFNs) are considered the main cytokines directing the antiviral immune response in vertebrates. These molecules are able to induce the transcription of interferon-stimulated genes (ISGs) which, using different blocking mechanisms, reduce the viral proliferation in the host. In addition, a contradictory role of these IFNs in the protection against bacterial challenges using murine models has been observed, increasing the survival or having a detrimental effect depending on the bacteria species. In teleosts, a variable number of type I IFNs has been described with different expression patterns, protective capabilities or gene induction profiles even for the different IFNs belonging to the same species. In this work, two type I IFNs (ifn1 and ifn2) have been characterized for the first time in turbot (Scophthalmus maximus), showing different properties. Whereas Ifn1 reflected a clear antiviral activity (over-expression of ISGs and protection against viral haemorrhagic septicaemia virus), Ifn2 was not able to induce this response, although both transcripts were up-regulated after viral challenge. On the other hand, turbot IFNs did not show any protective effect against the bacteria Aeromonas salmonicida, although they were induced after bacterial challenge. Both IFNs induced the expression of several immune genes, but the effect of Ifn2 was mainly limited to the site of administration (intramuscular injection). Interestingly, Ifn2 but not Ifn1 induced an increase in the expression level of interleukin-1 beta (il1b). Therefore, the role of Ifn2 could be more related with the immune regulation, being involved mainly in the inflammation process. PMID:24680948

  2. Mx1, Mx2 and Mx3 proteins from the gilthead seabream (Sparus aurata) show in vitro antiviral activity against RNA and DNA viruses.

    PubMed

    Fernández-Trujillo, M A; García-Rosado, E; Alonso, M C; Castro, D; Álvarez, M C; Béjar, J

    2013-12-01

    Mx proteins are important components of the antiviral innate immune response mediated by type I interferon. Classically, these proteins have been considered to be triggered by viral RNA, thus showing activity against RNA viruses. Actually, three Mx proteins (SauMx1, SauMx2 and SauMx3) from gilthead seabream (Sparus aurata) have previously shown antiviral activity against a dsRNA virus: the infectious pancreatic necrosis virus (IPNV) in vitro. For further characterizing their antiviral spectrum, the activity of SauMx proteins were tested against three different viral pathogens of fish: the lymphocystis disease virus (LCDV, a dsDNA virus), a pathogen of gilthead seabream; the viral haemorrhagic septicaemia virus (VHSV, a ssRNA virus), to which gilthead seabream is considered a reservoir species; and the European sheatfish virus (ESV, a dsDNA virus), that has not been detected in gilthead seabream to date. Three clonal populations of CHSE-214 cells developed in a previous study, stably expressing SauMx1, SauMx2 and SauMx3, respectively, were challenged with the three viruses. Results combining cytopathic effects and virus yield reduction assays showed that SauMx1 protected the cells against VHSV and LCDV, SauMx2 protected against ESV and LCDV, and SauMx3 showed activity only against VHSV. This study, besides confirming the antiviral activity of the three gilthead seabream Mx proteins, is the first report of the protective effect of a fish Mx against DNA viruses. Additionally, it discloses a clear specificity between Mx proteins and virus targets, supporting the idea that the relationship between virus and Mx proteins is finely tuned. PMID:23911421

  3. Ammocoetes of Pacific Lamprey are not susceptible to common fish rhabdoviruses of the U.S. Pacific northwest.

    PubMed

    Kurath, G; Jolley, J C; Thompson, T M; Thompson, D; Whitesel, T A; Gutenberger, S; Winton, J R

    2013-12-01

    Pacific Lampreys Entosphenus tridentatus have experienced severe population declines in recent years and efforts to develop captive rearing programs are under consideration. However, there is limited knowledge of their life history, ecology, and potential to harbor or transmit pathogens that may cause infectious disease. As a measure of the possible risks associated with introducing wild lampreys into existing fish culture facilities, larval lampreys (ammocoetes) were tested for susceptibility to infection and mortality caused by experimental exposures to the fish rhabdovirus pathogens: infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus (IHNV) and viral haemorrhagic septicaemia virus (VHSV). Two IHNV isolates, representing the U and M genogroups, and one VHSV isolate from the IVa genotype were each delivered to groups of ammocoetes by immersion at moderate and high viral doses, and by intraperitoneal injection. Ammocoetes were then held in triplicate tanks with no substrate or sediment. During 41 d of observation postchallenge there was low or no mortality in all groups, and no virus was detected in the small number of fish that died. Ammocoetes sampled for incidence of infection at 6 and 12 d after immersion challenges also had no detectable virus, and no virus was detected in surviving fish from any group. A small number of ammocoetes sampled 6 d after the injection challenge had detectable virus, but at levels below the original quantity of virus injected. Overall there was no evidence of infection, replication, or persistence of any of the viruses in any of the treatment groups. Our results suggest that Pacific Lampreys are highly unlikely to serve as hosts that maintain or transmit these viruses. PMID:24341769

  4. The contribution of molecular epidemiology to the understanding and control of viral diseases of salmonid aquaculture

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Molecular epidemiology is a science which utilizes molecular biology to define the distribution of disease in a population (descriptive epidemiology) and relies heavily on integration of traditional (or analytical) epidemiological approaches to identify the etiological determinants of this distribution. The study of viral pathogens of aquaculture has provided many exciting opportunities to apply such tools. This review considers the extent to which molecular epidemiological studies have contributed to better understanding and control of disease in aquaculture, drawing on examples of viral diseases of salmonid fish of commercial significance including viral haemorrhagic septicaemia virus (VHSV), salmonid alphavirus (SAV) and infectious salmon anaemia virus (ISAV). Significant outcomes of molecular epidemiological studies include: Improved taxonomic classification of viruses A better understanding of the natural distribution of viruses An improved understanding of the origins of viral pathogens in aquaculture An improved understanding of the risks of translocation of pathogens outwith their natural host range An increased ability to trace the source of new disease outbreaks Development of a basis for ensuring development of appropriate diagnostic tools An ability to classify isolates and thus target future research aimed at better understanding biological function While molecular epidemiological studies have no doubt already made a significant contribution in these areas, the advent of new technologies such as pyrosequencing heralds a quantum leap in the ability to generate descriptive molecular sequence data. The ability of molecular epidemiology to fulfil its potential to translate complex disease pathways into relevant fish health policy is thus unlikely to be limited by the generation of descriptive molecular markers. More likely, full realisation of the potential to better explain viral transmission pathways will be dependent on the ability to assimilate and analyse knowledge from a range of more traditional information sources. The development of methods to systematically record and share such epidemiologically important information thus represents a major challenge for fish health professionals in making the best future use of molecular data in supporting fish health policy and disease control. PMID:21466673

  5. Ammocoetes of Pacific lamprey are not susceptible to common fish rhabdoviruses of the U.S. Pacific Northwest

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kurath, Gael; Jolley, C J.; Thompson, Tarin M.; Thompson, D.; Whitesel, A.T.; Gutenberger, S.; Winton, James R.

    2013-01-01

    Pacific Lampreys Entosphenus tridentatus have experienced severe population declines in recent years and efforts to develop captive rearing programs are under consideration. However, there is limited knowledge of their life history, ecology, and potential to harbor or transmit pathogens that may cause infectious disease. As a measure of the possible risks associated with introducing wild lampreys into existing fish culture facilities, larval lampreys (ammocoetes) were tested for susceptibility to infection and mortality caused by experimental exposures to the fish rhabdovirus pathogens: infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus (IHNV) and viral haemorrhagic septicaemia virus (VHSV). Two IHNV isolates, representing the U and M genogroups, and one VHSV isolate from the IVa genotype were each delivered to groups of ammocoetes by immersion at moderate and high viral doses, and by intraperitoneal injection. Ammocoetes were then held in triplicate tanks with no substrate or sediment. During 41 d of observation postchallenge there was low or no mortality in all groups, and no virus was detected in the small number of fish that died. Ammocoetes sampled for incidence of infection at 6 and 12 d after immersion challenges also had no detectable virus, and no virus was detected in surviving fish from any group. A small number of ammocoetes sampled 6 d after the injection challenge had detectable virus, but at levels below the original quantity of virus injected. Overall there was no evidence of infection, replication, or persistence of any of the viruses in any of the treatment groups. Our results suggest that Pacific Lampreys are highly unlikely to serve as hosts that maintain or transmit these viruses.

  6. [The death of Goffredo Mameli in 1849].

    PubMed

    Sabbatani, Sergio

    2013-03-01

    After the introduction of firearms, which became increasingly efficient over time, the number of seriously injured soldiers increased considerably during the nineteenth century. As a consequence, surgeons were called upon to broaden their activity, performing operations which had hitherto been considered too hazardous, since they were deemed to be too extensive, or were contraindicated by the risk of complications during surgery (haemorrhage, heart and circulatory failure). From 1846 onwards, the introduction of anaesthetic techniques carried out with ether had expanded surgical perspectives in anatomical districts like the abdomen, which were previously considered a sort of taboo, such that few surgeons ventured into the realm of this internal surgery. In the mid nineteenth century the possibility of suffering from severe infections, as an immediate complication after a firearm injury or after surgical intervention, was very high, ranging between 23% in London, up to 80% in Munich, according to the available records; in Zurich a 46% mortality is reported, and a similar 43% rate came from Edinburgh. The situation worsened during war time, since injured soldiers were recovered in extremely precarious conditions, ad hoc hospitals were located in dilapidated old buildings, and the physicians and health care providers were unaware of the minimum hygiene conditions required, and performed both operations and medications without taking sterility measures into consideration. The author reports and comments on the most significant parts on the documents written by Agostino Bertani, who described in full detail the clinical evolution of the wound suffered by Goffredo Mameli, the poet and patriot of the Italian Risorgimento who wrote the Italian national anthem. The clinical evolution of Mameli's disease was unfavourable: he underwent amputation of the left lower limb after the firearm injury suffered during the defence of the Roman Republic, since a gangrenous complication had become apparent. The poet died of septicaemia on July 6, 1849, 17 days after the surgical operation. PMID:23524905

  7. Impacts on rural livelihoods in Cambodia following adoption of best practice health and husbandry interventions by smallholder cattle farmers.

    PubMed

    Young, J R; O'Reilly, R A; Ashley, K; Suon, S; Leoung, I V; Windsor, P A; Bush, R D

    2014-08-01

    To better understand how smallholder farmers whom own the majority of Cambodian cattle can contribute to efforts to address food security needs in the Mekong region, a five-year research project investigating methods to improve cattle health and husbandry practices was conducted. Cattle production in Cambodia is constrained by transboundary animal diseases (TADs) including foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) and haemorrhagic septicaemia (HS) plus poor nutrition, reproduction and marketing knowledge. The project worked in six villages in Kandal, Takeo and Kampong Cham province during 2007-12. Farmers from three 'high intervention' (HI) villages incrementally received a participatory extension programme that included FMD and HS vaccination, forage development and husbandry training. Evaluation of project impacts on livelihoods was facilitated by comparison with three 'low intervention' (LI) villages where farmers received vaccinations only. Results of knowledge, attitude and practice (KAP) and socio-economic surveys conducted in 2012 of 120 participating farmers identified that farmer knowledge in the HI project sites exceeded LI sites on the topics of biosecurity, internal parasites, nutrition and reproduction. HI farmers adopted biosecurity practices including a willingness to vaccinate for FMD and HS at their own cost, separate sick from healthy cattle, grow and feed forages and displayed awareness of the benefits of building fattening pens. HI farmers that grew forages observed time savings exceeding two hours per day each for men, women and children, enabling expansion of farm enterprises, secondary employment and children's schooling. Logistic regression analysis revealed that farmers in the HI group significantly increased annual household income (P < 0.001), with 53% reporting an increase of 100% or more. We conclude that improving smallholder KAP of cattle health and production can lead to improved livelihoods. This strategy should be of interest to policymakers, donors, researchers and extension workers interested in addressing TAD control, food insecurity and rural poverty in Southeast Asia. PMID:24393407

  8. AV/IT Equipment in Faculty of Education Teaching Rooms Updated -Sept 2013

    E-print Network

    Steiner, Ullrich

    * Flipchart* Telephone Donald McIntyre Building GS1 DMB GS3 DMB GS4 Sym VHS Cass PA Wall DMB GS5 Sym VHS Cass Art Studio Trumpington House TH3 Teaching Room Mary Allan Buildling G25 Auditorium Sym VHS Cass PA09 } Lap MAB G10 MAB G12 MAB 104 MAB 106 MAB 117 MAB 118 MAB 119 MAB 125 Music Room Cass MAB 126

  9. Ictal visual hallucinations due to frontal lobe epilepsy in a patient with bipolar disorder.

    PubMed

    Manfioli, Valeria; Saladini, Marina; Cagnin, Annachiara

    2013-01-01

    In ictal psychosis with complex visual hallucinations (VHs), widespread functional changes of cortical networks have been suggested. We describe the clinical and EEG findings of a patient with bipolar disorder who manifested complex VHs associated with intense emotional symptoms caused by frontal epileptic seizures. This description highlights the challenges of diagnosing the epileptic nature of new psychotic phenomena in patients with previous psychiatric disorders and shines light into the role of the frontal cortex in the genesis of complex VHs. PMID:25667849

  10. Development of a measure of verbal helpfulness 

    E-print Network

    Beecher, Glen Paul

    1978-01-01

    VMS as Dependent Measure. 5 Results of Validation Studies 1 and Z. . . 6 Significant Results of 5-way ANOVA 19 21 22 23 25 28 LIST OF FIGURES Figure Page 1 Graph of Sex of Subject X VHS Score Interaction on Concreteness. 31 2 Graph of VHS... Score X Sex of Tape Interaction on Empathy. 32 3 Graph of Sex of Subject X VHS Score X Sex of Rater Interaction on Recommend1ng a Friend. . . . . . . . , . . . . . . . 4 Graph of Sex of Subject X VHS Score X Sex of Rater Interaction on Probab1e Success...

  11. Richard Sandford Section name University of Reading 2012 Tuesday 23 October 2012 Page 1

    E-print Network

    Reading, University of

    Policy A Procedure for the management of Meningococcal Meningitis/Septicaemia in the University Index Tuesday, 23 October 2012 Page 2 Introduction Meningococcal Meningitis/septicaemia is a rare as above. Meningitis in a Hall of Residence Should a case of suspected meningococcal meningitis occur

  12. Rectal-skin temperature difference in septicaemic newborn infants

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J Messaritakis; D Anagnostakis; H Laskari; C Katerelos

    1990-01-01

    Serial skin (sole) and rectal temperatures were simultaneously taken from 55 healthy and 26 septicaemic newborn infants to find out prospectively whether septicaemic newborn infants have any thermoregulatory reaction to the septicaemia, and whether regular temperature measurements could help in the early diagnosis of septicaemia. The septicaemic infants were divided into three groups: the first comprised eight feverish infants, the

  13. The Virion Host Shutoff RNase Plays a Key Role in Blocking the Activation of Protein Kinase R in Cells Infected with Herpes Simplex Virus 1

    PubMed Central

    Sciortino, Maria Teresa; Parisi, Tiziana; Siracusano, Gabriel; Mastino, Antonio; Taddeo, Brunella

    2013-01-01

    Earlier studies have shown that active MEK blocks the activation of protein kinase R (PKR), a component of antiviral innate immune responses. In this report we show that the herpes simplex virus 1 virion host shutoff (VHS) RNase protein and MEK (mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase) act cooperatively in blocking the activation of PKR. This conclusion is based on the following. (i) In contrast to viral gene expression in the parental cell line or a cell line expressing a constitutively active MEK, the replication of a VHS mutant is particularly impaired in cells expressing dominant negative MEK. In this cell line PKR is activated by phosphorylation, and the accumulation of several viral proteins is delayed. (ii) In transfected cells, wild-type VHS blocked the activation of PKR, whereas PKR was activated in cells transfected with a mutant VHS or with plasmids encoding the VHS RNase and VP16 and VP22, the two viral proteins that neutralize the RNase activity of VHS. The results suggest that early in infection the VHS RNase degrades RNAs that activate PKR. Coupled with published data, the results suggest that inhibition of activation of PKR or its effect on viral replication is staged early in infection by VHS, postsynthesis of VP16 and VP22 by the ?134.5 protein, and very late in infection by the US11 protein. PMID:23302873

  14. 296 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON INDUSTRIAL ELECTRONICS, VOL. 57, NO. 1, JANUARY 2010 Very-High-Speed Slotless Permanent-Magnet

    E-print Network

    Psaltis, Demetri

    -High-Speed Slotless Permanent-Magnet Motors: Analytical Modeling, Optimization, Design, and Torque Measurement Methods-high-speed (VHS) slotless permanent-magnet motor design procedure using an analytical model. The model is used, the electro- magnetic power losses, the windage power losses, and the power losses in the bearings. VHS

  15. Student, Faculty and Administrator Attitudes and Perceptions of Virtual High School Classes at One Suburban New Jersey Public High School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Donlevie, Gina

    2011-01-01

    The 2005 Summit on High Schools led to redesigning schools and promoting 21st Century Skills. Consequently, this study assesses the implementation of supplemental online courses, offered through the Virtual High School (VHS), at one suburban New Jersey public high school. The following questions guided this research project: (1) How do the VHS

  16. Elevated Baseline CRP as a Predictor of Outcome After Aneurysmal Subarachnoid Hemorrhage: Data From the Simvastatin in Aneurysmal Subarachnoid Haemorrhage (STASH) Trial

    E-print Network

    Turner, Carole; Budohoski, Karol; Smith, Christopher; Hutchinson, Peter John; Kirkpatrick, Peter John

    2015-01-01

    -neurological systemic complications which 17 often occur post SAH and which can contribute to poor outcome, including sepsis, 18 anaemia, hypertension, hypotension, hyperglycaemia, hypernatraemia, hyponatraemia, 19 hypomagnesaemia and cardiac complications2, 10. Many... patients presenting with 29 WFNS 1 and 2 were analysed, only baseline CRP was found to be an independent 30 biochemical predictor of outcome (table 5b). 31 7 A further multivariate model was applied, including sepsis, statin/placebo, white cell 1...

  17. Cost-effectiveness analysis of the terlipressin-glycerin trinitrate combination in the pre-hospital management of acute gastro-intestinal haemorrhage in cirrhotic patients

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. Combier; S. Levacher; P. Letoumelin; A. Joseph; J.-L. Pourriat; G. de Pouvourville

    1999-01-01

    Objectives: To assess the cost-effectiveness of an early treatment of upper gastro-intestinal haemorrages in cirrhotic patients. Design: Utilization data linked to the results of a double-blind, placebo-controlled trial demonstrating the efficacy of the terlipressin-glycerin\\u000a trinitrate combination (TER-GTN) in the reduction of mortality at day 42 for haemorragic patients due to rupture of oesophageal\\u000a varices. Setting: H?pital Jean Verdier, Bondy, Assistance

  18. Statin pretreatment may increase the risk of symptomatic intracranial haemorrhage in thrombolysis for ischemic stroke: results from a case–control study and a meta-analysis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sergi Martinez-Ramirez; Raquel Delgado-Mederos; Rebeca Marín; Marc Suárez-Calvet; María Pilar Sáinz; Aída Alejaldre; Ángela Vidal-Jordana; Josep Lluís Martí-Vilalta; Joan Martí-Fŕbregas

    The influence of statins on the results of intravenous thrombolysis for ischemic stroke is controversial. We studied the risks\\u000a and benefits of statin pretreatment (SP) in patients treated with intravenous alteplase (t-PA) at our institution, and included\\u000a our data to a meta-analysis of previous related studies. We reviewed prospectively collected data from consecutive patients\\u000a with acute ischemic stroke treated with

  19. Effects of continuous prostacyclin infusion on regional blood flow and cerebral vasospasm following subarachnoid haemorrhage: statistical analysis plan for a randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background One of the main causes of mortality and morbidity following subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) is the development of cerebral vasospasm, a frequent complication arising in the weeks after the initial bleeding. Despite extensive research, no effective treatment of vasospasm exists to date. Prostacyclin is a potent vasodilator and inhibitor of platelet aggregation. In vitro models have shown a relaxing effect of prostacyclin after induced contraction in cerebral arteries, and a recent pilot trial showed a positive effect on cerebral vasospasm in a clinical setting. No randomized clinical trials have investigated the possible pharmacodynamic effects of prostacyclin on the human brain following SAH. Methods/Design This trial is a single centre, randomized, placebo-controlled, parallel group, double blinded, clinical pilot trial. A total of 90 patients with SAH will be randomized to one of three intervention arms: epoprostenol at 1 ng/kg/min, epoprostenol at 2 ng/kg/min, or placebo in addition to the standard treatment. Trial medication will start on Day 5 after SAH and continue to Day 10. The primary outcome measure is changes in cerebral blood flow measured by a computed tomography (CT) perfusion scan. The secondary outcomes are vasospasm measured by a CT angiography, regional blood flow, clinical symptoms of cerebral ischemia, and outcome at three months (Glasgow Outcome Scale). Discussion The primary outcome has been altered slightly since the publication of our study protocol. Global cerebral blood flow is now primary outcome, whereas regional blood flow is a secondary outcome. Trial registration Clinicaltrials.gov NCT01447095. Registration date: 11 October 2011. PMID:24929796

  20. The IMAX film, Destiny in Space and this resource guide are presented as a public service by the Smithsonian Institution's National Air and Space Museum and Lockheed-Martin in cooperation with the National Aeronautics and Space Administration. It was produced by Imax Space Technology, Inc. and distributed by Imax Corporation. The film is available on VHS and DVD. Contact your local video retailer for purchase information

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Carolyn E. Schmidt; Carolyn Duckworth

    Cover photos: The large image is of Venus and was produced using data from Magellan. The spacecraft's radar was able to peer through dense clouds to map the surface, revealing detail as never before. Generally, the brighter areas show rough surfaces, the darker areas smooth.(NASA JPL P-42383) The tinted photographs illustrate three modes of space exploration; robotic spacecraft, telescopes, and

  1. Transcriptome profiles associated to VHSV infection or DNA vaccination in turbot (Scophthalmus maximus).

    PubMed

    Pereiro, Patricia; Dios, Sonia; Boltańa, Sebastián; Coll, Julio; Estepa, Amparo; Mackenzie, Simon; Novoa, Beatriz; Figueras, Antonio

    2014-01-01

    DNA vaccines encoding the viral G glycoprotein show the most successful protection capability against fish rhabdoviruses. Nowadays, the molecular mechanisms underlying the protective response remain still poorly understood. With the aim of shedding light on the protection conferred by the DNA vaccines based in the G glycoprotein of viral haemorrhagic septicaemia virus (VHSV) in turbot (Scophthalmus maximus) we have used a specific microarray highly enriched in antiviral sequences to carry out the transcriptomic study associated to VHSV DNA vaccination/infection. The differential gene expression pattern in response to empty plasmid (pMCV1.4) and DNA vaccine (pMCV1.4-G860) intramuscular administration with regard to non-stimulated turbot was analyzed in head kidney at 8, 24 and 72 hours post-vaccination. Moreover, the effect of VHSV infection one month after immunization was also analyzed in vaccinated and non-vaccinated fish at the same time points. Genes implicated in the Toll-like receptor signalling pathway, IFN inducible/regulatory proteins, numerous sequences implicated in apoptosis and cytotoxic pathways, MHC class I antigens, as well as complement and coagulation cascades among others were analyzed in the different experimental groups. Fish receiving the pMCV1.4-G860 vaccine showed transcriptomic patterns very different to the ones observed in pMCV1.4-injected turbot after 72 h. On the other hand, VHSV challenge in vaccinated and non-vaccinated turbot induced a highly different response at the transcriptome level, indicating a very relevant role of the acquired immunity in vaccinated fish able to alter the typical innate immune response profile observed in non-vaccinated individuals. This exhaustive transcriptome study will serve as a complete overview for a better understanding of the crosstalk between the innate and adaptive immune response in fish after viral infection/vaccination. Moreover, it provides interesting clues about molecules with a potential use as vaccine adjuvants, antiviral treatments or markers for vaccine efficiency monitoring. PMID:25098168

  2. The roles of exercise-induced immune system disturbances in the pathology of heat stroke : the dual pathway model of heat stroke.

    PubMed

    Lim, Chin Leong; Mackinnon, Laurel T

    2006-01-01

    Heat stroke is a life-threatening condition that can be fatal if not appropriately managed. Although heat stroke has been recognised as a medical condition for centuries, a universally accepted definition of heat stroke is lacking and the pathology of heat stroke is not fully understood. Information derived from autopsy reports and the clinical presentation of patients with heat stroke indicates that hyperthermia, septicaemia, central nervous system impairment and cardiovascular failure play important roles in the pathology of heat stroke. The current models of heat stroke advocate that heat stroke is triggered by hyperthermia but is driven by endotoxaemia. Endotoxaemia triggers the systemic inflammatory response, which can lead to systemic coagulation and haemorrhage, necrosis, cell death and multi-organ failure. However, the current heat stroke models cannot fully explain the discrepancies in high core temperature (Tc) as a trigger of heat stroke within and between individuals. Research on the concept of critical Tc as a limitation to endurance exercise implies that a high Tc may function as a signal to trigger the protective mechanisms against heat stroke. Athletes undergoing a period of intense training are subjected to a variety of immune and gastrointestinal (GI) disturbances. The immune disturbances include the suppression of immune cells and their functions, suppression of cell-mediated immunity, translocation of lipopolysaccharide (LPS), suppression of anti-LPS antibodies, increased macrophage activity due to muscle tissue damage, and increased concentration of circulating inflammatory and pyrogenic cytokines. Common symptoms of exercise-induced GI disturbances include diarrhoea, vomiting, gastrointestinal bleeding, and cramps, which may increase gut-related LPS translocation. This article discusses the current evidence that supports the argument that these exercise-induced immune and GI disturbances may contribute to the development of endotoxaemia and heat stroke. When endotoxaemia can be tolerated or prevented, continuing exercise and heat exposure will elevate Tc to a higher level (>42 degrees C), where heat stroke may occur through the direct thermal effects of heat on organ tissues and cells. We also discuss the evidence suggesting that heat stroke may occur through endotoxaemia (heat sepsis), the primary pathway of heat stroke, or hyperthermia, the secondary pathway of heat stroke. The existence of these two pathways of heat stroke and the contribution of exercise-induced immune and GI disturbances in the primary pathway of heat stroke are illustrated in the dual pathway model of heat stroke. This model of heat stroke suggests that prolonged intense exercise suppresses anti-LPS mechanisms, and promotes inflammatory and pyrogenic activities in the pathway of heat stroke. PMID:16445310

  3. Transcriptome Profiles Associated to VHSV Infection or DNA Vaccination in Turbot (Scophthalmus maximus)

    PubMed Central

    Pereiro, Patricia; Dios, Sonia; Boltańa, Sebastián; Coll, Julio; Estepa, Amparo; Mackenzie, Simon; Novoa, Beatriz; Figueras, Antonio

    2014-01-01

    DNA vaccines encoding the viral G glycoprotein show the most successful protection capability against fish rhabdoviruses. Nowadays, the molecular mechanisms underlying the protective response remain still poorly understood. With the aim of shedding light on the protection conferred by the DNA vaccines based in the G glycoprotein of viral haemorrhagic septicaemia virus (VHSV) in turbot (Scophthalmus maximus) we have used a specific microarray highly enriched in antiviral sequences to carry out the transcriptomic study associated to VHSV DNA vaccination/infection. The differential gene expression pattern in response to empty plasmid (pMCV1.4) and DNA vaccine (pMCV1.4-G860) intramuscular administration with regard to non-stimulated turbot was analyzed in head kidney at 8, 24 and 72 hours post-vaccination. Moreover, the effect of VHSV infection one month after immunization was also analyzed in vaccinated and non-vaccinated fish at the same time points. Genes implicated in the Toll-like receptor signalling pathway, IFN inducible/regulatory proteins, numerous sequences implicated in apoptosis and cytotoxic pathways, MHC class I antigens, as well as complement and coagulation cascades among others were analyzed in the different experimental groups. Fish receiving the pMCV1.4-G860 vaccine showed transcriptomic patterns very different to the ones observed in pMCV1.4-injected turbot after 72 h. On the other hand, VHSV challenge in vaccinated and non-vaccinated turbot induced a highly different response at the transcriptome level, indicating a very relevant role of the acquired immunity in vaccinated fish able to alter the typical innate immune response profile observed in non-vaccinated individuals. This exhaustive transcriptome study will serve as a complete overview for a better understanding of the crosstalk between the innate and adaptive immune response in fish after viral infection/vaccination. Moreover, it provides interesting clues about molecules with a potential use as vaccine adjuvants, antiviral treatments or markers for vaccine efficiency monitoring. PMID:25098168

  4. Ranking freshwater fish farms for the risk of pathogen introduction and spread.

    PubMed

    Oidtmann, B C; Crane, C N; Thrush, M A; Hill, B J; Peeler, E J

    2011-12-15

    A semi-quantitative model is presented to rank freshwater rainbow trout farms within a country or region with regards to the risk of becoming infected and spreading a specified pathogen. The model was developed to support a risk-based surveillance scheme for notifiable salmonid pathogens. Routes of pathogen introduction and spread were identified through a process of expert consultation in a series of workshops. The routes were combined into themes (e.g. exposure via water, mechanical transmission). Themes were weighted based on expert opinion. Risk factors for each route were scored and combined into a theme score which was adjusted by the weight. The number of sources and consignments were used to assess introduction via live fish movements onto the farm. Biosecurity measures were scored to assess introduction on fomites. Upstream farms, wild fish and processing plants were included in assessing the likelihood of introduction by water. The scores for each theme were combined to give separate risk scores for introduction and spread. A matrix was used to combine these to give an overall risk score. A case study for viral haemorrhagic septicaemia is presented. Nine farms that represent a range of farming practices of rainbow trout farms in England and Wales are used as worked examples of the model. The model is suited to risk rank freshwater salmonid farms which are declared free of the pathogen(s) under consideration. The score allocated to a farm does not equate to a quantitative probability estimate of the farm to become infected or spread infection. Nevertheless, the method provides a transparent approach to ranking farms with regards to pathogen transmission risks. The output of the model at a regional or national level allows the allocation of surveillance effort to be risk based. It also provides fish farms with information on how they can reduce their risk score by improving biosecurity. The framework of the model can be applied to different production systems which may have other routes of disease spread. Further work is recommended to validate the allocated scores. Expert opinion was obtained through workshops, where the outputs from groups were single point estimates for relative weights of risks. More formal expert opinion elicitation methods could be used to capture variation in the experts' estimates and uncertainty and would provide data on which to simulate the model stochastically. The model can be downloaded (in Microsoft(®)-Excel format) from the Internet at: http://www.cefas.defra.gov.uk/6701.aspx. PMID:21872950

  5. CONCLUSIONS lNRA, ENV dalfort, 94704 Maisons Alfort Cedex, France.

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    , septicaemia is considered to be an infrequent com- plication affecting only colostrum-deprived ani- mals of the disease. The necessity of colostrum is now univer- sally acknowledged, and there is general agree- ment

  6. [Cocaine abuse as precipitating factor of tumoral bleeding in an oligoastrocitoma].

    PubMed

    Ortega-Martínez, M; Cabezudo-Artero, J M; Fernández-Portales, L; Gómez-Perals, L F; Porras-Estrada, L F

    2005-02-01

    Cocaine abuse has been associated with a variety of intracranial haemorrhagic disorders, such as intracerebral, subdural or subarachnoidal haemorrhage. Frequently, these patients harbour underlying vascular malformations, like cerebral aneurysms or arteriovenous malformations (AVM). To the best of our knowledge only two cases of tumoral haemorrhage induced by cocaine abuse have been previously reported. We describe a new case of intracerebral haemorrhage after cocaine inhalation, in which both the preoperative imaging studies and the pathological examination showed a brain tumour as the origin of the haemorrhage. We think that cocaine abuse may be considered as a new precipitating factor in intratumoral haemorrhage. PMID:15756411

  7. [Clostridium perfringens septicemia associated with foodborne toxic infection and abortion].

    PubMed

    Lantelme, P; Mohammedi, I; Duperret, S; Vedrinne, J M; Allaouchiche, B; Motin, J

    1995-01-01

    A 32-year-old pregnant woman with poor life and hygiene conditions presented with premature labour, fever and diarrhoea. After admission she gave birth to a stillborn child. The examination revealed a septicaemia with massive haemolysis and renal failure. Six blood cultures obtained on admission yielded Clostridium perfringens. The outcome was favourable after an adapted antibiomicrobial therapy. This case illustrates the potential severity of Clostridium perfringens foodborne toxi-infection which can lead to abortion and septicaemia with massive haemolysis. PMID:8572393

  8. Africana Video Collection Africana Documentaries..................page 1

    E-print Network

    , people in government -- "We are celebrating 100 years since the abolition of slavery in Brazil, what does the abolition of slavery mean to you?" THE ACADEMY, WINDHOEK, NAMIBIA CALL NUMBER: 378.6881 A168a vhs 53 minutes

  9. 38 CFR 26.3 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...and Research Administration (VHS&RA), the Veterans Benefits Administration (VBA), the National Cemetery Administration (NCS), and the Office of Facilities. (c) Other terms used in this part are defined in CEQ Regulations, 40 CFR part...

  10. 38 CFR 26.3 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...and Research Administration (VHS&RA), the Veterans Benefits Administration (VBA), the National Cemetery Administration (NCS), and the Office of Facilities. (c) Other terms used in this part are defined in CEQ Regulations, 40 CFR part...

  11. 38 CFR 26.3 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...and Research Administration (VHS&RA), the Veterans Benefits Administration (VBA), the National Cemetery Administration (NCS), and the Office of Facilities. (c) Other terms used in this part are defined in CEQ Regulations, 40 CFR part...

  12. 38 CFR 26.3 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...and Research Administration (VHS&RA), the Veterans Benefits Administration (VBA), the National Cemetery Administration (NCS), and the Office of Facilities. (c) Other terms used in this part are defined in CEQ Regulations, 40 CFR part...

  13. Preserving the Past: A Basic Handbook for Archiving in

    E-print Network

    Ickert-Bond, Steffi

    of photographs · Analog audio recordings; Cassette tapes, reels, etc. · Analog video recordings; VHS, Beta, U-Matic and paper materials. Human hands (no matter how clean) have a certain amount of oil on them, and can damage

  14. 9 CFR 83.6 - Testing requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION... INTERSTATE TRANSPORTATION OF ANIMALS (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS VIRAL HEMORRHAGIC...Administrator, using appropriate cell lines to detect VHS...

  15. 9 CFR 83.6 - Testing requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION... INTERSTATE TRANSPORTATION OF ANIMALS (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS VIRAL HEMORRHAGIC...Administrator, using appropriate cell lines to detect VHS...

  16. 9 CFR 93.913 - Health certificate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...PRODUCTS IMPORTATION OF CERTAIN ANIMALS, BIRDS, FISH, AND POULTRY, AND CERTAIN ANIMAL, BIRD, AND POULTRY PRODUCTS...SHIPPING CONTAINERS Aquatic Animal Species General Provisions...authority, using appropriate cell lines to detect VHS...

  17. 9 CFR 93.913 - Health certificate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...PRODUCTS IMPORTATION OF CERTAIN ANIMALS, BIRDS, FISH, AND POULTRY, AND CERTAIN ANIMAL, BIRD, AND POULTRY PRODUCTS...SHIPPING CONTAINERS Aquatic Animal Species General Provisions...authority, using appropriate cell lines to detect VHS...

  18. 9 CFR 83.6 - Testing requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION... INTERSTATE TRANSPORTATION OF ANIMALS (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS VIRAL HEMORRHAGIC...Administrator, using appropriate cell lines to detect VHS...

  19. 9 CFR 83.6 - Testing requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION... INTERSTATE TRANSPORTATION OF ANIMALS (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS VIRAL HEMORRHAGIC...Administrator, using appropriate cell lines to detect VHS...

  20. 9 CFR 93.913 - Health certificate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...PRODUCTS IMPORTATION OF CERTAIN ANIMALS, BIRDS, FISH, AND POULTRY, AND CERTAIN ANIMAL, BIRD, AND POULTRY PRODUCTS...SHIPPING CONTAINERS Aquatic Animal Species General Provisions...authority, using appropriate cell lines to detect VHS...

  1. Katy Haswell Space on TV and the New Media

    E-print Network

    anywhere the world. · Sling Box · Retransmits any content the box is connected to. ­ Freeview ­ DVD player ­ VHS.... #12;Slingbox menu · Watch normal TV · Pause, play etc · See exactly what you would see on your

  2. TELEVISION SHOWS The Media and Reserve Library, located on the lower level west wing, has over 13,000 videotapes, DVDs and audiobooks covering a multitude of

    E-print Network

    Saldin, Dilano

    TELEVISION SHOWS The Media and Reserve Library, located on the lower level west wing, has over 13-4414 Assault on Gay America VHS-5361 Atlantis Season 1 DVD-7531 Babylon 5 Season 1 (Discs 1-3) DVD-7340

  3. GUIDE TO THE SHAKESPEARE

    E-print Network

    NUMBER: 822.3 Sa2Za vhs 107 minutes 34 seconds, c1995, Director Fiona Shaw ; producer, Amanda Willett minutes, 1986, directed by Paul Nickell. Originally telecast on CBS-TV June 11, 1951. Cast: Richard Green

  4. Ethnicity and Onset of Cardiovascular Disease: A CALIBER Study

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2015-07-01

    Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm; Coronary Heart Disease; Sudden Cardiac Death; Intracerebral Haemorrhage; Heart Failure; Ischemic Stroke; Myocardial Infarction; Stroke; Peripheral Arterial Disease; Stable Angina Pectoris; Subarachnoid Haemorrhage; Transient Ischemic Attack; Unstable Angina; Cardiac Arrest

  5. Social Deprivation and Initial Presentation of 12 Cardiovascular Diseases: a CALIBER Study

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2013-09-03

    Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm; Coronary Heart Disease NOS; Unheralded Corronary Death; Intracerebral Haemorrhage; Heart Failure; Ischemic Stroke; Myocardial Infarction; Stroke; Peripheral Arterial Disease; Stable Angina Pectoris; Subarachnoid Haemorrhage; Transient Ischemic Attack; Unstable Angina; Cardiac Arrest, Sudden Cardiac Death

  6. Surgery in extensive vertebral hemangioma: case report, literature review and a new algorithm proposal.

    PubMed

    Tarantino, Roberto; Donnarumma, Pasquale; Nigro, Lorenzo; Delfini, Roberto

    2015-07-01

    Hemangiomas are benign dysplasias or vascular tumors consisting of vascular spaces lined with endothelium. Nowadays, radiotherapy for vertebral hemangiomas (VHs) is widely accepted as primary treatment for painful lesions. Nevertheless, the role of surgery is still unclear. The purpose of this study is to propose a novel algorithm of treatment about VHs. This is a case report of an extensive VH and a review of the literature. A case of vertebral fracture during radiotherapy at a total dose of 30 Gy given in 10 fractions (treatment time 2 weeks) using a linear accelerator at 15 MV high-energy photons for extensive VH is reported. Using PubMed database, a review of the literature is done. The authors have no study funding sources. The authors have no conflicting financial interests. In the literature, good results in terms of pain and neurological deficits are reported. No cases of vertebral fractures are described. However, there is no consensus regarding the treatment for VHs. Radiotherapy is widely utilized in VHs determining pain. Surgery for VHs determining neurological deficit is also widely accepted. Perhaps, regarding the width of the lesion, no indications are given. We consider it important to make an evaluation before initiating the treatment for the risk of pathologic vertebral fracture, since in radiotherapy, there is no convention regarding structural changes determined in VHs. We propose a new algorithm of treatment. We recommend radiotherapy only for small lesions in which vertebral stability is not concerned. Kyphoplasty can be proposed for asymptomatic patients in which VHs are small and in patients affected by VHs determining pain without spinal canal invasion in which the VH is small. In patients affected by pain without spinal canal invasion but in which the VH is wide or presented with spinal canal invasion and in patients affected by neurological deficits, we propose surgery. PMID:25720346

  7. Interventional radiology in women with suspected placenta accreta undergoing caesarean section

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Mok; B. Heidemann; K. Dundas; I. Gillespie; V. Clark

    2008-01-01

    Placenta praevia in the presence of a previous uterine scar is associated with increased risk of placenta accreta, which could lead to major haemorrhage at delivery. Major haemorrhage is one of the leading causes of maternal mortality in the UK. Interventional radiology with trans-catheter balloon occlusion or arterial embolisation is a recognised technique for the management of intractable obstetric haemorrhage.

  8. The risks of minor head injury in the warfarinised patient.

    PubMed Central

    Volans, A P

    1998-01-01

    The risk factors affecting intracranial haemorrhage in warfarinised patients are described and an attempt made to calculate the risk of haemorrhage in warfarinised patients with minor head injuries. Using the data from studies of patients with spontaneous haemorrhage while taking warfarin, guidelines for treatment and given and the likely outcome predicted. PMID:9639176

  9. [Intracranial hemorrhages in the full-term newborn infant. Psychomotor development and neurologic sequelae].

    PubMed

    Frigieri, G; Sturloni, N; Modena, N

    1985-01-01

    Recently increased utilization of high definition T. C. scan and U. S. has led, in recent years, to diagnose and to localize the intracranial haemorrhage of the term newborns. It has been possible to study the outlook of this disease. The neuro-psychological development of the children, affected by intracranial haemorrhage at the birth, is more impaired when the haemorrhage is intraparenchimal: intracerebellar or intracerebral. Our cases show that a haemorrhage causes only discord on the neuro-psycholological development. When, on the other hand, haemorrhage is associated with anoxicbrain damage, especially bilateral, take place major sequelae. PMID:2418423

  10. Neutralisation of venom-induced haemorrhage by IgG from camels and llamas immunised with viper venom and also by endogenous, non-IgG components in camelid sera

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. A. Harrison; S. S. Hasson; M. M. Harmsen; G. D. Laing; K. Conrath; R. D. G. Theakston

    2006-01-01

    Envenoming by snakes results in severe systemic and local pathology. Intravenous administration of antivenom, prepared from IgG of venom immunised horses or sheep, is the only effective treatment of systemic envenoming. Conventional antivenoms, formulated as intact IgG, papain-cleaved (Fab) or pepsin-cleaved F(ab?)2 fragments, are however ineffective against the local venom effects because of their inability to penetrate the blood\\/tissue barrier.

  11. Development of a multiplex assay to measure the effects of shipping and storage conditions on the quality of RNA used in molecular assays for detection of viral haemorrhagic septicemia virus.

    PubMed

    Siah, A; Duesund, H; Frisch, K; Nylund, A; McKenzie, P; Saksida, S

    2014-09-01

    Abstract In routine diagnostics, real-time reverse transcriptase quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR) has become a powerful method for fish health screening. Collection, transportation, and storage conditions of specimens could dramatically affect their integrity and could consequently affect RT-qPCR test results. In this study, to assess the expression profile of elongation factor 1 alpha (ELF-1?) gene, head kidney (HK) tissues from Atlantic Salmon Salmo salar were exposed at room temperature, 4°C, -20°C, and -80°C as well as in 70% ethanol for 6, 12, 24, 48, and 72 h. Data showed a significant increase of RT-qPCR cycle threshold (Ct) values for ELF-1? ranging from 14.7 to 26.5 cycles for tissues exposed to room temperature. In order to mimic the sample transportation conditions, different temperatures of storage were used and tissue quality was evaluated using ELF-1? gene expression. Data showed that Ct values for ELF-1? increased significantly when the tissues were transported on ice for 2 h, stored at -20°C, thawed on ice for 6 h, and stored again at -80°C. The HK tissues collected from Atlantic Salmon challenged with viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus (VHSV) through intraperitoneal injection were exposed at room temperature for 0, 6, 12, 24, 48, 72, and 96 h. Data showed a good correlation of values for ELF-1? and VHSV Ct although the ELF-1? mRNA of the host degraded faster than the RNA of VHSV. Based on these data, HK tissues could be transported on ice or ice packs without the quality of the tissue being affected when stored at -80°C upon arrival at the laboratory. In addition, 70% ethanol could be used as a preservative for long-distance transportation. For an efficient diagnostic test, a duplex VHSV-ELF-1? was developed and optimized. Data showed that the sensitivity of the duplex assay for VHSV was similar to the singleplex. Received November 25, 2013; accepted February 14, 2014. PMID:25229489

  12. Lemierre's syndrome (necrobacillosis)

    PubMed Central

    Golpe, R.; Marin, B.; Alonso, M.

    1999-01-01

    Lemierre's syndrome or postanginal septicaemia (necrobacillosis) is caused by an acute oropharyngeal infection with secondary septic thrombophlebitis of the internal jugular vein and frequent metastatic infections. Fusobacterium necrophorum is the most common pathogen isolated from the patients. The interval between the oropharyngeal infection and the onset of the septicaemia is usually short. The most common sites of septic embolisms are the lungs and joints, and other locations can be affected. A high degree of clinical suspicion is needed to diagnose the syndrome. Computed tomography of the neck with contrast is the most useful study to detect internal jugular vein thrombosis. Treatment includes intravenous antibiotic therapy and drainage of septic foci. The role of anticoagulation is controversial. Ligation or excision of the internal jugular vein may be needed in some cases.???Keywords: Lemierre's syndrome; Fusobacterium necrophorum; necrobacillosis; septicaemia; oropharynx PMID:10448489

  13. First direct observation of the Van Hove singularity in the tunnelling spectra of cuprates

    PubMed Central

    Piriou, A.; Jenkins, N.; Berthod, C.; Maggio-Aprile, I.; Fischer, Ř.

    2011-01-01

    In two-dimensional (2D) lattices, the electronic levels are unevenly spaced, and the density of states (DOS) displays a logarithmic divergence known as the Van Hove singularity (VHS). This is the case in particular for the layered cuprate superconductors. The scanning tunnelling microscope (STM) probes the DOS, and is therefore the ideal tool to observe the VHS. No STM study of cuprate superconductors has reported such an observation so far giving rise to a debate about the possibility of observing directly the normal state DOS in the tunnelling spectra. In this study, we show for the first time that the VHS is unambiguously observed in STM measurements performed on the cuprate Bi2Sr2CuO6+? (Bi-2201). Beside closing the debate, our analysis proves the presence of the pseudogap in the overdoped side of the phase diagram of Bi-2201 and discredits the scenario of the pseudogap phase crossing the superconducting dome. PMID:21364560

  14. Kondo effect in the presence of van Hove singularities: A numerical renormalization group study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhuravlev, A. K.; Irkhin, V. Yu.

    2011-12-01

    A numerical renormalization-group investigation of the one-center t-t' Kondo problem is performed for the square lattice accounting for logarithmic Van Hove singularities (VHS) in the electron density of states near the Fermi level. The magnetic susceptibility, entropy, and specific heat are calculated. The temperature dependencies of the thermodynamic properties in the presence of VHS turn out to be nontrivial. When the distance ? between VHS and the Fermi level decreases, the inverse logarithm of the corresponding Kondo temperature TK demonstrates a crossover from the standard linear to square-root dependence on the s-d exchange coupling. The low-temperature behavior of the magnetic susceptibility and specific heat are investigated, and the Wilson ratio is obtained. For ??0 the Fermi-liquid behavior is broken.

  15. Virginia Herpetological Society

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Displaying an earnest enthusiasm for their local herp populations, the Virginia Herpetological Society (VHS) proclaims itself to be a "society for everyone interested in the Education, Conservation, and Research of amphibians and reptiles." The main VHS site links to a host of resources including photos of, and information about, anurans, lizards, salamanders, snakes, and turtles. The site also links to such features as the Virginia Snake ID Guide, downloadable Virginia Herpetological Atlases, Marty's Timber Rattlesnake Summary, Species Accounts, and the Photograph of the Month. Site visitors can even test their knowledge with a fun photographic Virginia Herp Quiz.

  16. BOREAS RSS-3 Imagery and Snapshots from a Helicopter-Mounted Video Camera

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walthall, Charles L.; Loechel, Sara; Nickeson, Jaime (Editor); Hall, Forrest G. (Editor)

    2000-01-01

    The BOREAS RSS-3 team collected helicopter-based video coverage of forested sites acquired during BOREAS as well as single-frame "snapshots" processed to still images. Helicopter data used in this analysis were collected during all three 1994 IFCs (24-May to 16-Jun, 19-Jul to 10-Aug, and 30-Aug to 19-Sep), at numerous tower and auxiliary sites in both the NSA and the SSA. The VHS-camera observations correspond to other coincident helicopter measurements. The field of view of the camera is unknown. The video tapes are in both VHS and Beta format. The still images are stored in JPEG format.

  17. Understanding the Role of Autoimmune Disorders on the Initial Presentation of Cardiovascular Disease

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2015-04-20

    Myocardial Infarction; Ischemic Stroke; Stroke; Subarachnoid Haemorrhage; Venous Thrombosis; Transient Ischemic Attack; Stable Angina Pectoris; Unstable Angina; Heart Failure; Peripheral Arterial Disease; Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm

  18. Minimal dose requirements for nasal mupirocin and its role in the control of epidemic MRSA

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Casewell W. M; R. L. R. Hill

    1991-01-01

    Staphylococci are still a leading cause of hospital infection. The success of nasal mupirocin for the control of epidemic methicillin- resistant Staphylococcus aureus (EMRSA), the prevention of colonization of central venous cannulae, and the prevention of septicaemia in haemodialysis patients should encourage the use of minimal dose regimens to minimize the emergence of mupirocin resistance. Mupirocin applied to the anterior

  19. Splenic lymphoma in a short-beaked echidna (Tachyglossus aculeatus).

    PubMed

    Gentz, E J; Richard, M J; Stuart, L D

    2009-07-01

    A 23-year-old, male short-beaked echidna (Tachyglossus aculeatus) housed at a North American zoo was successfully treated for flea-associated anaemia, but subsequently died. Cause of death was presumptive septicaemia secondary to splenic lymphoma. This is only the fifth case of neoplasia reported in this monotreme species, and the first from outside of Australia. PMID:19573150

  20. Giant megaureter

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. Basak; S. K. Sinha Roy; Asoka Ghosh

    1992-01-01

    Two girls aged 9 and 18 months and one boy aged 18 months presented with a huge intra-abdominal mass, recurrent infections, and failure to thrive. Following investigations surgery was performed, establishing the diagnosis of giant megaureter, and nephroureterectomy was carried out. Two patients are alive and well; one died of septicaemia. Problems of management of giant megaureter are discussed with

  1. Antimicrobial resistance profile of Staphylococcus aureus isolated from raw meat: A research for methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. Pesavento; B. Ducci; N. Comodo; A. Lo Nostro

    2007-01-01

    Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) has emerged as a risk factor for patients in general population and particularly in immunocompromised patients. As a matter of fact, it can produce serious infections that may then evolve in septicaemia. However, transmission of MRSA from food to people can represent a serious problem only for immunocompromised people. Vancomycin is the elective antimicrobial commonly used

  2. Questions and Answers What is meningococcal disease? How do you get it?

    E-print Network

    Hickman, Mark

    , as well as cancer and other non-infectious causes. Can I get a vaccine that protects against meningococcal carry the bacteria that cause meningococcal disease (Neisseria meningitidis) in their nose and throat on to cause disease, spreading through the bloodstream (causing septicaemia) or to the brain (causing

  3. Pasteurella multocida infection in man; a review of the literature

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Henderson

    1963-01-01

    Pasteurella multocida has been isolated from infected lesions of nearly all regions of the body. Cat and dog bite wounds are frequently infected by this organism. The severity of the lesion varies from trivial sepsis to a severe wound abscess with sloughing and septicaemia. Bone involvement is frequent. Despite the apparent sensitivity of the organism to a wide range of

  4. Report from the Kennel Club/ British Small Animal Veterinary Association

    E-print Network

    Lacy, Bob

    Summary results of the Purebred Dog Health Survey for British Bulldogs Warning: The results of this survey were sent out and 143 were returned, representing 403 live dogs. This breed had a 17.0 % response rate Poisoning 1 0.6 28 Septicaemia 1 0.6 29 Systemic 1 0.6 Allergy to insect bite or sting or snake bite Total

  5. IMMUNE RESPONSE INDUCED BY N-LAUROYLSARCOSINE EXTRACTED OUTER-MEMBRANE PROTEINS OF AN ISOLATE OF EDWARDSIELLA ICTALURI IN CHANNEL CATFISH

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A virulent isolate of Edwardsiella ictaluri (AL-93-75), the causative agent of enteric septicaemia of catfish (ESC), was used to derive a lipopolysaccharide-reduced N-lauroylsarcosine outer- membrane protein (OMP) fraction vaccine. The OMP fraction was analyzed using sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacryl...

  6. Neutropenic enterocolitis (typhlitis) associated with infectious mononucleosis.

    PubMed

    Si?irci, Ahmet; Akinci, Ay?ehan; Ozgen, Unsal; Ozen, Metehan

    2006-02-01

    Neutropenic enterocolitis (typhlitis) is an unusual acute complication of neutropenia, most often associated with leukaemia and lymphoma and characterized by segmental caecal and ascending colonic ulceration that may progress to necrosis, perforation, and septicaemia. We present a unique case of an 8-year-old girl with recently diagnosed infectious mononucleosis having findings consistent with typhlitis on abdominal CT. PMID:16258744

  7. Pseudomonas aeruginosa outbreak associated with a contaminated blood-gas analyser in a neonatal intensive care unit

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. M. Garland; S. Mackay; S. Tabrizi; S. Jacobs

    1996-01-01

    Over a 10 month period in a neonatal intensive care unit there was an outbreak of infection caused by Pseudomonas aeruginosa (resistant to ticarcillin, timentin) which involved 24 newborns. There was extensive morbidity and mortality (38%) associated with the infections, which presented as septicaemia (N = 6) (five succumbed and four had coexisting pneumonia), pneumonia (N = 6), meningitis (one,

  8. September 2014 Dear Student,

    E-print Network

    Sussex, University of

    two weeks to become fully effective. The symptoms of meningitis and meningococcal septicaemia important information about your health and wellbeing, especially relating to meningococcal infection are unwell. Please keep this information safely so you can refer to it again. Meningococcal Infection

  9. Statistics of infections with diversity in the pathogenicity Francisco Guineaa,*, Vincent A.A. Jansenb

    E-print Network

    for the propagation of meningococcal disease is analyzed, taking into account the possibility that the population: Meningitis contagion; Neisseria meningitidis; Epidemiology; Outbreak 1. Introduction The meningococcus is a major cause of meningitis and septicaemia. Despite this, infection with the meningococcus is mostly

  10. Antibacterial activity of cefquinome against equine bacterial pathogens

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. Thomas; V. Thomas; C. Wilhelm

    2006-01-01

    Cefquinome is known for its use as an antibacterial drug in cattle and pigs. The objective of this study was to evaluate the antibacterial activity of cefquinome against equine pathogenic bacteria. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of cefquinome was determined for a total of 205 strains, which had recently been isolated in Europe from diseased horses (respiratory infection, foal septicaemia).

  11. 167Vet. Res. 36 (2005) 167178 INRA, EDP Sciences, 2005

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    2005-01-01

    -negative infection) they provoke a severe clinical response domi- nated by signs of systemic inflammation. LPS mastitis, neonatal coliform septicaemia, lung pas- teurellosis andsalmonellosis. It has also been linked. coli mastitis depends mainly on cow factors, and it has therefore been suggested that cows may

  12. Acute septicaemic Pasteurella multocida infection in an African grey parrot (Psittacus erithacus timneh) after a bite from a pet rat (Rattus norvegicus)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. T. Lumeij; I. Westerhof

    1986-01-01

    P. multocida infections in man and birds as a sequel to animal bites are reviewed and a case report is presented of a fatal P. multocida septicaemia in a parrot after a bite from a pet rat. The need for immediate intravenous or intramuscular treatment of birds with a penicillin after bites from all mammals is stressed.

  13. Patterns of mortality in sickle cell disease in the United Kingdom

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A Gray; E N Anionwu; S C Davies; M Brozovic

    1991-01-01

    Eighteen of 384 patients entered on the Brent sickle cell disease register died between 1974 and 1989, a mortality of one per 128 years of follow up. Two children died from acute splenic sequestration and a third died from fulminant pneumococcal septicaemia: none was taking prophylactic penicillin. Acute chest syndrome was the cause of death in eight young adults and

  14. A Genome-Wide Survey for Host Response of Silkworm, Bombyx mori during Pathogen Bacillus bombyseptieus Infection

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lulin Huang; Tingcai Cheng; Pingzhen Xu; Daojun Cheng; Ting Fang; Qingyou Xia; Georg Häcker

    2009-01-01

    Host-pathogen interactions are complex relationships, and a central challenge is to reveal the interactions between pathogens and their hosts. Bacillus bombysepticus (Bb) which can produces spores and parasporal crystals was firstly separated from the corpses of the infected silkworms (Bombyx mori). Bb naturally infects the silkworm can cause an acute fuliginosa septicaemia and kill the silkworm larvae generally within one

  15. The genome of Aeromonas salmonicida subsp. salmonicida A449: insights into the evolution of a fish pathogen

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michael E Reith; Rama K Singh; Bruce Curtis; Jessica M Boyd; Anne Bouevitch; Jennifer Kimball; Janet Munholland; Colleen Murphy; Darren Sarty; Jason Williams; John HE Nash; Stewart C Johnson; Laura L Brown

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Aeromonas salmonicida subsp. salmonicida is a Gram-negative bacterium that is the causative agent of furunculosis, a bacterial septicaemia of salmonid fish. While other species of Aeromonas are opportunistic pathogens or are found in commensal or symbiotic relationships with animal hosts, A. salmonicida subsp. salmonicida causes disease in healthy fish. The genome sequence of A. salmonicida was determined to provide

  16. Clinical experience and outcomes of community-acquired and nosocomial methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in a northern Australian hospital.

    PubMed

    Maguire, G P; Arthur, A D; Boustead, P J; Dwyer, B; Currie, B J

    1998-04-01

    Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is a well-recognized cause of hospital-acquired sepsis. We reviewed the clinical features of a new variant of community-acquired MRSA originally described from the Kimberley region of northern Western Australia (WA MRSA). This strain has become an increasing cause of community- and hospital-acquired sepsis at Royal Darwin Hospital (RDH) in the Northern Territory, especially in Aboriginal Australians from remote communities. Fifty percent of WA MRSA was community-acquired, with 76% in Aboriginals. Like the MRSA from eastern Australia (EA MRSA), WA MRSA commonly caused skin sepsis but was less likely to cause respiratory or urinary infections compared with EA MRSA. Twelve out of 125 (9.6%) WA MRSA and 7/93 (7.5%) EA MRSA infections were septicaemias. Septicaemia due to WA MRSA occurred in adult medical patients, especially those with temporary haemodialysis catheters, while EA MRSA septicaemia occurred throughout the hospital. Aboriginal people were more likely to develop both community- and hospital-acquired WA MRSA septicaemia [overall relative risk (RR) 12.3 (95% CI 3.7-40.7)]. Control of WA MRSA requires policies to reduce transmission in both hospitals and communities. Community-based control programmes need support for individual patient management, improved housing and hygiene, control of skin sepsis and appropriate use of antibiotics, especially in rural Aboriginal communities in northern Australia. PMID:9602976

  17. An outbreak of Streptococcus equi subspecies zooepidemicus associated with consumption of fresh goat cheese

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Markku Kuusi; Elina Lahti; Anni Virolainen; Maija Hatakka; Risto Vuento; Leila Rantala; Jaana Vuopio-Varkila; Eija Seuna; Matti Karppelin; Marjaana Hakkinen; Johanna Takkinen; Veera Gindonis; Kyosti Siponen; Kaisa Huotari

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Streptococcus equi subspecies zooepidemicus is a rare infection in humans associated with contact with horses or consumption of unpasteurized milk products. On October 23, 2003, the National Public Health Institute was alerted that within one week three persons had been admitted to Tampere University Central Hospital (TaYS) because of S. equi subsp. zooepidemicus septicaemia. All had consumed fresh goat

  18. Health Education Online: Issues Arising from the Development and Roll-Out of a Pilot Distance Education Programme for NHS Staff

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Peter; Gunter, Barrie; Nicholas, David

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate a remote learning initiative involving filming live lectures and disseminating these via digital interactive television (DiTV), satellite to PC terminals and VHS cassette. This was accompanied by online learning materials. Design/methodology/approach: In-depth interviews were used for the aspects of the study reported in this…

  19. The Future of Teaching and Learning: Challenging Standards and High Expectations. Satellite Town Meeting #73. [Videotape].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chamber of Commerce of the United States, Washington, DC.

    This 60-minute VHS videotape of a U.S. Department of Education Satellite Town Meeting focuses on the future of learning in U.S. schools and what it will take to create challenging, exciting, high performing schools. It explains that there cannot be excellent learning without excellent teaching. The 1985 National Teacher of the Year co-hosts this…

  20. Price Discrimination and Copyright Law: Evidence from the Introduction of DVDs

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Julie Holland Mortimer

    2004-01-01

    This paper examines the welfare effects of intellectual property protection, accounting for firms’ optimal responses to legal environments. I examine firms’ use of indirect price discrimination in response to U. S. copyright law preventing direct price discrimination. Using data covering VHS and DVD movie distribution, I explain studios’ optimal pricing strategies under U. S. copyright law, and determine optimal pricing

  1. Price Discrimination, Copyright Law, and Technological Innovation: Evidence From The Introduction of DVDs

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Julie Holland Mortimer

    2007-01-01

    U. S. copyright law effectively prevents direct price discrimination for copyright holders that sell to different markets. In response, these firms can engage in indirect price discrimination. I derive theoretical predictions about the use of indirect price discrimination, and I analyze how optimal pricing strategies differ for different products. Using data on VHS and DVD movie distribution, I find that

  2. Analog to DVD Reformatting Order Form

    E-print Network

    Garfunkel, Eric

    Analog to DVD Reformatting Order Form Imaging Services For Information Call: Alexander of conversion of a VHS original to one DVD copy is $15. The cost of conversion of a 16mm film original to one DVD copy is $20. If applicable, please indicate how many additional DVD copies you require

  3. Significant or Safe? Two Cases of Instructional Uses of History Feature Films

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Metzger, Scott Alan; Suh, Yonghee

    2008-01-01

    The popularity of VHS and DVD over the past two decades has greatly expanded the influence of history movies, watched by millions of adolescents in homes and classrooms. This paper examines two secondary U.S. history teachers' instructional uses of history motion pictures in their classrooms. Ray used The Patriot (2000) to teach history as stories…

  4. P A G E 2 0 F A C U L T Y W A V E

    E-print Network

    , the printed course pack evolved into cassettes, VHS tapes, CD- ROMs, DVDs, and, of course, the use of TV. It was not long before the OU was a true innovator in distance delivery, using the capability of television on page 8) IN T HIS IS SUE: Message from the President 2 Evolution of CUOL 3 Using Instructional Blogging

  5. Planar Hall effect in the vertical Hall sensor

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ch Schott; P.-A Besse; R. S Popovic

    2000-01-01

    The planar Hall effect is theoretically and experimentally studied in the vertical Hall sensor (VHS). Compared to silicon plate-shaped devices where experimental and theoretical value correspond well, the experimental value for the vertical Hall device is about 10 times smaller than theory predicts. This fact is explained by anisotropy effects and by the unique self-compensating structure of the device. Thus,

  6. The varying distribution of intra- and inter-vertebral height ratios determines the prevalence of vertebral fractures

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Roger Martin Zebaze Djoumessi; Ghassan Maalouf; Joseph Wehbe; Alexandre Nehme; Naim Maalouf; Ego Seeman

    2004-01-01

    Credible inferences regarding the burden of vertebral fractures (VFs) cannot be made without a globally accepted quantitative definition of ‘fracture’. Currently, differences in anterior, middle, or posterior vertebral heights (VHs) within a vertebra, or between adjacent vertebrae, are used to define ‘fracture’. However, VH differences are essential for the construction of thoracolumbar curves, evolutionary adaptations that provide stability in bipedal

  7. MUSICAL THEATER The Media and Reserve Library, located on the lower level west wing, has over 13,000 videotapes, DVDs and audiobooks covering a multitude of

    E-print Network

    Saldin, Dilano

    Bob Fosse VHS-4785 Boy! What a Girl! DVD-1265 Breakin' DVD-0240 Bride and Prejudice DVD-4561 Brigadoon on the Way to the Forum DVD-2642 G.I. Blues DVD-2888 Gang's All Here DVD-2119 Gay Divorcee DVD-2126 Gentlemen

  8. General or Vocational English Courses for Taiwanese Students in Vocational High Schools? Students' Perceptions of Their English Courses and Their Relevance to Their Future Career

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hua, Tzu-Ling; Beverton, Sue

    2013-01-01

    Taiwanese vocational high schools (VHSs) deliver general English courses. This paper explores the extent to which these courses are perceived to be appropriately vocationally orientated. This focus gives rise to two main research questions: what are VHS students' expectations from their English courses, and to what extent are they being met? The…

  9. Significant or Safe? Two Cases of Instructional Uses of History Feature Films

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Scott Alan Metzger; Yonghee Suh

    2008-01-01

    The popularity of VHS and DVD over the past two decades has greatly expanded the influence of history movies, watched by millions of adolescents in homes and classrooms. This paper examines two secondary U.S. history teachers' instructional uses of history motion pictures in their classrooms. Ray used The Patriot (2000) to teach history as stories about the past created by

  10. strays into such topics as the nature of the gene and control of gene expression. This video is best suited as a review lesson on

    E-print Network

    Thomas, Dave

    is best suited as a review lesson on translation and then as a launching point for more advanced topics by Alan LaGarde, Films for the Humanities and Sciences (1-800-257-5126), 1997, 1 VHS videotape, $129 by the organism. David J. Thomas University of Idaho, Moscow Ebola: Diary of a Killer Films for the Humanities

  11. Ready To Read: Laying the Foundation for School Success. Satellite Town Meeting #77 (March 20, 2001). [Videotape].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Department of Education, Washington, DC.

    This videotape (in either VHS of 3/4 inch format) presents an interactive teleconference where renowned national experts, local educators, and community leaders share ideas on how to improve schools and reach the National Educational Goals. This 60-minute Satellite Town Meeting focuses on laying the foundation for school success through readiness…

  12. Ready To Read: Laying the Foundation for School Success. Satellite Town Meeting #77: March 20, 2001. Spanish Language Version. [Videotape].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Department of Education, Washington, DC.

    This interactive teleconference (in VHS format, Spanish language version) presents renowned national experts, local educators, and community leaders who share ideas on how to improve schools and reach the National Educational Goals. The 60-minute Satellite Town Meeting focuses on laying the foundation for school success through readiness to read.…

  13. How To Dance through Time. Volume II: Dances of the Ragtime Era, 1910-1920. [Videotape].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Teten, Carol

    This 59-minute VHS videotape is the second in a series of "How To Dance Through Time" videos. It provides 44 step combinations and how-to instructions to help viewers learn to dance the most popular dances of the early 20th century (the ragtime era), including: the wild animal dances (fox trot, horse trot, kangaroo hop, duck waddle, squirrel,…

  14. COMPUTER SUBJECT GUIDE -I/S The social impact of computers / Richard S. Rosenberg

    E-print Network

    Abolmaesumi, Purang

    Technology Library: http://www.editlib.org/ The EdITLib Digital Library is a valuable online resource of peer, Bill Stonebarger QA76.17 .H69 1997 VHS 2 #12;Teacher Resources: Changing how we teach and learn of Ontario = Research and practice in technology enhanced learning Online: Education & computing Education

  15. Research Resources for Graduate Students in Sociology Librarian for Sociology: Sylvia Andrychuk andrychs@queensu.ca

    E-print Network

    Abolmaesumi, Purang

    , from one search box. Summon contains everything found in the traditional QCAT Library Catalogue, plus (QCAT) Search the library catalogue (QCAT) to find materials (such as books, videos, journals: QCAT Library Catalogue Videos (DVDs/VHS/Streaming) In QCAT, perform a keyword or keyword Boolean search

  16. Teaching assistants are welcome to contact the liaison librarian for their department to discuss

    E-print Network

    Abolmaesumi, Purang

    ://library.queensu.ca/research/subjects. A variety of "how-to" guides on topics such as searching the library catalogue (QCAT), scholarly vs. non/VHS/streaming) are listed in the library cata- logue (QCAT) and Summon. The library has also purchased public performance RESERVE Materials on course reserve are listed in the library catalogue (QCAT), under the Course Reserves

  17. Guide to Library Resources and Services

    E-print Network

    Abolmaesumi, Purang

    catalogue (QCAT), scholarly vs. nonscholarly articles, and how to cite sources is available at http and VHS tapes are listed in QCAT, the library catalogue. The library has also purchased public RESERVE Materials on course reserve are listed in QCAT, the library catalogue, under the Course

  18. KINEMATIC ANALYSIS OF JAVELIN THROW PERFORMED BY WHEELCHAIR ATHLETES OF DIFFERENT FUNCTIONAL CLASSES

    Microsoft Academic Search

    John W. Chow; Ann F. Kuenster; Young-tae Lim

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify those kinematic characteristics that are most closely related to the functional classification of a wheelchair athlete and measured distance of a javelin throw. Two S- VHS camcorders (60 field· s-1) were used to record the performance of 15 males of different classes. Each subject performed 6 - 10 throws and the best

  19. Nurturing Your Media

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Donohue, Nanette

    2008-01-01

    No other category of library materials has grown more quickly in the last several decades than audiovisual (AV), nor has any other category undergone so many changes in format. The transitions from vinyl records to 8-tracks to audiocassettes to CDs and from film reel to 3/4" U-Matic to VHS to DVD have impacted library services tremendously. The…

  20. Available online at www.sciencedirect.com Construction

    E-print Network

    MBrace CF530 (640 GPa) and high strength epoxies were used in the strengthening process of YHS steel to circular steel tubes. One is based on the effective bond length and lap shear strength while the other describes the behaviour of very high strength (VHS) circular steel tubes strengthened by carbon fibre