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1

Altitudinal variation in haemosporidian parasite distribution in great tit populations  

PubMed Central

Background One of the major issues concerning disease ecology and conservation is knowledge of the factors that influence the distribution of parasites and consequently disease outbreaks. This study aimed to investigate avian haemosporidian composition and the distribution of these parasites in three altitudinally separated great tit (Parus major) populations in western Switzerland over a three-year period. The objectives were to determine the lineage diversity of parasites occuring across the study populations and to investigate whether altitudinal gradients govern the distribution of haemosporidian parasites by lineage. Methods In this study molecular approaches (PCR and sequencing) were used to detect avian blood parasites (Plasmodium sp., Haemoproteus sp. and Leucocytozoon sp.) in populations of adult great tits caught on their nests during three consecutive breeding seasons. Results High levels of parasite prevalence (88-96%) were found across all of the study populations with no significant altitude effect. Altitude did, however, govern the distribution of parasites belonging to different genera, with Plasmodium parasites being more prevalent at lower altitudes, Leucocytozoon parasites more at high altitude and Haemoproteus parasite prevalence increasing with altitude. A total of 27 haemosporidian parasite lineages were recorded across all study sites, with diversity showing a positive correlation to altitude. Parasites belonging to lineage SGS1 (P. relictum) and PARUS4 and PARUS19 (Leucocytozoon sp.) dominated lower altitudes. SW2 (P. polare) was the second most prevalent lineage of parasite detected overall and these parasites were responsible for 68% of infections at intermediate altitude, but were only documented at this one study site. Conclusions Avian haemosporidian parasites are not homogeneously distributed across host populations, but differ by altitude. This difference is most probably brought about by environmental factors influencing vector prevalence and distribution. The high occurrence of co-infection by different genera of parasites might have pronounced effects on host fitness and should consequently be investigated more rigorously.

2013-01-01

2

Occurrence of haemosporidian parasites in the paddyfield warbler, Acrocephalus agricola (Passeriformes, Sylviidae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The blood parasite diversity was studied in paddyfield warblers (Acrocephalus agricola) breeding in NE Bulgaria, SW Russia and S. Kazakhstan. Nine cytochrome b gene lineages were recorded, 4 belonging to Haemoproteus spp. and 5 to Plasmodium spp. The overall prevalence of haemosporidians was 33.3%. The composition of parasites varied geographically, with six lineages\\u000a recorded in Russia, five lineages in Bulgaria

Pavel Zehtindjiev; Mihaela Ilieva; Asta Križanauskien?; Olga Oparina; Mihail Oparin; Staffan Bensch

2009-01-01

3

On the specificity of avian blood parasites: revealing specific and generalist relationships between haemosporidians and biting midges.  

PubMed

The study of host-parasite relationships involving vector-borne parasites requires understanding interactions between parasites and vectors. The capacity of haemosporidians to infect insects has clear evolutionary consequences for the transmission of diseases. Here, we investigated (i) the associations between blood parasites, biting midges and birds and (ii) the potential specificity between biting midge and haemosporidian haplotypes. A total of 629 parous biting midges Culicoides and 224 wild birds (belonging to seven species) from a locality of central Spain were individually examined for the presence of Haemoproteus and Plasmodium parasites by sequencing a fragment of cytochrome B. Biting midges were identified morphologically and characterized on the basis of a fragment of the cytochrome c oxidase (COI) gene. Overall, 12 Haemoproteus and three Plasmodium haplotypes were isolated and sequenced. Among them, 10 haplotypes were exclusively isolated from biting midges, three haplotypes only from birds and two haplotypes from both biting midges and birds. Biting midge haplotypes showed both specific and generalist relationships with Haemoproteus haplotypes but only generalist relationships with Plasmodium haplotypes. Several C. festivipennis and C. kibunesis haplotypes established significant coevolutionary links with Haemoproteus haplotypes. These results shed light on the specificity of interactions between vectors and blood parasites. PMID:21627703

Martínez-de la Puente, Josué; Martínez, Javier; Rivero-de Aguilar, Juan; Herrero, Jessica; Merino, Santiago

2011-06-01

4

Haemosporidian parasites of a European passerine wintering in South Asia: diversity, mixed infections and effect on host condition.  

PubMed

We studied haemosporidian parasites in the scarlet rosefinch Carpodacus erythrinus in a small isolated semicolony during an eight-year period using molecular methods of parasite detection. The scarlet rosefinch is an interesting model of parasite host species. It winters in South Asia which represents a rare exception among European passerines. Males express yellow to red carotenoid-based plumage ornament which is a good predictor of male reproductive success. In 240 blood samples originating from 199 adult individuals, the total parasite prevalence reached 60%. Prevalence varied among years from 36 to 81% in Haemoproteus, 8 to 22% in Plasmodium, and 0 to 14% in Leucocytozoon. Twenty parasite lineages were detected (Haemoproteus: 5 lineages, Plasmodium: 10 lineages, and Leucocytozoon: 5 lineages). Among them, the Haemoproteus ROFI2 lineage, which is a host-specific parasite lineage of the scarlet rosefinch, was the most frequently found. Parasite lineages showed varying degree of lineage specificity. While Haemoproteus lineages detected in the scarlet rosefinch have relatively narrow host breadth restricted mainly to Fringillidae family, Leucocytozoon and Plasmodium lineages generally showed wider host range. The presence of some parasite lineages hitherto detected in sedentary European passerines (SISKIN1, CCF3, BT2) or in Culicoides biting midges at the same locality (ROFI1) suggest local transmission. On the contrary, lineages LK05 and FANTAIL1 that were previously reported exclusively from Asian hosts imply parasite transmission at the scarlet rosefinch wintering sites in South Asia. Mixed infections were found in 17% of infected samples and comprised mainly the most frequent lineages. The pattern of concomitant infections seemed to be rather random and matched expected levels based on lineage frequencies. Between-year comparisons revealed that in a majority of the repeatedly captured individual hosts the infection status remained unchanged (individuals stayed uninfected or possessed the same parasite lineages). However, 16 gains and 8 losses of lineages were also reported. We have not found any effect of haemosporidians on male carotenoid ornament expression or host body mass. PMID:23385972

Synek, P; Albrecht, T; Vinkler, M; Schnitzer, J; Votýpka, J; Munclinger, P

2013-02-06

5

Avian haemosporidians in haematophagous insects in the Czech Republic.  

PubMed

The degree to which avian haemosporidian parasites can exploit different vectors as a definitive host has ecological implications for their transmission and biogeography. Studies targeting haemosporidian parasites using precise molecular detection methods are almost lacking in Central Europe, however. Here, we utilized PCR-based molecular methods to detect avian haemosporidians in insect vectors in the Czech Republic. Nine lineages of parasites belonging to three genera, Haemoproteus, Plasmodium, and Leucocytozoon, were detected in pooled samples of insect individuals, of which three lineages had not yet been discovered in previous studies. All three Leucocytozoon lineages were found exclusively in black flies, while five Haemoproteus lineages were found in biting midges. The most abundant insect species Culicoides kibunensis harbored three Haemoproteus lineages, and the second-most numerous species Culicoides segnis even four. The positive mosquitoes of Culex pipiens complex hosted two parasite lineages, one Plasmodium and one Haemoproteus, the latter of which, however, could suggest the aberrant development of this parasite in an unusual invertebrate host. The co-occurrence of Haemoproteus ROFI1 and TURDUS2 lineages in both insects and birds at the same study plot suggests a transmission of these lineages during breeding season of birds. PMID:23224608

Synek, Petr; Munclinger, Pavel; Albrecht, Tomáš; Votýpka, Jan

2012-12-06

6

Plasmodium malariae: Parasite and Disease  

PubMed Central

A review of the life history of Plasmodium malariae, the quartan malaria parasite of humans, is presented. Much of the information is based on data obtained from induced infections in humans who were given malaria therapy for the treatment of neurosyphilis between 1940 and 1963. Prepatent periods (i.e., the time until the first day of parasite detection) fever episodes, and maximum parasitemias as a result of infection with P. malariae were obtained and are presented. Experimental and known vectors of the parasite are also discussed. Splenectomized chimpanzees and New World monkeys are readily infected and serve as sources of parasites and antigens for diagnostic and molecular studies. South American monkeys are naturally infected with a parasite known as Plasmodium brasilianum. This parasite appears to be P. malariae that has adapted from humans to grow in monkeys, probably within the last 500 years. Infection with P. malariae is associated with the production of immune complexes in the kidneys and the associated nephrotic syndrome. The essential lesions are a thickening of the glomerular basement membrane and endocapillary cell proliferation. Studies of monkeys infected with P. malariae indicate the same pathology as that demonstrated in humans.

Collins, William E.; Jeffery, Geoffrey M.

2007-01-01

7

The haemosporidian parasites of bats with description of Sprattiella alecto gen. nov., sp. nov.  

PubMed Central

Four species of Haemoproteidae were found in Pteropus alecto Temminck, 1837 in Queensland, Australia: i) Johnsprentia copemani, Landau et al., 2012; ii) Sprattiella alecto gen. nov., sp. nov., characterised by schizonts in the renal vessels; iii) Hepatocystis levinei, Landau et al., 1985, originally described from Pteropus poliocephalus Temminck, 1825 and, experimentally from Culicoides nubeculosus and found in this new host and for which features of the hepatic schizonts are reported; iv) gametocytes of Hepatocystis sp. which are illustrated but cannot be assigned to a known species. A tentative interpretation of phylogenetic characters of haemosporidians of bats is provided from the morphology of the gametocytes and localisation of the tissue stages with respect to recent data on the phylogeny of bats.

Landau, I.; Chavatte, J.M.; Karadjian, G.; Chabaud, A.; Beveridge, I.

2012-01-01

8

Haemosporidian infection in captive masked bobwhite quail (Colinus virginianus ridgwayi), an endangered subspecies of the northern bobwhite quail  

PubMed Central

The avian haemosporidian parasites (phylum Apicomplexa) are taxonomically diverse and cosmopolitan in distribution; infecting most bird families. Sources of concern are reports of clinical haemosporidian infections in birds kept as part of zoo and aviary collections. Recently, severe and acute mortality episodes have been reported in masked bobwhite quail (Colinus virginianus ridgwayi), an endangered subspecies from the American Southwest. Two hundred and five eggs of the captive flock held in Arivaca, Arizona, were hatched at a zoo in the American Southwest. Thirty four sub-adult or adult animals had lesions associated with tissue phases of hemoparasites, especially vasculitis, ventricular leiomyositis and ulcerative pododermatitis. Molecular techniques applied to blood collected from the zoo’s last twelve remaining animals resulted in the detection of a Plasmodium juxtanucleare-like and Haemoproteus sp. parasites. A Raven (Corvus corax), in a contiguous exhibit, was positive for the same Plasmodium juxtanucleare-like parasite, but remained asymptomatic for three years following detection. These findings indicate that other birds in the exhibit within the zoo premises could act as reservoirs. We conclude that haemosporidian infections could be a factor in the demise of the captive masked bobwhite quails housed at the zoo. We suggest that active surveillance for haemoporidian parasites should be incorporated as a precaution to ex-situ conservation efforts of susceptible endangered species.

Pacheco, M. Andreina; Escalante, Ananias A.; Garner, Michael M.; Bradley, Gregory A.; Aguilar, Roberto F.

2011-01-01

9

Prevalence and Lineage Diversity of Avian Haemosporidians from Three Distinct Cerrado Habitats in Brazil  

PubMed Central

Habitat alteration can disrupt host–parasite interactions and lead to the emergence of new diseases in wild populations. The cerrado habitat of Brazil is being fragmented and degraded rapidly by agriculture and urbanization. We screened 676 wild birds from three habitats (intact cerrado, disturbed cerrado and transition area Amazonian rainforest-cerrado) for the presence of haemosporidian parasites (Plasmodium and Haemoproteus) to determine whether different habitats were associated with differences in the prevalence and diversity of infectious diseases in natural populations. Twenty one mitochondrial lineages, including 11 from Plasmodium and 10 from Haemoproteus were identified. Neither prevalence nor diversity of infections by Plasmodium spp. or Haemoproteus spp. differed significantly among the three habitats. However, 15 of the parasite lineages had not been previously described and might be restricted to these habitats or to the region. Six haemosporidian lineages previously known from other regions, particularly the Caribbean Basin, comprised 50–80% of the infections in each of the samples, indicating a regional relationship between parasite distribution and abundance.

Belo, Nayara O.; Pinheiro, Renato T.; Reis, Elivania S.; Ricklefs, Robert E.; Braga, Erika M.

2011-01-01

10

Ape Plasmodium parasites as a source of human outbreaks.  

PubMed

Recent studies have revealed a remarkable molecular diversity of Plasmodium parasites in great apes in Africa, as well as parasite exchange events between these primates and humans. We review the different points of view proposed on the origin of human malaria, and discuss ape Plasmodium parasites as a source of human outbreaks. PMID:22440011

Duval, L; Ariey, F

2012-03-22

11

Translational control in Plasmodium and toxoplasma parasites.  

PubMed

The life cycles of apicomplexan parasites such as Plasmodium spp. and Toxoplasma gondii are complex, consisting of proliferative and latent stages within multiple hosts. Dramatic transformations take place during the cycles, and they demand precise control of gene expression at all levels, including translation. This review focuses on the mechanisms that regulate translational control in Plasmodium and Toxoplasma, with a particular emphasis on the phosphorylation of the ? subunit of eukaryotic translation initiation factor 2 (eIF2?). Phosphorylation of eIF2? (eIF2??P) is a conserved mechanism that eukaryotic cells use to repress global protein synthesis while enhancing gene-specific translation of a subset of mRNAs. Elevated levels of eIF2??P have been observed during latent stages in both Toxoplasma and Plasmodium, indicating that translational control plays a role in maintaining dormancy. Parasite-specific eIF2? kinases and phosphatases are also required for proper developmental transitions and adaptation to cellular stresses encountered during the life cycle. Identification of small-molecule inhibitors of apicomplexan eIF2? kinases may selectively interfere with parasite translational control and lead to the development of new therapies to treat malaria and toxoplasmosis. PMID:23243065

Zhang, Min; Joyce, Bradley R; Sullivan, William J; Nussenzweig, Victor

2012-12-14

12

Transfection of the human malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the past few years, methods have been developed which allow the introduction of exogenous DNA into the human malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum. This important technical advance known as parasite transfection, provides powerful new tools to study the function of Plasmodium proteins and their roles in biology and disease. Already it has allowed the analysis of promoter function and has

J. G Waterkeyn; B. S Crabb; A. F Cowman

1999-01-01

13

Mitosis in the Human Malaria Parasite Plasmodium falciparum ?  

PubMed Central

Malaria is caused by intraerythrocytic protozoan parasites belonging to Plasmodium spp. (phylum Apicomplexa) that produce significant morbidity and mortality, mostly in developing countries. Plasmodium parasites have a complex life cycle that includes multiple stages in anopheline mosquito vectors and vertebrate hosts. During the life cycle, the parasites undergo several cycles of extreme population growth within a brief span, and this is critical for their continued transmission and a contributing factor for their pathogenesis in the host. As with other eukaryotes, successful mitosis is an essential requirement for Plasmodium reproduction; however, some aspects of Plasmodium mitosis are quite distinct and not fully understood. In this review, we will discuss the current understanding of the architecture and key events of mitosis in Plasmodium falciparum and related parasites and compare them with the traditional mitotic events described for other eukaryotes.

Gerald, Noel; Mahajan, Babita; Kumar, Sanjai

2011-01-01

14

Avian Plasmodium in Culex and Ochlerotatus Mosquitoes from Southern Spain: Effects of Season and Host-Feeding Source on Parasite Dynamics  

PubMed Central

Haemosporidians, a group of vector-borne parasites that include Plasmodium, infect vertebrates including birds. Although mosquitoes are crucial elements in the transmission of avian malaria parasites, little is known of their ecology as vectors. We examined the presence of Plasmodium and Haemoproteus lineages in five mosquito species belonging to the genera Culex and Ochlerotatus to test for the effect of vector species, season and host-feeding source on the transmission dynamics of these pathogens. We analyzed 166 blood-fed individually and 5,579 unfed mosquitoes (grouped in 197 pools) from a locality in southern Spain. In all, 15 Plasmodium and two Haemoproteus lineages were identified on the basis of a fragment of 478 bp of the mitochondrial cytochrome b gene. Infection prevalence of blood parasites in unfed mosquitoes varied between species (range: 0–3.2%) and seasons. The feeding source was identified in 91 mosquitoes where 78% were identified as bird. We found that i) several Plasmodium lineages are shared among different Culex species and one Plasmodium lineage is shared between Culex and Ochlerotatus genera; ii) mosquitoes harboured Haemoproteus parasites; iii) pools of unfed females of mostly ornithophilic Culex species had a higher Plasmodium prevalence than the only mammophylic Culex species studied. However, the mammophylic Ochlerotatus caspius had in pool samples the greatest Plasmodium prevalence. This relative high prevalence may be determined by inter-specific differences in vector survival, susceptibility to infection but also the possibility that this species feeds on birds more frequently than previously thought. Finally, iv) infection rate of mosquitoes varies between seasons and reaches its maximum prevalence during autumn and minimum prevalence in spring.

Ferraguti, Martina; Martinez-de la Puente, Josue; Munoz, Joaquin; Roiz, David; Ruiz, Santiago; Soriguer, Ramon; Figuerola, Jordi

2013-01-01

15

On the study of the transmission networks of blood parasites from SW Spain: diversity of avian haemosporidians in the biting midge Culicoides circumscriptus and wild birds  

PubMed Central

Background Blood-sucking flying insects play a key role in the transmission of pathogens of vector-borne diseases. However, at least for the case of avian malaria parasites, the vast majority of studies focus on the interaction between parasites and vertebrate hosts, but there is a lack of information regarding the interaction between the parasites and the insect vectors. Here, we identified the presence of malaria and malaria-like parasite lineages harbored by the potential vector Culicoides circumscriptus (Kieffer). Also, we identified some nodes of the transmission network connecting parasite lineages, potential insect vectors and avian hosts by comparing Haemoproteus and Plasmodium lineages isolated from insects with those infecting wild birds in this and previous studies. Methods Using a molecular approach, we analysed the presence of blood parasites in a total of 97 biting midges trapped in the Doñana National Park (SW Spain) and surrounding areas. Also, 123 blood samples from 11 bird species were analyzed for the presence of blood parasite infections. Blood parasites Haemoproteus and Plasmodium were identified by amplification of a 478 bp fragment of the mitochondrial cytochrome b gen. Results Thirteen biting midges harboured blood parasites including six Haemoproteus and two Plasmodium lineages, supporting the potential role of these insects on parasite transmission. Moreover, ten (8.1%) birds carried blood parasites. Seven Plasmodium and one Haemoproteus lineages were isolated from birds. Overall, six new Haemoproteus lineages were described in this study. Also, we identified the transmission networks of some blood parasites. Two Haemoproteus lineages, hCIRCUM03 and GAGLA03, were identical to those isolated from Corvus monedula in southern Spain and Garrulus glandarius in Bulgaria, respectively. Furthermore, the new Haemoproteus lineage hCIRCUM05 showed a 99% similarity with a lineage found infecting captive penguins in Japan. Conclusions The comparison of the parasite lineages isolated in this study with those previously found infecting birds allowed us to identify some potential nodes in the transmission network of avian blood parasite lineages. These results highlight the complexity of the transmission networks of blood parasites in the wild that may involve a high diversity of susceptible birds and insect vectors.

2013-01-01

16

Genetic Analysis of the Human Malaria Parasite Plasmodium falciparum  

Microsoft Academic Search

Malaria parasites are haploid for most of their life cycle, with zygote formation and meiosis occurring during the mosquito phase of development. The parasites can be analyzed genetically by transmitting mixtures of cloned parasites through mosquitoes to permit cross-fertilization of gametes to occur. A cross was made between two clones of Plasmodium falciparum differing in enzymes, drug sensitivity, antigens, and

David Walliker; Isabella A. Quakyi; Thomas E. Wellems; Thomas F. McCutchan; Ana Szarfman; William T. London; Lynn M. Corcoran; Thomas R. Burkot; Richard Carter

1987-01-01

17

Comparative genomics of the neglected human malaria parasite Plasmodium vivax  

Microsoft Academic Search

The human malaria parasite Plasmodium vivax is responsible for 25-40% of the ~515 million annual cases of malaria worldwide. Although seldom fatal, the parasite elicits severe and incapacitating clinical symptoms and often causes relapses months after a primary infection has cleared. Despite its importance as a major human pathogen, P. vivax is little studied because it cannot be propagated continuously

Jane M. Carlton; John H. Adams; Joana C. Silva; Shelby L. Bidwell; Hernan Lorenzi; Elisabet Caler; Jonathan Crabtree; Samuel V. Angiuoli; Emilio F. Merino; Paolo Amedeo; Qin Cheng; Richard M. R. Coulson; Brendan S. Crabb; Hernando A. del Portillo; Kobby Essien; Tamara V. Feldblyum; Carmen Fernandez-Becerra; Paul R. Gilson; Amy H. Gueye; Xiang Guo; Taco W. A. Kooij; Michael Korsinczky; Esmeralda V.-S. Meyer; Vish Nene; Ian Paulsen; Owen White; Stuart A. Ralph; Qinghu Ren; Tobias J. Sargeant; Christian J. Stoeckert; Steven A. Sullivan; Marcio M. Yamamoto; Stephen L. Hoffman; Jennifer R. Wortman; Malcolm J. Gardner; Mary R. Galinski; John W. Barnwell; Claire M. Fraser-Liggett

2008-01-01

18

Mosquito transmission of the rodent malaria parasite Plasmodium chabaudi  

PubMed Central

Background Serial blood passage of Plasmodium increases virulence, whilst mosquito transmission inherently regulates parasite virulence within the mammalian host. It is, therefore, imperative that all aspects of experimental malaria research are studied in the context of the complete Plasmodium life cycle. Methods Plasmodium chabaudi chabaudi displays many characteristics associated with human Plasmodium infection of natural mosquito vectors and the mammalian host, and thus provides a unique opportunity to study the pathogenesis of malaria in a single infection setting. An optimized protocol that permits efficient and reproducible vector transmission of P. c. chabaudi via Anopheles stephensi was developed. Results and conclusions This protocol was utilized for mosquito transmission of genetically distinct P. c. chabaudi isolates, highlighting differential parasite virulence within the mosquito vector and the spectrum of host susceptibility to infection initiated via the natural route, mosquito bite. An apposite experimental system in which to delineate the pathogenesis of malaria is described in detail.

2012-01-01

19

Origin of the human malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum in gorillas  

PubMed Central

Plasmodium falciparum is the most prevalent and lethal of the malaria parasites infecting humans, yet the origin and evolutionary history of this important pathogen remain controversial. Here, we developed a novel polymerase chain reaction based single genome amplification strategy to identify and characterize Plasmodium spp. DNA sequences in fecal samples of wild-living apes. Among nearly 3,000 specimens collected from field sites throughout central Africa, we found Plasmodium infection in chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) and western gorillas (Gorilla gorilla), but not in eastern gorillas (Gorilla beringei) or bonobos (Pan paniscus). Ape plasmodial infections were highly prevalent, widely distributed, and almost always comprised of mixed parasite species. Analysis of more than 1,100 mitochondrial, apicoplast and nuclear gene sequences from chimpanzees and gorillas revealed that 99% grouped within one of six host-specific lineages representing distinct Plasmodium species within the subgenus Laverania. One of these from western gorillas was comprised of parasites that were nearly identical to P. falciparum. In phylogenetic analyses of full-length mitochondrial sequences, human P. falciparum formed a monophyletic lineage within the gorilla parasite radiation. These findings indicate that P. falciparum is of gorilla and not of chimpanzee, bonobo or ancient human origin.

Liu, Weimin; Li, Yingying; Learn, Gerald H.; Rudicell, Rebecca S.; Robertson, Joel D.; Keele, Brandon F.; Ndjango, Jean-Bosco N.; Sanz, Crickette M.; Morgan, David B.; Locatelli, Sabrina; Gonder, Mary K.; Kranzusch, Philip J.; Walsh, Peter D.; Delaporte, Eric; Mpoudi-Ngole, Eitel; Georgiev, Alexander V.; Muller, Martin N.; Shaw, George M.; Peeters, Martine; Sharp, Paul M.; Rayner, Julian C.; Hahn, Beatrice H.

2010-01-01

20

Redescription of Haemoproteus mesnili (Apicomplexa: Plasmodiidae) and its meronts, with description of a second haemosporidian parasite of African cobras.  

PubMed

Haemoproteus mesnili (Bouet 1909) Wenyon 1926 is redescribed from the spitting cobra, Naja nigricollis nigricollis, of Tanzania. Mature gametocytes in the acute phase of infection averaged 17.7 X 7.3 jim, with LW 128.1 jim-, and L:W ratio 2.52. Nuclei were visible in both sexes. Both sexes were heavily pigmented, with 31-62 black granules dispersed in macrogametocytes; 20-46 granules were often clumped or concentrated near ends of microgametocytes. The halteridial form was present in 28% of active-phase gametocytes, but in only 8% of those in chronic phase. A few large, possibly first generation, meronts were present in cardiac muscle; uninucleate parasites within parasitophorous vacuoles in splenic cells produced small rounded or ovoid meronts, 12.2 x 9.6 microm, with 12-16 deeply basophilic, square-to-rectangular cytomeres. Meronts with 17-32 cytomeres were 16.9 x 11.9 microm. Meronts, 20 x 16 to 26 x 22 microm, contained 51-57 cytomeres. Mature meronts were ovoid, 13.7 x 11.5 microm, with many rounded merozoites. Haemoproteus balli n. sp, found in an Egyptian cobra, Naja haje haje of Kenya, differs from H. mesnili in average gametocyte dimensions, 10.8 x 7.7 microm; LW, 83.2 microm2; L/W ratio, 1.42; absence of halteridial forms; sparse pigmentation (3-10 granules); and presence of a broad peripheral band, apparently chromatin, along one side of microgametocytes. PMID:17626363

Telford, Sam R

2007-06-01

21

Polysome profiling of the malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum  

PubMed Central

In the malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum, global studies of translational regulation have been hampered by the inability to isolate malaria polysomes. We describe here a novel method for polysome profiling in Plasmodium falciparum, a powerful approach which allows both a global view of translation and the measurement of ribosomal loading and density for specific mRNAs. Simultaneous lysis of infected erythrocytes and parasites releases stable, intact malaria polysomes, which are then purified by centrifugation through a sucrose cushion. The polysomes are resuspended, separated by velocity sedimentation and then fractionated, yielding a characteristic polysome profile reflecting the global level of translational activity in the parasite. RNA isolated from specific fractions can be used to determine the density of ribosomes loaded onto a particular transcript of interest, and is free of host ribosome contamination. Thus, our approach opens translational regulation in malaria to genome-wide analysis.

Lacsina, Joshua R.; LaMonte, Gregory; Nicchitta, Christopher V.; Chi, Jen-Tsan

2011-01-01

22

Tetraethylthiuram disulfide (Antabuse) inhibits the human malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum.  

PubMed Central

Plasmodium falciparum in culture grows optimally at 3% oxygen. Oxygen levels down to 0.5% still support growth, but anaerobic conditions do not. These findings, and the absence of the Krebs cycle in Plasmodium, suggested that in this organism oxygen may not function in electron transport but rather may act through metalloprotein oxygenases. Tetraethylthiuram disulfide (Antabuse, disulfiram) and its reduction product diethyldithiocarbamate inhibit many metalloprotein oxygenases and have a lipid/H2O partition coefficient and high binding constant for metal ions, favoring selective toxicity to the malaria parasite. These compounds exhibited active antimalarial effects in vitro in concentrations down to 0.1 microgram/ml, the lowest level tested. Tetraethylthiuram disulfide at a level as low as 1 microgram/ml inhibited parasite glycolysis with no effect on glycolysis of normal erythrocytes. Erythrocytes pretreated with this drug at 10 microgram/ml did not support growth of the parasite.

Scheibel, L W; Adler, A; Trager, W

1979-01-01

23

Genome sequence of the human malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum  

Microsoft Academic Search

The parasite Plasmodium falciparum is responsible for hundreds of millions of cases of malaria, and kills more than one million African children annually. Here we report an analysis of the genome sequence of P. falciparum clone 3D7. The 23-megabase nuclear genome consists of 14 chromosomes, encodes about 5,300 genes, and is the most (A + T)-rich genome sequenced to date.

Malcolm J. Gardner; Neil Hall; Eula Fung; Owen White; Matthew Berriman; Richard W. Hyman; Jane M. Carlton; Arnab Pain; Sharen Bowman; Ian T. Paulsen; Keith James; Kim Rutherford; Steven L. Salzberg; Alister Craig; Sue Kyes; Man-Suen Chan; Vishvanath Nene; Shamira J. Shallom; Bernard Suh; Jeremy Peterson; Sam Angiuoli; Mihaela Pertea; Jonathan Allen; Jeremy Selengut; Daniel Haft; Michael W. Mather; Akhil B. Vaidya; Alan H. Fairlamb; Martin J. Fraunholz; David S. Roos; Stuart A. Ralph; Geoffrey I. McFadden; Leda M. Cummings; G. Mani Subramanian; Chris Mungall; J. Craig Venter; Daniel J. Carucci; Stephen L. Hoffman; Chris Newbold; Ronald W. Davis; Claire M. Fraser; Bart Barrell

2002-01-01

24

The malaria parasite Plasmodium vivax exhibits greater genetic diversity than Plasmodium falciparum  

PubMed Central

We sequenced and annotated the genomes of four Plasmodium vivax strains collected from disparate geographical locations, tripling the number of genome sequences available for this understudied parasite and providing the first genome-wide perspective of global variability within this species. We observe approximately twice as much SNP diversity among these isolates as we do among a comparable collection of isolates of Plasmodium falciparum, a malaria parasite that causes higher mortality. This indicates a distinct history of global colonization and/or a more stable demographic history for P. vivax than P. falciparum, which is thought to have undergone a recent population bottleneck. The SNP diversity, as well as additional microsatellite and gene family variability, suggests the capacity for greater functional variation within the global population of P. vivax. These findings warrant a deeper survey of variation in P. vivax to equip disease interventions targeting the distinctive biology of this neglected but major pathogen.

Neafsey, Daniel E.; Galinsky, Kevin; Jiang, Rays H. Y.; Young, Lauren; Sykes, Sean M.; Saif, Sakina; Gujja, Sharvari; Goldberg, Jonathan M.; Young, Sarah; Zeng, Qiandong; Chapman, Sinead B.; Dash, Aditya P.; Anvikar, Anupkumar R.; Sutton, Patrick L.; Birren, Bruce W.; Escalante, Ananias A.; Barnwell, John W.; Carlton, Jane M.

2012-01-01

25

Heritability of Plasmodium Parasite Density in a Rural Ugandan Community  

PubMed Central

Many factors influence variation in Plasmodium infection levels, including parasite/host genetics, immunity, and exposure. Here, we examine the roles of host genetics and exposure in determining parasite density, and test whether effects differ with age. Data for 1,711 residents of an eastern Ugandan community were used in pedigree-based variance component analysis. Heritability of parasite density was 13% (P < 0.001) but was not significant after controlling for shared household. Allowing variance components to vary between children (< 16 years) and adults (? 16 years) revealed striking age differences; 26% of variation could be explained by additively acting genes in children (P < 0.001), but there was no genetic involvement in adults. Domestic environment did not explain variation in children and explained 5% in adults (P = 0.09). Genetic effects are an important determinant of parasite density in children in this population, consistent with previous quantitative genetic studies of Plasmodium parasitaemia, although differences in environmental exposure play a lesser role.

Pullan, Rachel L.; Bukirwa, Hasifa; Snow, Robert W.; Brooker, Simon

2010-01-01

26

Glutathione export from human erythrocytes and Plasmodium falciparum malaria parasites.  

PubMed

Glutathione export from uninfected human erythrocytes was compared with that from cells infected with the malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum using two separate methods that distinguish between oxidized (GSSG) and reduced (GSH) glutathione. One involved enzymatic recycling with or without thiol-masking; the other involved rapid derivatization followed by HPLC. Glutathione efflux from uninfected erythrocytes under physiological conditions occurred predominantly as GSH. On exposure of the cells to oxidative challenge, efflux of GSSG exceeded that of GSH. Efflux of both species was blocked by MK571, an inhibitor of mammalian multidrug-resistance proteins. Glutathione efflux from parasitized erythrocytes was substantially greater than that from uninfected erythrocytes. Under physiological conditions, the exported species was GSH, whereas under energy-depleted conditions, GSSG efflux occurred. Glutathione export from parasitized cells was inhibited partially by MK571 and more so by furosemide, an inhibitor of the 'new permeability pathways' induced by the parasite in the host erythrocyte membrane. Efflux from isolated parasites occurred as GSH. On exposure to oxidative challenge, this GSH efflux decreased, but no GSSG export was detected. These results are consistent with the view that the parasite supplies its host erythrocyte with GSH, much of which is exported from the infected cell via parasite-induced pathways. PMID:22950671

Barrand, Margery A; Winterberg, Markus; Ng, Frances; Nguyen, Mai; Kirk, Kiaran; Hladky, Stephen B

2012-12-15

27

Mouse model for exoerythrocytic stages of Plasmodium falciparum malaria parasite.  

PubMed Central

Research on the exoerythrocytic (EE) stages of human malaria parasites has been hindered because of the lack of an easily available suitable animal model. We report here an approach to produce mature EE-stage Plasmodium falciparum parasites by using severe combined immunodeficient (scid) mice with transplanted human hepatocytes. Transplantation of human hepatocytes into scid mice (scid hu-hep), their subsequent intravenous infection with P. falciparum sporozoites, and the development of mature liver-stage merozoites was achieved. Immunofluorescent staining of scid hu-hep kidney tissue sections demonstrated the presence of circumsporozoite protein (early during infection), merozoite surface antigen 1, and liver schizont antigen 1. The scid hu-hep model can serve as a source of human malaria liver-stage parasites, decreasing the need for nonhuman primates. Use of this model will facilitate characterization of EE-stage antigens and the assessment of stage-specific chemotherapeutic agents and candidate vaccines. Images

Sacci, J B; Schriefer, M E; Resau, J H; Wirtz, R A; Detolla, L J; Markham, R B; Azad, A F

1992-01-01

28

The chiropteran haemosporidian Polychromophilus melanipherus: a worldwide species complex restricted to the family Miniopteridae.  

PubMed

This paper attempts to expand on the current knowledge regarding the evolutionary history of bat haemosporidian parasites. Using modern molecular tools as adjuncts to existing morphological descriptions, our understanding of the diversity of these parasites is discussed. The biogeography and host range distribution together with possible host-parasite interactions remain to be evaluated in more detail. Using a nested-PCR cytochrome b mitochondrial gene approach, we established a screening programme and survey of several months duration for haemosporidian parasites in four central African bat species living in an ecological community. The aim of the study was to describe parasites morphologically and molecularly, together with parasite prevalence variations over time, and evaluate parasite host-specificity in these sympatric cave bats. Over the survey period, Polychromophilus melanipherus was the only haemosporidian parasite identified in Miniopterus inflatus, with a continuous molecular prevalence of at least 60%. Molecular phylogenetic analyses show that P. melanipherus is a monophyletic group infecting Miniopterus bats which is, a sister group to P. murinus and Polychromophilus spp. This monophyletic group is composed of different cyt b haplotypes molecularly distantly related (but morphologically similar), circulating without geographic or host species distinction. This suggests that P. melanipherus is a species complex restricted to the family Miniopteridae. The phylogenetic analysis confirms that Polychromophilus parasites are distributed worldwide and supports the view that they are more closely related to avian haemosporidian parasites. PMID:22721902

Duval, Linda; Mejean, Cyndie; Maganga, Gael D; Makanga, Boris K; Mangama Koumba, Lilian B; Peirce, Michael A; Ariey, Frederic; Bourgarel, Mathieu

2012-06-19

29

Life history of a malaria parasite (Plasmodium mexicanum): independent traits and basis for variation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Plasmodium mexicanum , a malaria parasite of lizards, exhibits substantial variation among infections in the life-history traits which de¢ ne its blood-dwelling stages. Such variation in life histories among infections is common in Plasmodium and may in£ uence the ecology and evolution of the parasite's transmission success and virulence. Insight into these issues requires identi¢ cation of independent traits (some

Rebecca J. Eisen; J. J. Schall

2000-01-01

30

A glimpse into the clinical proteome of human malaria parasites Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium vivax.  

PubMed

Malaria causes a worldwide annual mortality of about a million people. Rapidly evolving drug-resistant species of the parasite have created a pressing need for the identification of new drug targets and vaccine candidates. By developing fractionation protocols to enrich parasites from low-parasitemia patient samples, we have carried out the first ever proteomics analysis of clinical isolates of early stages of Plasmodium falciparum (Pf) and P. vivax. Patient-derived malarial parasites were directly processed and analyzed using shotgun proteomics approach using high-sensitivity MS for protein identification. Our study revealed about 100 parasite-coded gene products that included many known drug targets such as Pf hypoxanthine guanine phosphoribosyl transferase, Pf L-lactate dehydrogenase, and Plasmepsins. In addition, our study reports the expression of several parasite proteins in clinical ring stages that have never been reported in the ring stages of the laboratory-cultivated parasite strain. This proof-of-principle study represents a noteworthy step forward in our understanding of pathways elaborated by the parasite within the malaria patient and will pave the way towards identification of new drug and vaccine targets that can aid malaria therapy. PMID:21136953

Acharya, Pragyan; Pallavi, Rani; Chandran, Syama; Chakravarti, Harshini; Middha, Sheetal; Acharya, Jyoti; Kochar, Sanjay; Kochar, Dhanpat; Subudhi, Amit; Boopathi, Arun P; Garg, Shilpi; Das, Ashis; Tatu, Utpal

2009-11-01

31

Transformation of Plasmodium falciparum Malaria Parasites by Homologous Integration of Plasmids that Confer Resistance to Pyrimethamine  

Microsoft Academic Search

Plasmodium falciparum malaria parasites were transformed with plasmids containing P. falciparum or Toxoplasma gondii dihydrofolate reductase-thymidylate synthase (dhfr-ts) coding sequences that confer resistance to pyrimethamine. Under pyrimethamine pressure, transformed parasites were obtained that maintained the transfected plasmids as unrearranged episomes for several weeks. These parasite populations were replaced after 2 to 3 months by parasites that had incorporated the transfected

Yimin Wu; Laura A. Kirkman; Thomas E. Wellems

1996-01-01

32

Chloroquine-Resistant Haplotype Plasmodium falciparum Parasites, Haiti  

PubMed Central

Plasmodium falciparum parasites have been endemic to Haiti for >40 years without evidence of chloroquine (CQ) resistance. In 2006 and 2007, we obtained blood smears for rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) and filter paper blots of blood from 821 persons by passive and active case detection. P. falciparum infections diagnosed for 79 persons by blood smear or RDT were confirmed by PCR for the small subunit rRNA gene of P. falciparum. Amplification of the P. falciparum CQ resistance transporter (pfcrt) gene yielded 10 samples with amplicons resistant to cleavage by ApoI. A total of 5 of 9 samples had threonine at position 76 of pfcrt, which is consistent with CQ resistance (haplotypes at positions 72–76 were CVIET [n = 4] and CVMNT [n = 1]); 4 had only the wild-type haplotype associated with CQ susceptibility (CVMNK). These results indicate that CQ-resistant haplotype P. falciparum malaria parasites are present in Haiti.

Londono, Berlin L.; Eisele, Thomas P.; Keating, Joseph; Bennett, Adam; Chattopadhyay, Chandon; Heyliger, Gaetan; Mack, Brian; Rawson, Ian; Vely, Jean-Francois; Desinor, Olbeg

2009-01-01

33

Circumsporozoite proteins of human malaria parasites Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium vivax  

PubMed Central

Monoclonal antibodies were raised against sporozoites of two species of malaria parasites, Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium vivax. The antibodies reacted with polypeptides (circumsporozoite proteins) that are uniformly distributed over the entire surface of sporozoites, as shown by indirect immunofluorescence and by the circumsporozoite precipitin reaction. The epitopes recognized by the monoclonal antibodies were expressed on sporozoites from different geographical isolates of the homologous species but were not detected on sporozoites of heterologous species nor on blood forms of the parasite. The monoclonal antibody to P. falciparum specifically immunoprecipitated two polypeptides of apparent 67,000 mol wt (Pf67) and 58,000 mol wt (Pf58) from extracts of [35S]methionine-labeled P. falciparum sporozoites. Similarly, the anti-P. vivax monoclonal immunoprecipitated two proteins of 51,000 mol wt (Pv51) and 45,000 mol wt (Pv45) from extracts of metabolically labeled P. vivax sporozoites. The extracts were also reacted with the serum of human volunteers successfully vaccinated with sporozoites of either P. vivax or P. falciparum. The patterns of immunoprecipitation were almost identical to those obtained with the corresponding monoclonal antibodies. The circumsporozoite proteins of P. falciparum and P. vivax play a role in immune protection. Incubation of the appropriate monoclonal antibody with viable sporozoites of the homologous species significantly reduced parasite infectivity, as determined by sporozoite neutralization assays carried out in splenectomized chimpanzees.

1982-01-01

34

Extensive microsatellite diversity in the human malaria parasite Plasmodium vivax.  

PubMed

The population structure of Plasmodium vivax remains elusive. The markers of choice for large-scale population genetic studies of eukaryotes, short tandem repeats known as microsatellites, have been recently reported to be less polymorphic in P. vivax. Here we investigate the microsatellite diversity and geographic structure in P. vivax, at both local and global levels, using 14 new markers consisting of tri- or tetranucleotide repeats. The local-level analysis, which involved 50 field isolates from Sri Lanka, revealed unexpectedly high diversity (average virtual heterozygosity [H(E)], 0.807) and significant multilocus linkage disequilibrium in this region of low malaria endemicity. Multiple-clone infections occurred in 60% of isolates sampled in 2005. The global-level analysis of field isolates or monkey-adapted strains identified 150 unique haplotypes among 164 parasites from four continents. Individual P. vivax isolates could not be unambiguously assigned to geographic populations. For example, we found relatively low divergence among parasites from Central America, Africa, Southeast Asia and Oceania, but substantial differentiation between parasites from the same continent (South Asia and Southeast Asia) or even from the same country (Brazil). Parasite relapses, which may extend the duration of P. vivax carriage in humans, are suggested to facilitate the spread of strains across continents, breaking down any pre-existing geographic structure. PMID:18226474

Karunaweera, Nadira D; Ferreira, Marcelo U; Munasinghe, Anusha; Barnwell, John W; Collins, William E; King, Christopher L; Kawamoto, Fumihiko; Hartl, Daniel L; Wirth, Dyann F

2008-01-15

35

Genome variation and evolution of the malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum.  

PubMed

Infections with the malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum result in more than 1 million deaths each year worldwide. Deciphering the evolutionary history and genetic variation of P. falciparum is critical for understanding the evolution of drug resistance, identifying potential vaccine candidates and appreciating the effect of parasite variation on prevalence and severity of malaria in humans. Most studies of natural variation in P. falciparum have been either in depth over small genomic regions (up to the size of a small chromosome) or genome wide but only at low resolution. In an effort to complement these studies with genome-wide data, we undertook shotgun sequencing of a Ghanaian clinical isolate (with fivefold coverage), the IT laboratory isolate (with onefold coverage) and the chimpanzee parasite P. reichenowi (with twofold coverage). We compared these sequences with the fully sequenced P. falciparum 3D7 isolate genome. We describe the most salient features of P. falciparum polymorphism and adaptive evolution with relation to gene function, transcript and protein expression and cellular localization. This analysis uncovers the primary evolutionary changes that have occurred since the P. falciparum-P. reichenowi speciation and changes that are occurring within P. falciparum. PMID:17159978

Jeffares, Daniel C; Pain, Arnab; Berry, Andrew; Cox, Anthony V; Stalker, James; Ingle, Catherine E; Thomas, Alan; Quail, Michael A; Siebenthall, Kyle; Uhlemann, Anne-Catrin; Kyes, Sue; Krishna, Sanjeev; Newbold, Chris; Dermitzakis, Emmanouil T; Berriman, Matthew

2006-12-10

36

Genome variation and evolution of the malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum  

PubMed Central

Infections with the malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum result in more than one million deaths each year worldwide1. The evolutionary history and genetic variation of P. falciparum is of critical importance to the understanding of the evolution of drug resistance, the identification of potential vaccine candidates and an appreciation of the effect of parasite variation upon prevalence and severity of malaria in humans. Most studies of natural variation in P. falciparum have been either in depth over small genomic regions (up to the size of a small chromosome2) or genome-wide but only at low resolution3. In an effort to complement these studies with genome-wide data, we undertook shotgun sequencing of a Ghanaian clinical isolate (5x coverage), the IT laboratory isolate (1x) and the chimpanzee parasite P. reichenowi (2x). These genomes were compared to the fully sequenced clone4. We describe the most salient features of P. falciparum polymorphism and adaptive evolution with relation to gene function, transcript and protein expression and cellular localisation. This analysis reveals the primary evolutionary changes that have occurred since the P. falciparum – P. reichenowi speciation, and those that are occurring within P. falciparum.

Jeffares, Daniel C.; Pain, Arnab; Berry, Andrew; Cox, Anthony V.; Stalker, James; Ingle, Catherine E.; Thomas, Alan; Quail, Michael A.; Siebenthall, Kyle; Uhlemann, Anne-Catrin; Kyes, Sue; Krishna, Sanjeev; Newbold, Chris; Dermitzakis, Emmanouil T.; Berriman, Matthew

2008-01-01

37

Relative clonal proportions over time in mixed-genotype infections of the lizard malaria parasite Plasmodium mexicanum  

Microsoft Academic Search

Vertebrate hosts of malaria parasites (Plasmodium) often harbour two or more genetically distinct clones of a single species, and interaction among these co-existing clones can play an important role in Plasmodium biology. However, how relative clonal proportions vary over time in a host is still poorly known. Experimental mixed-clone infections of the lizard malaria parasite, Plasmodium mexicanum, were followed in

Alice Flynn Ford; Jos J. Schall

2011-01-01

38

POLYMORPHISM OF A HIGH MOLECULAR WEIGHT SCHIZONT ANTIGEN OF THE HUMAN MALARIA PARASITE PLASMODIUM FALCIPARUM  

Microsoft Academic Search

Clinical manifestations of malaria are associated with repeated cycles of mul- tiplication of the parasite in the blood, and any prospective immunopr0phylaxis needs effectively to control the blood phase of the infection. Present attempts (1-10) to identify parasite antigens of potential value in vaccination against asexual blood stages of the human parasite Plasmodium falciparum have impli- cated a number of

S. McBRIDE; CHRIS I. NEWBOLD; RITA ANAND

1985-01-01

39

A set of independent selectable markers for transfection of the human malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum  

Microsoft Academic Search

Genomic information is rapidly accumulat- ing for the human malaria pathogen, Plasmodium falciparum. Our ability to perform genetic manipulations to understand Plasmodium gene function is limited. Dihydrofolate reductase is the only selectable marker presently available for transfec- tion of P. falciparum. Additional markers are needed for complementation and for expression of mutated forms of essential genes. We tested parasite sensitivity

CHOUKRI BEN MAMOUN; I LYA Y. GLUZMAN; S OPHIE GOYARD; STEPHEN M. BEVERLEY; DANIEL E. GOLDBERG

1999-01-01

40

Cultivation of Plasmodium Falciparum Parasites in a Serum-Free Medium.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The elimination of serum from Plasmodium falciparum culture media could decrease costs, enhance procurement, and improve the feasibility of large-scale production of parasite material. We provide a semi-defined, serum-free formulation, of commercially ava...

A. O. Ofulla V. C. Okoye B. Khan J. I. Githure C. R. Roberts

1993-01-01

41

Age of the last common ancestor of extant Plasmodium parasite lineages.  

PubMed

Parasites of the genus Plasmodium infect all classes of amniotes (mammals, birds and reptiles) and display host specificity in their infections. It is therefore generally believed that Plasmodium parasites co-evolved intimately with their hosts. Here, we report that based on an evolutionary analysis using 22 genes in the nuclear genome, extant lineages of Plasmodium parasites originated roughly in the Oligocene epoch after the emergence of their hosts. This timing on the age of the common ancestor of extant Plasmodium parasites suggest the importance of host switches and lends support to the evolutionary scenario of a "malaria big bang" that was proposed based on the evolutionary analysis using the mitochondrial genome. PMID:22555021

Hayakawa, Toshiyuki; Tachibana, Shin-Ichiro; Hikosaka, Kenji; Arisue, Nobuko; Matsui, Atsushi; Horii, Toshihiro; Tanabe, Kazuyuki

2012-04-25

42

Genome sequence and comparative analysis of the model rodent malaria parasite Plasmodium yoelii yoelii  

Microsoft Academic Search

Species of malaria parasite that infect rodents have long been used as models for malaria disease research. Here we report the whole-genome shotgun sequence of one species, Plasmodium yoelii yoelii, and comparative studies with the genome of the human malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum clone 3D7. A synteny map of 2,212 P. y. yoelii contiguous DNA sequences (contigs) aligned to 14

Jane M. Carlton; Samuel V. Angiuoli; Bernard B. Suh; Taco W. Kooij; Mihaela Pertea; Joana C. Silva; Maria D. Ermolaeva; Jonathan E. Allen; Jeremy D. Selengut; Hean L. Koo; Jeremy D. Peterson; Mihai Pop; Daniel S. Kosack; Martin F. Shumway; Shelby L. Bidwell; Shamira J. Shallom; Susan E. van Aken; Steven B. Riedmuller; Tamara V. Feldblyum; Jennifer K. Cho; John Quackenbush; Martha Sedegah; Azadeh Shoaibi; Leda M. Cummings; Laurence Florens; John R. Yates; J. Dale Raine; Robert E. Sinden; Michael A. Harris; Deirdre A. Cunningham; Peter R. Preiser; Lawrence W. Bergman; Akhil B. Vaidya; Leo H. van Lin; Chris J. Janse; Andrew P. Waters; Hamilton O. Smith; Owen R. White; Steven L. Salzberg; J. Craig Venter; Claire M. Fraser; Stephen L. Hoffman; Malcolm J. Gardner; Daniel J. Carucci

2002-01-01

43

Protease-associated cellular networks in malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum  

PubMed Central

Background Malaria continues to be one of the most severe global infectious diseases, responsible for 1-2 million deaths yearly. The rapid evolution and spread of drug resistance in parasites has led to an urgent need for the development of novel antimalarial targets. Proteases are a group of enzymes that play essential roles in parasite growth and invasion. The possibility of designing specific inhibitors for proteases makes them promising drug targets. Previously, combining a comparative genomics approach and a machine learning approach, we identified the complement of proteases (degradome) in the malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum and its sibling species [1-3], providing a catalog of targets for functional characterization and rational inhibitor design. Network analysis represents another route to revealing the role of proteins in the biology of parasites and we use this approach here to expand our understanding of the systems involving the proteases of P. falciparum. Results We investigated the roles of proteases in the parasite life cycle by constructing a network using protein-protein association data from the STRING database [4], and analyzing these data, in conjunction with the data from protein-protein interaction assays using the yeast 2-hybrid (Y2H) system [5], blood stage microarray experiments [6-8], proteomics [9-12], literature text mining, and sequence homology analysis. Seventy-seven (77) out of 124 predicted proteases were associated with at least one other protein, constituting 2,431 protein-protein interactions (PPIs). These proteases appear to play diverse roles in metabolism, cell cycle regulation, invasion and infection. Their degrees of connectivity (i.e., connections to other proteins), range from one to 143. The largest protease-associated sub-network is the ubiquitin-proteasome system which is crucial for protein recycling and stress response. Proteases are also implicated in heat shock response, signal peptide processing, cell cycle progression, transcriptional regulation, and signal transduction networks. Conclusions Our network analysis of proteases from P. falciparum uses a so-called guilt-by-association approach to extract sets of proteins from the proteome that are candidates for further study. Novel protease targets and previously unrecognized members of the protease-associated sub-systems provide new insights into the mechanisms underlying parasitism, pathogenesis and virulence.

2011-01-01

44

Molecular analysis of recrudescent parasites in a Plasmodium falciparum drug efficacy trial in Gabon  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recrudescent Plasmodium falciparum parasites were sampled from 108 children taking part in a drug efficacy trial in Gabon. A finger-prick blood sample was taken from each child before treatment, and a posttreatment sample taken of the recrudescent parasites. Sample deoxyribonucleic acid was amplified by the polymerase chain reaction using primers specific to the P. falciparum antigen genes MSP-1, MSP-2 and

L. C. Ranford-Cartwright; J. Taylor; T. Umasunthar; L. H. Taylor; H. A. Babiker; B. Lell; J. R. Schmidt-Ott; L. G. Lehman; D. Walliker; P. G. Kremsner

1997-01-01

45

Global kinomic and phospho-proteomic analyses of the human malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum  

Microsoft Academic Search

The role of protein phosphorylation in the life cycle of malaria parasites is slowly emerging. Here we combine global phospho-proteomic analysis with kinome-wide reverse genetics to assess the importance of protein phosphorylation in Plasmodium falciparum asexual proliferation. We identify 1177 phosphorylation sites on 650 parasite proteins that are involved in a wide range of general cellular activities such as DNA

Lev Solyakov; Jean Halbert; Mahmood M. Alam; Jean-Philippe Semblat; Dominique Dorin-Semblat; Luc Reininger; Andrew R. Bottrill; Sharad Mistry; Abdirhaman Abdi; Clare Fennell; Zoe Holland; Claudia Demarta; Yvan Bouza; Audrey Sicard; Marie-Paule Nivez; Sylvain Eschenlauer; Tenzing Lama; Divya Catherine Thomas; Pushkar Sharma; Shruti Agarwal; Selina Kern; Gabriele Pradel; Michele Graciotti; Andrew B. Tobin; Christian Doerig

2011-01-01

46

The 'permeome' of the malaria parasite: an overview of the membrane transport proteins of Plasmodium falciparum  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: The uptake of nutrients, expulsion of metabolic wastes and maintenance of ion homeostasis by the intraerythrocytic malaria parasite is mediated by membrane transport proteins. Proteins of this type are also implicated in the phenomenon of antimalarial drug resistance. However, the initial annotation of the genome of the human malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum identified only a limited number of transporters,

Rowena E Martin; Roselani I Henry; Janice L Abbey; John D Clements; Kiaran Kirk

2005-01-01

47

Immune Evasion by Babesia bovis and Plasmodium falciparum: Cliff-dwellers of the Parasite World  

Microsoft Academic Search

Erythrocyte-dwelling parasites, such as Babesia bovis and Plasmodium falciparum, are not accessible to the host immune system during most of their asexual reproductive cycle because they are intracellular. While intracellular, the host immune response must be directed toward the surface of the infected erythrocyte. Immune individuals mount protective antibody and cell-mediated responses which eliminate most of the parasites, yet some

D. R. Allred

1995-01-01

48

EXPERIMENTAL TEST FOR PREMUNITION IN A LIZARD MALARIA PARASITE (PLASMODIUM MEXICANUM)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Premunition in Plasmodium spp. is the prevention of superinfection by novel genotypes entering an already estab- lished infection in a vertebrate host. Evidence for premunition was sought for the lizard malaria parasite, P. mexicanum, in its natural host, the fence lizard, Sceloporus occidentalis. Clonal diversity ( alleles for the haploid parasite) was determined with the use of 3 microsatellite markers.

Anne M. Vardo; Kimberly D. Kaufhold; Jos J. Schall

2007-01-01

49

FRET peptides reveal differential proteolytic activation in intraerythrocytic stages of the malaria parasites Plasmodium berghei and Plasmodium yoelii.  

PubMed

Malaria is still a major health problem in developing countries. It is caused by the protist parasite Plasmodium, in which proteases are activated during the cell cycle. Ca(2+) is a ubiquitous signalling ion that appears to regulate protease activity through changes in its intracellular concentration. Proteases are crucial to Plasmodium development, but the role of Ca(2+) in their activity is not fully understood. Here we investigated the role of Ca(2+) in protease modulation among rodent Plasmodium spp. Using fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) peptides, we verified protease activity elicited by Ca(2+) from the endoplasmatic reticulum (ER) after stimulation with thapsigargin (a sarco/endoplasmatic reticulum Ca(2+)-ATPase (SERCA) inhibitor) and from acidic compartments by stimulation with nigericin (a K(+)/H(+) exchanger) or monensin (a Na(+)/H(+) exchanger). Intracellular (BAPTA/AM) and extracellular (EGTA) Ca(2+) chelators were used to investigate the role played by Ca(2+) in protease activation. In Plasmodium berghei both EGTA and BAPTA blocked protease activation, whilst in Plasmodium yoelii these compounds caused protease activation. The effects of protease inhibitors on thapsigargin-induced proteolysis also differed between the species. Pepstatin A and phenylmethylsulphonyl fluoride (PMSF) increased thapsigargin-induced proteolysis in P. berghei but decreased it in P. yoelii. Conversely, E64 reduced proteolysis in P. berghei but stimulated it in P. yoelii. The data point out key differences in proteolytic responses to Ca(2+) between species of Plasmodium. PMID:21168413

Cruz, Laura Nogueira da; Alves, Eduardo; Leal, Mônica Teixeira; Juliano, Maria A; Rosenthal, Philip J; Juliano, Luiz; Garcia, Celia R S

2010-12-17

50

Plasmodium gallinaceum:Differential Killing of Some Mosquito Stages of the Parasite by Insect Defensin  

Microsoft Academic Search

Shahabuddin, M., Fields, I., Bulet, P., Hoffmann, J. A., and Miller, L. H. 1998.Plasmodium gallinaceum:Differential killing of some mosquito stages of the parasite by insect defensin.Experimental Parasitology89, 103–112. We examined several insect antimicrobial peptides to study their effect onPlasmodium gallinaceumzygotes, ookinetes, oocysts, and sporozoites. Only two insect defensins—Aeschna cyanea(dragon fly) andPhormia terranovae(flesh fly)—had a profound toxic effect on the oocysts

Mohammed Shahabuddin; Iesha Fields; Philippe Bulet; Jules A. Hoffmann; Louis H. Miller

1998-01-01

51

Detecting number of clones, and their relative abundance, of a malaria parasite ( Plasmodium mexicanum ) infecting its vertebrate host  

Microsoft Academic Search

Microsatellites, short tandem repeats of nucleotides in the genome, are useful markers to detect clonal diversity within Plasmodium infections. However, accuracy in determining number of clones and their relative proportions based on standard genetic analyzer\\u000a instruments is poorly known. DNA extracted from lizards infected with a malaria parasite, Plasmodium mexicanum, provided template to genotype the parasite based on three microsatellite

Anne M. Vardo-Zalik; Alice Flynn Ford; Jos. J. Schall

2009-01-01

52

Lack of sequence variation of the mitochondrial cytochrome b gene from a malaria parasite, Plasmodium mexicanum.  

PubMed

Very slight sequence differences in the mitochondrial cytochrome b gene, even single nucleotide substitutions, have been proposed as indicative of different species of avian malaria parasites. However, few studies have examined within-species variation in that gene for Plasmodium or related genera. We examined sequences for the entire cytochrome b gene from Plasmodium mexicanum , a parasite of lizards, for sites where microsatellite markers revealed substantial genetic diversity. For sites where the parasite is geographically genetically differentiated, and may have been isolated for thousands of years, there was no sequence variation (1,153 nucleotides) for >160 infections studied. The low degree of variation found in the cytochrome b gene for two human malaria parasites world-wide, as well as the lack of variation for P. mexicanum , contrast with the substantial variation found in surveys of bird malaria parasites, even in restricted geographic regions. PMID:20476806

Schall, Jos J; St Denis, Katherine M

2010-08-01

53

The genome of the simian and human malaria parasite Plasmodium knowlesi  

PubMed Central

Plasmodium knowlesi is an intracellular malaria parasite whose natural vertebrate host is Macaca fascicularis (the ‘kra’ monkey); however, it is now increasingly recognized as a significant cause of human malaria, particularly in southeast Asia1,2. Plasmodium knowlesi was the first malaria parasite species in which antigenic variation was demonstrated3, and it has a close phylogenetic relationship to Plasmodium vivax?4, the second most important species of human malaria parasite (reviewed in ref. 4). Despite their relatedness, there are important phenotypic differences between them, such as host blood cell preference, absence of a dormant liver stage or ‘hypnozoite’ in P. knowlesi, and length of the asexual cycle (reviewed in ref. 4). Here we present an analysis of the P. knowlesi (H strain, Pk1(A+) clone5) nuclear genome sequence. This is the first monkey malaria parasite genome to be described, and it provides an opportunity for comparison with the recently completed P. vivax genome4 and other sequenced Plasmodium genomes6-8. In contrast to other Plasmodium genomes, putative variant antigen families are dispersed throughout the genome and are associated with intrachromosomal telomere repeats. One of these families, the KIRs9, contains sequences that collectively match over one-half of the host CD99 extracellular domain, which may represent an unusual form of molecular mimicry.

Pain, A.; Bohme, U.; Berry, A. E.; Mungall, K.; Finn, R. D.; Jackson, A. P.; Mourier, T.; Mistry, J.; Pasini, E. M.; Aslett, M. A.; Balasubrammaniam, S.; Borgwardt, K.; Brooks, K.; Carret, C.; Carver, T. J.; Cherevach, I.; Chillingworth, T.; Clark, T. G.; Galinski, M. R.; Hall, N.; Harper, D.; Harris, D.; Hauser, H.; Ivens, A.; Janssen, C. S.; Keane, T.; Larke, N.; Lapp, S.; Marti, M.; Moule, S.; Meyer, I. M.; Ormond, D.; Peters, N.; Sanders, M.; Sanders, S.; Sargeant, T. J.; Simmonds, M.; Smith, F.; Squares, R.; Thurston, S.; Tivey, A. R.; Walker, D.; White, B.; Zuiderwijk, E.; Churcher, C.; Quail, M. A.; Cowman, A. F.; Turner, C. M. R.; Rajandream, M. A.; Kocken, C. H. M.; Thomas, A. W.; Newbold, C. I.; Barrell, B. G.; Berriman, M.

2009-01-01

54

Low- and High-Tech Approaches to Control Plasmodium Parasite Transmission by Anopheles Mosquitoes  

PubMed Central

Current efforts have proven inadequate to stop the transmission of Plasmodium parasites, and hence the spread of malaria, by Anopheles mosquitoes. Therefore, a novel arsenal of strategies for inhibiting Plasmodium infection of mosquitoes is urgently needed. In this paper, we summarize research on two approaches to malaria control, a low-tech strategy based on parasite inhibition by the mosquito's natural microflora, and a high-tech strategy using genetic modification of mosquitoes that renders them resistant to infection and discuss advantages and disadvantages for both approaches.

Cirimotich, Chris M.; Clayton, April M.; Dimopoulos, George

2011-01-01

55

Competitive facilitation of drug-resistant Plasmodium falciparum malaria parasites in pregnant women who receive preventive treatment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Intermittent preventive treatment in pregnancy (IPTp) is used to prevent Plasmodium falciparum malaria. However, parasites resistant to the IPTp drug sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine (SP) have emerged worldwide, and infections with mixed resistant and susceptible parasites are exacerbated by pyrimethamine in mice. In a prospective delivery cohort in Muheza, Tanzania, we examined the effects of SP IPTp on parasite resistance alleles, parasite diversity,

W. E. Harrington; T. K. Mutabingwa; A. Muehlenbachs; B. Sorensen; M. C. Bolla; M. Fried; P. E. Duffy

2009-01-01

56

Origins of human malaria: rare genomic changes and full mitochondrial genomes confirm the relationship of Plasmodium falciparum to other mammalian parasites but complicate the origins of Plasmodium vivax.  

PubMed

Despite substantial work, the phylogeny of malaria parasites remains debated. The matter is complicated by concerns about patterns of evolution in potentially strongly selected genes as well as the extreme AT bias of some Plasmodium genomes. Particularly contentious has been the position of the most virulent human parasite Plasmodium falciparum, whether grouped with avian parasites or within a larger clade of mammalian parasites. Here, we study 3 classes of rare genomic changes, as well as the sequences of mitochondrial ribosomal RNA (rRNA) genes. We report 3 lines of support for a clade of mammalian parasites: 1) we find no instances of spliceosomal intron loss in a hypothetical ancestor of P. falciparum and the avian parasite Plasmodium gallinaceum, suggesting against a close relationship between those species; 2) we find 4 genomic mitochondrial indels supporting a mammalian clade, but none grouping P. falciparum with avian parasites; and 3) slowly evolving mitochondrial rRNA sequences support a mammalian parasite clade with 100% posterior probability. We further report a large deletion in the mitochondrial large subunit rRNA gene, which suggests a subclade including both African and Asian parasites within the clade of closely related primate malarias. This contrasts with previous studies that provided strong support for separate Asian and African clades, and reduces certainty about the historical and geographic origins of Plasmodium vivax. Finally, we find a lack of synapomorphic gene losses, suggesting a low rate of ancestral gene loss in Plasmodium. PMID:18359945

Roy, Scott William; Irimia, Manuel

2008-03-21

57

Origins of Human Malaria: Rare Genomic Changes and Full Mitochondrial Genomes Confirm the Relationship of Plasmodium falciparum to Other Mammalian Parasites but Complicate the Origins of Plasmodium vivax  

PubMed Central

Despite substantial work, the phylogeny of malaria parasites remains debated. The matter is complicated by concerns about patterns of evolution in potentially strongly selected genes as well as the extreme AT bias of some Plasmodium genomes. Particularly contentious has been the position of the most virulent human parasite Plasmodium falciparum, whether grouped with avian parasites or within a larger clade of mammalian parasites. Here, we study 3 classes of rare genomic changes, as well as the sequences of mitochondrial ribosomal RNA (rRNA) genes. We report 3 lines of support for a clade of mammalian parasites: 1) we find no instances of spliceosomal intron loss in a hypothetical ancestor of P. falciparum and the avian parasite Plasmodium gallinaceum, suggesting against a close relationship between those species; 2) we find 4 genomic mitochondrial indels supporting a mammalian clade, but none grouping P. falciparum with avian parasites; and 3) slowly evolving mitochondrial rRNA sequences support a mammalian parasite clade with 100% posterior probability. We further report a large deletion in the mitochondrial large subunit rRNA gene, which suggests a subclade including both African and Asian parasites within the clade of closely related primate malarias. This contrasts with previous studies that provided strong support for separate Asian and African clades, and reduces certainty about the historical and geographic origins of Plasmodium vivax. Finally, we find a lack of synapomorphic gene losses, suggesting a low rate of ancestral gene loss in Plasmodium.

Irimia, Manuel

2008-01-01

58

Hippoboscid-transmitted Haemoproteus parasites (Haemosporida) infect Galapagos Pelecaniform birds: evidence from molecular and morphological studies, with a description of Haemoproteus iwa.  

PubMed

Haemosporidian parasites are widely distributed and common parasites of birds, and the application of molecular techniques has revealed remarkable diversity among their lineages. Four haemosporidian genera infect avian hosts (Plasmodium, Haemoproteus, Leucocytozoon and Fallisia), and Haemoproteus is split into two sub-genera based on morphological evidence and phylogenetic support for two divergent sister clades. One clade (Haemoproteus (Parahaemoproteus)) contains parasites developing in birds belonging to several different orders, except pigeons and doves (Columbiformes), while the other (Haemoproteus (Haemoproteus)) has previously been shown to only infect dove hosts. Here we provide molecular and morphological identification of Haemoproteus parasites from several seabird species that are closely related to those found in dove hosts. We also document a deeply divergent clade with two haemosporidian lineages recovered primarily from frigatebirds (Fregatidae, Pelecaniformes) that is sister to the hippoboscid-(Hippoboscidae) transmitted dove parasites. One of the lineages in this new clade of parasites belongs to Haemoproteus iwa and is distributed in two species of frigatebird (Fregata) hosts from Hawaii, the Galapagos Islands, the eastern Pacific and throughout the Caribbean Basin. Haemosporidian parasites are often considered rare in seabirds due in part to the lack or low activity of some dipteran vectors (e.g., mosquitos, biting midges) in marine and coastal environments; however, we show that H. iwa is prevalent and is very likely vectored among frigatebirds by hippoboscid flies which are abundant on frigatebirds and other seabirds. This study supports the existence of two sister clades of avian Haemoproteus in accord with the subgeneric classification of avian hemoproteids. Description of H. iwa from Galapagos Fregata minor is given based on morphology of blood stages and segments of the mitochondrial cytochrome b gene, which can be used for identification. This study shows that hippoboscid flies warrant more attention as vectors of avian Haemoproteus spp., particularly in marine and coastal environments. PMID:21683082

Levin, Iris I; Valki?nas, Gediminas; Santiago-Alarcon, Diego; Cruz, Larisa Lee; Iezhova, Tatjana A; O'Brien, Sarah L; Hailer, Frank; Dearborn, Don; Schreiber, E A; Fleischer, Robert C; Ricklefs, Robert E; Parker, Patricia G

2011-06-01

59

LISP1 is important for the egress of Plasmodium berghei parasites from liver cells.  

PubMed

Most Apicomplexa are obligatory intracellular parasites that multiply inside a so-called parasitophorous vacuole (PV) formed upon parasite entry into the host cell. Plasmodium, the agent of malaria and the Apicomplexa most deadly to humans, multiplies in both hepatocytes and erythrocytes in the mammalian host. Although much has been learned on how Apicomplexa parasites invade host cells inside a PV, little is known of how they rupture the PV membrane and egress host cells. Here, we characterize a Plasmodium protein, called LISP1 (liver-specific protein 1), which is specifically involved in parasite egress from hepatocytes. LISP1 is expressed late during parasite development inside hepatocytes and locates at the PV membrane. Intracellular parasites deficient in LISP1 develop into hepatic merozoites, which display normal infectivity to erythrocytes. However, LISP1-deficient liver-stage parasites do not rupture the membrane of the PV and remain trapped inside hepatocytes. LISP1 is the first Plasmodium protein shown by gene targeting to be involved in the lysis of the PV membrane. PMID:19438514

Ishino, Tomoko; Boisson, Bertrand; Orito, Yuki; Lacroix, Céline; Bischoff, Emmanuel; Loussert, Céline; Janse, Chris; Ménard, Robert; Yuda, Masao; Baldacci, Patricia

2009-05-06

60

Quantitative bioluminescent imaging of pre-erythrocytic malaria parasite infection using luciferase-expressing Plasmodium yoelii.  

PubMed

The liver stages of Plasmodium parasites are important targets for the development of anti-malarial vaccine candidates and chemoprophylaxis approaches that aim to prevent clinical infection. Analyzing the impact of interventions on liver stages in the murine malaria model system Plasmodium yoelii has been cumbersome and requires terminal procedures. In vivo imaging of bioluminescent parasites has previously been shown to be an effective and non-invasive alternative to monitoring liver stage burden in the Plasmodium berghei model. Here we report the generation and characterization of a transgenic P. yoelii parasite expressing the reporter protein luciferase throughout the parasite life cycle. In vivo bioluminescent imaging of these parasites allows for quantitative analysis of P. yoelii liver stage burden and parasite development, which is comparable to quantitative RT-PCR analysis of liver infection. Using this system, we show that both BALB/cJ and C57BL/6 mice show comparable susceptibility to P. yoelii infection with sporozoites and that bioluminescent imaging can be used to monitor protective efficacy of attenuated parasite immunizations. Thus, this rapid, simple and noninvasive method for monitoring P. yoelii infection in the liver provides an efficient system to screen and evaluate the effects of anti-malarial interventions in vivo and in real-time. PMID:23593316

Miller, Jessica L; Murray, Sara; Vaughan, Ashley M; Harupa, Anke; Sack, Brandon; Baldwin, Michael; Crispe, Ian N; Kappe, Stefan H I

2013-04-11

61

Host compatibility rather than vector-host-encounter rate determines the host range of avian Plasmodium parasites.  

PubMed

Blood-feeding arthropod vectors are responsible for transmitting many parasites between vertebrate hosts. While arthropod vectors often feed on limited subsets of potential host species, little is known about the extent to which this influences the distribution of vector-borne parasites in some systems. Here, we test the hypothesis that different vector species structure parasite-host relationships by restricting access of certain parasites to a subset of available hosts. Specifically, we investigate how the feeding patterns of Culex mosquito vectors relate to distributions of avian malaria parasites among hosts in suburban Chicago, IL, USA. We show that Plasmodium lineages, defined by cytochrome b haplotypes, are heterogeneously distributed across avian hosts. However, the feeding patterns of the dominant vectors (Culex restuans and Culex pipiens) are similar across these hosts, and do not explain the distributions of Plasmodium parasites. Phylogenetic similarity of avian hosts predicts similarity in their Plasmodium parasites. This effect was driven primarily by the general association of Plasmodium parasites with particular host superfamilies. Our results suggest that a mosquito-imposed encounter rate does not limit the distribution of avian Plasmodium parasites across hosts. This implies that compatibility between parasites and their avian hosts structure Plasmodium host range. PMID:23595266

Medeiros, Matthew C I; Hamer, Gabriel L; Ricklefs, Robert E

2013-04-17

62

Early Interactions Between Blood-Stage Plasmodium Parasites and the Immune System  

Microsoft Academic Search

Accumulating evidence provides strong support for the importance of innate immunity in shaping the subsequent adaptive immune\\u000a response to blood-stage Plasmodium parasites, the causative agents of malaria. Early interactions between blood-stage parasites and cells of the innate immune\\u000a system, including dendritic cells, monocytes\\/macrophages, natural killer (NK) cells, NKT cells, and ?? T cells, are important\\u000a in the timely control of

B. C. Urban; R. Ing; M. M. Stevenson

63

Partnering Parasites: Evidence of Synergism between Heavy Schistosoma haematobium and Plasmodium Species Infections in Kenyan Children  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundResidents of resource-poor tropical countries carry heavy burdens of concurrent parasitic infections, leading to high rates of morbidity and mortality. This study was undertaken to help identify the social and environmental determinants of multiple parasite infection in one such community.Methodology\\/Principal FindingsResidents of Kingwede, Kenya aged 8 years and older were tested for presence and intensity of S. haematobium and Plasmodium

Lia S. Florey; Charles H. King; Melissa K. Van Dyke; Eric M. Muchiri; Peter L. Mungai; Peter A. Zimmerman; Mark L. Wilson

2012-01-01

64

Purification and biochemical characterization of cytosolic glutathione- S -transferase from malarial parasites Plasmodium yoelii  

Microsoft Academic Search

Glutathione (GSH) metabolism represents a potential target for antiparasitic drug design. Glutathione-S-transferase (GST), an important enzyme of the GSH cycle, is considered to be an essential detoxification enzyme in parasitic\\u000a species. Soluble GST from rodent malarial parasites Plasmodium yoelii was purified to homogeneity using a combination of salt precipitation, affinity chromatography on GSH–sepharose 6B and ultrafiltration.\\u000a Sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide

Rumana Ahmad; Arvind K. Srivastava

2007-01-01

65

Expression Profiling of Plasmodium berghei HSP70 Genes for Generation of Bright Red Fluorescent Parasites  

PubMed Central

Live cell imaging of recombinant malarial parasites encoding fluorescent probes provides critical insights into parasite-host interactions and life cycle progression. In this study, we generated a red fluorescent line of the murine malarial parasite Plasmodium berghei. To allow constitutive and abundant expression of the mCherry protein we profiled expression of all members of the P. berghei heat shock protein 70 (HSP70) family. We identified PbHSP70/1, an invariant ortholog of Plasmodium falciparum HSP70-1, as the protein with the highest expression levels during Plasmodium blood, mosquito, and liver infection. Stable allelic insertion of a mCherry expression cassette into the PbHsp70/1 locus created constitutive red fluorescent P. berghei lines, termed Pbred. We show that these parasites can be used for live imaging of infected host cells and organs, including hepatocytes, erythrocytes, and whole Anopheles mosquitoes. Quantification of the fluorescence intensity of several Pbred parasite stages revealed significantly enhanced signal intensities in comparison to GFP expressed under the control of the constitutive EF1alpha promoter. We propose that systematic transcript profiling permits generation of reporter parasites, such as the Pbred lines described herein.

Hliscs, Marion; Nahar, Carolin; Frischknecht, Friedrich; Matuschewski, Kai

2013-01-01

66

Identification and Stoichiometry of Glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchored Membrane Proteins of the Human Malaria Parasite Plasmodium falciparum  

Microsoft Academic Search

Most proteins that coat the surface of the extracellular forms of the human malaria parasite Plasmodium falcip- arum are attached to the plasma membrane via glyco- sylphosphatidylinositol (GPI) anchors. These proteins are exposed to neutralizing antibodies, and several are ad- vanced vaccine candidates. To identify the GPI-anchored proteome of P. falciparum we used a combination of pro- teomic and computational

Paul R. Gilson; Thomas Nebl; Damjan Vukcevic; Robert L. Moritz; Tobias Sargeant; Terence P. Speed; Louis Schofield; Brendan S. Crabb

2006-01-01

67

Construction and use of Plasmodium falciparum phage display libraries to identify host parasite interactions  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: The development of Plasmodium falciparum within human erythrocytes induces a wide array of changes in the ultrastructure, function and antigenic properties of the host cell. Numerous proteins encoded by the parasite have been shown to interact with the erythrocyte membrane. The identification of new interactions between human erythrocyte and P. falciparum proteins has formed a key area of malaria

Sonja B Lauterbach; Roberto Lanzillotti; Theresa L Coetzer

2003-01-01

68

Protein kinases of the human malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum: the kinome of a divergent eukaryote  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Malaria, caused by the parasitic protist Plasmodium falciparum, represents a major public health problem in the developing world. The P. falciparum genome has been sequenced, which provides new opportunities for the identification of novel drug targets. Eukaryotic protein kinases (ePKs) form a large family of enzymes with crucial roles in most cellular processes; hence malarial ePKS represent potential drug

Pauline Ward; Leila Equinet; Jeremy Packer; Christian Doerig

2004-01-01

69

Aspartic proteases of Plasmodium falciparum and other parasitic protozoa as drug targets  

Microsoft Academic Search

All parasitic protozoa contain multiple proteases, some of which are attracting attention as drug targets. Aspartic proteases are already the targets of some clinically useful drugs (e.g. chemotherapy of HIV infection) and a variety of factors make these enzymes appealing to those seeking novel antiparasite therapies. This review provides a critical analysis of the current knowledge on Plasmodium aspartic proteases

Graham H. Coombs; Daniel E. Goldberg; Michael Klemba; Colin Berry; John Kay; Jeremy C. Mottram

2001-01-01

70

Anopheles gambiae Immune Responses to Human and Rodent Plasmodium Parasite Species  

Microsoft Academic Search

Transmission of malaria is dependent on the successful completion of the Plasmodium lifecycle in the Anopheles vector. Major obstacles are encountered in the midgut tissue, where most parasites are killed by the mosquito's immune system. In the present study, DNA microarray analyses have been used to compare Anopheles gambiae responses to invasion of the midgut epithelium by the ookinete stage

Yuemei Dong; Ruth Aguilar; Zhiyong Xi; Emma Warr; Emmanuel Mongin; George Dimopoulos

2006-01-01

71

Stable Expression of a New Chimeric Fluorescent Reporter in the Human Malaria Parasite Plasmodium falciparum  

Microsoft Academic Search

Malaria is a major health problem worldwide, and the spread of resistance to available drugs increases the need to develop new drugs and effective vaccines. Sequencing the ge- nome of the human malarial parasite Plasmodium falciparum provides a major step forward, but there is a paucity of func- tional assays to exploit this genetic information. With the de- velopment of

MADHUSUDAN KADEKOPPALA; KIMBERLY KLINE; THOMAS AKOMPONG; KASTURI HALDAR

2000-01-01

72

A distinct member of the aspartic proteinase gene family from the human malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum  

Microsoft Academic Search

A gene (hap) transcribed during the intra-erythrocytic life cycle stages of the human malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum was cloned and sequenced. It was found to encode a protein belonging to the aspartic proteinase family but which carried replacements of catalytically crucial residues in the hallmark sequences contributing to the active site of this type of proteinase. Consideration is given as

Colin Berry; Michelle J Humphreys; Philip Matharu; Rachel Granger; Paul Horrocks; Richard P Moon; Uli Certa; Robert G Ridley; Daniel Bur; John Kay

1999-01-01

73

Molecular characterization of the glutathione peroxidase gene of the human malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we report the isolation and the characterization of a gene encoding the antioxidant enzyme glutathione peroxidase from the human malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum. This gene contains two introns of 208 and 168 bp and is present in a single copy on chromosome 13. The open reading frame encodes a protein with a predicted length of 205 amino

Benoît Gamain; Gordon Langsley; Marie N. Fourmaux; Jean P. Touzel; Daniel Camus; Daniel Dive; Christian Slomianny

1996-01-01

74

CLEARANCE OF DRUG-RESISTANT PARASITES AS A MODEL FOR PROTECTIVE IMMUNITY IN PLASMODIUM FALCIPARUM MALARIA  

Microsoft Academic Search

Residents of malaria-endemic areas sometimes spontaneously clear Plasmodium falciparum infection without drug treatment, implying an important role for host factors such as immunity in this clearance. Host factors may also contribute to clearance of parasites resistant to a treatment drug. Chloroquine resistance is caused by point mutations in P. falciparum chloroquine resistance transporter (pfcrt) gene. We investigated the clearance of

ABDOULAYE A. DJIMDE; OGOBARA K. DOUMBO; OUSMANE TRAORE; ANDO B. GUINDO; KASSOUM KAYENTAO; YACOUBA DIOURTE; SAFIATOU NIARE-DOUMBO; DRISSA COULIBALY; ABDOULAYE K. KONE; YACOUBA CISSOKO; MAMADOU TEKETE; BAKARY FOFANA; ALASSANE DICKO; DAPA A. DIALLO; THOMAS E. WELLEMS; DOMINIC KWIATKOWSKI; CHRISTOPHER V. PLOWE

2003-01-01

75

Clonal diversity within infections and the virulence of a malaria parasite, Plasmodium mexicanum  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY Both verbal and mathematical models of parasite virulence predict that genetic diversity of microparasite infections will influence the level of costs suffered by the host. We tested this idea by manipulating the number of co-existing clones of Plasmodium mexicanum in its natural vertebrate host, the fence lizard Sceloporus occidentalis. We established replicate infections of P. mexicanum made up of

2008-01-01

76

Utility of the detection of Plasmodium parasites for the diagnosis of malaria in endemic areas  

PubMed Central

Background In populations where the prevalence of infection with Plasmodium parasites is high, blood tests that identify Plasmodium parasites in patients with fever may lead to false positive diagnosis of malaria-disease. We characterised the diminishing value of the parasite detection test as a function of the prevalence of infection. Methods We computed the ability of the parasite detection test to identify malaria at various levels of prevalence (0% to 90%), assuming plausible estimates of sensitivity (95% and 85%) and specificity (99% and 95%) for the detection of parasites. In each situation, we computed likelihood ratios of malaria (or absence of malaria) for positive and negative parasite detection tests. Likelihood ratios were classified as clinically useful (? 10), intermediate (5–10), or unhelpful (<5). Results Likelihood ratios of positive tests were strongly related to the prevalence of infection in the general population: a positive test was unhelpful when the prevalence was 20% or more, and useful only when prevalence was 5% or less. The sensitivity and specificity of the test had little influence on these results. Likelihood ratios of negative tests were clinically useful when prevalence was 70% or less, but only for high levels of sensitivity (95%). If sensitivity was low (85%), the negative test was at best of intermediate utility, and was unhelpful if the prevalence of asymptomatic infection exceeded 30%. Conclusion Identification of Plasmodium parasites supports a diagnosis of malaria only in areas where the prevalence of Plasmodium infection is low. Wherever this prevalence exceeds about 20%, a positive test is clinically unhelpful.

Perneger, Thomas V; Szeless, Thomas; Rougemont, Andre

2006-01-01

77

Core genome components and lineage specific expansions in malaria parasites Plasmodium  

PubMed Central

Background The increasing resistance of Plasmodium, the malaria parasites, to multiple commonly used drugs has underscored the urgent need to develop effective antimalarial drugs and vaccines. The new direction of genomics-driven target discovery has become possible with the completion of parasite genome sequencing, which can lead us to a better understanding of how the parasites develop the genetic variability that is associated with their response to environmental challenges and other adaptive phenotypes. Results We present the results of a comprehensive analysis of the genomes of six Plasmodium species, including two species that infect humans, one that infects monkeys, and three that infect rodents. The core genome shared by all six species is composed of 3,351 genes, which make up about 22%-65% of the genome repertoire. These components play important roles in fundamental functions as well as in parasite-specific activities. We further investigated the distribution and features of genes that have been expanded in specific Plasmodium lineage(s). Abundant duplicate genes are present in the six species, with 5%-9% of the whole genomes composed lineage specific radiations. The majority of these gene families are hypothetical proteins with unknown functions; a few may have predicted roles such as antigenic variation. Conclusions The core genome components in the malaria parasites have functions ranging from fundamental biological processes to roles in the complex networks that sustain the parasite-specific lifestyles appropriate to different hosts. They represent the minimum requirement to maintain a successful life cycle that spans vertebrate hosts and mosquito vectors. Lineage specific expansions (LSEs) have given rise to abundant gene families in Plasmodium. Although the functions of most families remain unknown, these LSEs could reveal components in parasite networks that, by their enhanced genetic variability, can contribute to pathogenesis, virulence, responses to environmental challenges, or interesting phenotypes.

2010-01-01

78

Antigenic Diversity in the Human Malaria Parasite Plasmodium falciparum  

Microsoft Academic Search

Monoclonal antibodies against blood forms of Plasmodium falciparum were used to demonstrate considerable antigenic diversity in this species. Different isolates were distinguished by their ability to react with certain antibodies, and most of the antibodies reacted specifically with merozoites, schizonts, or both. The distribution of different antigenic types appeared not to be related to geographic origin. Serological typing with monoclonal

Jana S. McBride; David Walliker; Gillian Morgan

1982-01-01

79

A novel tetratricopeptide repeat (TPR) containing PP5 serine\\/threonine protein phosphatase in the malaria parasite, Plasmodium falciparum  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: The malarial parasite, Plasmodium falciparum (Pf), is responsible for nearly 2 million deaths worldwide. However, the mechanisms of cellular signaling in the parasite remain largely unknown. Recent discovery of a few protein kinases and phosphatases point to a thriving reversible phosphorylation system in the parasite, although their function and regulation need to be determined. RESULTS: We provide biochemical and

Sean Dobson; Bratati Kar; Rajinder Kumar; Brian Adams; Sailen Barik

2001-01-01

80

Transformation of the rodent malaria parasite Plasmodium chabaudi and generation of a stable fluorescent line PcGFPCON  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: The rodent malaria parasite Plasmodium chabaudi has proven of great value in the analysis of fundamental aspects of host-parasite-vector interactions implicated in disease pathology and parasite evolutionary ecology. However, the lack of gene modification technologies for this model has precluded more direct functional studies. METHODS: The development of in vitro culture methods to yield P. chabaudi schizonts for transfection

Sarah E Reece; Joanne Thompson

2008-01-01

81

Transfected Plasmodium knowlesi Produces Bioactive Host Gamma Interferon: a New Perspective for Modulating Immune Responses to Malaria Parasites  

Microsoft Academic Search

Transgenic pathogenic microorganisms expressing host cytokines such as gamma interferon (IFN-) have been shown to manipulate host-pathogen interaction, leading to immunomodulation and enhanced protection. Expression of host cytokines in malaria parasites offers the opportunity to investigate the potential of an immunomodulatory approach by generating immunopotentiated parasites. Using the primate malaria parasite Plasmodium knowlesi, we explored the conditions for expressing host

Hastings Ozwara; Jan A. M. Langermans; Clemens H. M. Kocken; Annemarie van der Wel; Peter H. van der Meide; Richard A. W. Vervenne; Jason M. Mwenda; Alan W. Thomas

2003-01-01

82

Geographic genetic differentiation of a malaria parasite, Plasmodium mexicanum, and its lizard host, Sceloporus occidentalis.  

PubMed

Gene flow, and resulting degree of genetic differentiation among populations, will shape geographic genetic patterns and possibly local adaptation of parasites and their hosts. Some studies of Plasmodium falciparum in humans show substantial differentiation of the parasite in locations separated by only a few kilometers, a paradoxical finding for a parasite in a large, mobile host. We examined genetic differentiation of the malaria parasite Plasmodium mexicanum, and its lizard host, Sceloporus occidentalis, at 8 sites in northern California, with the use of variable microsatellite markers for both species. These lizards are small and highly territorial, so we expected local genetic differentiation of both parasite and lizard. Populations of P. mexicanum were found to be differentiated by analysis of 5 markers (F(st) values >0.05-0.10) over distances as short as 230-400 m, and greatly differentiated (F(st) values >0.25) for sites separated by approximately 10 km. In contrast, the lizard host had no, or very low, levels of differentiation for 3 markers, even for sites >40 km distant. Thus, gene flow for the lizard was great, but despite the mobility of the vertebrate host, the parasite was locally genetically distinct. This discrepancy could result if infected lizards move little, but their noninfected relatives were more mobile. Previous studies on the virulence of P. mexicanum for fence lizards support this hypothesis. However, changing prevalence of the parasite, without changes in density of the lizard, could also result in this pattern. PMID:19916631

Fricke, Jennifer M; Vardo-Zalik, Anne M; Schall, Jos J

2010-04-01

83

Infection Intensity-Dependent Responses of Anopheles gambiae to the African Malaria Parasite Plasmodium falciparum ? †  

PubMed Central

Malaria remains a devastating disease despite efforts at control and prevention. Extensive studies using mostly rodent infection models reveal that successful Plasmodium parasite transmission by the African mosquito vector Anopheles gambiae depends on finely tuned vector-parasite interactions. Here we investigate the transcriptional response of A. gambiae to geographically related Plasmodium falciparum populations at various infection intensities and different infection stages. These responses are compared with those of mosquitoes infected with the rodent parasite Plasmodium berghei. We demonstrate that mosquito responses are largely dependent on the intensity of infection. A major transcriptional suppression of genes involved in the regulation of midgut homeostasis is detected in low-intensity P. falciparum infections, the most common type of infection in Africa. Importantly, genes transcriptionally induced during these infections tend to be phylogenetically unique to A. gambiae. These data suggest that coadaptation between vectors and parasites may act to minimize the impact of infection on mosquito fitness by selectively suppressing specific functional classes of genes. RNA interference (RNAi)-mediated gene silencing provides initial evidence for important roles of the mosquito G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) in controlling infection intensity-dependent antiparasitic responses.

Mendes, Antonio M.; Awono-Ambene, Parfait H.; Nsango, Sandrine E.; Cohuet, Anna; Fontenille, Didier; Kafatos, Fotis C.; Christophides, George K.; Morlais, Isabelle; Vlachou, Dina

2011-01-01

84

Clonal diversity alters the infection dynamics of a malaria parasite (Plasmodium mexicanum) in its vertebrate host.  

PubMed

Ecological and evolutionary theory predicts that genetic diversity of microparasites within infected hosts will influence the parasite replication rate, parasitemia, transmission strategy, and virulence. We manipulated clonal diversity (number of genotypes) of the malaria parasite, Plasmodium mexicanum, in its natural lizard host and measured important features of the infection dynamics, the first such study for any natural Plasmodium-host association. Hosts harboring either a single P. mexicanum clone or various combinations of clones (scored via three microsatellite markers) were established. Production of asexually replicating stages (meronts) and maximal meront parasitemia did not differ by clonal diversity, nor did timing of first production of transmission stages (gametocytes). However, mean rate of gametocyte increase and maximal gametocyte parasitemia were greater for hosts with mixed-clone infections. Characteristics of infections were more variable in hosts with mixed-clone infections than with single-clone infections except for first production of gametocytes. One or more of the parasite reproductive traits were extreme in 20 of 52 hosts with mixed-clone infections. This was not associated with specific clones, but diversity itself. The overall pattern from studies of clonal diversity for human, rodent, and now reptile malaria parasites confirms that the genetic diversity of infections in the vertebrate host is of central importance for the ecology of Plasmodium. PMID:19323236

Vardo-Zalik, Anne M; Schall, Jos J

2009-02-01

85

Artesunate Tolerance in Transgenic Plasmodium falciparum Parasites Overexpressing a Tryptophan-Rich Protein?†  

PubMed Central

Due to their rapid, potent action on young and mature intraerythrocytic stages, artemisinin derivatives are central to drug combination therapies for Plasmodium falciparum malaria. However, the evidence for emerging parasite resistance/tolerance to artemisinins in southeast Asia is of great concern. A better understanding of artemisinin-related drug activity and resistance mechanisms is urgently needed. A recent transcriptome study of parasites exposed to artesunate led us to identify a series of genes with modified levels of expression in the presence of the drug. The gene presenting the largest mRNA level increase, Pf10_0026 (PArt), encoding a hypothetical protein of unknown function, was chosen for further study. Immunodetection with PArt-specific sera showed that artesunate induced a dose-dependent increase of the protein level. Bioinformatic analysis showed that PArt belongs to a Plasmodium-specific gene family characterized by the presence of a tryptophan-rich domain with a novel hidden Markov model (HMM) profile. Gene disruption could not be achieved, suggesting an essential function. Transgenic parasites overexpressing PArt protein were generated and exhibited tolerance to a spike exposure to high doses of artesunate, with increased survival and reduced growth retardation compared to that of wild-type-treated controls. These data indicate the involvement of PArt in parasite defense mechanisms against artesunate. This is the first report of genetically manipulated parasites displaying a stable and reproducible decreased susceptibility to artesunate, providing new possibilities to investigate the parasite response to artemisinins.

Deplaine, Guillaume; Lavazec, Catherine; Bischoff, Emmanuel; Natalang, Onguma; Perrot, Sylvie; Guillotte-Blisnick, Micheline; Coppee, Jean-Yves; Pradines, Bruno; Mercereau-Puijalon, Odile; David, Peter H.

2011-01-01

86

High diversity of West African bat malaria parasites and a tight link with rodent Plasmodium taxa.  

PubMed

As the only volant mammals, bats are captivating for their high taxonomic diversity, for their vital roles in ecosystems-particularly as pollinators and insectivores-and, more recently, for their important roles in the maintenance and transmission of zoonotic viral diseases. Genome sequences have identified evidence for a striking expansion of and positive selection in gene families associated with immunity. Bats have also been known to be hosts of malaria parasites for over a century, and as hosts, they possess perhaps the most phylogenetically diverse set of hemosporidian genera and species. To provide a molecular framework for the study of these parasites, we surveyed bats in three remote areas of the Upper Guinean forest ecosystem. We detected four distinct genera of hemosporidian parasites: Plasmodium, Polychromophilus, Nycteria, and Hepatocystis. Intriguingly, the two species of Plasmodium in bats fall within the clade of rodent malaria parasites, indicative of multiple host switches across mammalian orders. We show that Nycteria species form a very distinct phylogenetic group and that Hepatocystis parasites display an unusually high diversity and prevalence in epauletted fruit bats. The diversity and high prevalence of novel lineages of chiropteran hemosporidians underscore the exceptional position of bats among all other mammalian hosts of hemosporidian parasites and support hypotheses of pathogen tolerance consistent with the exceptional immunology of bats. PMID:24101466

Schaer, Juliane; Perkins, Susan L; Decher, Jan; Leendertz, Fabian H; Fahr, Jakob; Weber, Natalie; Matuschewski, Kai

2013-10-07

87

Aberrant Sporogonic Development of Dmc1 (a Meiotic Recombinase) Deficient Plasmodium berghei Parasites  

PubMed Central

Background In Plasmodium, meiosis occurs in diploid zygotes as they develop into haploid motile ookinetes inside the mosquito. Further sporogonic development involves transformation of ookinetes into oocysts and formation of infective sporozoites. Methodology/Principal Findings Reverse genetics was employed to examine the role of the meiotic specific recombinase Dmc1, a bacterial RecA homolog during sporogony in Plasmodium berghei. PbDmc1 knockout (KO) parasites showed normal asexual growth kinetics compared to WT parasites; however oocyst formation in mosquitoes was reduced by 50 to 80%. Moreover, the majority of oocysts were retarded in their growth and were smaller in size compared to WT parasites. Only a few Dmc1 KO parasites completed maturation resulting in formation of fewer sporozoites which were incapable of infecting naive mice or hepatocytes in vitro. PbDmc1 KO parasites were shown to be approximately 18 times more sensitive to Bizelesin, a DNA alkylating drug compared to WT parasites as reflected by impairment of oocyst formation and sporogonic development in the mosquito vector. Conclusions/Significance Our findings suggest that PbDmc1 plays a critical role in malaria transmission biology.

Mlambo, Godfree; Coppens, Isabelle; Kumar, Nirbhay

2012-01-01

88

The Unique Structure of the Apicoplast Genome of the Rodent Malaria Parasite Plasmodium chabaudi chabaudi  

PubMed Central

The apicoplast, a non-photosynthetic plastid of apicomplexan species, has an extremely reduced but highly conserved genome. Here, the apicoplast genome of the rodent malaria parasite Plasmodium chabaudi chabaudi (Pcc) isolate CB was characterized. Although the set of genes in the genome is identical, the copy number of some tRNA genes differs between Pcc and other Plasmodium species because the Pcc DNA has only one rRNA/tRNA gene cluster, which is normally duplicated in other species. The location of the duplicated trnR(ACG) and trnM implies that one of the duplicated clusters in the ancestral molecule has been lost due to an intramolecular recombination event. The Pcc DNA occurs in two isoforms with an internal inversion between them. The presence of a unique variant in the duplicated trnT gene suggests that the two isoforms are interconvertible. This is the first report of the complete nucleotide sequence of a Plasmodium apicoplast DNA.

Sato, Shigeharu; Sesay, Abdul K.; Holder, Anthony A.

2013-01-01

89

Diversity, loss, and gain of malaria parasites in a globally invasive bird.  

PubMed

Invasive species can displace natives, and thus identifying the traits that make aliens successful is crucial for predicting and preventing biodiversity loss. Pathogens may play an important role in the invasive process, facilitating colonization of their hosts in new continents and islands. According to the Novel Weapon Hypothesis, colonizers may out-compete local native species by bringing with them novel pathogens to which native species are not adapted. In contrast, the Enemy Release Hypothesis suggests that flourishing colonizers are successful because they have left their pathogens behind. To assess the role of avian malaria and related haemosporidian parasites in the global spread of a common invasive bird, we examined the prevalence and genetic diversity of haemosporidian parasites (order Haemosporida, genera Plasmodium and Haemoproteus) infecting house sparrows (Passer domesticus). We sampled house sparrows (N?=?1820) from 58 locations on 6 continents. All the samples were tested using PCR-based methods; blood films from the PCR-positive birds were examined microscopically to identify parasite species. The results show that haemosporidian parasites in the house sparrows' native range are replaced by species from local host-generalist parasite fauna in the alien environments of North and South America. Furthermore, sparrows in colonized regions displayed a lower diversity and prevalence of parasite infections. Because the house sparrow lost its native parasites when colonizing the American continents, the release from these natural enemies may have facilitated its invasion in the last two centuries. Our findings therefore reject the Novel Weapon Hypothesis and are concordant with the Enemy Release Hypothesis. PMID:21779353

Marzal, Alfonso; Ricklefs, Robert E; Valki?nas, Gediminas; Albayrak, Tamer; Arriero, Elena; Bonneaud, Camille; Czirják, Gábor A; Ewen, John; Hellgren, Olof; Ho?áková, Dita; Iezhova, Tatjana A; Jensen, Henrik; Križanauskien?, Asta; Lima, Marcos R; de Lope, Florentino; Magnussen, Eyðfinn; Martin, Lynn B; Møller, Anders P; Palinauskas, Vaidas; Pap, Péter L; Pérez-Tris, Javier; Sehgal, Ravinder N M; Soler, Manuel; Szöllosi, Eszter; Westerdahl, Helena; Zetindjiev, Pavel; Bensch, Staffan

2011-07-11

90

Mitochondrial dehydrogenases in the aerobic respiratory chain of the rodent malaria parasite Plasmodium yoelii yoelii.  

PubMed

In the intraerythrocytic stages of malaria parasites, mitochondria lack obvious cristae and are assumed to derive energy through glycolysis. For understanding of parasite energy metabolism in mammalian hosts, we isolated rodent malaria mitochondria from Plasmodium yoelii yoelii grown in mice. As potential targets for antiplasmodial agents, we characterized two respiratory dehydrogenases, succinate:ubiquinone reductase (complex II) and alternative NADH dehydrogenase (NDH-II), which is absent in mammalian mitochondria. We found that P. y. yoelii complex II was a four-subunit enzyme and that kinetic properties were similar to those of mammalian enzymes, indicating that the Plasmodium complex II is favourable in catalysing the forward reaction of tricarboxylic acid cycle. Notably, Plasmodium complex II showed IC(50) value for atpenin A5 three-order of magnitudes higher than those of mammalian enzymes. Divergence of protist membrane anchor subunits from eukaryotic orthologs likely affects the inhibitor resistance. Kinetic properties and sensitivity to 2-heptyl-4-hydroxyquinoline-N-oxide and aurachin C of NADH: ubiquinone reductase activity of Plasmodium NDH-II were similar to those of plant and fungus enzymes but it can oxidize NADPH and deamino-NADH. Our findings are consistent with the notion that rodent malaria mitochondria are fully capable of oxidative phosphorylation and that these mitochondrial enzymes are potential targets for new antiplasmodials. PMID:19060309

Kawahara, Kenji; Mogi, Tatsushi; Tanaka, Takeshi Q; Hata, Masayuki; Miyoshi, Hideto; Kita, Kiyoshi

2008-12-06

91

Implications of Plasmodium parasite infected mosquitoes on an insular avifauna: the case of Socorro Island, México.  

PubMed

Avian malaria (Plasmodium spp.) has been implicated in the decline of avian populations in the Hawaiian Islands and it is generally agreed that geographically isolated and immunologically naïve bird populations are particularly vulnerable to the pathogenic effects of invasive malaria parasites. In order to assess the potential disease risk of malaria to the avifauna of Socorro Island, México, we surveyed for Plasmodium isolates from 1,300 resident field-caught mosquitoes. Most of them were identified as Aedes (Ochlerotatus) taeniorhynchus (Wiedemann, 1821), which were abundant in the salt marshes. We also collected Culex quinquefasciatus Say, 1823 close to human dwellings. Mitochondrial ND5 and COII gene sequences of Ae. taeniorhynchus were analyzed and compared to corresponding sequences of mosquitoes of the Galápagos Islands, Latin America, and the North American mainland. Aedes lineages from Socorro Island clustered most closely with a lineage from the continental U.S. Plasmodium spp. DNA was isolated from both species of mosquitoes. From 38 positive pools, we isolated 11 distinct mitochondrial Cytb lineages of Plasmodium spp. Seven of the Plasmodium lineages represent previously documented avian infective strains while four were new lineages. Our results confirm a potential risk for the spread of avian malaria and underscore the need to monitor both the mosquito and avian populations as a necessary conservation measure to protect endangered bird species on Socorro Island. PMID:21635660

Carlson, Jenny S; Martínez-Gómez, Juan E; Cornel, Anthony; Loiseau, Claire; Sehgal, Ravinder N M

2011-06-01

92

Selection of Plasmodium falciparum parasites for cytoadhesion to human brain endothelial cells.  

PubMed

Most human malaria deaths are caused by blood-stage Plasmodium falciparum parasites. Cerebral malaria, the most life-threatening complication of the disease, is characterised by an accumulation of Plasmodium falciparum infected red blood cells (iRBC) at pigmented trophozoite stage in the microvasculature of the brain(2-4). This microvessel obstruction (sequestration) leads to acidosis, hypoxia and harmful inflammatory cytokines (reviewed in (5)). Sequestration is also found in most microvascular tissues of the human body(2, 3). The mechanism by which iRBC attach to the blood vessel walls is still poorly understood. The immortalized Human Brain microvascular Endothelial Cell line (HBEC-5i) has been used as an in vitro model of the blood-brain barrier(6). However, Plasmodium falciparum iRBC attach only poorly to HBEC-5i in vitro, unlike the dense sequestration that occurs in cerebral malaria cases. We therefore developed a panning assay to select (enrich) various P. falciparum strains for adhesion to HBEC-5i in order to obtain populations of high-binding parasites, more representative of what occurs in vivo. A sample of a parasite culture (mixture of iRBC and uninfected RBC) at the pigmented trophozoite stage is washed and incubated on a layer of HBEC-5i grown on a Petri dish. After incubation, the dish is gently washed free from uRBC and unbound iRBC. Fresh uRBC are added to the few iRBC attached to HBEC-5i and incubated overnight. As schizont stage parasites burst, merozoites reinvade RBC and these ring stage parasites are harvested the following day. Parasites are cultured until enough material is obtained (typically 2 to 4 weeks) and a new round of selection can be performed. Depending on the P. falciparum strain, 4 to 7 rounds of selection are needed in order to get a population where most parasites bind to HBEC-5i. The binding phenotype is progressively lost after a few weeks, indicating a switch in variant surface antigen gene expression, thus regular selection on HBEC-5i is required to maintain the phenotype. In summary, we developed a selection assay rendering P. falciparum parasites a more "cerebral malaria adhesive" phenotype. We were able to select 3 out of 4 P. falciparum strains on HBEC-5i. This assay has also successfully been used to select parasites for binding to human dermal and pulmonary endothelial cells. Importantly, this method can be used to select tissue-specific parasite populations in order to identify candidate parasite ligands for binding to brain endothelium. Moreover, this assay can be used to screen for putative anti-sequestration drugs(7). PMID:22230803

Claessens, Antoine; Rowe, J Alexandra

2012-01-03

93

Selection of Plasmodium falciparum Parasites for Cytoadhesion to Human Brain Endothelial Cells  

PubMed Central

Most human malaria deaths are caused by blood-stage Plasmodium falciparum parasites. Cerebral malaria, the most life-threatening complication of the disease, is characterised by an accumulation of Plasmodium falciparum infected red blood cells (iRBC) at pigmented trophozoite stage in the microvasculature of the brain2-4. This microvessel obstruction (sequestration) leads to acidosis, hypoxia and harmful inflammatory cytokines (reviewed in 5). Sequestration is also found in most microvascular tissues of the human body2, 3. The mechanism by which iRBC attach to the blood vessel walls is still poorly understood. The immortalized Human Brain microvascular Endothelial Cell line (HBEC-5i) has been used as an in vitro model of the blood-brain barrier6. However, Plasmodium falciparum iRBC attach only poorly to HBEC-5i in vitro, unlike the dense sequestration that occurs in cerebral malaria cases. We therefore developed a panning assay to select (enrich) various P. falciparum strains for adhesion to HBEC-5i in order to obtain populations of high-binding parasites, more representative of what occurs in vivo. A sample of a parasite culture (mixture of iRBC and uninfected RBC) at the pigmented trophozoite stage is washed and incubated on a layer of HBEC-5i grown on a Petri dish. After incubation, the dish is gently washed free from uRBC and unbound iRBC. Fresh uRBC are added to the few iRBC attached to HBEC-5i and incubated overnight. As schizont stage parasites burst, merozoites reinvade RBC and these ring stage parasites are harvested the following day. Parasites are cultured until enough material is obtained (typically 2 to 4 weeks) and a new round of selection can be performed. Depending on the P. falciparum strain, 4 to 7 rounds of selection are needed in order to get a population where most parasites bind to HBEC-5i. The binding phenotype is progressively lost after a few weeks, indicating a switch in variant surface antigen gene expression, thus regular selection on HBEC-5i is required to maintain the phenotype. In summary, we developed a selection assay rendering P. falciparum parasites a more "cerebral malaria adhesive" phenotype. We were able to select 3 out of 4 P. falciparum strains on HBEC-5i. This assay has also successfully been used to select parasites for binding to human dermal and pulmonary endothelial cells. Importantly, this method can be used to select tissue-specific parasite populations in order to identify candidate parasite ligands for binding to brain endothelium. Moreover, this assay can be used to screen for putative anti-sequestration drugs7.

Claessens, Antoine; Rowe, J. Alexandra

2012-01-01

94

The protein-phosphatome of the human malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  Malaria, caused by the parasitic protist Plasmodium falciparum, represents a major public health problem in the developing world. The P. falciparum genome has been sequenced, which provides new opportunities for the identification of novel drug targets. We report an exhaustive\\u000a analysis of the P. falciparum genomic database (PlasmoDB) aimed at identifying and classifying all protein phosphatases (PP) in this organism.

Jonathan M Wilkes; Christian Doerig

2008-01-01

95

Comparative Genomics of Transcriptional Control in the Human Malaria Parasite Plasmodium falciparum  

Microsoft Academic Search

The life cycle of the parasite Plasmodium falciparum, responsible for the most deadly form of human malaria, requires specialized protein expression for survival in the mammalian host and insect vector. To identify components of processes controlling gene expression during its life cycle, the malarial genome—along with seven crown eukaryote group genomes—was queried with a reference set of transcription-associated proteins (TAPs).

Richard M. R. Coulson; Christos A. Ouzounis

2004-01-01

96

Limonene Arrests Parasite Development and Inhibits Isoprenylation of Proteins in Plasmodium falciparum  

Microsoft Academic Search

Isoprenylation is an essential protein modification in eukaryotic cells. Herein, we report that in Plasmodium falciparum, a number of proteins were labeled upon incubation of intraerythrocytic forms with either (3H)far- nesyl pyrophosphate or (3H)geranylgeranyl pyrophosphate. By thin-layer chromatography, we showed that attached isoprenoids are partially modified to dolichol and other, uncharacterized, residues, confirming active isoprenoid metabolism in this parasite. Incubation

IVAN CRUZ MOURA; GERHARD WUNDERLICH; MARIA L. UHRIG; ALICIA S. COUTO; VALNICE J. PERES; ALEJANDRO M. KATZIN; EMILIA A. KIMURA

2001-01-01

97

Tetracyclines Specifically Target the Apicoplast of the Malaria Parasite Plasmodium falciparum  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tetracyclines are effective but slow-acting antimalarial drugs whose mechanism of action remains uncertain. To characterize the antimalarial mechanism of tetracyclines, we evaluated their stage-specific activities, impacts on parasite transcription, and effects on two predicted organelle targets, the apicoplast and the mitochondrion, in cultured Plasmodium falciparum. Antimalarial effects were much greater after two 48-h life cycles than after one cycle, even

Erica L. Dahl; Jennifer L. Shock; Bhaskar R. Shenai; Jiri Gut; Joseph L. DeRisi; Philip J. Rosenthal

2006-01-01

98

Allelic recombination and linkage disequilibrium within Msp-1 of Plasmodium falciparum, the malignant human malaria parasite  

Microsoft Academic Search

The C-terminal, cysteine-rich 19kDa domain of merozoite surface protein-1 (MSP-1) of Plasmodium falciparum is a target of the host's humoral immunity and thus a malaria vaccine candidate. Although variation in the 19kDa domain is limited among parasite isolates, tertiary structure-dependent intramolecular associations between the 19kDa domain and other parts of MSP-1 are suggested to be involved in immune evasion by

Naoko Sakihama; Masatsugu Kimura; Kenji Hirayama; Tozo Kanda; Kesara Na-Bangchang; Somchai Jongwutiwes; David Conway; Kazuyuki Tanabe

1999-01-01

99

A MAP kinase homologue from the human malaria parasite, Plasmodium falciparum  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pfmap-1, a gene encoding a novel protein kinase, has been identified in the human malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum, using the polymerase chain reaction with degenerate oligodeoxyribonucleotides designed to hybridise to conserved regions of cdc2-related kinases. Computer comparison with other protein kinases strongly suggests that the protein encoded by this gene is closely related to mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinases, which play

Caroline M. Doerig; Daniel Parzy; Gordon Langsley; Paul Horrocks; Richard Carter; Christian D. Doerig

1996-01-01

100

Species concepts and malaria parasites: detecting a cryptic species of Plasmodium.  

PubMed Central

Species of malaria parasite (phylum Apicomplexa: genus Plasmodium) have traditionally been described using the similarity species concept (based primarily on differences in morphological or life-history characteristics). The biological species concept (reproductive isolation) and phylogenetic species concept (based on monophyly) have not been used before in defining species of Plasmodium. Plasmodium azurophilum, described from Anolis lizards in the eastern Caribbean, is actually a two-species cryptic complex. The parasites were studied from eight islands, from Puerto Rico in the north to Grenada in the south. Morphology of the two species is very similar (differences are indistinguishable to the eye), but one infects only erythrocytes and the other only white blood cells. Molecular data for the cytochrome b gene reveal that the two forms are reproductively isolated; distinct haplotypes are present on each island and are never shared between the erythrocyte-infecting and leucocyte-infecting species. Each forms a monophyletic lineage indicating that they diverged before becoming established in the anoles of the eastern Caribbean. This comparison of the similarity, biological and phylogenetic species concepts for malaria parasites reveals the limited value of using only similarity measures in defining protozoan species.

Perkins, S L

2000-01-01

101

Transgenic Plasmodium parasites stably expressing Plasmodium vivax dihydrofolate reductase-thymidylate synthase as in vitro and in vivo models for antifolate screening  

PubMed Central

Background Plasmodium vivax is the most prevalent cause of human malaria in tropical regions outside the African continent. The lack of a routine continuous in vitro culture of this parasite makes it difficult to develop specific drugs for this disease. To facilitate the development of anti-P. vivax drugs, bacterial and yeast surrogate models expressing the validated P. vivax target dihydrofolate reductase-thymidylate synthase (DHFR-TS) have been generated; however, they can only be used as primary screening models because of significant differences in enzyme expression level and in vivo drug metabolism between the surrogate models and P. vivax parasites. Methods Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium berghei parasites were transfected with DNA constructs bearing P. vivax dhfr-ts pyrimethamine sensitive (wild-type) and pyrimethamine resistant (mutant) alleles. Double crossover homologous recombination was used to replace the endogenous dhfr-ts of P. falciparum and P. berghei parasites with P. vivax homologous genes. The integration of Pvdhfr-ts genes via allelic replacement was verified by Southern analysis and the transgenic parasites lines validated as models by standard drug screening assays. Results Transgenic P. falciparum and P. berghei lines stably expressing PvDHFR-TS replacing the endogenous parasite DHFR-TS were obtained. Anti-malarial drug screening assays showed that transgenic parasites expressing wild-type PvDHFR-TS were pyrimethamine-sensitive, whereas transgenic parasites expressing mutant PvDHFR-TS were pyrimethamine-resistant. The growth and sensitivity to other types of anti-malarial drugs in the transgenic parasites were otherwise indistinguishable from the parental parasites. Conclusion With the permanent integration of Pvdhfr-ts gene in the genome, the transgenic Plasmodium lines expressing PvDHFR-TS are genetically stable and will be useful for screening anti-P. vivax compounds targeting PvDHFR-TS. A similar approach could be used to generate transgenic models specific for other targets of interest, thus facilitating the development of anti-P. vivax drugs in general.

2011-01-01

102

Partnering Parasites: Evidence of Synergism between Heavy Schistosoma haematobium and Plasmodium Species Infections in Kenyan Children  

PubMed Central

Background Residents of resource-poor tropical countries carry heavy burdens of concurrent parasitic infections, leading to high rates of morbidity and mortality. This study was undertaken to help identify the social and environmental determinants of multiple parasite infection in one such community. Methodology/Principal Findings Residents of Kingwede, Kenya aged 8 years and older were tested for presence and intensity of S. haematobium and Plasmodium spp. infections in a cross-sectional, household-based, community survey. Using General Estimating Equation (GEE) models, social and environmental determinants associated with patterns of co-infection were identified, with age being one of the most important factors. Children had 9.3 times the odds of co-infection compared to adults (95%CI?=?5.3–16.3). Even after controlling for age, socio-economic position, and other correlates of co-infection, intense concomitant infections with the two parasites were found to cluster in a subset of individuals: the odds of heavy vs. light S. haematobium infection increased with increasing Plasmodium infection intensity suggesting the importance of unmeasured biological factors in determining intensity of co-infection. Conclusions/Significance Children in this community are more likely to be infected with multiple parasites than are adults and should therefore be targeted for prevention and control interventions. More importantly, heavy infections with multiple parasite species appear to cluster within a subset of individuals. Further studies focusing on these most vulnerable people are warranted.

Florey, Lia S.; King, Charles H.; Van Dyke, Melissa K.; Muchiri, Eric M.; Mungai, Peter L.; Zimmerman, Peter A.; Wilson, Mark L.

2012-01-01

103

Quantitative Time-course Profiling of Parasite and Host Cell Proteins in the Human Malaria Parasite Plasmodium falciparum*  

PubMed Central

Studies of the Plasmodium falciparum transcriptome have shown that the tightly controlled progression of the parasite through the intra-erythrocytic developmental cycle (IDC) is accompanied by a continuous gene expression cascade in which most expressed genes exhibit a single transcriptional peak. Because the biochemical and cellular functions of most genes are mediated by the encoded proteins, understanding the relationship between mRNA and protein levels is crucial for inferring biological activity from transcriptional gene expression data. Although studies on other organisms show that <50% of protein abundance variation may be attributable to corresponding mRNA levels, the situation in Plasmodium is further complicated by the dynamic nature of the cyclic gene expression cascade. In this study, we simultaneously determined mRNA and protein abundance profiles for P. falciparum parasites during the IDC at 2-hour resolution based on oligonucleotide microarrays and two-dimensional differential gel electrophoresis protein gels. We find that most proteins are represented by more than one isoform, presumably because of post-translational modifications. Like transcripts, most proteins exhibit cyclic abundance profiles with one peak during the IDC, whereas the presence of functionally related proteins is highly correlated. In contrast, the abundance of most parasite proteins peaks significantly later (median 11 h) than the corresponding transcripts and often decreases slowly in the second half of the IDC. Computational modeling indicates that the considerable and varied incongruence between transcript and protein abundance may largely be caused by the dynamics of translation and protein degradation. Furthermore, we present cyclic abundance profiles also for parasite-associated human proteins and confirm the presence of five human proteins with a potential role in antioxidant defense within the parasites. Together, our data provide fundamental insights into transcript-protein relationships in P. falciparum that are important for the correct interpretation of transcriptional data and that may facilitate the improvement and development of malaria diagnostics and drug therapy.

Foth, Bernardo Javier; Zhang, Neng; Chaal, Balbir Kaur; Sze, Siu Kwan; Preiser, Peter Rainer; Bozdech, Zbynek

2011-01-01

104

Patterns of infection of the lizard malaria parasite, Plasmodium floridense , in invasive brown anoles ( Anolis sagrei ) in Southwestern Florida  

Microsoft Academic Search

Plasmodium floridense is a saurian malaria parasite common in the Anolis lizards of the northern Caribbean islands and the SE USA. In the latter area, it is found in two native lizards (Sceloporus undulatus and Anolis carolinensis) and in the introduced Anolis sagrei, which is native to Cuba. We measured parasite prevalence and parasitemia in the introduced anole at a

Susan L. Perkins; Allison S. Kerwin; Anna D. Rothschild

2009-01-01

105

Clonal diversity of a malaria parasite, Plasmodium mexicanum, and its transmission success from its vertebrate-to-insect host  

Microsoft Academic Search

Infections of the lizard malaria parasite Plasmodium mexicanum are often genetically complex within their fence lizard host (Sceloporus occidentalis) harbouring two or more clones of parasite. The role of clonal diversity in transmission success was studied for P. mexicanum by feeding its sandfly vectors (Lutzomyia vexator and Lutzomyia stewarti) on experimentally infected lizards. Experimental infections consisted of one, two, three

A. M. Vardo-Zalik

2009-01-01

106

Analysis of Antibodies Directed against Merozoite Surface Protein 1 of the Human Malaria Parasite Plasmodium falciparum  

PubMed Central

The 190-kDa merozoite surface protein 1 (MSP-1) of Plasmodium falciparum, an essential component in the parasite's life cycle, is a primary candidate for a malaria vaccine. Rabbit antibodies elicited by the heterologously produced MSP-1 processing products p83, p30, p38, and p42, derived from strain 3D7, were analyzed for the potential to inhibit in vitro erythrocyte invasion by the parasite and parasite growth. Our data show that (i) epitopes recognized by antibodies, which inhibit parasite replication, are distributed throughout the entire MSP-1 molecule; (ii) when combined, antibodies specific for different regions of MSP-1 inhibit in a strictly additive manner; (iii) anti-MSP-1 antibodies interfere with erythrocyte invasion as well as with the intraerythrocytic growth of the parasite; and (iv) antibodies raised against MSP-1 of strain 3D7 strongly cross-inhibit replication of the heterologous strain FCB-1. Accordingly, anti-MSP-1 antibodies appear to be capable of interfering with parasite multiplication at more than one level. Since the overall immunogenicity profile of MSP-1 in rabbits closely resembles that found in sera of Aotus monkeys immunized with parasite-derived MSP-1 and of humans semi-immune to malaria from whom highly inhibiting antigen-specific antibodies were recovered, we consider the findings reported here to be relevant for the development of MSP-1-based vaccines against malaria.

Woehlbier, Ute; Epp, Christian; Kauth, Christian W.; Lutz, Rolf; Long, Carole A.; Coulibaly, Boubacar; Kouyate, Bocar; Arevalo-Herrera, Myriam; Herrera, Socrates; Bujard, Hermann

2006-01-01

107

Morphological features and differential counts of Plasmodium knowlesi parasites in naturally acquired human infections  

PubMed Central

Background Human infections with Plasmodium knowlesi, a simian malaria parasite, are more common than previously thought. They have been detected by molecular detection methods in various countries in Southeast Asia, where they were initially diagnosed by microscopy mainly as Plasmodium malariae and at times, as Plasmodium falciparum. There is a paucity of information on the morphology of P. knowlesi parasites and proportion of each erythrocytic stage in naturally acquired human infections. Therefore, detailed descriptions of the morphological characteristics and differential counts of the erythrocytic stages of P. knowlesi parasites in human infections were made, photographs were taken, and morphological features were compared with those of P. malariae and P. falciparum. Methods Thick and thin blood films were made prior to administration of anti-malarial treatment in patients who were subsequently confirmed as having single species knowlesi infections by PCR assays. Giemsa-stained blood films, prepared from 10 randomly selected patients with a parasitaemia ranging from 610 to 236,000 parasites per ?l blood, were examined. Results The P. knowlesi infection was highly synchronous in only one patient, where 97% of the parasites were at the late trophozoite stage. Early, late and mature trophozoites and schizonts were observed in films from all patients except three; where schizonts and early trophozoites were absent in two and one patient, respectively. Gametocytes were observed in four patients, comprising only between 1.2 to 2.8% of infected erythrocytes. The early trophozoites of P. knowlesi morphologically resemble those of P. falciparum. The late and mature trophozoites, schizonts and gametocytes appear very similar to those of P. malariae. Careful examinations revealed that some minor morphological differences existed between P. knowlesi and P. malariae. These include trophozoites of knowlesi with double chromatin dots and at times with two or three parasites per erythrocyte and mature schizonts of P. knowlesi having 16 merozoites, compared with 12 for P. malariae. Conclusion Plasmodium knowlesi infections in humans are not highly synchronous. The morphological resemblance of early trophozoites of P. knowlesi to P. falciparum and later erythrocytic stages to P. malariae makes it extremely difficult to identify P. knowlesi infections by microscopy alone.

Lee, Kim-Sung; Cox-Singh, Janet; Singh, Balbir

2009-01-01

108

A monkey's tale: The origin of Plasmodium vivax as a human malaria parasite  

PubMed Central

The high prevalence of Duffy negativity (lack of the Duffy blood group antigen) among human populations in sub-Saharan Africa has been used to argue that Plasmodium vivax originated on that continent. Here, we investigate the phylogenetic relationships among 10 species of Plasmodium that infect primates by using three genes, two nuclear (?-tubulin and cell division cycle 2) and a gene from the plastid genome (the elongation factor Tu). We find compelling evidence that P. vivax is derived from a species that inhabited macaques in Southeast Asia. Specifically, those phylogenies that include P. vivax as an ancient lineage from which all of the macaque parasites could originate are significantly less likely to explain the data. We estimate the time to the most recent common ancestor at four neutral gene loci from Asian and South American isolates (a minimum sample of seven isolates per locus). Our analysis estimates that the extant populations of P. vivax originated between 45,680 and 81,607 years ago. The phylogeny and the estimated time frame for the origination of current P. vivax populations are consistent with an “out of Asia” origin for P. vivax as hominoid parasite. The current debate regarding how the Duffy negative trait became fixed in Africa needs to be revisited, taking into account not only human genetic data but also the genetic diversity observed in the extant P. vivax populations and the phylogeny of the genus Plasmodium.

Escalante, Ananias A.; Cornejo, Omar E.; Freeland, Denise E.; Poe, Amanda C.; Durrego, Ester; Collins, William E.; Lal, Altaf A.

2005-01-01

109

Mitochondrial genes support a common origin of rodent malaria parasites and Plasmodium falciparum's relatives infecting great apes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  \\u000a Plasmodium falciparum is responsible for the most acute form of human malaria. Most recent studies demonstrate that it belongs to a monophyletic\\u000a lineage specialized in the infection of great ape hosts. Several other Plasmodium species cause human malaria. They all belong to another distinct lineage of parasites which infect a wider range of primate\\u000a species. All known mammalian malaria

Samuel Blanquart; Olivier Gascuel

2011-01-01

110

Male gametocyte fecundity and sex ratio of a malaria parasite, Plasmodium mexicanum.  

PubMed

Evolutionary theory predicts that the sex ratio of Plasmodium gametocytes will be determined by the number of gametes produced per male gametocyte (male fecundity), parasite clonal diversity and any factor that reduces male gametes' ability to find and combine with female gametes. Despite the importance of male gametocyte fecundity for sex ratio theory as applied to malaria parasites, few data are available on gamete production by male gametocytes. In this study, exflagellating gametes, a measure of male fecundity, were counted for 866 gametocytes from 26 natural infections of the lizard malaria parasite, Plasmodium mexicanum. The maximum male fecundity observed was 8, but most gametocytes produced 2-3 gametes, a value consistent with the typical sex ratio observed for P. mexicanum. Male gametocytes in infections with higher gametocytaemia had lower fecundity. Male fecundity was not correlated with gametocyte size, but differed among infections, suggesting genetic variation for fecundity. Fecundity and sex ratio were correlated (more female gametocytes with higher fecundity) as predicted by theory. Results agree with evolutionary theory, but also suggest a possible tradeoff between production time and fecundity, which could explain the low fecundity of this species, the variation among infections, and the correlation with gametocytaemia. PMID:21756426

Neal, A T

2011-07-15

111

Conserved Mosquito/Parasite Interactions Affect Development of Plasmodium falciparum in Africa  

PubMed Central

In much of sub-Saharan Africa, the mosquito Anopheles gambiae is the main vector of the major human malaria parasite, Plasmodium falciparum. Convenient laboratory studies have identified mosquito genes that affect positively or negatively the developmental cycle of the model rodent parasite, P. berghei. Here, we use transcription profiling and reverse genetics to explore whether five disparate mosquito gene regulators of P. berghei development are also pertinent to A. gambiae/P. falciparum interactions in semi-natural conditions, using field isolates of this parasite and geographically related mosquitoes. We detected broadly similar albeit not identical transcriptional responses of these genes to the two parasite species. Gene silencing established that two genes affect similarly both parasites: infections are hindered by the intracellular local activator of actin cytoskeleton dynamics, WASP, but promoted by the hemolymph lipid transporter, ApoII/I. Since P. berghei is not a natural parasite of A. gambiae, these data suggest that the effects of these genes have not been drastically altered by constant interaction and co-evolution of A. gambiae and P. falciparum; this conclusion allowed us to investigate further the mode of action of these two genes in the laboratory model system using a suite of genetic tools and infection assays. We showed that both genes act at the level of midgut invasion during the parasite's developmental transition from ookinete to oocyst. ApoII/I also affects the early stages of oocyst development. These are the first mosquito genes whose significant effects on P. falciparum field isolates have been established by direct experimentation. Importantly, they validate for semi-field human malaria transmission the concept of parasite antagonists and agonists.

Cohuet, Anna; Awono-Ambene, Parfait; De Iorio, Maria; Fontenille, Didier; Morlais, Isabelle; Christophides, George K.; Kafatos, Fotis C.; Vlachou, Dina

2008-01-01

112

Calcium and calmodulin antagonists inhibit human malaria parasites (Plasmodium falciparum): implications for drug design.  

PubMed Central

The malaria parasite has an obligate calcium requirement for normal intracellular growth and invasion of host erythrocytes. Calmodulin (CaM) is a vital calcium-dependent protein present in eukaryotes. We found by radioimmunoassay that free parasites contain CaM. Schizont-infected erythrocytes had CaM levels of 23.3 +/- 2.7 ng per 10(6) cells compared to normals (11.2 +/- 1.5 ng per 10(6) cells). CaM levels were proportional to parasite maturity. Immunoelectron microscopy identified CaM diffusely within the cytoplasm of mature parasites and at the apical end of merozoites within the ductule of rhoptries, which may explain the calcium requirement for invasion. Cyclosporin A (CsA) was also found by electron microscopic autoradiography to concentrate in the food vacuole, as do chloroquine and mefloquine, and to distribute within the cytoplasm of mature parasites. The binding of dansylated CsA to schizont-infected erythrocytes was higher than to normal erythrocytes as analyzed by flow cytometry. Kinetic analysis revealed that binding was saturable for normal and infected erythrocytes and possibly free parasites. Competition for binding existed between dansylated CsA and native CsA as well as the CaM inhibitor W-7 and the classic antimalarial chloroquine. The in vitro growth of Plasmodium falciparum was sensitive to CaM antagonists, and in large part inhibition of the parasite was proportional to known anti-CaM potency. Antagonism existed between combinations of these drugs in multi-drug-resistant strains of P. falciparum, suggesting possible competition for the same binding site. In addition, the malaria parasite was also susceptible to calcium antagonists. Images

Scheibel, L W; Colombani, P M; Hess, A D; Aikawa, M; Atkinson, C T; Milhous, W K

1987-01-01

113

Conserved mosquito/parasite interactions affect development of Plasmodium falciparum in Africa.  

PubMed

In much of sub-Saharan Africa, the mosquito Anopheles gambiae is the main vector of the major human malaria parasite, Plasmodium falciparum. Convenient laboratory studies have identified mosquito genes that affect positively or negatively the developmental cycle of the model rodent parasite, P. berghei. Here, we use transcription profiling and reverse genetics to explore whether five disparate mosquito gene regulators of P. berghei development are also pertinent to A. gambiae/P. falciparum interactions in semi-natural conditions, using field isolates of this parasite and geographically related mosquitoes. We detected broadly similar albeit not identical transcriptional responses of these genes to the two parasite species. Gene silencing established that two genes affect similarly both parasites: infections are hindered by the intracellular local activator of actin cytoskeleton dynamics, WASP, but promoted by the hemolymph lipid transporter, ApoII/I. Since P. berghei is not a natural parasite of A. gambiae, these data suggest that the effects of these genes have not been drastically altered by constant interaction and co-evolution of A. gambiae and P. falciparum; this conclusion allowed us to investigate further the mode of action of these two genes in the laboratory model system using a suite of genetic tools and infection assays. We showed that both genes act at the level of midgut invasion during the parasite's developmental transition from ookinete to oocyst. ApoII/I also affects the early stages of oocyst development. These are the first mosquito genes whose significant effects on P. falciparum field isolates have been established by direct experimentation. Importantly, they validate for semi-field human malaria transmission the concept of parasite antagonists and agonists. PMID:18483558

Mendes, Antonio M; Schlegelmilch, Timm; Cohuet, Anna; Awono-Ambene, Parfait; De Iorio, Maria; Fontenille, Didier; Morlais, Isabelle; Christophides, George K; Kafatos, Fotis C; Vlachou, Dina

2008-05-16

114

2-Cys peroxiredoxin of Plasmodium falciparum is involved in resistance to heat stress of the parasite.  

PubMed

In the cytoplasm of Plasmodium falciparum, two peroxiredoxins: PfTPx-1 and Pf1-Cys-Prx, are expressed at different time-points of the parasite cell cycle during the intraerythrocytic stage. In the present study, to gain insight into the functions of Prxs in the cytoplasm of P. falciparum, we investigated the heat stress sensitivity of the previously established PfTPx-1 KO line and found that PfTPx-1 disruption renders the parasite hypersensitive to heat stress. In addition, we established Pf1-Cys-Prx knockout (KO) parasite lines. The phenotypes of Pf1-Cys-Prx KO lines were different to those of the PfTPx-1 KO line and did not show hypersensitivity to reactive oxygen species, reactive nitrogen species, chloroquine or heat stress. These results suggest that the function of Pf1-Cys-Prx in the parasite cytoplasm is independent from that of PfTPx-1. The hyperthermal protective function of the PfTPx-1 is obviously important for the parasite physiology in the human patient body, in which it must survive repeated incidences of fever. PMID:23201565

Kimura, Risa; Komaki-Yasuda, Kanako; Kawazu, Shin-ichiro; Kano, Shigeyuki

2012-11-30

115

In vivo transmission blocking activities of artesunate on the avian malaria parasite Plasmodium gallinaceum.  

PubMed

Infection and transmission of the avian malaria parasite Plasmodium gallinaceum in domestic chickens is associated with high economic burden and presents a major challenge to poultry industry in South East Asia. Development of drugs targeting both asexual blood stage parasites and sexual stages of the avian malarias will be beneficial for malaria treatment and eradication. However, current drugs recommended for treatment of the avian malaria parasites target specifically the asexual blood stage parasites, but have little or no impact to the gametocytes, the major target for development of transmission-blocking strategies. In the present work, we established a simple procedure to evaluate gametocytocidal and transmission blocking activities in a P. gallinaceum-avian model. The assays involved administration of seven consecutive daily doses of test compounds into P. gallinaceum-infected chickens with 10% parasitaemia and 1% gametocytaemia. Our studies indicated that intramuscular injection with seven daily low doses (the minimum effective dose of 10mg/kg) of artesunate blocked the gametocyte production and transmission to the mosquito vector Aedes aegypti. This assay can be further applicable for testing new compounds against P. gallinaceum and for other parasitic protozoa infecting birds. PMID:23937960

Kumnuan, Rapeeporn; Pattaradilokrat, Sittiporn; Chumpolbanchorn, Kamlang; Pimnon, Suntorn; Narkpinit, Somphong; Harnyuttanakorn, Pongchai; Saiwichai, Tawee

2013-07-22

116

Febrile temperature leads to significant stiffening of Plasmodium falciparum parasitized erythrocytes  

PubMed Central

Parasitic infection with Plasmodium falciparum is responsible for the most severe form of human malaria in which patients suffer from periodic fever. It is well established that during intra-erythrocytic maturation of the parasite in the red blood cell (RBC), the RBC becomes significantly more cytoadhesive and less deformable; these and other biochemical factors together with human host factors such as compromised immune status are important contributors to the disease pathology. There is currently substantial interest in understanding the loss of RBC deformability due to P. falciparum infection, but few results are available concerning effects of febrile conditions or parasitization on RBC membrane rheology. Here, for the first time, we report rheology of the single, isolated RBC with and without P. falciparum merozoite invasion, spanning a range from room temperature to febrile conditions (41°C), over all the stages of parasite maturation. As expected, stiffness increased with parasite maturation. Surprisingly, however, stiffness increased acutely with temperature on a scale of minutes, particularly in late trophozoite and schizont stages. This acute stiffening in late falciparum stages may contribute to fever-dependent pathological consequences in the microcirculation.

Marinkovic, Marina; Diez-Silva, Monica; Pantic, Ivan; Fredberg, Jeffrey J.; Suresh, Subra; Butler, James P.

2009-01-01

117

Febrile temperature leads to significant stiffening of Plasmodium falciparum parasitized erythrocytes.  

PubMed

Parasitic infection with Plasmodium falciparum is responsible for the most severe form of human malaria in which patients suffer from periodic fever. It is well established that during intra-erythrocytic maturation of the parasite in the red blood cell (RBC), the RBC becomes significantly more cytoadhesive and less deformable; these and other biochemical factors together with human host factors such as compromised immune status are important contributors to the disease pathology. There is currently substantial interest in understanding the loss of RBC deformability due to P. falciparum infection, but few results are available concerning effects of febrile conditions or parasitization on RBC membrane rheology. Here, for the first time, we report rheology of the single, isolated RBC with and without P. falciparum merozoite invasion, spanning a range from room temperature to febrile conditions (41 degrees C), over all the stages of parasite maturation. As expected, stiffness increased with parasite maturation. Surprisingly, however, stiffness increased acutely with temperature on a scale of minutes, particularly in late trophozoite and schizont stages. This acute stiffening in late falciparum stages may contribute to fever-dependent pathological consequences in the microcirculation. PMID:18596215

Marinkovic, Marina; Diez-Silva, Monica; Pantic, Ivan; Fredberg, Jeffrey J; Suresh, Subra; Butler, James P

2008-07-02

118

Characterization of Plasmodium falciparum Adenylyl Cyclase-? and Its Role in Erythrocytic Stage Parasites  

PubMed Central

The most severe form of human malaria is caused by the parasite Plasmodium falciparum. The second messenger cAMP has been shown to be important for the parasite’s ability to infect the host’s liver, but its role during parasite growth inside erythrocytes, the stage responsible for symptomatic malaria, is less clear. The P. falciparum genome encodes two adenylyl cyclases, the enzymes that synthesize cAMP, PfAC? and PfAC?. We now show that one of these, PfAC?, plays an important role during the erythrocytic stage of the P. falciparum life cycle. Biochemical characterization of PfAC? revealed a marked pH dependence, and sensitivity to a number of small molecule inhibitors. These inhibitors kill parasites growing inside red blood cells. One particular inhibitor is selective for PfAC? relative to its human ortholog, soluble adenylyl cyclase (sAC); thus, PfAC? represents a potential target for development of safe and effective antimalarial therapeutics.

Ramsey, Nicole; Hess, Kenneth C.; Deitsch, Kirk W.; Levin, Lonny R.; Buck, Jochen

2012-01-01

119

Module-based subnetwork alignments reveal novel transcriptional regulators in malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum  

PubMed Central

Background Malaria causes over one million deaths annually, posing an enormous health and economic burden in endemic regions. The completion of genome sequencing of the causative agents, a group of parasites in the genus Plasmodium, revealed potential drug and vaccine candidates. However, genomics-driven target discovery has been significantly hampered by our limited knowledge of the cellular networks associated with parasite development and pathogenesis. In this paper, we propose an approach based on aligning neighborhood PPI subnetworks across species to identify network components in the malaria parasite P. falciparum. Results Instead of only relying on sequence similarities to detect functional orthologs, our approach measures the conservation between the neighborhood subnetworks in protein-protein interaction (PPI) networks in two species, P. falciparum and E. coli. 1,082 P. falciparum proteins were predicted as functional orthologs of known transcriptional regulators in the E. coli network, including general transcriptional regulators, parasite-specific transcriptional regulators in the ApiAP2 protein family, and other potential regulatory proteins. They are implicated in a variety of cellular processes involving chromatin remodeling, genome integrity, secretion, invasion, protein processing, and metabolism. Conclusions In this proof-of-concept study, we demonstrate that a subnetwork alignment approach can reveal previously uncharacterized members of the subnetworks, which opens new opportunities to identify potential therapeutic targets and provide new insights into parasite biology, pathogenesis and virulence. This approach can be extended to other systems, especially those with poor genome annotation and a paucity of knowledge about cellular networks.

2012-01-01

120

Identification of Plasmodium malariae, a Human Malaria Parasite, in Imported Chimpanzees  

PubMed Central

It is widely believed that human malaria parasites infect only man as a natural host. However, earlier morphological observations suggest that great apes are likely to be natural reservoirs as well. To identify malaria parasites in great apes, we screened 60 chimpanzees imported into Japan. Using the sequences of small subunit rRNA and the mitochondrial genome, we identified infection of Plasmodium malariae, a human malaria parasite, in two chimpanzees that were imported about thirty years ago. The chimpanzees have been asymptomatic to the present. In Japan, indigenous malaria disappeared more than fifty years ago; and thus, it is most likely inferred that the chimpanzees were infected in Africa, and P. malariae isolates were brought into Japan from Africa with their hosts, suggesting persistence of parasites at low level for thirty years. Such a long term latent infection is a unique feature of P. malariae infection in humans. To our knowledge, this is the first to report P. malariae infection in chimpanzees and a human malaria parasite from nonhuman primates imported to a nonendemic country.

Hayakawa, Toshiyuki; Arisue, Nobuko; Udono, Toshifumi; Hirai, Hirohisa; Sattabongkot, Jetsumon; Toyama, Tomoko; Tsuboi, Takafumi; Horii, Toshihiro; Tanabe, Kazuyuki

2009-01-01

121

Plasmodium falciparum-like parasites infecting wild apes in southern Cameroon do not represent a recurrent source of human malaria  

PubMed Central

Wild-living chimpanzees and gorillas harbor a multitude of Plasmodium species, including six of the subgenus Laverania, one of which served as the progenitor of Plasmodium falciparum. Despite the magnitude of this reservoir, it is unknown whether apes represent a source of human infections. Here, we used Plasmodium species-specific PCR, single-genome amplification, and 454 sequencing to screen humans from remote areas of southern Cameroon for ape Laverania infections. Among 1,402 blood samples, we found 1,000 to be Plasmodium mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) positive, all of which contained human parasites as determined by sequencing and/or restriction enzyme digestion. To exclude low-abundance infections, we subjected 514 of these samples to 454 sequencing, targeting a region of the mtDNA genome that distinguishes ape from human Laverania species. Using algorithms specifically developed to differentiate rare Plasmodium variants from 454-sequencing error, we identified single and mixed-species infections with P. falciparum, Plasmodium malariae, and/or Plasmodium ovale. However, none of the human samples contained ape Laverania parasites, including the gorilla precursor of P. falciparum. To characterize further the diversity of P. falciparum in Cameroon, we used single-genome amplification to amplify 3.4-kb mtDNA fragments from 229 infected humans. Phylogenetic analysis identified 62 new variants, all of which clustered with extant P. falciparum, providing further evidence that P. falciparum emerged following a single gorilla-to-human transmission. Thus, unlike Plasmodium knowlesi-infected macaques in southeast Asia, African apes harboring Laverania parasites do not seem to serve as a recurrent source of human malaria, a finding of import to ongoing control and eradication measures.

Sundararaman, Sesh A.; Liu, Weimin; Keele, Brandon F.; Learn, Gerald H.; Bittinger, Kyle; Mouacha, Fatima; Ahuka-Mundeke, Steve; Manske, Magnus; Sherrill-Mix, Scott; Li, Yingying; Malenke, Jordan A.; Delaporte, Eric; Laurent, Christian; Mpoudi Ngole, Eitel; Kwiatkowski, Dominic P.; Shaw, George M.; Rayner, Julian C.; Peeters, Martine; Sharp, Paul M.; Bushman, Frederic D.; Hahn, Beatrice H.

2013-01-01

122

Radioimmunoassay for detecting antibodies against murine malarial parasite antigens: monoclonal antibodies recognizing Plasmodium yoelii antigens  

SciTech Connect

A solid-phase radioimmunoassay (SPRIA) in microtiter wells was established for detecting antibodies against Plasmodium yoelii Ag. The SPRIA was found (1) to require as little as 5 ..mu..g of crude parasite Ag per well, (2) to be able to detect 0.5 ng of monoclonal Ab, and (3) to be 10/sup 4/ times more sensitive than the indirect fluorescent Ab staining technique. In a modification of the above assay using intact RBC as an Ag, hyperimmune serum showed significant binding to the surface of erythrocytes of mice infected with P. yoelii parasites but not to RBC of normal mice. Hybridomas were prepared by fusing infected mouse spleen cells with myeloma cells. Using the SPRIA, hybrids secreting Ab against P. yoelii 17XL Ag were detected.

Kim, K.J.; Taylor, D.W.; Evans, C.B.; Asofsky, R.

1980-12-01

123

Hsp70s and J proteins of Plasmodium parasites infecting rodents and primates: structure, function, clinical relevance, and drug targets.  

PubMed

Human malaria is an economically important disease caused by single-celled parasites of the Plasmodium genus whose biology displays great evolutionary adaptation to both its mammalian host and transmitting vectors. While the parasite has multiple life cycle stages, it is in the blood stage where clinical symptoms of the disease are manifested. Following erythrocyte entry, the parasite resides in the parasitophorous vacuole and actively transports its own proteins to the erythrocyte cytosol. This host-parasite "cross-talk" results in tremendous modifications of the infected erythrocyte imparting properties that allow it to adhere to the endothelium preventing splenic clearance. The Hsp70-J protein (DnaJ/Hsp40) molecular chaperone machinery, involved in cellular protein homeostasis, is being investigated as a novel drug target in various cellular systems including malaria. In Plasmodium the diverse chaperone complement is intimately involved in infected erythrocyte remodelling associated with the development and pathogenesis of malaria. In this review, we provide an overview of the Hsp70-J protein chaperone complement in Plasmodium falciparum and compare it with other Plasmodium species including the ones that serve as experimental study models for malaria. We propose that the unique traits possessed by this machinery not only provide avenues for drug targeting but also inform the evolutionary fitness of this parasite to its environment. PMID:22920898

Njunge, James M; Ludewig, Michael H; Boshoff, Aileen; Pesce, Eva-Rachele; Blatch, Gregory L

2013-01-01

124

Clonal diversity within infections and the virulence of a malaria parasite, Plasmodium mexicanum.  

PubMed

Both verbal and mathematical models of parasite virulence predict that genetic diversity of microparasite infections will influence the level of costs suffered by the host. We tested this idea by manipulating the number of co-existing clones of Plasmodium mexicanum in its natural vertebrate host, the fence lizard Sceloporus occidentalis. We established replicate infections of P. mexicanum made up of 1, 2, 3, or >3 clones (scored using 3 microsatellite loci) to observe the influence of clone number on several measures of parasite virulence. Clonal diversity did not affect body growth or production of immature erythrocytes. Blood haemoglobin concentration was highest for the most genetically complex infections (equal to that of non-infected lizards), and blood glucose levels and rate of blood clotting was highest for the most diverse infections (with greater glucose and more rapid clotting than non-infected animals). Neither specific clones nor parasitaemia were associated with virulence. In this first experiment that manipulated the clonal diversity of a natural Plasmodium-host system, the cost of infection with 1 or 2 clones of P. mexicanum was similar to that previously reported for infected lizards, but the most complex infections had either no cost or could be beneficial for the host. PMID:18937882

Vardo-Zalik, A M; Schall, J J

2008-10-01

125

Life history of a malaria parasite (Plasmodium mexicanum): independent traits and basis for variation.  

PubMed Central

Plasmodium mexicanum, a malaria parasite of lizards, exhibits substantial variation among infections in the life-history traits which define its blood-dwelling stages. Such variation in life histories among infections is common in Plasmodium and may influence the ecology and evolution of the parasite's transmission success and virulence. Insight into these issues requires identification of independent traits (some traits may be bound by developmental trade-offs) and the importance of genetic versus host effects producing the variation. We studied 11 life-history traits in 120 induced infections of P. mexicanum in its natural lizard host (20 each from six donor infections). The traits varied among infections and fell into three clusters: rate/peak (rate of increase and peak parasitaemia of asexuals and gametocytes), time (duration of pre-patent period and the infection's growth) and maturity (timing of first gametocytes). Thus, few life-history traits define an infection in the lizard's blood. Donor effects were significant for ten traits and two trait clusters (maturity was the exception) suggesting genetic differences among infections may influence the rate of increase and peak parasitaemia, but not the timing of the first production of gametocytes.

Eisen, R J; Schall, J J

2000-01-01

126

Life history of a malaria parasite (Plasmodium mexicanum): independent traits and basis for variation.  

PubMed

Plasmodium mexicanum, a malaria parasite of lizards, exhibits substantial variation among infections in the life-history traits which define its blood-dwelling stages. Such variation in life histories among infections is common in Plasmodium and may influence the ecology and evolution of the parasite's transmission success and virulence. Insight into these issues requires identification of independent traits (some traits may be bound by developmental trade-offs) and the importance of genetic versus host effects producing the variation. We studied 11 life-history traits in 120 induced infections of P. mexicanum in its natural lizard host (20 each from six donor infections). The traits varied among infections and fell into three clusters: rate/peak (rate of increase and peak parasitaemia of asexuals and gametocytes), time (duration of pre-patent period and the infection's growth) and maturity (timing of first gametocytes). Thus, few life-history traits define an infection in the lizard's blood. Donor effects were significant for ten traits and two trait clusters (maturity was the exception) suggesting genetic differences among infections may influence the rate of increase and peak parasitaemia, but not the timing of the first production of gametocytes. PMID:10819149

Eisen, R J; Schall, J J

2000-04-22

127

Gametocyte sex ratio in single-clone infections of the malaria parasite Plasmodium mexicanum.  

PubMed

Sex ratio theory predicts that malaria parasites should bias gametocyte production toward female cells in single-clone infections because they will experience complete inbreeding of parasite gametes within the vector. A higher proportion of male gametocytes is favoured under conditions that reduce success of male gametes at reaching females such as low gametocyte density or attack of the immune system later in the infection. Recent experimental studies reveal genetic variation for gametocyte sex ratio in single-clone infections. We examined these issues with a study of experimental single-clone infections for the lizard malaria parasite Plasmodium mexicanum in its natural host. Gametocyte sex ratios of replicate single-clone infections were determined over a period of 3-4 months. Sex ratios were generally female biased, but not as strongly as expected under simple sex ratio theory. Gametocyte density was not related to sex ratio, and male gametocytes did not become more common later in infections. The apparent surplus of male gametocytes could be explained if male fecundity is low in this parasite, or if rapid clotting of the lizard blood reduces male gamete mobility. There was also a significant clone effect on sex ratio, suggesting genetic variation for some life-history trait, possibly male fecundity. PMID:20619063

Neal, A T; Schall, J J

2010-07-12

128

Selection by flow-sorting of genetically transformed, GFP-expressing blood stages of the rodent malaria parasite, Plasmodium berghei  

Microsoft Academic Search

This protocol describes a methodology for the genetic transformation of the rodent malaria parasite Plasmodium berghei and the subsequent selection of transformed parasites expressing green fluorescent protein (GFP) by flow-sorting. It provides methods for: transfection of the schizont stage with DNA constructs that contain gfp as the selectable marker; selection of fluorescent mutants by flow-sorting; and injection of flow-sorted, GFP-expressing

Blandine Franke-Fayard; Andrew P Waters; Chris J Janse

2006-01-01

129

Disruption of a mitochondrial protease machinery in Plasmodium falciparum is an intrinsic signal for parasite cell death  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ATP-dependent ClpQY protease system in Plasmodium falciparum is a prokaryotic machinery in the parasite. In the present study, we have identified the complete ClpQY system in P. falciparum and elucidated its functional importance in survival and growth of asexual stage parasites. We characterized the interaction of P. falciparum ClpQ protease (PfClpQ) and PfClpY ATPase components, and showed that a

S Rathore; S Jain; D Sinha; M Gupta; M Asad; A Srivastava; M S Narayanan; G Ramasamy; V S Chauhan; D Gupta; A Mohmmed

2011-01-01

130

Maintenance of the human malarial parasite, Plasmodium falciparum, in scid mice and transmission of gametocytes to mosquitoes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The study of human malaria has been hampered by the lack of small animal models for the human-infecting malarial parasites. To approach this problem, the erythrocytic stages of the human malarial parasite Plasmodium falciparum were adapted to in vitro growth in the presence of ascites fluid from mice homozygous for the severe-combined immunodeficiency (scid) mutation. Human red blood cells (hRBCs)

J. M. Moore; N Kumar; L D Shultz; T V Rajan

1995-01-01

131

Calcium signaling in closely related protozoan groups (Alveolata): non-parasitic ciliates (Paramecium, Tetrahymena) vs. parasitic Apicomplexa (Plasmodium, Toxoplasma).  

PubMed

The importance of Ca2+-signaling for many subcellular processes is well established in higher eukaryotes, whereas information about protozoa is restricted. Recent genome analyses have stimulated such work also with Alveolates, such as ciliates (Paramecium, Tetrahymena) and their pathogenic close relatives, the Apicomplexa (Plasmodium, Toxoplasma). Here we compare Ca2+ signaling in the two closely related groups. Acidic Ca2+ stores have been characterized in detail in Apicomplexa, but hardly in ciliates. Two-pore channels engaged in Ca2+-release from acidic stores in higher eukaryotes have not been stingently characterized in either group. Both groups are endowed with plasma membrane- and endoplasmic reticulum-type Ca2+-ATPases (PMCA, SERCA), respectively. Only recently was it possible to identify in Paramecium a number of homologs of ryanodine and inositol 1,3,4-trisphosphate receptors (RyR, IP3R) and to localize them to widely different organelles participating in vesicle trafficking. For Apicomplexa, physiological experiments suggest the presence of related channels although their identity remains elusive. In Paramecium, IP3Rs are constitutively active in the contractile vacuole complex; RyR-related channels in alveolar sacs are activated during exocytosis stimulation, whereas in the parasites the homologous structure (inner membrane complex) may no longer function as a Ca2+ store. Scrutinized comparison of the two closely related protozoan phyla may stimulate further work and elucidate adaptation to parasitic life. See also "Conclusions" section. PMID:22387010

Plattner, H; Sehring, I M; Mohamed, I K; Miranda, K; De Souza, W; Billington, R; Genazzani, A; Ladenburger, E-M

2012-03-03

132

Posttranslational generation of constitutively active cores from larger phosphatases in the malaria parasite, Plasmodium falciparum: implications for proteomics  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Although the complete genome sequences of a large number of organisms have been determined, the exact proteomes need to be characterized. More specifically, the extent to which post-translational processes such as proteolysis affect the synthesized proteins has remained unappreciated. We examined this issue in selected protein phosphatases of the protease-rich malaria parasite, Plasmodium falciparum. RESULTS: P. falciparum encodes a

Rajinder Kumar; Alla Musiyenko; Anja Oldenburg; Brian Adams; Sailen Barik

2004-01-01

133

Identification of Rhoptry Trafficking Determinants and Evidence for a Novel Sorting Mechanism in the Malaria Parasite Plasmodium falciparum  

Microsoft Academic Search

The rhoptry of the malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum is an unusual secretory organelle that is thought to be related to secretory lysosomes in higher eukaryotes. Rhoptries contain an extensive collection of proteins that participate in host cell invasion and in the formation of the parasitophorous vacuole, but little is known about sorting signals required for rhoptry protein targeting. Using green

Dave Richard; Lev M. Kats; Christine Langer; Casilda G. Black; Khosse Mitri; Justin A. Boddey; Alan F. Cowman; Ross L. Coppel

2009-01-01

134

Detection of a Malaria Parasite (Plasmodium mexicanum) in Ectoparasites (Mites and Ticks), and Possible Significance for Transmission  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two species of sandflies (Lutzomyia) are competent vectors of Plasmodium mexicanum, a malaria parasite of lizards. The very patchy distribution of sites with high P. mexicanum prevalence in the lizards, and often low or even nil sandfly density at such sites, provoked an evaluation of 2 common lizard ectoparasites, the tick Ixodes pacificus and the mite Geckobiella occidentalis, as potential

Jos. J. Schall; Thomas C. Smith

2006-01-01

135

Plasmodium (Sauramoeba) pelaezi n. sp., a malaria parasite of the mexican iguanid lizard Urosaurus bicarinatus bicarinatus (Dumeril, 1856) (Sauria: Iguanidae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new Mexican species of saurian malaria parasite,Plasmodium (Sauramoeba) pelaezi, is described from the iguanid lizardUrosaurus bicarinatus bicarinatus. Two out of 12 specimens collected at Chila de la Sal (Puebla, México) were found infected. The species is characterized by round and oval gametocytes. Schizonts are mostly round with a single mass of pigment and with 16 merozoites in mature forms.

F. Malagón; M. Salmeron

1988-01-01

136

Molecular Factors and Biochemical Pathways Induced by Febrile Temperature in Intraerythrocytic Plasmodium falciparum Parasites? †  

PubMed Central

Intermittent episodes of febrile illness are the most benign and recognized symptom of infection with malaria parasites, although the effects on parasite survival and virulence remain unclear. In this study, we identified the molecular factors altered in response to febrile temperature by measuring differential expression levels of individual genes using high-density oligonucleotide microarray technology and by performing biological assays in asexual-stage Plasmodium falciparum parasite cultures incubated at 37°C and 41°C (an elevated temperature that is equivalent to malaria-induced febrile illness in the host). Elevated temperature had a profound influence on expression of individual genes; 336 of approximately 5,300 genes (6.3% of the genome) had altered expression profiles. Of these, 163 genes (49%) were upregulated by twofold or greater, and 173 genes (51%) were downregulated by twofold or greater. In-depth sensitive sequence profile analysis revealed that febrile temperature-induced responses caused significant alterations in the major parasite biologic networks and pathways and that these changes are well coordinated and intricately linked. One of the most notable transcriptional changes occurs in genes encoding proteins containing the predicted Pexel motifs that are exported into the host cytoplasm or inserted into the host cell membrane and are likely to be associated with erythrocyte remodeling and parasite sequestration functions. Using our sensitive computational analysis, we were also able to assign biochemical or biologic functional predictions for at least 100 distinct genes previously annotated as “hypothetical.” We find that cultivation of P. falciparum parasites at 41°C leads to parasite death in a time-dependent manner. The presence of the “crisis forms” and the terminal deoxynucleotidyltransferase-mediated dUTP-biotin nick end labeling-positive parasites following heat treatment strongly support the notion that an apoptosis-like cell death mechanism might be induced in response to febrile temperatures. These studies enhance the possibility of designing vaccines and drugs on the basis of disruption in molecules and pathways of parasite survival and virulence activated in response to febrile temperatures.

Oakley, Miranda S. M.; Kumar, Sanjai; Anantharaman, Vivek; Zheng, Hong; Mahajan, Babita; Haynes, J. David; Moch, J. Kathleen; Fairhurst, Rick; McCutchan, Thomas F.; Aravind, L.

2007-01-01

137

Host cell deformability is linked to transmission in the human malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum.  

PubMed

Gametocyte maturation in Plasmodium falciparum is a critical step in the transmission of malaria. While the majority of parasites proliferate asexually in red blood cells, a small fraction of parasites undergo sexual conversion and mature over 2 weeks to become competent for transmission to a mosquito vector. Immature gametocytes sequester in deep tissues while mature stages must be able to circulate, pass the spleen and present themselves to the mosquito vector in order to complete transmission. Sequestration of asexual red blood cell stage parasites has been investigated in great detail. These studies have demonstrated that induction of cytoadherence properties through specific receptor-ligand interactions coincides with a significant increase in host cell stiffness. In contrast, the adherence and biophysical properties of gametocyte-infected red blood cells have not been studied systematically. Utilizing a transgenic line for 3D live imaging, in vitro capillary assays and 3D finite element whole cell modelling, we studied the role of cellular deformability in determining the circulatory characteristics of gametocytes. Our analysis shows that the red blood cell deformability of immature gametocytes displays an overall decrease followed by rapid restoration in mature gametocytes. Intriguingly, simulations suggest that along with deformability variations, the morphological changes of the parasite may play an important role in tissue distribution in vivo. Taken together, we present a model, which suggests that mature but not immature gametocytes circulate in the peripheral blood for uptake in the mosquito blood meal and transmission to another human host thus ensuring long-term survival of the parasite. PMID:22417683

Aingaran, Mythili; Zhang, Rou; Law, Sue KaYee; Peng, Zhangli; Undisz, Andreas; Meyer, Evan; Diez-Silva, Monica; Burke, Thomas A; Spielmann, Tobias; Lim, Chwee Teck; Suresh, Subra; Dao, Ming; Marti, Matthias

2012-04-12

138

Parasite Sequestration in Plasmodium falciparum Malaria: Spleen and Antibody Modulation of Cytoadherence of Infected Erythrocytes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Sequestration, the adherence of infected erythrocytes containing late developmental stages of the parasite (trophozoites and schizonts) to the endothelium of capillaries and venules, is characteristic of Plasmodium falciparum infections. We have studied two host factors, the spleen and antibody, that influence sequestration of P. falciparum in the squirrel monkey. Sequestration of trophozoite/schizont-infected erythrocytes that occurs in intact animals is reduced in splenectomized animals; in vitro, when infected blood is incubated with monolayers of human melanoma cells, trophozoite/schizont-infected erythrocytes from intact animals but not from splenectomized animals bind to the melanoma cells. The switch in cytoadherence characteristics of the infected erythrocytes from nonbinding to binding occurs with a cloned parasite. Immune serum can inhibit and reverse in vitro binding to melanoma cells of infected erythrocytes from intact animals. Similarly, antibody can reverse in vivo sequestration as shown by the appearance of trophozoite/schizont-infected erythrocytes in the peripheral blood of an intact animal after inoculation with immune serum. These results indicate that the spleen modulates the expression of parasite alterations of the infected erythrocyte membrane responsible for sequestration and suggest that the prevention and reversal of sequestration could be one of the effector mechanisms involved in antibody-mediated protection against P. falciparum malaria.

David, Peter H.; Hommel, Marcel; Miller, Louis H.; Udeinya, Iroka J.; Oligino, Lynette D.

1983-08-01

139

Role of the Plasmodium Export Element in Trafficking Parasite Proteins to the Infected Erythrocyte  

PubMed Central

The intracellular survival of Plasmodium falciparum within human erythrocytes is dependent on export of parasite proteins that remodel the host cell. Most exported proteins require a conserved motif (RxLxE/Q/D), termed the Plasmodium export element (PEXEL) or vacuolar targeting sequence (VTS), for targeting beyond the parasitophorous vacuole membrane and into the host cell; however, the precise role of this motif in export is poorly defined. We used transgenic P. falciparum expressing chimeric proteins to investigate the function of the PEXEL motif for export. The PEXEL constitutes a bifunctional export motif comprising a protease recognition sequence that is cleaved, in the endoplasmic reticulum, from proteins destined for export, in a PEXEL arginine- and leucine-dependent manner. Following processing, the remaining conserved PEXEL residue is required to direct the mature protein to the host cell. Furthermore, we demonstrate that N acetylation of proteins following N-terminal processing is a PEXEL-independent process that is insufficient for correct export to the host cell. This work defines the role of each residue in the PEXEL for export into the P. falciparum-infected erythrocyte.

Boddey, Justin A; Moritz, Robert L; Simpson, Richard J; Cowman, Alan F

2009-01-01

140

Seasonal pattern of avian Plasmodium-infected mosquitoes and implications for parasite transmission in central Panama.  

PubMed

Aedeomyia squamipennis and Culex (Melanoconion) ocossa, two ubiquitous Neotropical mosquito species, are likely involved in the transmission of several bird pathogens in Gamboa, central Panama. However, knowledge on their eco-epidemiological profiles is still incomplete. Our goal in this study was to investigate temporal trends of vector density and their relationship with avian plasmodia prevalence. This information is central to identifying the risk posed by each vector species to the avian community locally. We found that A. squamipennis maintains stable population size across climatic seasons and thus maybe a more efficient vector of avian malaria than C. ocossa. In contrast, C. ocossa, which undergoes considerable population expansion in the rainy season and contraction in the dry season, is likely only an important avian malaria vector during part of the year. This is consistent with the larger number of parasite isolations and Plasmodium cyt b lineages recovered from A. squamipennis than from C. ocossa and might be explained by marked differences in their seasonality and host-feeding preferences. More Plasmodium PCR testing in mosquito communities from other areas of Panama might reveal additional vectors of avian plasmodia. PMID:23974324

Loaiza, Jose R; Miller, Matthew J

2013-08-24

141

Human Monoclonal Antibodies to Pf 155, a Major Antigen of Malaria Parasite Plasmodium falciparum  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Pf 155, a protein of the human malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum, is strongly immunogenic in humans and is believed to be a prime candidate for the preparation of a vaccine. Human monoclonal antibodies to Pf 155 were obtained by cloning B cells that had been prepared from an immune donor and transformed with Epstein-Barr virus. When examined by indirect immunofluorescence, these antibodies stained the surface of infected erythrocytes, free merozoites, segmented schizonts, and gametocytes. They bound to a major polypeptide with a relative molecular weight of 155K and to two minor ones (135K and 120K), all having high affinity for human glycophorin. The antibodies strongly inhibited merozoite reinvasion in vitro, suggesting that they might be appropriate reagents for therapeutic administration in vivo.

Udomsangpetch, Rachanee; Lundgren, Katarina; Berzins, Klavs; Wahlin, Birgitta; Perlmann, Hedvig; Troye-Blomberg, Marita; Carlsson, Jan; Wahlgren, Mats; Perlmann, Peter; Bjorkman, Anders

1986-01-01

142

Optimized Pan-species and Speciation Duplex Real-time PCR Assays for Plasmodium Parasites Detection in Malaria Vectors  

PubMed Central

Background An accurate method for detecting malaria parasites in the mosquito’s vector remains an essential component in the vector control. The Enzyme linked immunosorbent assay specific for circumsporozoite protein (ELISA-CSP) is the gold standard method for the detection of malaria parasites in the vector even if it presents some limitations. Here, we optimized multiplex real-time PCR assays to accurately detect minor populations in mixed infection with multiple Plasmodium species in the African malaria vectors Anopheles gambiae and Anopheles funestus. Methods Complementary TaqMan-based real-time PCR assays that detect Plasmodium species using specific primers and probes were first evaluated on artificial mixtures of different targets inserted in plasmid constructs. The assays were further validated in comparison with the ELISA-CSP on 200 field caught Anopheles gambiae and Anopheles funestus mosquitoes collected in two localities in southern Benin. Results The validation of the duplex real-time PCR assays on the plasmid mixtures demonstrated robust specificity and sensitivity for detecting distinct targets. Using a panel of mosquito specimen, the real-time PCR showed a relatively high sensitivity (88.6%) and specificity (98%), compared to ELISA-CSP as the referent standard. The agreement between both methods was “excellent” (??=?0.8, P<0.05). The relative quantification of Plasmodium DNA between the two Anopheles species analyzed showed no significant difference (P?=?0, 2). All infected mosquito samples contained Plasmodium falciparum DNA and mixed infections with P. malariae and/or P. ovale were observed in 18.6% and 13.6% of An. gambiae and An. funestus respectively. Plasmodium vivax was found in none of the mosquito samples analyzed. Conclusion This study presents an optimized method for detecting the four Plasmodium species in the African malaria vectors. The study highlights substantial discordance with traditional ELISA-CSP pointing out the utility of employing an accurate molecular diagnostic tool for detecting malaria parasites in field mosquito populations.

Sandeu, Maurice Marcel; Moussiliou, Azizath; Moiroux, Nicolas; Padonou, Gilles G.; Massougbodji, Achille; Corbel, Vincent; Tuikue Ndam, Nicaise

2012-01-01

143

Relative clonal proportions over time in mixed-genotype infections of the lizard malaria parasite Plasmodium mexicanum.  

PubMed

Vertebrate hosts of malaria parasites (Plasmodium) often harbour two or more genetically distinct clones of a single species, and interaction among these co-existing clones can play an important role in Plasmodium biology. However, how relative clonal proportions vary over time in a host is still poorly known. Experimental mixed-clone infections of the lizard malaria parasite, Plasmodium mexicanum, were followed in its natural host, the western fence lizard using microsatellite markers to determine the relative proportions of two to five co-existing clones over time (2-3 months). Results for two markers, and two PCR primer pairs for one of those, matched very closely, supporting the efficacy of the method. Of the 54 infections, 67% displayed stable relative clonal proportions, with the others showing a shift in proportions, usually with one clone outpacing the others. Infections with rapidly increasing or slowly increasing parasitemia were stable, showing that all clones within these infections reproduced at the same rapid or slow rate. Replicate infections containing the same clones did not always reveal the same growth rate, final parasitemia or dominant clone; thus there was no clone effect for these life history measures. The rate of increase in parasitemia was not associated with stable versus unstable relative proportions, but infections with four to five clones were more likely to be unstable than those with two to three clones. This rare look into events in genetically complex Plasmodium infections suggests that parasite clones may be interacting in complex and unexpected ways. PMID:21396372

Ford, Alice Flynn; Schall, Jos J

2011-03-09

144

Flow cytometry-assisted rapid isolation of recombinant Plasmodium berghei parasites exemplified by functional analysis of aquaglyceroporin.  

PubMed

The most critical bottleneck in the generation of recombinant Plasmodium berghei parasites is the mandatory in vivo cloning step following successful genetic manipulation. This study describes a new technique for rapid selection of recombinant P. berghei parasites. The method is based on flow cytometry to isolate isogenic parasite lines and represents a major advance for the field, in that it will speed the generation of recombinant parasites as well as cut down on animal use significantly. High expression of GFP during blood infection, a prerequisite for robust separation of transgenic lines by flow cytometry, was achieved. Isogenic recombinant parasite populations were isolated even in the presence of a 100-fold excess of wild-type (WT) parasites. Aquaglyceroporin (AQP) loss-of-function mutants and parasites expressing a tagged AQP were generated to validate this approach. aqp(-) parasites grow normally within the WT phenotypic range during blood infection of NMRI mice. Similarly, colonization of the insect vector and establishment of an infection after mosquito transmission were unaffected, indicating that AQP is dispensable for life cycle progression in vivo under physiological conditions, refuting its use as a suitable drug target. Tagged AQP localized to perinuclear structures and not the parasite plasma membrane. We suggest that flow-cytometric isolation of isogenic parasites overcomes the major roadblock towards a genome-scale repository of mutant and transgenic malaria parasite lines. PMID:23137753

Kenthirapalan, Sanketha; Waters, Andrew P; Matuschewski, Kai; Kooij, Taco W A

2012-11-05

145

Some strains of Plasmodium falciparum, a human malaria parasite, evade the complement-like system of Anopheles gambiae mosquitoes.  

PubMed

Plasmodium falciparum lines differ in their ability to infect mosquitoes. The Anopheles gambiae L3-5 refractory (R) line melanizes most Plasmodium species, including the Brazilian P. falciparum 7G8 line, but it is highly susceptible to some African P. falciparum strains such as 3D7, NF54, and GB4. We investigated whether these lines differ in their ability to evade the mosquito immune system. Silencing key components of the mosquito complement-like system [thioester-containing protein 1 (TEP1), leucine-rich repeat protein 1, and Anopheles Plasmodium-responsive leucine-rich repeat protein 1] prevented melanization of 7G8 parasites, reverting the refractory phenotype. In contrast, it had no effect on the intensity of infection with NF54, suggesting that this line is able to evade TEP1-mediated lysis. When R females were coinfected with a line that is melanized (7G8) and a line that survives (3D7), the coinfection resulted in mixed infections with both live and encapsulated parasites on individual midguts. This finding shows that survival of individual parasites is parasite-specific and not systemic in nature, because parasites can evade TEP1-mediated lysis even when other parasites are melanized in the same midgut. When females from an extensive genetic cross between R and susceptible A. gambiae (G3) mosquitoes were infected with P. berghei, encapsulation was strongly correlated with the TEP1-R1 allele. However, P. falciparum 7G8 parasites were no longer encapsulated by females from this cross, indicating that the TEP1-R1 allele is not sufficient to melanize this line. Evasion of the A. gambiae immune system by P. falciparum may be the result of parasite adaptation to sympatric mosquito vectors and may be an important factor driving malaria transmission. PMID:22623529

Molina-Cruz, Alvaro; DeJong, Randall J; Ortega, Corrie; Haile, Ashley; Abban, Ekua; Rodrigues, Janneth; Jaramillo-Gutierrez, Giovanna; Barillas-Mury, Carolina

2012-05-23

146

On the Diversity of Malaria Parasites in African Apes and the Origin of Plasmodium falciparum from Bonobos  

PubMed Central

The origin of Plasmodium falciparum, the etiological agent of the most dangerous forms of human malaria, remains controversial. Although investigations of homologous parasites in African Apes are crucial to resolve this issue, studies have been restricted to a chimpanzee parasite related to P. falciparum, P. reichenowi, for which a single isolate was available until very recently. Using PCR amplification, we detected Plasmodium parasites in blood samples from 18 of 91 individuals of the genus Pan, including six chimpanzees (three Pan troglodytes troglodytes, three Pan t. schweinfurthii) and twelve bonobos (Pan paniscus). We obtained sequences of the parasites' mitochondrial genomes and/or from two nuclear genes from 14 samples. In addition to P. reichenowi, three other hitherto unknown lineages were found in the chimpanzees. One is related to P. vivax and two to P. falciparum that are likely to belong to distinct species. In the bonobos we found P. falciparum parasites whose mitochondrial genomes indicated that they were distinct from those present in humans, and another parasite lineage related to P. malariae. Phylogenetic analyses based on this diverse set of Plasmodium parasites in African Apes shed new light on the evolutionary history of P. falciparum. The data suggested that P. falciparum did not originate from P. reichenowi of chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes), but rather evolved in bonobos (Pan paniscus), from which it subsequently colonized humans by a host-switch. Finally, our data and that of others indicated that chimpanzees and bonobos maintain malaria parasites, to which humans are susceptible, a factor of some relevance to the renewed efforts to eradicate malaria.

Pacheco, M. Andreina; Mugisha, Lawrence; Andre, Claudine; Halbwax, Michel; Fischer, Anne; Krief, Jean-Michel; Kasenene, John M.; Crandfield, Mike; Cornejo, Omar E.; Chavatte, Jean-Marc; Lin, Clara; Letourneur, Franck; Gruner, Anne Charlotte; McCutchan, Thomas F.; Renia, Laurent; Snounou, Georges

2010-01-01

147

The 'permeome' of the malaria parasite: an overview of the membrane transport proteins of Plasmodium falciparum  

PubMed Central

Background The uptake of nutrients, expulsion of metabolic wastes and maintenance of ion homeostasis by the intraerythrocytic malaria parasite is mediated by membrane transport proteins. Proteins of this type are also implicated in the phenomenon of antimalarial drug resistance. However, the initial annotation of the genome of the human malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum identified only a limited number of transporters, and no channels. In this study we have used a combination of bioinformatic approaches to identify and attribute putative functions to transporters and channels encoded by the malaria parasite, as well as comparing expression patterns for a subset of these. Results A computer program that searches a genome database on the basis of the hydropathy plots of the corresponding proteins was used to identify more than 100 transport proteins encoded by P. falciparum. These include all the transporters previously annotated as such, as well as a similar number of candidate transport proteins that had escaped detection. Detailed sequence analysis enabled the assignment of putative substrate specificities and/or transport mechanisms to all those putative transport proteins previously without. The newly-identified transport proteins include candidate transporters for a range of organic and inorganic nutrients (including sugars, amino acids, nucleosides and vitamins), and several putative ion channels. The stage-dependent expression of RNAs for 34 candidate transport proteins of particular interest are compared. Conclusion The malaria parasite possesses substantially more membrane transport proteins than was originally thought, and the analyses presented here provide a range of novel insights into the physiology of this important human pathogen.

Martin, Rowena E; Henry, Roselani I; Abbey, Janice L; Clements, John D; Kirk, Kiaran

2005-01-01

148

Development of the piggyBac transposable system for Plasmodium berghei and its application for random mutagenesis in malaria parasites  

PubMed Central

Background The genome of a number of species of malaria parasites (Plasmodium spp.) has been sequenced in the hope of identifying new drug and vaccine targets. However, almost one-half of predicted Plasmodium genes are annotated as hypothetical and are difficult to analyse in bulk due to the inefficiency of current reverse genetic methodologies for Plasmodium. Recently, it has been shown that the transposase piggyBac integrates at random into the genome of the human malaria parasite P. falciparum offering the possibility to develop forward genetic screens to analyse Plasmodium gene function. This study reports the development and application of the piggyBac transposition system for the rodent malaria parasite P. berghei and the evaluation of its potential as a tool in forward genetic studies. P. berghei is the most frequently used malaria parasite model in gene function analysis since phenotype screens throughout the complete Plasmodium life cycle are possible both in vitro and in vivo. Results We demonstrate that piggyBac based gene inactivation and promoter-trapping is both easier and more efficient in P. berghei than in the human malaria parasite, P. falciparum. Random piggyBac-mediated insertion into genes was achieved after parasites were transfected with the piggyBac donor plasmid either when transposase was expressed either from a helper plasmid or a stably integrated gene in the genome. Characterization of more than 120 insertion sites demonstrated that more than 70 most likely affect gene expression classifying their protein products as non-essential for asexual blood stage development. The non-essential nature of two of these genes was confirmed by targeted gene deletion one of which encodes P41, an ortholog of a human malaria vaccine candidate. Importantly for future development of whole genome phenotypic screens the remobilization of the piggyBac element in parasites that stably express transposase was demonstrated. Conclusion These data demonstrate that piggyBac behaved as an efficient and random transposon in P. berghei. Remobilization of piggyBac element shows that with further development the piggyBac system can be an effective tool to generate random genome-wide mutation parasite libraries, for use in large-scale phenotype screens in vitro and in vivo.

2011-01-01

149

The Phosphoproteomes of Plasmodium falciparum and Toxoplasma gondii reveal unusual adaptations within and beyond the parasites' boundaries  

PubMed Central

Summary Plasmodium falciparum and Toxoplasma gondii are obligate intracellular apicomplexan parasites that rapidly invade and extensively modify host cells. Protein phosphorylation is one mechanism by which these parasites can control such processes. Here we present a phosphoproteome analysis of peptides enriched from schizont stage P. falciparum and T. gondii tachyzoites that are either “intracellular” or purified away from host material. Using liquid chromatography and tandem mass-spectrometry we identified over 5,000 and 10,000 previously unknown phosphorylation sites in P. falciparum and T. gondii respectively, revealing that protein phosphorylation is an extensively used regulation mechanism both within and beyond parasite boundaries. Unexpectedly both parasites have phosphorylated tyrosines and P. falciparum has unusual phosphorylation motifs that are apparently shaped by its A:T-rich genome. This dataset provides important information on the role of phosphorylation in the host-pathogen interaction, and clues to the evolutionary forces operating on protein phosphorylation motifs in both parasites.

Treeck, Moritz; Sanders, John L.; Elias, Joshua E.; Boothroyd, John C.

2012-01-01

150

Poisoning Pyridoxal 5-Phosphate-Dependent Enzymes: A New Strategy to Target the Malaria Parasite Plasmodium falciparum  

PubMed Central

The human malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum is able to synthesize de novo pyridoxal 5-phosphate (PLP), a crucial cofactor, during erythrocytic schizogony. However, the parasite possesses additionally a pyridoxine/pyridoxal kinase (PdxK) to activate B6 vitamers salvaged from the host. We describe a strategy whereby synthetic pyridoxyl-amino acid adducts are channelled into the parasite. Trapped upon phosphorylation by the plasmodial PdxK, these compounds block PLP-dependent enzymes and thus impair the growth of P. falciparum. The novel compound PT3, a cyclic pyridoxyl-tryptophan methyl ester, inhibited the proliferation of Plasmodium very efficiently (IC50-value of 14 µM) without harming human cells. The non-cyclic pyridoxyl-tryptophan methyl ester PT5 and the pyridoxyl-histidine methyl ester PHME were at least one order of magnitude less effective or completely ineffective in the case of the latter. Modeling in silico indicates that the phosphorylated forms of PT3 and PT5 fit well into the PLP-binding site of plasmodial ornithine decarboxylase (PfODC), the key enzyme of polyamine synthesis, consistent with the ability to abolish ODC activity in vitro. Furthermore, the antiplasmodial effect of PT3 is directly linked to the capability of Plasmodium to trap this pyridoxyl analog, as shown by an increased sensitivity of parasites overexpressing PfPdxK in their cytosol, as visualized by GFP fluorescence.

Bergmann, Barbel; Knockel, Julia; Walter, Rolf D.; Gehring, Heinz; Wrenger, Carsten

2009-01-01

151

Fosmidomycin Uptake into Plasmodium and Babesia-Infected Erythrocytes Is Facilitated by Parasite-Induced New Permeability Pathways  

PubMed Central

Background Highly charged compounds typically suffer from low membrane permeability and thus are generally regarded as sub-optimal drug candidates. Nonetheless, the highly charged drug fosmidomycin and its more active methyl-derivative FR900098 have proven parasiticidal activity against erythrocytic stages of the malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum. Both compounds target the isoprenoid biosynthesis pathway present in bacteria and plastid-bearing organisms, like apicomplexan parasites. Surprisingly, the compounds are inactive against a range of apicomplexans replicating in nucleated cells, including Toxoplasma gondii. Methodology/Principal Findings Since non-infected erythrocytes are impermeable for FR90098, we hypothesized that these drugs are taken up only by erythrocytes infected with Plasmodium. We provide evidence that radiolabeled FR900098 accumulates in theses cells as a consequence of parasite-induced new properties of the host cell, which coincide with an increased permeability of the erythrocyte membrane. Babesia divergens, a related parasite that also infects human erythrocytes and is also known to induce an increase in membrane permeability, displays a similar susceptibility and uptake behavior with regard to the drug. In contrast, Toxoplasma gondii-infected cells do apparently not take up the compounds, and the drugs are inactive against the liver stages of Plasmodium berghei, a mouse malaria parasite. Conclusions/Significance Our findings provide an explanation for the observed differences in activity of fosmidomycin and FR900098 against different Apicomplexa. These results have important implications for future screens aimed at finding new and safe molecular entities active against P. falciparum and related parasites. Our data provide further evidence that parasite-induced new permeability pathways may be exploited as routes for drug delivery.

Reichenberg, Armin; Hintz, Martin; Bietz, Sven; Harb, Omar S.; Roos, David S.; Kordes, Maximilian; Friesen, Johannes; Matuschewski, Kai; Lingelbach, Klaus; Jomaa, Hassan; Seeber, Frank

2011-01-01

152

Geographic Structure of Plasmodium vivax: Microsatellite Analysis of Parasite Populations from Sri Lanka, Myanmar, and Ethiopia  

PubMed Central

Genetic diversity and population structure of Plasmodium vivax parasites can predict the origin and spread of novel variants within a population enabling population specific malaria control measures. We analyzed the genetic diversity and population structure of 425 P. vivax isolates from Sri Lanka, Myanmar, and Ethiopia using 12 trinucleotide and tetranucleotide microsatellite markers. All three parasite populations were highly polymorphic with 3–44 alleles per locus. Approximately 65% were multiple-clone infections. Mean genetic diversity (HE) was 0.7517 in Ethiopia, 0.8450 in Myanmar, and 0.8610 in Sri Lanka. Significant linkage disequilibrium was maintained. Population structure showed two clusters (Asian and African) according to geography and ancestry. Strong clustering of outbreak isolates from Sri Lanka and Ethiopia was observed. Predictive power of ancestry using two-thirds of the isolates as a model identified 78.2% of isolates accurately as being African or Asian. Microsatellite analysis is a useful tool for mapping short-term outbreaks of malaria and for predicting ancestry.

Gunawardena, Sharmini; Karunaweera, Nadira D.; Ferreira, Marcelo U.; Phone-Kyaw, Myatt; Pollack, Richard J.; Alifrangis, Michael; Rajakaruna, Rupika S.; Konradsen, Flemming; Amerasinghe, Priyanie H.; Schousboe, Mette L.; Galappaththy, Gawrie N. L.; Abeyasinghe, Rabindra R.; Hartl, Daniel L.; Wirth, Dyann F.

2010-01-01

153

Serum containing tumor necrosis factor is cytotoxic for the human malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum.  

PubMed Central

Sera (BCG-lipopolysaccharide [LPS] serum) were obtained from mice infected with Mycobacterium bovis BCG 2 h after intravenous administration of bacterial endotoxin (LPS). Varying concentrations of sera were added to cultures of Plasmodium falciparum-infected human erythrocytes; parasite viability was assessed by hypoxanthine incorporation after 4 days in culture. At concentrations of 1 to 3%, cultures treated with BCG-LPS serum showed a two- to threefold increase in hypoxanthine incorporation; at higher concentrations (4 to 8%), hypoxanthine incorporation fell to 2 to 5% of that in control cultures. Concurrent assays with control sera (from untreated mice or mice treated with BCG or LPS alone) caused some stimulation but no inhibition at up to 8% concentration. Examination of cultures treated with BCG-LPS serum showed morphological, deterioration of parasites within erythrocytes. The presence of tumor necrosis factor in the BCG-LPS serum was confirmed by using a standard L-cell cytotoxicity assay. In addition, rabbit antiserum against partially purified tumor necrosis factor protected intraerythrocytic forms of P. falciparum from the toxic effects of BCG-LPS serum. These data suggest that the factor in BCG-LPS serum that is toxic to P. falciparum in human erythrocytes is antigenically similar or identical to tumor necrosis factor. This nonantibody mediator of killing may play a role in human malaria. Images

Haidaris, C G; Haynes, J D; Meltzer, M S; Allison, A C

1983-01-01

154

Cytoplasmic remodeling of erythrocyte raft lipids during infection by the human malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum.  

PubMed

Studies of detergent-resistant membrane (DRM) rafts in mature erythrocytes have facilitated identification of proteins that regulate formation of endovacuolar structures such as the parasitophorous vacuolar membrane (PVM) induced by the malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum. However, analyses of raft lipids have remained elusive because detergents interfere with lipid detection. Here, we use primaquine to perturb the erythrocyte membrane and induce detergent-free buoyant vesicles, which are enriched in cholesterol and major raft proteins flotillin and stomatin and contain low levels of cytoskeleton, all characteristics of raft microdomains. Lipid mass spectrometry revealed that phosphatidylethanolamine and phosphatidylglycerol are depleted in endovesicles while phosphoinositides are highly enriched, suggesting raft-based endovesiculation can be achieved by simple (non-receptor-mediated) mechanical perturbation of the erythrocyte plasma membrane and results in sorting of inner leaflet phospholipids. Live-cell imaging of lipid-specific protein probes showed that phosphatidylinositol (4,5) bisphosphate (PIP(2)) is highly concentrated in primaquine-induced vesicles, confirming that it is an erythrocyte raft lipid. However, the malarial PVM lacks PIP(2), although another raft lipid, phosphatidylserine, is readily detected. Thus, different remodeling/sorting of cytoplasmic raft phospholipids may occur in distinct endovacuoles. Importantly, erythrocyte raft lipids recruited to the invasion junction by mechanical stimulation may be remodeled by the malaria parasite to establish blood-stage infection. PMID:17526861

Murphy, Sean C; Fernandez-Pol, Sebastian; Chung, Paul H; Prasanna Murthy, S N; Milne, Stephen B; Salomao, Marcela; Brown, H Alex; Lomasney, Jon W; Mohandas, Narla; Haldar, Kasturi

2007-05-25

155

Cytoplasmic remodeling of erythrocyte raft lipids during infection by the human malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum  

PubMed Central

Studies of detergent-resistant membrane (DRM) rafts in mature erythrocytes have facilitated identification of proteins that regulate formation of endovacuolar structures such as the parasitophorous vacuolar membrane (PVM) induced by the malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum. However, analyses of raft lipids have remained elusive because detergents interfere with lipid detection. Here, we use primaquine to perturb the erythrocyte membrane and induce detergent-free buoyant vesicles, which are enriched in cholesterol and major raft proteins flotillin and stomatin and contain low levels of cytoskeleton, all characteristics of raft microdomains. Lipid mass spectrometry revealed that phosphatidylethanolamine and phosphatidylglycerol are depleted in endovesicles while phosphoinositides are highly enriched, suggesting raft-based endovesiculation can be achieved by simple (non–receptor-mediated) mechanical perturbation of the erythrocyte plasma membrane and results in sorting of inner leaflet phospholipids. Live-cell imaging of lipid-specific protein probes showed that phosphatidylinositol (4,5) bisphosphate (PIP2) is highly concentrated in primaquine-induced vesicles, confirming that it is an erythrocyte raft lipid. However, the malarial PVM lacks PIP2, although another raft lipid, phosphatidylserine, is readily detected. Thus, different remodeling/sorting of cytoplasmic raft phospholipids may occur in distinct endovacuoles. Importantly, erythrocyte raft lipids recruited to the invasion junction by mechanical stimulation may be remodeled by the malaria parasite to establish blood-stage infection.

Murphy, Sean C.; Fernandez-Pol, Sebastian; Chung, Paul H.; Prasanna Murthy, S. N.; Milne, Stephen B.; Salomao, Marcela; Brown, H. Alex; Lomasney, Jon W.; Mohandas, Narla

2007-01-01

156

Concomitant malaria (Plasmodium gallinaceum) and filaria (Brugia pahangi) infections in Aedes aegypti: effect on parasite development.  

PubMed

Mixed infections with malarial (Plasmodium gallinaceum) and filarial (Brugia pahangi) parasites were carried out in 8 trials with filaria susceptible (REFM) and filaria refractory (REP-RR) Aedes aegypti strains. A secondary infection with B. pahangi microfilariae (mff) by intrathoracic inoculation, reduced the development rate of a pre-existing P. gallinaceum infection. The level of reduction ranged from 9.5 to 49% in REFM and from 50 to 90% in REP-RR. An immune response against oocysts was seen as melanization in mosquitoes with a double infection in the strain refractory to B. pahangi (REP-RR) and a reduction in oocyst size in both mosquito strains. Melanization was not observed in mosquitoes infected only with P. gallinaceum. This may indicate that activation of the prophenoloxidase (PPO) cascade in response to mff in the haemolymph can also be addressed against oocysts in the midgut. No significant difference in the number of filarial parasites recovered was observed when comparing groups with a single or double infection. Retardation in development of filaria larvae was observed in mosquitoes with double infection (REFM strain), together with melanization and a higher rate of abnormal development. Nutritional deficiency caused by superinfection might also be responsible for the delay in filarial development and reduced oocyst size. PMID:7845706

Albuquerque, C M; Ham, P J

1995-01-01

157

Select pyrimidinones inhibit the propagation of the malarial parasite, Plasmodium falciparum  

PubMed Central

Plasmodium falciparum, the Apicomplexan parasite that is responsible for the most lethal forms of human malaria, is exposed to radically different environments and stress factors during its complex lifecycle. In any organism, Hsp70 chaperones are typically associated with tolerance to stress. We therefore reasoned that inhibition of P. falciparum Hsp70 chaperones would adversely affect parasite homeostasis. To test this hypothesis, we measured whether pyrimidinone-amides, a new class of Hsp70 modulators, could inhibit the replication of the pathogenic P. falciparum stages in human red blood cells. Nine compounds with IC50 values from 30 nM to 1.6 ?M were identified. Each compound also altered the ATPase activity of purified P. falciparum Hsp70 in single-turnover assays, although higher concentrations of agents were required than was necessary to inhibit P. falciparum replication. Varying effects of these compounds on Hsp70s from other organisms were also observed. Together, our data indicate that pyrimidinone-amides constitute a novel class of anti-malarial agents.

Chiang, Annette N.; Valderramos, Juan-Carlos; Balachandran, Raghavan; Chovatiya, Raj J.; Mead, Brian P.; Schneider, Corinne; Bell, Samantha L.; Klein, Michael G.; Huryn, Donna M.; Chen, Xiaojiang S.; Day, Billy W.; Fidock, David A.; Wipf, Peter; Brodsky, Jeffrey L.

2009-01-01

158

Experimental test for premunition in a lizard malaria parasite (Plasmodium mexicanum).  

PubMed

Premunition in Plasmodium spp. is the prevention of superinfection by novel genotypes entering an already established infection in a vertebrate host. Evidence for premunition was sought for the lizard malaria parasite, P. mexicanum, in its natural host, the fence lizard, Sceloporus occidentalis. Clonal diversity (= alleles for the haploid parasite) was determined with the use of 3 microsatellite markers. Both naturally infected lizards (N = 25) and previously noninfected lizards (N = 78) were inoculated intraperitoneally (IP) with blood from donor infections and followed over a 3-mo period. Compared to the success of clonal establishment in all the naive lizards (78/78 successful), clones entering preexisting infections had a significant disadvantage (9/25 successful). The number of preexisting clones (1-2 vs. 3-4) within recipient infections had no effect on the success of superinfection. Infections that excluded entering novel clones did not have higher initial asexual parasitemia, but had a higher initial density of gametocytes, suggesting they were older. Infections allowing superinfection experienced a higher final parasitemia. PMID:17539410

Vardo, Anne M; Kaufhold, Kimberly D; Schall, Jos J

2007-04-01

159

Identification and Characterization of a Conserved, Stage-Specific Gene Product of Plasmodium falciparum Recognized by Parasite Growth Inhibitory Antibodies  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have identified a novel conserved protein of Plasmodium falciparum, designated D13, that is stage- specifically expressed in asexual blood stages of the parasite. The predicted open reading frame (ORF) D13 contains 863 amino acids with a calculated molecular mass of 99.7 kDa and displays a repeat region composed of pentapeptide motives. Northern blot analysis with lysates of synchronized blood

Claudia A. Daubenberger; Diana Diaz; Marija Curcic; Markus S. Mueller; Tobias Spielmann; Ulrich Certa; Joachim Lipp; G. Pluschke

2003-01-01

160

A computational model of gene expression reveals early transcriptional events at the subtelomeric regions of the malaria parasite, Plasmodium falciparum  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: The malaria parasite, Plasmodium falciparum, replicates asexually in a well-defined infection cycle within human erythrocytes (red blood cells). The intra-erythrocytic developmental cycle (IDC) proceeds with a 48 hour periodicity. RESULTS: Based on available malaria microarray data, which monitored gene expression over one complete IDC in one-hour time intervals, we built a mathematical model of the IDC using a circular

Matthias Scholz; Martin J Fraunholz

2008-01-01

161

Utilization of exogenous folate in the human malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum and its critical role in antifolate drug synergy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary The antifolate combination pyrimethamine\\/sulpha- doxine (PYR\\/SDX; Fansidar) is frequently used to combat chloroquine-resistant malaria. Its success depends upon pronounced synergy between the two components, which target dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR) and dihydropteroate synthetase (DHPS) in the folate pathway. This synergy permits clearance of parasites resistant to either drug alone, but its mol- ecular basis is still unexplained. Plasmodium falci- parum

Ping Wang; Reynolds K. B. Brobey; Toshihiro Horii; Paul F. G. Sims; John E. Hyde

1999-01-01

162

Pigment Formation and Nuclear Division in Chloroquine-resistant Malaria Parasites (Plasmodium berghei, Vincke and Lips, 1948)  

Microsoft Academic Search

THE emergence in widely separated areas of strains of Plasmodium falciparum resistant to standard prophylaxis or therapy with chloroquine and related 4-amino-quinoline derivatives1-3 has led to a renewal of interest in the possible mechanisms of drug resistance in protozoa. Schueler and Cantrell4 and Cohen, Phifer and Yielding5 have recently proposed, on the basis of experiments with the rodent malaria parasite,

W. Peters

1964-01-01

163

The gene for an exported antigen of the malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum cloned and expressed in Escherichia coli.  

PubMed Central

An exported protein of the erythrocytic stages of the malaria parasite, Plasmodium falciparum, has epitope(s) in common with the surface of the sporozoite stage (1). Two cDNA clones encoding this protein, Ag5.1, have now been isolated and expressed in Escherichia coli. The coding sequence contains a region with strong homology to that of the circumsporozoite protein of P. falciparum. Other features of the sequence can be explained in terms of the observed behaviour of the protein in the parasite life cycle. The Ag5.1 can now be synthesised in bacteria in sufficient amounts to analyse the immune response to this protein. Images

Hope, I A; Mackay, M; Hyde, J E; Goman, M; Scaife, J

1985-01-01

164

Transformation of the rodent malaria parasite Plasmodium chabaudi and generation of a stable fluorescent line PcGFPCON  

PubMed Central

Background The rodent malaria parasite Plasmodium chabaudi has proven of great value in the analysis of fundamental aspects of host-parasite-vector interactions implicated in disease pathology and parasite evolutionary ecology. However, the lack of gene modification technologies for this model has precluded more direct functional studies. Methods The development of in vitro culture methods to yield P. chabaudi schizonts for transfection and conditions for genetic modification of this rodent malaria model are reported. Results Independent P. chabaudi gene-integrant lines that constitutively express high levels of green fluorescent protein throughout their life cycle have been generated. Conclusion Genetic modification of P. chabaudi is now possible. The production of genetically distinct reference lines offers substantial advances to our understanding of malaria parasite biology, especially interactions with the immune system during chronic infection.

Reece, Sarah E; Thompson, Joanne

2008-01-01

165

Rapid and specific biotin labelling of the erythrocyte surface antigens of both cultured and ex-vivo Plasmodium parasites  

PubMed Central

Background Sensitive detection of parasite surface antigens expressed on erythrocyte membranes is necessary to further analyse the molecular pathology of malaria. This study describes a modified biotin labelling/osmotic lysis method which rapidly produces membrane extracts enriched for labelled surface antigens and also improves the efficiency of antigen recovery compared with traditional detergent extraction and surface radio-iodination. The method can also be used with ex-vivo parasites. Methods After surface labelling with biotin in the presence of the inhibitor furosemide, detergent extraction and osmotic lysis methods of enriching for the membrane fractions were compared to determine the efficiency of purification and recovery. Biotin-labelled proteins were identified on silver-stained SDS-polyacrylamide gels. Results Detergent extraction and osmotic lysis were compared for their capacity to purify biotin-labelled Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium chabaudi erythrocyte surface antigens. The pellet fraction formed after osmotic lysis of P. falciparum-infected erythrocytes is notably enriched in suface antigens, including PfEMP1, when compared to detergent extraction. There is also reduced co-extraction of host proteins such as spectrin and Band 3. Conclusion Biotinylation and osmotic lysis provides an improved method to label and purify parasitised erythrocyte surface antigen extracts from both in vitro and ex vivo Plasmodium parasite preparations.

Sharling, Lisa; Sowa, Kordai MP; Thompson, Joanne; Kyriacou, Helen M; Arnot, David E

2007-01-01

166

Identification of phosphorylated proteins in erythrocytes infected by the human malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum  

PubMed Central

Background Previous comparative proteomic analysis on Plasmodium falciparum isolates of different adhesion properties suggested that protein phosphorylation varies between isolates with different cytoadherence properties. But the extent and dynamic changes in phosphorylation have not been systematically studied. As a baseline for these future studies, this paper examined changes in the phosphoproteome of parasitized red blood cells (pRBC). Methods Metabolic labelling with [35S] methionine on pRBC and 2D gel electrophoresis (2-DE) has previously been used to show the expression of parasite proteins and changes in protein iso-electric point (PI). 2-DE of different parasite strains was combined with immunoblotting using monoclonal antibodies specifically to phosphorylated serine/threonine and tyrosine, to obtain the phosphorylation profiles throughout the erythrocytic lifecycle. Affinity chromatography was used to purify/enrich phosphorylated proteins and these proteins from mature trophozoite stages which were identified using high-accuracy mass spectrometry and MASCOT search. Results 2D-immunoblots showed that P. falciparum infection greatly increased phosphorylation of a set of proteins in pRBC, the dominant size classes for phosphorylated tyrosine proteins were 95, 60, 50 and 30 kDa and for phosphorylated serine/threonine were 120, 95, 60, 50, 43, 40 and 30 kDa. The most abundant molecules from 2D-gel mapping of phosphorylated proteins in ItG infected RBCs were identified by MALDI-TOF. A proteomic overview of phosphorylated proteins in pRBC was achieved by using complementary phosphorylated protein enrichment techniques combined with nano-flow LC/MS/MS analysis and MASCOT MS/MS ions search with phosphorylation as variable modifications. The definite phosphoproteins of pRBC are reported and discussed. Conclusion Protein phosphorylation is a major process in P. falciparum-parasitized erythrocytes. Preliminary screens identified 170 P. falciparum proteins and 77 human proteins as phosphorylated protein in pRBC, while only 48 human proteins were identified in the corresponding fractions from uninfected RBC. Refinement of the search to include significant ion scores indicating a specific phospho-peptide identified 21 P. falciparum proteins and 14 human proteins from pRBC, 13 host proteins were identified from normal RBC. The results achieved by complementary techniques consistently reflect a reliable proteomic overview of pRBC.

Wu, Yang; Nelson, Morag M; Quaile, Andrew; Xia, Dong; Wastling, Jonathan M; Craig, Alister

2009-01-01

167

Antigenic Diversity of the Plasmodium vivax Circumsporozoite Protein in Parasite Isolates of Western Colombia  

PubMed Central

Circumsporozoite (CS) protein is a malaria antigen involved in sporozoite invasion of hepatocytes, and thus considered to have good vaccine potential. We evaluated the polymorphism of the Plasmodium vivax CS gene in 24 parasite isolates collected from malaria-endemic areas of Colombia. We sequenced 27 alleles, most of which (25/27) corresponded to the VK247 genotype and the remainder to the VK210 type. All VK247 alleles presented a mutation (Gly ? Asn) at position 28 in the N-terminal region, whereas the C-terminal presented three insertions: the ANKKAGDAG, which is common in all VK247 isolates; 12 alleles presented the insertion GAGGQAAGGNAANKKAGDAG; and 5 alleles presented the insertion GGNAGGNA. Both repeat regions were polymorphic in gene sequence and size. Sequences coding for B-, T-CD4+, and T-CD8+ cell epitopes were found to be conserved. This study confirms the high polymorphism of the repeat domain and the highly conserved nature of the flanking regions.

Hernandez-Martinez, Miguel Angel; Escalante, Ananias A.; Arevalo-Herrera, Myriam; Herrera, Socrates

2011-01-01

168

Virulence of a malaria parasite, Plasmodium mexicanum, for its sand fly vectors, Lutzomyia vexator and Lutzomyia stewarti (Diptera: Psychodidae).  

PubMed

Evolutionary theory predicts that virulence of parasites for mobile vector insects will be low for natural parasite-host associations that have coevolved. I determined virulence of the malaria parasite of lizards, Plasmodium mexicanum, for its vectors, two species of sand fly (Diptera: Psychodidae), Lutzomyia vexator (Coquillett 1907) and Lutzomyia stewarti (Mangabeira Fo & Galindo 1944), by measuring several life history traits. Developmental rate from egg to eclosion differed for the two species when noninfected. For both sand fly species, developmental rate for each stage (egg to larval hatching, larval period, pupal period) and life span were not altered by infection. Infected sand flies, however, produced fewer eggs. This reduction in fecundity may be a result of lower quality of the blood meal taken from infected lizards (lower concentration of hemoglobin). This report is the first measure of virulence of Plasmodium for an insect vector other than a mosquito and concords with both expectations of theory and previous studies on natural parasite-host associations that revealed low virulence. PMID:22238877

Schall, Jos J

2011-11-01

169

NSR-seq transcriptional profiling enables identification of a gene signature of Plasmodium falciparum parasites infecting children.  

PubMed

Malaria caused by Plasmodium falciparum results in approximately 1 million annual deaths worldwide, with young children and pregnant mothers at highest risk. Disease severity might be related to parasite virulence factors, but expression profiling studies of parasites to test this hypothesis have been hindered by extensive sequence variation in putative virulence genes and a preponderance of host RNA in clinical samples. We report here the application of RNA sequencing to clinical isolates of P. falciparum, using not-so-random (NSR) primers to successfully exclude human ribosomal RNA and globin transcripts and enrich for parasite transcripts. Using NSR-seq, we confirmed earlier microarray studies showing upregulation of a distinct subset of genes in parasites infecting pregnant women, including that encoding the well-established pregnancy malaria vaccine candidate var2csa. We also describe a subset of parasite transcripts that distinguished parasites infecting children from those infecting pregnant women and confirmed this observation using quantitative real-time PCR and mass spectrometry proteomic analyses. Based on their putative functional properties, we propose that these proteins could have a role in childhood malaria pathogenesis. Our study provides proof of principle that NSR-seq represents an approach that can be used to study clinical isolates of parasites causing severe malaria syndromes as well other blood-borne pathogens and blood-related diseases. PMID:21317536

Vignali, Marissa; Armour, Christopher D; Chen, Jingyang; Morrison, Robert; Castle, John C; Biery, Matthew C; Bouzek, Heather; Moon, Wonjong; Babak, Tomas; Fried, Michal; Raymond, Christopher K; Duffy, Patrick E

2011-02-07

170

Plasmodium berghei ?p52&p36 Parasites Develop Independent of a Parasitophorous Vacuole Membrane in Huh-7 Liver Cells  

PubMed Central

The proteins P52 and P36 are expressed in the sporozoite stage of the murine malaria parasite Plasmodium berghei. ?p52&p36 sporozoites lacking expression of both proteins are severely compromised in their capability to develop into liver stage parasites and abort development soon after invasion; presumably due to the absence of a parasitophorous vacuole membrane (PVM). However, a small proportion of P. berghei ?p52&p36 parasites is capable to fully mature in hepatocytes causing breakthrough blood stage infections. We have studied the maturation of replicating ?p52&p36 parasites in cultured Huh-7 hepatocytes. Approximately 50% of ?p52&p36 parasites developed inside the nucleus of the hepatocyte but did not complete maturation and failed to produce merosomes. In contrast cytosolic ?p52&p36 parasites were able to fully mature and produced infectious merozoites. These ?p52&p36 parasites developed into mature schizonts in the absence of an apparent parasitophorous vacuole membrane as shown by immunofluorescence and electron microscopy. Merozoites derived from these maturing ?p52&p36 liver stages were infectious for C57BL/6 mice.

Ploemen, Ivo H. J.; Croes, Huib J.; van Gemert, Geert-Jan J.; Wijers-Rouw, Mietske; Hermsen, Cornelus C.; Sauerwein, Robert W.

2012-01-01

171

Initial Characterization of the Pf-Int Recombinase from the Malaria Parasite Plasmodium falciparum  

PubMed Central

Background Genetic variation is an essential means of evolution and adaptation in many organisms in response to environmental change. Certain DNA alterations can be carried out by site-specific recombinases (SSRs) that fall into two families: the serine and the tyrosine recombinases. SSRs are seldom found in eukaryotes. A gene homologous to a tyrosine site-specific recombinase has been identified in the genome of Plasmodium falciparum. The sequence is highly conserved among five other members of Plasmodia. Methodology/Principal Findings The predicted open reading frame encodes for a ?57 kDa protein containing a C-terminal domain including the putative tyrosine recombinase conserved active site residues R-H-R-(H/W)-Y. The N-terminus has the typical alpha-helical bundle and potentially a mixed alpha-beta domain resembling that of ?-Int. Pf-Int mRNA is expressed differentially during the P. falciparum erythrocytic life stages, peaking in the schizont stage. Recombinant Pf-Int and affinity chromatography of DNA from genomic or synthetic origin were used to identify potential DNA targets after sequencing or micro-array hybridization. Interestingly, the sequences captured also included highly variable subtelomeric genes such as var, rif, and stevor sequences. Electrophoretic mobility shift assays with DNA were carried out to verify Pf-Int/DNA binding. Finally, Pf-Int knock-out parasites were created in order to investigate the biological role of Pf-Int. Conclusions/Significance Our data identify for the first time a malaria parasite gene with structural and functional features of recombinases. Pf-Int may bind to and alter DNA, either in a sequence specific or in a non-specific fashion, and may contribute to programmed or random DNA rearrangements. Pf-Int is the first molecular player identified with a potential role in genome plasticity in this pathogen. Finally, Pf-Int knock-out parasite is viable showing no detectable impact on blood stage development, which is compatible with such function.

Ghorbal, Mehdi; Scheidig-Benatar, Christine; Bouizem, Salma; Thomas, Christophe; Paisley, Genevieve; Faltermeier, Claire; Liu, Melanie; Scherf, Artur; Lopez-Rubio, Jose-Juan; Gopaul, Deshmukh N.

2012-01-01

172

Rodent malaria parasites suffer from the presence of conspecific clones in three-clone Plasmodium chabaudi infections.  

PubMed

We studied infection dynamics of Plasmodium chabaudi in mice infected with 3 genetically distinct clones--1 less virulent than the other 2--either on their own or in mixtures. During the acute phase of infection, total numbers of asexual parasites in mixed-clone infections were equal to those produced by the 3 clones alone, suggesting strong in-host competition among clones. During the chronic phase of the infection, mixed-clone infections produced more asexual parasites than single-clone infections, suggesting lower levels of competition than during the acute phase, and indicating that a genetically diverse infection is harder to control by the host immune system. Transmission potential over the whole course of infection was lower from mixed-clone infections than from the average of the 3 single-clone infections. These results suggest that in-host competition reduces both growth rate and probability of transmission for individual parasite clones. PMID:14653530

De Roode, J C; Read, A F; Chan, B H K; Mackinnon, M J

2003-11-01

173

Substantially reduced pre-patent parasite multiplication rates are associated with naturally acquired immunity to Plasmodium falciparum  

PubMed Central

Naturally acquired immunity to Plasmodium falciparum’s asexual blood-stage reduces parasite multiplication at microscopically-detectable densities. The effect of natural immunity upon initial pre-patent parasite multiplication during the period following a new infection has been uncertain, contributing to doubt regarding the utility of experimental challenge models for blood-stage vaccine trials. We present here data demonstrating that parasite multiplication rates in the initial pre-patent period in semi-immune Gambian adults are substantially lower than in malaria-naïve subjects. This supports the view that a blood-stage vaccine capable of emulating the disease-reducing effect of natural immunity could achieve a detectable effect in the pre-patent period.

Douglas, AD; Andrews, L; Draper, SJ; Bojang, K; Milligan, P; Gilbert, SC; Imoukhuede, EB; Hill, AVS

2012-01-01

174

A Chimeric Plasmodium falciparum Merozoite Surface Protein Vaccine Induces High Titers of Parasite Growth Inhibitory Antibodies.  

PubMed

The C-terminal 19-kDa domain of Plasmodium falciparum merozoite surface protein 1 (PfMSP119) is an established target of protective antibodies. However, clinical trials of PfMSP142, a leading blood-stage vaccine candidate which contains the protective epitopes of PfMSP119, revealed suboptimal immunogenicity and efficacy. Based on proof-of-concept studies in the Plasmodium yoelii murine model, we produced a chimeric vaccine antigen containing recombinant PfMSP119 (rPfMSP119) fused to the N terminus of P. falciparum merozoite surface protein 8 that lacked its low-complexity Asn/Asp-rich domain, rPfMSP8 (?Asn/Asp). Immunization of mice with the chimeric rPfMSP1/8 vaccine elicited strong T cell responses to conserved epitopes associated with the rPfMSP8 (?Asn/Asp) fusion partner. While specific for PfMSP8, this T cell response was adequate to provide help for the production of high titers of antibodies to both PfMSP119 and rPfMSP8 (?Asn/Asp) components. This occurred with formulations adjuvanted with either Quil A or with Montanide ISA 720 plus CpG oligodeoxynucleotide (ODN) and was observed in both inbred and outbred strains of mice. PfMSP1/8-induced antibodies were highly reactive with two major alleles of PfMSP119 (FVO and 3D7). Of particular interest, immunization with PfMSP1/8 elicited higher titers of PfMSP119-specific antibodies than a combined formulation of rPfMSP142 and rPfMSP8 (?Asn/Asp). As a measure of functionality, PfMSP1/8-specific rabbit IgG was shown to potently inhibit the in vitro growth of blood-stage parasites of the FVO and 3D7 strains of P. falciparum. These data support the further testing and evaluation of this chimeric PfMSP1/8 antigen as a component of a multivalent vaccine for P. falciparum malaria. PMID:23897613

Alaro, James R; Partridge, Andrea; Miura, Kazutoyo; Diouf, Ababacar; Lopez, Ana M; Angov, Evelina; Long, Carole A; Burns, James M

2013-07-29

175

Identification of rhoptry trafficking determinants and evidence for a novel sorting mechanism in the malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum.  

PubMed

The rhoptry of the malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum is an unusual secretory organelle that is thought to be related to secretory lysosomes in higher eukaryotes. Rhoptries contain an extensive collection of proteins that participate in host cell invasion and in the formation of the parasitophorous vacuole, but little is known about sorting signals required for rhoptry protein targeting. Using green fluorescent protein chimeras and in vitro pull-down assays, we performed an analysis of the signals required for trafficking of the rhoptry protein RAP1. We provide evidence that RAP1 is escorted to the rhoptry via an interaction with the glycosylphosphatidyl inositol-anchored rhoptry protein RAMA. Once within the rhoptry, RAP1 contains distinct signals for localisation within a sub-compartment of the organelle and subsequent transfer to the parasitophorous vacuole after invasion. This is the first detailed description of rhoptry trafficking signals in Plasmodium. PMID:19266084

Richard, Dave; Kats, Lev M; Langer, Christine; Black, Casilda G; Mitri, Khosse; Boddey, Justin A; Cowman, Alan F; Coppel, Ross L

2009-03-06

176

Identification of Rhoptry Trafficking Determinants and Evidence for a Novel Sorting Mechanism in the Malaria Parasite Plasmodium falciparum  

PubMed Central

The rhoptry of the malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum is an unusual secretory organelle that is thought to be related to secretory lysosomes in higher eukaryotes. Rhoptries contain an extensive collection of proteins that participate in host cell invasion and in the formation of the parasitophorous vacuole, but little is known about sorting signals required for rhoptry protein targeting. Using green fluorescent protein chimeras and in vitro pull-down assays, we performed an analysis of the signals required for trafficking of the rhoptry protein RAP1. We provide evidence that RAP1 is escorted to the rhoptry via an interaction with the glycosylphosphatidyl inositol-anchored rhoptry protein RAMA. Once within the rhoptry, RAP1 contains distinct signals for localisation within a sub-compartment of the organelle and subsequent transfer to the parasitophorous vacuole after invasion. This is the first detailed description of rhoptry trafficking signals in Plasmodium.

Langer, Christine; Black, Casilda G.; Mitri, Khosse; Boddey, Justin A.; Cowman, Alan F.; Coppel, Ross L.

2009-01-01

177

Mixed Strain Infections and Strain-Specific Protective Immunity in the Rodent Malaria Parasite Plasmodium chabaudi chabaudi in Mice  

PubMed Central

Important to malaria vaccine design is the phenomenon of “strain-specific” immunity. Using an accurate and sensitive assay of parasite genotype, real-time quantitative PCR, we have investigated protective immunity against mixed infections of genetically distinct cloned “strains” of the rodent malaria parasite Plasmodium chabaudi chabaudi in mice. Four strains of P. c. chabaudi, AS, AJ, AQ, and CB, were studied. One round of blood infection and drug cure with a single strain resulted in a partial reduction in parasitemia, compared with levels for naïve mice, in challenge infections with mixed inocula of the immunizing (homologous) strain and a heterologous strain. In all cases, the numbers of blood-stage parasites of each genotype were reduced to similar degrees. After a second, homologous round of infection and drug cure followed by challenge with homologous and heterologous strains, the parasitemias were reduced even further. In these circumstances, moreover, the homologous strain was reduced much faster than the heterologous strain in all of the combinations tested. That the immunity induced by a single infection did not show “strain specificity,” while the immunity following a second, homologous infection did, suggests that the “strain-specific” component of protective immunity in malaria may be dependent upon immune memory. The results show that strong, protective immunity induced by and effective against malaria parasites from a single parasite species has a significant “strain-specific” component and that this immunity operates differentially against genetically distinct parasites within the same infection.

Cheesman, Sandra; Raza, Ahmed; Carter, Richard

2006-01-01

178

A Class of Pantothenic Acid Analogs Inhibits Plasmodium falciparum Pantothenate Kinase and Represses the Proliferation of Malaria Parasites  

PubMed Central

The growth and proliferation of the human malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum are dependent on the parasite's ability to obtain essential nutrients. One nutrient for which the parasite has an absolute requirement is the water-soluble vitamin pantothenic acid (vitamin B5). In this study, a series of pantothenic acid analogs which retain the 2,4-dihydroxy-3,3-dimethylbutyramide core of pantothenic acid but deviate in structure from one another and from pantothenic acid in the nature of the substituent attached to the amide nitrogen were synthesized using an efficient single-step synthetic route. Eight of 10 analogs tested inhibited the proliferation of intraerythrocytic P. falciparum parasites in vitro, doing so with 50% inhibitory concentrations between 15 and 200 ?M. The compounds were generally selective, inhibiting the proliferation of a human cell line (the Jurkat cell line) only at concentrations severalfold higher than those required for inhibition of parasite growth. It was demonstrated that compounds in this series inhibited the phosphorylation of pantothenic acid by pantothenate kinase, the first step in the parasite's biosynthesis of the essential enzyme cofactor coenzyme A, doing so competitively, with Ki values in the nanomolar range.

Spry, Christina; Chai, Christina L. L.; Kirk, Kiaran; Saliba, Kevin J.

2005-01-01

179

Detection of a malaria parasite (Plasmodium mexicanum) in ectoparasites (mites and ticks), and possible significance for transmission.  

PubMed

Two species of sandflies (Lutzomyia) are competent vectors of Plasmodium mexicanum, a malaria parasite of lizards. The very patchy distribution of sites with high P. mexicanum prevalence in the lizards, and often low or even nil sandfly density at such sites, provoked an evaluation of 2 common lizard ectoparasites, the tick Ixodes pacificus and the mite Geckobiella occidentalis, as potential passive vectors. Plasmodium sp.-specific polymerase chain primers were used to amplify a long segment of the mitochondrial cytochrome b gene that is unlikely to survive intact if the parasite cells are killed within a blood-feeding arthropod. The segment was strongly amplified from sandflies (the positive control for the method) from 1 to 96 hr postfeeding on an infected lizard. For ticks, the gene fragment was poorly amplified at 0 hr postfeed, and not amplified after 2 hr. In contrast, strong amplification of the parasite DNA was observed from mites from 0 to 20 hr postfeed, and weak amplification even at 96 hr. PMID:16729709

Schall, Jos J; Smith, Thomas C

2006-04-01

180

Detecting number of clones, and their relative abundance, of a malaria parasite (Plasmodium mexicanum) infecting its vertebrate host.  

PubMed

Microsatellites, short tandem repeats of nucleotides in the genome, are useful markers to detect clonal diversity within Plasmodium infections. However, accuracy in determining number of clones and their relative proportions based on standard genetic analyzer instruments is poorly known. DNA extracted from lizards infected with a malaria parasite, Plasmodium mexicanum, provided template to genotype the parasite based on three microsatellite markers. Replicate genotyping of the same natural infections demonstrated strong repeatability of data from the instrument. Mixing DNA extracted from several infected lizards simulated mixed-clone infections with known clonal diversity and relative proportions of clones (N = 56 simulations). The instrument readily detected at least four alleles (clones), even when DNA concentrations among clones differed up to tenfold, but alleles of similar size can be missed because they fall within the "stutter" artifact, and rarely does an allele fail to be detected. For simulations of infections that changed their relative proportions over time, changes in relative peak heights on the instrument output closely followed the known changes in relative proportions. Such data are useful for a broad range of studies on the ecology of malaria parasites. PMID:19277713

Vardo-Zalik, Anne M; Ford, Alice Flynn; Schall, Jos J

2009-03-10

181

Dynamic epigenetic regulation of gene expression during the life cycle of malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum.  

PubMed

Epigenetic mechanisms are emerging as one of the major factors of the dynamics of gene expression in the human malaria parasite, Plasmodium falciparum. To elucidate the role of chromatin remodeling in transcriptional regulation associated with the progression of the P. falciparum intraerythrocytic development cycle (IDC), we mapped the temporal pattern of chromosomal association with histone H3 and H4 modifications using ChIP-on-chip. Here, we have generated a broad integrative epigenomic map of twelve histone modifications during the P. falciparum IDC including H4K5ac, H4K8ac, H4K12ac, H4K16ac, H3K9ac, H3K14ac, H3K56ac, H4K20me1, H4K20me3, H3K4me3, H3K79me3 and H4R3me2. While some modifications were found to be associated with the vast majority of the genome and their occupancy was constant, others showed more specific and highly dynamic distribution. Importantly, eight modifications displaying tight correlations with transcript levels showed differential affinity to distinct genomic regions with H4K8ac occupying predominantly promoter regions while others occurred at the 5' ends of coding sequences. The promoter occupancy of H4K8ac remained unchanged when ectopically inserted at a different locus, indicating the presence of specific DNA elements that recruit histone modifying enzymes regardless of their broad chromatin environment. In addition, we showed the presence of multivalent domains on the genome carrying more than one histone mark, highlighting the importance of combinatorial effects on transcription. Overall, our work portrays a substantial association between chromosomal locations of various epigenetic markers, transcriptional activity and global stage-specific transitions in the epigenome. PMID:23468622

Gupta, Archna P; Chin, Wai Hoe; Zhu, Lei; Mok, Sachel; Luah, Yen-Hoon; Lim, Eng-How; Bozdech, Zbynek

2013-02-28

182

Identification and stoichiometry of glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchored membrane proteins of the human malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum.  

PubMed

Most proteins that coat the surface of the extracellular forms of the human malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum are attached to the plasma membrane via glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI) anchors. These proteins are exposed to neutralizing antibodies, and several are advanced vaccine candidates. To identify the GPI-anchored proteome of P. falciparum we used a combination of proteomic and computational approaches. Focusing on the clinically relevant blood stage of the life cycle, proteomic analysis of proteins labeled with radioactive glucosamine identified GPI anchoring on 11 proteins (merozoite surface protein (MSP)-1, -2, -4, -5, -10, rhoptry-associated membrane antigen, apical sushi protein, Pf92, Pf38, Pf12, and Pf34). These proteins represent approximately 94% of the GPI-anchored schizont/merozoite proteome and constitute by far the largest validated set of GPI-anchored proteins in this organism. Moreover MSP-1 and MSP-2 were present in similar copy number, and we estimated that together these proteins comprise approximately two-thirds of the total membrane-associated surface coat. This is the first time the stoichiometry of MSPs has been examined. We observed that available software performed poorly in predicting GPI anchoring on P. falciparum proteins where such modification had been validated by proteomics. Therefore, we developed a hidden Markov model (GPI-HMM) trained on P. falciparum sequences and used this to rank all proteins encoded in the completed P. falciparum genome according to their likelihood of being GPI-anchored. GPI-HMM predicted GPI modification on all validated proteins, on several known membrane proteins, and on a number of novel, presumably surface, proteins expressed in the blood, insect, and/or pre-erythrocytic stages of the life cycle. Together this work identified 11 and predicted a further 19 GPI-anchored proteins in P. falciparum. PMID:16603573

Gilson, Paul R; Nebl, Thomas; Vukcevic, Damjan; Moritz, Robert L; Sargeant, Tobias; Speed, Terence P; Schofield, Louis; Crabb, Brendan S

2006-04-07

183

Long term persistence of clonal malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum lineages in the Colombian Pacific region  

PubMed Central

Background Resistance to chloroquine and antifolate drugs has evolved independently in South America, suggesting that genotype - phenotype studies aimed at understanding the genetic basis of resistance to these and other drugs should be conducted in this continent. This research was conducted to better understand the population structure of Colombian Plasmodium falciparum in preparation for such studies. Results A set of 384 SNPs were genotyped in blood spot DNA samples from 447 P. falciparum infected subjects collected over a ten year period from four provinces of the Colombian Pacific coast to evaluate clonality, population structure and linkage disequilibrium (LD). Most infections (81%) contained a single predominant clone. These clustered into 136 multilocus genotypes (MLGs), with 32% of MLGs recovered from multiple (2 – 28) independent subjects. We observed extremely low genotypic richness (R?=?0.42) and long persistence of MLGs through time (median?=?537 days, range?=?1 – 2,997 days). There was a high probability (>5%) of sampling parasites from the same MLG in different subjects within 28 days, suggesting caution is needed when using genotyping methods to assess treatment success in clinical drug trials. Panmixia was rejected as four well differentiated subpopulations (FST?=?0.084 - 0.279) were identified. These occurred sympatrically but varied in frequency within the four provinces. Linkage disequilibrium (LD) decayed more rapidly (r2?=?0.17 for markers <10 kb apart) than observed previously in South American samples. Conclusions We conclude that Colombian populations have several advantages for association studies, because multiple clone infections are uncommon and LD decays over the scale of one or a few genes. However, the extensive population structure and low genotype richness will need to be accounted for when designing and analyzing association studies.

2013-01-01

184

Genetic polymorphism and natural selection in the malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum.  

PubMed Central

We have studied the genetic polymorphism at 10 Plasmodium falciparum loci that are considered potential targets for specific antimalarial vaccines. The polymorphism is unevenly distributed among the loci; loci encoding proteins expressed on the surface of the sporozoite or the merozoite (AMA-1, CSP, LSA-1, MSP-1, MSP-2, and MSP-3) are more polymorphic than those expressed during the sexual stages or inside the parasite (EBA-175, Pfs25, PF48/45, and RAP-1). Comparison of synonymous and nonsynonymous substitutions indicates that natural selection may account for the polymorphism observed at seven of the 10 loci studied. This inference depends on the assumption that synonymous substitutions are neutral, which we test by analyzing codon bias and G+C content in a set of 92 gene loci. We find evidence for an overall trend towards increasing A+T richness, but no evidence for mutation bias. Although the neutrality of synonymous substitutions is not definitely established, this trend towards an A+T rich genome cannot explain the accumulation of substitutions at least in the case of four genes (AMA-1, CSP, LSA-1, and PF48/45) because the Gleft and right arrow C transversions are more frequent than expected. Moreover, the Tajima test manifests positive natural selection for the MSP-1 and, less strongly, MSP-3 polymorphisms; the McDonald-Kreitman test manifests natural selection at LSA-1 and PF48/45. We conclude that there is definite evidence for positive natural selection in the genes encoding AMA-1, CSP, LSA-1, MSP-1, and Pfs48/45. For four other loci, EBA-175, MSP-2, MSP-3, and RAP-1, the evidence is limited. No evidence for natural selection is found for Pfs25.

Escalante, A A; Lal, A A; Ayala, F J

1998-01-01

185

Key gaps in the knowledge of Plasmodium vivax, a neglected human malaria parasite  

Microsoft Academic Search

Plasmodium vivax is geographically the most widely distributed cause of malaria in people, with up to 2·5 billion people at risk and an estimated 80 million to 300 million clinical cases every year—including severe disease and death. Despite this large burden of disease, P vivax is overlooked and left in the shadow of the enormous problem caused by Plasmodium falciparum

Ivo Mueller; Mary R Galinski; J Kevin Baird; Jane M Carlton; Dhanpat K Kochar; Pedro L Alonso; Hernando A del Portillo

2009-01-01

186

Triazolopyrimidine-based dihydroorotate dehydrogenase inhibitors with potent and selective activity against the malaria parasite, Plasmodium falciparum  

PubMed Central

A Plasmodium falciparum dihydroorotate dehydrogenase (PfDHODH) inhibitor that is potent (KI = 15 nM) and species-selective (>5,000-fold over the human enzyme) was identified by high-throughput screening. The substituted triazolopyrimidine and its structural analogs were produced by an inexpensive three-step synthesis and the series showed good association between PfDHODH inhibition and parasite toxicity. This study has identified the first nanomolar PfDHODH inhibitor with potent antimalarial activity in whole cells (EC50 = 79 nM).

Phillips, Margaret A.; Gujjar, Ramesh; Malmquist, Nicholas A.; White, John; El Mazouni, Farah; Baldwin, Jeffrey; Rathod, Pradipsinh K.

2008-01-01

187

Triazolopyrimidine-based dihydroorotate dehydrogenase inhibitors with potent and selective activity against the malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum.  

PubMed

A Plasmodium falciparum dihydroorotate dehydrogenase ( PfDHODH) inhibitor that is potent ( KI = 15 nM) and species-selective (>5000-fold over the human enzyme) was identified by high-throughput screening. The substituted triazolopyrimidine and its structural analogues were produced by an inexpensive three-step synthesis, and the series showed good association between PfDHODH inhibition and parasite toxicity. This study has identified the first nanomolar PfDHODH inhibitor with potent antimalarial activity in whole cells (EC50 = 79 nM). PMID:18522386

Phillips, Margaret A; Gujjar, Ramesh; Malmquist, Nicholas A; White, John; El Mazouni, Farah; Baldwin, Jeffrey; Rathod, Pradipsinh K

2008-06-04

188

The malaria parasite, Plasmodium falciparum, increases the frequency of multiple feeding of its mosquito vector, Anopheles gambiae.  

PubMed Central

It has often been suggested that vector-borne parasites alter their vector's feeding behaviour to increase their transmission, but these claims are often based on laboratory studies and lack rigorous testing in a natural situation. We show in this field study that the malaria parasite, Plasmodium falciparum, alters the blood-feeding behaviour of its mosquito vector, Anopheles gambiae s.l., in two ways. First, mosquitoes infected with sporozoited, the parasite stage that is transmitted from the mosquito to a human, took up larger blood meals than uninfected mosquitoes. Whereas 72% of the uninfected mosquitoes had obtained a full blood meal, 82% of the infected ones had engorged fully. Second, mosquitoes harbouring sporozoites were more likely to bite several people per night. Twenty-two per cent of the infected mosquitoes, but only 10% of the uninfected mosquitoes, contained blood from at least two people. We conclude that the observed changes in blood-feeding behaviour allow the parasite to spread more rapidly among human hosts, and thus confirm that the parasite manipulates the mosquito to increase its own transmission.

Koella, J C; S?rensen, F L; Anderson, R A

1998-01-01

189

Red blood cells derived from peripheral blood and bone marrow CD34+ human haematopoietic stem cells are permissive to Plasmodium parasites infection.  

PubMed

The production of fully functional human red cells in vitro from haematopoietic stem cells (hHSCs) has been successfully achieved. Recently, the use of hHSCs from cord blood represented a major improvement to develop the continuous culture system for Plasmodium vivax. Here, we demonstrated that CD34+hHSCs from peripheral blood and bone marrow can be expanded and differentiated to reticulocytes using a novel stromal cell. Moreover, these reticulocytes and mature red blood cells express surface markers for entrance of malaria parasites contain adult haemoglobin and are also permissive to invasion by P. vivax and Plasmodium falciparum parasites. PMID:24037205

Fernandez-Becerra, Carmen; Lelievre, Joel; Ferrer, Mireia; Anton, Nuria; Thomson, Richard; Peligero, Cristina; Almela, Maria Jesus; Lacerda, Marcus Vg; Herreros, Esperanza; Del Portillo, Hernando A

2013-09-01

190

Rodent malaria parasites Plasmodium chabaudi and P. vinckei do not increase their rates of gametocytogenesis in response to mosquito probing  

PubMed Central

Several vector-borne infectious agents facultatively alter their life history strategies in response to local vector densities. Some evidence suggests that malaria parasites invest more heavily in transmission stage production (gametocytogenesis) when vectors are present. Such a strategy could rapidly increase malaria transmission rates, particularly when adult mosquitoes begin to appear after dry seasons. However, in contrast to a recent experiment with a rodent malaria (Plasmodium chabaudi), we found no change in gametocytogenesis in either P. chabaudi or in another rodent malaria, P. vinckei, when their mouse hosts were exposed to mosquitoes. Positive results in the earlier study may have been because mosquito-feeding caused anaemia in hosts, a known promoter of gametocytogenesis. The substantial evidence that malaria and a variety of other parasites facultatively alter transmission strategies in response to a variety of environmental influences makes our results surprising.

Shutler, Dave; Reece, Sarah E; Mullie, Adele; Billingsley, Peter F; Read, Andrew F

2005-01-01

191

SNP Genotyping Identifies New Signatures of Selection in a Deep Sample of West African Plasmodium falciparum Malaria Parasites  

PubMed Central

We used a high-density single-nucleotide polymorphism array to genotype 75 Plasmodium falciparum isolates recently collected from Senegal and The Gambia to search for signals of selection in this malaria endemic region. We found little geographic or temporal stratification of the genetic diversity among the sampled parasites. Through application of the iHS and REHH haplotype-based tests for positive selection, we found evidence of recent selective sweeps at a known drug resistance locus, at several known antigenic loci, and at several genomic regions not previously identified as sites of recent selection. We discuss the value of deep population-specific genomic analyses for identifying selection signals within sampled endemic populations of parasites, which may correspond to local selection pressures such as distinctive therapeutic regimes or mosquito vectors.

Amambua-Ngwa, Alfred; Park, Daniel J.; Volkman, Sarah K.; Barnes, Kayla G.; Bei, Amy K.; Lukens, Amanda K.; Sene, Papa; Van Tyne, Daria; Ndiaye, Daouda; Wirth, Dyann F.; Conway, David J.; Neafsey, Daniel E.; Schaffner, Stephen F.

2012-01-01

192

SNP genotyping identifies new signatures of selection in a deep sample of West African Plasmodium falciparum malaria parasites.  

PubMed

We used a high-density single-nucleotide polymorphism array to genotype 75 Plasmodium falciparum isolates recently collected from Senegal and The Gambia to search for signals of selection in this malaria endemic region. We found little geographic or temporal stratification of the genetic diversity among the sampled parasites. Through application of the iHS and REHH haplotype-based tests for positive selection, we found evidence of recent selective sweeps at a known drug resistance locus, at several known antigenic loci, and at several genomic regions not previously identified as sites of recent selection. We discuss the value of deep population-specific genomic analyses for identifying selection signals within sampled endemic populations of parasites, which may correspond to local selection pressures such as distinctive therapeutic regimes or mosquito vectors. PMID:22688945

Amambua-Ngwa, Alfred; Park, Daniel J; Volkman, Sarah K; Barnes, Kayla G; Bei, Amy K; Lukens, Amanda K; Sene, Papa; Van Tyne, Daria; Ndiaye, Daouda; Wirth, Dyann F; Conway, David J; Neafsey, Daniel E; Schaffner, Stephen F

2012-06-11

193

Parasitological and new molecular-phylogenetic characterization of the malaria parasite Plasmodium tejerai in South American penguins.  

PubMed

This study is the first report on mortality of Spheniscus magellanicus, penguin of South America, caused by Plasmodium tejerai, which was identified using morphological and molecular analyses. Blood stages (trophozoites, meronts and gametocytes) were reported and illustrated. The necropsy revealed marked splenomegaly and pulmonary edema, as well as moderate hepatomegaly and hydropericardium. The histopathology revealed the presence of tissue meronts in the macrophages and endothelial cells of multiple organs. The molecular analyses showed 5.6% of genetic divergence in cytochrome b gene between P. tejerai and Plasmodium relictum. Morphology of blood and tissue stages of P. tejerai is similar to P. relictum; the distinction between these two species requires experience in the identification of avian Plasmodium species. Molecular studies associated with reliably identified morphological species are useful for barcoding and comparisons with previous studies of wildlife malaria infections as well as for posterior phylogenetic and phylogeographic studies. S. magellanicus is a new host record of P. tejerai, which is the virulent parasite and worth more attention in avian conservation and veterinary medicine projects in South America. PMID:23269202

Silveira, Patricia; Belo, Nayara O; Lacorte, Gustavo A; Kolesnikovas, Cristiane K M; Vanstreels, Ralph E T; Steindel, Mário; Catão-Dias, José Luiz; Valki?nas, Gediminas; Braga, Erika M

2012-12-23

194

Assessing the Cost-Benefit Effect of a Plasmodium falciparum Drug Resistance Mutation on Parasite Growth In Vitro  

PubMed Central

Plasmodium falciparum mutations associated with antimalarial resistance may be beneficial for parasites under drug pressure, although they may also cause a fitness cost. We herein present an in vitro model showing how this combined effect on parasite growth varies with the drug concentration and suggest a calculated drug-specific cost-benefit index, indicating the possible advantage for mutated parasites. We specifically studied the D-to-Y change at position 1246 encoded by the pfmdr1 gene (pfmdr1 D1246Y) in relation to amodiaquine resistance. Susceptibilities to amodiaquine, desethylamodiaquine, and chloroquine, as well as relative fitness, were determined for two modified isogenic P. falciparum clones differing only in the pfmdr1 1246 position. Data were used to create a new comparative graph of relative growth in relation to the drug concentration and to calculate the ratio between the benefit of resistance and the fitness cost. Results were related to an in vivo allele selection analysis after amodiaquine or artesunate-amodiaquine treatment. pfmdr1 1246Y was associated with decreased susceptibility to amodiaquine and desethylamodiaquine but at a growth fitness cost of 11%. Mutated parasites grew less in low drug concentrations due to a predominating fitness cost, but beyond a breakpoint concentration they grew more due to a predominating benefit of increased resistance. The cost-benefit indexes indicated that pfmdr1 1246Y was most advantageous for amodiaquine-exposed parasites. In vivo, a first drug selection of mutant parasites followed by a fitness selection of wild-type parasites supported the in vitro data. This cost-benefit model may predict the risk for selection of drug resistance mutations in different malaria transmission settings.

Ferreira, Pedro Eduardo; Martensson, Andreas; Ali, Abdullah; Bjorkman, Anders; Gil, Jose Pedro

2013-01-01

195

Host genotype by parasite genotype interactions underlying the resistance of anopheline mosquitoes to Plasmodium falciparum  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Most studies on the resistance of mosquitoes to their malaria parasites focus on the response of a mosquito line or colony against a single parasite genotype. In natural situations, however, it may be expected that mosquito-malaria relationships are based, as are many other host-parasite systems, on host genotype by parasite genotype interactions. In such systems, certain hosts are resistant

Louis Lambrechts; Jean Halbert; Patrick Durand; Louis C Gouagna; Jacob C Koella

2005-01-01

196

A novel Plasmodium falciparum SR protein is an alternative splicing factor required for the parasites' proliferation in human erythrocytes  

PubMed Central

Malaria parasites have a complex life cycle, during which they undergo significant biological changes to adapt to different hosts and changing environments. Plasmodium falciparum, the species responsible for the deadliest form of human malaria, maintains this complex life cycle with a relatively small number of genes. Alternative splicing (AS) is an important post-transcriptional mechanisms that enables eukaryotic organisms to expand their protein repertoire out of relatively small number of genes. SR proteins are major regulators of AS in higher eukaryotes. Nevertheless, the regulation of splicing as well as the AS machinery in Plasmodium spp. are still elusive. Here, we show that PfSR1, a putative P. falciparum SR protein, can mediate RNA splicing in vitro. In addition, we show that PfSR1 functions as an AS factor in mini-gene in vivo systems similar to the mammalian SR protein SRSF1. Expression of PfSR1-myc in P. falciparum shows distinct patterns of cellular localization during intra erythrocytic development. Furthermore, we determine that the predicted RS domain of PfSR1 is essential for its localization to the nucleus. Finally, we demonstrate that proper regulation of pfsr1 is required for parasite proliferation in human RBCs and over-expression of pfsr1 influences AS activity of P. falciparum genes in vivo.

Eshar, Shiri; Allemand, Eric; Sebag, Ariel; Glaser, Fabian; Muchardt, Christian; Mandel-Gutfreund, Yael; Karni, Rotem; Dzikowski, Ron

2012-01-01

197

Plasmodium vivax in the Democratic Republic of East Timor: Parasite prevalence and antifolate resistance-associated mutations.  

PubMed

In the Democratic Republic of East Timor, Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium vivax malaria coexist, but limited information is available about the latter species. Consequently, the prevalence of P. vivax and of its corresponding antifolate resistance-associated mutations in the pvdhfr and pvdhps genes was assessed here. Blood samples were collected from 650 individuals distributed among six districts, over two different periods, by either passive case detection (PCD) or active case detection (ACD). As expected, malaria was over-represented in the PCD sample (26% PCD vs 5% ACD), because the infection increases medical care seeking. Additionally, the relative frequency of P. vivax infections in symptomatic individuals (37%) was twice as high as the one in the asymptomatic sampling group (18%), suggesting that that this parasite is accounting for a significant proportion malaria-attributed morbidity. The frequency of specific sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine resistance-associated mutations genes was ascertained in P. vivax positive samples by PCR-RFLP. Although no mutants were detected in codons 383 and 553 of pvdhps, 48%, 76% and 82% of P. vivax-infected samples harbored the dhfr 33L, 58R and 117N mutations, respectively. Additionally, the frequency of parasites carrying both pvdhfr 58R and 117N mutant alleles accounted for a third of all genotypes analyzed, most likely due to inadvertent SP use in the past. In conclusion, evidence-based information is provided to promote optimized drug deployment and limit the evolution of resistance to antifolate resistance in P. vivax from East Timor. PMID:20412783

de Almeida, Afonso; Rosário, Virgílio E do; Henriques, Gisela; Arez, Ana Paula; Cravo, Pedro

2010-04-20

198

A novel Plasmodium falciparum SR protein is an alternative splicing factor required for the parasites' proliferation in human erythrocytes.  

PubMed

Malaria parasites have a complex life cycle, during which they undergo significant biological changes to adapt to different hosts and changing environments. Plasmodium falciparum, the species responsible for the deadliest form of human malaria, maintains this complex life cycle with a relatively small number of genes. Alternative splicing (AS) is an important post-transcriptional mechanisms that enables eukaryotic organisms to expand their protein repertoire out of relatively small number of genes. SR proteins are major regulators of AS in higher eukaryotes. Nevertheless, the regulation of splicing as well as the AS machinery in Plasmodium spp. are still elusive. Here, we show that PfSR1, a putative P. falciparum SR protein, can mediate RNA splicing in vitro. In addition, we show that PfSR1 functions as an AS factor in mini-gene in vivo systems similar to the mammalian SR protein SRSF1. Expression of PfSR1-myc in P. falciparum shows distinct patterns of cellular localization during intra erythrocytic development. Furthermore, we determine that the predicted RS domain of PfSR1 is essential for its localization to the nucleus. Finally, we demonstrate that proper regulation of pfsr1 is required for parasite proliferation in human RBCs and over-expression of pfsr1 influences AS activity of P. falciparum genes in vivo. PMID:22885299

Eshar, Shiri; Allemand, Eric; Sebag, Ariel; Glaser, Fabian; Muchardt, Christian; Mandel-Gutfreund, Yael; Karni, Rotem; Dzikowski, Ron

2012-08-09

199

Dematin, a Component of the Erythrocyte Membrane Skeleton, Is Internalized by the Malaria Parasite and Associates with Plasmodium 14-3-3*  

PubMed Central

The malaria parasite invades the terminally differentiated erythrocytes, where it grows and multiplies surrounded by a parasitophorous vacuole. Plasmodium blood stages translocate newly synthesized proteins outside the parasitophorous vacuole and direct them to various erythrocyte compartments, including the cytoskeleton and the plasma membrane. Here, we show that the remodeling of the host cell directed by the parasite also includes the recruitment of dematin, an actin-binding protein of the erythrocyte membrane skeleton and its repositioning to the parasite. Internalized dematin was found associated with Plasmodium 14-3-3, which belongs to a family of conserved multitask molecules. We also show that, in vitro, the dematin-14-3-3 interaction is strictly dependent on phosphorylation of dematin at Ser124 and Ser333, belonging to two 14-3-3 putative binding motifs. This study is the first report showing that a component of the erythrocyte spectrin-based membrane skeleton is recruited by the malaria parasite following erythrocyte infection.

Lalle, Marco; Curra, Chiara; Ciccarone, Fabio; Pace, Tomasino; Cecchetti, Serena; Fantozzi, Luca; Ay, Bernhard; Breton, Catherine Braun; Ponzi, Marta

2011-01-01

200

Drug-induced permeabilization of parasite's digestive vacuole is a key trigger of programmed cell death in Plasmodium falciparum  

PubMed Central

Having previously characterized chloroquine (CQ)-induced programmed cell death (PCD) hallmarks in the malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum and delineating a pathway linking these features, the roles of non-classical mediators were investigated in this paper. It was shown that the later stages of this pathway are Ca2+-dependent and transcriptionally regulated. Moreover, it was demonstrated for the first time that micromolar concentrations of CQ partially permeabilized the parasite's digestive vacuole (DV) membrane and that this important upstream event appears to precede mitochondrial dysfunction. This permeabilization of the DV occurred without rupture of the DV membrane and was reminiscent of lysosome-mediated cell death in mammalian cells. As such micromolar concentrations of CQ are found in the patient's plasma after initial CQ loading, this alludes to a clinically relevant antimalarial mechanism of the drug which has yet to be recognized. Furthermore, other ‘non-antimalarial' lysosomotropic compounds were also shown to cause DV permeabilization, triggering PCD in both CQ-sensitive and -resistant parasites. These findings present new avenues for antimalarial developments, which induce DV destabilization to kill parasites.

Ch'Ng, J-H; Liew, K; Goh, A S-P; Sidhartha, E; Tan, K S-W

2011-01-01

201

Drug-induced permeabilization of parasite's digestive vacuole is a key trigger of programmed cell death in Plasmodium falciparum.  

PubMed

Having previously characterized chloroquine (CQ)-induced programmed cell death (PCD) hallmarks in the malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum and delineating a pathway linking these features, the roles of non-classical mediators were investigated in this paper. It was shown that the later stages of this pathway are Ca(2+)-dependent and transcriptionally regulated. Moreover, it was demonstrated for the first time that micromolar concentrations of CQ partially permeabilized the parasite's digestive vacuole (DV) membrane and that this important upstream event appears to precede mitochondrial dysfunction. This permeabilization of the DV occurred without rupture of the DV membrane and was reminiscent of lysosome-mediated cell death in mammalian cells. As such micromolar concentrations of CQ are found in the patient's plasma after initial CQ loading, this alludes to a clinically relevant antimalarial mechanism of the drug which has yet to be recognized. Furthermore, other 'non-antimalarial' lysosomotropic compounds were also shown to cause DV permeabilization, triggering PCD in both CQ-sensitive and -resistant parasites. These findings present new avenues for antimalarial developments, which induce DV destabilization to kill parasites. PMID:21993392

Ch'ng, J-H; Liew, K; Goh, A S-P; Sidhartha, E; Tan, K S-W

2011-10-13

202

Transmission success of the malaria parasite Plasmodium mexicanum into its vector: role of gametocyte density and sex ratio.  

PubMed

The life-cycle of Plasmodium depends on transmission of the parasite from the vertebrate host into its vector when the insect takes a bloodmeal. Transmission success may depend in part on the parasite's gametocyte density and sex ratio in the blood. P. mexicanum, a parasite of fence lizards in California, USA, exploits the sandfly Lutzomyia vexator as its vector. In experimental transmissions using naturally infected lizards as donors of blood, transmission success (measured as percentage of vectors infected and number of parasite oocysts on the insect's midgut) was positively related to gametocyte density, although density above 20/1000 erythrocytes did not improve transmission. Sex ratio (proportion of microgametocytes in the infection) was positively correlated with gametocyte density. Transmission improved with higher proportion of microgametocytes, but partial correlations revealed that this was a result only of higher gametocyte densities. These results agree with the theory of virulence and sex ratios because single clone infections should produce a more female-biased sex ratio and grow to the minimum parasitaemia that would maximize clonal transmission, whereas multiple clone infections will be closer to a 1:1 sex ratio and yield a higher parasitaemia when each clone competes for transmission to the vector. PMID:11155927

Schall, J J

2000-12-01

203

Transport of an Mr approximately 300,000 Plasmodium falciparum protein (Pf EMP 2) from the intraerythrocytic asexual parasite to the cytoplasmic face of the host cell membrane  

Microsoft Academic Search

The profound changes in the morphology, antigenicity, and functional properties of the host erythrocyte membrane induced by intraerythrocytic parasites of the human malaria Plasmodium falciparum are poorly understood at the molecular level. We have used mouse mAbs to identify a very large malarial protein (Mr 300,000) that is exported from the para- site and deposited on the cytoplasmic face of

Russell J. Howard; Jeffrey A. Lyon; Allan J. Saul; Stephen B. Aley; Frank Klotz; Lindsey J. Panton; James A. Sherwood; Kevin Marsh; Masamichi Aikawa; Edwin P. Rock

1987-01-01

204

The Plasmodium serine-type SERA proteases display distinct expression patterns and non-essential in vivo roles during life cycle progression of the malaria parasite  

PubMed Central

Parasite proteases play key roles in several fundamental steps of the Plasmodium life cycle, including haemoglobin degradation, host cell invasion and parasite egress. Plasmodium exit from infected host cells appears to be mediated by a class of papain-like cysteine proteases called ‘serine repeat antigens’ (SERAs). A SERA subfamily, represented by Plasmodium falciparum SERA5, contains an atypical active site serine residue instead of a catalytic cysteine. Members of this SERAser subfamily are abundantly expressed in asexual blood stages, rendering them attractive drug and vaccine targets. In this study, we show by antibody localization and in vivo fluorescent tagging with the red fluorescent protein mCherry that the two P. berghei serine-type family members, PbSERA1 and PbSERA2, display differential expression towards the final stages of merozoite formation. Via targeted gene replacement, we generated single and double gene knockouts of the P. berghei SERAser genes. These loss-of-function lines progressed normally through the parasite life cycle, suggesting a specialized, non-vital role for serine-type SERAs in vivo. Parasites lacking PbSERAser showed increased expression of the cysteine-type PbSERA3. Compensatory mechanisms between distinct SERA subfamilies may thus explain the absence of phenotypical defect in SERAser disruptants, and challenge the suitability to develop potent antimalarial drugs based on specific inhibitors of Plasmodium serine-type SERAs.

Putrianti, Elyzana D; Schmidt-Christensen, Anja; Arnold, Iris; Heussler, Volker T; Matuschewski, Kai; Silvie, Olivier

2010-01-01

205

The Chitinase PfCHT1 from the Human Malaria Parasite Plasmodium falciparum Lacks Proenzyme and Chitin-Binding Domains and Displays Unique Substrate Preferences  

Microsoft Academic Search

Within hours after the ingestion of a blood meal, the mosquito midgut epithelium synthesizes a chitinous sac, the peritrophic matrix. Plasmodium ookinetes traverse the peritrophic matrix while escaping the mosquito midgut. Chitinases (EC 3.2.1.14) are critical for parasite invasion of the midgut: the presence of the chitinase inhibitor, allosamidin, in an infectious blood meal prevents oocyst development. A chitinase gene,

Joseph M. Vinetz; Sanat K. Dave; Charles A. Specht; Kenneth A. Brameld; Bo Xu; Rhian Hayward; David A. Fidock

1999-01-01

206

A comparison of the stage-specific efficacy of chloroquine, artemether and dioncophylline B against the rodent malaria parasite Plasmodium chabaudi chabaudi in vivo  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chloroquine, artemether and dioncophylline B efficacy against Plasmodium chabaudi was compared. One intraperitoneal injection (10 mg\\/kg body weight) was given daily over 3 consecutive days to OF1 mice when they were predominantly bearing ring, trophozoite and schizont forms. The parasitaemia was monitored every 2 h during two schizogonic cycles and daily thereafter until parasites were cleared. Chloroquine was more efficient

B. Chimanuka; G. François; G. Timperman; Vander Y. Heyden; J. Holenz; J. Plaizier-Vercammen; G. Bringmann

2001-01-01

207

IFN and IL10 Mediate Parasite-Specific Immune Responses of Cord Blood Cells Induced by Pregnancy-Associated Plasmodium falciparum Malaria1  

Microsoft Academic Search

Available evidence suggests that immune cells from neonates born to mothers with placental Plasmodium falciparum (Pf) infection are sensitized to parasite Ag in utero but have reduced ability to generate protective Th1 responses. In this study, we detected Pf Ag-specific IFN- T cells in cord blood from human neonates whose mothers had received treatment for malaria or who had active

Kim Brustoski; Ulrike Moller; Martin Kramer; Annika Petelski; Stephan Brenner; Dupeh R. Palmer; Martina Bongartz; Peter G. Kremsner; Adrian J. F. Luty; Urszula Krzych

208

Rapid communication Overcoming codon bias: A method for high-level overexpression of Plasmodium and other AT-rich parasite genes in Escherichia coli  

Microsoft Academic Search

Parasite genes often use codons which are rarely used in the highly expressed genes of Escherichia coli, possibly resulting in translational stalling and lower yields of recombinant protein. We have constructed the ''RIG'' plasmid to overcome the potential codon-bias problem seen in Plasmodium genes. RIG contains the genes that encode three tRNAs (Arg, Ile, Gly), which recognise rare codons found

Arthur M. Baca; Wim G. J. Hol

209

Plasmodium falciparum: Effects of Proteinase Inhibitors on Globin Hydrolysis by Cultured Malaria Parasites  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of peptide proteinase inhibitors on globin hydrolysis by cultured malaria parasites were studied. All of the four cysteine proteinase inhibitors evaluated blocked globin hydrolysis, as documented by the development of a morphological abnormality in which parasite food vacuoles filled with undegraded globin and by SDS-PAGE showing that the cysteine proteinase inhibitor-treated parasites accumulated large quantities of globin. The

P. J. Rosenthal

1995-01-01

210

Clonal diversity of a lizard malaria parasite, Plasmodium mexicanum, in its vertebrate host, the western fence lizard: role of variation in transmission intensity over time and space.  

PubMed

Within the vertebrate host, infections of a malaria parasite (Plasmodium) could include a single genotype of cells (single-clone infections) or two to several genotypes (multiclone infections). Clonal diversity of infection plays an important role in the biology of the parasite, including its life history, virulence, and transmission. We determined the clonal diversity of Plasmodium mexicanum, a lizard malaria parasite at a study region in northern California, using variable microsatellite markers, the first such study for any malaria parasite of lizards or birds (the most common hosts for Plasmodium species). Multiclonal infections are common (50-88% of infections among samples), and measures of genetic diversity for the metapopulation (expected heterozygosity, number of alleles per locus, allele length variation, and effective population size) all indicated a substantial overall genetic diversity. Comparing years with high prevalence (1996-1998 = 25-32% lizards infected), and years with low prevalence (2001-2005 = 6-12%) found fewer alleles in samples taken from the low-prevalence years, but no reduction in overall diversity (H = 0.64-0.90 among loci). In most cases, rare alleles appeared to be lost as prevalence declined. For sites chronically experiencing low transmission intensity (prevalence approximately 1%), overall diversity was also high (H = 0.79-0.91), but there were fewer multiclonal infections. Theory predicts an apparent excess in expected heterozygosity follows a genetic bottleneck. Evidence for such a distortion in genetic diversity was observed after the drop in parasite prevalence under the infinite alleles mutation model but not for the stepwise mutation model. The results are similar to those reported for the human malaria parasite, Plasmodium falciparum, worldwide, and support the conclusion that malaria parasites maintain high genetic diversity in host populations despite the potential for loss in alleles during the transmission cycle or during periods/locations when transmission intensity is low. PMID:17594442

Vardo, A M; Schall, J J

2007-07-01

211

Horizontal gene transfer of epigenetic machinery and evolution of parasitism in the malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum and other apicomplexans  

PubMed Central

Background The acquisition of complex transcriptional regulatory abilities and epigenetic machinery facilitated the transition of the ancestor of apicomplexans from a free-living organism to an obligate parasite. The ability to control sophisticated gene expression patterns enabled these ancient organisms to evolve several differentiated forms, invade multiple hosts and evade host immunity. How these abilities were acquired remains an outstanding question in protistan biology. Results In this work, we study SET domain bearing genes that are implicated in mediating immune evasion, invasion and cytoadhesion pathways of modern apicomplexans, including malaria parasites. We provide the first conclusive evidence of a horizontal gene transfer of a Histone H4 Lysine 20 (H4K20) modifier, Set8, from an animal host to the ancestor of apicomplexans. Set8 is known to contribute to the coordinated expression of genes involved in immune evasion in modern apicomplexans. We also show the likely transfer of a H3K36 methyltransferase (Ashr3 from plants), possibly derived from algal endosymbionts. These transfers appear to date to the transition from free-living organisms to parasitism and coincide with the proposed horizontal acquisition of cytoadhesion domains, the O-glycosyltransferase that modifies these domains, and the primary family of transcription factors found in apicomplexan parasites. Notably, phylogenetic support for these conclusions is robust and the genes clearly are dissimilar to SET sequences found in the closely related parasite Perkinsus marinus, and in ciliates, the nearest free-living organisms with complete genome sequences available. Conclusions Animal and plant sources of epigenetic machinery provide new insights into the evolution of parasitism in apicomplexans. Along with the horizontal transfer of cytoadhesive domains, O-linked glycosylation and key transcription factors, the acquisition of SET domain methyltransferases marks a key transitional event in the evolution to parasitism in this important protozoan lineage.

2013-01-01

212

Characterization of P0, a ribosomal phosphoprotein of Plasmodium falciparum. Antibody against amino-terminal domain inhibits parasite growth.  

PubMed

A cDNA expression clone of the human malarial parasite Plasmodium falciparum, lambdaPf4, which was reactive only to the immune sera and not to the patient sera, has recently been found to be the P. falciparum homologue of the P0 ribosomal phosphoprotein gene. A Northern analysis of the P0 gene revealed the presence of two transcripts, both present in all the different intraerythrocytic stages of the parasite life cycle. A 138-base pair amino-terminal domain of this gene was expressed as a fusion protein with glutathione S-transferase in Escherichia coli. Polyclonal antibodies raised against this domain immunoprecipitated the expected 38-kDa P0 protein from the 35S-labeled as well as 32P-labeled P. falciparum cultures. Monospecific human immune sera affinity-purified using the expression clone lambdaPf4 also immunoprecipitated the same size protein from [35S]methionine-labeled P. falciparum protein extract. Purified IgG from polyclonal antibodies raised against the amino-terminal domain of P0 protein completely inhibited the growth of P. falciparum in vitro. This inhibition appears to be mainly at the step of erythrocyte invasion by the parasites. PMID:9115284

Goswami, A; Singh, S; Redkar, V D; Sharma, S

1997-05-01

213

Expression of senescent antigen on erythrocytes infected with a knobby variant of the human malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum  

SciTech Connect

Erythrocytes infected with a knobby variant of Plasmodium falciparum selectively bind IgG autoantibodies in normal human serum. Quantification of membrane-bound IgG, by use of /sup 125/I-labeled protein A, revealed that erythrocytes infected with the knobby variant bound 30 times more protein A than did noninfected erythrocytes; infection with a knobless variant resulted in less than a 2-fold difference compared with noninfected erythrocytes. IgG binding to knobby erythrocytes appeared to be related to parasite development, since binding of /sup 125/I-labeled protein A to cells bearing young trophozoites (less than 20 hr after parasite invasion) was similar to binding to uninfected erythrocytes. By immunoelectron microscopy, the membrane-bound IgG on erythrocytes infected with the knobby variant was found to be preferentially associated with the protuberances (knobs) of the plasma membrane. The removal of aged or senescent erythrocytes from the peripheral circulation is reported to involve the binding of specific antibodies to an antigen (senescent antigen) related to the major erythrocyte membrane protein band 3. Since affinity-purified autoantibodies against band 3 specifically bound to the plasma membrane of erythrocytes infected with the knobby variant of P. falciparum, it is clear that the malaria parasite induces expression of senescent antigen.

Winograd, E.; Greenan, J.R.T.; Sherman, I.W.

1987-04-01

214

Potential of lichen secondary metabolites against Plasmodium liver stage parasites with FAS-II as the potential target.  

PubMed

Chemicals targeting the liver stage (LS) of the malaria parasite are useful for causal prophylaxis of malaria. In this study, four lichen metabolites, evernic acid (1), vulpic acid (2), psoromic acid (3), and (+)-usnic acid (4), were evaluated against LS parasites of Plasmodium berghei. Inhibition of P. falciparum blood stage (BS) parasites was also assessed to determine stage specificity. Compound 4 displayed the highest LS activity and stage specificity (LS IC50 value 2.3 ?M, BS IC50 value 47.3 ?M). The compounds 1-3 inhibited one or more enzymes (PfFabI, PfFabG, and PfFabZ) from the plasmodial fatty acid biosynthesis (FAS-II) pathway, a potential drug target for LS activity. To determine species specificity and to clarify the mechanism of reported antibacterial effects, 1-4 were also evaluated against FabI homologues and whole cells of various pathogens (S. aureus, E. coli, M. tuberculosis). Molecular modeling studies suggest that lichen acids act indirectly via binding to allosteric sites on the protein surface of the FAS-II enzymes. Potential toxicity of compounds was assessed in human hepatocyte and cancer cells (in vitro) as well as in a zebrafish model (in vivo). This study indicates the therapeutic and prophylactic potential of lichen metabolites as antibacterial and antiplasmodial agents. PMID:23806111

Lauinger, Ina L; Vivas, Livia; Perozzo, Remo; Stairiker, Christopher; Tarun, Alice; Zloh, Mire; Zhang, Xujie; Xu, Hua; Tonge, Peter J; Franzblau, Scott G; Pham, Duc-Hung; Esguerra, Camila V; Crawford, Alexander D; Maes, Louis; Tasdemir, Deniz

2013-06-19

215

Clonal diversity of a malaria parasite, Plasmodium mexicanum, and its transmission success from its vertebrate-to-insect host.  

PubMed

Infections of the lizard malaria parasite Plasmodium mexicanum are often genetically complex within their fence lizard host (Sceloporus occidentalis) harbouring two or more clones of parasite. The role of clonal diversity in transmission success was studied for P. mexicanum by feeding its sandfly vectors (Lutzomyia vexator and Lutzomyia stewarti) on experimentally infected lizards. Experimental infections consisted of one, two, three or more clones, assessed using three microsatellite markers. After 5days, vectors were dissected to assess infection status, oocyst burden and genetic composition of the oocysts. A high proportion (92%) of sandflies became infected and carried high oocyst burdens (mean of 56 oocysts) with no influence of clonal diversity on these two measures of transmission success. Gametocytemia was positively correlated with transmission success and the more common vector (L. vexator) developed more oocysts on midguts. A high proportion ( approximately 74%) of all alleles detected in the lizard blood was found in infected vectors. The relative proportion of clones within mixed infections, determined by peak heights on pherograms produced by the genetic analyser instrument, was very similar for the lizard's blood and infections in the vectors. These results demonstrate that P. mexicanum achieves high transmission success, with most clones making the transition from vertebrate-to-insect host, and thus explains in part the high genetic diversity of the parasite among all hosts at the study site. PMID:19523471

Vardo-Zalik, A M

2009-06-10

216

Multiple genetic origins of histidine-rich protein 2 gene deletion in Plasmodium falciparum parasites from Peru  

PubMed Central

The majority of malaria rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) detect Plasmodium falciparum histidine-rich protein 2 (PfHRP2), encoded by the pfhrp2 gene. Recently, P. falciparum isolates from Peru were found to lack pfhrp2 leading to false-negative RDT results. We hypothesized that pfhrp2-deleted parasites in Peru derived from a single genetic event. We evaluated the parasite population structure and pfhrp2 haplotype of samples collected between 1998 and 2005 using seven neutral and seven chromosome 8 microsatellite markers, respectively. Five distinct pfhrp2 haplotypes, corresponding to five neutral microsatellite-based clonal lineages, were detected in 1998-2001; pfhrp2 deletions occurred within four haplotypes. In 2003-2005, outcrossing among the parasite lineages resulted in eight population clusters that inherited the five pfhrp2 haplotypes seen previously and a new haplotype; pfhrp2 deletions occurred within four of these haplotypes. These findings indicate that the genetic origin of pfhrp2 deletion in Peru was not a single event, but likely occurred multiple times.

Akinyi, Sheila; Hayden, Tonya; Gamboa, Dionicia; Torres, Katherine; Bendezu, Jorge; Abdallah, Joseph F.; Griffing, Sean M.; Quezada, Wilmer Marquino; Arrospide, Nancy; De Oliveira, Alexandre Macedo; Lucas, Carmen; Magill, Alan J.; Bacon, David J.; Barnwell, John W.; Udhayakumar, Venkatachalam

2013-01-01

217

Ubiquitous Hepatocystis infections, but no evidence of Plasmodium falciparum-like malarial parasites in wild greater spot-nosed monkeys (Cercopithecus nictitans)?  

PubMed Central

Western gorillas (Gorilla gorilla) have been identified as the natural reservoir of the parasites that were the immediate precursor of Plasmodium falciparum infecting humans. Recently, a P. falciparum-like sequence was reported in a sample from a captive greater spot-nosed monkey (Cercopithecus nictitans), and was taken to indicate that this species may also be a natural reservoir for P. falciparum-related parasites. To test this hypothesis we screened blood samples from 292 wild C. nictitans monkeys that had been hunted for bushmeat in Cameroon. We detected Hepatocystis spp. in 49% of the samples, as well as one sequence from a clade of Plasmodium spp. previously found in birds, lizards and bats. However, none of the 292 wild C. nictitans harbored P. falciparum-like parasites.

Ayouba, Ahidjo; Mouacha, Fatima; Learn, Gerald H.; Mpoudi-Ngole, Eitel; Rayner, Julian C.; Sharp, Paul M.; Hahn, Beatrice H.; Delaporte, Eric; Peeters, Martine

2013-01-01

218

Ubiquitous Hepatocystis infections, but no evidence of Plasmodium falciparum-like malaria parasites in wild greater spot-nosed monkeys (Cercopithecus nictitans).  

PubMed

Western gorillas (Gorilla gorilla) have been identified as the natural reservoir of the parasites that were the immediate precursor of Plasmodium falciparum infecting humans. Recently, a P. falciparum-like sequence was reported in a sample from a captive greater spot-nosed monkey (Cercopithecus nictitans), and was taken to indicate that this species may also be a natural reservoir for P. falciparum-related parasites. To test this hypothesis we screened blood samples from 292 wild C. nictitans monkeys that had been hunted for bushmeat in Cameroon. We detected Hepatocystis spp. in 49% of the samples, as well as one sequence from a clade of Plasmodium spp. previously found in birds, lizards and bats. However, none of the 292 wild C. nictitans harbored P. falciparum-like parasites. PMID:22691606

Ayouba, Ahidjo; Mouacha, Fatima; Learn, Gerald H; Mpoudi-Ngole, Eitel; Rayner, Julian C; Sharp, Paul M; Hahn, Beatrice H; Delaporte, Eric; Peeters, Martine

2012-06-09

219

Transcriptional profiling of growth perturbations of the human malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum  

Microsoft Academic Search

Functions have yet to be defined for the majority of genes of Plasmodium falciparum, the agent responsible for the most serious form of human malaria. Here we report changes in P. falciparum gene expression induced by 20 compounds that inhibit growth of the schizont stage of the intraerythrocytic development cycle. In contrast with previous studies, which reported only minimal changes

Guangan Hu; Ana Cabrera; Maya Kono; Sachel Mok; Balbir K Chaal; Silvia Haase; Klemens Engelberg; Sabna Cheemadan; Tobias Spielmann; Peter R Preiser; Tim-W Gilberger; Zbynek Bozdech

2009-01-01

220

Plasmodium in the Postgenomic Era: New Insights into the Molecular Cell Biology of Malaria Parasites  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this review, we bring together some of the approaches toward understanding the cellular and molecular biology of Plasmodium species and their interaction with their host red blood cells. Considerable impetus has come from the development of new methods of molecular genetics and bioinformatics, and it is important to evaluate the wealth of these novel data in the context of

Celia R. S. Garcia; Mauro F. de Azevedo; Gerhard Wunderlich; Alexandre Budu; Jason A. Young; Lawrence Bannister

2008-01-01

221

Systematic analysis of proteomes with emphasis on insertions in malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum.  

PubMed

Protein insertion sequences and their biological role in many organisms have been largely unknown. Here we study proteomes of 12 organisms of diverse genomes for insertion length and amino acid preferences. A total of 871 common proteins were catalogued amongst the 12 organisms for structure based sequence alignment. This underscores the key observations: (i) AT-richness seems to have no implication on the average protein length in an organism as only Dictyostelium discoideum and Plasmodium falciparum encode proteins of high average length (ii) all studied organisms possess insertion in their proteins, however > 40 residue length insertions and unique insertions were abundant in pathogen proteomes of Plasmodium falciparum followed by Toxoplasma gondii and Leishmania major, suggesting accessory structural and functional features that may favour evolutionary fitness. (iii) Glu and Asp residues are over-represented in most proteomes irrespective of AT/GC compositions or pathogenecity with an exception of Plasmodium falciparum where Asn dominates (iv) Abundance of Asn residues in Plasmodium falciparum is exceptional given that this feature is not common to other AT-rich genomes. In conclusion, this bioinformatics based study provides comprehensive knowledge of insertions and residue's preference among pathogen proteins, which can be exploited for further inhibitor studies. PMID:23688187

Kapil, Charu; Hussain, Tahir; Jairajpuri, Mohamad Aman; Yogavel, Manickam; Chatterjee, Samrat; Sharma, Amit

2013-10-01

222

Apoptosis related to chloroquine sensitivity of the human malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum  

Microsoft Academic Search

As chemoresistance of Plasmodium falciparum to chloroquine has arisen, new ways of combating the infection are needed. Similarities exist between the multidrug resistance of mammalian cells and chloroquine resistance of P. falciparum, based on the occurrence of internucleosomal deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) breakdown and the ability of some anticancer drugs and chloroquine to induce apoptosis. Using chloroquine, oligonucleosomal DNA fragmentation was

S. Picot; J. Burnod; V. Bracchi; B. F. F. Chumpitazi; P. Ambroise-Thomas

1997-01-01

223

Identification of a Potent Combination of Key Plasmodium falciparum Merozoite Antigens That Elicit Strain-Transcending Parasite-Neutralizing Antibodies  

PubMed Central

Blood-stage malaria vaccines that target single Plasmodium falciparum antigens involved in erythrocyte invasion have not induced optimal protection in field trials. Blood-stage malaria vaccine development has faced two major hurdles, antigenic polymorphisms and molecular redundancy, which have led to an inability to demonstrate potent, strain-transcending, invasion-inhibitory antibodies. Vaccines that target multiple invasion-related parasite proteins may inhibit erythrocyte invasion more efficiently. Our approach is to develop a receptor-blocking blood-stage vaccine against P. falciparum that targets the erythrocyte binding domains of multiple parasite adhesins, blocking their interaction with their receptors and thus inhibiting erythrocyte invasion. However, with numerous invasion ligands, the challenge is to identify combinations that elicit potent strain-transcending invasion inhibition. We evaluated the invasion-inhibitory activities of 20 different triple combinations of antibodies mixed in vitro against a diverse set of six key merozoite ligands, including the novel ligands P. falciparum apical asparagine-rich protein (PfAARP), EBA-175 (PfF2), P. falciparum reticulocyte binding-like homologous protein 1 (PfRH1), PfRH2, PfRH4, and Plasmodium thrombospondin apical merozoite protein (PTRAMP), which are localized in different apical organelles and are translocated to the merozoite surface at different time points during invasion. They bind erythrocytes with different specificities and are thus involved in distinct invasion pathways. The antibody combination of EBA-175 (PfF2), PfRH2, and PfAARP produced the most efficacious strain-transcending inhibition of erythrocyte invasion against diverse P. falciparum clones. This potent antigen combination was selected for coimmunization as a mixture that induced balanced antibody responses against each antigen and inhibited erythrocyte invasion efficiently. We have thus demonstrated a novel two-step screening approach to identify a potent antigen combination that elicits strong strain-transcending invasion inhibition, supporting its development as a receptor-blocking malaria vaccine.

Pandey, Alok K.; Reddy, K. Sony; Sahar, Tajali; Gupta, Sonal; Singh, Hina; Reddy, E. Jyotheeswara; Asad, Mohd; Siddiqui, Faiza A.; Gupta, Pankaj; Singh, Bijender; More, Kunal R.; Mohmmed, Asif; Chitnis, Chetan E.; Chauhan, Virander S.

2013-01-01

224

Identification of a potent combination of key Plasmodium falciparum merozoite antigens that elicit strain-transcending parasite-neutralizing antibodies.  

PubMed

Blood-stage malaria vaccines that target single Plasmodium falciparum antigens involved in erythrocyte invasion have not induced optimal protection in field trials. Blood-stage malaria vaccine development has faced two major hurdles, antigenic polymorphisms and molecular redundancy, which have led to an inability to demonstrate potent, strain-transcending, invasion-inhibitory antibodies. Vaccines that target multiple invasion-related parasite proteins may inhibit erythrocyte invasion more efficiently. Our approach is to develop a receptor-blocking blood-stage vaccine against P. falciparum that targets the erythrocyte binding domains of multiple parasite adhesins, blocking their interaction with their receptors and thus inhibiting erythrocyte invasion. However, with numerous invasion ligands, the challenge is to identify combinations that elicit potent strain-transcending invasion inhibition. We evaluated the invasion-inhibitory activities of 20 different triple combinations of antibodies mixed in vitro against a diverse set of six key merozoite ligands, including the novel ligands P. falciparum apical asparagine-rich protein (PfAARP), EBA-175 (PfF2), P. falciparum reticulocyte binding-like homologous protein 1 (PfRH1), PfRH2, PfRH4, and Plasmodium thrombospondin apical merozoite protein (PTRAMP), which are localized in different apical organelles and are translocated to the merozoite surface at different time points during invasion. They bind erythrocytes with different specificities and are thus involved in distinct invasion pathways. The antibody combination of EBA-175 (PfF2), PfRH2, and PfAARP produced the most efficacious strain-transcending inhibition of erythrocyte invasion against diverse P. falciparum clones. This potent antigen combination was selected for coimmunization as a mixture that induced balanced antibody responses against each antigen and inhibited erythrocyte invasion efficiently. We have thus demonstrated a novel two-step screening approach to identify a potent antigen combination that elicits strong strain-transcending invasion inhibition, supporting its development as a receptor-blocking malaria vaccine. PMID:23184525

Pandey, Alok K; Reddy, K Sony; Sahar, Tajali; Gupta, Sonal; Singh, Hina; Reddy, E Jyotheeswara; Asad, Mohd; Siddiqui, Faiza A; Gupta, Pankaj; Singh, Bijender; More, Kunal R; Mohmmed, Asif; Chitnis, Chetan E; Chauhan, Virander S; Gaur, Deepak

2012-11-26

225

PfPDE1, a novel cGMP-specific phosphodiesterase from the human malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum  

PubMed Central

This is the first report of molecular characterization of a novel cyclic nucleotide PDE (phosphodiesterase), isolated from the human malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum and designated PfPDE1. PfPDE1 cDNA encodes an 884-amino-acid protein, including six putative transmembrane domains in the N-terminus followed by a catalytic domain. The PfPDE1 gene is a single-copy gene consisting of two exons and a 170 bp intron. PfPDE1 transcripts were abundant in the ring form of the asexual blood stages of the parasite. The C-terminal catalytic domain of PfPDE1, produced in Escherichia coli, specifically hydrolysed cGMP with a Km value of 0.65 ?M. Among the PDE inhibitors tested, a PDE5 inhibitor, zaprinast, was the most effective, having an IC50 value of 3.8 ?M. The non-specific PDE inhibitors IBMX (3-isobutyl-1-methylxanthine), theophylline and the antimalarial chloroquine had IC50 values of over 100 ?M. Membrane fractions prepared from P. falciparum at mixed asexual blood stages showed potent cGMP hydrolytic activity compared with cytosolic fractions. This hydrolytic activity was sensitive to zaprinast with an IC50 value of 4.1 ?M, but insensitive to IBMX and theophylline. Furthermore, an in vitro antimalarial activity assay demonstrated that zaprinast inhibited the growth of the asexual blood parasites, with an ED50 value of 35 ?M. The impact of cyclic nucleotide signalling on the cellular development of this parasite has previously been discussed. Thus this enzyme is suggested to be a novel potential target for the treatment of the disease malaria.

2005-01-01

226

Molecular Factors and Biochemical Pathways Induced by Febrile Temperature in Intraerythrocytic Plasmodium falciparum Parasites  

Microsoft Academic Search

Intermittent episodes of febrile illness are the most benign and recognized symptom of infection with malaria parasites, although the effects on parasite survival and virulence remain unclear. In this study, we identified the molecular factors altered in response to febrile temperature by measuring differential expression levels of individual genes using high-density oligonucleotide microarray technology and by performing biological assays in

Miranda S. M. Oakley; Sanjai Kumar; Vivek Anantharaman; Hong Zheng; Babita Mahajan; J. David Haynes; J. Kathleen Moch; Rick Fairhurst; Thomas F. McCutchan; L. Aravind

2007-01-01

227

Functional Analysis of Protein Kinase CK2 of the Human Malaria Parasite Plasmodium falciparum  

Microsoft Academic Search

Protein kinase CK2 (casein kinase 2) is a eukaryotic serine\\/threonine protein kinase with multiple sub- strates and roles in diverse cellular processes, including differentiation, proliferation, and translation. The mammalian holoenzyme consists of two catalytic alpha or alpha subunits and two regulatory beta subunits. We report the identification and characterization of a Plasmodium falciparum CK2 orthologue, PfCK2, and two PfCK2 orthologues,

Z. Holland; R. Prudent; J.-B. Reiser; C. Cochet; C. Doerig

2009-01-01

228

Transmission stages of Plasmodium: does the parasite use the one same signal, provided both by the host and the vector, for gametocytogenesis and sporozoite maturation?  

PubMed

Among the microorganisms that strictly depend upon other organisms (hosts or vectors) for achieving their life cycle, protozoan and metazoan parasites have been often primarily distinguished through the major pathogenic processes they could induce. A variety of different mechanisms linked to parasitism can indeed systemically (e.g. Plasmodium falciparum) or locally (e.g. Toxoplasma gondii) induce important alterations of tissue homeostasis. But more than obvious pathogenicity, it is the capacity to be transmitted that is essential for parasite survival and there is increasing evidence that certain parasites can achieve their life cycle to the point of transmission in the absence of clinically detectable processes. For this, constitutive microenvironments of the host or vector can be exploited. Moreover, parasites are sometimes able to highjack effectors of the host's immune response towards conditioning the microenvironments which are permissive to differentiation of transmissible developmental stages. Based on a few examples taken from studies on the transmission stages of Leishmania, Toxoplasma and Plasmodium, we have here attempted to formulate a few hypothesis on the biology of the transmission stages of P. falciparum, i.e. on gametocytogenesis and sporozoite maturation. As discussants, we may have been somewhat dwarfed by issues evoked by the organizers of this meeting in the title of the session, i.e. 'Vector-parasite-man interactions'!... In reaction, we may have taken refuge in somewhat over-selective comments, biased by the objects of our personal research.... PMID:10697849

Milon, G; David, P H

1999-09-01

229

The Evolutionary History of Plasmodium vivax as Inferred from Mitochondrial Genomes: Parasite Genetic Diversity in the Americas  

PubMed Central

Plasmodium vivax is the most prevalent human malaria parasite in the Americas. Previous studies have contrasted the genetic diversity of parasite populations in the Americas with those in Asia and Oceania, concluding that New World populations exhibit low genetic diversity consistent with a recent introduction. Here we used an expanded sample of complete mitochondrial genome sequences to investigate the diversity of P. vivax in the Americas as well as in other continental populations. We show that the diversity of P. vivax in the Americas is comparable to that in Asia and Oceania, and we identify several divergent clades circulating in South America that may have resulted from independent introductions. In particular, we show that several haplotypes sampled in Venezuela and northeastern Brazil belong to a clade that diverged from the other P. vivax lineages at least 30,000 years ago, albeit not necessarily in the Americas. We propose that, unlike in Asia where human migration increases local genetic diversity, the combined effects of the geographical structure and the low incidence of vivax malaria in the Americas has resulted in patterns of low local but high regional genetic diversity. This could explain previous views that P. vivax in the Americas has low genetic diversity because these were based on studies carried out in limited areas. Further elucidation of the complex geographical pattern of P. vivax variation will be important both for diversity assessments of genes encoding candidate vaccine antigens and in the formulation of control and surveillance measures aimed at malaria elimination.

Taylor, Jesse E.; Pacheco, M. Andreina; Bacon, David J.; Beg, Mohammad A.; Machado, Ricardo Luiz; Fairhurst, Rick M.; Herrera, Socrates; Kim, Jung-Yeon; Menard, Didier; Povoa, Marinete Marins; Villegas, Leopoldo; Mulyanto; Snounou, Georges; Cui, Liwang; Zeyrek, Fadile Yildiz; Escalante, Ananias A.

2013-01-01

230

Density-dependent impact of the human malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum gametocyte sex ratio on mosquito infection rates  

PubMed Central

Malaria parasites produce male and female life cycle stages (gametocytes) that must fertilize to achieve successful colonization of the mosquito. Gametocyte sex ratios have been shown to be under strong selection pressure both as an adaptive response to a worsening blood environment for transmission and according to the number of co-infecting clones in the vertebrate. Evidence for an impact of sex ratio on the transmission success of Plasmodium falciparum has, however, been more controversial. Theoretical models of fertilization predict that increasingly male sex ratios will be favoured at low gametocyte densities to ensure fertilization. Here, we analyse in vitro transmission studies of P. falciparum to Anopheles gambiae mosquitoes and test this prediction. We find that there is a discernible effect of sex ratio on transmission but which is dependent upon the gametocyte density. While increasingly male sex ratios do give higher transmission success at low gametocyte densities, they reduce success at higher densities. This therefore provides empirical confirmation that sex ratio has an immediate impact on transmission success and that it is density-dependent. Identifying the signals used by the parasite to alter its sex ratio is essential to determine the success of transmission-blocking vaccines that aim to impede the fertilization process.

Mitri, C.; Thiery, I.; Bourgouin, C.; Paul, R. E. L.

2009-01-01

231

Complete Gene Map of the Plastid-like DNA of the Malaria Parasite Plasmodium falciparum  

Microsoft Academic Search

Malaria parasites, and other parasitic protists of the Phylum Apicomplexa, carry a plastid-like genome with greatly reduced sequence complexity. This 35 kb DNA circle resembles the plastid DNA of non-photosynthetic plants, encoding almost exclusively components involved in gene expression. The complete gene map described here includes genes for duplicated large and small subunit rRNAs, 25 species of tRNA, three subunits

Paul W. Denny; Peter R. Preiser; Kaveri Rangachari; Kate Roberts; Anjana Roy; Andrea Whyte; Malcolm Strath; Daphne J. Moore; Peter W. Moore; Donald H. Williamson

1996-01-01

232

Isolation and Functional Characterization of Two Distinct Sexual-Stage-Specific Promoters of the Human Malaria Parasite Plasmodium falciparum†  

PubMed Central

Transmission of malaria depends on the successful development of the sexual stages of the parasite within the midgut of the mosquito vector. The differentiation process leading to the production of the sexual stages is delineated by several developmental switches. Arresting the progression through this sexual differentiation pathway would effectively block the spread of the disease. The successful development of such transmission-blocking agents is hampered by the lack of a detailed understanding of the program of gene expression that governs sexual differentiation of the parasite. Here we describe the isolation and functional characterization of the Plasmodium falciparum pfs16 and pfs25 promoters, whose activation marks the developmental switches executed during the sexual differentiation process. We have studied the differential activation of the pfs16 and pfs25 promoters during intraerythrocytic development by transfection of P. falciparum and during gametogenesis and early sporogonic development by transfection of the related malarial parasite P. gallinaceum. Our data indicate that the promoter of the pfs16 gene is activated at the onset of gametocytogenesis, while the activity of the pfs25 promoter is induced following the transition to the mosquito vector. Both promoters have unusual DNA compositions and are extremely A/T rich. We have identified the regions in the pfs16 and pfs25 promoters that are essential for high transcriptional activity. Furthermore, we have identified a DNA-binding protein, termed PAF-1, which activates pfs25 transcription in the mosquito midgut. The data presented here shed the first light on the details of processes of gene regulation in the important human pathogen P. falciparum.

Dechering, Koen J.; Kaan, Anita M.; Mbacham, Wilfred; Wirth, Dyann F.; Eling, Wijnand; Konings, Ruud N. H.; Stunnenberg, Hendrik G.

1999-01-01

233

Plasmodium falciparum Inhibitor-3 Homolog Increases Protein Phosphatase Type 1 Activity and Is Essential for Parasitic Survival*  

PubMed Central

Growing evidence indicates that the protein regulators governing protein phosphatase 1 (PP1) activity have crucial functions because their deletion drastically affects cell growth and division. PP1 has been found to be essential in Plasmodium falciparum, but little is known about its regulators. In this study, we have identified a homolog of Inhibitor-3 of PP1, named PfI3. NMR analysis shows that PfI3 belongs to the disordered protein family. High affinity interaction of PfI3 and PfPP1 is demonstrated in vitro using several methods, with an apparent dissociation constant KD of 100 nm. We further show that the conserved 41KVVRW45 motif is crucial for this interaction as the replacement of the Trp45 by an Ala45 severely decreases the binding to PfPP1. Surprisingly, PfI3 was unable to rescue a yeast strain deficient in I3 (Ypi1). This lack of functional orthology was supported as functional assays in vitro have revealed that PfI3, unlike yeast I3 and human I3, increases PfPP1 activity. Reverse genetic approaches suggest an essential role of PfI3 in the growth and/or survival of blood stage parasites because attempts to obtain knock-out parasites were unsuccessful, although the locus of PfI3 is accessible. The main localization of a GFP-tagged PfI3 in the nucleus of all blood stage parasites is compatible with a regulatory role of PfI3 on the activity of nuclear PfPP1.

Freville, Aline; Landrieu, Isabelle; Garcia-Gimeno, M. Adelaida; Vicogne, Jerome; Montbarbon, Muriel; Bertin, Benjamin; Verger, Alexis; Kalamou, Hadidjatou; Sanz, Pascual; Werkmeister, Elisabeth; Pierrot, Christine; Khalife, Jamal

2012-01-01

234

Plasmodium falciparum synthetic LbL microparticle vaccine elicits protective neutralizing antibody and parasite-specific cellular immune responses.  

PubMed

Epitopes of the circumsporozoite (CS) protein of Plasmodium falciparum, the most pathogenic species of the malaria parasite, have been shown to elicit protective immunity in experimental animals and human volunteers. The mechanisms of immunity include parasite-neutralizing antibodies that can inhibit parasite motility in the skin at the site of infection and in the bloodstream during transit to the hepatocyte host cell and also block interaction with host cell receptors on hepatocytes. In addition, specific CD4+ and CD8+ cellular mechanisms target the intracellular hepatic forms, thus preventing release of erythrocytic stage parasites from the infected hepatocyte and the ensuing blood stage cycle responsible for clinical disease. An innovative method for producing particle vaccines, layer-by-layer (LbL) fabrication of polypeptide films on solid CaCO3 cores, was used to produce synthetic malaria vaccines containing a tri-epitope CS peptide T1BT comprising the antibody epitope of the CS repeat region (B) and two T-cell epitopes, the highly conserved T1 epitope and the universal epitope T. Mice immunized with microparticles loaded with T1BT peptide developed parasite-neutralizing antibodies and malaria-specific T-cell responses including cytotoxic effector T-cells. Protection from liver stage infection following challenge with live sporozoites from infected mosquitoes correlated with neutralizing antibody levels. Although some immunized mice with low or undetectable neutralizing antibodies were also protected, depletion of T-cells prior to challenge resulted in the majority of mice remaining resistant to challenge. In addition, mice immunized with microparticles bearing only T-cell epitopes were not protected, demonstrating that cellular immunity alone was not sufficient for protective immunity. Although the microparticles without adjuvant were immunogenic and protective, a simple modification with the lipopeptide TLR2 agonist Pam3Cys increased the potency and efficacy of the LbL vaccine candidate. This study demonstrates the potential of LbL particles as promising malaria vaccine candidates using the T1BT epitopes from the P. falciparum CS protein. PMID:23481177

Powell, Thomas J; Tang, Jie; Derome, Mary E; Mitchell, Robert A; Jacobs, Andrea; Deng, Yanhong; Palath, Naveen; Cardenas, Edwin; Boyd, James G; Nardin, Elizabeth

2013-02-26

235

Simultaneous determination of phagocytosis of Plasmodium falciparum-parasitized and non-parasitized red blood cells by flow cytometry  

PubMed Central

Background Severe falciparum malaria anaemia (SMA) is a frequent cause of mortality in children and pregnant women. The most important determinant of SMA appears to be the loss of non-parasitized red blood cells (np-RBCs) in excess of loss of parasitized (p-) RBCs at schizogony. Based on data from acute SMA where excretion of haemoglobin in urine and increased plasma haemoglobin represented respectively less than 1% and 0.5% of total Hb loss, phagocytosis appears to be the predominant mechanism of removal of np- and p-RBC. Estimates indicate that np-RBCs are cleared in approximately 10-fold excess compared to p-RBCs. An even larger removal of np-RBCs has been described in vivax malaria anaemia. Estimates were based on two single studies both performed on neurosyphilitic patients who underwent malaria therapy. As the share of np-RBC removal is likely to vary between wide limits, it is important to assess the contribution of both np- and p-RBC populations to overall RBC loss, and disclose the mechanism of such variability. As available methods do not discriminate between the removal of np- vs p-RBCs, the purpose of this study was to set up a system allowing the simultaneous determination of phagocytosis of p- and np-RBC in the same sample. Methods and Results Phagocytosis of p- and np-RBCs was quantified in the same sample using double-labelled target cells and the human phagocytic cell-line THP-1, pre-activated by TNF and IFN? to enhance their phagocytic activity. Target RBCs were double-labelled with fluorescent carboxyfluorescein-succinimidyl ester (CF-SE) and the DNA label ethidium bromide (EB). EB, a DNA label, allowed to discriminate p-RBCs that contain parasitic DNA from the np-RBCs devoid of DNA. FACS analysis of THP-1 cells fed with double-labelled RBCs showed that p- and np-RBCs were phagocytosed in different proportions in relation to parasitaemia. Conclusions The assay allowed the analysis of phagocytosis rapidly and with low subjective error, and the differentiation between phagocytosed p- and np-RBCs in the same sample. The presented method may help to analyse the factors or conditions that modulate the share of np-RBC removal in vitro and in vivo and lead to a better understanding of the pathogenesis of SMA.

2012-01-01

236

Anti-folate drug resistance in Africa: meta-analysis of reported dihydrofolate reductase (dhfr) and dihydropteroate synthase (dhps) mutant genotype frequencies in African Plasmodium falciparum parasite populations  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Mutations in the dihydrofolate reductase (dhfr) and dihydropteroate synthase (dhps) genes of Plasmodium falciparum are associated with resistance to anti-folate drugs, most notably sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine (SP). Molecular studies document the prevalence of these mutations in parasite populations across the African continent. However, there is no systematic review examining the collective epidemiological significance of these studies. This meta-analysis attempts to: 1)

Sankar Sridaran; Shannon K McClintock; Luke M Syphard; Karen M Herman; John W Barnwell; Venkatachalam Udhayakumar

2010-01-01

237

Analysis of transcriptomes of human malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum using full-length enriched library: identification of novel genes and diverse transcription start sites of messenger RNAs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Now that the sequencing of the complete genome of the human malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum is now underway, importance of analyses of complementary DNAs (cDNAs) is looming up. We constructed a full-length-enriched cDNA library from erythrocytic stage P. falciparum using the ‘oligo-capping’ method (Nucleic Acids Res. 29 (2001) 70). In this report we describe the novel genes identified using this

Junichi Watanabe; Masahide Sasaki; Yutaka Suzuki; Sumio Sugano

2002-01-01

238

SAM domain-dependent activity of PfTKL3, an essential tyrosine kinase-like kinase of the human malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum  

Microsoft Academic Search

Over the last decade, several protein kinases inhibitors have reached the market for cancer chemotherapy. The kinomes of pathogens\\u000a represent potentially attractive targets in infectious diseases. The functions of the majority of protein kinases of Plasmodium falciparum, the parasitic protist responsible for the most virulent form of human malaria, remain unknown. Here we present a thorough\\u000a characterisation of PfTKL3 (PF13_0258),

Abdirahman Abdi; Sylvain Eschenlauer; Luc Reininger; Christian Doerig

2010-01-01

239

Identification of a novel antigenic domain of Plasmodium falciparum merozoite surface protein-1 that specifically binds to human erythrocytes and inhibits parasite invasion, in vitro  

Microsoft Academic Search

Merozoite surface protein 1 (MSP-1) of Plasmodium falciparum is a promising candidate for vaccine development against malaria. Identification of protective epitopes within MSP-1 is an important step towards the elucidation of mechanisms of parasitic invasion and for the creation of a multi-subunit vaccine. In this study, we show that a 115 amino acid region (p115MSP-1) within the p38 domain of

David-P Nikodem; Eugene-A Davidson

2000-01-01

240

IFN-gamma and IL10 mediate parasite-specific immune responses of cord blood cells induced by pregnancy-associated Plasmodium falciparum malaria  

Microsoft Academic Search

Available evidence suggests that immune cells from neonates born to mothers with placental Plasmodium falciparum (Pf) infection are sensitized to parasite Ag in utero but have reduced ability to generate protective Th1 responses. In this study, we detected Pf Ag-specific IFN-gamma(+) T cells in cord blood from human neonates whose mothers had received treatment for malaria or who had active

K. Brustoski; U. Moller; M. Kramer; A. Petelski; S. Brenner; D. Palmer; M. Bongartz; P. G. Kremsner; A. J. F. Luty; U. Krzych

2005-01-01

241

An Acid-loading Chloride Transport Pathway in the Intraerythrocytic Malaria Parasite, Plasmodium falciparum*  

PubMed Central

The intraerythrocytic malaria parasite exerts tight control over its ionic composition. In this study, a combination of fluorescent ion indicators and 36Cl? flux measurements was used to investigate the transport of Cl? and the Cl?-dependent transport of “H+-equivalents” in mature (trophozoite stage) parasites, isolated from their host erythrocytes. Removal of extracellular Cl?, resulting in an outward [Cl?] gradient, gave rise to a cytosolic alkalinization (i.e. a net efflux of H+-equivalents). This was reversed on restoration of extracellular Cl?. The flux of H+-equivalents was inhibited by 4,4?-diisothiocyanostilbene-2,2?-disulfonic acid and, when measured in ATP-depleted parasites, showed a pronounced dependence on the pH of the parasite cytosol; the flux was low at cytosolic pH values < 7.2 but increased steeply with cytosolic pH at values > 7.2. 36Cl? influx measurements revealed the presence of a Cl? uptake mechanism with characteristics similar to those of the Cl?-dependent H+-equivalent flux. The intracellular concentration of Cl? in the parasite was estimated to be ?48 mm in situ. The data are consistent with the intraerythrocytic parasite having in its plasma membrane a 4,4?-diisothiocyanostilbene-2,2?-disulfonic acid-sensitive transporter that, under physiological conditions, imports Cl? together with H+-equivalents, resulting in an intracellular Cl? concentration well above that which would occur if Cl? ions were distributed passively in accordance with the parasite's large, inwardly negative membrane potential.

Henry, Roselani I.; Cobbold, Simon A.; Allen, Richard J. W.; Khan, Asif; Hayward, Rhys; Lehane, Adele M.; Bray, Patrick G.; Howitt, Susan M.; Biagini, Giancarlo A.; Saliba, Kevin J.; Kirk, Kiaran

2010-01-01

242

Plasmodium, Saurocytozoon and Haemocystidium parasites (Apicomplexa: Plasmodiidae) from the rock agama, Laudakia caucasia (Sauria: Agamidae), in southern Asia.  

PubMed

The rock agama, Laudakia caucasia Eichwald (Agamidae) is host to Plasmodium caucasica sp. n. and Saurocytozoon agamidorum sp. n. in western Pakistan. Plasmodium caucasica is characterized by very large meronts, 11-21 by 8-17 microm that produce 32-67 merozoites, which nearly fill the host erythrocyte, and smaller, ovoid to elongate gametocytes, 6-14 by 2.5-6 microm, with length by width (LW) 21-55 microm2, and L/W ratio 1.0-4.0. Host cells are usually mature erythrocytes. In Azerbaijan, P. caucasica parasitizes immature erythroid cells. Dimensions of meronts are 10-16 by 6-12 microm, and merozoite numbers are 12-44. Gametocytes are 6-14 by 3-6 microm, with LW 31-56 microm2, and L/W ratio 1.0-4.0. Saurocytozoon agamidorum sp. n. gametocytes are 6.5-13 microm in diameter, with LW 35-79 microm2, and L/W ratio 1.0-2.2. They occupy lymphocytes as host cells, which are greatly distorted by gametocyte presence and often show nuclei nearly divided into two portions, one portion at each end of the cell. Haemocystidium grahami (Shortt, 1922), redescribed from material found in L. caucasia from Azerbaijan, has rounded to elongate gametocytes, 8-19.5 by 4-8 microm, LW 60.5-102 microm2, and L/W ratio 1.0-4.5. The prominent light golden pigment granules often coalesce to nearly cover the surface of the gametocyte. The presence of P. caucasica and S. agamidorum extends the range of the two genera in saurian hosts throughout much of the southern Asia mainland. PMID:23951929

Telford, Sam R

2013-07-01

243

Molecular Characterization of a Novel Geranylgeranyl Pyrophosphate Synthase from Plasmodium Parasites*  

PubMed Central

We present here a study of a eukaryotic trans-prenylsynthase from the malaria pathogen Plasmodium vivax. Based on the results of biochemical assays and contrary to previous indications, this enzyme catalyzes the production of geranylgeranyl pyrophosphate (GGPP) rather than farnesyl pyrophosphate (FPP). Structural analysis shows that the product length is constrained by a hydrophobic cavity formed primarily by a set of residues from the same subunit as the product as well as at least one other from the dimeric partner. Furthermore, Plasmodium GGPP synthase (GGPPS) can bind nitrogen-containing bisphosphonates (N-BPs) strongly with the energetically favorable cooperation of three Mg2+, resulting in inhibition by this class of compounds at IC50 concentrations below 100 nm. In contrast, human and yeast GGPPSs do not accommodate a third magnesium atom in the same manner, resulting in their insusceptibility to N-BPs. This differentiation is in part attributable to a deviation in a conserved motif known as the second aspartate-rich motif: whereas the aspartates at the start and end of the five-residue motif in FFPP synthases and P. vivax GGPPSs both participate in the coordination of the third Mg2+, an asparagine is featured as the last residue in human and yeast GGPPSs, resulting in a different manner of interaction with nitrogen-containing ligands.

Artz, Jennifer D.; Wernimont, Amy K.; Dunford, James E.; Schapira, Matthieu; Dong, Aiping; Zhao, Yong; Lew, Jocelyne; Russell, R. Graham G.; Ebetino, F. Hal; Oppermann, Udo; Hui, Raymond

2011-01-01

244

Habitat Fragmentation and Ecological Traits Influence the Prevalence of Avian Blood Parasites in a Tropical Rainforest Landscape  

PubMed Central

In the tropical rainforests of northern Australia, we investigated the effects of habitat fragmentation and ecological parameters on the prevalence of blood-borne parasites (Plasmodium and Haemoproteus) in bird communities. Using mist-nets on forest edges and interiors, we sampled bird communities across six study sites: 3 large fragments (20–85 ha) and 3 continuous-forest sites. From 335 mist-net captures, we recorded 28 bird species and screened 299 bird samples with PCR to amplify and detect target DNA. Of the 28 bird species sampled, 19 were infected with Plasmodium and/or Haemoproteus and 9 species were without infection. Over one third of screened birds (99 individuals) were positive for Haemoproteus and/or Plasmodium. In forest fragments, bird capture rates were significantly higher than in continuous forests, but bird species richness did not differ. Unexpectedly, we found that the prevalence of the dominant haemosporidian infection, Haemoproteus, was significantly higher in continuous forest than in habitat fragments. Further, we found that ecological traits such as diet, foraging height, habitat specialisation and distributional ranges were significantly associated with blood-borne infections.

Laurance, Susan G. W.; Jones, Dean; Westcott, David; Mckeown, Adam; Harrington, Graham; Hilbert, David W.

2013-01-01

245

Habitat fragmentation and ecological traits influence the prevalence of avian blood parasites in a tropical rainforest landscape.  

PubMed

In the tropical rainforests of northern Australia, we investigated the effects of habitat fragmentation and ecological parameters on the prevalence of blood-borne parasites (Plasmodium and Haemoproteus) in bird communities. Using mist-nets on forest edges and interiors, we sampled bird communities across six study sites: 3 large fragments (20-85 ha) and 3 continuous-forest sites. From 335 mist-net captures, we recorded 28 bird species and screened 299 bird samples with PCR to amplify and detect target DNA. Of the 28 bird species sampled, 19 were infected with Plasmodium and/or Haemoproteus and 9 species were without infection. Over one third of screened birds (99 individuals) were positive for Haemoproteus and/or Plasmodium. In forest fragments, bird capture rates were significantly higher than in continuous forests, but bird species richness did not differ. Unexpectedly, we found that the prevalence of the dominant haemosporidian infection, Haemoproteus, was significantly higher in continuous forest than in habitat fragments. Further, we found that ecological traits such as diet, foraging height, habitat specialisation and distributional ranges were significantly associated with blood-borne infections. PMID:24124541

Laurance, Susan G W; Jones, Dean; Westcott, David; McKeown, Adam; Harrington, Graham; Hilbert, David W

2013-10-04

246

Perturbations of Plasmodium Puf2 expression and RNA-seq of Puf2-deficient sporozoites reveal a critical role in maintaining RNA homeostasis and parasite transmissibility.  

PubMed

Malaria's cycle of infection requires parasite transmission between a mosquito vector and a mammalian host. We here demonstrate that the Plasmodium yoelii Pumilio-FBF family member Puf2 allows the sporozoite to remain infectious in the mosquito salivary glands while awaiting transmission. Puf2 mediates this solely through its RNA-binding domain (RBD) likely by stabilizing or hastening the degradation of specific mRNAs. Puf2 traffics to sporozoite cytosolic granules, which are negative for several markers of stress granules and P-bodies, and disappear rapidly after infection of hepatocytes. In contrast to previously described Plasmodium berghei pbpuf2(-) parasites, pypuf2(-) sporozoites have no apparent defect in host infection when tested early in salivary gland residence, but become progressively non-infectious and prematurely transform into EEFs during prolonged salivary gland residence. The premature overexpression of Puf2 in oocysts causes striking deregulation of sporozoite maturation and infectivity while extension of Puf2 expression in liverstages causes no defect, suggesting that the presence of Puf2 alone is not sufficient for its functions. Finally, by conducting the first comparative RNA-seq analysis of Plasmodium sporozoites, we find that Puf2 may play a role in directly or indirectly maintaining the homeostasis of specific transcripts. These findings uncover requirements for maintaining a window of opportunity for the malaria parasite to accommodate the unpredictable moment of transmission from mosquito to mammalian host. PMID:23356439

Lindner, Scott E; Mikolajczak, Sebastian A; Vaughan, Ashley M; Moon, Wonjong; Joyce, Brad R; Sullivan, William J; Kappe, Stefan H I

2013-02-27

247

Relative clonal density of malaria parasites in mixed-genotype infections: validation of a technique using microsatellite markers for Plasmodium falciparum and P. mexicanum.  

PubMed

Quantifying the relative proportion of coexisting genotypes (clones) of a malaria parasite within its vertebrate host's blood would provide insights into critical features of the biology of the parasite, including competition among clones, gametocyte sex ratio, and virulence. However, no technique has been available to extract such data for natural parasite-host systems when the number of clones cycling in the overall parasite population is likely to be large. Recent studies find that data from genetic analyzer instruments for microsatellite markers allow measuring clonal proportions. We conducted a validation study for Plasmodium mexicanum and Plasmodium falciparum by mixing DNA from single-clone infections to simulate mixed infections of each species with known proportions of clones. Results for any mixture of DNA gave highly reproducible results. The relationship between known and measured relative proportions of clones was linear, with high regression r² values. Known and measured clone proportions for simulated infections followed over time (mixtures) were compared with 3 methods: using uncorrected data, with uncorrected data and confidence intervals constructed from observed experimental error, and using a baseline mixture of equal proportions to calibrate all other results. All 3 methods demonstrated value in studies of mixed-genotype infections sampled a single time or followed over time. Thus, the method should open new windows into the biology of malaria parasites. PMID:20950097

Ford, Alice Flynn; Vardo-Zalik, Anne M; Schall, Jos J

2010-06-21

248

Circumsporozoite protein of the human malaria parasite Plasmodium ovale identified with monoclonal antibodies.  

PubMed Central

Monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) have been produced against Plasmodium ovale sporozoites and used to characterize the circumsporozoite (CS) protein. Six MAbs were produced, and all were species specific. By using Western blot (immunoblot) analysis, three polypeptides were detected: a predominant 51,000-Mr polypeptide and two presumed precursor 57,000- and 67,000-Mr molecules. The presence of a repeating epitope in the CS protein of P. ovale was demonstrated by using one of the MAbs in a single-antibody two-site enzyme immunoassay. Three MAbs recognized epitopes on the surfaces of sporozoites; the presence of at least one other epitope within the CS protein, but not on the surfaces of P. ovale sporozoites, was also demonstrated. Images

Procell, P M; Collins, W E; Campbell, G H

1988-01-01

249

Impact of Mosquito Bites on Asexual Parasite Density and Gametocyte Prevalence in Asymptomatic Chronic Plasmodium falciparum Infections and Correlation with IgE and IgG Titers  

PubMed Central

An immunomodulatory role of arthropod saliva has been well documented, but evidence for an effect on Plasmodium sp. infectiousness remains controversial. Mosquito saliva may orient the immune response toward a Th2 profile, thereby priming a Th2 response against subsequent antigens, including Plasmodium. Orientation toward a Th1 versus a Th2 profile promotes IgG and IgE proliferation, respectively, where the former is crucial for the development of an efficient antiparasite immune response. Here we assessed the direct effect of mosquito bites on the density of Plasmodium falciparum asexual parasites and the prevalence of gametocytes in chronic, asymptomatic infections in a longitudinal cohort study of seasonal transmission. We additionally correlated these parasitological measures with IgE and IgG antiparasite and anti-salivary gland extract titers. The mosquito biting density was positively correlated with the asexual parasite density but not asexual parasite prevalence and was negatively correlated with gametocyte prevalence. Individual anti-salivary gland IgE titers were also negatively correlated with gametocyte carriage and were strongly positively correlated with antiparasite IgE titers, consistent with the hypothesis that mosquito bites predispose individuals to develop an IgE antiparasite response. We provide evidence that mosquito bites have an impact on asymptomatic infections and differentially so for the production of asexual and sexual parasites. An increased research focus on the immunological impact of mosquito bites during asymptomatic infections is warranted, to establish whether strategies targeting the immune response to saliva can reduce the duration of infection and the onward transmission of the parasite.

Lawaly, Ramatoulaye; Konate, Lassana; Marrama, Laurence; Dia, Ibrahima; Diallo, Diawo; Diene Sarr, Fatoumata; Schneider, Bradley S.; Casademont, Isabelle; Diallo, Mawlouth; Brey, Paul T.; Sakuntabhai, Anavaj; Mecheri, Salah

2012-01-01

250

Expression, purification and biochemical characterization of recombinant Ca-dependent protein kinase 2 of the malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum.  

PubMed

Calcium-dependent protein kinases (CDPKs) are serine/threonine kinases that react in response to calcium which functions as a trigger for several mechanisms in plants and invertebrates, but not in mammals. Recent structural studies have defined the role of calcium in the activation of CDPKs and have elucidated the important structural changes caused by calcium in order to allow the kinase domain of CDPK to bind and phosphorylate the substrate. However, the role of autophosphorylation in CDPKs is still not fully understood. In Plasmodium falciparum, seven CDPKs have been identified by sequence comparison, and four of them have been characterized and assigned to play a role in parasite motility, gametogenesis and egress from red blood cells. Although PfCDPK2 was already discovered in 1997, little is known about this enzyme and its metabolic role. In this work, we have expressed and purified PfCDPK2 at high purity in its unphosphorylated form and characterized its biochemical properties. Moreover, propositions about putative substrates in P. falciparum are made based on the analysis of the phosphorylation sites on the artificial substrate myelin basic protein (MBP). PMID:23792132

Lauciello, Leonardo; Kappes, Barbara; Scapozza, Leonardo; Perozzo, Remo

2013-06-18

251

Landscape features associated with infection by a malaria parasite (Plasmodium mexicanum) and the importance of multiple scale studies.  

PubMed

In a 3-year study, we examined landscape features (aspect, slope, sun exposure, canopy cover, type of ground cover, and nearest water source) that were potentially related to prevalence of infection with Plasmodium mexicanum in fence lizards (Sceloporus occidentalis) within a 4.5 ha study area in northern California, USA. Logistic regression analysis showed that ground cover type was the primary mediator of the probability of P. mexicanum infection. Infected lizards were captured more often in rock and/or leaf litter locations than in grassy ones. In another experiment, the study area was divided into 9 sites (0.07-0.33 ha), and infection prevalence was calculated for each. Three sites with high (> 30%) infection prevalence had significantly more rocky outcrops and leaf litter than those with low (< 20%) or moderate (20-30%) infection prevalence (N = 3 sites each). We conclude that lizard site selection may influence the probability of exposure to infected vectors and thus the likelihood of P. mexicanum infection. We also demonstrate that studies at different spatial scales may be required to understand fully the relationship between landscape features and parasite distribution. PMID:11393823

Eisen, R J; Wright, N M

2001-05-01

252

Consistent and contrasting properties of lineage-specific genes in the apicomplexan parasites Plasmodium and Theileria  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Lineage-specific genes, the genes that are restricted to a limited subset of related organisms, may be important in adaptation. In parasitic organisms, lineage-specific gene products are possible targets for vaccine development or therapeutics when these genes are absent from the host genome. RESULTS: In this study, we utilized comparative approaches based on a phylogenetic framework to characterize lineage-specific genes

Chih-Horng Kuo; Jessica C Kissinger

2008-01-01

253

Highly Sensitive Quantitative Real-Time PCR for the Detection of Plasmodium Liver-Stage Parasite Burden following Low-Dose Sporozoite Challenge  

PubMed Central

The pre-erythrocytic stages of Plasmodium spp. are increasingly recognised as ideal targets for prophylactic vaccines and drug treatments. Intense research efforts in the last decade have been focused on in vitro culture and in vivo detection and quantification of liver stage parasites to assess the effects of candidate vaccines or drugs. Typically, the onset of blood stage parasitaemia is used as a surrogate endpoint to estimate the efficacy of vaccines and drugs targeting pre-erythrocytic parasite stages in animal models. However, this provides no information on the parasite burden in the liver after vaccination or treatment and therefore does not detect partial efficacy of any vaccine or drug candidates. Herein, we describe a quantitative RT-PCR method adapted to detect and quantitate Plasmodium yoelii liver stages in mice with increased sensitivity even after challenge with as few as 50 cryopreserved sporozoites (corresponding to approximately 5-10 freshly isolated sporozoites). We have validated our quantitative RT-PCR assay according to the MIQE (Minimum Information for Publication of Quantitative Real-Time PCR Experiments) guidelines and established high reproducibility and accuracy. Our assay provides a rapid and reproducible assessment of liver stage parasite burden in rodent malaria models, thereby facilitating the evaluation of the efficacy of anti-malarial drugs or prophylactic vaccines with high precision and efficacy.

Schussek, Sophie; Groves, Penny L.; Apte, Simon H.; Doolan, Denise L.

2013-01-01

254

Total and functional parasite specific IgE responses in Plasmodium falciparum-infected patients exhibiting different clinical status  

PubMed Central

Background There is an increase of serum levels of IgE during Plasmodium falciparum infections in individuals living in endemic areas. These IgEs either protect against malaria or increase malaria pathogenesis. To get an insight into the exact role played by IgE in the outcome of P. falciparum infection, total IgE levels and functional anti-parasite IgE response were studied in children and adults, from two different endemic areas Gabon and India, exhibiting either uncomplicated malaria, severe non cerebral malaria or cerebral malaria, in comparison with control individuals. Methodology and results Blood samples were collected from controls and P. falciparum-infected patients before treatment on the day of hospitalization (day 0) in India and, in addition, on days 7 and 30 after treatment in Gabon. Total IgE levels were determined by ELISA and functional P. falciparum-specific IgE were estimated using a mast cell line RBL-2H3 transfected with a human Fc? RI ?-chain that triggers degranulation upon human IgE cross-linking. Mann Whitney and Kruskall Wallis tests were used to compare groups and the Spearman test was used for correlations. Total IgE levels were confirmed to increase upon infection and differ with level of transmission and age but were not directly related to the disease phenotype. All studied groups exhibited functional parasite-specific IgEs able to induce mast cell degranulation in vitro in the presence of P. falciparum antigens. Plasma IgE levels correlated with those of IL-10 in uncomplicated malaria patients from Gabon. In Indian patients, plasma IFN-? , TNF and IL-10 levels were significantly correlated with IgE concentrations in all groups. Conclusion Circulating levels of total IgE do not appear to correlate with protection or pathology, or with anti-inflammatory cytokine pattern bias during malaria. On the contrary, the P. falciparum-specific IgE response seems to contribute to the control of parasites, since functional activity was higher in asymptomatic and uncomplicated malaria patients than in severe or cerebral malaria groups.

Duarte, Joana; Deshpande, Prakash; Guiyedi, Vincent; Mecheri, Salah; Fesel, Constantin; Cazenave, Pierre-Andre; Mishra, Gyan C; Kombila, Maryvonne; Pied, Sylviane

2007-01-01

255

Renal cortical necrosis and acute kidney injury associated with Plasmodium vivax: a neglected human malaria parasite.  

PubMed

Plasmodium vivax is causing increasingly more cases of severe malaria worldwide. There is an urgent need to reexamine the clinical spectrum and burden of P. vivax so that adequate control measures can be implemented against this emerging but neglected disease. Herein, we report a case of renal acute cortical necrosis and acute kidney injury (AKI) associated with P. vivax monoinfection. Her initial serum creatinine was 7.3 mg/dL on admission. Modification of Diet in Renal Disease (MDRD) Study glomerular filtration rate (GFR) value was 7 mL/min/1.73 m(2) (normal kidney function-GFR above 90 mL/min/1.73 m(2) and no proteinuria). On follow-up, 5 months later, her SCr. was 2.43 mg/dl with no proteinuria. MDRD GFR value was 24 mL/min/1.73 m(2) suggesting severe chronic kidney disease (CKD; GFR less than 60 or kidney damage for at least 3 months), stage 4. Our case report highlights the fact that P. vivax malaria is benign by name but not always by nature. AKI associated with P. vivax malaria can lead to CKD. Further studies are needed to determine why P. vivax infections are becoming more severe. PMID:22669691

Kute, Vivek B; Vanikar, Aruna V; Ghuge, Pramod P; Goswami, Jitendra G; Patel, Mohan P; Patel, Himanshu V; Gumber, Manoj R; Shah, Pankaj R; Trivedi, Hargovind L

2012-06-06

256

Wolbachia Infections Are Virulent and Inhibit the Human Malaria Parasite Plasmodium Falciparum in Anopheles Gambiae  

PubMed Central

Endosymbiotic Wolbachia bacteria are potent modulators of pathogen infection and transmission in multiple naturally and artificially infected insect species, including important vectors of human pathogens. Anopheles mosquitoes are naturally uninfected with Wolbachia, and stable artificial infections have not yet succeeded in this genus. Recent techniques have enabled establishment of somatic Wolbachia infections in Anopheles. Here, we characterize somatic infections of two diverse Wolbachia strains (wMelPop and wAlbB) in Anopheles gambiae, the major vector of human malaria. After infection, wMelPop disseminates widely in the mosquito, infecting the fat body, head, sensory organs and other tissues but is notably absent from the midgut and ovaries. Wolbachia initially induces the mosquito immune system, coincident with initial clearing of the infection, but then suppresses expression of immune genes, coincident with Wolbachia replication in the mosquito. Both wMelPop and wAlbB significantly inhibit Plasmodium falciparum oocyst levels in the mosquito midgut. Although not virulent in non-bloodfed mosquitoes, wMelPop exhibits a novel phenotype and is extremely virulent for approximately 12–24 hours post-bloodmeal, after which surviving mosquitoes exhibit similar mortality trajectories to control mosquitoes. The data suggest that if stable transinfections act in a similar manner to somatic infections, Wolbachia could potentially be used as part of a strategy to control the Anopheles mosquitoes that transmit malaria.

Hughes, Grant L.; Koga, Ryuichi; Xue, Ping; Fukatsu, Takema; Rasgon, Jason L.

2011-01-01

257

In vitro selection of Plasmodium falciparum drug-resistant parasite lines.  

PubMed

The in vitro selection of antimicrobial resistance in important pathogens can provide critical information on the genetic basis of drug resistance, and such information can be used to predict, anticipate and even contain the spread of resistance in clinical practice. For instance, the discovery of the role of pfmdr1 in mefloquine resistance in malaria parasites resulted from in vitro studies. However, the in vitro selection of resistance is difficult, challenging and time consuming. In this review, we discuss the key parameters that impact on the efficiency of the in vitro selection of resistance, and propose strategies to improve and streamline this process. PMID:20022938

Nzila, Alexis; Mwai, Leah

2009-12-18

258

In vitro selection of Plasmodium falciparum drug-resistant parasite lines  

PubMed Central

The in vitro selection of antimicrobial resistance in important pathogens can provide critical information on the genetic basis of drug resistance, and such information can be used to predict, anticipate and even contain the spread of resistance in clinical practice. For instance, the discovery of the role of pfmdr1 in mefloquine resistance in malaria parasites resulted from in vitro studies. However, the in vitro selection of resistance is difficult, challenging and time consuming. In this review, we discuss the key parameters that impact on the efficiency of the in vitro selection of resistance, and propose strategies to improve and streamline this process.

Nzila, Alexis; Mwai, Leah

2010-01-01

259

Variable SNP density in aspartyl-protease genes of the malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum.  

PubMed

An analysis of the diversity of the aspartyl proteases of Plasmodium falciparum, known as plasmepsins (PMs), was completed in view of their possible role as drug targets. DNA sequence polymorphisms were identified in nine pm genes including their non-coding (introns and 5' flanking) sequences. All genes contained at least one single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP). Extensive microsatellite diversity was observed predominantly in non-coding sequences. All but one non-synonymous polymorphism (a conservative substitution) were mapped to the surface of the predicted protein, contradicting a possible role in enzymatic activity. The distribution of SNPs was found to be non-random among pm genes, with pm6 and pm10 having significantly higher SNP densities, suggesting they were under selection. For pm6 the majority of the SNPs were in introns and some of these may contribute to splice site variation. SNPs were found at a high density in both the coding and non-coding sequences of pm10. Recombination was important in generating additional diversity at this locus. Although direct selection for pm10 mutations could not be ruled out, the presence of balancing selection and a high density of SNPs in non-coding sequence led us to propose that another gene under selection may be influencing the diversity in the region. By sequencing short DNA tags in a 200 kb region flanking pm10 we show that a cluster of antigen genes, known to be under diversifying selection, may contribute to the observed diversity. We discuss the importance of diversity and local selection effects when choosing drug targets for intervention strategies. PMID:16784823

Barry, Alyssa E; Leliwa-Sytek, Aleksandra; Man, Kitty; Kasper, Jacob M; Hartl, Daniel L; Day, Karen P

2006-04-05

260

Asexual Populations of the Human Malaria Parasite, Plasmodium falciparum, Use a Two-Step Genomic Strategy to Acquire Accurate, Beneficial DNA Amplifications  

PubMed Central

Malaria drug resistance contributes to up to a million annual deaths. Judicious deployment of new antimalarials and vaccines could benefit from an understanding of early molecular events that promote the evolution of parasites. Continuous in vitro challenge of Plasmodium falciparum parasites with a novel dihydroorotate dehydrogenase (DHODH) inhibitor reproducibly selected for resistant parasites. Genome-wide analysis of independently-derived resistant clones revealed a two-step strategy to evolutionary success. Some haploid blood-stage parasites first survive antimalarial pressure through fortuitous DNA duplications that always included the DHODH gene. Independently-selected parasites had different sized amplification units but they were always flanked by distant A/T tracks. Higher level amplification and resistance was attained using a second, more efficient and more accurate, mechanism for head-to-tail expansion of the founder unit. This second homology-based process could faithfully tune DNA copy numbers in either direction, always retaining the unique DNA amplification sequence from the original A/T-mediated duplication for that parasite line. Pseudo-polyploidy at relevant genomic loci sets the stage for gaining additional mutations at the locus of interest. Overall, we reveal a population-based genomic strategy for mutagenesis that operates in human stages of P. falciparum to efficiently yield resistance-causing genetic changes at the correct locus in a successful parasite. Importantly, these founding events arise with precision; no other new amplifications are seen in the resistant haploid blood stage parasite. This minimizes the need for meiotic genetic cleansing that can only occur in sexual stage development of the parasite in mosquitoes.

Ahyong, Vida; Patrapuvich, Rapatbhorn; White, John; Gujjar, Ramesh; Phillips, Margaret A.; DeRisi, Joseph; Rathod, Pradipsinh K.

2013-01-01

261

Effects of Age, Hemoglobin Type and Parasite Strain on IgG Recognition of Plasmodium falciparum-Infected Erythrocytes in Malian Children  

PubMed Central

Background Naturally-acquired antibody responses to antigens on the surface of Plasmodium falciparum-infected red blood cells (iRBCs) have been implicated in antimalarial immunity. To profile the development of this immunity, we have been studying a cohort of Malian children living in an area with intense seasonal malaria transmission. Methodology/Principal Findings We collected plasma from a sub-cohort of 176 Malian children aged 3-11 years, before (May) and after (December) the 2009 transmission season. To measure the effect of hemoglobin (Hb) type on antibody responses, we enrolled age-matched HbAA, HbAS and HbAC children. To quantify antibody recognition of iRBCs, we designed a high-throughput flow cytometry assay to rapidly test numerous plasma samples against multiple parasite strains. We evaluated antibody reactivity of each plasma sample to 3 laboratory-adapted parasite lines (FCR3, D10, PC26) and 4 short-term-cultured parasite isolates (2 Malian and 2 Cambodian). 97% of children recognized ?1 parasite strain and the proportion of IgG responders increased significantly during the transmission season for most parasite strains. Both strain-specific and strain-transcending IgG responses were detected, and varied by age, Hb type and parasite strain. In addition, the breadth of IgG responses to parasite strains increased with age in HbAA, but not in HbAS or HbAC, children. Conclusions/Significance Our assay detects both strain-specific and strain-transcending IgG responses to iRBCs. The magnitude and breadth of these responses varied not only by age, but also by Hb type and parasite strain used. These findings indicate that studies of acquired humoral immunity should account for Hb type and test large numbers of diverse parasite strains.

Zeituni, Amir E.; Miura, Kazutoyo; Diakite, Mahamadou; Doumbia, Saibou; Moretz, Samuel E.; Diouf, Ababacar; Tullo, Gregory; Lopera-Mesa, Tatiana M.; Bess, Cameron D.; Mita-Mendoza, Neida K.; Anderson, Jennifer M.; Fairhurst, Rick M.; Long, Carole A.

2013-01-01

262

In Silico screening on the three-dimensional model of the Plasmodium vivax SUB1 protease leads to the validation of a novel anti-parasite compound.  

PubMed

Widespread drug resistance calls for the urgent development of new antimalarials that target novel steps in the life cycle of Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium vivax. The essential subtilisin-like serine protease SUB1 of Plasmodium merozoites plays a dual role in egress from and invasion into host erythrocytes. It belongs to a new generation of attractive drug targets against which specific potent inhibitors are actively searched. We characterize here the P. vivax SUB1 enzyme and show that it displays a typical auto-processing pattern and apical localization in P. vivax merozoites. To search for small PvSUB1 inhibitors, we took advantage of the similarity of SUB1 with bacterial subtilisins and generated P. vivax SUB1 three-dimensional models. The structure-based virtual screening of a large commercial chemical compounds library identified 306 virtual best hits, of which 37 were experimentally confirmed inhibitors and 5 had Ki values of <50 ?M for PvSUB1. Interestingly, they belong to different chemical families. The most promising competitive inhibitor of PvSUB1 (compound 2) was equally active on PfSUB1 and displayed anti-P. falciparum and Plasmodium berghei activity in vitro and in vivo, respectively. Compound 2 inhibited the endogenous PfSUB1 as illustrated by the inhibited maturation of its natural substrate PfSERA5 and inhibited parasite egress and subsequent erythrocyte invasion. These data indicate that the strategy of in silico screening of three-dimensional models to select for virtual inhibitors combined with stringent biological validation successfully identified several inhibitors of the PvSUB1 enzyme. The most promising hit proved to be a potent cross-inhibitor of PlasmodiumSUB1, laying the groundwork for the development of a globally active small compound antimalarial. PMID:23653352

Bouillon, Anthony; Giganti, David; Benedet, Christophe; Gorgette, Olivier; Pêtres, Stéphane; Crublet, Elodie; Girard-Blanc, Christine; Witkowski, Benoit; Ménard, Didier; Nilges, Michael; Mercereau-Puijalon, Odile; Stoven, Véronique; Barale, Jean-Christophe

2013-05-07

263

Protein phosphatase beta, a putative type-2A protein phosphatase from the human malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum.  

PubMed

Protein phosphatases play a critical role in the regulation of the eukaryotic cell cycle and signal transduction. A putative protein serine/threonine phosphatase gene has been isolated from the human malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum. The gene has an unusual intron that contains four repeats of 32 nucleotides and displays a high degree of size polymorphism among different strains of P. falciparum. The open reading frame reconstituted by removal of the intron encodes a protein of 466 amino acids with a predicted molecular mass of approximately 53.7 kDa. The encoded protein, termed protein phosphatase beta (PP-beta), is composed of two distinct domains. The C-terminal domain comprises 315 amino acids and exhibits a striking similarity to the catalytic subunits of the type-2A protein phosphatases. Database searches revealed that the catalytic domain has the highest similarity to Schizosaccharomyces pombe Ppa1 (58% identity and 73% similarity). However, it contains a hydrophilic insert consisting of five amino acids. The N-terminal domain comprises 151 amino acid residues and exhibits several striking features, including high levels of charged amino acids and asparagine, and multiple consensus phosphorylation sites for a number of protein kinases. An overall structural comparison of PP-beta with other members of the protein phosphatase 2A group revealed that PP-beta is more closely related to Saccharomyces cerevisiae PPH22. Southern blots of genomic DNA digests and chromosomal separations showed that PP-beta is a single-copy gene and is located on chromosome 9. A 2800-nucleotide transcript of this gene is expressed specifically in the sexual erythrocytic stage (gametocytes). The results indicate that PP-beta may be involved in sexual stage development. PMID:9363759

Li, J L; Baker, D A

1997-10-01

264

Post-translational generation of constitutively active cores from larger phosphatases in the malaria parasite, Plasmodium falciparum: implications for proteomics  

PubMed Central

Background Although the complete genome sequences of a large number of organisms have been determined, the exact proteomes need to be characterized. More specifically, the extent to which post-translational processes such as proteolysis affect the synthesized proteins has remained unappreciated. We examined this issue in selected protein phosphatases of the protease-rich malaria parasite, Plasmodium falciparum. Results P. falciparum encodes a number of Ser/Thr protein phosphatases (PP) whose catalytic subunits are composed of a catalytic core and accessory domains essential for regulation of the catalytic activity. Two examples of such regulatory domains are found in the Ca+2-regulated phosphatases, PP7 and PP2B (calcineurin). The EF-hand domains of PP7 and the calmodulin-binding domain of PP2B are essential for stimulation of the phosphatase activity by Ca+2. We present biochemical evidence that P. falciparum generates these full-length phosphatases as well as their catalytic cores, most likely as intermediates of a proteolytic degradation pathway. While the full-length phosphatases are activated by Ca+2, the processed cores are constitutively active and either less responsive or unresponsive to Ca+2. The processing is extremely rapid, specific, and occurs in vivo. Conclusions Post-translational cleavage efficiently degrades complex full-length phosphatases in P. falciparum. In the course of such degradation, enzymatically active catalytic cores are produced as relatively stable intermediates. The universality of such proteolysis in other phosphatases or other multi-domain proteins and its potential impact on the overall proteome of a cell merits further investigation.

Kumar, Rajinder; Musiyenko, Alla; Oldenburg, Anja; Adams, Brian; Barik, Sailen

2004-01-01

265

Plasmodium chabaudi chabaudi malaria parasites can develop stable resistance to atovaquone with a mutation in the cytochrome b gene  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Plasmodium falciparum, has developed resistance to many of the drugs in use. The recommended treatment policy is now to use drug combinations. The atovaquone-proguanil (AP) drug combination, is one of the treatment and prophylaxis options. Atovaquone (ATQ) exerts its action by inhibiting plasmodial mitochondria electron transport at the level of the cytochrome bc1 complex. Plasmodium falciparum in vitro resistance

Ana Afonso; Zoraima Neto; Helena Castro; Dinora Lopes; Ana C Alves; Ana M Tomás; Virgílio D Rosário

2010-01-01

266

Identification and localization of ERD2 in the malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum: separation from sites of sphingomyelin synthesis and implications for organization of the Golgi.  

PubMed Central

The ERD2 gene product in mammalian cells and yeast is a receptor required for protein retention in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER); immunolocalization studies indicate that the protein is concentrated in the cis Golgi. We have identified a homologue of ERD2 in the malaria parasite, Plasmodium falciparum (PfERD2). The deduced protein sequence is 42% identical to mammalian and yeast homologues and bears striking homology in its proposed tertiary structure. PfERD2 is tightly confined to a single focus of staining in the perinuclear region as seen by indirect immunofluorescence. This is redistributed by brefeldin A (BFA) to a diffuse pattern similar to that of parasite BiP, a marker for the ER; removal of the drug results in recovery of the single focus, consistent with the localization of PfERD2 to the parasite Golgi and its participation in a retrograde transport pathway to the ER. Sphingomyelin synthesis is a second resident activity of the cis Golgi whose organization is sensitive to BFA in mammalian cells. Within the parasite it again localizes to a perinuclear region but does not reorganize upon BFA treatment. The results strongly suggest that these two activities are in distinct compartments of the Golgi in the malaria parasite. Images

Elmendorf, H G; Haldar, K

1993-01-01

267

Microsatellite loci over a thirty-three year period for a malaria parasite (Plasmodium mexicanum): bottleneck in effective population size and effect on allele frequencies.  

PubMed

Changes in population allele frequencies may be driven by several forces, including selection and drift, and are revealed only by sampling over many generations. Such studies, however, are rare for protist parasites. Microsatellite allele frequencies for 4 loci were followed in a population of Plasmodium mexicanum, a malaria parasite of lizards in California USA at 1 site from 1978 to 2010. Rapid turnover of the lizards indicates the parasite was studied for a minimum of 33 transmission cycles and possibly twice that number. Sample sizes ranged from 841 to 956 scored parasite clones per locus. DNA was extracted from frozen dried blood and blood removed from stained blood smears from the earliest years, and a verification study demonstrated DNA from the blood smears provided valid genetic data. Parasite prevalence and effective population size (Ne) dropped after 2000, remaining lower for the next decade. For 2 loci, allele frequencies appeared stable for the first 2 decades of the study, but changed more rapidly after the decline in prevalence. Allele frequencies changed more gradually for the other 2 loci. Genetic drift could account for changes in allele frequencies, especially after the drop in prevalence and Ne, but the force of selection could also have driven the observed patterns. PMID:22948096

Schall, J J; St Denis, K M

2012-09-05

268

Enhancement of dendritic cell activation via CD40 ligand-expressing ?? T cells is responsible for protective immunity to Plasmodium parasites  

PubMed Central

Previous reports have shown that ?? T cells are important for the elimination of malaria parasites in humans and mice. However, how ?? T cells are involved in protective immunity against blood-stage malaria remains unknown. We infected ?? T-cell–deficient (TCR?-KO) mice and control wild-type mice with Plasmodium berghei XAT, which is a nonlethal strain. Although infected red blood cells were eliminated within 30 d after infection, TCR?-KO mice could not clear the infected red blood cells, showed high parasitemia, and eventually died. Therefore, ?? T cells are essential for clearance of the parasites. Here, we found that ?? T cells play a key role in dendritic cell activation after Plasmodium infection. On day 5 postinfection, ?? T cells produced IFN-? and expressed CD40 ligand during dendritic cell activation. These results suggest that ?? T cells enhance dendritic cell activation via IFN-? and CD40 ligand–CD40 signaling. This hypothesis is supported strongly by the fact that in vivo induction of CD40 signaling prevented the death of TCR?-KO mice after infection with P. berghei XAT. This study improves our understanding of protective immunity against malaria and provides insights into ?? T-cell–mediated protective immunity against various infectious diseases.

Inoue, Shin-Ichi; Niikura, Mamoru; Takeo, Satoru; Mineo, Shoichiro; Kawakami, Yasushi; Uchida, Akihiko; Kamiya, Shigeru; Kobayashi, Fumie

2012-01-01

269

clag9 Is Not Essential for PfEMP1 Surface Expression in Non-Cytoadherent Plasmodium falciparum Parasites with a Chromosome 9 Deletion  

PubMed Central

Background The expression of the clonally variant virulence factor PfEMP1 mediates the sequestration of Plasmodium falciparum infected erythrocytes in the host vasculature and contributes to chronic infection. Non-cytoadherent parasites with a chromosome 9 deletion lack clag9, a gene linked to cytoadhesion in previous studies. Here we present new clag9 data that challenge this view and show that surface the non-cytoadherence phenotype is linked to the expression of a non-functional PfEMP1. Methodology/Principal Findings Loss of adhesion in P. falciparum D10, a parasite line with a large chromosome 9 deletion, was investigated. Surface iodination analysis of non-cytoadherent D10 parasites and COS-7 surface expression of the CD36-binding PfEMP1 CIDR1? domain were performed and showed that these parasites express an unusual trypsin-resistant, non-functional PfEMP1 at the erythrocyte surface. However, the CIDR1? domain of this var gene expressed in COS-7 cells showed strong binding to CD36. Atomic Force Microscopy showed a slightly modified D10 knob morphology compared to adherent parasites. Trafficking of PfEMP1 and KAHRP remained functional in D10. We link the non-cytoadherence phenotype to a chromosome 9 breakage and healing event resulting in the loss of 25 subtelomeric genes including clag9. In contrast to previous studies, knockout of the clag9 gene from 3D7 did not interfere with parasite adhesion to CD36. Conclusions/Significance Our data show the surface expression of non-functional PfEMP1 in D10 strongly indicating that genes other than clag9 deleted from chromosome 9 are involved in this virulence process possibly via post-translational modifications.

Nacer, Adela; Roux, Emeric; Pomel, Sebastien; Scheidig-Benatar, Christine; Sakamoto, Hiroshi; Lafont, Frank; Scherf, Artur; Mattei, Denise

2011-01-01

270

LIFE HISTORY OF A MALARIA PARASITE ( PLASMODIUM MEXICANUM ) IN ITS HOST, THE WESTERN FENCE LIZARD ( SCELOPORUS OCCIDENTALIS ): HOST TESTOSTERONE AS A SOURCE OF SEASONAL AND AMONG-HOST VARIATION?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The course of infection of a malaria parasite (Plasmodium mexicanum)is highly variable in its host, the fence lizard (Sceloporus occidentalis). However, a seasonal trend is superimposed on this variation such that gametocyte production is inten- sified during mid- to late summer. Host testosterone levels follow a similar seasonal fluctuation and are variable among individual lizards. We sought to determine if

Rebecca J. Eisen; Dale F. DeNardo

2000-01-01

271

PfSec13 is an unusual chromatin-associated nucleoporin of Plasmodium falciparum that is essential for parasite proliferation in human erythrocytes.  

PubMed

In Plasmodium falciparum, the deadliest form of human malaria, the nuclear periphery has drawn much attention due to its role as a sub-nuclear compartment involved in virulence gene expression. Recent data have implicated components of the nuclear envelope in regulating gene expression in several eukaryotes. Special attention has been given to nucleoporins that compose the nuclear pore complex (NPC). However, very little is known about components of the nuclear envelope in Plasmodium parasites. Here we characterize PfSec13, an unusual nucleoporin of P. falciparum, which shows unique structural similarities suggesting that it is a fusion between Sec13 and Nup145C of yeast. Using super resolution fluorescence microscopy (3D-SIM) and in vivo imaging, we show that the dynamic localization of PfSec13 during parasites' intra-erythrocytic development corresponds with that of the NPCs and that these dynamics are associated with microtubules rather than with F-actin. In addition, PfSec13 does not co-localize with the heterochormatin markers HP1 and H3K9me3, suggesting euchromatic location of the NPCs. The proteins associated with PfSec13 indicate that this unusual Nup is involved in several cellular processes. Indeed, ultrastructural and chromatin immunoprecipitation analyses revealed that, in addition to the NPCs, PfSec13 is found in the nucleoplasm where it is associated with chromatin. Finally, we used peptide nucleic acids (PNA) to downregulate PfSec13 and show that it is essential for parasite proliferation in human erythrocytes. PMID:23687383

Dahan-Pasternak, Noa; Nasereddin, Abed; Kolevzon, Netanel; Pe'er, Michael; Wong, Wilson; Shinder, Vera; Turnbull, Lynne; Whitchurch, Cynthia B; Elbaum, Michael; Timgilberger, W; Yavin, Eylon; Baum, Jake; Dzikowski, Ron

2013-05-17

272

Role of complex II in anaerobic respiration of the parasite mitochondria from Ascaris suum and Plasmodium falciparum  

Microsoft Academic Search

Parasites have developed a variety of physiological functions necessary for existence within the specialized environment of the host. Regarding energy metabolism, which is an essential factor for survival, parasites adapt to low oxygen tension in host mammals using metabolic systems that are very different from that of the host. The majority of parasites do not use the oxygen available within

Kiyoshi Kita; Hiroko Hirawake; Hiroko Miyadera; Hisako Amino; Satoru Takeo

2002-01-01

273

Parasites  

Microsoft Academic Search

Unproductive enterprises that feed on productive businesses, are rampant in developing countries. These parasitic enterprises take divergent forms, some headed by violent bandits and brutal mafia bosses, others by organized middlemen or smart political insiders. All of them seem to have the profit motive in common. A consequence of parasitic enterprises is that societies may be locked into a self

Halvor Mehlum; Karl O. Moene; Ragnar Torvik

2003-01-01

274

Induction of Parasite Growth-Inhibitory Antibodies by a Virosomal Formulation of a Peptidomimetic of Loop I from Domain III of Plasmodium falciparum Apical Membrane Antigen 1  

PubMed Central

Apical membrane antigen 1 (AMA-1) of Plasmodium falciparum is a leading candidate antigen for inclusion in a malaria subunit vaccine. Its ectodomain can be divided into three subdomains, each with disulfide bond-stabilized structures. Since the majority of antibodies raised against the ectodomain appear to recognize strain-specific epitopes in domain I, we attempted to develop a vaccine formulation which directs the immune response to a region that contains more conserved epitopes. Here we demonstrate that a virosomal formulation of a peptide that mimics the semiconserved loop I of domain III elicits parasite growth-inhibitory antibodies. A synthetic peptide comprising residues 446 to 490 of AMA-1 (AMA-1446-490) was conjugated through the N terminus to a derivative of phosphatidylethanolamine and the phosphatidylethanolamine-peptide conjugate was incorporated into immunopotentiating reconstituted influenza virosomes as a human-compatible antigen delivery system. Both cyclized and linear versions of the peptide antigen elicited antibodies which specifically bound to parasite-expressed AMA-1 in Western blotting with parasite lysates as well as in immunofluorescence assays with blood stage parasites. All 11 peptidomimetic-specific monoclonal antibodies generated were cross-reactive with parasite-expressed AMA-1. Antigen binding assays with a library of overlapping cyclic peptides covering the target sequence revealed differences in the fine specificity of these monoclonal antibodies and provided evidence that at least some of them recognized discontinuous epitopes. The two immunodominant epitopes comprised the conserved linear sequences K459RIKLN464 and D467DEGNKKII475. A key feature of the synthetic vaccine formulation proposed here is the display of the peptide antigen in a native-like state on the surface of the virosome.

Mueller, Markus S.; Renard, Annabelle; Boato, Francesca; Vogel, Denise; Naegeli, Martin; Zurbriggen, Rinaldo; Robinson, John A.; Pluschke, Gerd

2003-01-01

275

In Vitro Activity of Antifolate and Polymorphism in Dihydrofolate Reductase of Plasmodium falciparum Isolates from the Kenyan Coast: Emergence of Parasites with Ile-164-Leu Mutation?  

PubMed Central

We have analyzed the activities of the antifolates pyrimethamine (PM), chlorcycloguanil (CCG), WR99210, trimethoprim (TMP), methotrexate (MTX), and trimetrexate (TMX) against Kenyan Plasmodium falciparum isolates adapted in vitro for long-term culture. We have also assessed the relationship between these drug activities and mutations in dihydrofolate reductase (dhfr), a domain of the gene associated with antifolate resistance. As expected, WR99210 was the most potent drug, with a median 50% inhibitory concentration (IC50) of <0.075 nM, followed by TMX, with a median IC50 of 30 nM. The median IC50 of CCG was 37.80 nM, and that of MTX was 83.60 nM. PM and TMP were the least active drugs, with median IC50s of 733.26 nM and 29,656.04 nM, respectively. We analyzed parasite dhfr genotypes by the PCR-enzyme restriction technique. No wild-type dhfr parasite was found. Twenty-four of 33 parasites were triple mutants (mutations at codons 108, 51, and 59), and only 8/33 were double mutants (mutations at codons 108 and 51 or at codons 108 and 59). IC50s were 2.1-fold (PM) and 3.6-fold (TMP) higher in triple than in double mutants, though these differences were not statistically significant. Interestingly, we have identified a parasite harboring a mutation at codon 164 (Ile-164-Leu) in addition to mutations at codons 108, 51, and 59. This quadruple mutant parasite had the highest TMP IC50 and was in the upper 10th percentile against PM and CCG. We confirmed the presence of this mutation by sequencing. Thus, TMX and MTX are potent against P. falciparum, and quadruple mutants are now emerging in Africa.

Kiara, Steven M.; Okombo, John; Masseno, Victor; Mwai, Leah; Ochola, Isabella; Borrmann, Steffen; Nzila, Alexis

2009-01-01

276

In vitro activity of antifolate and polymorphism in dihydrofolate reductase of Plasmodium falciparum isolates from the Kenyan coast: emergence of parasites with Ile-164-Leu mutation.  

PubMed

We have analyzed the activities of the antifolates pyrimethamine (PM), chlorcycloguanil (CCG), WR99210, trimethoprim (TMP), methotrexate (MTX), and trimetrexate (TMX) against Kenyan Plasmodium falciparum isolates adapted in vitro for long-term culture. We have also assessed the relationship between these drug activities and mutations in dihydrofolate reductase (dhfr), a domain of the gene associated with antifolate resistance. As expected, WR99210 was the most potent drug, with a median 50% inhibitory concentration (IC50) of <0.075 nM, followed by TMX, with a median IC50 of 30 nM. The median IC50 of CCG was 37.80 nM, and that of MTX was 83.60 nM. PM and TMP were the least active drugs, with median IC50s of 733.26 nM and 29,656.04 nM, respectively. We analyzed parasite dhfr genotypes by the PCR-enzyme restriction technique. No wild-type dhfr parasite was found. Twenty-four of 33 parasites were triple mutants (mutations at codons 108, 51, and 59), and only 8/33 were double mutants (mutations at codons 108 and 51 or at codons 108 and 59). IC50s were 2.1-fold (PM) and 3.6-fold (TMP) higher in triple than in double mutants, though these differences were not statistically significant. Interestingly, we have identified a parasite harboring a mutation at codon 164 (Ile-164-Leu) in addition to mutations at codons 108, 51, and 59. This quadruple mutant parasite had the highest TMP IC50 and was in the upper 10th percentile against PM and CCG. We confirmed the presence of this mutation by sequencing. Thus, TMX and MTX are potent against P. falciparum, and quadruple mutants are now emerging in Africa. PMID:19528269

Kiara, Steven M; Okombo, John; Masseno, Victor; Mwai, Leah; Ochola, Isabella; Borrmann, Steffen; Nzila, Alexis

2009-06-15

277

Plasmodium falciparum var gene expression homogeneity as a marker of the host-parasite relationship under different levels of naturally acquired immunity to malaria.  

PubMed

Acquired immunity to Plasmodium falciparum infection causes a change from frequent, sometimes life-threatening, malaria in young children to asymptomatic, chronic infections in older children and adults. Little is known about how this transition occurs but antibodies to the extremely diverse PfEMP1 parasite antigens are thought to play a role. PfEMP1 is encoded by a family of 60 var genes that undergo clonal antigenic variation, potentially creating an antigenically heterogeneous infecting population of parasites within the host. Previous theoretical work suggests that antibodies to PfEMP1 may play a role in "orchestrating" their expression within infections leading to sequential, homogeneous expression of var genes, and prolonged infection chronicity. Here, using a cloning and sequencing approach we compare the var expression homogeneity (VEH) between isolates from children with asymptomatic and clinical infections. We show that asymptomatic infections have higher VEH than clinical infections and a broader host antibody response. We discuss this in relation to the potential role of host antibodies in promoting chronicity of infection and parasite survival through the low transmission season. PMID:23922996

Warimwe, George M; Recker, Mario; Kiragu, Esther W; Buckee, Caroline O; Wambua, Juliana; Musyoki, Jennifer N; Marsh, Kevin; Bull, Peter C

2013-07-29

278

Robust inducible Cre recombinase activity in the human malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum enables efficient gene deletion within a single asexual erythrocytic growth cycle  

PubMed Central

Asexual blood stages of the malaria parasite, which cause all the pathology associated with malaria, can readily be genetically modified by homologous recombination, enabling the functional study of parasite genes that are not essential in this part of the life cycle. However, no widely applicable method for conditional mutagenesis of essential asexual blood-stage malarial genes is available, hindering their functional analysis. We report the application of the DiCre conditional recombinase system to Plasmodium falciparum, the causative agent of the most dangerous form of malaria. We show that DiCre can be used to obtain rapid, highly regulated site-specific recombination in P. falciparum, capable of excising loxP-flanked sequences from a genomic locus with close to 100% efficiency within the time-span of a single erythrocytic growth cycle. DiCre-mediated deletion of the SERA5 3' UTR failed to reduce expression of the gene due to the existence of alternative cryptic polyadenylation sites within the modified locus. However, we successfully used the system to recycle the most widely used drug resistance marker for P. falciparum, human dihydrofolate reductase, in the process producing constitutively DiCre-expressing P. falciparum clones that have broad utility for the functional analysis of essential asexual blood-stage parasite genes.

Collins, Christine R; Das, Sujaan; Wong, Eleanor H; Andenmatten, Nicole; Stallmach, Robert; Hackett, Fiona; Herman, Jean-Paul; Muller, Sylke; Meissner, Markus; Blackman, Michael J

2013-01-01

279

Detection of short-chain carbonyl products of lipid peroxidation from malaria-parasite (Plasmodium vinckei)-infected red blood cells exposed to oxidative stress.  

PubMed Central

Reversed-phase h.p.l.c. was used to detect 2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazine-reactive carbonyl products, which excludes malonaldehyde, in malaria-parasite (Plasmodium vinckei)-infected murine red blood cells (RBCs). A number of alkanals, 4-hydroxyalk-2-enals and alka-2,4-dienals were tentatively identified by comparison with authentic standards. The formation of 4-hydroxynon-2-enal, deca-2,4-dienal and hexanal was greater in P. vinckei-infected RBCs than in their uninfected counterparts and was increased by the presence of t-butyl hydroperoxide. Several of these aldehydes have previously been shown to be toxic to various types of cells, including P. falciparum, in vitro. The iron chelator desferrioxamine and the free-radical scavenger butylated hydroxyanisole inhibited the formation of these aldehydes. These experiments demonstrate that products of lipid peroxidation other than malonaldehyde are formed during the exposure of malaria-infected RBCs in vitro to drugs that generate reactive oxygen species and have anti-parasitic activity. The formation of products of this type during the natural course of malaria infection may have implications for the mechanisms underlying intra-RBC parasite death and the tissue damage associated with the disease.

Buffinton, G D; Hunt, N H; Cowden, W B; Clark, I A

1988-01-01

280

PfeIK1, a eukaryotic initiation factor 2? kinase of the human malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum, regulates stress-response to amino-acid starvation  

PubMed Central

Background Post-transcriptional control of gene expression is suspected to play an important role in malaria parasites. In yeast and metazoans, part of the stress response is mediated through phosphorylation of eukaryotic translation initiation factor 2? (eIF2?), which results in the selective translation of mRNAs encoding stress-response proteins. Methods The impact of starvation on the phosphorylation state of PfeIF2? was examined. Bioinformatic methods were used to identify plasmodial eIF2? kinases. The activity of one of these, PfeIK1, was investigated using recombinant protein with non-physiological substrates and recombinant PfeIF2?. Reverse genetic techniques were used to disrupt the pfeik1 gene. Results The data demonstrate that the Plasmodium falciparum eIF2? orthologue is phosphorylated in response to starvation, and provide bioinformatic evidence for the presence of three eIF2? kinases in P. falciparum, only one of which (PfPK4) had been described previously. Evidence is provided that one of the novel eIF2? kinases, PfeIK1, is able to phosphorylate the P. falciparum eIF2? orthologue in vitro. PfeIK1 is not required for asexual or sexual development of the parasite, as shown by the ability of pfeik1- parasites to develop into sporozoites. However, eIF2? phosphorylation in response to starvation is abolished in pfeik1- asexual parasites Conclusion This study strongly suggests that a mechanism for versatile regulation of translation by several kinases with a similar catalytic domain but distinct regulatory domains, is conserved in P. falciparum.

Fennell, Clare; Babbitt, Shalon; Russo, Ilaria; Wilkes, Jonathan; Ranford-Cartwright, Lisa; Goldberg, Daniel E; Doerig, Christian

2009-01-01

281

A method for positive and negative selection of Plasmodium falciparum platelet-mediated clumping parasites and investigation of the role of CD36.  

PubMed

Platelet-mediated clumping of Plasmodium falciparum infected erythrocytes (IEs) is a frequently observed parasite adhesion phenotype. The importance of clumping in severe malaria and the molecular mechanisms behind this phenomenon are incompletely understood. Three platelet surface molecules have previously been identified as clumping receptors: CD36, globular C1q receptor (gC1qR/HABP1/p32), and P-selectin (CD62P), but the parasite ligands mediating this phenotype are unknown. The aim of this work was to develop a selection method to facilitate investigations of the molecular mechanisms of clumping in selected P. falciparum lines. Magnetic beads coated with anti-platelet antibodies were used to positively and negatively select clumping IEs from P. falciparum strains IT, HB3, 3D7 and Dd2. Clumping in all four positively selected parasite lines was abolished by antibodies to CD36, but was not affected by antibodies to gC1qR or P-selectin. Clumping positive lines showed significantly higher binding to CD36 than clumping negative lines in flow adhesion assays (strains IT, HB3 and 3D7, p<0.05 for all strains, paired t test) and static assays (strain Dd2, p<0.0001 paired t test). However, clumping negative lines IT, HB3 and 3D7 did show some binding to CD36 under flow conditions, indicating that CD36-binding is not sufficient for clumping. These data show that CD36-dependent clumping positive and negative lines can easily be selected from P. falciparum laboratory strains. CD36-binding is necessary but not sufficient for clumping, and the molecular differences between clumping positive and negative parasite lines responsible for the phenotype require further investigation. PMID:23405153

Arman, Mònica; Adams, Yvonne; Lindergard, Gabriella; Rowe, J Alexandra

2013-02-06

282

A Method for Positive and Negative Selection of Plasmodium falciparum Platelet-Mediated Clumping Parasites and Investigation of the Role of CD36  

PubMed Central

Platelet-mediated clumping of Plasmodium falciparum infected erythrocytes (IEs) is a frequently observed parasite adhesion phenotype. The importance of clumping in severe malaria and the molecular mechanisms behind this phenomenon are incompletely understood. Three platelet surface molecules have previously been identified as clumping receptors: CD36, globular C1q receptor (gC1qR/HABP1/p32), and P-selectin (CD62P), but the parasite ligands mediating this phenotype are unknown. The aim of this work was to develop a selection method to facilitate investigations of the molecular mechanisms of clumping in selected P. falciparum lines. Magnetic beads coated with anti-platelet antibodies were used to positively and negatively select clumping IEs from P. falciparum strains IT, HB3, 3D7 and Dd2. Clumping in all four positively selected parasite lines was abolished by antibodies to CD36, but was not affected by antibodies to gC1qR or P-selectin. Clumping positive lines showed significantly higher binding to CD36 than clumping negative lines in flow adhesion assays (strains IT, HB3 and 3D7, p<0.05 for all strains, paired t test) and static assays (strain Dd2, p<0.0001 paired t test). However, clumping negative lines IT, HB3 and 3D7 did show some binding to CD36 under flow conditions, indicating that CD36-binding is not sufficient for clumping. These data show that CD36-dependent clumping positive and negative lines can easily be selected from P. falciparum laboratory strains. CD36-binding is necessary but not sufficient for clumping, and the molecular differences between clumping positive and negative parasite lines responsible for the phenotype require further investigation.

Arman, Monica; Adams, Yvonne; Lindergard, Gabriella; Rowe, J. Alexandra

2013-01-01

283

Characterization of a conserved rhoptry-associated leucine zipper-like protein in the malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum  

Microsoft Academic Search

One of the key processes in the pathobiology of the malaria parasite is the invasion and subsequent modification of the human erythrocyte. In this complex process, an unknown number of parasite proteins are involved, some of which are leading vaccine candidates. The majority of the proteins that play pivotal roles in invasion are either stored in the apical secretory organelles

Silvia Haase; Ana Cabrera; Christine Langer; Moritz Treeck; Nicole Struck; Susann Herrmann; Pascal W. Jansen; Iris Bruchhaus; Anna Bachmann; Suzana Dias; Alan F. Cowman; Hendrik G. Stunnenberg; Tobias Spielmann; Tim-Wolf Gilberger

2008-01-01

284

SHORT COMMUNICATION Avian malaria parasites (Plasmodium spp.) in Dunedin and on the Otago Peninsula, southern New Zealand  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is concern that avian malaria maybe partly responsible for fluctuations in yellow-eyed penguin (Megadyptes antipodes) populations in New Zealand. Recent findings, however, have provided no evidence of avian malaria parasites infecting yellow-eyed penguins on the Otago Peninsula, raising questions as to whether this area is currently free of such parasites. To test this possibility we collected blood samples from

H. J. W. Sturrock; D. M. Tompkins

2008-01-01

285

Analysis of P-glycoprotein expression in purified parasite plasma membrane and food vacuole from Plasmodium falciparum  

Microsoft Academic Search

A P-glycoprotein homologue (Pgh1) is believed to play a role in modulating levels of chloroquine resistance in Plasmodium falciparum. To study the role of Pgh1 in the mechanism of chloroquine (CQ) resistance, antisera were raised against this protein. There was no direct association between the level of Pgh1 expression and chloroquine sensitivity. We also failed to detect phosphorylation of Pgh1

Laurence M. Elandaloussi; Meinrad Lindt; Malcolm Collins; Peter J. Smith

2006-01-01

286

In Vitro Plasmodium falciparum Drug Sensitivity Assay: Inhibition of Parasite Growth by Incorporation of Stomatocytogenic Amphiphiles into the Erythrocyte Membrane  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lupeol, which shows in vitro inhibitory activity against Plasmodium falciparum 3D7 strain with a 50% inhibitory concentration (IC50) of 27.7 0.5 M, was shown to cause a transformation of the human erythrocyte shape toward that of stomatocytes. Good correlation between the IC50 value and the membrane curvature changes caused by lupeol was observed. Preincubation of erythrocytes with lupeol, followed by

Hanne L. Ziegler; D. Staerk; Jette Christensen; Lars Hviid; H. Hagerstrand; Jerzy W. Jaroszewski

2002-01-01

287

Structural insights into substrate binding by PvFKBP35, a peptidylprolyl cis-trans isomerase from the human malarial parasite Plasmodium vivax.  

PubMed

The immunosuppressive drug FK506 binding proteins (FKBPs), an immunophilin family with the immunosuppressive drug FK506 binding property, exhibit peptidylprolyl cis-trans isomerase (PPIase) activity. While the cyclophilin-catalyzed peptidylprolyl isomerization of X-Pro peptide bonds has been extensively studied, the mechanism of the FKBP-mediated peptidylprolyl isomerization remains uncharacterized. Thus, to investigate the binding of FKBP with its substrate and the underlying catalytic mechanism of the FKBP-mediated proline isomerization, here we employed the FK506 binding domain (FKBD) of the human malarial parasite Plasmodium vivax FK506 binding protein 35 (PvFKBP35) and examined the details of the molecular interaction between the isomerase and a peptide substrate. The crystallographic structures of apo PvFKBD35 and its complex with the tetrapeptide substrate succinyl-Ala-Leu-Pro-Phe-p-nitroanilide (sALPFp) determined at 1.4 ? and 1.65 ? resolutions, respectively, showed that the substrate binds to PvFKBD35 in a cis conformation. Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) studies demonstrated the chemical shift perturbations of D55, H67, V73, and I74 residues upon the substrate binding. In addition, the X-ray crystal structure, along with the mutational studies, shows that Y100 is a key residue for the catalytic activity. Taken together, our results provide insights into the catalytic mechanism of PvFKBP35-mediated cis-trans isomerization of substrate and ultimately might aid designing substrate mimetic inhibitors targeting the malarial parasite FKBPs. PMID:23435727

Alag, Reema; Balakrishna, Asha Manikkoth; Rajan, Sreekanth; Qureshi, Insaf A; Shin, Joon; Lescar, Julien; Grüber, Gerhard; Yoon, Ho Sup

2013-02-22

288

Single-stranded DNA binding protein from human malarial parasite Plasmodium falciparum is encoded in the nucleus and targeted to the apicoplast.  

PubMed

Apicoplast, an essential organelle of human malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum contains a ?35?kb circular genome and is a possible target for therapy. Proteins required for the replication and maintenance of the apicoplast DNA are not clearly known. Here we report the presence of single-stranded DNA binding protein (SSB) in P falciparum. PfSSB is targeted to the apicoplast and it binds to apicoplast DNA. A strong ssDNA binding activity specific to SSB was also detected in P. falciparum lysate. Both the recombinant and endogenous proteins form tetramers and the homology modelling shows the presence of an oligosaccharide/oligonucleotide-binding fold responsible for ssDNA binding. Additionally, we used SSB as a tool to track the mechanism of delayed death phenomena shown by apicoplast targeted drugs ciprofloxacin and tetracycline. We find that the transport of PfSSB is severely affected during the second life cycle following drug treatment. Moreover, the translation of PfSSB protein and not the transcription of PfSSB seem to be down-regulated specifically during second life cycle although there is no considerable change in protein expression profile between drug-treated and untreated parasites. These results suggest dual control of translocation and translation of apicoplast targeted proteins behind the delayed death phenomena. PMID:20571080

Prusty, Dhaneswar; Dar, Ashraf; Priya, Rashmi; Sharma, Atul; Dana, Srikanta; Choudhury, Nirupam Roy; Rao, N Subba; Dhar, Suman Kumar

2010-06-22

289

A Plasmodium falciparum Transcriptional Cyclin-Dependent Kinase-Related Kinase with a Crucial Role in Parasite Proliferation Associates with Histone Deacetylase Activity ?†‡  

PubMed Central

Cyclin-dependent protein kinases (CDKs) are key regulators of the eukaryotic cell cycle and of the eukaryotic transcription machinery. Here we report the characterization of Pfcrk-3 (Plasmodium falciparum CDK-related kinase 3; PlasmoDB identifier PFD0740w), an unusually large CDK-related protein whose kinase domain displays maximal homology to those CDKs which, in other eukaryotes, are involved in the control of transcription. The closest enzyme in Saccharomyces cerevisiae is BUR1 (bypass upstream activating sequence requirement 1), known to control gene expression through interaction with chromatin modification enzymes. Consistent with this, immunofluorescence data show that Pfcrk-3 colocalizes with histones. We show that recombinant Pfcrk-3 associates with histone H1 kinase activity in parasite extracts and that this association is detectable even if the catalytic domain of Pfcrk-3 is rendered inactive by site-directed mutagenesis, indicating that Pfcrk-3 is part of a complex that includes other protein kinases. Immunoprecipitates obtained from extracts of transgenic parasites expressing hemagglutinin (HA)-tagged Pfcrk-3 by using an anti-HA antibody displayed both protein kinase and histone deacetylase activities. Reverse genetics data show that the pfcrk-3 locus can be targeted only if the genetic modification does not cause a loss of function. Taken together, our data strongly suggest that Pfcrk-3 fulfils a crucial role in the intraerythrocytic development of P. falciparum, presumably through chromatin modification-dependent regulation of gene expression.

Halbert, Jean; Ayong, Lawrence; Equinet, Leila; Le Roch, Karine; Hardy, Mary; Goldring, Dean; Reininger, Luc; Waters, Norman; Chakrabarti, Debopam; Doerig, Christian

2010-01-01

290

Structural Insights into Substrate Binding by PvFKBP35, a Peptidylprolyl cis-trans Isomerase from the Human Malarial Parasite Plasmodium vivax  

PubMed Central

The immunosuppressive drug FK506 binding proteins (FKBPs), an immunophilin family with the immunosuppressive drug FK506 binding property, exhibit peptidylprolyl cis-trans isomerase (PPIase) activity. While the cyclophilin-catalyzed peptidylprolyl isomerization of X-Pro peptide bonds has been extensively studied, the mechanism of the FKBP-mediated peptidylprolyl isomerization remains uncharacterized. Thus, to investigate the binding of FKBP with its substrate and the underlying catalytic mechanism of the FKBP-mediated proline isomerization, here we employed the FK506 binding domain (FKBD) of the human malarial parasite Plasmodium vivax FK506 binding protein 35 (PvFKBP35) and examined the details of the molecular interaction between the isomerase and a peptide substrate. The crystallographic structures of apo PvFKBD35 and its complex with the tetrapeptide substrate succinyl-Ala-Leu-Pro-Phe-p-nitroanilide (sALPFp) determined at 1.4 ? and 1.65 ? resolutions, respectively, showed that the substrate binds to PvFKBD35 in a cis conformation. Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) studies demonstrated the chemical shift perturbations of D55, H67, V73, and I74 residues upon the substrate binding. In addition, the X-ray crystal structure, along with the mutational studies, shows that Y100 is a key residue for the catalytic activity. Taken together, our results provide insights into the catalytic mechanism of PvFKBP35-mediated cis-trans isomerization of substrate and ultimately might aid designing substrate mimetic inhibitors targeting the malarial parasite FKBPs.

Alag, Reema; Balakrishna, Asha Manikkoth; Rajan, Sreekanth; Qureshi, Insaf A.; Shin, Joon; Lescar, Julien; Gruber, Gerhard

2013-01-01

291

Feasibility of Flow Cytometry for Measurements of Plasmodium falciparum Parasite Burden in Studies in Areas of Malaria Endemicity by Use of Bidimensional Assessment of YOYO-1 and Autofluorescence?  

PubMed Central

The detection and quantification of Plasmodium falciparum in studies of malaria endemicity primarily relies upon microscopy. High-throughput quantitative methods with less subjectivity and greater reliability are needed for investigational studies. The staining of parasitized erythrocytes with YOYO-1 for flow cytometry bears great potential as a tool for assessing malaria parasite burden. Capillary blood was collected from children presenting to the pediatric ward of the Manhiça District Hospital in Mozambique for parasitemia assessment by thick and thin blood films, flow cytometry (YOYO-1530/585), and quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR). Whole blood was fixed and stained with YOYO-1 for acquisition on a cytometer to assess the frequency of infected erythrocyte events. qRT-PCR was used as the gold standard for the detection of P. falciparum. The YOYO-1530/585 method was as sensitive and specific as conventional microscopy (area under the receiver operating characteristic, 0.9 for both methods). The interrater mean difference for YOYO-1530/585 was near zero. Parasite density using flow cytometry and complete blood counts returned density estimates with a mean difference 2.2 times greater than results by microscopy (confidence interval, 1.46 to 3.60) but with limits of agreement between 10 times lower and 50 times higher than those of microscopy. The YOYO-1530/585 staining pattern was established exactly as demonstrated in animal models, but the assay was limited by the lack of appropriate negative-control samples for establishing background levels and the definition of positives in areas in which malaria is endemic. YOYO-1530/585 is a high-throughput tool with great potential if the limitations of negative controls and heterogeneous levels of background signal can be overcome.

Campo, Joseph J.; Aponte, John J.; Nhabomba, Augusto J.; Sacarlal, Jahit; Angulo-Barturen, Inigo; Jimenez-Diaz, Maria Belen; Alonso, Pedro L.; Dobano, Carlota

2011-01-01

292

Adenine metabolism in Plasmodium falciparum  

Microsoft Academic Search

Plasmodium falciparum lacks the de novo purine biosynthesis pathway and relies entirely on the salvage pathway to meet its purine nucleotide requirements. The entire flux for purine nucleotide biosynthesis in the parasite is believed to be through hypoxanthine guanine phosphoribosyltransferase (HGPRT), with the enzymes, adenosine kinase and adenine phosphoribosyltransferase (APRT) being unannotated in the Plasmodium genome database. This manuscript reports

Sonali Mehrotra; Monnanda P. Bopanna; Vinay Bulusu; Hemalatha Balaram

2010-01-01

293

Single-chain antibodies produced by phage display against the C-terminal 19 kDa region of merozoite surface protein-1 of Plasmodium yoelii reduce parasite growth following challenge  

Microsoft Academic Search

Antibodies have the potential to be therapeutic reagents for malaria. Here we describe the production of a novel phage antibody display library against the C-terminal 19kDa region of the Plasmodium yoelii YM merozoite surface protein-1 (MSP119). In vivo studies against homologous lethal malaria challenge show an anti-parasite effect in a dose dependent manner, and analysis by plasmon resonance indicates binding

Peter Vukovic; Ke Chen; Xue Qin Liu; Michael Foley; Andrew Boyd; David Kaslow; Michael F. Good

2002-01-01

294

Geographic variation in malarial parasite lineages in the common yellowthroat ( Geothlypis trichas )  

Microsoft Academic Search

Our current understanding of migration routes of many birds is limited and researchers have employed various methods to determine\\u000a migratory patterns. Recently, parasites have been used to track migratory birds. The objective of this study was to determine\\u000a whether haemosporidian parasite lineages detect significant geographic structure in common yellowthroats (Geothlypis trichas). We examined liver tissue or blood from 552 birds

K. M. Pagenkopp; J. Klicka; K. L. Durrant; J. C. Garvin; R. C. Fleischer

2008-01-01

295

Isolation and Functional Characterization of Two Distinct Sexual-Stage-Specific Promoters of the Human Malaria Parasite Plasmodium falciparum  

Microsoft Academic Search

Transmission of malaria depends on the successful development of the sexual stages of the parasite within the midgut of the mosquito vector. The differentiation process leading to the production of the sexual stages is delineated by several developmental switches. Arresting the progression through this sexual differentiation pathway would effectively block the spread of the disease. The successful development of such

KOEN J. DECHERING; ANITA M. KAAN; WILFRED MBACHAM; DYANN F. WIRTH; WIJNAND ELING; RUUD N. H. KONINGS; HENDRIK G. STUNNENBERG

1999-01-01

296

Variation in the gene encoding a major merozoite surface antigen of the human malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum.  

PubMed Central

Plasmodium falciparum merozoites have a variable surface protein of about 195,000 molecular weight which may be involved in strain-specific immunity. We have cloned and sequenced a major portion of the gene encoding this antigen from the CAMP strain and have located sites of preferred mung bean nuclease cleavage around the gene. These sites depend on reaction conditions, but at 40% formamide and 2 units of mung bean nuclease per microgram DNA, the intact gene was excised from the chromosome. Comparison of the CAMP strain gene with the same gene from other strains of P. falciparum by matching available DNA sequences and by DNA hybridization revealed five regions of homology separated by divergent segments. Two of the variable regions encoded three amino acid repeats, predominantly Ser-Gly-Thr and Thr-Glu-Glu. Implications of these findings on the function of the antigen, and possible mechanisms for generation of variants are discussed. Images

Weber, J L; Leininger, W M; Lyon, J A

1986-01-01

297

The Activities of Current Antimalarial Drugs on the Life Cycle Stages of Plasmodium: A Comparative Study with Human and Rodent Parasites  

PubMed Central

Background Malaria remains a disease of devastating global impact, killing more than 800,000 people every year—the vast majority being children under the age of 5. While effective therapies are available, if malaria is to be eradicated a broader range of small molecule therapeutics that are able to target the liver and the transmissible sexual stages are required. These new medicines are needed both to meet the challenge of malaria eradication and to circumvent resistance. Methods and Findings Little is known about the wider stage-specific activities of current antimalarials that were primarily designed to alleviate symptoms of malaria in the blood stage. To overcome this critical gap, we developed assays to measure activity of antimalarials against all life stages of malaria parasites, using a diverse set of human and nonhuman parasite species, including male gamete production (exflagellation) in Plasmodium falciparum, ookinete development in P. berghei, oocyst development in P. berghei and P. falciparum, and the liver stage of P. yoelii. We then compared 50 current and experimental antimalarials in these assays. We show that endoperoxides such as OZ439, a stable synthetic molecule currently in clinical phase IIa trials, are strong inhibitors of gametocyte maturation/gamete formation and impact sporogony; lumefantrine impairs development in the vector; and NPC-1161B, a new 8-aminoquinoline, inhibits sporogony. Conclusions These data enable objective comparisons of the strengths and weaknesses of each chemical class at targeting each stage of the lifecycle. Noting that the activities of many compounds lie within achievable blood concentrations, these results offer an invaluable guide to decisions regarding which drugs to combine in the next-generation of antimalarial drugs. This study might reveal the potential of life-cycle–wide analyses of drugs for other pathogens with complex life cycles. Please see later in the article for the Editors' Summary

Delves, Michael; Plouffe, David; Scheurer, Christian; Meister, Stephan; Wittlin, Sergio; Winzeler, Elizabeth A.; Sinden, Robert E.; Leroy, Didier

2012-01-01

298

The Plasmodium selenoproteome  

PubMed Central

The use of selenocysteine (Sec) as the 21st amino acid in the genetic code has been described in all three major domains of life. However, within eukaryotes, selenoproteins are only known in animals and algae. In this study, we characterized selenoproteomes and Sec insertion systems in protozoan Apicomplexa parasites. We found that among these organisms, Plasmodium and Toxoplasma utilized Sec, whereas Cryptosporidium did not. However, Plasmodium had no homologs of known selenoproteins. By searching computationally for evolutionarily conserved selenocysteine insertion sequence (SECIS) elements, which are RNA structures involved in Sec insertion, we identified four unique Plasmodium falciparum selenoprotein genes. These selenoproteins were incorrectly annotated in PlasmoDB, were conserved in other Plasmodia and had no detectable homologs in other species. We provide evidence that two Plasmodium SECIS elements supported Sec insertion into parasite and endogenous selenoproteins when they were expressed in mammalian cells, demonstrating that the Plasmodium SECIS elements are functional and indicating conservation of Sec insertion between Apicomplexa and animals. Dependence of the plasmodial parasites on selenium suggests possible strategies for antimalarial drug development.

Lobanov, Alexey V.; Delgado, Cesar; Rahlfs, Stefan; Novoselov, Sergey V.; Kryukov, Gregory V.; Gromer, Stephan; Hatfield, Dolph L.; Becker, Katja; Gladyshev, Vadim N.

2006-01-01

299

Whole cell imaging reveals novel modular features of the exomembrane system of the malaria parasite, Plasmodium falciparum.  

PubMed

During its intra-erythrocytic development Plasmodium falciparum establishes a membrane network beyond its own limiting membrane in the cytoplasm of its host. These membrane structures play an important role in the trafficking of virulence proteins to the erythrocyte surface, however their ultrastructure is only partly defined and there is on-going debate regarding their origin, organisation and connectivity. We have used two whole cell imaging modalities to explore the topography of parasitised erythrocytes. Three-dimensional structured illumination microscopy provides resolution beyond the optical diffraction limit and permits analysis of fluorescently labelled whole cells. Immunoelectron tomography offers the possibility of high resolution imaging of individual ultrastructural features in a cellular context. Combined with serial sectioning and immunogold labelling, this technique permits precise mapping of whole cell architecture. We show that the P. falciparum exported secretory system comprises a series of modular units, comprising flattened cisternae, known as Maurer's clefts, tubular connecting elements, two different vesicle populations and electron-dense structures that have fused with the erythrocyte membrane. The membrane network is not continuous, pointing to an important role for vesicle-mediated transport in the delivery of cargo to different destinations in the host cell. PMID:19766648

Hanssen, Eric; Carlton, Peter; Deed, Samantha; Klonis, Nectarios; Sedat, John; DeRisi, Joe; Tilley, Leann

2009-09-18

300

Plasmodium falciparum: effect of Solanum nudum steroids on thiol contents and beta-hematin formation in parasitized erythrocytes.  

PubMed

We studied the effects on total thiols glutathione (GSH) and cysteine contents in Plasmodium falciparum in vitro when treated with four steroid derivatives and a sapogenin (Diosgenone) extracted from Solanum nudum. We also determined their capacity to inhibit beta-hematin formation. We showed that SN-1 (16alpha-acetoxy-26-hydroxycholest-4-ene-3,22-dione) increased total glutathione and cysteine concentrations while SN-4 (26-O-beta-d-glucopyranosyloxy-16alpha-acetoxycholest-4-ene-3,22-dione) decreased the concentration of both thiols. Acetylation in C16 was crucial for the effect of SN-1 while type furostanol and terminal glucosidation were necessary for the inhibitory properties of SN-4. The combination of steroids and buthionine sulfoximine, a specific inhibitor of a step-limiting enzyme in GSH synthesis, did not modify the glutathione contents. Finally, we found that SN-1 inhibited more than 80% of beta-hematin formation at 5.0mM, while the other steroids did not show any effect. PMID:19442662

Pabón, Adriana; Deharo, Eric; Zuluaga, Lina; Maya, Juan D; Saez, Jairo; Blair, Silvia

2009-05-12

301

Role for the Plasmodium sporozoite-specific transmembrane protein S6 in parasite motility and efficient malaria transmission  

PubMed Central

Malaria transmission occurs by intradermal deposition of Plasmodium sporozoites during the infectious bite of a female Anopheles mosquito. After formation in midgut-associated oocysts sporozoites actively enter mosquito salivary glands and subsequently invade host hepatocytes where they transform into clinically silent liver stages. To date, two sporozoite-specific transmembrane proteins have been identified that perform vital functions in natural malaria transmission. The sporozoite invasin TRAP drives sporozoite motility and target cell entry whereas the adhesin MAEBL mediates sporozoite recognition of and attachment to salivary glands. Here, we demonstrate that the sporozoite-specific transmembrane protein S6 is required for efficient malaria transmission to the vertebrate host. Targeted deletion of S6 results in severe impairment of sporozoite gliding motility and invasion of mosquito salivary glands. During sporozoite maturation S6 expression is tightly regulated by transcriptional and translational control. We propose that S6 functions together with TRAP/MIC2 family invasins to direct fast, efficient and specific cell entry and, ultimately, life cycle progression of the malaria sporozoite.

Steinbuechel, Marion; Matuschewski, Kai

2009-01-01

302

Changes in var gene mRNA levels during erythrocytic development in two phenotypically distinct Plasmodium falciparum parasites  

PubMed Central

Background The var multigene family encodes PfEMP1, which are expressed on the surface of infected erythrocytes and bind to various host endothelial receptors. Antigenic variation of PfEMP1 plays a key role in malaria pathogenesis, a process partially controlled at the level of var gene transcription. Transcriptional levels, throughout the intra-erythrocytic cycle, of 59 var genes of the NF54 clone were measured simultaneously by quantitative real-time PCR. The timing of var transcript abundance, the number of genes transcribed and whether transcripts were correctly spliced for protein expression were determined. Two parasite populations were studied; an unselected population of NF54 and a selected population, NF54VAR2CSA, to compare both the transcription of var2csa and the expression pattern of the corresponding protein. Methods Synchronized parasites were harvested at different time points along the 48 hours intra-erythrocytic cycle for extraction of RNA and for analysis of expression of variant surface antigens by flow cytometry. Total RNA from each parasite sample was extracted and cDNA synthesized. Quantitative real-time PCR was performed using gene-specific primers for all var genes. Samples for flow cytometry were labelled with rabbit IgG targeting DBL5? of VAR2CSA and serum IgG from malaria-exposed men and pregnant women. Results var transcripts were detected at all time points of the intra-erythrocytic cycle by quantitative real-time PCR, although transcription peaked in ring-stage parasites. There was no difference in the timing of appearance of group A, B or C transcripts, and dominant and subdominant var transcripts appeared to be correctly spliced at all time points. VAR2CSA appeared on the surface of infected erythrocytes 16 hours after invasion, consistent with previous studies of other PfEMP1. Transcription of the pseudogene var1csa could not be detected in NF54VAR2CSA cells. Conclusion The optimal sampling point for analysis of var transcripts using quantitative real-time PCR is the ring-stage, which is encouraging for the analysis of fresh clinical isolates. The data presented here indicate that there is no promiscuous transcription of var genes at the individual cell level and that it is possible to correlate dominant transcripts with adhesion phenotype and clinical markers of malaria severity.

Dahlback, Madeleine; Lavstsen, Thomas; Salanti, Ali; Hviid, Lars; Arnot, David E; Theander, Thor G; Nielsen, Morten A

2007-01-01

303

Classification Of Malaria Parasite Species Based On Thin Blood Smears Using Multilayer Perceptron Network  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper discusses the application of the MLP network to classify the malaria parasite into three species, namely Plasmodium falciparum, Plasmodium vivax and Plasmodium malariae. Six features (i.e. size of RBC infected per size of normal RBC, shape of parasite, number of chromatin, number of parasite per RBC, texture of RBC and location chromatin of parasite) from thin blood smear

Noorhidayati Abu Seman; Nor Ashidi Mat Isa; Lim Chia Li; Zeehaida Mohamed; Kamal Zuhairi Zamli

304

Isolation and Characterization of the MSP1 Genes from Plasmodium malariae and Plasmodium ovale  

PubMed Central

The merozoite surface protein 1 (MSP1) is the principal surface antigen of the blood stage form of the Plasmodium parasite. Antibodies recognizing MSP1 are frequently detected following Plasmodium infection, making this protein a significant component of malaria vaccines and diagnostic tests. Although the MSP1 gene sequence has been reported for Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium vivax, this gene has not been identified for the other two major human-infectious species, Plasmodium malariae and Plasmodium ovale. MSP1 genes from these two species were isolated from Cameroon blood donor samples. The genes are similar in size to known MSP1 genes and encode proteins with interspecies conserved domains homologous to those identified in other Plasmodium species. Sequence and phylogenetic analysis of all available Plasmodium MSP1 amino acid sequences clearly shows that the Po and Pm MSP1 sequences are truly unique within the Plasmodium genus and not simply Pf or Pv variants.

Birkenmeyer, Larry; Muerhoff, A. Scott; Dawson, George J.; Desai, Suresh M.

2010-01-01

305

Molecular cloning, characterization and localization of PfPK4, an eIF-2alpha kinase-related enzyme from the malarial parasite Plasmodium falciparum.  

PubMed Central

PfPK4, a protein kinase gene from the human malarial parasite Plasmodium falciparum, has been cloned utilizing oligonucleotide probing. The gene encodes a protein of a predicted length of 1123 amino acids, and within this amino acid sequence all the conserved regions characteristic of protein kinases can be identified. The catalytic kinase domain possesses highest identities (34-37%) with eukaryotic initiation factor-2alpha (eIF-2alpha) kinases, especially haem-regulated inhibitory (HRI) protein kinases. There are two kinase inserts in PfPK4, located at positions common to eIF-2alpha kinases. The first insert separates kinase subdomains IV and VI by 559 amino acids, and the second subdomains VII and VIII by 41 amino acids. Both inserts are larger than their homologues in eIF-2alpha kinases. The sequence of PfPK4 has one putative haemin-binding site. The recombinant protein, expressed in Escherichia coli, phosphorylates a synthetic peptide representing a substrate of eIF-2alpha kinases. Autophosphorylation and substrate phosphorylation are inhibited by haemin. Thus PfPK4 appears to be the first protozoan protein kinase related to eIF-2alpha kinases and might be the first non-mammalian HRI kinase. Western blots indicated that the protein is expressed as major forms of 80 and 90 kDa. Whereas the 80 kDa form is present throughout the intraerythrocytic development and in merozoites, the two 90 kDa forms are only found in mature parasites. One of the latter is also present in the membrane fraction of erythrocytes harbouring segmenters. Confocal microscopy detected the protein distributed throughout the trophozoite, whereas it was found in discrete foci (punctate distribution) in segmenters. PfPK4 co-localizes with P. falciparum 83 kDa antigen/apical membrane antigen-1 at the apical complex in segmenters and merozoites, but does not co-localize with rhoptry-associated protein-1.

Mohrle, J J; Zhao, Y; Wernli, B; Franklin, R M; Kappes, B

1997-01-01

306

Division of Bacterial, Parasitic and Allergenic Products  

Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research (CBER)

Text Version... Parasite. (Plasmodium spp). Other/emerging. (Yersinia pestis); (Staphylococcus aureus); Allergenic products; (Probiotics). 5 /15. ... More results from www.fda.gov/downloads/advisorycommittees/committeesmeetingmaterials

307

Comparison of Plasmodium berghei challenge models for the evaluation of pre-erythrocytic malaria vaccines and their effect on perceived vaccine efficacy  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: The immunological mechanisms responsible for protection against malaria infection vary among Plasmodium species, host species and the developmental stage of parasite, and are poorly understood. A challenge with live parasites is the most relevant approach to testing the efficacy of experimental malaria vaccines. Nevertheless, in the mouse models of Plasmodium berghei and Plasmodium yoelii, parasites are usually delivered by

Wolfgang W Leitner; Elke S Bergmann-Leitner; Evelina Angov

2010-01-01

308

Isolation of Plasmodium falciparum by flow-cytometry: implications for single-trophozoite genotyping and parasite DNA purification for whole-genome high-throughput sequencing of archival samples  

PubMed Central

Background Flow cytometry and cell sorting are powerful tools enabling the selection of particular cell types within heterogeneous cell mixtures. These techniques, combined with whole genome amplification that non-specifically amplify small amounts of starting DNA, offer exciting new opportunities for the study of malaria genetics. Among them, two are tested in this paper: (1) single cell genotyping and (2) parasite DNA purification for subsequent whole genome sequencing using shotgun technologies. Methods The method described allows isolation of Plasmodium falciparum trophozoites, genotyping and whole genome sequencing from the blood of infected patients. For trophozoite isolation, parasite and host nuclei are stained using propidium iodide (PI) followed by flow cytometry and cell sorting to separate trophozoites from host cells. Before genotyping or sequencing, whole genome amplification is used to increase the amount of DNA within sorted samples. The method has been specifically designed to deal with frozen blood samples. Results and conclusion The results demonstrate that single trophozoite genotyping is possible and that cell sorting can be successfully applied to reduce the contaminating host DNA for subsequent whole genome sequencing of parasites extracted from infected blood samples.

2012-01-01

309

Probing the Role of Parasite-specific, Distant, Structural Regions on Communication and Catalysis in the Bifunctional Thymidylate Synthase- Dihydrofolate Reductase from Plasmodium falciparum  

PubMed Central

Plasmodium falciparum thymidylate synthase-dihydrofolate reductase (TS-DHFR) is an essential enzyme in nucleotide biosynthesis, and a validated molecular drug target in malaria. Because P. falciparum TS and DHFR are highly homologous to their human counterparts, existing active-site antifolate drugs can have dose-limiting toxicities. In humans, TS and DHFR are two separate proteins. In P. falciparum, however, TS-DHFR is bifunctional, with both TS and DHFR active sites on a single polypeptide chain of the enzyme. Consequently, P. falciparum TS-DHFR contains unique distant or ‘non-active’ regions which might modulate catalysis: 1) an N-terminal tail; and 2) a ‘linker’ region tethering DHFR to TS, and encoding a ‘crossover helix’ that forms critical electrostatic interactions with the DHFR active site. The role of these non-active sites in the bifunctional P. falciparum TS-DHFR is unknown. We report the first in-depth, pre-steady state, kinetic characterization of the full-length, WT P. falciparum TS-DHFR enzyme, and probe the role of distant, non-active regions through mutational analysis. We show that the overall rate-limiting step in the WT P. falciparum TS-DHFR enzyme is TS catalysis. We further show that if TS is in an ‘activated’ (liganded) conformation, the DHFR rate is 2-fold activated, from 60 s?1 to 130 s?1 in the WT enzyme. The TS rate is also reciprocally activated by ~1.5-fold if DHFR is in an activated, ligand-bound conformation. Mutations to the linker region affect neither catalytic rate nor domain-domain communication. Deletion of the N-terminal tail – although in a location remote to the active site - decreases DHFR single and the bifunctional TS-DHFR rate by a factor of 2. The two-fold activation of the DHFR rate by TS ligands remains intact, although even the activated N-terminal mutant has just half the DHFR activity of the WT enzyme. However, the reciprocal communication – between TS active site and DHFR ligands - is impaired in N-terminal mutants. Surprisingly, deletion of the analogous N-terminal tail in Leishmania major TS-DHFR causes a 3-fold enhancement of the DHFR rate from ~14 s?1 to ~40 s?1. In summary, our results demonstrate a complex interplay of domain-domain communication and non-active site modulation of catalysis in P. falciparum TS-DHFR. Furthermore, each parasitic TS-DHFR is activated by unique mechanisms, modulated by their non-active site regions. Finally, our studies suggest the N-terminal tail of P. falciparum TS-DHFR is a highly selective, novel target for potential antifolate development in malaria.

Dasgupta, Tina; Anderson, Karen S.

2008-01-01

310

Features of recrudescent chloroquine-resistant Plasmodium falciparum infections confer a survival advantage on parasites and have implications for disease control  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reports on the features of recrudescent infections of chloroquine-resistant Plasmodium falciparum (CQRPf) malaria from a study in vivo of patients from a malaria endemic (n = 527) and non-endemic (n = 129) region of Sri Lanka where the incidence of RI resistance was 30% and 55%, respectively. In both groups of patients, the recrudescent infections which emerged after

S. M. Handunnetti; D. M. Gunewardena; P. P. S. I. Pathirana; K. Ekanayake; S. Weerasinghe; K. N. Mendis

1996-01-01

311

Combination of Drug Level Measurement and Parasite Genotyping Data for Improved Assessment of Amodiaquine and Sulfadoxine-Pyrimethamine Efficacies in Treating Plasmodium falciparum Malaria in Gabonese Children  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many African countries currently use a sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine combination (SP) or amodiaquine (AQ) to treat uncomplicated Plasmodium falciparum malaria. Both drugs represent the last inexpensive alternatives to chloroquine. However, resistant P. falciparum populations are largely reported in Africa, and it is compul- sory to know the present situation of resistance. The in vivo World Health Organization standard 28-day test was used

Agnes Aubouy; Mohamed Bakary; Annick Keundjian; Bernard Mbomat; Jean Ruffin Makita; Florence Migot-Nabias; Michel Cot; Jacques Le Bras; Philippe Deloron

2003-01-01

312

Bis(benzyl)polyamine analogs inhibit the growth of chloroquine-resistant human malaria parasites (Plasmodium falciparum) in vitro and in combination with alpha-difluoromethylornithine cure murine malaria.  

PubMed Central

A number of bis(benzyl)polyamine analogs were found to be potent inhibitors of both chloroquine-resistant and chloroquine-sensitive strains of the human malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum in vitro (IC50 values = 0.2-14 microM). Administration of one of the compounds, MDL 27695, which is N,N'-bis(3-[(phenylmethyl)amino]propyl)-1,7-diaminoheptane (C6H5CH2NH(CH2)3NH(CH2)7NH(CH2)3NHCH2C6H5), at 10-15 mg/kg i.p. three times per day for 3 days in combination with 2% alpha-difluoromethylornithine (DFMO; eflornithine) in drinking water effected cures of 47/54 mice infected with Plasmodium berghei. Cured mice were found to be immune upon rechallenge with the same P. berghei strain 4 months after the initial infection and drug-induced cure. MDL 27695 rapidly inhibited the incorporation of [3H]hypoxanthine into P. falciparum RNA and DNA, whereas the incorporation of [3H]isoleucine was not affected until much later. We conclude, therefore, that the major cytotoxic event may be direct binding of MDL 27695 to DNA with subsequent disruption of macromolecular biosynthesis and cell death. These compounds offer a lead in the search for new agents for chemotherapy of malaria.

Bitonti, A J; Dumont, J A; Bush, T L; Edwards, M L; Stemerick, D M; McCann, P P; Sjoerdsma, A

1989-01-01

313

Practical PCR genotyping protocols for Plasmodium vivax using Pvcs and Pvmsp1  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Plasmodium vivax is the second most prevalent malaria parasite affecting more than 75 million people each year, mostly in South America and Asia. In addition to major morbidity this parasite is associated with relapses and a reduction in birthweight. The emergence and spread of drug resistance in Plasmodium falciparum is a major factor in the resurgence of this parasite.

Mallika Imwong; Sasithon Pukrittayakamee; Anne Charlotte Grüner; Laurent Rénia; Frank Letourneur; Sornchai Looareesuwan; Nicholas J White; Georges Snounou

2005-01-01

314

Phylogeny of the malarial genus Plasmodium, derived from rRNA gene sequences.  

PubMed Central

Malaria is among mankind's worst scourges, affecting many millions of people, particularly in the tropics. Human malaria is caused by several species of Plasmodium, a parasitic protozoan. We analyze the small subunit rRNA gene sequences of 11 Plasmodium species, including three parasitic to humans, to infer their evolutionary relationships. Plasmodium falciparum, the most virulent of the human species, is closely related to Plasmodium reichenowi, which is parasitic to chimpanzee. The estimated time of divergence of these two Plasmodium species is consistent with the time of divergence (6-10 million years ago) between the human and chimpanzee lineages. The falciparum-reichenowi clade is only remotely related to two other human parasites, Plasmodium malariae and Plasmodium vivax, which are also only remotely related to each other. Thus, the parasitic associations of the Plasmodium species with their human hosts are phylogenetically independent. The remote phylogenetic relationship between the two bird parasites, Plasmodium gallinaceum and Plasmodium lophurae, and any of the human parasites provides no support for the hypothesis that infection by Plasmodium falciparum is a recent acquisition of humans, possibly coincident with the onset of agriculture.

Escalante, A A; Ayala, F J

1994-01-01

315

Plasmodium, human and Anopheles genomics and malaria  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Plasmodium spp. parasites that cause malaria are transmitted to humans by Anopheles spp. mosquitoes. Scientists have now amassed a great body of knowledge about the parasite, its mosquito vector and human host. Yet this year there will be 300–500 million new malaria infections and 1–3 million deaths caused by the disease. We believe that integrated analyses of genome sequence,

G. Mani Subramanian; Frank H. Collins; J. Craig Venter; Stephen L. Hoffman

2002-01-01

316

Highly Dynamic Host Actin Reorganization around Developing Plasmodium Inside Hepatocytes  

PubMed Central

Plasmodium sporozoites are transmitted by Anopheles mosquitoes and infect hepatocytes, where a single sporozoite replicates into thousands of merozoites inside a parasitophorous vacuole. The nature of the Plasmodium-host cell interface, as well as the interactions occurring between these two organisms, remains largely unknown. Here we show that highly dynamic hepatocyte actin reorganization events occur around developing Plasmodium berghei parasites inside human hepatoma cells. Actin reorganization is most prominent between 10 to 16 hours post infection and depends on the actin severing and capping protein, gelsolin. Live cell imaging studies also suggest that the hepatocyte cytoskeleton may contribute to parasite elimination during Plasmodium development in the liver.

Gomes-Santos, Carina S. S.; Itoe, Maurice A.; Afonso, Cristina; Henriques, Ricardo; Gardner, Rui; Sepulveda, Nuno; Simoes, Pedro D.; Raquel, Helena; Almeida, Antonio Paulo; Moita, Luis F.; Frischknecht, Friedrich; Mota, Maria M.

2012-01-01

317

A Clonal Theory of Parasitic Protozoa: The Population Structures of Entamoeba, Giardia, Leishmania, Naegleria, Plasmodium, Trichomonas, and Trypanosoma and their Medical and Taxonomical Consequences  

Microsoft Academic Search

We propose a general theory of clonal reproduction for parasitic protozoa, which has important medical and biological consequences. Many parasitic protozoa have been assumed to reproduce sexually, because of diploidy and occasional sexuality in the laboratory. However, a population genetic analysis of extensive data on biochemical polymorphisms indicates taht the two fundamental consequences of sexual reproduction (i.e., segregation and recombination)

Michel Tibayrenc; Finn Kjellberg; Francisco J. Ayala

1990-01-01

318

Induction of Parasite Growth-Inhibitory Antibodies by a Virosomal Formulation of a Peptidomimetic of Loop I from Domain III of Plasmodium falciparum Apical Membrane Antigen 1  

Microsoft Academic Search

Apical membrane antigen 1 (AMA-1) of Plasmodium falciparum is a leading candidate antigen for inclusion in a malaria subunit vaccine. Its ectodomain can be divided into three subdomains, each with disulfide bond-stabilized structures. Since the majority of antibodies raised against the ectodomain appear to recognize strain-specific epitopes in domain I, we attempted to develop a vaccine formulation which directs the

Markus S. Mueller; Annabelle Renard; Francesca Boato; Denise Vogel; Martin Naegeli; Rinaldo Zurbriggen; John A. Robinson; Gerd Pluschke

2003-01-01

319

The Malaria Parasite Monitored by Photoacoustic Spectroscopy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Noninvasive photoacoustic spectroscopy was used to study the malaria parasites Plasmodium chabaudi and Plasmodium berghei, their pigment, and ferri-protoporphyrin IX, which is a by-product of the hemoglobin that the parasite ingests. The results indicate that the pigment consists of ferriprotophorphyrin self-aggregates and a noncovalent complex of ferriprotoporphyrin and protein. Spectra of chloroquine-treated parasites reveal in situ interaction between the drug

D. Balasubramanian; Ch. Mohan Rao; B. Panijpan

1984-01-01

320

Transmission blocking activity of a standardized neem (Azadirachta indica) seed extract on the rodent malaria parasite Plasmodium berghei in its vector Anopheles stephensi  

PubMed Central

Background The wide use of gametocytocidal artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT) lead to a reduction of Plasmodium falciparum transmission in several African endemic settings. An increased impact on malaria burden may be achieved through the development of improved transmission-blocking formulations, including molecules complementing the gametocytocidal effects of artemisinin derivatives and/or acting on Plasmodium stages developing in the vector. Azadirachtin, a limonoid (tetranortriterpenoid) abundant in neem (Azadirachta indica, Meliaceae) seeds, is a promising candidate, inhibiting Plasmodium exflagellation in vitro at low concentrations. This work aimed at assessing the transmission-blocking potential of NeemAzal®, an azadirachtin-enriched extract of neem seeds, using the rodent malaria in vivo model Plasmodium berghei/Anopheles stephensi. Methods Anopheles stephensi females were offered a blood-meal on P. berghei infected, gametocytaemic BALB/c mice, treated intraperitoneally with NeemAzal, one hour before feeding. The transmission-blocking activity of the product was evaluated by assessing oocyst prevalence, oocyst density and capacity to infect healthy mice. To characterize the anti-plasmodial effects of NeemAzal® on early midgut stages, i.e. zygotes and ookinetes, Giemsa-stained mosquito midgut smears were examined. Results NeemAzal® completely blocked P. berghei development in the vector, at an azadirachtin dose of 50 mg/kg mouse body weight. The totally 138 examined, treated mosquitoes (three experimental replications) did not reveal any oocyst and none of the healthy mice exposed to their bites developed parasitaemia. The examination of midgut content smears revealed a reduced number of zygotes and post-zygotic forms and the absence of mature ookinetes in treated mosquitoes. Post-zygotic forms showed several morphological alterations, compatible with the hypothesis of an azadirachtin interference with the functionality of the microtubule organizing centres and with the assembly of cytoskeletal microtubules, which are both fundamental processes in Plasmodium gametogenesis and ookinete formation. Conclusions This work demonstrated in vivo transmission blocking activity of an azadirachtin-enriched neem seed extract at an azadirachtin dose compatible with 'druggability' requisites. These results and evidence of anti-plasmodial activity of neem products accumulated over the last years encourage to convey neem compounds into the drug discovery & development pipeline and to evaluate their potential for the design of novel or improved transmission-blocking remedies.

2010-01-01

321

A transmission model for the ecology of an avian blood parasite in a temperate ecosystem.  

PubMed

Most of our knowledge about avian haemosporidian parasites comes from the Hawaiian archipelago, where recently introduced Plasmodiumrelictum has contributed to the extinction of many endemic avian species. While the ecology of invasive malaria is reasonably understood, the ecology of endemic haemosporidian infection in mainland systems is poorly understood, even though it is the rule rather than the exception. We develop a mathematical model to explore and identify the ecological factors that most influence transmission of the common avian parasite, Leucocytozoonfringillinarum (Apicomplexa). The model was parameterized from White-crowned Sparrow (Zonotrichialeucophrys) and S. silvestre / craigi black fly populations breeding in an alpine ecosystem. We identify and examine the importance of altricial nestlings, the seasonal relapse of infected birds for parasite persistence across breeding seasons, and potential impacts of seasonal changes in black fly emergence on parasite prevalence in a high elevation temperate system. We also use the model to identify and estimate the parameters most influencing transmission dynamics. Our analysis found that relapse of adult birds and young of the year birds were crucial for parasite persistence across multiple seasons. However, distinguishing between nude nestlings and feathered young of the year was unnecessary. Finally, due to model sensitivity to many black fly parameters, parasite prevalence and sparrow recruitment may be most affected by seasonal changes in environmental temperature driving shifts in black fly emergence and gonotrophic cycles. PMID:24073288

Murdock, Courtney C; Foufopoulos, Johannes; Simon, Carl P

2013-09-20

322

A Transmission Model for the Ecology of an Avian Blood Parasite in a Temperate Ecosystem  

PubMed Central

Most of our knowledge about avian haemosporidian parasites comes from the Hawaiian archipelago, where recently introduced Plasmodiumrelictum has contributed to the extinction of many endemic avian species. While the ecology of invasive malaria is reasonably understood, the ecology of endemic haemosporidian infection in mainland systems is poorly understood, even though it is the rule rather than the exception. We develop a mathematical model to explore and identify the ecological factors that most influence transmission of the common avian parasite, Leucocytozoonfringillinarum (Apicomplexa). The model was parameterized from White-crowned Sparrow (Zonotrichialeucophrys) and S. silvestre / craigi black fly populations breeding in an alpine ecosystem. We identify and examine the importance of altricial nestlings, the seasonal relapse of infected birds for parasite persistence across breeding seasons, and potential impacts of seasonal changes in black fly emergence on parasite prevalence in a high elevation temperate system. We also use the model to identify and estimate the parameters most influencing transmission dynamics. Our analysis found that relapse of adult birds and young of the year birds were crucial for parasite persistence across multiple seasons. However, distinguishing between nude nestlings and feathered young of the year was unnecessary. Finally, due to model sensitivity to many black fly parameters, parasite prevalence and sparrow recruitment may be most affected by seasonal changes in environmental temperature driving shifts in black fly emergence and gonotrophic cycles.

Murdock, Courtney C.; Foufopoulos, Johannes; Simon, Carl P.

2013-01-01

323

Intracellular Parasite Invasion Strategies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Intracellular parasites use various strategies to invade cells and to subvert cellular signaling pathways and, thus, to gain a foothold against host defenses. Efficient cell entry, ability to exploit intracellular niches, and persistence make these parasites treacherous pathogens. Most intracellular parasites gain entry via host-mediated processes, but apicomplexans use a system of adhesion-based motility called ``gliding'' to actively penetrate host cells. Actin polymerization-dependent motility facilitates parasite migration across cellular barriers, enables dissemination within tissues, and powers invasion of host cells. Efficient invasion has brought widespread success to this group, which includes Toxoplasma, Plasmodium, and Cryptosporidium.

Sibley, L. D.

2004-04-01

324

Antibodies to Escherichia coli-Expressed C-Terminal Domains of Plasmodium falciparum Variant Surface Antigen 2-Chondroitin Sulfate A (VAR2CSA) Inhibit Binding of CSA-Adherent Parasites to Placental Tissue  

PubMed Central

Placental malaria (PM) is characterized by infected erythrocytes (IEs) that selectively bind to chondroitin sulfate A (CSA) and sequester in placental tissue. Variant surface antigen 2-CSA (VAR2CSA), a Plasmodium falciparum erythrocyte membrane protein 1 (PfEMP1) protein family member, is expressed on the surface of placental IEs and mediates adherence to CSA on the surface of syncytiotrophoblasts. This transmembrane protein contains 6 Duffy binding-like (DBL) domains which might contribute to the specific adhesive properties of IEs. Here, we use laboratory isolate 3D7 VAR2CSA DBL domains expressed in Escherichia coli to generate antibodies specific for this protein. Flow cytometry results showed that antibodies generated against DBL4?, DBL5?, DBL6?, and tandem double domains of DBL4-DBL5 and DBL5-DBL6 all bind to placental parasite isolates and to lab strains selected for CSA binding but do not bind to children's parasites. Antisera to DBL4? and to DBL5? inhibit maternal IE binding to placental tissue in a manner comparable to that for plasma collected from multigravid women. These antibodies also inhibit binding to CSA of several field isolates derived from pregnant women, while antibodies to double domains do not enhance the functional immune response. These data support DBL4? and DBL5? as vaccine candidates for pregnancy malaria and demonstrate that E. coli is a feasible tool for the large-scale manufacture of a vaccine based on these VAR2CSA domains.

Saveria, Tracy; Oleinikov, Andrew V.; Wiliamson, Kathryn; Chaturvedi, Richa; Lograsso, Joe; Keitany, Gladys J.; Fried, Michal

2013-01-01

325

Big Bang in the Evolution of Extant Malaria Parasites  

Microsoft Academic Search

Malaria parasites (genus Plasmodium) infect all classes of terrestrial vertebrates and display host specificity in their infections. It is therefore assumed that malaria parasites coevolved intimately with their hosts. Here, we propose a novel scenario of malaria parasite-host coevolution. A phylogenetic tree constructed using the malaria parasite mitochondrial genome reveals that the extant primate, rodent, bird, and reptile parasite lineages

Toshiyuki Hayakawa; Richard Culleton; Hiroto Otani; Toshihiro Horii; Kazuyuki Tanabe

2008-01-01

326

Adenine metabolism in Plasmodium falciparum.  

PubMed

Plasmodium falciparum lacks the de novo purine biosynthesis pathway and relies entirely on the salvage pathway to meet its purine nucleotide requirements. The entire flux for purine nucleotide biosynthesis in the parasite is believed to be through hypoxanthine guanine phosphoribosyltransferase (HGPRT), with the enzymes, adenosine kinase and adenine phosphoribosyltransferase (APRT) being unannotated in the Plasmodium genome database. This manuscript reports on the studies carried out to explore bypass mechanisms, if any, for AMP synthesis in the intraerythrocyitc stages of the parasite life cycle. Uptake and subsequent incorporation of radiolabel adenine in the nucleotide pool of saponin released erythrocyte free parasites implicated the role of parasite encoded enzymes in adenine metabolism. To explore the route for AMP synthesis in the parasite, we have monitored adenine mediated supplementation of metabolic viability in saponin released hadacidin (N-formyl-N-hydroxyglycine) treated parasites. Our results implicate the role of an APRT like activity that enables parasite survival when the flux through the HGPRT pathway is blocked. PMID:20093117

Mehrotra, Sonali; Bopanna, Monnanda P; Bulusu, Vinay; Balaram, Hemalatha

2010-01-20

327

Cultivation of Plasmodium spp.  

PubMed Central

Cultivation of both human and non-human species of Plasmodium spp., the causal agent of malaria, has been a major research success, leading to a greater understanding of the parasite. Efforts at cultivating the organisms in vitro are complicated by the parasites' alternating between a human host and an arthropod vector, each having its own set of physiological, metabolic, and nutritional parameters. Life cycle stages of the four species that infect humans have been established in vitro. Of these four, P. falciparum remains the only species for which all stages have been cultured in vitro; different degrees of success have been achieved with the other human Plasmodium spp. The life cycle includes the exoerythrocytic stage (within liver cells), the erythrocytic stage (within erythrocytes or precursor reticulocytes), and the sporogonic stage (within the vector). Culture media generally consist of a basic tissue culture medium (e.g., minimal essential medium or RPMI 1640) to which serum and erythrocytes are added. Most of the efforts have been directed toward the stage found in the erythrocyte. This stage has been cultivated in petri plates or other growth vessels in a candle jar to generate elevated CO2 levels or in a more controlled CO2 atmosphere. Later developments have employed continuous-flow systems to reduce the labor-intensive nature of medium changing. The exoerythrocytic and sporogonic life cycle stages have also been cultivated in vitro. A number of avian, rodent, and simian malarial parasites have also been established in vitro. Although cultivation is of great help in understanding the biology of Plasmodium, it does not lend itself to use for diagnostic purposes.

Schuster, Frederick L.

2002-01-01

328

Comparative Fine Structure Study of the Gametocytes of Avian, Reptilian, and Mammalian Malarial Parasites.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The fine structures of the gametocytes of various malarial parasites were investigated and compared. The malarial parasites studied included Plasmodium lophurae, P. cathemerium, P. gallinaceum, P. pinotti, P. elongatum (all avian parasites), P. floridense...

M. Aikawa C. G. Huff H. Sprinz

1968-01-01

329

Calcium regulation in protozoan parasites  

Microsoft Academic Search

The calcium ion (Ca2+) is used as a major signaling molecule in a diverse range of eukaryotic cells including several human parasitic protozoa, such as Trypanosoma cruzi, Trypanosoma brucei, Leishmania spp, Plasmodium spp, Toxoplasma gondii, Cryptosporidium parvum, Entamoeba histolytica, Giardia lamblia and Trichomonas vaginalis. Ca2+ is critical for invasion of intracellular parasites, and its cytosolic concentration is regulated by the

Silvia NJ Moreno; Roberto Docampo

2003-01-01

330

Comparative Feeding Mechanisms of Avian and Primate Malarial Parasites.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The electron microscope observations of the erythrocytic stages of two primate malarial parasites, Plasmodium knowlesi and P. cynomolgi and of an avian malarial parasite, P. gallinaceum, have revealed a cytostome in both merozoites and trophozoites and ha...

M. Aikawa C. G. Huff H. Sprinz

1966-01-01

331

High-Resolution Autoradiography of Malarial Parasites Treated with Chloroquine.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Electron microscope autoradiography was performed on the erythrocytic stages of the rodent malarial parasite, Plasmodium berghei, after exposure to 3H-chloroquine. 3H-chloroquine becomes selectively localized within the parasite food vacuoles one hour aft...

M. Aikawa

1971-01-01

332

Manual blood exchange transfusion does not significantly contribute to parasite clearance in artesunate-treated individuals with imported severe Plasmodium falciparum malaria  

PubMed Central

Background Exchange transfusion (ET) has remained a controversial adjunct therapy for the treatment of severe malaria. In order to assess the relative contribution of ET to parasite clearance in severe malaria, all patients receiving ET as an adjunct treatment to parenteral quinine or to artesunate were compared with patients treated with parenteral treatment with quinine or artesunate but who did not receive ET. ET was executed using a standardized manual isovolumetric exchange protocol. Methods All patients in the Rotterdam Malaria Cohort treated for severe P. falciparum malaria at the Institute for Tropical Diseases of the Harbour Hospital between 1999 and 2011 were included in this retrospective follow-up study. Both a two-stage approach and a log-linear mixed model approach were used to estimate parasite clearance times (PCTs) in patients with imported malaria. Severe malaria was defined according to WHO criteria. Results A total of 87 patients with severe malaria was included; 61 received intravenous quinine, whereas 26 patients received intravenous artesunate. Thirty-nine patients received ET as an adjunct treatment to either quinine (n?=?23) or artesunate (n?=?16). Data from 84 of 87 patients were suitable for estimation of parasite clearance rates. PCTs were significantly shorter after administration of artesunate as compared with quinine. In both models, ET did not contribute significantly to overall parasite clearance. Conclusion Manual exchange transfusion does not significantly contribute to parasite clearance in artesunate-treated individuals. There may be a small effect of ET on parasite clearance under quinine treatment. Institution of ET to promote parasite clearance in settings where artesunate is available is not recommended, at least not with manually executed exchange procedures.

2013-01-01

333

Statistical Model To Evaluate In Vivo Activities of Antimalarial Drugs in a Plasmodium cynomolgi-Macaque Model for Plasmodium vivax Malaria  

Microsoft Academic Search

Preclinical animal models informing antimalarial drug development are scarce. We have used asexual erythrocytic Plasmodium cynomolgi infections of rhesus macaques to model Plasmodium vivax during preclinical development of compounds targeting parasite phospholipid synthesis. Using this malaria model, we accumu- lated data confirming highly reproducible infection patterns, with self-curing parasite peaks reproducibly preceding recrudescence peaks. We applied nonlinear mixed-effect (NLME) models,

Clemens H. M. Kocken; Edmond J. Remarque; Martin A. Dubbeld; Sharon Wein; Annemarie van der Wel; R. Joyce Verburgh; Henri J. Vial; Alan W. Thomas

2009-01-01

334

UV-triggered affinity capture identifies interactions between the Plasmodium falciparum multidrug resistance protein 1 (PfMDR1) and antimalarial agents in live parasitized cells.  

PubMed

A representative of a new class of potent antimalarials with an unknown mode of action was recently described. To identify the molecular target of this class of antimalarials, we employed a photo-reactive affinity capture method to find parasite proteins specifically interacting with the capture compound in living parasitized cells. The capture reagent retained the antimalarial properties of the parent molecule (ACT-213615) and accumulated within parasites. We identified several proteins interacting with the capture compound and established a functional interaction between ACT-213615 and PfMDR1. We surmise that PfMDR1 may play a role in the antimalarial activity of the piperazine-containing compound ACT-213615. PMID:23754276

Brunner, Ralf; Ng, Caroline L; Aissaoui, Hamed; Akabas, Myles H; Boss, Christoph; Brun, Reto; Callaghan, Paul S; Corminboeuf, Olivier; Fidock, David A; Frame, Ithiel J; Heidmann, Bibia; Le Bihan, Amélie; Jenö, Paul; Mattheis, Corinna; Moes, Suzette; Müller, Ingrid B; Paguio, Michelle; Roepe, Paul D; Siegrist, Romain; Voss, Till; Welford, Richard W D; Wittlin, Sergio; Binkert, Christoph

2013-06-10

335

Cyclic AMP level in red blood cells of Plasmodium berghei-infected Mastomys natalensis.  

PubMed

The present report describes the changes in cyclic AMP level which occur upon parasitization of red cells by Plasmodium berghei. Parasitized erythrocytes were separated from the non-parasitized population by percoll density-gradient centrifugation. An increase in the cyclic AMP content of both non-parasitized and parasitized erythrocytes of infected animals compared with that of uninfected animals was observed. The patterns of physiological response to isoproterenol in normal, parasitized and non-parasitized erythrocytes were identical. PMID:1849086

Khare, S; Ghatak, S

1991-03-15

336

A systematic approach to understand the mechanism of action of the bisthiazolium compound T4 on the human malaria parasite, Plasmodium falciparum  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: In recent years, a major increase in the occurrence of drug resistant falciparum malaria has been reported. Choline analogs, such as the bisthiazolium T4, represent a novel class of compounds with strong potency against drug sensitive and resistant P. falciparum clones. Although T4 and its analogs are presumed to target the parasite's lipid metabolism, their exact mechanism of action

Karine G Le Roch; Jeffrey R Johnson; Hugues Ahiboh; Duk-Won D Chung; Jacques Prudhomme; David Plouffe; Kerstin Henson; Yingyao Zhou; William Witola; John R Yates; Choukri Ben Mamoun; Elizabeth A Winzeler; Henri Vial

2008-01-01

337

Evidence of tRNA cleavage in apicomplexan parasites: half-tRNAs as new potential regulatory molecules of Toxoplasma gondii and Plasmodium berghei  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Several lines of evidence demonstrated that organisms ranging from bacteria to higher animals possess a regulated endonucleolytic cleavage pathway producing half-tRNA fragments. In the present study, we investigated the occurrence of this phenomenon in two distantly related apicomplexan parasites, T...

338

Antimalarial Drugs Clear Resistant Parasites from Partially Immune Hosts  

Microsoft Academic Search

Circumstantial evidence in human malaria suggests that elimination of parasites by drug treatment meets higher success rates in individuals having some background immunity. In this study, using the rodent malaria model Plasmodium chabaudi, we show that drug-resistant parasites can be cleared by drugs when the host is partially immune. Malaria due to Plasmodium falciparum is still a major cause of

PEDRO CRAVO; RICHARD CULLETON; PAUL HUNT; DAVID WALLIKER; MARGARET J. MACKINNON

2001-01-01

339

Suppression of in vitro IFN interferon-?, production by spleen cells of Plasmodium chabaudi-infected C57BL\\/10 mice exposed to dexamethasone at a low dose fn2 fn2 This work was supported in part by a grant from Human Science Fundation. Abbreviations: ConA, concanavalin A, DEX, dexamethasone, IFNg, interferon-g, LPS, lipopolysaccharide, NRBC, normal red blood cells, PRBC, parasitized red blood cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

After infection with Plasmodium chabaudi, C57BL\\/10 mice produced significant amounts of serum IFN-?, developed a low level of parasitemia and survived the infection. Production of IFN-? was also obvious when spleen cells of the infected mice were stimulated with the parasite antigen contained in an erythrocyte lysate in vitro. Depletion of CD4+ T cells abrogated production of IFN-?, leading to

Naohisa Tsutsui; Tsuneo Kamiyama

1998-01-01

340

Sequestration of Plasmodium falciparum-infected erythrocytes to chondroitin sulfate A, a receptor for maternal malaria: monoclonal antibodies against the native parasite ligand reveal pan-reactive epitopes in placental isolates.  

PubMed

Plasmodium falciparum parasites express variant adhesion molecules on the surface of infected erythrocytes (IEs), which act as targets for natural protection. Recently it was shown that IE sequestration in the placenta is mediated by binding to chondroitin sulfate A via the duffy binding-like (DBL)-gamma 3 domain of P falciparum erythrocyte membrane protein 1 (PfEMP1(CSA)). Conventional immunization procedures rarely result in the successful production of monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) against such conformational vaccine candidates. Here, we show that this difficulty can be overcome by rendering Balb/c mice B cells tolerant to the surface of human erythrocytes or Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells before injecting P falciparum IEs or transfected CHO cells expressing the chondroitin sulfate A (CSA)-binding domain (DBL-gamma 3) of the FCR3 var(CSA) gene. We fused spleen cells with P3U1 cells and obtained between 20% and 60% mAbs that specifically label the surface of mature infected erythrocytes of the CSA phenotype (mIE(CSA)) but not of other adhesive phenotypes. Surprisingly, 70.8% of the 43 mAbs analyzed in this work were IgM. All mAbs immunoprecipitated PfEMP1(CSA) from extracts of (125)I surface-labeled IE(CSA). Several mAbs bound efficiently to the surface of CSA-binding parasites from different geographic areas and to placental isolates from West Africa. The cross-reactive mAbs are directed against the DBL-gamma 3(CSA), demonstrating that this domain, which mediates CSA binding, is able to induce a pan-reactive immune response. This work is an important step toward the development of a DBL-gamma 3-based vaccine that could protect pregnant women from pathogenesis. ) PMID:12149234

Lekana Douki, Jean-Bernard; Traore, Boubacar; Costa, Fabio T M; Fusaï, Thierry; Pouvelle, Bruno; Sterkers, Yvon; Scherf, Artur; Gysin, Jürg

2002-08-15

341

Plasmodium possesses dynein light chain classes that are unique and conserved across species  

Microsoft Academic Search

Plasmodium belongs to the phylum Apicomplexa. Within the Apicomplexa, Plasmodium, Toxoplasma and Cryptosporidium are parasites of considerable medical importance while Theileria and Eimeria are animal pathogens. P. falciparum is particularly important as it causes malaria, resulting in more than 1 million deaths each year. The malaria parasite actively invades the host cell in which it propagates and several proteins associated

Elijah K. Githui; Etienne P. De Villiers; Andrew G. McArthur

2009-01-01

342

Targeting Sialic Acid Dependent and Independent Pathways of Invasion in Plasmodium falciparum  

Microsoft Academic Search

The pathology of malaria is a consequence of the parasitaemia which develops through the cyclical asexual replication of parasites in a patient's red blood cells. Multiple parasite ligand-erythrocyte receptor interactions must occur for successful Plasmodium invasion of the human red cell. Two major malaria ligand families have been implicated in these variable ligand-receptor interactions used by Plasmodium falciparum to invade

Rosalynn Louise Ord; Marilis Rodriguez; Tsutomu Yamasaki; Satoru Takeo; Takafumi Tsuboi; Cheryl A. Lobo

2012-01-01

343

Regulation of protein phosphatase type 1 and cell cycle progression by PfLRR1, a novel leucine-rich repeat protein of the human malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum.  

PubMed

The protein called 'suppressor of the dis2 mutant (sds22+)' is an essential regulator of cell division in fission and budding yeasts, where its deletion causes mitotic arrest. Its role in cell cycle control appears to be mediated through the activation of protein phosphatase type 1 (PP1) in Schizosaccharomyces pombe. We have identified the Plasmodium falciparum Sds22 orthologue, which we designated PfLRR1 as it belongs to the leucine-rich repeat protein family. We showed by glutathione-S-transferase pull-down assay that the PfLRR1 gene product interacts with PfPP1, that the PfLRR1-PfPP1 complex is present in parasite extracts and that PfLRR1 inhibits PfPP1 activity. Functional studies in Xenopus oocytes revealed that PfLRR1 interacted with endogenous PP1 and overcame the G2/M cell cycle checkpoint by promoting progression to germinal vesicle breakdown (GVBD). Confirmatory results showing the appearance of GVBD were observed when oocytes were treated with anti-PP1 antibodies or okadaic acid. Taken together, these observations suggest that PfLRR1 can regulate the cell cycle by binding to PP1 and regulating its activity. PMID:16629662

Daher, Wassim; Browaeys, Edith; Pierrot, Christine; Jouin, Hélène; Dive, Daniel; Meurice, Edwige; Dissous, Colette; Capron, Monique; Tomavo, Stanislas; Doerig, Christian; Cailliau, Katia; Khalife, Jamal

2006-05-01

344

Life history of a malaria parasite (Plasmodium mexicanum) in its host, the western fence lizard (Sceloporus occidentalis): host testosterone as a source of seasonal and among-host variation?  

PubMed

The course of infection of a malaria parasite (Plasmodium mexicanum) is highly variable in its host, the fence lizard (Sceloporus occidentalis). However, a seasonal trend is superimposed on this variation such that gametocyte production is intensified during mid- to late summer. Host testosterone levels follow a similar seasonal fluctuation and are variable among individual lizards. We sought to determine if testosterone levels affect seasonal and among-host variation in 11 P. mexicanum life history traits: rate of increase in level of infection (3 measures), peak parasitemia (3 measures), duration of increase (3 measures), time to detectable infection, and timing of production of gametocytes. We followed the course of infection in 125 male S. occidentalis, each randomly assigned to 1 of 4 treatment groups: castrated, castrated and implanted with exogenous testosterone, sham implanted, and unmanipulated controls. Median values for the 11 life history traits did not differ among treatment groups, and variances were homogeneous among the treatment groups for 10/11 traits. However, elevated testosterone significantly reduced the variation in timing of the onset of gametocyte production. Therefore, testosterone does not appear to be a primary regulator of P. mexicanum life history, yet testosterone may have some effect on when gametocytes first become detectable. PMID:11128477

Eisen, R J; DeNardo, D F

2000-10-01

345

Comparative host-parasite population genetic structures: obligate fly ectoparasites on Galapagos seabirds.  

PubMed

Parasites often have shorter generation times and, in some cases, faster mutation rates than their hosts, which can lead to greater population differentiation in the parasite relative to the host. Here we present a population genetic study of two ectoparasitic flies, Olfersia spinifera and Olfersia aenescens compared with their respective bird hosts, great frigatebirds (Fregata minor) and Nazca boobies (Sula granti). Olfersia spinifera is the vector of a haemosporidian parasite, Haemoproteus iwa, which infects frigatebirds throughout their range. Interestingly, there is no genetic differentiation in the haemosporidian parasite across this range despite strong genetic differentiation between Galapagos frigatebirds and their non-Galapagos conspecifics. It is possible that the broad distribution of this one H. iwa lineage could be facilitated by movement of infected O. spinifera. Therefore, we predicted more gene flow in both fly species compared with the bird hosts. Mitochondrial DNA sequence data from three genes per species indicated that despite marked differences in the genetic structure of the bird hosts, gene flow was very high in both fly species. A likely explanation involves non-breeding movements of hosts, including movement of juveniles, and movement by adult birds whose breeding attempt has failed, although we cannot rule out the possibility that closely related host species may be involved. PMID:23659306

Levin, Iris I; Parker, Patricia G

2013-05-10

346

PfeIK1, a eukaryotic initiation factor 2? kinase of the human malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum, regulates stress-response to amino-acid starvation  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Post-transcriptional control of gene expression is suspected to play an important role in malaria parasites. In yeast and metazoans, part of the stress response is mediated through phosphorylation of eukaryotic translation initiation factor 2? (eIF2?), which results in the selective translation of mRNAs encoding stress-response proteins. METHODS: The impact of starvation on the phosphorylation state of PfeIF2? was examined.

Clare Fennell; Shalon Babbitt; Ilaria Russo; Jonathan Wilkes; Lisa Ranford-Cartwright; Daniel E Goldberg; Christian Doerig

2009-01-01

347

FULL-malaria: a database for a full-length enriched cDNA library from human malaria parasite, Plasmodium falciparum  

Microsoft Academic Search

FULL-malaria is a database for a full-length-enriched cDNA library from the human malaria parasite Plasmo- dium falciparum (http:\\/\\/133.11.149.55\\/). Because of its medical importance, this organism is the first target for genome sequencing of a eukaryotic pathogen; the sequences of two of its 14 chromosomes have already been determined. However, for the full exploitation of this rapidly accumulating information, correct identification

Junichi Watanabe; Masahide Sasaki; Yutaka Suzuki; Sumio Sugano

2001-01-01

348

Towards an Understanding of the Mechanism of Pyrimethamine-Sulfadoxine Resistance in Plasmodium falciparum: Genotyping of Dihydrofolate Reductase and Dihydropteroate Synthase of Kenyan Parasites  

Microsoft Academic Search

The antifolate combination of pyrimethamine (PM) and sulfadoxine (SD) is the last affordable drug combination available for wide-scale treatment of falciparum malaria in Africa. Wherever this combination has been used, drug-resistant parasites have been selected rapidly. A study of PM-SD effectiveness carried out between 1997 and 1999 at Kilifi on the Kenyan coast has shown the emergence of RI and

A. M. Nzila; E. K. Mberu; J. Sulo; H. Dayo; P. A. Winstanley; C. H. Sibley; W. M. Watkins

2000-01-01

349

Influence of 9-beta -D-arabinofuranosyladenine on Total Protein Synthesis and on Differential Gene Expression of Unique Proteins in the Rodent Malarial Parasite Plasmodium berghei  

Microsoft Academic Search

The antibiotic 9-beta -D-arabinofuranosyladenine is a drug with a broad spectrum of activity against animal viruses, with little or no effect on mammalian cells, when administered in vivo or in vitro. Here we report that the antibiotic markedly inhibited the incorporation of [35S]methionine into malarial protein. Inhibition was apparent when the parasites were either exposed to the drug in vivo

Judith Ilan; David R. Pierce; Frederick W. Miller

1977-01-01

350

Filarial Worms Reduce Plasmodium Infectivity in Mosquitoes  

PubMed Central

Background Co-occurrence of malaria and filarial worm parasites has been reported, but little is known about the interaction between filarial worm and malaria parasites with the same Anopheles vector. Herein, we present data evaluating the interaction between Wuchereria bancrofti and Anopheles punctulatus in Papua New Guinea (PNG). Our field studies in PNG demonstrated that An. punctulatus utilizes the melanization immune response as a natural mechanism of filarial worm resistance against invading W. bancrofti microfilariae. We then conducted laboratory studies utilizing the mosquitoes Armigeres subalbatus and Aedes aegypti and the parasites Brugia malayi, Brugia pahangi, Dirofilaria immitis, and Plasmodium gallinaceum to evaluate the hypothesis that immune activation and/or development by filarial worms negatively impact Plasmodium development in co-infected mosquitoes. Ar. subalbatus used in this study are natural vectors of P. gallinaceum and B. pahangi and they are naturally refractory to B. malayi (melanization-based refractoriness). Methodology/Principal Findings Mosquitoes were dissected and Plasmodium development was analyzed six days after blood feeding on either P. gallinaceum alone or after taking a bloodmeal containing both P. gallinaceum and B. malayi or a bloodmeal containing both P. gallinaceum and B. pahangi. There was a significant reduction in the prevalence and mean intensity of Plasmodium infections in two species of mosquito that had dual infections as compared to those mosquitoes that were infected with Plasmodium alone, and was independent of whether the mosquito had a melanization immune response to the filarial worm or not. However, there was no reduction in Plasmodium development when filarial worms were present in the bloodmeal (D. immitis) but midgut penetration was absent, suggesting that factors associated with penetration of the midgut by filarial worms likely are responsible for the observed reduction in malaria parasite infections. Conclusions/Significance These results could have an impact on vector infection and transmission dynamics in areas where Anopheles transmit both parasites, i.e., the elimination of filarial worms in a co-endemic locale could enhance malaria transmission.

Aliota, Matthew T.; Chen, Cheng-Chen; Dagoro, Henry; Fuchs, Jeremy F.; Christensen, Bruce M.

2011-01-01

351

Single-nucleotide polymorphism, linkage disequilibrium and geographic structure in the malaria parasite Plasmodium vivax: prospects for genome-wide association studies  

PubMed Central

Background The ideal malaria parasite populations for initial mapping of genomic regions contributing to phenotypes such as drug resistance and virulence, through genome-wide association studies, are those with high genetic diversity, allowing for numerous informative markers, and rare meiotic recombination, allowing for strong linkage disequilibrium (LD) between markers and phenotype-determining loci. However, levels of genetic diversity and LD in field populations of the major human malaria parasite P. vivax remain little characterized. Results We examined single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and LD patterns across a 100-kb chromosome segment of P. vivax in 238 field isolates from areas of low to moderate malaria endemicity in South America and Asia, where LD tends to be more extensive than in holoendemic populations, and in two monkey-adapted strains (Salvador-I, from El Salvador, and Belem, from Brazil). We found varying levels of SNP diversity and LD across populations, with the highest diversity and strongest LD in the area of lowest malaria transmission. We found several clusters of contiguous markers with rare meiotic recombination and characterized a relatively conserved haplotype structure among populations, suggesting the existence of recombination hotspots in the genome region analyzed. Both silent and nonsynonymous SNPs revealed substantial between-population differentiation, which accounted for ~40% of the overall genetic diversity observed. Although parasites clustered according to their continental origin, we found evidence for substructure within the Brazilian population of P. vivax. We also explored between-population differentiation patterns revealed by loci putatively affected by natural selection and found marked geographic variation in frequencies of nucleotide substitutions at the pvmdr-1 locus, putatively associated with drug resistance. Conclusion These findings support the feasibility of genome-wide association studies in carefully selected populations of P. vivax, using relatively low densities of markers, but underscore the risk of false positives caused by population structure at both local and regional levels. See commentary: http://www.biomedcentral.com/1741-7007/8/90

2010-01-01

352

Genetic diversity of Plasmodium vivax and Plasmodium falciparum in Honduras  

PubMed Central

Background Understanding the population structure of Plasmodium species through genetic diversity studies can assist in the design of more effective malaria control strategies, particularly in vaccine development. Central America is an area where malaria is a public health problem, but little is known about the genetic diversity of the parasite’s circulating species. This study aimed to investigate the allelic frequency and molecular diversity of five surface antigens in field isolates from Honduras. Methods Five molecular markers were analysed to determine the genotypes of Plasmodium vivax and Plasmodium falciparum from endemic areas in Honduras. Genetic diversity of ama-1, msp-1 and csp was investigated for P. vivax, and msp-1 and msp-2 for P. falciparum. Allelic frequencies were calculated and sequence analysis performed. Results and conclusion A high genetic diversity was observed within Plasmodium isolates from Honduras. A different number of genotypes were elucidated: 41 (n?=?77) for pvama-1; 23 (n?=?84) for pvcsp; and 23 (n?=?35) for pfmsp-1. Pvcsp sequences showed VK210 as the only subtype present in Honduran isolates. Pvmsp-1 (F2) was the most polymorphic marker for P. vivax isolates while pvama-1 was least variable. All three allelic families described for pfmsp-1 (n?=?30) block 2 (K1, MAD20, and RO33), and both allelic families described for the central domain of pfmsp-2 (n?=?11) (3D7 and FC27) were detected. However, K1 and 3D7 allelic families were predominant. All markers were randomly distributed across the country and no geographic correlation was found. To date, this is the most complete report on molecular characterization of P. vivax and P. falciparum field isolates in Honduras with regards to genetic diversity. These results indicate that P. vivax and P. falciparum parasite populations are highly diverse in Honduras despite the low level of transmission.

2012-01-01

353

A Case of Plasmodium ovale Malaria Imported from West Africa  

PubMed Central

Malaria is a parasitic infection caused by Plasmodium species. Most of the imported malaria in Korea are due to Plasmodium vivax and Plasmodium falciparum, and Plasmodium ovale infections are very rare. Here, we report a case of a 24-year-old American woman who acquired P. ovale while staying in Ghana, West Africa for 5 months in 2010. The patient was diagnosed with P. ovale malaria based on a Wright-Giemsa stained peripheral blood smear, Plasmodium genus-specific real-time PCR, Plasmodium species-specific nested PCR, and sequencing targeting 18S rRNA gene. The strain identified had a very long incubation period of 19-24 months. Blood donors who have malaria with a very long incubation period could be a potential danger for propagating malaria. Therefore, we should identify imported P. ovale infections not only by morphological findings but also by molecular methods for preventing propagation and appropriate treatment.

Kang, Yunjung

2013-01-01

354

Protein prenyl transferase activities of Plasmodium falciparum  

Microsoft Academic Search

Prenylated proteins have been shown to function in important cellular regulatory processes including signal transduction. The enzymes involved in protein prenylation, farnesyl transferase and geranylgeranyl transferase, have been recent targets for development of cancer chemotherapeutics. We have initiated a systematic study of protein prenyl transferases of the malaria parasite, Plasmodium falciparum, to determine whether these enzymes can be developed as

Tania Azam; Cherie DelVecchio; Libo Qiu; Yong-il Park; Charles M. Allen

1998-01-01

355

Deoxyhypusine hydroxylase from Plasmodium vivax, the neglected human malaria parasite: molecular cloning, expression and specific inhibition by the 5-LOX inhibitor zileuton.  

PubMed

Primaquine, an 8-aminoquinoline, is the only drug which cures the dormant hypnozoites of persistent liver stages from P. vivax. Increasing resistance needs the discovery of alternative pathways as drug targets to develop novel drug entities. Deoxyhypusine hydroxylase (DOHH) completes hypusine biosynthesis in eukaryotic initiation factor (eIF-5A) which is the only cellular protein known to contain the unusual amino acid hypusine. Modified EIF-5A is important for proliferation of the malaria parasite. Here, we present the first successful cloning and expression of DOHH from P. vivax causing tertiary malaria. The nucleic acid sequence of 1041 bp encodes an open reading frame of 346 amino acids. Histidine tagged expression of P. vivax DOHH detected a protein of 39.01 kDa in E. coli. The DOHH protein from P. vivax shares significant amino acid identity to the simian orthologues from P. knowlesi and P. yoelii strain H. In contrast to P. falciparum only four E-Z-type HEAT-like repeats are present in P. vivax DOHH with different homology to phycocyanin lyase subunits from cyanobacteria and in proteins participating in energy metabolism of Archaea and Halobacteria. However, phycocyanin lyase activity is absent in P. vivax DOHH. The dohh gene is present as a single copy gene and transcribed throughout the whole erythrocytic cycle. Specific inhibition of recombinant P. vivax DOHH is possible by complexing the ferrous iron with zileuton, an inhibitor of mammalian 5-lipoxygenase (5-LOX). Ferrous iron in the active site of 5-LOX is coordinated by three conserved histidines and the carboxylate of isoleucine(673). Zileuton inhibited the P. vivax DOHH protein with an IC50 of 12,5 nmol determined by a relative quantification by GC/MS. By contrast, the human orthologue is only less affected with an IC50 of 90 nmol suggesting a selective iron-complexing strategy for the parasitic enzyme. PMID:23505486

Atemnkeng, Veronika Anyigoh; Pink, Mario; Schmitz-Spanke, Simone; Wu, Xian-Jun; Dong, Liang-Liang; Zhao, Kai-Hong; May, Caroline; Laufer, Stefan; Langer, Barbara; Kaiser, Annette

2013-03-07

356

Deoxyhypusine Hydroxylase from Plasmodium vivax, the Neglected Human Malaria Parasite: Molecular Cloning, Expression and Specific Inhibition by the 5-LOX Inhibitor Zileuton  

PubMed Central

Primaquine, an 8-aminoquinoline, is the only drug which cures the dormant hypnozoites of persistent liver stages from P. vivax. Increasing resistance needs the discovery of alternative pathways as drug targets to develop novel drug entities. Deoxyhypusine hydroxylase (DOHH) completes hypusine biosynthesis in eukaryotic initiation factor (eIF-5A) which is the only cellular protein known to contain the unusual amino acid hypusine. Modified EIF-5A is important for proliferation of the malaria parasite. Here, we present the first successful cloning and expression of DOHH from P. vivax causing tertiary malaria. The nucleic acid sequence of 1041 bp encodes an open reading frame of 346 amino acids. Histidine tagged expression of P. vivax DOHH detected a protein of 39.01 kDa in E. coli. The DOHH protein from P. vivax shares significant amino acid identity to the simian orthologues from P. knowlesi and P. yoelii strain H. In contrast to P. falciparum only four E-Z-type HEAT-like repeats are present in P. vivax DOHH with different homology to phycocyanin lyase subunits from cyanobacteria and in proteins participating in energy metabolism of Archaea and Halobacteria. However, phycocyanin lyase activity is absent in P. vivax DOHH. The dohh gene is present as a single copy gene and transcribed throughout the whole erythrocytic cycle. Specific inhibition of recombinant P. vivax DOHH is possible by complexing the ferrous iron with zileuton, an inhibitor of mammalian 5-lipoxygenase (5-LOX). Ferrous iron in the active site of 5-LOX is coordinated by three conserved histidines and the carboxylate of isoleucine673. Zileuton inhibited the P. vivax DOHH protein with an IC50 of 12,5 nmol determined by a relative quantification by GC/MS. By contrast, the human orthologue is only less affected with an IC50 of 90 nmol suggesting a selective iron-complexing strategy for the parasitic enzyme.

Atemnkeng, Veronika Anyigoh; Pink, Mario; Schmitz-Spanke, Simone; Wu, Xian-Jun; Dong, Liang-Liang; Zhao, Kai-Hong; May, Caroline; Laufer, Stefan; Langer, Barbara; Kaiser, Annette

2013-01-01

357

Identification of resistance of Plasmodium falciparum to artesunate-mefloquine combination in an area along the Thai-Myanmar border: integration of clinico-parasitological response, systemic drug exposure, and in vitro parasite sensitivity  

PubMed Central

Background A markedly high failure rate of three-day artesunate-mefloquine was observed in the area along the Thai-Myanmar border. Methods Identification of Plasmodium falciparum isolates with intrinsic resistance to each component of the artesunate-mefloquine combination was analysed with integrated information on clinico-parasitological response, together with systemic drug exposure (area under blood/plasma concentration-time curves (AUC)) of dihydroartemisinin and mefloquine, and in vitro sensitivity of P. falciparum in a total of 17 out of 29 P. falciparum isolates from patients with acute uncomplicated falciparum malaria. Analysis of the contribution of in vitro parasite sensitivity and systemic drug exposure and relationship with pfmdr1 copy number in the group with sensitive response was performed in 21 of 69 cases. Results Identification of resistance and/or reduced intrinsic parasitocidal activity of artesunate and/or mefloquine without pharmacokinetic or other host-related factors were confirmed in six cases: one with reduced sensitivity to artesunate alone, two with resistance to mefloquine alone, and three with reduced sensitivity to artesunate combined with resistance to mefloquine. Resistance and/or reduced intrinsic parasitocidal activity of mefloquine/artesunate, together with contribution of pharmacokinetic factor of mefloquine and/or artesunate were identified in seven cases: two with resistance to mefloquine alone, and five with resistance to mefloquine combined with reduced sensitivity to artesunate. Pharmacokinetic factor alone contributed to recrudescence in three cases, all of which had inadequate whole blood mefloquine levels (AUC0-7days). Other host-related factors contributed to recrudescence in one case. Amplification of pfmdr1 (increasing of pfmdr1 copy number) is a related molecular marker of artesunate-mefloquine resistance and seems to be a suitable molecular marker to predict occurrence of recrudescence. Conclusions Despite the evidence of a low level of a decline in sensitivity of P. falciparum isolates to artemisinins in areas along the Thai-Myanmar border, artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT) would be expected to remain the key anti-malarial drug for treatment of multidrug resistance P. falciparum. Continued monitoring and active surveillance of clinical efficacy of ACT, including identification of true artemisinin resistant parasites, is required for appropriate implementation of malaria control policy in this area.

2013-01-01

358

Therapeutic blockade of PDL1 and LAG3 rapidly clears established blood-stage Plasmodium infection  

Microsoft Academic Search

Infection of erythrocytes with Plasmodium species induces clinical malaria. Parasite-specific CD4+ T cells correlate with lower parasite burdens and severity of human malaria and are needed to control blood-stage infection in mice. However, the characteristics of CD4+ T cells that determine protection or parasite persistence remain unknown. Here we show that infection of humans with Plasmodium falciparum resulted in higher

Noah S Butler; Jacqueline Moebius; Lecia L Pewe; Boubacar Traore; Ogobara K Doumbo; Lorraine T Tygrett; Thomas J Waldschmidt; Peter D Crompton; John T Harty

2011-01-01

359

Enhanced Transmission of Drug-Resistant Parasites to Mosquitoes following Drug Treatment in Rodent Malaria  

Microsoft Academic Search

The evolution of drug resistant Plasmodium parasites is a major challenge to effective malaria control. In theory, competitive interactions between sensitive parasites and resistant parasites within infections are a major determinant of the rate at which parasite evolution undermines drug efficacy. Competitive suppression of resistant parasites in untreated hosts slows the spread of resistance; competitive release following treatment enhances it.

Andrew S. Bell; Silvie Huijben; Krijn P. Paaijmans; Derek G. Sim; Brian H. K. Chan; William A. Nelson; Andrew F. Read

2012-01-01

360

Functional genomics of Plasmodium falciparum through transposon-mediated mutagenesis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Plasmodium falciparum is the causative agent for the most lethal form of human malaria, killing millions annually. Genetic analyses of P. falciparum have been relatively limited due to the lack of robust techniques to manipulate this parasite. Development of transfec- tion technologies and whole genome analyses have helped in understanding the complex biology of this parasite. Even with this

Bharath Balu; John H. Adams

2006-01-01

361

Characterization of two putative potassium channels in Plasmodium falciparum  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Potassium channels are essential for cell survival and participate in the regulation of cell membrane potential and electrochemical gradients. During its lifecycle, Plasmodium falciparum parasites must successfully traverse widely diverse environmental milieus, in which K+ channel function is likely to be critical. Dramatically differing conditions will be presented to the parasite in the mosquito mid-gut, red blood cell (RBC)

Karena L Waller; Sean M McBride; Kami Kim; Thomas V McDonald

2008-01-01

362

The Homeostasis of Plasmodium falciparum-Infected Red Blood Cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

The asexual reproduction cycle of Plasmodium falciparum, the parasite responsible for severe malaria, occurs within red blood cells. A merozoite invades a red cell in the circulation, develops and multiplies, and after about 48 hours ruptures the host cell, releasing 15–32 merozoites ready to invade new red blood cells. During this cycle, the parasite increases the host cell permeability so

Jakob M. A. Mauritz; Alessandro Esposito; Hagai Ginsburg; Clemens F. Kaminski; Teresa Tiffert; Virgilio L. Lew

2009-01-01

363

FINE STRUCTURE OF THE ASEXUAL STAGES OF PLASMODIUM ELONGATUM  

Microsoft Academic Search

Plasmodium elongatum, an avian malarial parasite, differs from other such parasites by infect- ing both the circulating red blood cells and the hematopoietic cells. The exoerythrocytic de- velopment of P. elongatum occurs mainly in these red cell precursors. The fine structure of the asexual stages of P. elongatum has been studied in the bone marrow and peripheral blood of canaries

MASAMICHI AIKAWA; HELMUTH SPRINZ

1967-01-01

364

Comparative Transcriptional and Genomic Analysis of Plasmodium falciparum Field Isolates  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mechanisms for differential regulation of gene expression may underlie much of the phenotypic variation and adaptability of malaria parasites. Here we describe transcriptional variation among culture-adapted field isolates of Plasmodium falciparum, the species responsible for most malarial disease. It was found that genes coding for parasite protein export into the red cell cytosol and onto its surface, and genes coding

Margaret J. Mackinnon; Jinguang Li; Sachel Mok; Moses M. Kortok; Kevin Marsh; Peter R. Preiser; Zbynek Bozdech

2009-01-01

365

Plasmodium falciparum signal sequences: simply sequences or special signals?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The malaria parasite, Plasmodium falciparum, synthesises and exports several proteins inducing morphological and biochemical modifications of erythrocytes during the erythrocytic cycle. The protein trafficking machinery of the parasite is similar to that of other eukaryotic cells in several ways. However, some unusual features are also observed. The secretion of various polypeptides was inhibited when P. falciparum-infected erythrocytes were incubated with

Adela Nacer; Laurence Berry; Christian Slomianny; Denise Mattei

2001-01-01

366

Transcript-level responses of Plasmodium falciparum to thiostrepton  

Microsoft Academic Search

The antimalarial activity of the antibiotic thiostrepton has long been attributed to inhibition of apicoplast protein synthesis through binding of apicoplast ribosomal RNA. However, the kinetics of parasite death upon thiostrepton treatment differ from those seen for other inhibitors of apicoplast housekeeping functions. We have analysed global changes in gene expression of the malaria parasite, Plasmodium falciparum, in an attempt

Sarah J. Tarr; R. Ellen R. Nisbet; Christopher J. Howe

2011-01-01

367

MARveling at parasite invasion  

PubMed Central

Micronemal proteins (MICs) are key mediators of cytoadherence and invasion for Toxoplasma gondii. Emerging evidence indicates that carbohydrate binding facilitates Toxoplasma entry into host cells. TgMIC1s recently solved structure reveals the presence of novel specialized domains able to discriminate between glycan residues. Comparison with Plasmodium erythrocyte-binding antigen 175 reveals that terminal sialic acid residues may represent a shared but tailored invasion pathway among apicomplexan parasites.

Hager, Kristin M.; Carruthers, Vern B.

2009-01-01

368

A new Apicomplexa-specific protein kinase family : multiple members in Plasmodium falciparum, all with an export signature  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Malaria caused by protozoan parasites of the genus Plasmodium spp. is a major health burden in tropical countries. The development of new control tools, including vaccines and drugs, is urgently needed. The availability of genome sequences from several malaria parasite species provides a basis on which to identify new potential intervention targets. Database mining for orthologs to the Plasmodium

Achim G Schneider; Odile Mercereau-Puijalon

2005-01-01

369

CONGENITAL PARASITIC INFECTIONS: A REVIEW  

Microsoft Academic Search

This review defines the concepts of maternal-fetal (congenital) and vertical transmissions (mother-to-child) of pathogens and specifies the human parasites susceptible to be congenitally transferred. It highlights the epidemiological features of this transmission mode for the three main congenital parasitic infections due to Toxoplasma gondii, Trypanosoma cruzi and Plasmodium sp. Information on the possible maternal-fetal routes of transmission, the placental responses

Yves Carlier; Carine Truyens; Philippe Deloron; François Peyron

370

Cytoskeleton of Apicomplexan Parasites  

PubMed Central

The Apicomplexa are a phylum of diverse obligate intracellular parasites including Plasmodium spp., the cause of malaria; Toxoplasma gondii and Cryptosporidium parvum, opportunistic pathogens of immunocompromised individuals; and Eimeria spp. and Theileria spp., parasites of considerable agricultural importance. These protozoan parasites share distinctive morphological features, cytoskeletal organization, and modes of replication, motility, and invasion. This review summarizes our current understanding of the cytoskeletal elements, the properties of cytoskeletal proteins, and the role of the cytoskeleton in polarity, motility, invasion, and replication. We discuss the unusual properties of actin and myosin in the Apicomplexa, the highly stereotyped microtubule populations in apicomplexans, and a network of recently discovered novel intermediate filament-like elements in these parasites.

Morrissette, Naomi S.; Sibley, L. David

2002-01-01

371

Placental Histopathological Changes Associated with Plasmodium vivax Infection during Pregnancy  

PubMed Central

Histological evidence of Plasmodium in the placenta is indicative of placental malaria, a condition associated with severe outcomes for mother and child. Histological lesions found in placentas from Plasmodium-exposed women include syncytial knotting, syncytial rupture, thickening of the placental barrier, necrosis of villous tissue and intervillositis. These histological changes have been associated with P. falciparum infections, but little is known about the contribution of P. vivax to such changes. We conducted a cross-sectional study with pregnant women at delivery and assigned them to three groups according to their Plasmodium exposure during pregnancy: no Plasmodium exposure (n?=?41), P. vivax exposure (n?=?59) or P. falciparum exposure (n?=?19). We evaluated their placentas for signs of Plasmodium and placental lesions using ten histological parameters: syncytial knotting, syncytial rupture, placental barrier thickness, villi necrosis, intervillous space area, intervillous leucocytes, intervillous mononucleates, intervillous polymorphonucleates, parasitized erythrocytes and hemozoin. Placentas from P. vivax-exposed women showed little evidence of Plasmodium or hemozoin but still exhibited more lesions than placentas from women not exposed to Plasmodium, especially when infections occurred twice or more during pregnancy. In the Brazilian state of Acre, where diagnosis and primary treatment are readily available and placental lesions occur in the absence of detected placental parasites, relying on the presence of Plasmodium in the placenta to evaluate Plasmodium-induced placental pathology is not feasible. Multivariate logistic analysis revealed that syncytial knotting (odds ratio [OR], 4.21, P?=?0.045), placental barrier thickness (OR, 25.59, P?=?0.021) and mononuclear cells (OR, 4.02, P?=?0.046) were increased in placentas from P. vivax-exposed women when compared to women not exposed to Plasmodium during pregnancy. A vivax-score was developed using these three parameters (and not evidence of Plasmodium) that differentiates between placentas from P. vivax-exposed and unexposed women. This score illustrates the importance of adequate management of P. vivax malaria during pregnancy.

Dombrowski, Jamille G.; Ippolito, Vanessa; Aitken, Elizabeth H.; Valle, Suiane N.; Alvarez, Jose M.; Epiphanio, Sabrina; Marinho, Claudio R. F.

2013-01-01

372

Plasmodium inui is not closely related to other quartan Plasmodium species.  

PubMed

Plasmodium inui (Halberstaedter and von Prowazek, 1907), a malarial parasite of Old World monkeys that occurs in isolated pockets throughout the Celebes, Indonesia, Malaysia, and the Philippines, has traditionally been considered to be related more closely to Plasmodium malariae of humans (and its primate counterpart Plasmodium brasilianum), than to other primate Plasmodium species. This inference was made in part because of the similarities in the periodicities or duration of the asexual cycle in the blood, the extended sporogonic cycle, and the longer period of time for development of the pre-erythrocytic stages in the liver. Both P. inui and P. malariae have quartan (72 hr) periodicities associated with their asexual cycle, whereas other primate malarias, such as Plasmodium fragile and Plasmodium cynomolgi, are associated with tertian periodicities (48 hr), and Plasmodiumn knowlesi, with a quotidian (24 hr) periodicity. Phylogenetic analyses of portions of orthologous small subunit ribosomal genes reveal that P. inui is actually more closely related to the Plasmodium species of the "vivax-type" lineage than to P. malariae. Ribosomal sequence analysis of many different, geographically isolated, antigenically distinct P. inui isolates reveals that the isolates are nearly identical in sequence and thus members of the same species. PMID:9576499

Kissinger, J C; Collins, W E; Li, J; McCutchan, T F

1998-04-01

373

Plasmodium falciparum infection-induced changes in erythrocyte membrane proteins  

Microsoft Academic Search

Over the past decade, advances in proteomic and mass spectrometry techniques and the sequencing of the Plasmodium falciparum genome have led to an increasing number of studies regarding the parasite proteome. However, these studies have focused principally\\u000a on parasite protein expression, neglecting parasite-induced variations in the host proteome. Here, we investigated P. falciparum-induced modifications of the infected red blood cell

Albin Fontaine; Stéphanie Bourdon; Maya Belghazi; Mathieu Pophillat; Patrick Fourquet; Samuel Granjeaud; Marylin Torrentino-Madamet; Christophe Rogier; Thierry Fusai; Lionel Almeras

374

Identification of Proteins from Plasmodium falciparum That Are Homologous to Reticulocyte Binding Proteins in Plasmodium vivax  

Microsoft Academic Search

Plasmodium falciparum infections can be fatal, while P. vivax infections usually are not. A possible factor involved in the greater virulence of P. falciparum is that this parasite grows in red blood cells (RBCs) of all maturities whereas P. vivax is restricted to growth in reticulocytes, which represent only approximately 1% of total RBCs in the periphery. Two proteins, expressed

TONY TRIGLIA; JENNY THOMPSON; SONIA R. CARUANA; MAURO DELORENZI; TERRY SPEED; ALAN F. COWMAN

2001-01-01

375

Molecular complexity of sexual development and gene regulation in Plasmodium falciparum  

Microsoft Academic Search

The malaria parasite, Plasmodium falciparum, has a complex life cycle which alternates between the vertebrate host and the invertebrate vector. Various morphological changes as well as stage-specific transcripts and gene expression profiles that accompany parasite's asexual and sexual life cycle suggest that gene regulation is crucial for the parasite's continual adaptations to survive the changing environments as well as for

Nirbhay Kumar; Gloria Cha; Fernando Pineda; Jorge Maciel; Diana Haddad; Mrinal Bhattacharyya; Eiji Nagayasu

2004-01-01

376

Global response of Plasmodium falciparum to hyperoxia: a combined transcriptomic and proteomic approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Over its life cycle, the Plasmodium falciparum parasite is exposed to different environmental conditions, particularly to variations in O2 pressure. For example, the parasite circulates in human venous blood at 5% O2 pressure and in arterial blood, particularly in the lungs, at 13% O2 pressure. Moreover, the parasite is exposed to 21% O2 levels in the salivary glands of

Marylin Torrentino-Madamet; Lionel Alméras; Jérôme Desplans; Yannick Le Priol; Maya Belghazi; Matthieu Pophillat; Patrick Fourquet; Yves Jammes; Daniel Parzy

2011-01-01

377

Deletion mutagenesis of large areas in Plasmodium falciparum genes: a comparative study  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: The increasing emergence of Plasmodium falciparum parasites resistant to most of the cost-effective drugs has necessitated the identification of novel leads and drug targets. Parasite-specific inserts in enzymes that are essential for the differentiation and proliferation of malarial parasites have received considerable interest since it distinguishes these proteins from their human counterparts. The functions of these inserts, which include

Marni Williams; Abraham I Louw; Lyn-Marie Birkholtz

2007-01-01

378

Integrative analysis of intraerythrocytic differentially expressed transcripts yields novel insights into the biology of Plasmodium falciparum  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: The intraerythrocytic development of Plasmodium falciparum, the most virulent human malaria parasite involves asexual and gametocyte stages. There has been a significant increase in disparate datasets derived from genomic and post-genomic analysis of the parasite that necessitates delivery of integrated analysis from which biological processes important to the survival of the parasite can be determined. METHODS: In order to

Raphael D Isokpehi; Winston A Hide

2003-01-01

379

Triosephosphate isomerase from Plasmodium falciparum:. the crystal structure provides insights into antimalarial drug design  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Malaria caused by the parasite Plasmodium falciparum is a major public health concern. The parasite lacks a functional tricarboxylic acid cycle, making glycolysis its sole energy source. Although parasite enzymes have been considered as potential antimalarial drug targets, little is known about their structural biology. Here we report the crystal structure of triosephosphate isomerase (TIM) from P. falciparum at

Sameer S Velanker; Soumya S Ray; Rajesh S Gokhale; Suma S; Hemalatha Balaram; P Balaram; MRN Murthy

1997-01-01

380

Vaccines 85: Molecular and chemical basis of resistance to parasitic, bacterial, and viral diseases  

SciTech Connect

This book contains 70 selections. Some of the selection titles are: Structure of the Gene Encoding of Immunodominant Surface Antigen on the Sprozoite of the Human Malaria Parasite Plasmodium falciparum; Cloning and Expression in Bacteria of the Genes for Merozite-specific Antigens from the Malaria Parasite Plasmodium falciparum; A Major Surface Antigen of Plasmodium falciparum in Merozoites: Studies on the Protein and its Gene; Genetic Construction of Cholera Vaccine Prototypes; and Viral Genes, Cytotoxic T Lymphocytes and Immunity.

Lerner, R.A.; Chanock, R.M.; Brown, F.

1985-01-01

381

Branched tricarboxylic acid metabolism in Plasmodium falciparum.  

PubMed

A central hub of carbon metabolism is the tricarboxylic acid cycle, which serves to connect the processes of glycolysis, gluconeogenesis, respiration, amino acid synthesis and other biosynthetic pathways. The protozoan intracellular malaria parasites (Plasmodium spp.), however, have long been suspected of possessing a significantly streamlined carbon metabolic network in which tricarboxylic acid metabolism plays a minor role. Blood-stage Plasmodium parasites rely almost entirely on glucose fermentation for energy and consume minimal amounts of oxygen, yet the parasite genome encodes all of the enzymes necessary for a complete tricarboxylic acid cycle. Here, by tracing (13)C-labelled compounds using mass spectrometry we show that tricarboxylic acid metabolism in the human malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum is largely disconnected from glycolysis and is organized along a fundamentally different architecture from the canonical textbook pathway. We find that this pathway is not cyclic, but rather is a branched structure in which the major carbon sources are the amino acids glutamate and glutamine. As a consequence of this branched architecture, several reactions must run in the reverse of the standard direction, thereby generating two-carbon units in the form of acetyl-coenzyme A. We further show that glutamine-derived acetyl-coenzyme A is used for histone acetylation, whereas glucose-derived acetyl-coenzyme A is used to acetylate amino sugars. Thus, the parasite has evolved two independent production mechanisms for acetyl-coenzyme A with different biological functions. These results significantly clarify our understanding of the Plasmodium metabolic network and highlight the ability of altered variants of central carbon metabolism to arise in response to unique environments. PMID:20686576

Olszewski, Kellen L; Mather, Michael W; Morrisey, Joanne M; Garcia, Benjamin A; Vaidya, Akhil B; Rabinowitz, Joshua D; Llinás, Manuel

2010-08-01

382

Rerooting the evolutionary tree of malaria parasites  

PubMed Central

Malaria parasites (Plasmodium spp.) have plagued humans for millennia. Less well known are related parasites (Haemosporida), with diverse life cycles and dipteran vectors that infect other vertebrates. Understanding the evolution of parasite life histories, including switches between hosts and vectors, depends on knowledge of evolutionary relationships among parasite lineages. In particular, inferences concerning time of origin and trait evolution require correct placement of the root of the evolutionary tree. Phylogenetic reconstructions of the diversification of malaria parasites from DNA sequences have suffered from uncertainty concerning outgroup taxa, limited taxon sampling, and selection on genes used to assess relationships. As a result, inferred relationships among the Haemosporida have been unstable, and questions concerning evolutionary diversification and host switching remain unanswered. A recent phylogeny placed mammalian malaria parasites, as well as avian/reptilian Plasmodium, in a derived position relative to the avian parasite genera Leucocytozoon and Haemoproteus, implying that the ancestral forms lacked merogony in the blood and that their vectors were non-mosquito dipterans. Bayesian, outgroup-free phylogenetic reconstruction using relaxed molecular clocks with uncorrelated rates instead suggested that mammalian and avian/reptilian Plasmodium parasites, spread by mosquito vectors, are ancestral sister taxa, from which a variety of specialized parasite lineages with modified life histories have evolved.

Outlaw, Diana C.; Ricklefs, Robert E.

2011-01-01

383

Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium vivax: Lactate-Dehydrogenase Activity and Its Application for in Vitro Drug Susceptibility Assay  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lactate dehydrogenase, the terminal enzyme of anerobic Embden-Meyerhoff glycolysis, plays an important role in the carbohydrate metabolism of human malaria parasites. Based on the ability of malarial lactate dehydrogenase to use 3-acetylpyridine NAD as a coenzyme in a reaction leading to the formation of pyruvate from L-lactate, the enzymatic activity of fresh clinical isolates of Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium vivax

L. K. Basco; F. Marquet; M. M. Makler; J. Lebras

1995-01-01

384

Functional analysis of erythrocyte determinants of Plasmodium infection  

PubMed Central

The Plasmodium falciparum parasite is an obligate intracellular pathogen whose invasion and remodeling of the human erythrocyte results in the clinical manifestations of malarial disease. The functional analysis of erythrocyte determinants of invasion and growth is a relatively unexplored frontier in malaria research, encompassing studies of natural variation of the erythrocyte, as well as genomic, biochemical and chemical biological and transgenic approaches. These studies have allowed the functional analysis of the erythrocyte in vitro, resulting in the discovery of critical erythrocyte determinants of Plasmodium infection. Here, we will focus on the varied approaches used for the study of the erythrocyte in Plasmodium infection, with a particular emphasis on erythrocyte invasion.

Bei, Amy K.; Duraisingh, Manoj T.

2012-01-01

385

Plasmodium infection decreases fecundity and increases survival of mosquitoes.  

PubMed

Long-lived mosquitoes maximize the chances of Plasmodium transmission. Yet, in spite of decades of research, the effect of Plasmodium parasites on mosquito longevity remains highly controversial. On the one hand, many studies report shorter lifespans in infected mosquitoes. On the other hand, parallel (but separate) studies show that Plasmodium reduces fecundity and imply that this is an adaptive strategy of the parasite aimed at redirecting resources towards longevity. No study till date has, however, investigated fecundity and longevity in the same individuals to see whether this prediction holds. In this study, we follow for both fecundity and longevity in Plasmodium-infected and uninfected mosquitoes using a novel, albeit natural, experimental system. We also explore whether the genetic variations that arise through the evolution of insecticide resistance modulate the effect of Plasmodium on these two life-history traits. We show that (i) a reduction in fecundity in Plasmodium-infected mosquitoes is accompanied by an increase in longevity; (ii) this increase in longevity arises through a trade-off between reproduction and survival; and (iii) in insecticide-resistant mosquitoes, the slope of this trade-off is steeper when the mosquito is infected by Plasmodium (cost of insecticide resistance). PMID:22859589

Vézilier, J; Nicot, A; Gandon, S; Rivero, A

2012-08-01

386

Transcriptome analysis of antigenic variation in Plasmodium falciparum - var silencing is not dependent on antisense RNA  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Plasmodium falciparum, the causative agent of the most severe form of malaria, undergoes antigenic variation through successive presentation of a family of antigens on the surface of parasitized erythrocytes. These antigens, known as Plasmodium falciparum erythrocyte membrane protein 1 (PfEMP1) proteins, are subject to a mutually exclusive expression system, and are encoded by the multigene var family. The mechanism

Stuart A Ralph; Emmanuel Bischoff; Denise Mattei; Odile Sismeiro; Marie-Agnès Dillies; Ghislaine Guigon; Jean-Yves Coppee; Peter H David; Artur Scherf

2005-01-01

387

Cysteamine, the natural metabolite of pantetheinase, shows specific activity against Plasmodium  

Microsoft Academic Search

In mice, loss of pantetheinase activity causes susceptibility to infection with Plasmodium chabaudi AS. Treatment of mice with the pantetheinase metabolite cysteamine reduces blood-stage replication of P. chabaudi and significantly increases survival. Similarly, a short exposure of Plasmodium to cysteamine ex vivo is sufficient to suppress parasite infectivity in vivo. This effect of cysteamine is specific and not observed with

Gundula Min-Oo; Kodjo Ayi; Silayuv E. Bongfen; Mifong Tam; Irena Radovanovic; Susan Gauthier; Helton Santiago; Antonio Gigliotti Rothfuchs; Ester Roffê; Alan Sher; Alaka Mullick; Anny Fortin; Mary M. Stevenson; Kevin C. Kain; Philippe Gros

2010-01-01

388

Cyclin H activation and drug susceptibility of the Pfmrk cyclin dependent protein kinase from Plasmodium falciparum  

Microsoft Academic Search

The eukaryotic cell cycle is regulated by a group of highly conserved cyclin dependent protein kinases (CDKs). Several CDKs have been identified in Plasmodium falciparum, however, their regulatory mechanisms as well as their role in parasite growth and differentiation are not understood fully. To further our understanding of Plasmodium CDK regulation, we have characterized Pfmrk kinase activity. Pfmrk was expressed

Norman C Waters; Cassandra L Woodard; Sean T Prigge

2000-01-01

389

Violacein extracted from Chromobacterium violaceum inhibits Plasmodium growth in vitro and in vivo.  

PubMed

Violacein is a violet pigment extracted from the gram-negative bacterium Chromobacterium violaceum. It presents bactericidal, tumoricidal, trypanocidal, and antileishmanial activities. We show that micromolar concentrations efficiently killed chloroquine-sensitive and -resistant Plasmodium falciparum strains in vitro; inhibited parasitemia in vivo, even after parasite establishment; and protected Plasmodium chabaudi chabaudi-infected mice from a lethal challenge. PMID:19273690

Lopes, Stefanie C P; Blanco, Yara C; Justo, Giselle Z; Nogueira, Paulo A; Rodrigues, Francisco L S; Goelnitz, Uta; Wunderlich, Gerhard; Facchini, Gustavo; Brocchi, Marcelo; Duran, Nelson; Costa, Fabio T M

2009-03-09

390

Polymorphism at the apical membrane antigen 1 locus reflects the world population history of Plasmodium vivax  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: In malaria parasites (genus Plasmodium), ama-1 is a highly polymorphic locus encoding the Apical Membrane Protein-1, and there is evidence that the polymorphism at this locus is selectively maintained. We tested the hypothesis that polymorphism at the ama-1 locus reflects population history in Plasmodium vivax, which is believed to have originated in Southeast Asia and is widely geographically distributed.

Priscila Grynberg; Cor Jesus F Fontes; Austin L Hughes; Érika M Braga

2008-01-01

391

Chloroquine and Other Anti-Malaria Drugs Resistant Plasmodium Falciparum from Palawan, Philippines.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The study was conducted to determine the response of Plasmodium falciparum strains of parasites to standard chloroquine regiments and to other antimalaria drugs among subjects with naturally acquired and blood induced