Sample records for haemosporidian parasites plasmodium

  1. Haemosporidian blood parasites in European birds of prey and owls.

    PubMed

    Krone, O; Waldenström, J; Valki?nas, G; Lessow, O; Müller, K; Iezhova, T A; Fickel, J; Bensch, S

    2008-06-01

    Avian blood parasites have been intensively studied using morphological methods with limited information on their host specificity and species taxonomic status. Now the analysis of gene sequences, especially the mitochondrial cytochrome b gene of the avian haemosporidian species of Haemoproteus, Plasmodium, and Leucocytozoon, offers a new tool to review the parasite specificity and status. By comparing morphological and genetic techniques, we observed nearly the same overall prevalence of haemosporidian parasites by microscopy (19.8%) and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) (21.8%) analyses. However, in contrast to the single valid Leucocytozoon species (L. toddi) in the Falconiformes we detected 4 clearly distinctive strains by PCR screening. In the Strigiformes, where the only valid Leucocytozoon species is L. danilewskyi, we detected 3 genetically different strains of Leucocytozoon spp. Two strains of Haemoproteus spp. were detected in the birds of prey and owls examined, whereas the strain found in the tawny owl belonged to the morphospecies Haemoproteus noctuae. Three Plasmodium spp. strains that had already been found in Passeriformes were also detected in the birds of prey and owls examined here, supporting previous findings indicating a broad and nonspecific host spectrum bridging different bird orders. PMID:18605786

  2. SPATIAL VARIATION OF HAEMOSPORIDIAN PARASITE INFECTION IN AFRICAN RAINFOREST BIRD SPECIES

    E-print Network

    Sehgal, Ravinder

    SPATIAL VARIATION OF HAEMOSPORIDIAN PARASITE INFECTION IN AFRICAN RAINFOREST BIRD SPECIES Claire: Spatial heterogeneity influences the distribution, prevalence, and diversity of haemosporidian parasites and parasite genotype, and their interactions, but there is little information regarding how parasitemia

  3. Parasite prevalence corresponds to host life history in a diverse assemblage of afrotropical birds and haemosporidian parasites.

    PubMed

    Lutz, Holly L; Hochachka, Wesley M; Engel, Joshua I; Bell, Jeffrey A; Tkach, Vasyl V; Bates, John M; Hackett, Shannon J; Weckstein, Jason D

    2015-01-01

    Avian host life history traits have been hypothesized to predict rates of infection by haemosporidian parasites. Using molecular techniques, we tested this hypothesis for parasites from three haemosporidian genera (Plasmodium, Haemoproteus, and Leucocytozoon) collected from a diverse sampling of birds in northern Malawi. We found that host life history traits were significantly associated with parasitism rates by all three parasite genera. Nest type and nest location predicted infection probability for all three parasite genera, whereas flocking behavior is an important predictor of Plasmodium and Haemoproteus infection and habitat is an important predictor of Leucocytozoon infection. Parasite prevalence was 79.1% across all individuals sampled, higher than that reported for comparable studies from any other region of the world. Parasite diversity was also exceptionally high, with 248 parasite cytochrome b lineages identified from 152 host species. A large proportion of Plasmodium, Haemoproteus, and Leucocytozoon parasite DNA sequences identified in this study represent new, previously undocumented lineages (n = 201; 81% of total identified) based on BLAST queries against the avian malaria database, MalAvi. PMID:25853491

  4. Parasite Prevalence Corresponds to Host Life History in a Diverse Assemblage of Afrotropical Birds and Haemosporidian Parasites

    PubMed Central

    Lutz, Holly L.; Hochachka, Wesley M.; Engel, Joshua I.; Bell, Jeffrey A.; Tkach, Vasyl V.; Bates, John M.; Hackett, Shannon J.; Weckstein, Jason D.

    2015-01-01

    Avian host life history traits have been hypothesized to predict rates of infection by haemosporidian parasites. Using molecular techniques, we tested this hypothesis for parasites from three haemosporidian genera (Plasmodium, Haemoproteus, and Leucocytozoon) collected from a diverse sampling of birds in northern Malawi. We found that host life history traits were significantly associated with parasitism rates by all three parasite genera. Nest type and nest location predicted infection probability for all three parasite genera, whereas flocking behavior is an important predictor of Plasmodium and Haemoproteus infection and habitat is an important predictor of Leucocytozoon infection. Parasite prevalence was 79.1% across all individuals sampled, higher than that reported for comparable studies from any other region of the world. Parasite diversity was also exceptionally high, with 248 parasite cytochrome b lineages identified from 152 host species. A large proportion of Plasmodium, Haemoproteus, and Leucocytozoon parasite DNA sequences identified in this study represent new, previously undocumented lineages (n = 201; 81% of total identified) based on BLAST queries against the avian malaria database, MalAvi. PMID:25853491

  5. Phylogenetic relationships of haemosporidian parasites in New World Columbiformes, with emphasis on the endemic Galapagos dove

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Diego Santiago-Alarcon; Diana C. Outlaw; Robert E. Ricklefs; Patricia G. Parker

    2010-01-01

    DNA-sequence analyses of avian haemosporidian parasites, primarily of passerine birds, have described the phylogenetic relationships of major groups of these parasites, which are in general agreement with morphological taxonomy. However, less attention has been paid to haemosporidian parasites of non-passerine birds despite morphological and DNA-sequence evidence for unique clades of parasites in these birds. Detection of haemosporidian parasites in the

  6. Genetic diversity of avian haemosporidians in Malaysia: cytochrome b lineages of the genera Plasmodium and Haemoproteus (Haemosporida) from Selangor.

    PubMed

    Ivanova, Karina; Zehtindjiev, Pavel; Mariaux, Jean; Georgiev, Boyko B

    2015-04-01

    The knowledge of the diversity of haemosporidian parasites is of primary importance as their representatives include agents of bird malaria. We investigated the occurrence of Haemoproteus spp. and Plasmodium spp. in bird populations from a single locality in the State of Selangor, Peninsular Malaysia, and report on the parasite prevalence of the two genera. A combination of methods (molecular and morphological) was used for detecting these parasites. Seventy-nine bird individuals were caught using mist-nets in July and August 2010 at Gombak Field Station of the University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur. In total, 23 birds were identified as positive for Haemoproteus or Plasmodium infection and one individual was recognized as carrying mixed infection. The total prevalence of haemosporidians in the collected samples was 30.3%. Infections with parasites of the genus Haemoproteus were predominant compared to those of the genus Plasmodium. In total, 10 new cyt b lineages of Haemoproteus spp. and 3 new cyt b lineages of Plasmodium spp. were recorded in this study. From all recorded haemosporidian lineages (16 in total), 3 were known from previous studies - hCOLL2, hYWT2 and pNILSUN1. Two of them are linked with their corresponding morphospecies - Haemoproteus pallidus (COLL2) and Haemoproteus motacillae (YWT2). The morphological analysis in the present study confirmed the results obtained by the PCR method relative to prevalence, with 25.3% total prevalence of Haemoproteus and Plasmodium parasites. The intensities of infection varied between 0.01% and 19%. Most infections were light, with intensities below 0.1%. The present study is the first molecular survey of the protozoan blood parasites of the order Haemosporida recorded in Malaysia. PMID:25577987

  7. Different meal, same flavor: cospeciation and host switching of haemosporidian parasites in some non-passerine birds

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Previous studies have shown that haemosporidian parasites (Haemoproteus (Parahaemoproteus) and Plasmodium) infecting passerine birds have an evolutionary history of host switching with little cospeciation, in particular at low taxonomic levels (e.g., below the family level), which is suggested as the main speciation mechanism of this group of parasites. Recent studies have characterized diverse clades of haemosporidian parasites (H. (Haemoproteus) and H. (Parahaemoproteus)) infecting non-passerine birds (e.g., Columbiformes, Pelecaniiformes). Here, we explore the cospeciation history of H. (Haemoproteus) and H. (Parahaemoproteus) parasites with their non-passerine hosts. Methods We sequenced the mtDNA cyt b gene of both haemosporidian parasites and their avian non-passerine hosts. We built Bayesian phylogenetic hypotheses and created concensus phylograms that were subsequently used to conduct cospeciation analyses. We used both a global cospeciation test, PACo, and an event-cost algorithm implemented in CoRe-PA. Results The global test suggests that H. (Haemoproteus) and H. (Parahaemoproteus) parasites have a diversification history dominated by cospeciation events particularly at the family level. Host-parasite links from the PACo analysis show that host switching events are common within families (i.e., among genera and among species within genera), and occasionally across different orders (e.g., Columbiformes to Pelecaniiformes). Event-cost analyses show that haemosporidian coevolutionary history is dominated by host switching and some codivergence, but with duplication events also present. Genetic lineages unique to raptor species (e.g., FALC11) commonly switch between Falconiformes and Strigiformes. Conclusions Our results corroborate previous findings that have detected a global cospeciation signal at the family taxonomic level, and they also support a history of frequent switching closer to the tips of the host phylogeny, which seems to be the main diversification mechanism of haemosporidians. Such dynamic host-parasite associations are relevant to the epidemiology of emerging diseases because low parasite host specificity is a prerequisite for the emergence of novel diseases. The evidence on host distributions suggests that haemosporidian parasites have the potential to rapidly develop novel host-associations. This pattern has also been recorded in fish-monogenean interactions, suggesting a general diversification mechanism for parasites when host choice is not restricted by ecological barriers. PMID:24957563

  8. Spatially variable coevolution between a haemosporidian parasite and the MHC of a widely distributed passerine.

    PubMed

    Jones, Matthew R; Cheviron, Zachary A; Carling, Matthew D

    2015-03-01

    The environment shapes host-parasite interactions, but how environmental variation affects the diversity and composition of parasite-defense genes of hosts is unresolved. In vertebrates, the highly variable major histocompatibility complex (MHC) gene family plays an essential role in the adaptive immune system by recognizing pathogen infection and initiating the cellular immune response. Investigating MHC-parasite associations across heterogeneous landscapes may elucidate the role of spatially fluctuating selection in the maintenance of high levels of genetic variation at the MHC. We studied patterns of association between an avian haemosporidian blood parasite and the MHC of rufous-collared sparrows (Zonotrichia capensis) that inhabit environments with widely varying haemosporidian infection prevalence in the Peruvian Andes. MHC diversity peaked in populations with high infection prevalence, although intra-individual MHC diversity was not associated with infection status. MHC nucleotide and protein sequences associated with infection absence tended to be rare, consistent with negative frequency-dependent selection. We found an MHC variant associated with a ?26% decrease in infection probability at middle elevations (1501-3100 m) where prevalence was highest. Several other variants were associated with a significant increase in infection probability in low haemosporidian prevalence environments, which can be interpreted as susceptibility or quantitative resistance. Our study highlights important challenges in understanding MHC evolution in natural systems, but may point to a role of negative frequency-dependent selection and fluctuating spatial selection in the evolution of Z. capensisMHC. PMID:25798222

  9. Multiple lineages of Avian malaria parasites (Plasmodium) in the Galapagos Islands and evidence for arrival via migratory birds.

    PubMed

    Levin, I I; Zwiers, P; Deem, S L; Geest, E A; Higashiguchi, J M; Iezhova, T A; Jiménez-Uzcátegui, G; Kim, D H; Morton, J P; Perlut, N G; Renfrew, R B; Sari, E H R; Valkiunas, G; Parker, P G

    2013-12-01

    Haemosporidian parasites in the genus Plasmodium were recently detected through molecular screening in the Galapagos Penguin (Spheniscus mendiculus). We summarized results of an archipelago-wide screen of 3726 endemic birds representing 22 species for Plasmodium spp. through a combination of molecular and microscopy techniques. Three additional Plasmodium lineages were present in Galapagos. Lineage A-infected penguins, Yellow Warblers (Setophaga petechia aureola), and one Medium Ground Finch (Geospiza fortis) and was detected at multiple sites in multiple years [corrected]. The other 3 lineages were each detected at one site and at one time; apparently, they were transient infections of parasites not established on the archipelago. No gametocytes were found in blood smears of infected individuals; thus, endemic Galapagos birds may be dead-end hosts for these Plasmodium lineages. Determining when and how parasites and pathogens arrive in Galapagos is key to developing conservation strategies to prevent and mitigate the effects of introduced diseases. To assess the potential for Plasmodium parasites to arrive via migratory birds, we analyzed blood samples from 438 North American breeding Bobolinks (Dolichonyx oryzivorus), the only songbird that regularly migrates through Galapagos. Two of the ephemeral Plasmodium lineages (B and C) found in Galapagos birds matched parasite sequences from Bobolinks. Although this is not confirmation that Bobolinks are responsible for introducing these lineages, evidence points to higher potential arrival rates of avian pathogens than previously thought. Linajes Múltiples de Parásitos de Malaria Aviar (Plasmodium) en las Islas Galápagos y Evidencia de su Arribo por Medio de Aves Migratorias. PMID:24033638

  10. Life history of a malaria parasite (Plasmodium mexicanum): independent traits

    E-print Network

    Schall, Joseph J.

    Life history of a malaria parasite (Plasmodium mexicanum): independent traits and basis,VT 05405, USA Plasmodium mexicanum, a malaria parasite of lizards, exhibits substantial variation among histories of microparasites, such as the malaria organisms (Plasmodium). Within its vertebrate host

  11. Genome sequence of the human malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum

    E-print Network

    Arnold, Jonathan

    Genome sequence of the human malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum Malcolm J. Gardner1 , Neil Hall ........................................................................................................................................................................................................................... The parasite Plasmodium falciparum is responsible for hundreds of millions of cases of malaria, and kills more of this intracellular parasite encodes fewer enzymes and transporters, but a large proportion of genes are devoted

  12. Haemosporidian infection in captive masked bobwhite quail (Colinus virginianus ridgwayi), an endangered subspecies of the northern bobwhite quail

    PubMed Central

    Pacheco, M. Andreína; Escalante, Ananias A.; Garner, Michael M.; Bradley, Gregory A.; Aguilar, Roberto F.

    2011-01-01

    The avian haemosporidian parasites (phylum Apicomplexa) are taxonomically diverse and cosmopolitan in distribution; infecting most bird families. Sources of concern are reports of clinical haemosporidian infections in birds kept as part of zoo and aviary collections. Recently, severe and acute mortality episodes have been reported in masked bobwhite quail (Colinus virginianus ridgwayi), an endangered subspecies from the American Southwest. Two hundred and five eggs of the captive flock held in Arivaca, Arizona, were hatched at a zoo in the American Southwest. Thirty four sub-adult or adult animals had lesions associated with tissue phases of hemoparasites, especially vasculitis, ventricular leiomyositis and ulcerative pododermatitis. Molecular techniques applied to blood collected from the zoo’s last twelve remaining animals resulted in the detection of a Plasmodium juxtanucleare-like and Haemoproteus sp. parasites. A Raven (Corvus corax), in a contiguous exhibit, was positive for the same Plasmodium juxtanucleare-like parasite, but remained asymptomatic for three years following detection. These findings indicate that other birds in the exhibit within the zoo premises could act as reservoirs. We conclude that haemosporidian infections could be a factor in the demise of the captive masked bobwhite quails housed at the zoo. We suggest that active surveillance for haemoporidian parasites should be incorporated as a precaution to ex-situ conservation efforts of susceptible endangered species. PMID:21726940

  13. Sex ratios in the rodent malaria parasite, Plasmodium chabaudi 

    E-print Network

    Reece, S E; Duncan, Alison B; West, Stuart A; Read, Andrew F

    2003-01-01

    The sex ratios of malaria and related Apicomplexan parasites play a major role in transmission success. Here, we address 2 fundamental issues in the sex ratios of the rodent malaria parasite, Plasmodium chabaudi. First we ...

  14. Haemosporidian infection in captive masked bobwhite quail (Colinus virginianus ridgwayi), an endangered subspecies of the northern bobwhite quail.

    PubMed

    Pacheco, M Andreína; Escalante, Ananias A; Garner, Michael M; Bradley, Gregory A; Aguilar, Roberto F

    2011-12-15

    The avian haemosporidian parasites (phylum Apicomplexa) are taxonomically diverse and cosmopolitan in distribution; infecting most bird families. Sources of concern are reports of clinical haemosporidian infections in birds kept as part of zoo and aviary collections. Recently, severe and acute mortality episodes have been reported in masked bobwhite quail (Colinus virginianus ridgwayi), an endangered subspecies from the American Southwest. Two hundred and five eggs of the captive flock held in Arivaca, Arizona, were hatched at a zoo in the American Southwest. Thirty-four sub-adult or adult animals had lesions associated with tissue phases of haemoparasites, especially vasculitis, ventricular leiomyositis and ulcerative pododermatitis. Molecular techniques applied to blood collected from the zoo's last twelve remaining animals resulted in the detection of a Plasmodium juxtanucleare-like and Haemoproteus sp. parasites. A Raven (Corvus corax), in a contiguous exhibit, was positive for the same P. juxtanucleare-like parasite, but remained asymptomatic for three years following detection. These findings indicate that other birds in the exhibit within the zoo premises could act as reservoirs. We conclude that haemosporidian infections could be a factor in the demise of the captive masked bobwhite quails housed at the zoo. We suggest that active surveillance for haemoporidian parasites should be incorporated as a precaution to ex situ conservation efforts of susceptible endangered species. PMID:21726940

  15. Cultivation in vitro of the Quartan Malaria Parasite Plasmodium inui

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Phuc Nguyen-Dinh; Carlos C. Campbell; William E. Collins

    1980-01-01

    The simian quartan malaria parasite Plasmodium inui (OS strain) was cultured in a continuous flow system with rhesus monkey erythrocytes and RPMI 1640 medium supplemented with Hepes buffer and rhesus serum. Over a 10-week period, the growth of the parasite permitted a 61,000-fold cumulative dilution of the original inoculum. After 5 weeks in culture, the parasites were still infective to

  16. Avian Plasmodium in Culex and Ochlerotatus Mosquitoes from Southern Spain: Effects of Season and Host-Feeding Source on Parasite Dynamics.

    PubMed

    Ferraguti, Martina; Martínez-de la Puente, Josué; Muñoz, Joaquín; Roiz, David; Ruiz, Santiago; Soriguer, Ramón; Figuerola, Jordi

    2013-01-01

    Haemosporidians, a group of vector-borne parasites that include Plasmodium, infect vertebrates including birds. Although mosquitoes are crucial elements in the transmission of avian malaria parasites, little is known of their ecology as vectors. We examined the presence of Plasmodium and Haemoproteus lineages in five mosquito species belonging to the genera Culex and Ochlerotatus to test for the effect of vector species, season and host-feeding source on the transmission dynamics of these pathogens. We analyzed 166 blood-fed individually and 5,579 unfed mosquitoes (grouped in 197 pools) from a locality in southern Spain. In all, 15 Plasmodium and two Haemoproteus lineages were identified on the basis of a fragment of 478 bp of the mitochondrial cytochrome b gene. Infection prevalence of blood parasites in unfed mosquitoes varied between species (range: 0-3.2%) and seasons. The feeding source was identified in 91 mosquitoes where 78% were identified as bird. We found that i) several Plasmodium lineages are shared among different Culex species and one Plasmodium lineage is shared between Culex and Ochlerotatus genera; ii) mosquitoes harboured Haemoproteus parasites; iii) pools of unfed females of mostly ornithophilic Culex species had a higher Plasmodium prevalence than the only mammophylic Culex species studied. However, the mammophylic Ochlerotatus caspius had in pool samples the greatest Plasmodium prevalence. This relative high prevalence may be determined by inter-specific differences in vector survival, susceptibility to infection but also the possibility that this species feeds on birds more frequently than previously thought. Finally, iv) infection rate of mosquitoes varies between seasons and reaches its maximum prevalence during autumn and minimum prevalence in spring. PMID:23823127

  17. On the study of the transmission networks of blood parasites from SW Spain: diversity of avian haemosporidians in the biting midge Culicoides circumscriptus and wild birds

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Blood-sucking flying insects play a key role in the transmission of pathogens of vector-borne diseases. However, at least for the case of avian malaria parasites, the vast majority of studies focus on the interaction between parasites and vertebrate hosts, but there is a lack of information regarding the interaction between the parasites and the insect vectors. Here, we identified the presence of malaria and malaria-like parasite lineages harbored by the potential vector Culicoides circumscriptus (Kieffer). Also, we identified some nodes of the transmission network connecting parasite lineages, potential insect vectors and avian hosts by comparing Haemoproteus and Plasmodium lineages isolated from insects with those infecting wild birds in this and previous studies. Methods Using a molecular approach, we analysed the presence of blood parasites in a total of 97 biting midges trapped in the Doñana National Park (SW Spain) and surrounding areas. Also, 123 blood samples from 11 bird species were analyzed for the presence of blood parasite infections. Blood parasites Haemoproteus and Plasmodium were identified by amplification of a 478 bp fragment of the mitochondrial cytochrome b gen. Results Thirteen biting midges harboured blood parasites including six Haemoproteus and two Plasmodium lineages, supporting the potential role of these insects on parasite transmission. Moreover, ten (8.1%) birds carried blood parasites. Seven Plasmodium and one Haemoproteus lineages were isolated from birds. Overall, six new Haemoproteus lineages were described in this study. Also, we identified the transmission networks of some blood parasites. Two Haemoproteus lineages, hCIRCUM03 and GAGLA03, were identical to those isolated from Corvus monedula in southern Spain and Garrulus glandarius in Bulgaria, respectively. Furthermore, the new Haemoproteus lineage hCIRCUM05 showed a 99% similarity with a lineage found infecting captive penguins in Japan. Conclusions The comparison of the parasite lineages isolated in this study with those previously found infecting birds allowed us to identify some potential nodes in the transmission network of avian blood parasite lineages. These results highlight the complexity of the transmission networks of blood parasites in the wild that may involve a high diversity of susceptible birds and insect vectors. PMID:23856348

  18. Specific calpain activity evaluation in Plasmodium parasites.

    PubMed

    Gomes, Mayrim M; Budu, Alexandre; Ventura, Priscilla D S; Bagnaresi, Piero; Cotrin, Simone S; Cunha, Rodrigo L O R; Carmona, Adriana K; Juliano, Luiz; Gazarini, Marcos L

    2014-10-01

    In the intraerythrocytic trophozoite stages of Plasmodium falciparum, the calcium-dependent cysteine protease calpain (Pf-calpain) has an important role in the parasite calcium modulation and cell development. We established specific conditions to follow by confocal microscopy and spectrofluorimetry measurements the intracellular activity of Pf-calpain in live cells. The catalytic activity was measured using the fluorogenic Z-Phe-Arg-MCA (where Z is carbobenzoxy and MCA is 4-methylcoumaryl-7-amide). The calmodulin inhibitor calmidazolium and the sarcoplasmic reticulum calcium ATPase inhibitor thapsigargin were used for modifications in the cytosolic calcium concentrations that persisted in the absence of extracellular calcium. The observed calcium-dependent peptidase activity was greatly inhibited by specific cysteine protease inhibitor E-64 and by the selective calpain inhibitor ALLN (N-acetyl-l-leucyl-l-leucyl-l-norleucinal). Taken together, we observed that intracellular Pf-calpain can be selectively detected and is the main calcium-dependent protease in the intraerythrocytic stages of the parasite. The method described here can be helpful in cell metabolism studies and antimalarial drug screening. PMID:25281458

  19. The Plasmodium bottleneck: malaria parasite losses in the mosquito vector

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Ryan C; Vega-Rodríguez, Joel; Jacobs-Lorena, Marcelo

    2014-01-01

    Nearly one million people are killed every year by the malaria parasite Plasmodium. Although the disease-causing forms of the parasite exist only in the human blood, mosquitoes of the genus Anopheles are the obligate vector for transmission. Here, we review the parasite life cycle in the vector and highlight the human and mosquito contributions that limit malaria parasite development in the mosquito host. We address parasite killing in its mosquito host and bottlenecks in parasite numbers that might guide intervention strategies to prevent transmission. PMID:25185005

  20. Comparative genomics of the neglected human malaria parasite Plasmodium vivax

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jane M. Carlton; John H. Adams; Joana C. Silva; Shelby L. Bidwell; Hernan Lorenzi; Elisabet Caler; Jonathan Crabtree; Samuel V. Angiuoli; Emilio F. Merino; Paolo Amedeo; Qin Cheng; Richard M. R. Coulson; Brendan S. Crabb; Hernando A. del Portillo; Kobby Essien; Tamara V. Feldblyum; Carmen Fernandez-Becerra; Paul R. Gilson; Amy H. Gueye; Xiang Guo; Taco W. A. Kooij; Michael Korsinczky; Esmeralda V.-S. Meyer; Vish Nene; Ian Paulsen; Owen White; Stuart A. Ralph; Qinghu Ren; Tobias J. Sargeant; Christian J. Stoeckert; Steven A. Sullivan; Marcio M. Yamamoto; Stephen L. Hoffman; Jennifer R. Wortman; Malcolm J. Gardner; Mary R. Galinski; John W. Barnwell; Claire M. Fraser-Liggett

    2008-01-01

    The human malaria parasite Plasmodium vivax is responsible for 25-40% of the ~515 million annual cases of malaria worldwide. Although seldom fatal, the parasite elicits severe and incapacitating clinical symptoms and often causes relapses months after a primary infection has cleared. Despite its importance as a major human pathogen, P. vivax is little studied because it cannot be propagated continuously

  1. Protein targeting to destinations of the secretory pathway in the malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum

    E-print Network

    McFadden, Geoff

    Protein targeting to destinations of the secretory pathway in the malaria parasite Plasmodium pathway in the malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum has many unique aspects in terms of protein destinations and trafficking mechanisms. Recently, several exciting insights into protein trafficking within

  2. Comparative Genomics and Systems Biology of Malaria Parasites Plasmodium

    PubMed Central

    Cai, Hong; Zhou, Zhan; Gu, Jianying; Wang, Yufeng

    2013-01-01

    Malaria is a serious infectious disease that causes over one million deaths yearly. It is caused by a group of protozoan parasites in the genus Plasmodium. No effective vaccine is currently available and the elevated levels of resistance to drugs in use underscore the pressing need for novel antimalarial targets. In this review, we survey omics centered developments in Plasmodium biology, which have set the stage for a quantum leap in our understanding of the fundamental processes of the parasite life cycle and mechanisms of drug resistance and immune evasion. PMID:24298232

  3. High prevalence of haemosporidian parasites infection in southern grey shrike Lanius meridionalis (Laniidae, Aves) from agricultural areas

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. Casanueva; M. Fernández; M. Ángeles Rojo; F. Campos

    2012-01-01

    We present the first data on prevalence of haematozoa in Southern grey shrikes Lanius meridionalis (Temminck) in agricultural areas of western Spain. A fragment of the mitochondrial cytochrome b gene of the parasite was amplified, using a nested PCR assay from blood sample. Of the 81 shrikes analysed, 65.4% showed infection with Haemoproteus (Kruse, 1890) while neither Leucocytozoon (Berestneff, 1904)

  4. The genome of the simian and human malaria parasite Plasmodium knowlesi

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Pain; U. Böhme; A. E. Berry; K. Mungall; R. D. Finn; A. P. Jackson; T. Mourier; J. Mistry; E. M. Pasini; M. A. Aslett; S. Balasubrammaniam; K. Borgwardt; K. Brooks; C. Carret; T. J. Carver; I. Cherevach; T. Chillingworth; T. G. Clark; M. R. Galinski; N. Hall; D. Harper; D. Harris; H. Hauser; A. Ivens; C. S. Janssen; T. Keane; N. Larke; S. Lapp; M. Marti; S. Moule; I. M. Meyer; D. Ormond; N. Peters; M. Sanders; S. Sanders; T. J. Sargeant; M. Simmonds; F. Smith; R. Squares; S. Thurston; A. R. Tivey; D. Walker; B. White; E. Zuiderwijk; C. Churcher; M. A. Quail; A. F. Cowman; C. M. R. Turner; M. A. Rajandream; C. H. M. Kocken; A. W. Thomas; C. I. Newbold; B. G. Barrell; M. Berriman

    2008-01-01

    Plasmodium knowlesi is an intracellular malaria parasite whose natural vertebrate host is Macaca fascicularis (the `kra' monkey); however, it is now increasingly recognized as a significant cause of human malaria, particularly in southeast Asia. Plasmodium knowlesi was the first malaria parasite species in which antigenic variation was demonstrated, and it has a close phylogenetic relationship to Plasmodium vivax, the second

  5. Polyamine uptake by the intraerythrocytic malaria parasite, Plasmodium falciparum.

    PubMed

    Niemand, J; Louw, A I; Birkholtz, L; Kirk, K

    2012-09-01

    Polyamines and the enzymes involved in their biosynthesis are present at high levels in rapidly proliferating cells, including cancer cells and protozoan parasites. Inhibition of polyamine biosynthesis in asexual blood-stage malaria parasites causes cytostatic arrest of parasite development under in vitro conditions, but does not cure infections in vivo. This may be due to replenishment of the parasite's intracellular polyamine pool via salvage of exogenous polyamines from the host. However, the mechanism(s) of polyamine uptake by the intraerythrocytic parasite are not well understood. In this study, the uptake of the polyamines, putrescine and spermidine, into Plasmodium falciparum parasites functionally isolated from their host erythrocyte was investigated using radioisotope flux techniques. Both putrescine and spermidine were taken up into isolated parasites via a temperature-dependent process that showed cross-competition between different polyamines. There was also some inhibition of polyamine uptake by basic amino acids. Inhibition of polyamine biosynthesis led to an increase in the total amount of putrescine and spermidine taken up from the extracellular medium. The uptake of putrescine and spermidine by isolated parasites was independent of extracellular Na(+) but increased with increasing external pH. Uptake also showed a marked dependence on the parasite's membrane potential, decreasing with membrane depolarization and increasing with membrane hyperpolarization. The data are consistent with polyamines being taken up into the parasite via an electrogenic uptake process, energised by the parasite's inwardly negative membrane potential. PMID:22878129

  6. African origin of the malaria parasite Plasmodium vivax

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Weimin; Li, Yingying; Shaw, Katharina S.; Learn, Gerald H.; Plenderleith, Lindsey J.; Malenke, Jordan A.; Sundararaman, Sesh A.; Ramirez, Miguel A.; Crystal, Patricia A.; Smith, Andrew G.; Bibollet-Ruche, Frederic; Ayouba, Ahidjo; Locatelli, Sabrina; Esteban, Amandine; Mouacha, Fatima; Guichet, Emilande; Butel, Christelle; Ahuka-Mundeke, Steve; Inogwabini, Bila-Isia; Ndjango, Jean-Bosco N.; Speede, Sheri; Sanz, Crickette M.; Morgan, David B.; Gonder, Mary K.; Kranzusch, Philip J.; Walsh, Peter D.; Georgiev, Alexander V.; Muller, Martin N.; Piel, Alex K.; Stewart, Fiona A.; Wilson, Michael L.; Pusey, Anne E.; Cui, Liwang; Wang, Zenglei; Färnert, Anna; Sutherland, Colin J.; Nolder, Debbie; Hart, John A.; Hart, Terese B.; Bertolani, Paco; Gillis, Amethyst; LeBreton, Matthew; Tafon, Babila; Kiyang, John; Djoko, Cyrille F.; Schneider, Bradley S.; Wolfe, Nathan D.; Mpoudi-Ngole, Eitel; Delaporte, Eric; Carter, Richard; Culleton, Richard L.; Shaw, George M.; Rayner, Julian C.; Peeters, Martine; Hahn, Beatrice H.; Sharp, Paul M.

    2014-01-01

    Plasmodium vivax is the leading cause of human malaria in Asia and Latin America but is absent from most of central Africa due to the near fixation of a mutation that inhibits the expression of its receptor, the Duffy antigen, on human erythrocytes. The emergence of this protective allele is not understood because P. vivax is believed to have originated in Asia. Here we show, using a non-invasive approach, that wild chimpanzees and gorillas throughout central Africa are endemically infected with parasites that are closely related to human P. vivax. Sequence analyses reveal that ape parasites lack host specificity and are much more diverse than human parasites, which form a monophyletic lineage within the ape parasite radiation. These findings indicate that human P. vivax is of African origin and likely selected for the Duffy-negative mutation. All extant human P. vivax parasites are derived from a single ancestor that escaped out of Africa. PMID:24557500

  7. Genome sequence of the human malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Malcolm J. Gardner; Neil Hall; Eula Fung; Owen White; Matthew Berriman; Richard W. Hyman; Jane M. Carlton; Arnab Pain; Sharen Bowman; Ian T. Paulsen; Keith James; Kim Rutherford; Steven L. Salzberg; Alister Craig; Sue Kyes; Man-Suen Chan; Vishvanath Nene; Shamira J. Shallom; Bernard Suh; Jeremy Peterson; Sam Angiuoli; Mihaela Pertea; Jonathan Allen; Jeremy Selengut; Daniel Haft; Michael W. Mather; Akhil B. Vaidya; Alan H. Fairlamb; Martin J. Fraunholz; David S. Roos; Stuart A. Ralph; Geoffrey I. McFadden; Leda M. Cummings; G. Mani Subramanian; Chris Mungall; J. Craig Venter; Daniel J. Carucci; Stephen L. Hoffman; Chris Newbold; Ronald W. Davis; Claire M. Fraser; Bart Barrell

    2002-01-01

    The parasite Plasmodium falciparum is responsible for hundreds of millions of cases of malaria, and kills more than one million African children annually. Here we report an analysis of the genome sequence of P. falciparum clone 3D7. The 23-megabase nuclear genome consists of 14 chromosomes, encodes about 5,300 genes, and is the most (A + T)-rich genome sequenced to date.

  8. Host cell deformability is linked to transmission in the human malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum

    E-print Network

    Aingaran, Mythili

    Gametocyte maturation in Plasmodium falciparum is a critical step in the transmission of malaria. While the majority of parasites proliferate asexually in red blood cells, a small fraction of parasites undergo sexual ...

  9. CD8+ T Cell Responses to Plasmodium and Intracellular Parasites

    PubMed Central

    Villarino, Nicolas; Schmidt, Nathan W.

    2013-01-01

    Parasitic protozoa are major threats to human health affecting millions of people around the world. Control of these infections by the host immune system relies on a myriad of immunological mechanisms that includes both humoral and cellular immunity. CD8+ T cells contribute to the control of these parasitic infections in both animals and humans. Here, we will focus on the CD8+ T cell response against a subset of these protozoa: Plasmodium, Toxoplasma gondii, Leishmania and Trypanosoma cruzi, with an emphasis on experimental rodent systems. It is evident a complex interaction occurs between CD8+ T cells and the invading protozoa. A detailed understanding of how CD8+ T cells mediate protection should provide the basis for the development of effective vaccines that prevent and control infections by these parasites. PMID:24741372

  10. Plasmodium ( Haemamoeba ) cathemerium gene sequences for phylogenetic analysis of malaria parasites

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. C. Wiersch; W. A. Maier; H. Kampen

    2005-01-01

    The DNA sequence information on avian malaria parasites of the genus Plasmodium is quite limited. At present, sequences of only 6 out of 34 valid species are available. However, sequence data of avian malaria parasites are particularly important with regard to the resolution of the phylogenetic relationships of the most virulent human malaria agent, Plasmodium falciparum. The question as to

  11. Complementation of Plasmodium berghei TRAP knockout parasites using human dihydrofolate reductase gene as a selectable marker

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ali A. Sultan; Vandana Thathy; Tania F. de Koning-Ward; Victor Nussenzweig

    2001-01-01

    Previously we have used the Plasmodium dihydrofolate reductase thymidylate synthase (DHFR-TS) selectable marker to generate Plasmodium berghei TRAP null mutant parasites. These TRAP null mutants do not glide and they showed a great reduction in their ability to infect mosquito salivary glands and the hepatocytes of the vertebrate host. Thus far, complementation of these knockout parasites was not possible due

  12. Male gametocyte fecundity and sex ratio of a malaria parasite, Plasmodium mexicanum

    E-print Network

    Schall, Joseph J.

    Male gametocyte fecundity and sex ratio of a malaria parasite, Plasmodium mexicanum A. T. NEAL Evolutionary theory predicts that the sex ratio of Plasmodium gametocytes will be determined by the number gametocyte fecundity for sex ratio theory as applied to malaria parasites, few data are available on gamete

  13. Ecole doctorale Sciences Chimiques et Biologiques pour la Sant Titre Modlisation intgre du mtabolisme des lipides chez Plasmodium, parasite causal

    E-print Network

    Radulescu, Ovidiu

    métabolisme des lipides chez Plasmodium, parasite causal du paludisme. Title Systems biology modelling of lipid metabolism in the malaria parasite Plasmodium. Directeur de thèse : M. Ovidiu RADULESCU - Tel : 04 Plasmodium est d'un intérêt certain car il paraît essentiel à la survie de ce parasite et est l'objet d

  14. Host cell deformability is linked to transmission in the human malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum

    E-print Network

    Suresh, Subra

    Host cell deformability is linked to transmission in the human malaria parasite Plasmodium the majority of parasites proliferate asexu- ally in red blood cells, a small fraction of parasites undergo of asexual red blood cell stage parasites has been investigated in great detail. These studies have

  15. Parasite virulence and disease patterns in Plasmodium falciparum malaria.

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, S; Hill, A V; Kwiatkowski, D; Greenwood, A M; Greenwood, B M; Day, K P

    1994-01-01

    Heterogeneity in parasite virulence is one of several factors that have been proposed to contribute to the wide spectrum of disease severity in Plasmodium falciparum malaria. We used observed age-structured patterns of disease to define a population structure of P. falciparum, where the latter contains several independently transmitted antigenic types or "strains" that each induce some degree of strain-specific antidisease immunity upon infection. Patterns of incidence of severe and mild disease may be explained by assuming that a majority of these strains are associated with mild disease and that although severe malarial anemia is a complication occurring in a certain proportion of early infections with "mild" parasites, cerebral malaria is caused by a few distinct highly virulent strains. Considerable variation in parasite virulence, as a major factor of disease severity in malaria, is made possible by the absence of competition between the various parasite strains, arising from weak shared immune responses. The theoretical framework presented in this paper can explain other epidemiological observations, such as the results of interventions with insecticide-impregnated bednets. PMID:8170975

  16. Clonal diversity of a malaria parasite, Plasmodium mexicanum, and its transmission success from its vertebrate-to-insect host

    E-print Network

    Schall, Joseph J.

    , Plasmodium vivax and Plasmodium malariae, (Anderson et al., 2000; Leclerc et al., 2002; Cui et al., 2003Clonal diversity of a malaria parasite, Plasmodium mexicanum, and its transmission success from its Transmission Bottlenecks Clonal diversity Plasmodium mexicanum a b s t r a c t Infections of the lizard malaria

  17. Cultivation in vitro of the Vivax-Type Malaria Parasite Plasmodium cynomolgi

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Phuc Nguyen-Dinh; Amy L. Gardner; Carlos C. Campbell; Jimmie C. Skinner; William E. Collins

    1981-01-01

    The vivax-type simian malaria parasite Plasmodium cynomologi was cultured in vitro by both the candle jar method and the continuous flow technique, with rhesus monkey erythrocytes and RPMI 1640 medium supplemented with Hepes buffer and human serum. After 6 weeks in culture, the growth of the parasite had permitted a 5× 106 cumulative dilution of the original inoculum. Cultured parasites

  18. VECTOR/PATHOGEN/HOST INTERACTION, TRANSMISSION Virulence of a Malaria Parasite, Plasmodium mexicanum, for Its Sand

    E-print Network

    Schall, Joseph J.

    VECTOR/PATHOGEN/HOST INTERACTION, TRANSMISSION Virulence of a Malaria Parasite, Plasmodium mexicanum, for Its Sand Fly Vectors, Lutzomyia vexator and Lutzomyia stewarti (Diptera: Psychodidae) JOS. J that virulence of parasites for mobile vector insects will be low for natural parasite-host associations

  19. Serological Evidence of Discrete Spatial Clusters of Plasmodium falciparum Parasites

    PubMed Central

    Bejon, Philip; Turner, Louise; Lavstsen, Thomas; Cham, Gerald; Olotu, Ally; Drakeley, Chris J.; Lievens, Marc; Vekemans, Johan; Savarese, Barbara; Lusingu, John; von Seidlein, Lorenz; Bull, Peter C.; Marsh, Kevin; Theander, Thor G.

    2011-01-01

    Background Malaria transmission may be considered to be homogenous with well-mixed parasite populations (as in the classic Ross/Macdonald models). Marked fine-scale heterogeneity of transmission has been observed in the field (i.e., over a few kilometres), but there are relatively few data on the degree of mixing. Since the Plasmodium falciparum Erythrocyte Membrane Protein 1 (PfEMP1) is highly polymorphic, the host's serological responses may be used to infer exposure to parasite sub-populations. Methods and Findings We measured the antibody responses to 46 individual PfEMP1 domains at four time points among 450 children in Kenya, and identified distinct spatial clusters of antibody responses to individual domains. 35 domains showed strongly significant sero-clusters at p?=?0.001. Individuals within the high transmission hotspot showed the greatest diversity of anti-PfEMP1 responses. Individuals outside the hotspot had a less diverse range of responses, even if as individuals they were at relatively intense exposure. Conclusions We infer that antigenically distinct sub-populations of parasites exist on a fine spatial scale in a study area of rural Kenya. Further studies should examine antigenic variation over longer periods of time and in different study areas. PMID:21747921

  20. Genome sequence of the human malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum

    PubMed Central

    Gardner, Malcolm J.; Hall, Neil; Fung, Eula; White, Owen; Berriman, Matthew; Hyman, Richard W.; Carlton, Jane M.; Pain, Arnab; Nelson, Karen E.; Bowman, Sharen; Paulsen, Ian T.; James, Keith; Eisen, Jonathan A.; Rutherford, Kim; Salzberg, Steven L.; Craig, Alister; Kyes, Sue; Chan, Man-Suen; Nene, Vishvanath; Shallom, Shamira J.; Suh, Bernard; Peterson, Jeremy; Angiuoli, Sam; Pertea, Mihaela; Allen, Jonathan; Selengut, Jeremy; Haft, Daniel; Mather, Michael W.; Vaidya, Akhil B.; Martin, David M. A.; Fairlamb, Alan H.; Fraunholz, Martin J.; Roos, David S.; Ralph, Stuart A.; McFadden, Geoffrey I.; Cummings, Leda M.; Subramanian, G. Mani; Mungall, Chris; Venter, J. Craig; Carucci, Daniel J.; Hoffman, Stephen L.; Newbold, Chris; Davis, Ronald W.; Fraser, Claire M.; Barrell, Bart

    2013-01-01

    The parasite Plasmodium falciparum is responsible for hundreds of millions of cases of malaria, and kills more than one million African children annually. Here we report an analysis of the genome sequence of P. falciparum clone 3D7. The 23-megabase nuclear genome consists of 14 chromosomes, encodes about 5,300 genes, and is the most (A + T)-rich genome sequenced to date. Genes involved in antigenic variation are concentrated in the subtelomeric regions of the chromosomes. Compared to the genomes of free-living eukaryotic microbes, the genome of this intracellular parasite encodes fewer enzymes and transporters, but a large proportion of genes are devoted to immune evasion and host–parasite interactions. Many nuclear-encoded proteins are targeted to the apicoplast, an organelle involved in fatty-acid and isoprenoid metabolism. The genome sequence provides the foundation for future studies of this organism, and is being exploited in the search for new drugs and vaccines to fight malaria. PMID:12368864

  1. Visualization of Malaria Parasites in the Skin Using the Luciferase Transgenic Parasite, Plasmodium berghei

    PubMed Central

    Matsuoka, Hiroyuki; Tomita, Hiroyuki; Hattori, Ryuta; Arai, Meiji; Hirai, Makoto

    2015-01-01

    We produced a transgenic rodent malaria parasite (Plasmodium berghei) that contained the luciferase gene under a promoter region of elongation factor-1?. These transgenic (TG) parasites expressed luciferase in all stages of their life cycle, as previously reported. However, we were the first to succeed in observing sporozoites as a mass in mouse skin following their deposition by the probing of infective mosquitoes. Our transgenic parasites may have emitted stronger bioluminescence than previous TG parasites. The estimated number of injected sporozoites by mosquitoes was between 34 and 775 (median 80). Since luciferase activity diminished immediately after the death of the parasites, luciferase activity could be an indicator of the existence of live parasites. Our results indicated that sporozoites survived at the probed site for more than 42 hours. We also detected sporozoites in the liver within 15 min of the intravenous injection. Bioluminescence was not observed in the lung, kidney or spleen. We confirmed the observation that the liver was the first organ in which malaria parasites entered and increased in number. PMID:25859153

  2. Blood-stage Plasmodium infection induces CD8 T lymphocytes to parasite-expressed antigens,

    E-print Network

    Arnold, Jonathan

    Blood-stage Plasmodium infection induces CD8 T lymphocytes to parasite-expressed antigens, largely the blood stage of Plasmodium infection, there is mounting evidence that they are principal mediators in response to blood-stage infection. To resolve this and to define the cellular requirements for such priming

  3. Age of the last common ancestor of extant Plasmodium parasite lineages.

    PubMed

    Hayakawa, Toshiyuki; Tachibana, Shin-Ichiro; Hikosaka, Kenji; Arisue, Nobuko; Matsui, Atsushi; Horii, Toshihiro; Tanabe, Kazuyuki

    2012-07-01

    Parasites of the genus Plasmodium infect all classes of amniotes (mammals, birds and reptiles) and display host specificity in their infections. It is therefore generally believed that Plasmodium parasites co-evolved intimately with their hosts. Here, we report that based on an evolutionary analysis using 22 genes in the nuclear genome, extant lineages of Plasmodium parasites originated roughly in the Oligocene epoch after the emergence of their hosts. This timing on the age of the common ancestor of extant Plasmodium parasites suggest the importance of host switches and lends support to the evolutionary scenario of a "malaria big bang" that was proposed based on the evolutionary analysis using the mitochondrial genome. PMID:22555021

  4. Quantifying the biophysical characteristics of Plasmodium-falciparum- parasitized red blood cells in microcirculation

    E-print Network

    Fedosov, D. A.

    The pathogenicity of Plasmodium falciparum (Pf) malaria results from the stiffening of red blood cells (RBCs) and its ability to adhere to endothelial cells (cytoadherence). The dynamics of Pf-parasitized RBCs is studied ...

  5. GEOGRAPHIC GENETIC DIFFERENTIATION OF A MALARIA PARASITE, PLASMODIUM MEXICANUM, AND ITS LIZARD HOST, SCELOPORUS OCCIDENTALIS

    E-print Network

    Schall, Joseph J.

    , SCELOPORUS OCCIDENTALIS Jennifer M. Fricke, Anne M. Vardo-Zalik*, and Jos. J. SchallÀ Department of Biology parasite Plasmodium mexicanum, and its lizard host, Sceloporus occidentalis, at 8 sites in northern

  6. Gametocyte sex ratio in single-clone infections of the malaria parasite Plasmodium mexicanum

    E-print Network

    Schall, Joseph J.

    Gametocyte sex ratio in single-clone infections of the malaria parasite Plasmodium mexicanum A 12 July 2010) SUMMARY Sex ratio theory predicts that malaria parasites should bias gametocyte system later in the infection. Recent experimental studies reveal genetic variation for gametocyte sex

  7. FRET peptides reveal differential proteolytic activation in intraerythrocytic stages of the malaria parasites Plasmodium berghei and Plasmodium yoelii.

    PubMed

    Cruz, Laura Nogueira da; Alves, Eduardo; Leal, Mônica Teixeira; Juliano, Maria A; Rosenthal, Philip J; Juliano, Luiz; Garcia, Celia R S

    2011-03-01

    Malaria is still a major health problem in developing countries. It is caused by the protist parasite Plasmodium, in which proteases are activated during the cell cycle. Ca(2+) is a ubiquitous signalling ion that appears to regulate protease activity through changes in its intracellular concentration. Proteases are crucial to Plasmodium development, but the role of Ca(2+) in their activity is not fully understood. Here we investigated the role of Ca(2+) in protease modulation among rodent Plasmodium spp. Using fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) peptides, we verified protease activity elicited by Ca(2+) from the endoplasmatic reticulum (ER) after stimulation with thapsigargin (a sarco/endoplasmatic reticulum Ca(2+)-ATPase (SERCA) inhibitor) and from acidic compartments by stimulation with nigericin (a K(+)/H(+) exchanger) or monensin (a Na(+)/H(+) exchanger). Intracellular (BAPTA/AM) and extracellular (EGTA) Ca(2+) chelators were used to investigate the role played by Ca(2+) in protease activation. In Plasmodium berghei both EGTA and BAPTA blocked protease activation, whilst in Plasmodium yoelii these compounds caused protease activation. The effects of protease inhibitors on thapsigargin-induced proteolysis also differed between the species. Pepstatin A and phenylmethylsulphonyl fluoride (PMSF) increased thapsigargin-induced proteolysis in P. berghei but decreased it in P. yoelii. Conversely, E64 reduced proteolysis in P. berghei but stimulated it in P. yoelii. The data point out key differences in proteolytic responses to Ca(2+) between species of Plasmodium. PMID:21168413

  8. CD8+ T cells eliminate liver-stage Plasmodium berghei parasites without detectable bystander effect.

    PubMed

    Cockburn, Ian A; Tse, Sze-Wah; Zavala, Fidel

    2014-04-01

    Immunization with attenuated Plasmodium sporozoites or viral vectored vaccines can induce protective CD8(+) T cells that can find and eliminate liver-stage malaria parasites. A key question is whether CD8(+) T cells must recognize and eliminate each parasite in the liver or whether bystander killing can occur. To test this, we transferred antigen-specific effector CD8(+) T cells to mice that were then coinfected with two Plasmodium berghei strains, only one of which could be recognized directly by the transferred T cells. We found that the noncognate parasites developed normally in these mice, demonstrating that bystander killing of parasites does not occur during the CD8(+) T cell response to malaria parasites. Rather, elimination of infected parasites is likely mediated by direct recognition of infected hepatocytes by antigen-specific CD8(+) T cells. PMID:24421043

  9. CD8+ T Cells Eliminate Liver-Stage Plasmodium berghei Parasites without Detectable Bystander Effect

    PubMed Central

    Tse, Sze-Wah; Zavala, Fidel

    2014-01-01

    Immunization with attenuated Plasmodium sporozoites or viral vectored vaccines can induce protective CD8+ T cells that can find and eliminate liver-stage malaria parasites. A key question is whether CD8+ T cells must recognize and eliminate each parasite in the liver or whether bystander killing can occur. To test this, we transferred antigen-specific effector CD8+ T cells to mice that were then coinfected with two Plasmodium berghei strains, only one of which could be recognized directly by the transferred T cells. We found that the noncognate parasites developed normally in these mice, demonstrating that bystander killing of parasites does not occur during the CD8+ T cell response to malaria parasites. Rather, elimination of infected parasites is likely mediated by direct recognition of infected hepatocytes by antigen-specific CD8+ T cells. PMID:24421043

  10. Enlightening the malaria parasite life cycle: bioluminescent Plasmodium in fundamental and applied research

    PubMed Central

    Siciliano, Giulia; Alano, Pietro

    2015-01-01

    The unicellular protozoan parasites of the genus Plasmodium impose on human health worldwide the enormous burden of malaria. The possibility to genetically modify several species of malaria parasites represented a major advance in the possibility to elucidate their biology and is now turning laboratory lines of transgenic Plasmodium into precious weapons to fight malaria. Amongst the various genetically modified plasmodia, transgenic parasite lines expressing bioluminescent reporters have been essential to unveil mechanisms of parasite gene expression and to develop in vivo imaging approaches in mouse malaria models. Mainly the human malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum and the rodent parasite P. berghei have been engineered to express bioluminescent reporters in almost all the developmental stages of the parasite along its complex life cycle between the insect and the vertebrate hosts. Plasmodium lines expressing conventional and improved luciferase reporters are now gaining a central role to develop cell based assays in the much needed search of new antimalarial drugs and to open innovative approaches for both fundamental and applied research in malaria.

  11. Reduced erythrocyte susceptibility and increased host clearance of young parasites slows Plasmodium growth in a murine model of severe malaria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khoury, David S.; Cromer, Deborah; Best, Shannon E.; James, Kylie R.; Sebina, Ismail; Haque, Ashraful; Davenport, Miles P.

    2015-05-01

    The best correlate of malaria severity in human Plasmodium falciparum (Pf) infection is the total parasite load. Pf-infected humans could control parasite loads by two mechanisms, either decreasing parasite multiplication, or increasing parasite clearance. However, few studies have directly measured these two mechanisms in vivo. Here, we have directly quantified host clearance of parasites during Plasmodium infection in mice. We transferred labelled red blood cells (RBCs) from Plasmodium infected donors into uninfected and infected recipients, and tracked the fate of donor parasites by frequent blood sampling. We then applied age-based mathematical models to characterise parasite clearance in the recipient mice. Our analyses revealed an increased clearance of parasites in infected animals, particularly parasites of a younger developmental stage. However, the major decrease in parasite multiplication in infected mice was not mediated by increased clearance alone, but was accompanied by a significant reduction in the susceptibility of RBCs to parasitisation.

  12. Origins of Human Malaria: Rare Genomic Changes and Full Mitochondrial Genomes Confirm the Relationship of Plasmodium falciparum to Other Mammalian Parasites but Complicate the Origins of Plasmodium vivax

    PubMed Central

    Irimia, Manuel

    2008-01-01

    Despite substantial work, the phylogeny of malaria parasites remains debated. The matter is complicated by concerns about patterns of evolution in potentially strongly selected genes as well as the extreme AT bias of some Plasmodium genomes. Particularly contentious has been the position of the most virulent human parasite Plasmodium falciparum, whether grouped with avian parasites or within a larger clade of mammalian parasites. Here, we study 3 classes of rare genomic changes, as well as the sequences of mitochondrial ribosomal RNA (rRNA) genes. We report 3 lines of support for a clade of mammalian parasites: 1) we find no instances of spliceosomal intron loss in a hypothetical ancestor of P. falciparum and the avian parasite Plasmodium gallinaceum, suggesting against a close relationship between those species; 2) we find 4 genomic mitochondrial indels supporting a mammalian clade, but none grouping P. falciparum with avian parasites; and 3) slowly evolving mitochondrial rRNA sequences support a mammalian parasite clade with 100% posterior probability. We further report a large deletion in the mitochondrial large subunit rRNA gene, which suggests a subclade including both African and Asian parasites within the clade of closely related primate malarias. This contrasts with previous studies that provided strong support for separate Asian and African clades, and reduces certainty about the historical and geographic origins of Plasmodium vivax. Finally, we find a lack of synapomorphic gene losses, suggesting a low rate of ancestral gene loss in Plasmodium. PMID:18359945

  13. Prevalence Patterns of Avian Plasmodium and Haemoproteus Parasites and the Influence of Host Relative Abundance in Southern China

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yanhua; Wu, Yuchun; Zhang, Qiang; Su, Dongdong; Zou, Fasheng

    2014-01-01

    Infectious diseases threaten the health and survival of wildlife populations. Consequently, relationships between host diversity, host abundance, and parasite infection are important aspects of disease ecology and conservation research. Here, we report on the prevalence patterns of avian Plasmodium and Haemoproteus infections and host relative abundance influence based on sampling 728 wild-caught birds representing 124 species at seven geographically widespread sites in southern China. The overall prevalence of two haemoprotozoan parasites, Plasmodium and Haemoproteus, was 29.5%, with 22.0% attributable to Haemoproteus and 7.8% to Plasmodium. Haemoproteus prevalence differed significantly among different avian host families, with the highest prevalence in Nectariniidae, Pycnonotidae and Muscicapidae, whereas Plasmodium prevalence varied significantly among host species. Seventy-nine mitochondrial lineages including 25 from Plasmodium and 54 from Haemoproteus were identified, 80% of which were described here for the first time. The phylogenetic relationships among these parasites indicated stronger host-species specificity for Haemoproteus than Plasmodium. Well-supported host-family (Timaliidae) specific clades were found in both Plasmodium and Haemoproteus. The Haemoproteus tree shows regional subclades, whereas the Plasmodium clades are “scattered” among different geographical regions. Interestingly, there were statistically significant variations in the prevalence of Plasmodium and Haemoproteus among the geographical regions. Furthermore, the prevalence of Plasmodium and Haemoproteus were not significantly correlated with host relative abundance. Further efforts will focus on exploring the relationships between parasite prevalence and sex, age, and immune defense of the host. PMID:24911323

  14. Contrasting infection susceptibility of the Japanese macaques and cynomolgus macaques to closely related malaria parasites, Plasmodium vivax and Plasmodium cynomolgi.

    PubMed

    Tachibana, Shin-Ichiro; Kawai, Satoru; Katakai, Yuko; Takahashi, Hideo; Nakade, Toru; Yasutomi, Yasuhiro; Horii, Toshihiro; Tanabe, Kazuyuki

    2015-06-01

    Although the human malaria parasite Plasmodium vivax is closely related to Asian Old World monkey malaria parasites, there are no reports of P. vivax infections in macaques. In this study, we compared the infectivity of P. vivax and Plasmodium cynomolgi in Japanese macaques (Macaca fuscata) and in cynomolgus macaques (Macaca fascicularis). The Japanese macaques were highly susceptible to P. cynomolgi but not to P. vivax, whereas cynomolgus macaques showed mild/limited P. cynomolgi infection and were, also, not susceptible to P. vivax. Serotyping and amino acid sequence comparison of erythrocyte surface Duffy antigen/receptor for chemokines (DARC) indicate that the Japanese macaque DARC sequence is nearly identical to that of rhesus (Macaca mulatta) and cynomolgus macaques. This suggests that the macaques share a common mechanism for preventing P. vivax infection. Comparison of amino acid sequences of the Duffy-binding-like (DBL) domain from several different Plasmodium species suggests that P. vivax DBLs will not bind to macaque DARCs, which can explain the lack of P. vivax infectivity. The DBL sequence analyses also suggest that P. cynomolgi DBLs may target Japanese macaque erythrocytes through a DARC-independent interaction. PMID:25316604

  15. Comparative Genomics of Transcriptional Control in the Human Malaria Parasite Plasmodium falciparum

    E-print Network

    Arnold, Jonathan

    Comparative Genomics of Transcriptional Control in the Human Malaria Parasite Plasmodium falciparum Richard M.R. Coulson,1,3 Neil Hall,2 and Christos A. Ouzounis1 1 Computational Genomics Group10 1SD, United Kingdom; 2 The Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute, The Wellcome Trust Genome Campus

  16. Male gametocyte fecundity and sex ratio of a malaria parasite, Plasmodium mexicanum

    E-print Network

    Schall, Joseph J.

    Male gametocyte fecundity and sex ratio of a malaria parasite, Plasmodium mexicanum A. T. NEAL March, 28 April and 10 May 2011; accepted 11 May 2011) SUMMARY Evolutionary theory predicts that the sex and combine with female gametes. Despite the importance of male gametocyte fecundity for sex ratio theory

  17. Human Monoclonal Antibodies to Pf 155, a Major Antigen of Malaria Parasite Plasmodium falciparum

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rachanee Udomsangpetch; Katarina Lundgren; Klavs Berzins; Birgitta Wahlin; Hedvig Perlmann; Marita Troye-Blomberg; Jan Carlsson; Mats Wahlgren; Peter Perlmann; Anders Bjorkman

    1986-01-01

    Pf 155, a protein of the human malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum, is strongly immunogenic in humans and is believed to be a prime candidate for the preparation of a vaccine. Human monoclonal antibodies to Pf 155 were obtained by cloning B cells that had been prepared from an immune donor and transformed with Epstein-Barr virus. When examined by indirect immunofluorescence,

  18. Transmission success of the malaria parasite Plasmodium mexicanum into its vector: role of gametocyte density and

    E-print Network

    Schall, Joseph J.

    's genotype or age, and the vertebrate host may hinder transfer by transmission blocking immunity (reviewed for this study in part because the reptile immune system is The life-cycle of Plasmodium depends on transmission of the parasite from the vertebrate host into its

  19. Human erythrocyte remodelling during Plasmodium falciparum malaria parasite growth and egress.

    PubMed

    Mbengue, Alassane; Yam, Xue Y; Braun-Breton, Catherine

    2012-04-01

    The intra-erythrocyte growth and survival of the malarial parasite Plasmodium falciparum is responsible for both uncomplicated and severe malaria cases and depends on the parasite's ability to remodel its host cell. Host cell remodelling has several functions for the parasite, such as acquiring nutrients from the extracellular milieu because of the loss of membrane transporters upon erythrocyte differentiation, avoiding splenic clearance by conferring cytoadhesive properties to the infected erythrocyte, escaping the host immune response by exporting antigenically variant proteins at the red blood cell surface. In addition, parasite-induced changes at the red blood cell membrane and sub-membrane skeleton are also necessary for the efficient release of the parasite progeny from the host cell. Here we review these cellular and molecular changes, which might not only sustain parasite growth but also prepare, at a very early stage, the last step of egress from the host cell. PMID:22313394

  20. Circumsporozoite Protein Heterogeneity in the Human Malaria Parasite Plasmodium Vivax

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ronald Rosenberg; Robert A. Wirtz; David E. Lanar; Jetsumon Sattabongkot; Ted Hall; Andrew P. Waters; Chusak Prasittisuk

    1989-01-01

    Phenotypic heterogeneity in the repetitive portion of a human malaria circumsporozoite (CS) protein, a major target of candidate vaccines, has been found. Over 14% of clinical cases of uncomplicated Plasmodium vivax malaria at two sites in western Thailand produced sporozoites immunologically distinct from previously characterized examples of the species. Monoclonal antibodies to the CS protein of other P. vivax isolates

  1. Geographic genetic differentiation of a malaria parasite, Plasmodium mexicanum, and its lizard host, Sceloporus occidentalis.

    PubMed

    Fricke, Jennifer M; Vardo-Zalik, Anne M; Schall, Jos J

    2010-04-01

    Gene flow, and resulting degree of genetic differentiation among populations, will shape geographic genetic patterns and possibly local adaptation of parasites and their hosts. Some studies of Plasmodium falciparum in humans show substantial differentiation of the parasite in locations separated by only a few kilometers, a paradoxical finding for a parasite in a large, mobile host. We examined genetic differentiation of the malaria parasite Plasmodium mexicanum, and its lizard host, Sceloporus occidentalis, at 8 sites in northern California, with the use of variable microsatellite markers for both species. These lizards are small and highly territorial, so we expected local genetic differentiation of both parasite and lizard. Populations of P. mexicanum were found to be differentiated by analysis of 5 markers (F(st) values >0.05-0.10) over distances as short as 230-400 m, and greatly differentiated (F(st) values >0.25) for sites separated by approximately 10 km. In contrast, the lizard host had no, or very low, levels of differentiation for 3 markers, even for sites >40 km distant. Thus, gene flow for the lizard was great, but despite the mobility of the vertebrate host, the parasite was locally genetically distinct. This discrepancy could result if infected lizards move little, but their noninfected relatives were more mobile. Previous studies on the virulence of P. mexicanum for fence lizards support this hypothesis. However, changing prevalence of the parasite, without changes in density of the lizard, could also result in this pattern. PMID:19916631

  2. Within-host Competition Does Not Select for Virulence in Malaria Parasites; Studies with Plasmodium yoelii

    PubMed Central

    Abkallo, Hussein M.; Tangena, Julie-Anne; Tang, Jianxia; Kobayashi, Nobuyuki; Inoue, Megumi; Zoungrana, Augustin; Colegrave, Nick; Culleton, Richard

    2015-01-01

    In endemic areas with high transmission intensities, malaria infections are very often composed of multiple genetically distinct strains of malaria parasites. It has been hypothesised that this leads to intra-host competition, in which parasite strains compete for resources such as space and nutrients. This competition may have repercussions for the host, the parasite, and the vector in terms of disease severity, vector fitness, and parasite transmission potential and fitness. It has also been argued that within-host competition could lead to selection for more virulent parasites. Here we use the rodent malaria parasite Plasmodium yoelii to assess the consequences of mixed strain infections on disease severity and parasite fitness. Three isogenic strains with dramatically different growth rates (and hence virulence) were maintained in mice in single infections or in mixed strain infections with a genetically distinct strain. We compared the virulence (defined as harm to the mammalian host) of mixed strain infections with that of single infections, and assessed whether competition impacted on parasite fitness, assessed by transmission potential. We found that mixed infections were associated with a higher degree of disease severity and a prolonged infection time. In the mixed infections, the strain with the slower growth rate was often responsible for the competitive exclusion of the faster growing strain, presumably through host immune-mediated mechanisms. Importantly, and in contrast to previous work conducted with Plasmodium chabaudi, we found no correlation between parasite virulence and transmission potential to mosquitoes, suggesting that within-host competition would not drive the evolution of parasite virulence in P. yoelii. PMID:25658331

  3. Artesunate Tolerance in Transgenic Plasmodium falciparum Parasites Overexpressing a Tryptophan-Rich Protein?†

    PubMed Central

    Deplaine, Guillaume; Lavazec, Catherine; Bischoff, Emmanuel; Natalang, Onguma; Perrot, Sylvie; Guillotte-Blisnick, Micheline; Coppée, Jean-Yves; Pradines, Bruno; Mercereau-Puijalon, Odile; David, Peter H.

    2011-01-01

    Due to their rapid, potent action on young and mature intraerythrocytic stages, artemisinin derivatives are central to drug combination therapies for Plasmodium falciparum malaria. However, the evidence for emerging parasite resistance/tolerance to artemisinins in southeast Asia is of great concern. A better understanding of artemisinin-related drug activity and resistance mechanisms is urgently needed. A recent transcriptome study of parasites exposed to artesunate led us to identify a series of genes with modified levels of expression in the presence of the drug. The gene presenting the largest mRNA level increase, Pf10_0026 (PArt), encoding a hypothetical protein of unknown function, was chosen for further study. Immunodetection with PArt-specific sera showed that artesunate induced a dose-dependent increase of the protein level. Bioinformatic analysis showed that PArt belongs to a Plasmodium-specific gene family characterized by the presence of a tryptophan-rich domain with a novel hidden Markov model (HMM) profile. Gene disruption could not be achieved, suggesting an essential function. Transgenic parasites overexpressing PArt protein were generated and exhibited tolerance to a spike exposure to high doses of artesunate, with increased survival and reduced growth retardation compared to that of wild-type-treated controls. These data indicate the involvement of PArt in parasite defense mechanisms against artesunate. This is the first report of genetically manipulated parasites displaying a stable and reproducible decreased susceptibility to artesunate, providing new possibilities to investigate the parasite response to artemisinins. PMID:21464256

  4. Human red blood cell-adapted Plasmodium knowlesi parasites: a new model system for malaria research.

    PubMed

    Grüring, Christof; Moon, Robert W; Lim, Caeul; Holder, Anthony A; Blackman, Michael J; Duraisingh, Manoj T

    2014-05-01

    Plasmodium knowlesi is a simian malaria parasite primarily infecting macaque species in Southeast Asia. Although its capacity to infect humans has been recognized since the early part of the last century, it has recently become evident that human infections are widespread and potentially life threatening. Historically, P.? knowlesi has proven to be a powerful tool in early studies of malaria parasites, providing key breakthroughs in understanding many aspects of Plasmodium biology. However, the necessity to grow the parasite either in macaques or in vitro using macaque blood restricted research to laboratories with access to these resources. The recent adaptation of P.? knowlesi to grow and proliferate in vitro in human red blood cells (RBCs) is therefore a substantial step towards revitalizing and expanding research on P.? knowlesi. Furthermore, the development of a highly efficient transfection system to genetically modify the parasite makes P.? knowlesi an ideal model to study parasite biology. In this review, we elaborate on the importance of P.? knowlesi in earlier phases of malaria research and highlight the future potential of the newly available human adapted P. ?knowlesi parasite lines. PMID:24506567

  5. High diversity of West African bat malaria parasites and a tight link with rodent Plasmodium taxa

    PubMed Central

    Schaer, Juliane; Perkins, Susan L.; Decher, Jan; Leendertz, Fabian H.; Fahr, Jakob; Weber, Natalie; Matuschewski, Kai

    2013-01-01

    As the only volant mammals, bats are captivating for their high taxonomic diversity, for their vital roles in ecosystems—particularly as pollinators and insectivores—and, more recently, for their important roles in the maintenance and transmission of zoonotic viral diseases. Genome sequences have identified evidence for a striking expansion of and positive selection in gene families associated with immunity. Bats have also been known to be hosts of malaria parasites for over a century, and as hosts, they possess perhaps the most phylogenetically diverse set of hemosporidian genera and species. To provide a molecular framework for the study of these parasites, we surveyed bats in three remote areas of the Upper Guinean forest ecosystem. We detected four distinct genera of hemosporidian parasites: Plasmodium, Polychromophilus, Nycteria, and Hepatocystis. Intriguingly, the two species of Plasmodium in bats fall within the clade of rodent malaria parasites, indicative of multiple host switches across mammalian orders. We show that Nycteria species form a very distinct phylogenetic group and that Hepatocystis parasites display an unusually high diversity and prevalence in epauletted fruit bats. The diversity and high prevalence of novel lineages of chiropteran hemosporidians underscore the exceptional position of bats among all other mammalian hosts of hemosporidian parasites and support hypotheses of pathogen tolerance consistent with the exceptional immunology of bats. PMID:24101466

  6. Polymerase chain reaction detection of human host preference and Plasmodium parasite infections in field collected potential malaria vectors

    PubMed Central

    Dhiman, Sunil; Bhola, Rakesh Kumar; Goswami, Diganta; Rabha, Bipul; Kumar, Dinesh; Baruah, Indra; Singh, Lokendra

    2012-01-01

    This study was carried out to determine the human host preference and presence of Plasmodium parasite in field collected Anopheles mosquitoes among four villages around a military cantonment located in malaria endemic Sonitpur district of Assam, India. Encountered malaria vector mosquitoes were identified and tested for host preference and Plasmodium presence using PCR method. Human host preference was detected using simple PCR, whereas vectorial status for Plasmodium parasite was confirmed using first round PCR with genus specific primers and thereafter nested PCR with three Plasmodium species specific primers. Out of 1874 blood fed vector mosquitoes collected, 187 (10%) were processed for PCR, which revealed that 40.6% had fed on human blood; 9.2% of human blood fed mosquito were harbouring Plasmodium parasites, 71.4% of which were confirmed to Plasmodium falciparum. In addition to An. minimus, An. annularis and An. culicifacies were also found positive for malaria parasites. The present study exhibits the human feeding tendency of Anopheles vectors highlighting their malaria parasite transmission potential. The present study may serve as a model for understanding the human host preference of malaria vectors and detection of malaria parasite inside the anopheline vector mosquitoes in order to update their vectorial status for estimating the possible role of these mosquitoes in malaria transmission. The study has used PCR method and suggests that PCR-based method should be used in this entire malarious region to correctly report the vectorial position of different malaria vectors. PMID:23265376

  7. Hippoboscid-transmitted Haemoproteus parasites (Haemosporida) infect Galapagos Pelecaniform birds: evidence from molecular and morphological studies, with a description of Haemoproteus iwa.

    PubMed

    Levin, Iris I; Valki?nas, Gediminas; Santiago-Alarcon, Diego; Cruz, Larisa Lee; Iezhova, Tatjana A; O'Brien, Sarah L; Hailer, Frank; Dearborn, Don; Schreiber, E A; Fleischer, Robert C; Ricklefs, Robert E; Parker, Patricia G

    2011-08-15

    Haemosporidian parasites are widely distributed and common parasites of birds, and the application of molecular techniques has revealed remarkable diversity among their lineages. Four haemosporidian genera infect avian hosts (Plasmodium, Haemoproteus, Leucocytozoon and Fallisia), and Haemoproteus is split into two sub-genera based on morphological evidence and phylogenetic support for two divergent sister clades. One clade (Haemoproteus (Parahaemoproteus)) contains parasites developing in birds belonging to several different orders, except pigeons and doves (Columbiformes), while the other (Haemoproteus (Haemoproteus)) has previously been shown to only infect dove hosts. Here we provide molecular and morphological identification of Haemoproteus parasites from several seabird species that are closely related to those found in dove hosts. We also document a deeply divergent clade with two haemosporidian lineages recovered primarily from frigatebirds (Fregatidae, Pelecaniformes) that is sister to the hippoboscid-(Hippoboscidae) transmitted dove parasites. One of the lineages in this new clade of parasites belongs to Haemoproteus iwa and is distributed in two species of frigatebird (Fregata) hosts from Hawaii, the Galapagos Islands, the eastern Pacific and throughout the Caribbean Basin. Haemosporidian parasites are often considered rare in seabirds due in part to the lack or low activity of some dipteran vectors (e.g., mosquitos, biting midges) in marine and coastal environments; however, we show that H. iwa is prevalent and is very likely vectored among frigatebirds by hippoboscid flies which are abundant on frigatebirds and other seabirds. This study supports the existence of two sister clades of avian Haemoproteus in accord with the subgeneric classification of avian hemoproteids. Description of H. iwa from Galapagos Fregata minor is given based on morphology of blood stages and segments of the mitochondrial cytochrome b gene, which can be used for identification. This study shows that hippoboscid flies warrant more attention as vectors of avian Haemoproteus spp., particularly in marine and coastal environments. PMID:21683082

  8. An Ancient Protein Phosphatase, SHLP1, Is Critical to Microneme Development in Plasmodium Ookinetes and Parasite Transmission

    PubMed Central

    Patzewitz, Eva-Maria; Guttery, David S.; Poulin, Benoit; Ramakrishnan, Chandra; Ferguson, David J.P.; Wall, Richard J.; Brady, Declan; Holder, Anthony A.; Szö?r, Balázs; Tewari, Rita

    2013-01-01

    Summary Signaling pathways controlled by reversible protein phosphorylation (catalyzed by kinases and phosphatases) in the malaria parasite Plasmodium are of great interest, for both increased understanding of parasite biology and identification of novel drug targets. Here, we report a functional analysis in Plasmodium of an ancient bacterial Shewanella-like protein phosphatase (SHLP1) found only in bacteria, fungi, protists, and plants. SHLP1 is abundant in asexual blood stages and expressed at all stages of the parasite life cycle. shlp1 deletion results in a reduction in ookinete (zygote) development, microneme formation, and complete ablation of oocyst formation, thereby blocking parasite transmission. This defect is carried by the female gamete and can be rescued by direct injection of mutant ookinetes into the mosquito hemocoel, where oocysts develop. This study emphasizes the varied functions of SHLP1 in Plasmodium ookinete biology and suggests that it could be a novel drug target for blocking parasite transmission. PMID:23434509

  9. The calcium signaling toolkit of the Apicomplexan parasites Toxoplasma gondii and Plasmodium spp.

    PubMed

    Lourido, Sebastian; Moreno, Silvia N J

    2015-03-01

    Apicomplexan parasites have complex life cycles, frequently split between different hosts and reliant on rapid responses as the parasites react to changing environmental conditions. Calcium ion (Ca(2+)) signaling is consequently essential for the cellular and developmental changes that support Apicomplexan parasitism. Apicomplexan genomes reveal a rich repertoire of genes involved in calcium signaling, although many of the genes responsible for observed physiological changes remain unknown. There is evidence, for example, for the presence of a nifedipine-sensitive calcium entry mechanism in Toxoplasma, but the molecular components involved in Ca(2+) entry in both Toxoplasma and Plasmodium, have not been identified. The major calcium stores are the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), the acidocalcisomes, and the plant-like vacuole in Toxoplasma, or the food vacuole in Plasmodium spp. Pharmacological evidence suggests that Ca(2+) release from intracellular stores may be mediated by inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate (IP3) or cyclic ADP ribose (cADPR) although there is no molecular evidence for the presence of receptors for these second messengers in the parasites. Several Ca(2+)-ATPases are present in Apicomplexans and a putative mitochondrial Ca(2+)/H(+) exchanger has been identified. Apicomplexan genomes contain numerous genes encoding Ca(2+)-binding proteins, with the notable expansion of calcium-dependent protein kinases (CDPKs), whose study has revealed roles in gliding motility, microneme secretion, host cell invasion and egress, and parasite differentiation. Microneme secretion has also been shown to depend on the C2 domain containing protein DOC2 in both Plasmodium spp. and Toxoplasma, providing further evidence for the complex transduction of Ca(2+) signals in these organisms. The characterization of these pathways could lead to the discovery of novel drug targets and to a better understanding of the role of Ca(2+) in these parasites. PMID:25605521

  10. Implications of Plasmodium parasite infected mosquitoes on an insular avifauna: the case of Socorro Island, México.

    PubMed

    Carlson, Jenny S; Martínez-Gómez, Juan E; Cornel, Anthony; Loiseau, Claire; Sehgal, Ravinder N M

    2011-06-01

    Avian malaria (Plasmodium spp.) has been implicated in the decline of avian populations in the Hawaiian Islands and it is generally agreed that geographically isolated and immunologically naïve bird populations are particularly vulnerable to the pathogenic effects of invasive malaria parasites. In order to assess the potential disease risk of malaria to the avifauna of Socorro Island, México, we surveyed for Plasmodium isolates from 1,300 resident field-caught mosquitoes. Most of them were identified as Aedes (Ochlerotatus) taeniorhynchus (Wiedemann, 1821), which were abundant in the salt marshes. We also collected Culex quinquefasciatus Say, 1823 close to human dwellings. Mitochondrial ND5 and COII gene sequences of Ae. taeniorhynchus were analyzed and compared to corresponding sequences of mosquitoes of the Galápagos Islands, Latin America, and the North American mainland. Aedes lineages from Socorro Island clustered most closely with a lineage from the continental U.S. Plasmodium spp. DNA was isolated from both species of mosquitoes. From 38 positive pools, we isolated 11 distinct mitochondrial Cytb lineages of Plasmodium spp. Seven of the Plasmodium lineages represent previously documented avian infective strains while four were new lineages. Our results confirm a potential risk for the spread of avian malaria and underscore the need to monitor both the mosquito and avian populations as a necessary conservation measure to protect endangered bird species on Socorro Island. PMID:21635660

  11. Limonene Arrests Parasite Development and Inhibits Isoprenylation of Proteins in Plasmodium falciparum

    Microsoft Academic Search

    IVAN CRUZ MOURA; GERHARD WUNDERLICH; MARIA L. UHRIG; ALICIA S. COUTO; VALNICE J. PERES; ALEJANDRO M. KATZIN; EMILIA A. KIMURA

    2001-01-01

    Isoprenylation is an essential protein modification in eukaryotic cells. Herein, we report that in Plasmodium falciparum, a number of proteins were labeled upon incubation of intraerythrocytic forms with either (3H)far- nesyl pyrophosphate or (3H)geranylgeranyl pyrophosphate. By thin-layer chromatography, we showed that attached isoprenoids are partially modified to dolichol and other, uncharacterized, residues, confirming active isoprenoid metabolism in this parasite. Incubation

  12. Antibody-mediated elimination of malaria parasites (plasmodium berghei) in vivo.

    PubMed Central

    Hamburger, J; Kreier, J P

    1975-01-01

    An infective preparation of extracellular blood forms (FP) of Plasmodium berghei was used to study some aspects of the interaction between protective antibodies and malaria parasites. FP but not infected erythrocytes (IRBC) were shown by the fluorescent antibody technique to be coated by antibodies after in vitro incubation with immune serum. Preincubation of both FP and IRBC with immune serum followed by their washing did not result in enhanced elimination of the parasites in vivo. However, FP preincubated with immune serum and subsequently washed were eliminated more efficiently than FP preincubated with normal serum if the preparations were injected with some immune serum. Such an increase in the efficiency of elimination was not detected with similarly pretreated IRBC. It is thus probable that protective antibodies acted in vivo against extracellular parasites rather than against parasites in erythrocytes. The interaction between parasites and antibodies may be of a highly reversible nature, and washing of the in vitro-treated parasites may cause elution of antibody from the sensitized parasites so that the amount of antibody on the parasite falls below the critical level required for in vivo elimination. PMID:1097338

  13. Disruption of Parasite hmgb2 Gene Attenuates Plasmodium berghei ANKA Pathogenicity.

    PubMed

    Briquet, Sylvie; Lawson-Hogban, Nadou; Boisson, Bertrand; Soares, Miguel P; Péronet, Roger; Smith, Leanna; Ménard, Robert; Huerre, Michel; Mécheri, Salah; Vaquero, Catherine

    2015-07-01

    Eukaryotic high-mobility-group-box (HMGB) proteins are nuclear factors involved in chromatin remodeling and transcription regulation. When released into the extracellular milieu, HMGB1 acts as a proinflammatory cytokine that plays a central role in the pathogenesis of several immune-mediated inflammatory diseases. We found that the Plasmodium genome encodes two genuine HMGB factors, Plasmodium HMGB1 and HMGB2, that encompass, like their human counterparts, a proinflammatory domain. Given that these proteins are released from parasitized red blood cells, we then hypothesized that Plasmodium HMGB might contribute to the pathogenesis of experimental cerebral malaria (ECM), a lethal neuroinflammatory syndrome that develops in C57BL/6 (susceptible) mice infected with Plasmodium berghei ANKA and that in many aspects resembles human cerebral malaria elicited by P. falciparum infection. The pathogenesis of experimental cerebral malaria was suppressed in C57BL/6 mice infected with P. berghei ANKA lacking the hmgb2 gene (?hmgb2 ANKA), an effect associated with a reduction of histological brain lesions and with lower expression levels of several proinflammatory genes. The incidence of ECM in pbhmgb2-deficient mice was restored by the administration of recombinant PbHMGB2. Protection from experimental cerebral malaria in ?hmgb2 ANKA-infected mice was associated with reduced sequestration in the brain of CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cells, including CD8(+) granzyme B(+) and CD8(+) IFN-?(+) cells, and, to some extent, neutrophils. This was consistent with a reduced parasite sequestration in the brain, lungs, and spleen, though to a lesser extent than in wild-type P. berghei ANKA-infected mice. In summary, Plasmodium HMGB2 acts as an alarmin that contributes to the pathogenesis of cerebral malaria. PMID:25916985

  14. Comparative genomics of the neglected human malaria parasite Plasmodium vivax

    E-print Network

    Cai, Long

    human pathogen, P. vivax is little studied because it cannot be propagated continuously in the laboratory except in non-human primates. We sequenced the genome of P. vivax to shed light on its distinctive the synteny and isochore structure of P. vivax chromosomes, and show that the parasite resembles other malaria

  15. The malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum: cell biological peculiarities and nutritional consequences.

    PubMed

    Baumeister, Stefan; Winterberg, Markus; Przyborski, Jude M; Lingelbach, Klaus

    2010-04-01

    Apicomplexan parasites obligatorily invade and multiply within eukaryotic cells. Phylogenetically, they are related to a group of algae which, during their evolution, have acquired a secondary endosymbiont. This organelle, which in the parasite is called the apicoplast, is highly reduced compared to the endosymbionts of algae, but still contains many plant-specific biosynthetic pathways. The malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum infects mammalian erythrocytes which are devoid of intracellular compartments and which largely lack biosynthetic pathways. Despite the limited resources of nutrition, the parasite grows and generates up to 32 merozoites which are the infectious stages of the complex life cycle. A large part of the intra-erythrocytic development takes place in the so-called parasitophorous vacuole, a compartment which forms an interface between the parasite and the cytoplasm of the host cell. In the course of parasite growth, the host cell undergoes dramatic alterations which on one hand contribute directly to the symptoms of severe malaria and which, on the other hand, are also required for parasite survival. Some of these alterations facilitate the acquisition of nutrients from the extracellular environment which are not provided by the host cell. Here, we describe the cell biologically unique interactions between an intracellular eukaryotic pathogen and its metabolically highly reduced host cell. We further discuss current models to explain the appearance of pathogen-induced novel physiological properties in a host cell which has lost its genetic programme. PMID:19949823

  16. Relevance of Undetectably Rare Resistant Malaria Parasites in Treatment Failure: Experimental Evidence from Plasmodium chabaudi.

    PubMed

    Huijben, Silvie; Chan, Brian H K; Read, Andrew F

    2015-06-01

    Resistant malaria parasites are frequently found in mixed infections with drug-sensitive parasites. Particularly early in the evolutionary process, the frequency of these resistant mutants can be extremely low and below the level of molecular detection. We tested whether the rarity of resistance in infections impacted the health outcomes of treatment failure and the potential for onward transmission of resistance. Mixed infections of different ratios of resistant and susceptible Plasmodium chabaudi parasites were inoculated in laboratory mice and dynamics tracked during the course of infection using highly sensitive genotype-specific quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR). Frequencies of resistant parasites ranged from 10% to 0.003% at the onset of treatment. We found that the rarer the resistant parasites were, the lower the likelihood of their onward transmission, but the worse the treatment failure was in terms of parasite numbers and disease severity. Strikingly, drug resistant parasites had the biggest impact on health outcomes when they were too rare to be detected by any molecular methods currently available for field samples. Indeed, in the field, these treatment failures would not even have been attributed to resistance. PMID:25940195

  17. A lactate and formate transporter in the intraerythrocytic malaria parasite, Plasmodium falciparum.

    PubMed

    Marchetti, Rosa V; Lehane, Adele M; Shafik, Sarah H; Winterberg, Markus; Martin, Rowena E; Kirk, Kiaran

    2015-01-01

    The intraerythrocytic malaria parasite relies primarily on glycolysis to fuel its rapid growth and reproduction. The major byproduct of this metabolism, lactic acid, is extruded into the external medium. In this study, we show that the human malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum expresses at its surface a member of the microbial formate-nitrite transporter family (PfFNT), which, when expressed in Xenopus laevis oocytes, transports both formate and lactate. The transport characteristics of PfFNT in oocytes (pH-dependence, inhibitor-sensitivity and kinetics) are similar to those of the transport of lactate and formate across the plasma membrane of mature asexual-stage P. falciparum trophozoites, consistent with PfFNT playing a major role in the efflux of lactate and hence in the energy metabolism of the intraerythrocytic parasite. PMID:25823844

  18. Evidence for intercontinental parasite exchange through molecular detection and characterization of haematozoa in northern pintails (Anas acuta) sampled throughout the North Pacific Basin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ramey, Andy M.; Schmutz, Joel A.; Reed, John A.; Fujita, Go; Scotton, Bradley D.; Casler, Bruce; Fleskes, Joseph P.; Konishi, Kan; Uchida, Kiyoshi; Yabsley, Michael J.

    2015-01-01

    Empirical evidence supports wild birds as playing a role in the interhemispheric exchange of bacteria and viruses; however, data supporting the redistribution of parasites among continents are limited. In this study, the hypothesis that migratory birds contribute to the redistribution of parasites between continents was tested by sampling northern pintails (Anas acuta) at locations throughout the North Pacific Basin in North America and East Asia for haemosporidian infections and assessing the genetic evidence for parasite exchange. Of 878 samples collected from birds in Alaska (USA), California (USA), and Hokkaido (Japan) during August 2011 - May 2012 and screened for parasitic infections using molecular techniques, Leucocytozoon, Haemoproteus, and Plasmodium parasites were detected in 555 (63%), 44 (5%), and 52 (6%) samples, respectively. Using an occupancy modeling approach, the probability of detecting parasites via replicate genetic tests was estimated to be high (p ? 0.95). Multi-model inference supported variation of Leucocytozoon parasite prevalence by northern pintail age class and geographic location of sampling in contrast to Haemoproteus and Plasmodium parasites for which there was only support for variation in parasite prevalence by sampling location. Thirty-one unique mitochondrial DNA haplotypes were detected among haematozoa infecting northern pintails including seven lineages shared between samples from North America and Japan. The finding of identical parasite haplotypes at widely distributed geographic locations and general lack of genetic structuring by continent in phylogenies for Leucocytozoon and Plasmodium provides evidence for intercontinental genetic exchange of haemosporidian parasites. Results suggest that migratory birds, including waterfowl, could therefore facilitate the introduction of avian malaria and other haemosporidia to novel hosts and spatially distant regions.

  19. Evidence for intercontinental parasite exchange through molecular detection and characterization of haematozoa in northern pintails (Anas acuta) sampled throughout the North Pacific Basin

    PubMed Central

    Ramey, Andrew M.; Schmutz, Joel A.; Reed, John A.; Fujita, Go; Scotton, Bradley D.; Casler, Bruce; Fleskes, Joseph P.; Konishi, Kan; Uchida, Kiyoshi; Yabsley, Michael J.

    2014-01-01

    Empirical evidence supports wild birds as playing a role in the interhemispheric exchange of bacteria and viruses; however, data supporting the redistribution of parasites among continents are limited. In this study, the hypothesis that migratory birds contribute to the redistribution of parasites between continents was tested by sampling northern pintails (Anas acuta) at locations throughout the North Pacific Basin in North America and East Asia for haemosporidian infections and assessing the genetic evidence for parasite exchange. Of 878 samples collected from birds in Alaska (USA), California (USA), and Hokkaido (Japan) during August 2011–May 2012 and screened for parasitic infections using molecular techniques, Leucocytozoon, Haemoproteus, and Plasmodium parasites were detected in 555 (63%), 44 (5%), and 52 (6%) samples, respectively. Using an occupancy modeling approach, the probability of detecting parasites via replicate genetic tests was estimated to be high (??>?0.95). Multi-model inference supported variation of Leucocytozoon parasite prevalence by northern pintail age class and geographic location of sampling in contrast to Haemoproteus and Plasmodium parasites for which there was only support for variation in parasite prevalence by sampling location. Thirty-one unique mitochondrial DNA haplotypes were detected among haematozoa infecting northern pintails including seven lineages shared between samples from North America and Japan. The finding of identical parasite haplotypes at widely distributed geographic locations and general lack of genetic structuring by continent in phylogenies for Leucocytozoon and Plasmodium provides evidence for intercontinental genetic exchange of haemosporidian parasites. Results suggest that migratory birds, including waterfowl, could therefore facilitate the introduction of avian malaria and other haemosporidia to novel hosts and spatially distant regions. PMID:25830100

  20. Continuous force-displacement relationships for the human red blood cell at different erythrocytic developmental stages of Plasmodium falciparum malaria parasite

    E-print Network

    Dao, Ming

    developmental stages of Plasmodium falciparum malaria parasite John P. Mills1 , Lan Qie3 , Ming Dao1 , Kevin S that the malaria parasite Plasmodium (P.) falciparum could result in significant stiffening of infected human red, the deadliest of the four species of malaria, which results in two to three million deaths annually [1]. When

  1. Potent antimalarial febrifugine analogues against the plasmodium malaria parasite.

    PubMed

    Kikuchi, Haruhisa; Tasaka, Hidehisa; Hirai, Shingo; Takaya, Yoshiaki; Iwabuchi, Yoshiharu; Ooi, Hidenori; Hatakeyama, Susumi; Kim, Hye-Sook; Wataya, Yusuke; Oshima, Yoshiteru

    2002-06-01

    Although febrifugine (1) and isofebrifugine (2), alkaloids isolated from roots of the Dichroa febrifuga plant, show powerful antimalarial activity against Plasmodium falciparum, strong side effects such as the emetic effect have precluded their clinical use against malaria. However, their antimalarial potency makes them attractive substances as leads for developing new types of chemotherapeutic antimalarial drugs. Thus, we have evaluated the in vitro antimalarial activity of the analogues of febrifugine (1) and isofebrifugine (2). The activities of the analogues derived from Df-1 (3) and Df-2 (4), condensation products of 1 and 2 with acetone, respectively, were also obtained. The 3' '-keto derivative (7, EC(50) = 2.0 x 10(-8) M) of 1 was found to exhibit potential antimalarial activity with high selectivity against P. falciparum in vitro. The in vitro activities of the reduction product (8, EC(50) = 2.0 x 10(-8) M) of 1 at C-2' and its cyclic derivatives 9 and 10 (EC(50) = 3.7 x 10(-9) and 8.6 x 10(-9) M, respectively) were found to be strongly active and selective. Additionally, the Dess-Martin oxidation product of 3 was found to be strongly active with high selectivity against P. falciparum. A structure-activity relationship study (SAR) demonstrates that the essential role played by the 4-quinazolinone ring in the appearance of activity and the presence of a 1' '-amino group and C-2', C-3' ' O-functionalities are crucial in the activity of 1. For 7, 8, and 9, prepared as racemic forms, an in vivo study has also been conducted. PMID:12036365

  2. Diversity, Loss, and Gain of Malaria Parasites in a Globally Invasive Bird

    PubMed Central

    Marzal, Alfonso; Ricklefs, Robert E.; Valki?nas, Gediminas; Albayrak, Tamer; Arriero, Elena; Bonneaud, Camille; Czirják, Gábor A.; Ewen, John; Hellgren, Olof; Ho?áková, Dita; Iezhova, Tatjana A.; Jensen, Henrik; Križanauskien?, Asta; Lima, Marcos R.; de Lope, Florentino; Magnussen, Eyðfinn; Martin, Lynn B.; Møller, Anders P.; Palinauskas, Vaidas; Pap, Péter L.; Pérez-Tris, Javier; Sehgal, Ravinder N. M.; Soler, Manuel; Szöll?si, Eszter; Westerdahl, Helena; Zetindjiev, Pavel; Bensch, Staffan

    2011-01-01

    Invasive species can displace natives, and thus identifying the traits that make aliens successful is crucial for predicting and preventing biodiversity loss. Pathogens may play an important role in the invasive process, facilitating colonization of their hosts in new continents and islands. According to the Novel Weapon Hypothesis, colonizers may out-compete local native species by bringing with them novel pathogens to which native species are not adapted. In contrast, the Enemy Release Hypothesis suggests that flourishing colonizers are successful because they have left their pathogens behind. To assess the role of avian malaria and related haemosporidian parasites in the global spread of a common invasive bird, we examined the prevalence and genetic diversity of haemosporidian parasites (order Haemosporida, genera Plasmodium and Haemoproteus) infecting house sparrows (Passer domesticus). We sampled house sparrows (N?=?1820) from 58 locations on 6 continents. All the samples were tested using PCR-based methods; blood films from the PCR-positive birds were examined microscopically to identify parasite species. The results show that haemosporidian parasites in the house sparrows' native range are replaced by species from local host-generalist parasite fauna in the alien environments of North and South America. Furthermore, sparrows in colonized regions displayed a lower diversity and prevalence of parasite infections. Because the house sparrow lost its native parasites when colonizing the American continents, the release from these natural enemies may have facilitated its invasion in the last two centuries. Our findings therefore reject the Novel Weapon Hypothesis and are concordant with the Enemy Release Hypothesis. PMID:21779353

  3. Conditional Degradation of Plasmodium Calcineurin Reveals Functions in Parasite Colonization of both Host and Vector.

    PubMed

    Philip, Nisha; Waters, Andrew P

    2015-07-01

    Functional analysis of essential genes in the malarial parasite, Plasmodium, is hindered by lack of efficient strategies for conditional protein regulation. We report the development of a rapid, specific, and inducible chemical-genetic tool in the rodent malaria parasite, P. berghei, in which endogenous proteins engineered to contain the auxin-inducible degron (AID) are selectively degraded upon adding auxin. Application of AID to the calcium-regulated protein phosphatase, calcineurin, revealed functions in host and vector stages of parasite development. Whereas depletion of calcineurin in late-stage schizonts demonstrated its critical role in erythrocyte attachment and invasion in vivo, stage-specific depletion uncovered roles in gamete development, fertilization, and ookinete-to-oocyst and sporozoite-to-liver stage transitions. Furthermore, AID technology facilitated concurrent generation and phenotyping of transgenic lines, allowing multiple lines to be assessed simultaneously with significant reductions in animal use. This study highlights the broad applicability of AID for functional analysis of proteins across the Plasmodium life cycle. PMID:26118994

  4. Module-based subnetwork alignments reveal novel transcriptional regulators in malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Malaria causes over one million deaths annually, posing an enormous health and economic burden in endemic regions. The completion of genome sequencing of the causative agents, a group of parasites in the genus Plasmodium, revealed potential drug and vaccine candidates. However, genomics-driven target discovery has been significantly hampered by our limited knowledge of the cellular networks associated with parasite development and pathogenesis. In this paper, we propose an approach based on aligning neighborhood PPI subnetworks across species to identify network components in the malaria parasite P. falciparum. Results Instead of only relying on sequence similarities to detect functional orthologs, our approach measures the conservation between the neighborhood subnetworks in protein-protein interaction (PPI) networks in two species, P. falciparum and E. coli. 1,082 P. falciparum proteins were predicted as functional orthologs of known transcriptional regulators in the E. coli network, including general transcriptional regulators, parasite-specific transcriptional regulators in the ApiAP2 protein family, and other potential regulatory proteins. They are implicated in a variety of cellular processes involving chromatin remodeling, genome integrity, secretion, invasion, protein processing, and metabolism. Conclusions In this proof-of-concept study, we demonstrate that a subnetwork alignment approach can reveal previously uncharacterized members of the subnetworks, which opens new opportunities to identify potential therapeutic targets and provide new insights into parasite biology, pathogenesis and virulence. This approach can be extended to other systems, especially those with poor genome annotation and a paucity of knowledge about cellular networks. PMID:23282319

  5. Proteolytic activity of Plasmodium falciparum subtilisin-like protease 3 on parasite profilin, a multifunctional protein.

    PubMed

    Alam, Asrar; Bhatnagar, Raj K; Relan, Udbhav; Mukherjee, Paushali; Chauhan, Virander S

    2013-10-01

    Subtilisin-like proteases of malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum (PfSUB1, 2 and 3) are expressed at late asexual blood stages. PfSUB1 and 2 are considered important drug targets due to their essentiality for parasite blood stages and role in merozoite egress and invasion of erythrocytes. We have earlier shown the in vitro serine protease activity of PfSUB3 and its localization at asexual blood stages. In this study, we attempted to identify the biological substrate(s) of PfSUB3 and found parasite profilin (PfPRF) as a substrate of the protease. Eukaryotic profilins are multifunctional proteins with primary role in regulation of actin filament assembly. PfPRF possesses biochemical features of eukaryotic profilins and its rodent ortholog is essential in blood stages. Profilin from related apicomplexan parasite Toxoplasma gondii (TgPRF) is known to be involved in parasite motility, host cell invasion, active egress from host cell, immune evasion and virulence in mice. In this study, mature PfSUB3 proteolysed recombinant PfPRF in a dose-dependent manner in in vitro assays. Recombinant PfPRF was assessed for its proinflammatory activity and found to induce high level of TNF-? and low but significant level of IL-12 from mouse bone marrow-derived dendritic cells. Proteolysis of PfPRF by PfSUB3 is suggestive of the probable role of the protease in the processes of motility, virulence and immune evasion. PMID:24080030

  6. A Droplet Microfluidics Platform for Highly Sensitive and Quantitative Detection of Malaria Causing Plasmodium Parasites Based on Enzyme Activity Measurement

    PubMed Central

    Juul, Sissel; Nielsen, Christine J. F.; Labouriau, Rodrigo; Roy, Amit; Tesauro, Cinzia; Jensen, Pia W.; Harmsen, Charlotte; Kristoffersen, Emil L.; Chiu, Ya-Ling; Frøhlich, Rikke; Fiorani, Paola; Cox-Singh, Janet; Tordrup, David; Koch, Jørn; Bienvenu, Anne-Lise; Desideri, Alessandro; Picot, Stephane; Petersen, Eskild; Leong, Kam W.; Ho, Yi-Ping; Stougaard, Magnus; Knudsen, Birgitta R.

    2012-01-01

    We present an attractive new system for the specific and sensitive detection of the malaria causing Plasmodium parasites. The system relies on isothermal conversion of single DNA cleavage-ligation events catalyzed specifically by the Plasmodium enzyme topoisomerase I to micrometer sized products detectable at the single-molecule level. Combined with a droplet-microfluidics Lab-on-a-Chip platform, this design allowed for sensitive, specific and quantitative detection of all human malaria causing Plasmodium species in single drops of unprocessed blood with a detection limit of less than one parasite/?L. Moreover, the setup allowed for detection of Plasmodium parasites in non-invasive saliva samples from infected patients. During recent years malaria transmission has declined worldwide and with this the number of patients with low-parasite density has increased. Consequently, the need for accurate detection of even a few parasites is becoming increasingly important for the continued combat against the disease. We believe that the presented droplet-microfluidics platform, which has a high potential for adaptation to point-of-care setups suitable for low-resource settings may contribute significantly to meet this demand. Moreover, potential future adaptation of the presented setup for the detection of other microorganisms may form the basis for the development of a more generic platform for diagnosis, fresh water- or food quality control or other purposes within applied or basic science. PMID:23121492

  7. Radioimmunoassay for detecting antibodies against murine malarial parasite antigens: monoclonal antibodies recognizing Plasmodium yoelii antigens

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, K.J.; Taylor, D.W.; Evans, C.B.; Asofsky, R.

    1980-12-01

    A solid-phase radioimmunoassay (SPRIA) in microtiter wells was established for detecting antibodies against Plasmodium yoelii Ag. The SPRIA was found (1) to require as little as 5 ..mu..g of crude parasite Ag per well, (2) to be able to detect 0.5 ng of monoclonal Ab, and (3) to be 10/sup 4/ times more sensitive than the indirect fluorescent Ab staining technique. In a modification of the above assay using intact RBC as an Ag, hyperimmune serum showed significant binding to the surface of erythrocytes of mice infected with P. yoelii parasites but not to RBC of normal mice. Hybridomas were prepared by fusing infected mouse spleen cells with myeloma cells. Using the SPRIA, hybrids secreting Ab against P. yoelii 17XL Ag were detected.

  8. Quantifying the biophysical characteristics of Plasmodium-falciparum-parasitized red blood cells in microcirculation.

    PubMed

    Fedosov, D A; Caswell, B; Suresh, S; Karniadakis, G E

    2011-01-01

    The pathogenicity of Plasmodium falciparum (Pf) malaria results from the stiffening of red blood cells (RBCs) and its ability to adhere to endothelial cells (cytoadherence). The dynamics of Pf-parasitized RBCs is studied by three-dimensional mesoscopic simulations of flow in cylindrical capillaries in order to predict the flow resistance enhancement at different parasitemia levels. In addition, the adhesive dynamics of Pf-RBCs is explored for various parameters revealing several types of cell dynamics such as firm adhesion, very slow slipping along the wall, and intermittent flipping. The parasite inside the RBC is modeled explicitly in order to capture phenomena such as "hindered tumbling" motion of the RBC and the sudden transition from firm RBC cytoadherence to flipping on the endothelial surface. These predictions are in quantitative agreement with recent experimental observations, and thus the three-dimensional modeling method presented here provides new capabilities for guiding and interpreting future in vitro and in vivo studies of malaria. PMID:21173269

  9. Quantifying the biophysical characteristics of Plasmodium-falciparum-parasitized red blood cells in microcirculation

    PubMed Central

    Fedosov, D. A.; Caswell, B.; Suresh, S.; Karniadakis, G. E.

    2011-01-01

    The pathogenicity of Plasmodium falciparum (Pf) malaria results from the stiffening of red blood cells (RBCs) and its ability to adhere to endothelial cells (cytoadherence). The dynamics of Pf-parasitized RBCs is studied by three-dimensional mesoscopic simulations of flow in cylindrical capillaries in order to predict the flow resistance enhancement at different parasitemia levels. In addition, the adhesive dynamics of Pf-RBCs is explored for various parameters revealing several types of cell dynamics such as firm adhesion, very slow slipping along the wall, and intermittent flipping. The parasite inside the RBC is modeled explicitly in order to capture phenomena such as “hindered tumbling” motion of the RBC and the sudden transition from firm RBC cytoadherence to flipping on the endothelial surface. These predictions are in quantitative agreement with recent experimental observations, and thus the three-dimensional modeling method presented here provides new capabilities for guiding and interpreting future in vitro and in vivo studies of malaria. PMID:21173269

  10. Identification and biochemical characterization of vivapains, cysteine proteases of the malaria parasite Plasmodium vivax.

    PubMed Central

    Na, Byoung-Kuk; Shenai, Bhaskar R; Sijwali, Puran S; Choe, Youngchool; Pandey, Kailash C; Singh, Ajay; Craik, Charles S; Rosenthal, Philip J

    2004-01-01

    Cysteine proteases play important roles in the life cycles of malaria parasites. Cysteine protease inhibitors block haemoglobin hydrolysis and development in Plasmodium falciparum, suggesting that the cysteine proteases of this major human pathogen, termed falcipains, are appropriate therapeutic targets. To expand our understanding of plasmodial proteases to Plasmodium vivax, the other prevalent human malaria parasite, we identified and cloned genes encoding the P. vivax cysteine proteases, vivapain-2 and vivapain-3, and functionally expressed the proteases in Escherichia coli. The vivapain-2 and vivapain-3 genes predicted papain-family cysteine proteases, which shared a number of unusual features with falcipain-2 and falcipain-3, including large prodomains and short N-terminal extensions on the catalytic domain. Recombinant vivapain-2 and vivapain-3 shared properties with the falcipains, including acidic pH optima, requirements for reducing conditions for activity and hydrolysis of substrates with positively charged residues at P1 and Leu at P2. Both enzymes hydrolysed native haemoglobin at acidic pH and the erythrocyte cytoskeletal protein 4.1 at neutral pH, suggesting similar biological roles to the falcipains. Considering inhibitor profiles, the vivapains were inhibited by fluoromethylketone and vinyl sulphone inhibitors that also inhibited falcipains and have demonstrated potent antimalarial activity. PMID:14629194

  11. Clonal diversity within infections and the virulence of a malaria parasite, Plasmodium mexicanum.

    PubMed

    Vardo-Zalik, A M; Schall, J J

    2008-10-01

    Both verbal and mathematical models of parasite virulence predict that genetic diversity of microparasite infections will influence the level of costs suffered by the host. We tested this idea by manipulating the number of co-existing clones of Plasmodium mexicanum in its natural vertebrate host, the fence lizard Sceloporus occidentalis. We established replicate infections of P. mexicanum made up of 1, 2, 3, or >3 clones (scored using 3 microsatellite loci) to observe the influence of clone number on several measures of parasite virulence. Clonal diversity did not affect body growth or production of immature erythrocytes. Blood haemoglobin concentration was highest for the most genetically complex infections (equal to that of non-infected lizards), and blood glucose levels and rate of blood clotting was highest for the most diverse infections (with greater glucose and more rapid clotting than non-infected animals). Neither specific clones nor parasitaemia were associated with virulence. In this first experiment that manipulated the clonal diversity of a natural Plasmodium-host system, the cost of infection with 1 or 2 clones of P. mexicanum was similar to that previously reported for infected lizards, but the most complex infections had either no cost or could be beneficial for the host. PMID:18937882

  12. High-efficiency transfection and drug selection of genetically transformed blood stages of the rodent malaria parasite Plasmodium berghei

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Chris J Janse; Jai Ramesar; Andrew P Waters

    2006-01-01

    This protocol describes a method of genetic transformation for the rodent malaria parasite Plasmodium berghei with a high transfection efficiency of 10?3–10?4. It provides methods for: (i) in vitro cultivation and purification of the schizont stage;(ii) transfection of DNA constructs containing drug-selectable markers into schizonts using the nonviral Nucleofector technology; and (iii) injection of transfected parasites into mice and subsequent

  13. Four distinct pathways of hemoglobin uptake in the malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum.

    PubMed

    Elliott, David A; McIntosh, Michael T; Hosgood, H Dean; Chen, Shuo; Zhang, Gina; Baevova, Pavlina; Joiner, Keith A

    2008-02-19

    During the bloodstage of malaria infection, the parasite internalizes and degrades massive amounts of hemoglobin from the host red blood cell. Using serial thin-section electron microscopy and three-dimensional reconstruction, we demonstrate four independent, but partially overlapping, hemoglobin-uptake processes distinguishable temporally, morphologically, and pharmacologically. Early ring-stage parasites undergo a profound morphological transformation in which they fold, like a cup, onto themselves and in so doing take a large first gulp of host cell cytoplasm. This event, which we term the "Big Gulp," appears to be independent of actin polymerization and marks the first step in biogenesis of the parasite's lysosomal compartment-the food vacuole. A second, previously identified uptake process, uses the cytostome, a well characterized and morphologically distinct structure at the surface of the parasite. This process is more akin to classical endocytosis, giving rise to small (<0.004 fl) vesicles that are marked by the early endosomal regulatory protein Rab5a. A third process, also arising from cytostomes, creates long thin tubes previously termed cytostomal tubes in an actin-dependent manner. The fourth pathway, which we term phagotrophy, is similar to the Big Gulp in that it more closely resembles phagocytosis, except that phagotrophy does not require actin polymerization. Each of these four processes has aspects that are unique to Plasmodium, thus opening avenues to antimalarial therapy. PMID:18263733

  14. Four distinct pathways of hemoglobin uptake in the malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum

    PubMed Central

    Elliott, David A.; McIntosh, Michael T.; Hosgood, H. Dean; Chen, Shuo; Zhang, Gina; Baevova, Pavlina; Joiner, Keith A.

    2008-01-01

    During the bloodstage of malaria infection, the parasite internalizes and degrades massive amounts of hemoglobin from the host red blood cell. Using serial thin-section electron microscopy and three-dimensional reconstruction, we demonstrate four independent, but partially overlapping, hemoglobin-uptake processes distinguishable temporally, morphologically, and pharmacologically. Early ring-stage parasites undergo a profound morphological transformation in which they fold, like a cup, onto themselves and in so doing take a large first gulp of host cell cytoplasm. This event, which we term the “Big Gulp,” appears to be independent of actin polymerization and marks the first step in biogenesis of the parasite's lysosomal compartment—the food vacuole. A second, previously identified uptake process, uses the cytostome, a well characterized and morphologically distinct structure at the surface of the parasite. This process is more akin to classical endocytosis, giving rise to small (<0.004 fl) vesicles that are marked by the early endosomal regulatory protein Rab5a. A third process, also arising from cytostomes, creates long thin tubes previously termed cytostomal tubes in an actin-dependent manner. The fourth pathway, which we term phagotrophy, is similar to the Big Gulp in that it more closely resembles phagocytosis, except that phagotrophy does not require actin polymerization. Each of these four processes has aspects that are unique to Plasmodium, thus opening avenues to antimalarial therapy. PMID:18263733

  15. Blood parasites in Owls with conservation implications for the Spotted Owl (Strix occidentalis)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ishak, H.D.; Dumbacher, J.P.; Anderson, N.L.; Keane, J.J.; Valkiunas, G.; Haig, S.M.; Tell, L.A.; Sehgal, R.N.M.

    2008-01-01

    The three subspecies of Spotted Owl (Northern, Strix occidentalis courina; California, S. o. occidentalis; and Mexican, S. o. lucida) are all threatened by habitat loss and range expansion of the Barred Owl (S. varia). An unaddressed threat is whether Barred Owls could be a source of novel strains of disease such as avian malaria (Plasmodium spp.) or other blood parasites potentially harmful for Spotted Owls. Although Barred Owls commonly harbor Plasmodium infections, these parasites have not been documented in the Spotted Owl. We screened 111 Spotted Owls, 44 Barred Owls, and 387 owls of nine other species for haemosporidian parasites (Leucocytozoon, Plasmodium, and Haemoproteus spp.). California Spotted Owls had the greatest number of simultaneous multi-species infections (44%). Additionally, sequencing results revealed that the Northern and California Spotted Owl subspecies together had the highest number of Leucocytozoon parasite lineages (n=17) and unique lineages (n=12). This high level of sequence diversity is significant because only one leucocytozoon species (L. danilewskyi) has been accepted as valid among all owls, suggesting that L. danilewskyi is a cryptic species. Furthermore, a Plasmodium parasite was documented in a Northern Spotted Owl for the first time. West Coast Barred Owls had a lower prevalence of infection (15%) when compared to sympatric Spotted Owls (S. o. caurina 52%, S. o. occidentalis 79%) and Barred Owls from the historic range (61%). Consequently, Barred Owls on the West Coast may have a competitive advantage over the potentially immune compromised Spotted Owls. ?? 2008 Ishak et al.

  16. Blood Parasites in Owls with Conservation Implications for the Spotted Owl (Strix occidentalis)

    PubMed Central

    Ishak, Heather D.; Dumbacher, John P.; Anderson, Nancy L.; Keane, John J.; Valki?nas, Gediminas; Haig, Susan M.; Tell, Lisa A.; Sehgal, Ravinder N. M.

    2008-01-01

    The three subspecies of Spotted Owl (Northern, Strix occidentalis caurina; California, S. o. occidentalis; and Mexican, S. o. lucida) are all threatened by habitat loss and range expansion of the Barred Owl (S. varia). An unaddressed threat is whether Barred Owls could be a source of novel strains of disease such as avian malaria (Plasmodium spp.) or other blood parasites potentially harmful for Spotted Owls. Although Barred Owls commonly harbor Plasmodium infections, these parasites have not been documented in the Spotted Owl. We screened 111 Spotted Owls, 44 Barred Owls, and 387 owls of nine other species for haemosporidian parasites (Leucocytozoon, Plasmodium, and Haemoproteus spp.). California Spotted Owls had the greatest number of simultaneous multi-species infections (44%). Additionally, sequencing results revealed that the Northern and California Spotted Owl subspecies together had the highest number of Leucocytozoon parasite lineages (n?=?17) and unique lineages (n?=?12). This high level of sequence diversity is significant because only one Leucocytozoon species (L. danilewskyi) has been accepted as valid among all owls, suggesting that L. danilewskyi is a cryptic species. Furthermore, a Plasmodium parasite was documented in a Northern Spotted Owl for the first time. West Coast Barred Owls had a lower prevalence of infection (15%) when compared to sympatric Spotted Owls (S. o. caurina 52%, S. o. occidentalis 79%) and Barred Owls from the historic range (61%). Consequently, Barred Owls on the West Coast may have a competitive advantage over the potentially immune compromised Spotted Owls. PMID:18509541

  17. Blood parasites in owls with conservation implications for the Spotted Owl (Strix occidentalis).

    PubMed

    Ishak, Heather D; Dumbacher, John P; Anderson, Nancy L; Keane, John J; Valki?nas, Gediminas; Haig, Susan M; Tell, Lisa A; Sehgal, Ravinder N M

    2008-01-01

    The three subspecies of Spotted Owl (Northern, Strix occidentalis caurina; California, S. o. occidentalis; and Mexican, S. o. lucida) are all threatened by habitat loss and range expansion of the Barred Owl (S. varia). An unaddressed threat is whether Barred Owls could be a source of novel strains of disease such as avian malaria (Plasmodium spp.) or other blood parasites potentially harmful for Spotted Owls. Although Barred Owls commonly harbor Plasmodium infections, these parasites have not been documented in the Spotted Owl. We screened 111 Spotted Owls, 44 Barred Owls, and 387 owls of nine other species for haemosporidian parasites (Leucocytozoon, Plasmodium, and Haemoproteus spp.). California Spotted Owls had the greatest number of simultaneous multi-species infections (44%). Additionally, sequencing results revealed that the Northern and California Spotted Owl subspecies together had the highest number of Leucocytozoon parasite lineages (n = 17) and unique lineages (n = 12). This high level of sequence diversity is significant because only one Leucocytozoon species (L. danilewskyi) has been accepted as valid among all owls, suggesting that L. danilewskyi is a cryptic species. Furthermore, a Plasmodium parasite was documented in a Northern Spotted Owl for the first time. West Coast Barred Owls had a lower prevalence of infection (15%) when compared to sympatric Spotted Owls (S. o. caurina 52%, S. o. occidentalis 79%) and Barred Owls from the historic range (61%). Consequently, Barred Owls on the West Coast may have a competitive advantage over the potentially immune compromised Spotted Owls. PMID:18509541

  18. ESTABLISHMENT EFFICIENCY AMONG CLONES OF THE MALARIA PARASITE, PLASMODIUM MEXICANUM, FOR MIXED-CLONE INFECTIONS IN ITS NATURAL LIZARD

    E-print Network

    Schall, Joseph J.

    ESTABLISHMENT EFFICIENCY AMONG CLONES OF THE MALARIA PARASITE, PLASMODIUM MEXICANUM, FOR MIXED-CLONE clones in the vertebrate host's blood can influence clonal competition, transmission success, gametocyte sex ratio, and virulence. Clonal proportions depend on establishment success of each clone when

  19. Plasmodium falciparum Parasites Expressing Pregnancy-Specific Variant Surface Antigens Adhere Strongly to the Choriocarcinoma Cell Line BeWo

    PubMed Central

    Haase, Rikke N.; Megnekou, Rosette; Lundquist, Maja; Ofori, Michael F.; Hviid, Lars; Staalsoe, Trine

    2006-01-01

    Placenta-sequestering Plasmodium falciparum parasites causing pregnancy-associated malaria express pregnancy-specific variant surface antigens (VSAPAM). We report here that VSAPAM-expressing patient isolates adhere strongly to the choriocarcinoma cell line BeWo and that the BeWo line can be used to efficiently select for VSAPAM expression in vitro. PMID:16622246

  20. Does haemosporidian infection affect hematological and biochemical profiles of the endangered Black-fronted piping-guan (Aburria jacutinga)?

    PubMed Central

    Ferreira Junior, Francisco Carlos; Andery, Danielle de Assis; Horta, Rodrigo Santos; Peixoto, Renata Barbosa; Lacorte, Gustavo Augusto; Moreira, Patrícia de Abreu; Paes Leme, Fabíola de Oliveira; Melo, Marília Martins; Martins, Nelson Rodrigo da Silva

    2013-01-01

    Infectious diseases can cause deleterious effects on bird species, leading to population decline and extinction. Haemosporidia can be recognized by their negative effects on host fitness, including reproductive success and immune responses. In captivity, outbreaks of haemosporidian infection have been observed in birds in zoos and aviaries. The endemic Brazilian Atlantic rainforest species Aburria jacutinga is one of the most endangered species in the Cracidae family, and wild populations of this species are currently found mainly in conservation areas in only two Brazilian states. In this study, we aimed to evaluate the effects of avian haemosporidia on hematological and biochemical parameters in two captive populations of A. jacutinga. Forty-two animals were assessed, and the haemosporidian prevalence was similar for males and females. The occurrence of haemosporidian infection in captive A. jacutinga observed in this study was similar to results found in other captive and wild birds in Brazil. We found three different lineages of haemosporidia. Two lineages were identified as Plasmodium sp., one of which was previously detected in Europe and Asia, and the other is a new lineage closely related to P. gallinaceum. A new third lineage was identified as Haemoproteus sp. We found no significant differences in hematological and biochemical values between infected and non-infected birds, and the haemosporidian lineage did not seem to have an impact on the clinical and physiological parameters of A. jacutinga. This is the first report on an evaluation of natural haemosporidian infections diagnosed by microscopic and molecular methods in A. jacutinga by hematology, blood biochemistry, and serum protein values. Determining physiological parameters, occurrence and an estimation of the impact of haemosporidia in endangered avian species may contribute to the management of species rehabilitation and conservation. PMID:23638382

  1. Susceptibility of Anopheles stephensi to Plasmodium gallinaceum: A Trait of the Mosquito, the Parasite, and the Environment

    PubMed Central

    Hume, Jen C. C.; Hamilton, Howard; Lee, Kevin L.; Lehmann, Tovi

    2011-01-01

    Background Vector susceptibility to Plasmodium infection is treated primarily as a vector trait, although it is a composite trait expressing the joint occurrence of the parasite and the vector with genetic contributions of both. A comprehensive approach to assess the specific contribution of genetic and environmental variation on “vector susceptibility” is lacking. Here we developed and implemented a simple scheme to assess the specific contributions of the vector, the parasite, and the environment to “vector susceptibility.” To the best of our knowledge this is the first study that employs such an approach. Methodology/Principal Findings We conducted selection experiments on the vector (while holding the parasite “constant”) and on the parasite (while holding the vector “constant”) to estimate the genetic contributions of the mosquito and the parasite to the susceptibility of Anopheles stephensi to Plasmodium gallinaceum. We separately estimated the realized heritability of (i) susceptibility to parasite infection by the mosquito vector and (ii) parasite compatibility (transmissibility) with the vector while controlling the other. The heritabilities of vector and the parasite were higher for the prevalence, i.e., fraction of infected mosquitoes, than the corresponding heritabilities of parasite load, i.e., the number of oocysts per mosquito. Conclusions The vector's genetics (heritability) comprised 67% of “vector susceptibility” measured by the prevalence of mosquitoes infected with P. gallinaceum oocysts, whereas the specific contribution of parasite genetics (heritability) to this trait was only 5%. Our parasite source might possess minimal genetic diversity, which could explain its low heritability (and the high value of the vector). Notably, the environment contributed 28%. These estimates are relevant only to the particular system under study, but this experimental design could be useful for other parasite-host systems. The prospects and limitations of the genetic manipulation of vector populations to render the vector resistant to the parasite are better considered on the basis of this framework. PMID:21694762

  2. Differences in host species relationships and biogeographic influences produce contrasting patterns of prevalence, community composition and genetic structure in two genera of avian malaria parasites in southern Melanesia.

    PubMed

    Olsson-Pons, Sophie; Clark, Nicholas J; Ishtiaq, Farah; Clegg, Sonya M

    2015-07-01

    Host-parasite interactions have the potential to influence broadscale ecological and evolutionary processes, levels of endemism, divergence patterns and distributions in host populations. Understanding the mechanisms involved requires identification of the factors that shape parasite distribution and prevalence. A lack of comparative information on community-level host-parasite associations limits our understanding of the role of parasites in host population divergence processes. Avian malaria (haemosporidian) parasites in bird communities offer a tractable model system to examine the potential for pathogens to influence evolutionary processes in natural host populations. Using cytochrome b variation, we characterized phylogenetic diversity and prevalence of two genera of avian haemosporidian parasites, Plasmodium and Haemoproteus, and analysed biogeographic patterns of lineages across islands and avian hosts, in southern Melanesian bird communities to identify factors that explain patterns of infection. Plasmodium spp. displayed isolation-by-distance effects, a significant amount of genetic variation distributed among islands but insignificant amounts among host species and families, and strong local island effects with respect to prevalence. Haemoproteus spp. did not display isolation-by-distance patterns, showed marked structuring of genetic variation among avian host species and families, and significant host species prevalence patterns. These differences suggest that Plasmodium spp. infection patterns were shaped by geography and the abiotic environment, whereas Haemoproteus spp. infection patterns were shaped predominantly by host associations. Heterogeneity in the complement and prevalence of parasite lineages infecting local bird communities likely exposes host species to a mosaic of spatially divergent disease selection pressures across their naturally fragmented distributions in southern Melanesia. Host associations for Haemoproteus spp. indicate a capacity for the formation of locally co-adapted host-parasite relationships, a feature that may limit intraspecific gene flow or range expansions of closely related host species. PMID:25704868

  3. Prevalence and diversity of Plasmodium and Haemoproteus parasites in the globally-threatened Aquatic Warbler Acrocephalus paludicola.

    PubMed

    Neto, Júlio Manuel; Pérez-Rodríguez, Antón; Haase, Martin; Flade, Martin; Bensch, Staffan

    2015-08-01

    The diversity and prevalence of malaria parasites of the genera Plasmodium and Haemoproteus were determined in the globally-threatened Aquatic Warbler Acrocephalus paludicola. Birds were sampled during migration in Portugal and at the wintering quarters in Senegal and parasites were detected using molecular methods. Only three generalist parasite lineages (Plasmodium) were found. There were no significant differences in the prevalence of parasites between sexes in Europe, but adults had higher prevalence than first-year birds, and birds in Europe had higher prevalence than those captured in Africa. When comparing with other Acrocephalus species and taking sample size into account, Aquatic Warblers had the lowest prevalence and, together with another threatened species, the Seychelles Warbler Acrocephalus sechellensis, the lowest diversity of malaria parasites. We hypothesize that the low diversity of parasites and absence of specialist lineages of Aquatic Warblers are caused by its small population size and fragmented distribution. Furthermore, Aquatic Warblers' extreme habitat specialization may decrease their exposure to malaria parasites, but other explanations such as high mortality (which would constraint the sampling of infected birds) or, in contrast, very efficient immunological system in clearing the infections cannot be ruled out. This study contributes to explain variation in prevalence and diversity of malaria parasites among hosts. PMID:25924680

  4. Host cell deformability is linked to transmission in the human malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum

    PubMed Central

    Aingaran, Mythili; Zhang, Rou; Law, Sue KaYee; Peng, Zhangli; Undisz, Andreas; Meyer, Evan; Diez-Silva, Monica; Burke, Thomas A.; Spielmann, Tobias; Lim, Chwee Teck; Suresh, Subra; Dao, Ming; Marti, Matthias

    2012-01-01

    SUMMARY Gametocyte maturation in Plasmodium falciparum is a critical step in the transmission of malaria. While the majority of parasites proliferate asexually in red blood cells, a small fraction of parasites undergo sexual conversion and mature over two weeks to become competent for transmission to a mosquito vector. Immature gametocytes sequester in deep tissues while mature stages must be able to circulate, pass the spleen and present themselves to the mosquito vector in order to complete transmission. Sequestration of asexual red blood cell stage parasites has been investigated in great detail. These studies have demonstrated that induction of cytoadherence properties through specific receptor-ligand interactions coincides with a significant increase in host cell stiffness. In contrast, the adherence and biophysical properties of gametocyte-infected red blood cells have not been studied systematically. Utilizing a transgenic line for 3D live imaging, in vitro capillary assays and 3D finite element whole cell modeling, we studied the role of cellular deformability in determining the circulatory characteristics of gametocytes. Our analysis shows that the red blood cell deformability of immature gametocytes displays an overall decrease followed by rapid restoration in mature gametocytes. Intriguingly, simulations suggest that along with deformability variations, the morphological changes of the parasite may play an important role in tissue distribution in vivo. Taken together we present a model, which suggests that mature but not immature gametocytes circulate in the peripheral blood for uptake in the mosquito blood meal and transmission to another human host thus ensuring long term survival of the parasite. PMID:22417683

  5. A flow cytometric assay to quantify invasion of red blood cells by rodent Plasmodium parasites in vivo

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Malaria treatments are becoming less effective due to the rapid spread of drug resistant parasites. Increased understanding of the host/parasite interaction is crucial in order to develop treatments that will be less prone to resistance. Parasite invasion of the red blood cell (RBC) is a critical aspect of the parasite life cycle and is, therefore, a promising target for the development of malaria treatments. Assays for analysing parasite invasion in vitro have been developed, but no equivalent assays exist for in vivo studies. This article describes a novel flow cytometric in vivo parasite invasion assay. Methods Experiments were conducted with mice infected with erythrocytic stages of Plasmodium chabaudi adami strain DS. Exogenously labelled blood cells were transfused into infected mice at schizogony, and collected blood samples stained and analysed using flow cytometry to specifically detect and measure proportions of labelled RBC containing newly invaded parasites. A combination of antibodies (CD45 and CD71) and fluorescent dyes, Hoechst (DNA) and JC-1 (mitochondrial membrane potential), were used to differentiate parasitized RBCs from uninfected cells, RBCs containing Howell-Jolly bodies, leukocytes and RBC progenitors. Blood cells were treated ex vivo with proteases to examine the effects on in vivo parasite invasion. Results The staining and flow cytometry analysis method was accurate in determining the parasitaemia down to 0.013% with the limit of detection at 0.007%. Transfused labelled blood supported normal rates of parasite invasion. Protease-treated red cells resulted in 35% decrease in the rate of parasite invasion within 30 minutes of introduction into the bloodstream of infected mice. Conclusions The invasion assay presented here is a versatile method for the study of in vivo red cell invasion efficiency of Plasmodium parasites in mice, and allows direct comparison of invasion in red cells derived from two different populations. The method also serves as an accurate alternative method of estimating blood parasitaemia. PMID:24628989

  6. Demonstration of a High Level of Parasite Population Homology by Quantification of Plasmodium falciparum Alleles in Matched Peripheral, Placental, and Umbilical Cord Blood Samples

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sayeh Jafari-Guemouri; Nicaise Tuikue Ndam; Gwladys Bertin; Emily Renart; Sokhna Sow; Jean-Yves Le Hesran; Philippe Deloron

    Plasmodium falciparum msp-1 and msp-2 genes were quantified by fragment analysis in matched placental, peripheral, and cord blood samples. In the three compartments, the multiplicity of infection values were similar, and parasite populations only partially overlapped, as reported. However, identical alleles represented 80 to 95% of the overall parasite populations of each compartment, demonstrating much more homogenous parasite populations than

  7. Expression of Variant Surface Antigens by Plasmodium falciparum Parasites in the Peripheral Blood of Clinically Immune Pregnant Women Indicates Ongoing Placental Infection

    PubMed Central

    Ofori, Michael F.; Staalsoe, Trine; Bam, Victoria; Lundquist, Maja; David, Kim P.; Browne, Edmund N. L.; Akanmori, Bartholomew D.; Hviid, Lars

    2003-01-01

    Placenta-sequestered Plasmodium falciparum parasites that cause pregnancy-associated malaria (PAM) in otherwise clinically immune women express distinct variant surface antigens (VSAPAM) not expressed by parasites in nonpregnant individuals. We report here that parasites from the peripheral blood of clinically immune pregnant women also express VSAPAM, making them a convenient source of VSAPAM expressors for PAM vaccine research. PMID:12595482

  8. Leukocyte profiles for western fence lizards, Sceloporus occidentalis, naturally infected by the malaria parasite Plasmodium mexicanum.

    PubMed

    Motz, Victoria L; Lewis, William D; Vardo-Zalik, Anne M

    2014-10-01

    Plasmodium mexicanum is a malaria parasite that naturally infects the western fence lizard, Sceloporus occidentalis , in northern California. We set out to determine whether lizards naturally infected with this malaria parasite have different leukocyte profiles, indicating an immune response to infection. We used 29 naturally infected western fence lizards paired with uninfected lizards based on sex, snout-to-vent length, tail status, and the presence-absence of ectoparasites such as ticks and mites, as well as the presence-absence of another hemoparasite, Schellackia occidentalis. Complete white blood cell (WBC) counts were conducted on blood smears stained with Giemsa, and the proportion of granulocytes per microliter of blood was estimated using the Avian Leukopet method. The abundance of each WBC class (lymphocytes, monocytes, heterophils, eosinophils, and basophils) in infected and uninfected lizards was compared to determine whether leukocyte densities varied with infection status. We found that the numbers of WBCs and lymphocytes per microliter of blood significantly differed (P < 0.05) between the 2 groups for females but not for males, whereas parasitemia was significantly correlated with lymphocyte counts for males, but not for females. This study supports the theory that infection with P. mexicanum stimulates the lizard's immune response to increase the levels of circulating WBCs, but what effect this has on the biology of the parasite remains unclear. PMID:24945903

  9. Cloning, expression and functional characterization of heme detoxification protein (HDP) from the rodent malaria parasite Plasmodium vinckei.

    PubMed

    Soni, Awakash; Goyal, Manish; Prakash, Kirtika; Bhardwaj, Jyoti; Siddiqui, Arif Jamal; Puri, Sunil K

    2015-07-15

    Malaria parasite resides within the host red blood cells, where it degrades vast amount of haemoglobin. During haemoglobin degradation, toxic free heme is liberated which subsequently gets converted into hemozoin. This process is facilitated by action of various proteins viz. heme detoxification protein (HDP), and histidine rich proteins II and III (HRP II & III). Out of these, HDP is the most potent in hemozoin formation and plays indispensible role for parasite survival. Despite this, the detailed study of HDP from rodent and simian parasite has not been performed till date. Here, we have cloned and sequenced hdp gene from different malaria parasites Plasmodium vinckei, Plasmodium yoelii, Plasmodium knowlesi, and Plasmodium cynomolgi. Furthermore, HDP from P. vinckei (PvHDP) was over-expressed and purified for detailed characterization. The PvHDP is cytosolic, expressed throughout the intra erythrocytic stages and its expression is higher in late trophozoite and schizont stages of parasite. The PvHDP interacts with free heme (KD=89 nM) and efficiently converts heme into hemozoin in a time and concentration dependent manner. Moreover, PvHDP showed activity in acidic pH and over a broad range of temperature. Histidine modification of PvHDP using DEPC showed reduction in heme binding and hemozoin formation, thus emphasizing the importance of histidine residues in heme binding and subsequent hemozoin production. Furthermore, applicability of PvHDP to screen anti-plasmodial agents (targeting heme to hemozoin conversion) was also determined using chloroquine, and mefloquine as reference antimalarials. Results showed that these drugs inhibit heme polymerization effectively in a concentration dependent manner. In conclusion, our study identified and biochemically characterized HDP from rodent malaria parasite P. vinckei and this will help to develop a high throughput assay to evaluate new antimalarials targeting hemozoin pathway. PMID:25891072

  10. Extensive lysine acetylation occurs in evolutionarily conserved metabolic pathways and parasite-specific functions during Plasmodium falciparum intraerythrocytic development

    PubMed Central

    Miao, Jun; Lawrence, Matthew; Jeffers, Victoria; Zhao, Fangqing; Parker, Daniel; Ge, Ying; Sullivan, William J.; Cui, Liwang

    2013-01-01

    Summary Lysine acetylation has emerged as a major posttranslational modification involved in diverse cellular functions. Using a combination of immunoisolation and liquid chromatography coupled to accurate mass spectrometry, we determined the first acetylome of the human malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum during its active proliferation in erythrocytes with 421 acetylation sites identified in 230 proteins. Lysine-acetylated proteins are distributed in the nucleus, cytoplasm, mitochondrion, and apicoplast. Whereas occurrence of lysine acetylation in a similarly wide range of cellular functions suggests conservation of lysine acetylation through evolution, the Plasmodium acetylome also revealed significant divergence from those of other eukaryotes and even the closely-related parasite Toxoplasma. This divergence is reflected in the acetylation of a large number of Plasmodium-specific proteins and different acetylation sites in evolutionarily conserved acetylated proteins. A prominent example is the abundant acetylation of proteins in the glycolysis pathway but relatively deficient acetylation of enzymes in the citrate cycle. Using specific transgenic lines and inhibitors, we determined that the acetyltransferase PfMYST and lysine deacetylases play important roles in regulating the dynamics of cytoplasmic protein acetylation. The Plasmodium acetylome provides an exciting start point for further exploration of functions of acetylation in the biology of malaria parasites. PMID:23796209

  11. Geographic subdivision of the range of the malaria parasite Plasmodium vivax.

    PubMed Central

    Li, J.; Collins, W. E.; Wirtz, R. A.; Rathore, D.; Lal, A.; McCutchan, T. F.

    2001-01-01

    We examined geographically distinct isolates of Plasmodium vivax and categorized them according to developmental success in Anopheles albimanus. We found that parasites from Central America and Colombia form a group distinct from those of Asia. New World isolates have a distinct chromosomal translocation and an episomal variation in the open reading frame (ORF) 470 DNA sequence that distinguishes them from the other isolates tested. Old World types of P. vivax were introduced into the Americas, and a remnant of this lineage remains in P. simium. It is indistinguishable from Old World P. vivax to the extent determinable by using our encoded markers and the examination of its developmental pattern in mosquitoes. The cohesive characteristics that separate types of P. vivax are predictors of range and potential for transmission and hence require taxonomic distinction. PMID:11266292

  12. Human Monoclonal Antibodies to Pf 155, a Major Antigen of Malaria Parasite Plasmodium falciparum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Udomsangpetch, Rachanee; Lundgren, Katarina; Berzins, Klavs; Wahlin, Birgitta; Perlmann, Hedvig; Troye-Blomberg, Marita; Carlsson, Jan; Wahlgren, Mats; Perlmann, Peter; Bjorkman, Anders

    1986-01-01

    Pf 155, a protein of the human malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum, is strongly immunogenic in humans and is believed to be a prime candidate for the preparation of a vaccine. Human monoclonal antibodies to Pf 155 were obtained by cloning B cells that had been prepared from an immune donor and transformed with Epstein-Barr virus. When examined by indirect immunofluorescence, these antibodies stained the surface of infected erythrocytes, free merozoites, segmented schizonts, and gametocytes. They bound to a major polypeptide with a relative molecular weight of 155K and to two minor ones (135K and 120K), all having high affinity for human glycophorin. The antibodies strongly inhibited merozoite reinvasion in vitro, suggesting that they might be appropriate reagents for therapeutic administration in vivo.

  13. On the Diversity of Malaria Parasites in African Apes and the Origin of Plasmodium falciparum from Bonobos

    PubMed Central

    Pacheco, M. Andreina; Mugisha, Lawrence; André, Claudine; Halbwax, Michel; Fischer, Anne; Krief, Jean-Michel; Kasenene, John M.; Crandfield, Mike; Cornejo, Omar E.; Chavatte, Jean-Marc; Lin, Clara; Letourneur, Franck; Grüner, Anne Charlotte; McCutchan, Thomas F.; Rénia, Laurent; Snounou, Georges

    2010-01-01

    The origin of Plasmodium falciparum, the etiological agent of the most dangerous forms of human malaria, remains controversial. Although investigations of homologous parasites in African Apes are crucial to resolve this issue, studies have been restricted to a chimpanzee parasite related to P. falciparum, P. reichenowi, for which a single isolate was available until very recently. Using PCR amplification, we detected Plasmodium parasites in blood samples from 18 of 91 individuals of the genus Pan, including six chimpanzees (three Pan troglodytes troglodytes, three Pan t. schweinfurthii) and twelve bonobos (Pan paniscus). We obtained sequences of the parasites' mitochondrial genomes and/or from two nuclear genes from 14 samples. In addition to P. reichenowi, three other hitherto unknown lineages were found in the chimpanzees. One is related to P. vivax and two to P. falciparum that are likely to belong to distinct species. In the bonobos we found P. falciparum parasites whose mitochondrial genomes indicated that they were distinct from those present in humans, and another parasite lineage related to P. malariae. Phylogenetic analyses based on this diverse set of Plasmodium parasites in African Apes shed new light on the evolutionary history of P. falciparum. The data suggested that P. falciparum did not originate from P. reichenowi of chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes), but rather evolved in bonobos (Pan paniscus), from which it subsequently colonized humans by a host-switch. Finally, our data and that of others indicated that chimpanzees and bonobos maintain malaria parasites, to which humans are susceptible, a factor of some relevance to the renewed efforts to eradicate malaria. PMID:20169187

  14. High-resolution three-dimensional imaging of red blood cells parasitized by Plasmodium falciparum and in situ hemozoin crystals using optical diffraction tomography

    E-print Network

    Kim, Kyoohyun

    We present high-resolution optical tomographic images of human red blood cells (RBC) parasitized by malaria-inducing Plasmodium falciparum (Pf)-RBCs. Three-dimensional (3-D) refractive index (RI) tomograms are reconstructed ...

  15. Fosmidomycin Uptake into Plasmodium and Babesia-Infected Erythrocytes Is Facilitated by Parasite-Induced New Permeability Pathways

    PubMed Central

    Reichenberg, Armin; Hintz, Martin; Bietz, Sven; Harb, Omar S.; Roos, David S.; Kordes, Maximilian; Friesen, Johannes; Matuschewski, Kai; Lingelbach, Klaus; Jomaa, Hassan; Seeber, Frank

    2011-01-01

    Background Highly charged compounds typically suffer from low membrane permeability and thus are generally regarded as sub-optimal drug candidates. Nonetheless, the highly charged drug fosmidomycin and its more active methyl-derivative FR900098 have proven parasiticidal activity against erythrocytic stages of the malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum. Both compounds target the isoprenoid biosynthesis pathway present in bacteria and plastid-bearing organisms, like apicomplexan parasites. Surprisingly, the compounds are inactive against a range of apicomplexans replicating in nucleated cells, including Toxoplasma gondii. Methodology/Principal Findings Since non-infected erythrocytes are impermeable for FR90098, we hypothesized that these drugs are taken up only by erythrocytes infected with Plasmodium. We provide evidence that radiolabeled FR900098 accumulates in theses cells as a consequence of parasite-induced new properties of the host cell, which coincide with an increased permeability of the erythrocyte membrane. Babesia divergens, a related parasite that also infects human erythrocytes and is also known to induce an increase in membrane permeability, displays a similar susceptibility and uptake behavior with regard to the drug. In contrast, Toxoplasma gondii-infected cells do apparently not take up the compounds, and the drugs are inactive against the liver stages of Plasmodium berghei, a mouse malaria parasite. Conclusions/Significance Our findings provide an explanation for the observed differences in activity of fosmidomycin and FR900098 against different Apicomplexa. These results have important implications for future screens aimed at finding new and safe molecular entities active against P. falciparum and related parasites. Our data provide further evidence that parasite-induced new permeability pathways may be exploited as routes for drug delivery. PMID:21573242

  16. Experimental test for premunition in a lizard malaria parasite (Plasmodium mexicanum).

    PubMed

    Vardo, Anne M; Kaufhold, Kimberly D; Schall, Jos J

    2007-04-01

    Premunition in Plasmodium spp. is the prevention of superinfection by novel genotypes entering an already established infection in a vertebrate host. Evidence for premunition was sought for the lizard malaria parasite, P. mexicanum, in its natural host, the fence lizard, Sceloporus occidentalis. Clonal diversity (= alleles for the haploid parasite) was determined with the use of 3 microsatellite markers. Both naturally infected lizards (N = 25) and previously noninfected lizards (N = 78) were inoculated intraperitoneally (IP) with blood from donor infections and followed over a 3-mo period. Compared to the success of clonal establishment in all the naive lizards (78/78 successful), clones entering preexisting infections had a significant disadvantage (9/25 successful). The number of preexisting clones (1-2 vs. 3-4) within recipient infections had no effect on the success of superinfection. Infections that excluded entering novel clones did not have higher initial asexual parasitemia, but had a higher initial density of gametocytes, suggesting they were older. Infections allowing superinfection experienced a higher final parasitemia. PMID:17539410

  17. Clonal reproduction shapes evolution in the lizard malaria parasite Plasmodium floridense.

    PubMed

    Falk, Bryan G; Glor, Richard E; Perkins, Susan L

    2015-06-01

    The preponderant clonal evolution hypothesis (PCE) predicts that frequent clonal reproduction (sex between two clones) in many pathogens capable of sexual recombination results in strong linkage disequilibrium and the presence of discrete genetic subdivisions characterized by occasional gene flow. We expand on the PCE and predict that higher rates of clonal reproduction will result in: (1) morphologically cryptic species that exhibit (2) low within-species variation and (3) recent between-species divergence. We tested these predictions in the Caribbean lizard malaria parasite Plasmodium floridense using 63 single-infection samples in lizards collected from across the parasite's range, and sequenced them at two mitochondrial, one apicoplast, and five nuclear genes. We identified 11 provisionally cryptic species within P. floridense, each of which exhibits low intraspecific variation and recent divergence times between species (some diverged approximately 110,000 years ago). Our results are consistent with the hypothesis that clonal reproduction can profoundly affect diversification of species capable of sexual recombination, and suggest that clonal reproduction may have led to a large number of unrecognized pathogen species. The factors that may influence the rates of clonal reproduction among pathogens are unclear, and we discuss how prevalence and virulence may relate to clonal reproduction. PMID:25959003

  18. Mitochondrial Membrane Potential in a Small Subset of Artemisinin-Induced Dormant Plasmodium falciparum Parasites In Vitro.

    PubMed

    Peatey, Christopher L; Chavchich, Marina; Chen, Nanhua; Gresty, Karryn J; Gray, Karen-Ann; Gatton, Michelle L; Waters, Norman C; Cheng, Qin

    2015-08-01

    Artemisinin-induced dormancy is a proposed mechanism for failures of monotherapy and is linked with artemisinin resistance in Plasmodium falciparum. The biological characterization and dynamics of dormant parasites are not well understood. Here we report that after dihydroartemisinin treatment in vitro, a small subset of morphologically dormant parasites was stained with rhodamine 123 (RH), a mitochondrial membrane potential marker, and persisted to recovery. RH-positive parasites sorted with fluorescence-activated cell sorting resumed growth at 10 000/well whereas RH-negative parasites failed to recover at 5 million/well. Furthermore, transcriptional activity for mitochondrial enzymes was detected only in RH-positive dormant parasites. Importantly, after treatment of dormant parasites with different concentrations of atovaquone, a mitochondrial inhibitor, the recovery of dormant parasites was delayed or stopped. This demonstrates that mitochondrial activity is critical for survival and regrowth of dormant parasites and that RH staining provides a means of identifying these parasites. These findings provide novel paths for studying and eradicating this dormant stage. PMID:25635122

  19. Immune Characterization of Plasmodium falciparum Parasites with a Shared Genetic Signature in a Region of Decreasing Transmission

    PubMed Central

    Bei, Amy K.; Diouf, Ababacar; Miura, Kazutoyo; Larremore, Daniel B.; Ribacke, Ulf; Tullo, Gregory; Moss, Eli L.; Neafsey, Daniel E.; Daniels, Rachel F.; Zeituni, Amir E.; Nosamiefan, Iguosadolo; Volkman, Sarah K.; Ahouidi, Ambroise D.; Ndiaye, Daouda; Dieye, Tandakha; Mboup, Souleymane; Buckee, Caroline O.; Long, Carole A.

    2014-01-01

    As the intensity of malaria transmission has declined, Plasmodium falciparum parasite populations have displayed decreased clonal diversity resulting from the emergence of many parasites with common genetic signatures (CGS). We have monitored such CGS parasite clusters from 2006 to 2013 in Thiès, Senegal, using the molecular barcode. The first, and one of the largest observed clusters of CGS parasites, was present in 24% of clinical isolates in 2008, declined to 3.4% of clinical isolates in 2009, and then disappeared. To begin to explore the relationship between the immune responses of the population and the emergence and decline of specific parasite genotypes, we have determined whether antibodies to CGS parasites correlate with their prevalence. We measured (i) antibodies capable of inhibiting parasite growth in culture and (ii) antibodies recognizing the surfaces of infected erythrocytes (RBCs). IgG obtained from volunteers in 2009 showed increased reactivity to the surfaces of CGS-parasitized erythrocytes over IgG from 2008. Since P. falciparum EMP-1 (PfEMP-1) is a major variant surface antigen, we used var Ups quantitative reverse transcription-PCR (qRT-PCR) and sequencing with degenerate DBL1? domain primers to characterize the var genes expressed by CGS parasites after short-term in vitro culture. CGS parasites show upregulation of UpsA var genes and 2-cysteine-containing PfEMP-1 molecules and express the same dominant var transcript. Our work indicates that the CGS parasites in this cluster express similar var genes, more than would be expected by chance in the population, and that there is year-to-year variation in immune recognition of surface antigens on CGS parasite-infected erythrocytes. This study lays the groundwork for detailed investigations of the mechanisms driving the expansion or contraction of specific parasite clones in the population. PMID:25368109

  20. Immune characterization of Plasmodium falciparum parasites with a shared genetic signature in a region of decreasing transmission.

    PubMed

    Bei, Amy K; Diouf, Ababacar; Miura, Kazutoyo; Larremore, Daniel B; Ribacke, Ulf; Tullo, Gregory; Moss, Eli L; Neafsey, Daniel E; Daniels, Rachel F; Zeituni, Amir E; Nosamiefan, Iguosadolo; Volkman, Sarah K; Ahouidi, Ambroise D; Ndiaye, Daouda; Dieye, Tandakha; Mboup, Souleymane; Buckee, Caroline O; Long, Carole A; Wirth, Dyann F

    2015-01-01

    As the intensity of malaria transmission has declined, Plasmodium falciparum parasite populations have displayed decreased clonal diversity resulting from the emergence of many parasites with common genetic signatures (CGS). We have monitored such CGS parasite clusters from 2006 to 2013 in Thiès, Senegal, using the molecular barcode. The first, and one of the largest observed clusters of CGS parasites, was present in 24% of clinical isolates in 2008, declined to 3.4% of clinical isolates in 2009, and then disappeared. To begin to explore the relationship between the immune responses of the population and the emergence and decline of specific parasite genotypes, we have determined whether antibodies to CGS parasites correlate with their prevalence. We measured (i) antibodies capable of inhibiting parasite growth in culture and (ii) antibodies recognizing the surfaces of infected erythrocytes (RBCs). IgG obtained from volunteers in 2009 showed increased reactivity to the surfaces of CGS-parasitized erythrocytes over IgG from 2008. Since P. falciparum EMP-1 (PfEMP-1) is a major variant surface antigen, we used var Ups quantitative reverse transcription-PCR (qRT-PCR) and sequencing with degenerate DBL1? domain primers to characterize the var genes expressed by CGS parasites after short-term in vitro culture. CGS parasites show upregulation of UpsA var genes and 2-cysteine-containing PfEMP-1 molecules and express the same dominant var transcript. Our work indicates that the CGS parasites in this cluster express similar var genes, more than would be expected by chance in the population, and that there is year-to-year variation in immune recognition of surface antigens on CGS parasite-infected erythrocytes. This study lays the groundwork for detailed investigations of the mechanisms driving the expansion or contraction of specific parasite clones in the population. PMID:25368109

  1. The malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum encodes members of the Puf RNA-binding protein family with conserved RNA binding activity

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Liwang Cui; Qi Fan; Jinfang Li

    2002-01-01

    A novel class of RNA-binding proteins, Puf, regu- lates translation and RNA stability by binding to specific sequences in the 3¢-untranslated region of target mRNAs. Members of this protein family share a conserved Puf domain consisting of eight 36 amino acid imperfect repeats. Here we report two Puf family member genes, PfPuf1 and PfPuf2, from the human malaria parasite Plasmodium

  2. Products of tryptophan catabolism induce Ca2+ release and modulate the cell cycle of Plasmodium falciparum malaria parasites.

    PubMed

    Beraldo, Flávio H; Garcia, Célia R S

    2005-10-01

    Intraerythrocytic malaria parasites develop in a highly synchronous manner. We have previously shown that the host hormone melatonin regulates the circadian rhythm of the rodent malaria parasite, Plasmodium chabaudi, through a Ca2+-based mechanism. Here we show that melatonin and other molecules derived from tryptophan, i.e. N-acetylserotonin, serotonin and tryptamine, also modulate the cell cycle of human malaria parasite P. falciparum by inducing an increase in cytosolic free Ca2+. This occurs independently of the extracellular Ca2+ concentration, indicating that these molecules induce Ca2+ mobilization from intracellular stores in the trophozoite. This in turn leads to an increase in the proportion of schizonts. The effects of the indolamines in increasing cytosolic free Ca2+ and modulating the parasite cell cycle are both abrogated by an antagonist of the melatonin receptor, luzindole, and by the phospholipase inhibitor, U73122. PMID:16150101

  3. Cross-reactive anti-PfCLAG9 antibodies in the sera of asymptomatic parasite carriers of Plasmodium vivax.

    PubMed

    Costa, Joana D'Arc Neves; Zanchi, Fernando Berton; Rodrigues, Francisco Lurdevanhe da Silva; Honda, Eduardo Rezende; Katsuragawa, Tony Hiroschi; Pereira, Dhélio Batista; Taborda, Roger Lafontaine Mesquita; Tada, Mauro Shugiro; Ferreira, Ricardo de Godoi Mattos; Pereira-da-Silva, Luiz Hildebrando

    2013-02-01

    The PfCLAG9 has been extensively studied because their immunogenicity. Thereby, the gene product is important for therapeutics interventions and a potential vaccine candidate. Antibodies against synthetic peptides corresponding to selected sequences of the Plasmodium falciparum antigen PfCLAG9 were found in sera of falciparum malaria patients from Rondônia, in the Brazilian Amazon. Much higher antibody titres were found in semi-immune and immune asymptomatic parasite carriers than in subjects suffering clinical infections, corroborating original findings in Papua Guinea. However, sera of Plasmodium vivax patients from the same Amazon area, in particular from asymptomatic vivax parasite carriers, reacted strongly with the same peptides. Bioinformatic analyses revealed regions of similarity between P. falciparum Pfclag9 and the P. vivax ortholog Pvclag7. Indirect fluorescent microscopy analysis showed that antibodies against PfCLAG9 peptides elicited in BALB/c mice react with human red blood cells (RBCs) infected with both P. falciparum and P. vivax parasites. The patterns of reactivity on the surface of the parasitised RBCs are very similar. The present observations support previous findings that PfCLAG9 may be a target of protective immune responses and raises the possibility that the cross reactive antibodies to PvCLAG7 in mixed infections play a role in regulate the fate of Plasmodium mixed infections. PMID:23440122

  4. The genome of the simian and human malaria parasite Plasmodium knowlesi

    E-print Network

    Cai, Long

    P. vivax genome4 and other sequenced Plasmodium genomes6­8 . In contrast to other Plasmodium genomes). These sequences appear infre- quently in P. vivax and P. falciparum at internal chromosome sites (Supplementary in other Plasmodium species4,6 , and are posi- tionally conserved within regions sharing synteny with P

  5. Lack of Sequence Variation of the Mitochondrial Cytochrome b Gene From a Malaria Parasite, Plasmodium mexicanum

    E-print Network

    Schall, Joseph J.

    (Korsinczky et al., 2000). Two cross-continent surveys of Plasmodium vivax also found rather-limited variation, Plasmodium mexicanum Jos. J. Schall and Katherine M. St. Denis, Department of Biology, University of Vermont in that gene for Plasmodium or related genera. We examined sequences for the entire cytochrome b gene from

  6. Plasmodium genomics: latest milestone

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Arnab Pain; Christiane Hertz-Fowler

    2009-01-01

    Our knowledge on comparative genomics of the malaria parasites has advanced a step forward with the publication of the genomes of two primate-infecting malaria parasites: Plasmodium vivax and Plasmodium knowlesi. Even though the genomes of these organisms are the fifth and sixth Plasmodium genomes to be sequenced, respectively, both have revealed previously unknown features, which are discussed in this month's

  7. Dynamic Epigenetic Regulation of Gene Expression during the Life Cycle of Malaria Parasite Plasmodium falciparum

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Archna P.; Chin, Wai Hoe; Zhu, Lei; Mok, Sachel; Luah, Yen-Hoon; Lim, Eng-How; Bozdech, Zbynek

    2013-01-01

    Epigenetic mechanisms are emerging as one of the major factors of the dynamics of gene expression in the human malaria parasite, Plasmodium falciparum. To elucidate the role of chromatin remodeling in transcriptional regulation associated with the progression of the P. falciparum intraerythrocytic development cycle (IDC), we mapped the temporal pattern of chromosomal association with histone H3 and H4 modifications using ChIP-on-chip. Here, we have generated a broad integrative epigenomic map of twelve histone modifications during the P. falciparum IDC including H4K5ac, H4K8ac, H4K12ac, H4K16ac, H3K9ac, H3K14ac, H3K56ac, H4K20me1, H4K20me3, H3K4me3, H3K79me3 and H4R3me2. While some modifications were found to be associated with the vast majority of the genome and their occupancy was constant, others showed more specific and highly dynamic distribution. Importantly, eight modifications displaying tight correlations with transcript levels showed differential affinity to distinct genomic regions with H4K8ac occupying predominantly promoter regions while others occurred at the 5? ends of coding sequences. The promoter occupancy of H4K8ac remained unchanged when ectopically inserted at a different locus, indicating the presence of specific DNA elements that recruit histone modifying enzymes regardless of their broad chromatin environment. In addition, we showed the presence of multivalent domains on the genome carrying more than one histone mark, highlighting the importance of combinatorial effects on transcription. Overall, our work portrays a substantial association between chromosomal locations of various epigenetic markers, transcriptional activity and global stage-specific transitions in the epigenome. PMID:23468622

  8. Purification and characterization of dihydroorotate dehydrogenase from the rodent malaria parasite Plasmodium berghei.

    PubMed

    Krungkrai, J; Cerami, A; Henderson, G B

    1991-02-19

    Dihydroorotate dehydrogenase (DHODase) has been purified 400-fold from the rodent malaria parasite Plasmodium berghei to apparent homogeneity by Triton X-100 solubilization followed by anion-exchange, Cibacron Blue F3GA-agarose affinity, and gel filtration chromatography. The purified enzyme has a molecular mass of 52 +/- 2 kDa on sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and of 55 +/- 6 kDa by gel filtration chromatography, and it has a pI of 8.2. It is active in monomeric form, contains 2.022 mol of iron and 1.602 acid-labile sulfurs per mole of enzyme, and does not contain a flavin cofactor. The purified DHODase exhibits optimal activity at pH 8.0 in the presence of the ubiquinone coenzyme CoQ6, CoQ7, CoQ9, or CoQ10. The Km values for L-DHO and CoQ6 are 7.9 +/- 2.5 microM and 21.6 +/- 5.5 microM, respectively. The kcat values for both substrates are 11.44 min-1 and 11.70 min-1, respectively. The reaction product orotate and an orotate analogue, 5-fluoroorotate, are competitive inhibitors of the enzyme-catalyzed reaction with Ki values of 30.5 microM and 34.9 microM, respectively. The requirement of the long-chain ubiquinones for activity supports the hypothesis of the linkage of pyrimidine biosynthesis to the electron transport system and oxygen utilization in malaria by DHODase via ubiquinones [Gutteridge, W. E., Dave, D., & Richards, W. H. G. (1979) Biochim. Biophys. Acta 582, 390-401]. PMID:1847078

  9. A monkey's tale: The origin of Plasmodium vivax as a human malaria parasite

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ananias A. Escalante; Omar E. Cornejo; Denise E. Freeland; Amanda C. Poe; Ester Durrego; William E. Collins; Altaf A. Lal

    2005-01-01

    The high prevalence of Duffy negativity (lack of the Duffy blood group antigen) among human populations in sub-Saharan Africa has been used to argue that Plasmodium vivax originated on that continent. Here, we investigate the phylogenetic relationships among 10 species of Plasmodium that infect primates by using three genes, two nuclear (-tubulin and cell division cycle 2) and a gene

  10. Plasmodium simium, a Plasmodium vivax-Related Malaria Parasite: Genetic Variability of Duffy Binding Protein II and the Duffy Antigen/Receptor for Chemokines.

    PubMed

    Camargos Costa, Daniela; Pereira de Assis, Gabriela Maíra; de Souza Silva, Flávia Alessandra; Araújo, Flávia Carolina; de Souza Junior, Júlio César; Braga Hirano, Zelinda Maria; Satiko Kano, Flora; Nóbrega de Sousa, Taís; Carvalho, Luzia Helena; Ferreira Alves de Brito, Cristiana

    2015-01-01

    Plasmodium simium is a parasite from New World monkeys that is most closely related to the human malaria parasite Plasmodium vivax; it also naturally infects humans. The blood-stage infection of P. vivax depends on Duffy binding protein II (PvDBPII) and its cognate receptor on erythrocytes, the Duffy antigen receptor for chemokines (hDARC), but there is no information on the P. simium erythrocytic invasion pathway. The genes encoding P. simium DBP (PsDBPII) and simian DARC (sDARC) were sequenced from Southern brown howler monkeys (Alouatta guariba clamitans) naturally infected with P. simium because P. simium may also depend on the DBPII/DARC interaction. The sequences of DBP binding domains from P. vivax and P. simium were highly similar. However, the genetic variability of PsDBPII was lower than that of PvDBPII. Phylogenetic analyses demonstrated that these genes were strictly related and clustered in the same clade of the evolutionary tree. DARC from A. clamitans was also sequenced and contained three new non-synonymous substitutions. None of these substitutions were located in the N-terminal domain of DARC, which interacts directly with DBPII. The interaction between sDARC and PvDBPII was evaluated using a cytoadherence assay of COS7 cells expressing PvDBPII on their surfaces. Inhibitory binding assays in vitro demonstrated that antibodies from monkey sera blocked the interaction between COS-7 cells expressing PvDBPII and hDARC-positive erythrocytes. Taken together, phylogenetic analyses reinforced the hypothesis that the host switch from humans to monkeys may have occurred very recently in evolution, which sheds light on the evolutionary history of new world plasmodia. Further invasion studies would confirm whether P. simium depends on DBP/DARC to trigger internalization into red blood cells. PMID:26107662

  11. Plasmodium simium, a Plasmodium vivax-Related Malaria Parasite: Genetic Variability of Duffy Binding Protein II and the Duffy Antigen/Receptor for Chemokines

    PubMed Central

    Camargos Costa, Daniela; Pereira de Assis, Gabriela Maíra; de Souza Silva, Flávia Alessandra; Araújo, Flávia Carolina; de Souza Junior, Júlio César; Braga Hirano, Zelinda Maria; Satiko Kano, Flora; Nóbrega de Sousa, Taís; Carvalho, Luzia Helena; Ferreira Alves de Brito, Cristiana

    2015-01-01

    Plasmodium simium is a parasite from New World monkeys that is most closely related to the human malaria parasite Plasmodium vivax; it also naturally infects humans. The blood-stage infection of P. vivax depends on Duffy binding protein II (PvDBPII) and its cognate receptor on erythrocytes, the Duffy antigen receptor for chemokines (hDARC), but there is no information on the P. simium erythrocytic invasion pathway. The genes encoding P. simium DBP (PsDBPII) and simian DARC (sDARC) were sequenced from Southern brown howler monkeys (Alouatta guariba clamitans) naturally infected with P. simium because P. simium may also depend on the DBPII/DARC interaction. The sequences of DBP binding domains from P. vivax and P. simium were highly similar. However, the genetic variability of PsDBPII was lower than that of PvDBPII. Phylogenetic analyses demonstrated that these genes were strictly related and clustered in the same clade of the evolutionary tree. DARC from A. clamitans was also sequenced and contained three new non-synonymous substitutions. None of these substitutions were located in the N-terminal domain of DARC, which interacts directly with DBPII. The interaction between sDARC and PvDBPII was evaluated using a cytoadherence assay of COS7 cells expressing PvDBPII on their surfaces. Inhibitory binding assays in vitro demonstrated that antibodies from monkey sera blocked the interaction between COS-7 cells expressing PvDBPII and hDARC-positive erythrocytes. Taken together, phylogenetic analyses reinforced the hypothesis that the host switch from humans to monkeys may have occurred very recently in evolution, which sheds light on the evolutionary history of new world plasmodia. Further invasion studies would confirm whether P. simium depends on DBP/DARC to trigger internalization into red blood cells. PMID:26107662

  12. The Plasmodium vivax Merozoite Surface Protein 3? Sequence Reveals Contrasting Parasite Populations in Southern and Northwestern Thailand

    PubMed Central

    Kuamsab, Napaporn; Sattabongkot, Jetsumon; Sirichaisinthop, Jeeraphat; Jongwutiwes, Somchai; Cui, Liwang

    2014-01-01

    Background Malaria control efforts have a significant impact on the epidemiology and parasite population dynamics. In countries aiming for malaria elimination, malaria transmission may be restricted to limited transmission hot spots, where parasite populations may be isolated from each other and experience different selection forces. Here we aim to examine the Plasmodium vivax population divergence in geographically isolated transmission zones in Thailand. Methodology We employed the P. vivax merozoite surface protein 3? (PvMSP3?) as a molecular marker for characterizing P. vivax populations based on the extensive diversity of this gene in Southeast Asian parasite populations. To examine two parasite populations with different transmission levels in Thailand, we obtained 45 P. vivax isolates from Tak Province, northwestern Thailand, where the annual parasite incidence (API) was more than 2%, and 28 isolates from Yala and Narathiwat Provinces, southern Thailand, where the API was less than 0.02%. We sequenced the PvMSP3? gene and examined its genetic diversity and molecular evolution between the parasite populations. Principal Findings Of 58 isolates containing single PvMSP3? alleles, 31 sequence types were identified. The overall haplotype diversity was 0.77±0.06 and nucleotide diversity 0.0877±0.0054. The northwestern vivax malaria population exhibited extensive haplotype diversity (HD) of PvMSP3? (HD?=?1.0). In contrast, the southern parasite population displayed a single PvMSP3? allele (HD?=?0), suggesting a clonal population expansion. This result revealed that the extent of allelic diversity in P. vivax populations in Thailand varies among endemic areas. Conclusion Malaria parasite populations in a given region may vary significantly in genetic diversity, which may be the result of control and influenced by the magnitude of malaria transmission intensity. This is an issue that should be taken into account for the implementation of P. vivax control measures such as drug policy and vaccine development. PMID:25412166

  13. Pf332-C231-reactive antibodies affect growth and development of intra-erythrocytic Plasmodium falciparum parasites.

    PubMed

    Balogun, Halima A; Awah, Nancy W; Farouk, Salah E; Berzins, Klavs

    2011-12-01

    The Plasmodium falciparum antigen 332 (Pf332), is a megadalton parasite protein expressed at the surface of infected red cells during later stages of the parasite's developmental cycle. Antibodies to different parts of this antigen have been shown to inhibit parasite growth and adherence to host cells with or without ancillary cells. However, the mechanisms involved in these inhibitions remain largely unknown. We further analysed the activities of specific antibodies with regard to their specific mechanisms of action. For these analyses, affinity purified human antibodies against epitopes in the C-terminal fragment of Pf332 (Pf332-C231) were employed. All purified antibodies recognized Pf332-C231 both by immunofluorescence and ELISA. IgG was the main antibody isotype detected, although all sera investigated had varying proportions of IgG and IgM content. All the antibodies showed a capacity to inhibit parasite growth in P. falciparum cultures to different extents, mainly by acting on the more mature parasite stages. Morphological analysis revealed the antibody effects to be characterized by the presence of a high proportion of abnormal schizonts (15-30%) and pyknotic parasites. There was also an apparent antibody effect on the red cell integrity, as many developing parasites (up to 10% of trophozoites and schizonts) were extracellular. In some cases, the infected red cells appeared to be disintegrating/fading, staining paler than surrounding infected and uninfected cells. Antigen reversal of inhibition confirmed that these inhibitions were antigen specific. Furthermore, the growth of parasites after 22-42h exposure to antibodies was investigated. Following the removal of antibody pressure, a decreased growth rate of these parasites was seen compared to that of control parasites. The present study confirms the potential of Pf332 as a target antigen for parasite neutralizing antibodies, and further indicates that epitopes within the C231 region of Pf332 should constitute important tools in the dissection of the role of Pf332 in the biology of the malaria parasite, as well as in the design of a malaria vaccine. PMID:22064263

  14. Matrix Metalloproteinase-9 and Haemozoin: Wedding Rings for Human Host and Plasmodium falciparum Parasite in Complicated Malaria

    PubMed Central

    Prato, Mauro; Giribaldi, Giuliana

    2011-01-01

    It is generally accepted that the combination of both Plasmodium falciparum parasite and human host factors is involved in the pathogenesis of complicated severe malaria, including cerebral malaria (CM). Among parasite products, the malarial pigment haemozoin (HZ) has been shown to impair the functions of mononuclear and endothelial cells. Different CM models were associated with enhanced levels of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs), a family of proteolytic enzymes able to disrupt subendothelial basement membrane and tight junctions and shed, activate, or inactivate cytokines, chemokines, and other MMPs through cleavage from their precursors. Among MMPs, a good candidate for targeted therapy might be MMP-9, whose mRNA and protein expression enhancement as well as direct proenzyme activation by HZ have been recently investigated in a series of studies by our group and others. In the present paper the role of HZ and MMP-9 in complicated malaria, as well as their interactions, will be discussed. PMID:21760809

  15. Profiling the anti-protozoal activity of anti-cancer HDAC inhibitors against Plasmodium and Trypanosoma parasites.

    PubMed

    Engel, Jessica A; Jones, Amy J; Avery, Vicky M; Sumanadasa, Subathdrage D M; Ng, Susanna S; Fairlie, David P; Adams, Tina S; Andrews, Katherine T

    2015-12-01

    Histone deacetylase (HDAC) enzymes work together with histone acetyltransferases (HATs) to reversibly acetylate both histone and non-histone proteins. As a result, these enzymes are involved in regulating chromatin structure and gene expression as well as other important cellular processes. HDACs are validated drug targets for some types of cancer, with four HDAC inhibitors clinically approved. However, they are also showing promise as novel drug targets for other indications, including malaria and other parasitic diseases. In this study the in vitro activity of four anti-cancer HDAC inhibitors was examined against parasites that cause malaria and trypanosomiasis. Three of these inhibitors, suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid (SAHA; vorinostat(®)), romidepsin (Istodax(®)) and belinostat (Beleodaq(®)), are clinically approved for the treatment of T-cell lymphoma, while the fourth, panobinostat, has recently been approved for combination therapy use in certain patients with multiple myeloma. All HDAC inhibitors were found to inhibit the growth of asexual-stage Plasmodium falciparum malaria parasites in the nanomolar range (IC50 10-200 nM), while only romidepsin was active at sub-?M concentrations against bloodstream form Trypanosoma brucei brucei parasites (IC50 35 nM). The compounds were found to have some selectivity for malaria parasites compared with mammalian cells, but were not selective for trypanosome parasites versus mammalian cells. All compounds caused hyperacetylation of histone and non-histone proteins in P. falciparum asexual stage parasites and inhibited deacetylase activity in P. falciparum nuclear extracts in addition to recombinant PfHDAC1 activity. P. falciparum histone hyperacetylation data indicate that HDAC inhibitors may differentially affect the acetylation profiles of histone H3 and H4. PMID:26199860

  16. Profiling the anti-protozoal activity of anti-cancer HDAC inhibitors against Plasmodium and Trypanosoma parasites

    PubMed Central

    Engel, Jessica A.; Jones, Amy J.; Avery, Vicky M.; Sumanadasa, Subathdrage D.M.; Ng, Susanna S.; Fairlie, David P.; Adams, Tina S.; Andrews, Katherine T.

    2015-01-01

    Histone deacetylase (HDAC) enzymes work together with histone acetyltransferases (HATs) to reversibly acetylate both histone and non-histone proteins. As a result, these enzymes are involved in regulating chromatin structure and gene expression as well as other important cellular processes. HDACs are validated drug targets for some types of cancer, with four HDAC inhibitors clinically approved. However, they are also showing promise as novel drug targets for other indications, including malaria and other parasitic diseases. In this study the in vitro activity of four anti-cancer HDAC inhibitors was examined against parasites that cause malaria and trypanosomiasis. Three of these inhibitors, suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid (SAHA; vorinostat®), romidepsin (Istodax®) and belinostat (Beleodaq®), are clinically approved for the treatment of T-cell lymphoma, while the fourth, panobinostat, has recently been approved for combination therapy use in certain patients with multiple myeloma. All HDAC inhibitors were found to inhibit the growth of asexual-stage Plasmodium falciparum malaria parasites in the nanomolar range (IC50 10–200 nM), while only romidepsin was active at sub-?M concentrations against bloodstream form Trypanosoma brucei brucei parasites (IC50 35 nM). The compounds were found to have some selectivity for malaria parasites compared with mammalian cells, but were not selective for trypanosome parasites versus mammalian cells. All compounds caused hyperacetylation of histone and non-histone proteins in P. falciparum asexual stage parasites and inhibited deacetylase activity in P. falciparum nuclear extracts in addition to recombinant PfHDAC1 activity. P. falciparum histone hyperacetylation data indicate that HDAC inhibitors may differentially affect the acetylation profiles of histone H3 and H4. PMID:26199860

  17. Baculovirus-Vectored Multistage Plasmodium vivax Vaccine Induces Both Protective and Transmission-Blocking Immunities against Transgenic Rodent Malaria Parasites

    PubMed Central

    Mizutani, Masanori; Iyori, Mitsuhiro; Blagborough, Andrew M.; Fukumoto, Shinya; Funatsu, Tomohiro; Sinden, Robert E.

    2014-01-01

    A multistage malaria vaccine targeting the pre-erythrocytic and sexual stages of Plasmodium could effectively protect individuals against infection from mosquito bites and provide transmission-blocking (TB) activity against the sexual stages of the parasite, respectively. This strategy could help prevent malaria infections in individuals and, on a larger scale, prevent malaria transmission in communities of endemicity. Here, we describe the development of a multistage Plasmodium vivax vaccine which simultaneously expresses P. vivax circumsporozoite protein (PvCSP) and P25 (Pvs25) protein of this species as a fusion protein, thereby acting as a pre-erythrocytic vaccine and a TB vaccine, respectively. A new-concept vaccine platform based on the baculovirus dual-expression system (BDES) was evaluated. The BDES-Pvs25-PvCSP vaccine displayed correct folding of the Pvs25-PvCSP fusion protein on the viral envelope and was highly expressed upon transduction of mammalian cells in vitro. This vaccine induced high levels of antibodies to Pvs25 and PvCSP and elicited protective (43%) and TB (82%) efficacies against transgenic P. berghei parasites expressing the corresponding P. vivax antigens in mice. Our data indicate that our BDES, which functions as both a subunit and DNA vaccine, can offer a promising multistage vaccine capable of delivering a potent antimalarial pre-erythrocytic and TB response via a single immunization regimen. PMID:25092912

  18. Baculovirus-vectored multistage Plasmodium vivax vaccine induces both protective and transmission-blocking immunities against transgenic rodent malaria parasites.

    PubMed

    Mizutani, Masanori; Iyori, Mitsuhiro; Blagborough, Andrew M; Fukumoto, Shinya; Funatsu, Tomohiro; Sinden, Robert E; Yoshida, Shigeto

    2014-10-01

    A multistage malaria vaccine targeting the pre-erythrocytic and sexual stages of Plasmodium could effectively protect individuals against infection from mosquito bites and provide transmission-blocking (TB) activity against the sexual stages of the parasite, respectively. This strategy could help prevent malaria infections in individuals and, on a larger scale, prevent malaria transmission in communities of endemicity. Here, we describe the development of a multistage Plasmodium vivax vaccine which simultaneously expresses P. vivax circumsporozoite protein (PvCSP) and P25 (Pvs25) protein of this species as a fusion protein, thereby acting as a pre-erythrocytic vaccine and a TB vaccine, respectively. A new-concept vaccine platform based on the baculovirus dual-expression system (BDES) was evaluated. The BDES-Pvs25-PvCSP vaccine displayed correct folding of the Pvs25-PvCSP fusion protein on the viral envelope and was highly expressed upon transduction of mammalian cells in vitro. This vaccine induced high levels of antibodies to Pvs25 and PvCSP and elicited protective (43%) and TB (82%) efficacies against transgenic P. berghei parasites expressing the corresponding P. vivax antigens in mice. Our data indicate that our BDES, which functions as both a subunit and DNA vaccine, can offer a promising multistage vaccine capable of delivering a potent antimalarial pre-erythrocytic and TB response via a single immunization regimen. PMID:25092912

  19. Genome-Wide Collation of the Plasmodium falciparum WDR Protein Superfamily Reveals Malarial Parasite-Specific Features

    PubMed Central

    Chahar, Priyanka; Kaushik, Manjeri; Gill, Sarvajeet Singh; Gakhar, Surendra Kumar; Gopalan, Natrajan; Datt, Manish; Sharma, Amit; Gill, Ritu

    2015-01-01

    Despite a significant drop in malaria deaths during the past decade, malaria continues to be one of the biggest health problems around the globe. WD40 repeats (WDRs) containing proteins comprise one of the largest and functionally diverse protein superfamily in eukaryotes, acting as scaffolds for assembling large protein complexes. In the present study, we report an extensive in silico analysis of the WDR gene family in human malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum. Our genome-wide identification has revealed 80 putative WDR genes in P. falciparum (PfWDRs). Five distinct domain compositions were discovered in Plasmodium as compared to the human host. Notably, 31 PfWDRs were annotated/re-annotated on the basis of their orthologs in other species. Interestingly, most PfWDRs were larger as compared to their human homologs highlighting the presence of parasite-specific insertions. Fifteen PfWDRs appeared specific to the Plasmodium with no assigned orthologs. Expression profiling of PfWDRs revealed a mixture of linear and nonlinear relationships between transcriptome and proteome, and only nine PfWDRs were found to be stage-specific. Homology modeling identified conservation of major binding sites in PfCAF-1 and PfRACK. Protein-protein interaction network analyses suggested that PfWDRs are highly connected proteins with ~1928 potential interactions, supporting their role as hubs in cellular networks. The present study highlights the roles and relevance of the WDR family in P. falciparum, and identifies unique features that lay a foundation for further experimental dissection of PfWDRs. PMID:26043001

  20. Genome-Wide Collation of the Plasmodium falciparum WDR Protein Superfamily Reveals Malarial Parasite-Specific Features.

    PubMed

    Chahar, Priyanka; Kaushik, Manjeri; Gill, Sarvajeet Singh; Gakhar, Surendra Kumar; Gopalan, Natrajan; Datt, Manish; Sharma, Amit; Gill, Ritu

    2015-01-01

    Despite a significant drop in malaria deaths during the past decade, malaria continues to be one of the biggest health problems around the globe. WD40 repeats (WDRs) containing proteins comprise one of the largest and functionally diverse protein superfamily in eukaryotes, acting as scaffolds for assembling large protein complexes. In the present study, we report an extensive in silico analysis of the WDR gene family in human malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum. Our genome-wide identification has revealed 80 putative WDR genes in P. falciparum (PfWDRs). Five distinct domain compositions were discovered in Plasmodium as compared to the human host. Notably, 31 PfWDRs were annotated/re-annotated on the basis of their orthologs in other species. Interestingly, most PfWDRs were larger as compared to their human homologs highlighting the presence of parasite-specific insertions. Fifteen PfWDRs appeared specific to the Plasmodium with no assigned orthologs. Expression profiling of PfWDRs revealed a mixture of linear and nonlinear relationships between transcriptome and proteome, and only nine PfWDRs were found to be stage-specific. Homology modeling identified conservation of major binding sites in PfCAF-1 and PfRACK. Protein-protein interaction network analyses suggested that PfWDRs are highly connected proteins with ~1928 potential interactions, supporting their role as hubs in cellular networks. The present study highlights the roles and relevance of the WDR family in P. falciparum, and identifies unique features that lay a foundation for further experimental dissection of PfWDRs. PMID:26043001

  1. Characterization of the putative surface protein TLP in Plasmodium berghei and Plasmodium falciparum

    E-print Network

    Gray, Jeffrey J.

    parasite Plasmodium. Of the many Plasmodium species, only four species (P. falciparum, P. vivax, P. ovaleCharacterization of the putative surface protein TLP in Plasmodium berghei and Plasmodium by the protozoan parasite Plasmodium, is an endemic disease that is responsible for approximately a half billion

  2. Identification and Functional Analysis of the Primary Pantothenate Transporter, PfPAT, of the Human Malaria Parasite Plasmodium falciparum*

    PubMed Central

    Augagneur, Yoann; Jaubert, Lise; Schiavoni, Matthieu; Pachikara, Niseema; Garg, Aprajita; Usmani-Brown, Sahar; Wesolowski, Donna; Zeller, Skye; Ghosal, Abhisek; Cornillot, Emmanuel; Said, Hamid M.; Kumar, Priti; Altman, Sidney; Ben Mamoun, Choukri

    2013-01-01

    The human malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum is absolutely dependent on the acquisition of host pantothenate for its development within human erythrocytes. Although the biochemical properties of this transport have been characterized, the molecular identity of the parasite-encoded pantothenate transporter remains unknown. Here we report the identification and functional characterization of the first protozoan pantothenate transporter, PfPAT, from P. falciparum. We show using cell biological, biochemical, and genetic analyses that this transporter is localized to the parasite plasma membrane and plays an essential role in parasite intraerythrocytic development. We have targeted PfPAT to the yeast plasma membrane and showed that the transporter complements the growth defect of the yeast fen2? pantothenate transporter-deficient mutant and mediates the entry of the fungicide drug, fenpropimorph. Our studies in P. falciparum revealed that fenpropimorph inhibits the intraerythrocytic development of both chloroquine- and pyrimethamine-resistant P. falciparum strains with potency equal or better than that of currently available pantothenate analogs. The essential function of PfPAT and its ability to deliver both pantothenate and fenpropimorph makes it an attractive target for the development and delivery of new classes of antimalarial drugs. PMID:23729665

  3. The relationship between the Plasmodium falciparum parasite ratio in childhood and climate estimates of malaria transmission in Kenya

    PubMed Central

    Omumbo, Judith A; Hay, Simon I; Guerra, Carlos A; Snow, Robert W

    2004-01-01

    Background Plasmodium falciparum morbid and fatal risks are considerably higher in areas supporting parasite prevalence ?25%, when compared with low transmission areas supporting parasite prevalence below 25%. Recent descriptions of the health impacts of malaria in Africa are based upon categorical descriptions of a climate-driven fuzzy model of suitability (FCS) for stable transmission developed by the Mapping Malaria Risk in Africa collaboration (MARA). Methods An electronic and national search was undertaken to identify community-based parasite prevalence surveys in Kenya. Data from these surveys were matched using ArcView 3.2 to extract spatially congruent estimates of the FCS values generated by the MARA model. Levels of agreement between three classes used during recent continental burden estimations of parasite prevalence (0%, >0 – <25% and ?25%) and three classes of FCS (0, >0 – <0.75 and ?0.75) were tested using the kappa (k) statistic and examined as continuous variables to define better levels of agreement. Results Two hundred and seventeen independent parasite prevalence surveys undertaken since 1980 were identified during the search. Overall agreement between the three classes of parasite prevalence and FCS was weak although significant (k = 0.367, p < 0.0001). The overall correlation between the FCS and the parasite ratio when considered as continuous variables was also positive (0.364, p < 0.001). The margins of error were in the stable, endemic (parasite ratio ?25%) class with 42% of surveys represented by an FCS <0.75. Reducing the FCS value criterion to ?0.6 improved the classification of stable, endemic parasite ratio surveys. Zero values of FCS were not adequate discriminators of zero parasite prevalence. Conclusion Using the MARA model to categorically distinguish populations at differing intensities of malaria transmission in Kenya may under-represent those who are exposed to stable, endemic transmission and over-represent those at no risk. The MARA approach to defining FCS values of suitability for stable transmission represents our only contemporary continental level map of malaria in Africa but there is a need to redefine Africa's population at risk in accordance with both climatic and non-climatic determinants of P. falciparum transmission intensity to provide a more informed approach to estimating the morbid and fatal consequences of infection across the continent. PMID:15202945

  4. Chloroquine Transport in Plasmodium falciparum I: Influx and Efflux Kinetics for Live Trophozoite Parasites using a Novel Fluorescent Chloroquine Probe

    PubMed Central

    Cabrera, Mynthia; Natarajan, Jayakumar; Paguio, Michelle F.; Wolf, Christian; Urbach, Jeffrey S.; Roepe, Paul D.

    2009-01-01

    Several models for how amino acid substitutions in the Plasmodium falciparum Chloroquine Resistance Transporter (PfCRT) confer resistance to chloroquine (CQ) and other antimalarial drugs have been proposed. Distinguishing between these models requires detailed analysis of high resolution CQ transport data that is unfortunately impossible to obtain with traditional radio–tracer methods. Thus, we have designed and synthesized fluorescent CQ analogues for drug transport studies. One probe places a NBD (6–(N–(7–nitrobenz–2–oxa–1,3–diazol–4–yl)amino)hexanoate acid) group at the tertiary aliphatic N of CQ, via a flexible 6 C amide linker. This probe localizes to the malarial parasite digestive vacuole (DV) during initial perfusion under physiologic conditions and exhibits similar pharmacology relative to CQ, vs. both CQ sensitive (CQS) and resistant (CQR) parasites. Using live, synchronized intraerythrocytic parasites under continuous perfusion we define NBD-CQ influx and efflux kinetics for CQS vs. CQR parasites. Since this fluorescence approach provides data at much higher kinetic resolution relative to fast–filtration methods using 3H–CQ, rate constants vs. linear initial rates for CQ probe flux can be analyzed in detail. Importantly, we find CQR parasites have a decreased rate constant for CQ influx into the DV, and that this is due to mutation of PfCRT. Analysis of zero trans efflux for CQS and CQR parasites suggests distinguishing between bound vs. free pools of intra-DV drug probe is essential for proper kinetic analysis of efflux. The accompanying paper [Paguio et al., (2009), XXXX-XXXX] further probes efflux kinetics for proteoliposomes containing purified, reconstituted PfCRT. PMID:19728740

  5. Studies on the effects of sida acuta and vetiveria zizanioides against the malarial vector, anopheles stephensi and malarial parasite, plasmodium berghei

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Methanolic extracts of Sida acuta and Vetiveria zizanioides leaves and root were studied for toxicity to Anopheles stephensi mosquitoes and to the malaria parasite Plasmodium berghei in mice. The extracts reduced parasitemia levels in mice by 17-69%, depending on extract concentration. Median le...

  6. Transport of an Mr approximately 300,000 Plasmodium falciparum protein (Pf EMP 2) from the intraerythrocytic asexual parasite to the cytoplasmic face of the host cell membrane

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Russell J. Howard; Jeffrey A. Lyon; Allan J. Saul; Stephen B. Aley; Frank Klotz; Lindsey J. Panton; James A. Sherwood; Kevin Marsh; Masamichi Aikawa; Edwin P. Rock

    1987-01-01

    The profound changes in the morphology, antigenicity, and functional properties of the host erythrocyte membrane induced by intraerythrocytic parasites of the human malaria Plasmodium falciparum are poorly understood at the molecular level. We have used mouse mAbs to identify a very large malarial protein (Mr 300,000) that is exported from the para- site and deposited on the cytoplasmic face of

  7. The origin and diversification of the merozoite surface protein 3 (msp3) multi-gene family in Plasmodium vivax and related parasites.

    PubMed

    Rice, Benjamin L; Acosta, Mónica M; Pacheco, M Andreína; Carlton, Jane M; Barnwell, John W; Escalante, Ananias A

    2014-09-01

    The genus Plasmodium is a diversified group of parasites with more than 200 known species that includes those causing malaria in humans. These parasites use numerous proteins in a complex process that allows them to invade the red blood cells of their vertebrate hosts. Many of those proteins are part of multi-gene families; one of which is the merozoite surface protein-3 (msp3) family. The msp3 multi-gene family is considered important in the two main human parasites, Plasmodium vivax and Plasmodium falciparum, as its paralogs are simultaneously expressed in the blood stage (merozoite) and are immunogenic. There are large differences among Plasmodium species in the number of paralogs in this family. Such differences have been previously explained, in part, as adaptations that allow the different Plasmodium species to invade their hosts. To investigate this, we characterized the array containing msp3 genes among several Plasmodium species, including P. falciparum and P. vivax. We first found no evidence indicating that the msp3 family of P. falciparum was homologous to that of P. vivax. Subsequently, by focusing on the diverse clade of nonhuman primate parasites to which P. vivax is closely related, where homology was evident, we found no evidence indicating that the interspecies variation in the number of paralogs was an adaptation related to changes in host range or host switches. Overall, we hypothesize that the evolution of the msp3 family in P. vivax is consistent with a model of multi-allelic diversifying selection where the paralogs may have functionally redundant roles in terms of increasing antigenic diversity. Thus, we suggest that the expressed MSP3 proteins could serve as "decoys", via antigenic diversity, during the critical process of invading the host red blood cells. PMID:24862221

  8. Induction of nitric oxide synthase in Anopheles stephensi by Plasmodium falciparum: mechanism of signaling and the role of parasite glycosylphosphatidylinositols.

    PubMed

    Lim, Junghwa; Gowda, D Channe; Krishnegowda, Gowdahalli; Luckhart, Shirley

    2005-05-01

    Malaria parasite (Plasmodium spp.) infection in the mosquito Anopheles stephensi induces significant expression of A. stephensi nitric oxide synthase (AsNOS) in the midgut epithelium as early as 6 h postinfection and intermittently thereafter. This induction results in the synthesis of inflammatory levels of nitric oxide (NO) in the blood-filled midgut that adversely impact parasite development. In mammals, P. falciparum glycosylphosphatidylinositols (PfGPIs) can induce NOS expression in immune and endothelial cells and are sufficient to reproduce the major effects of parasite infection. These effects are mediated in part by mimicry of insulin signaling by PfGPIs. In this study, we demonstrate that PfGPIs can induce AsNOS expression in A. stephensi cells in vitro and in the midgut epithelium in vivo. Signaling by P. falciparum merozoites and PfGPIs is mediated through A. stephensi Akt/protein kinase B and a pathway involving DSOR1, a mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase, and an extracellular signal-regulated kinase. However, despite the involvement of kinases that are also associated with insulin signaling in A. stephensi cells, signaling by P. falciparum and by PfGPIs is distinctively different from signaling by insulin. Therefore, although mimicry of insulin by PfGPIs appears to be restricted to mammalian hosts of P. falciparum, the conservation of PfGPIs as a prominent parasite-derived signal of innate immunity can now be extended to include Anopheles mosquitoes, indicating that parasite signaling of innate immunity is conserved in mosquito and mammalian cells. PMID:15845481

  9. Expression of senescent antigen on erythrocytes infected with a knobby variant of the human malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum

    SciTech Connect

    Winograd, E.; Greenan, J.R.T.; Sherman, I.W.

    1987-04-01

    Erythrocytes infected with a knobby variant of Plasmodium falciparum selectively bind IgG autoantibodies in normal human serum. Quantification of membrane-bound IgG, by use of /sup 125/I-labeled protein A, revealed that erythrocytes infected with the knobby variant bound 30 times more protein A than did noninfected erythrocytes; infection with a knobless variant resulted in less than a 2-fold difference compared with noninfected erythrocytes. IgG binding to knobby erythrocytes appeared to be related to parasite development, since binding of /sup 125/I-labeled protein A to cells bearing young trophozoites (less than 20 hr after parasite invasion) was similar to binding to uninfected erythrocytes. By immunoelectron microscopy, the membrane-bound IgG on erythrocytes infected with the knobby variant was found to be preferentially associated with the protuberances (knobs) of the plasma membrane. The removal of aged or senescent erythrocytes from the peripheral circulation is reported to involve the binding of specific antibodies to an antigen (senescent antigen) related to the major erythrocyte membrane protein band 3. Since affinity-purified autoantibodies against band 3 specifically bound to the plasma membrane of erythrocytes infected with the knobby variant of P. falciparum, it is clear that the malaria parasite induces expression of senescent antigen.

  10. Clonal diversity of a malaria parasite, Plasmodium mexicanum, and its transmission success from its vertebrate-to-insect host.

    PubMed

    Vardo-Zalik, A M

    2009-12-01

    Infections of the lizard malaria parasite Plasmodium mexicanum are often genetically complex within their fence lizard host (Sceloporus occidentalis) harbouring two or more clones of parasite. The role of clonal diversity in transmission success was studied for P. mexicanum by feeding its sandfly vectors (Lutzomyia vexator and Lutzomyia stewarti) on experimentally infected lizards. Experimental infections consisted of one, two, three or more clones, assessed using three microsatellite markers. After 5days, vectors were dissected to assess infection status, oocyst burden and genetic composition of the oocysts. A high proportion (92%) of sandflies became infected and carried high oocyst burdens (mean of 56 oocysts) with no influence of clonal diversity on these two measures of transmission success. Gametocytemia was positively correlated with transmission success and the more common vector (L. vexator) developed more oocysts on midguts. A high proportion ( approximately 74%) of all alleles detected in the lizard blood was found in infected vectors. The relative proportion of clones within mixed infections, determined by peak heights on pherograms produced by the genetic analyser instrument, was very similar for the lizard's blood and infections in the vectors. These results demonstrate that P. mexicanum achieves high transmission success, with most clones making the transition from vertebrate-to-insect host, and thus explains in part the high genetic diversity of the parasite among all hosts at the study site. PMID:19523471

  11. KAI407, a potent non-8-aminoquinoline compound that kills Plasmodium cynomolgi early dormant liver stage parasites in vitro.

    PubMed

    Zeeman, Anne-Marie; van Amsterdam, Sandra M; McNamara, Case W; Voorberg-van der Wel, Annemarie; Klooster, Els J; van den Berg, Alexander; Remarque, Edmond J; Plouffe, David M; van Gemert, Geert-Jan; Luty, Adrian; Sauerwein, Robert; Gagaring, Kerstin; Borboa, Rachel; Chen, Zhong; Kuhen, Kelli; Glynne, Richard J; Chatterjee, Arnab K; Nagle, Advait; Roland, Jason; Winzeler, Elizabeth A; Leroy, Didier; Campo, Brice; Diagana, Thierry T; Yeung, Bryan K S; Thomas, Alan W; Kocken, Clemens H M

    2014-01-01

    Preventing relapses of Plasmodium vivax malaria through a radical cure depends on use of the 8-aminoquinoline primaquine, which is associated with safety and compliance issues. For future malaria eradication strategies, new, safer radical curative compounds that efficiently kill dormant liver stages (hypnozoites) will be essential. A new compound with potential radical cure activity was identified using a low-throughput assay of in vitro-cultured hypnozoite forms of Plasmodium cynomolgi (an excellent and accessible model for Plasmodium vivax). In this assay, primary rhesus hepatocytes are infected with P. cynomolgi sporozoites, and exoerythrocytic development is monitored in the presence of compounds. Liver stage cultures are fixed after 6 days and stained with anti-Hsp70 antibodies, and the relative proportions of small (hypnozoite) and large (schizont) forms relative to the untreated controls are determined. This assay was used to screen a series of 18 known antimalarials and 14 new non-8-aminoquinolines (preselected for blood and/or liver stage activity) in three-point 10-fold dilutions (0.1, 1, and 10 ?M final concentrations). A novel compound, designated KAI407 showed an activity profile similar to that of primaquine (PQ), efficiently killing the earliest stages of the parasites that become either primary hepatic schizonts or hypnozoites (50% inhibitory concentration [IC50] for hypnozoites, KAI407, 0.69 ?M, and PQ, 0.84 ?M; for developing liver stages, KAI407, 0.64 ?M, and PQ, 0.37 ?M). When given as causal prophylaxis, a single oral dose of 100 mg/kg of body weight prevented blood stage parasitemia in mice. From these results, we conclude that KAI407 may represent a new compound class for P. vivax malaria prophylaxis and potentially a radical cure. PMID:24366744

  12. KAI407, a Potent Non-8-Aminoquinoline Compound That Kills Plasmodium cynomolgi Early Dormant Liver Stage Parasites In Vitro

    PubMed Central

    Zeeman, Anne-Marie; van Amsterdam, Sandra M.; McNamara, Case W.; Voorberg-van der Wel, Annemarie; Klooster, Els J.; van den Berg, Alexander; Remarque, Edmond J.; Plouffe, David M.; van Gemert, Geert-Jan; Luty, Adrian; Sauerwein, Robert; Gagaring, Kerstin; Borboa, Rachel; Chen, Zhong; Kuhen, Kelli; Glynne, Richard J.; Chatterjee, Arnab K.; Nagle, Advait; Roland, Jason; Winzeler, Elizabeth A.; Leroy, Didier; Campo, Brice; Diagana, Thierry T.; Yeung, Bryan K. S.; Thomas, Alan W.

    2014-01-01

    Preventing relapses of Plasmodium vivax malaria through a radical cure depends on use of the 8-aminoquinoline primaquine, which is associated with safety and compliance issues. For future malaria eradication strategies, new, safer radical curative compounds that efficiently kill dormant liver stages (hypnozoites) will be essential. A new compound with potential radical cure activity was identified using a low-throughput assay of in vitro-cultured hypnozoite forms of Plasmodium cynomolgi (an excellent and accessible model for Plasmodium vivax). In this assay, primary rhesus hepatocytes are infected with P. cynomolgi sporozoites, and exoerythrocytic development is monitored in the presence of compounds. Liver stage cultures are fixed after 6 days and stained with anti-Hsp70 antibodies, and the relative proportions of small (hypnozoite) and large (schizont) forms relative to the untreated controls are determined. This assay was used to screen a series of 18 known antimalarials and 14 new non-8-aminoquinolines (preselected for blood and/or liver stage activity) in three-point 10-fold dilutions (0.1, 1, and 10 ?M final concentrations). A novel compound, designated KAI407 showed an activity profile similar to that of primaquine (PQ), efficiently killing the earliest stages of the parasites that become either primary hepatic schizonts or hypnozoites (50% inhibitory concentration [IC50] for hypnozoites, KAI407, 0.69 ?M, and PQ, 0.84 ?M; for developing liver stages, KAI407, 0.64 ?M, and PQ, 0.37 ?M). When given as causal prophylaxis, a single oral dose of 100 mg/kg of body weight prevented blood stage parasitemia in mice. From these results, we conclude that KAI407 may represent a new compound class for P. vivax malaria prophylaxis and potentially a radical cure. PMID:24366744

  13. Variation in life-history traits of Plasmodium mexicanum, a malaria parasite infecting western

    E-print Network

    Schall, Joseph J.

    lézards Sceloporus occidentalis porteurs d'infections naturelles au cours d'une période de 4 ans. J the life history of Plasmodium mexicanum in naturally infected western fence liz- ards (Sceloporus occidentalis) over a 4-year period, using a mark­recapture technique. The life-history traits measured included

  14. A Unique Virulence Gene Occupies a Principal Position in Immune Evasion by the Malaria Parasite Plasmodium falciparum

    PubMed Central

    Heinberg, Adina R.; Wele, Mamadou; Chen, Qijun; Deitsch, Kirk W.

    2015-01-01

    Mutually exclusive gene expression, whereby only one member of a multi-gene family is selected for activation, is used by the malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum to escape the human immune system and perpetuate long-term, chronic infections. A family of genes called var encodes the chief antigenic and virulence determinant of P. falciparum malaria. var genes are transcribed in a mutually exclusive manner, with switching between active genes resulting in antigenic variation. While recent work has shed considerable light on the epigenetic basis for var gene activation and silencing, how switching is controlled remains a mystery. In particular, switching seems not to be random, but instead appears to be coordinated to result in timely activation of individual genes leading to sequential waves of antigenically distinct parasite populations. The molecular basis for this apparent coordination is unknown. Here we show that var2csa, an unusual and highly conserved var gene, occupies a unique position within the var gene switching hierarchy. Induction of switching through the destabilization of var specific chromatin using both genetic and chemical methods repeatedly led to the rapid and exclusive activation of var2csa. Additional experiments demonstrated that these represent “true” switching events and not simply de-silencing of the var2csa promoter, and that activation is limited to the unique locus on chromosome 12. Combined with translational repression of var2csa transcripts, frequent “default” switching to this locus and detection of var2csa untranslated transcripts in non-pregnant individuals, these data suggest that var2csa could play a central role in coordinating switching, fulfilling a prediction made by mathematical models derived from population switching patterns. These studies provide the first insights into the mechanisms by which var gene switching is coordinated as well as an example of how a pharmacological agent can disrupt antigenic variation in Plasmodium falciparum. PMID:25993442

  15. Delayed Parasite Clearance after Treatment with Dihydroartemisinin-Piperaquine in Plasmodium falciparum Malaria Patients in Central Vietnam

    PubMed Central

    Hong, Nguyen Van; Rosanas-Urgell, Anna; Phuc, Bui Quang; Ha, Do Manh; Pockele, Evi; Guetens, Pieter; Van, Nguyen Van; Duong, Tran Thanh; Amambua-Ngwa, Alfred; D'Alessandro, Umberto; Erhart, Annette

    2014-01-01

    Reduced susceptibility of Plasmodium falciparum toward artemisinin derivatives has been reported from the Thai-Cambodian and Thai-Myanmar borders. Following increasing reports from central Vietnam of delayed parasite clearance after treatment with dihydroartemisinin-piperaquine (DHA-PPQ), the current first-line treatment, we carried out a study on the efficacy of this treatment. Between September 2012 and February 2013, we conducted a 42-day in vivo and in vitro efficacy study in Quang Nam Province. Treatment was directly observed, and blood samples were collected twice daily until parasite clearance. In addition, genotyping, quantitative PCR (qPCR), and in vitro sensitivity testing of isolates was performed. The primary endpoints were parasite clearance rate and time. The secondary endpoints included PCR-corrected and uncorrected cure rates, qPCR clearance profiles, in vitro sensitivity results (for chloroquine, dihydroartemisinin, and piperaquine), and genotyping for mutations in the Kelch 13 propeller domain. Out of 672 screened patients, 95 were recruited and 89 available for primary endpoint analyses. The median parasite clearance time (PCT) was 61.7 h (interquartile range [IQR], 47.6 to 83.2 h), and the median parasite clearance rate had a slope half-life of 6.2 h (IQR, 4.4 to 7.5 h). The PCR-corrected efficacy rates were estimated at 100% at day 28 and 97.7% (95% confidence interval, 91.2% to 99.4%) at day 42. At day 3, the P. falciparum prevalence by qPCR was 2.5 times higher than that by microscopy. The 50% inhibitory concentrations (IC50s) of isolates with delayed clearance times (?72 h) were significantly higher than those with normal clearance times for all three drugs. Delayed parasite clearance (PCT, ?72 h) was significantly higher among day 0 samples carrying the 543 mutant allele (47.8%) than those carrying the wild-type allele (1.8%; P = 0.048). In central Vietnam, the efficacy of DHA-PPQ is still satisfactory, but the parasite clearance time and rate are indicative of emerging artemisinin resistance. (This study has been registered at ClinicalTrials.gov under registration no. NCT01775592.) PMID:25224002

  16. Population dynamics of sporogony for Plasmodium vivax parasites from western Thailand developing within three species of colonized Anopheles mosquitoes

    PubMed Central

    Zollner, Gabriela E; Ponsa, Narong; Garman, Gabriel W; Poudel, Shreekanta; Bell, Jeffrey A; Sattabongkot, Jetsumon; Coleman, Russell E; Vaughan, Jefferson A

    2006-01-01

    Background The population dynamics of Plasmodium sporogony within mosquitoes consists of an early phase where parasite abundance decreases during the transition from gametocyte to oocyst, an intermediate phase where parasite abundance remains static as oocysts, and a later phase where parasite abundance increases during the release of progeny sporozoites from oocysts. Sporogonic development is complete when sporozoites invade the mosquito salivary glands. The dynamics and efficiency of this developmental sequence were determined in laboratory strains of Anopheles dirus, Anopheles minimus and Anopheles sawadwongporni mosquitoes for Plasmodium vivax parasites circulating naturally in western Thailand. Methods Mosquitoes were fed blood from 20 symptomatic Thai adults via membrane feeders. Absolute densities were estimated for macrogametocytes, round stages (= female gametes/zygotes), ookinetes, oocysts, haemolymph sporozoites and salivary gland sporozoites. From these census data, five aspects of population dynamics were analysed; 1) changes in life-stage prevalence during early sporogony, 2) kinetics of life-stage formation, 3) efficiency of life-stage transitions, 4) density relationships between successive life-stages, and 5) parasite aggregation patterns. Results There was no difference among the three mosquito species tested in total losses incurred by P. vivax populations during early sporogony. Averaged across all infections, parasite populations incurred a 68-fold loss in abundance, with losses of ca. 19-fold, 2-fold and 2-fold at the first (= gametogenesis/fertilization), second (= round stage transformation), and third (= ookinete migration) life-stage transitions, respectively. However, total losses varied widely among infections, ranging from 6-fold to over 2,000-fold loss. Losses during gametogenesis/fertilization accounted for most of this variability, indicating that gametocytes originating from some volunteers were more fertile than those from other volunteers. Although reasons for such variability were not determined, gametocyte fertility was not correlated with blood haematocrit, asexual parasitaemia, gametocyte density or gametocyte sex ratio. Round stages and ookinetes were present in mosquito midguts for up to 48 hours and development was asynchronous. Parasite losses during fertilization and round stage differentiation were more influenced by factors intrinsic to the parasite and/or factors in the blood, whereas ookinete losses were more strongly influenced by mosquito factors. Oocysts released sporozoites on days 12 to 14, but even by day 22 many oocysts were still present on the midgut. The per capita production was estimated to be approximately 500 sporozoites per oocyst and approximately 75% of the sporozoites released into the haemocoel successfully invaded the salivary glands. Conclusion The major developmental bottleneck in early sporogony occurred during the transition from macrogametocyte to round stage. Sporozoite invasion into the salivary glands was very efficient. Information on the natural population dynamics of sporogony within malaria-endemic areas may benefit intervention strategies that target early sporogony (e.g., transmission blocking vaccines, transgenic mosquitoes). PMID:16887043

  17. Multiple stiffening effects of nanoscale knobs on human red blood cells infected with Plasmodium falciparum malaria parasite.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yao; Huang, Changjin; Kim, Sangtae; Golkaram, Mahdi; Dixon, Matthew W A; Tilley, Leann; Li, Ju; Zhang, Sulin; Suresh, Subra

    2015-05-12

    During its asexual development within the red blood cell (RBC), Plasmodium falciparum (Pf), the most virulent human malaria parasite, exports proteins that modify the host RBC membrane. The attendant increase in cell stiffness and cytoadherence leads to sequestration of infected RBCs in microvasculature, which enables the parasite to evade the spleen, and leads to organ dysfunction in severe cases of malaria. Despite progress in understanding malaria pathogenesis, the molecular mechanisms responsible for the dramatic loss of deformability of Pf-infected RBCs have remained elusive. By recourse to a coarse-grained (CG) model that captures the molecular structures of Pf-infected RBC membrane, here we show that nanoscale surface protrusions, known as "knobs," introduce multiple stiffening mechanisms through composite strengthening, strain hardening, and knob density-dependent vertical coupling. On one hand, the knobs act as structural strengtheners for the spectrin network; on the other, the presence of knobs results in strain inhomogeneity in the spectrin network with elevated shear strain in the knob-free regions, which, given its strain-hardening property, effectively stiffens the network. From the trophozoite to the schizont stage that ensues within 24-48 h of parasite invasion into the RBC, the rise in the knob density results in the increased number of vertical constraints between the spectrin network and the lipid bilayer, which further stiffens the membrane. The shear moduli of Pf-infected RBCs predicted by the CG model at different stages of parasite maturation are in agreement with experimental results. In addition to providing a fundamental understanding of the stiffening mechanisms of Pf-infected RBCs, our simulation results suggest potential targets for antimalarial therapies. PMID:25918423

  18. Molecular cloning, characterization and expression profile of a glutathione peroxidase-like thioredoxin peroxidase (TPxGl) of the rodent malaria parasite Plasmodium berghei.

    PubMed

    Haselton, Kyle J; David, Robin; Fell, Katherine; Schulte, Emily; Dybas, Matthew; Olsen, Kenneth W; Kanzok, Stefan M

    2015-06-01

    Glutathione peroxidases (GPx) comprise an important group of redox active proteins with diverse functions, including antioxidant defense and signaling. Although the genome of the malaria parasite Plasmodium does not contain a genuine GPx gene a glutathione peroxidase-like thioredoxin peroxidase (TPx(Gl)) has recently been identified and biochemically characterized in the human malaria parasite P. falciparum. To gain more insight into the potential biological function of this enzyme we have cloned and expressed TPx(Gl) of the rodent model system P. berghei (PbTPx(Gl)). Biochemical characterization confirmed that the protein is redox active with the P. berghei thioredoxin system. We compared PbTPx(Gl) to recently characterized thioredoxin-dependent GPx-type proteins of other organisms, and generated the first hypothetical 3D model of a Plasmodium TPx(Gl), which shows the conservation of the thioredoxin-fold as well as the spatial orientation of a classic GPx catalytic tetrad. In vivo studies indicate that PbTPx(Gl) is continuously expressed in all P. berghei asexual blood stages, gametocytes and in early mosquito-stage parasites. Confocal microscopy suggest a cytoplasmic localization of PbTPx(Gl) in all investigated parasite life stages, specifically in mature ookinetes. Our data provides new insights into the structure and ubiquitous expression of Plasmodium TPx(Gl) and warrants further investigation into this potentially important redox enzyme. PMID:24637102

  19. Host cell death induced by the egress of intracellular Plasmodium parasites

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Volker Heussler; Annika Rennenberg; Rebecca Stanway

    2010-01-01

    Intracellular pathogens are known to inhibit host cell apoptosis efficiently to ensure their own survival. However, following\\u000a replication within a cell, they typically need to egress in order to infect new cells. For a long time it was assumed that\\u000a this happens by simply disrupting the host cell and in some cases, such as for Plasmodium-infected erythrocytes, this seems indeed

  20. Plasmodium falciparum enolase complements yeast enolase functions and associates with the parasite food vacuole

    PubMed Central

    Das, Sujaan; Shevade, Saudamini; LaCount, Douglas J.; Jarori, Gotam K.

    2012-01-01

    Plasmodium falciparum enolase (Pfeno) localizes to the cytosol, nucleus, cell membrane and cytoskeletal elements, suggesting multiple non-glycolytic functions for this protein. Our recent observation of association of enolase with the food vacuole (FV) in immuno-gold electron microscopic images of P. falciparum raised the possibility for yet another moonlighting function for this protein. Here we provide additional support for this localization by demonstrating the presence of Pfeno in purified FVs by immunoblotting. To examine the potential functional role of FV-associated Pfeno, we assessed the ability of Pfeno to complement a mutant Saccharomyces cervisiae strain deficient in enolase activity. In this strain (Tetr-Eno2), the enolase 1 gene is deleted and expression of the enolase 2 gene is under the control of a tetracycline repressible promoter. Enolase deficiency in this strain was previously shown to cause growth retardation, vacuolar fragmentation and altered expression of certain vacuolar proteins. Expression of Pfeno in the enolase-deficient yeast strain restored all three phenotypic effects. However, transformation of Tetr-eno2 with an enzymatically active, monomeric mutant form of Pfeno (?5Pfeno) fully restored cell growth, but only partially rescued the fragmented vacuolar phenotype, suggesting that the dimeric structure of Pfeno is required for the optimal vacuolar functions. Bioinformatic searches revealed the presence of Plasmodium orthologs of several yeast vacuolar proteins that are predicted to form complexes with Pfeno. Together, these observations raise the possibility that association of Pfeno with food vacuole in Plasmodium may have physiological function(s). PMID:21600245

  1. Spleen-Dependent Regulation of Antigenic Variation in Malaria Parasites: Plasmodium knowlesi SICAvar Expression Profiles in Splenic and Asplenic Hosts

    PubMed Central

    Lapp, Stacey A.; Korir-Morrison, Cindy; Jiang, Jianlin; Bai, Yaohui; Corredor, Vladimir; Galinski, Mary R.

    2013-01-01

    Background Antigenic variation by malaria parasites was first described in Plasmodium knowlesi, which infects humans and macaque monkeys, and subsequently in P. falciparum, the most virulent human parasite. The schizont-infected cell agglutination (SICA) variant proteins encoded by the SICAvar multigene family in P. knowlesi, and Erythrocyte Membrane Protein-1 (EMP-1) antigens encoded by the var multigene family in P. falciparum, are expressed at the surface of infected erythrocytes, are associated with virulence, and serve as determinants of naturally acquired immunity. A parental P. knowlesi clone, Pk1(A+), and a related progeny clone, Pk1(B+)1+, derived by an in vivo induced variant antigen switch, were defined by the expression of distinct SICA variant protein doublets of 210/190 and 205/200 kDa, respectively. Passage of SICA[+] infected erythrocytes through splenectomized rhesus monkeys results in the SICA[-] phenotype, defined by the lack of surface expression and agglutination with variant specific antisera. Principal Findings We have investigated SICAvar RNA and protein expression in Pk1(A+), Pk1(B+)1+, and SICA[-] parasites. The Pk1(A+) and Pk1(B+)1+ parasites express different distinct SICAvar transcript and protein repertoires. By comparison, SICA[-] parasites are characterized by a vast reduction in SICAvar RNA expression, the lack of full-length SICAvar transcript signals on northern blots, and correspondingly, the absence of any SICA protein detected by mass spectrometry. Significance SICA protein expression may be under transcriptional as well as post-transcriptional control, and we show for the first time that the spleen, an organ central to blood-stage immunity in malaria, exerts an influence on these processes. Furthermore, proteomics has enabled the first in-depth characterization of SICA[+] protein phenotypes and we show that the in vivo switch from Pk1(A+) to Pk1(B+)1+ parasites resulted in a complete change in SICA profiles. These results emphasize the importance of studying antigenic variation in the context of the host environment. PMID:24205067

  2. Crystallization and preliminary crystallographic analysis of orotidine 5?-monophosphate decarboxylase from the human malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum

    SciTech Connect

    Krungkrai, Sudaratana R. [Unit of Biochemistry, Department of Medical Science, Faculty of Science, Rangsit University, Patumthani 12000 (Thailand); Department of Molecular Protozoology, Research Institute for Microbial Diseases, Osaka University, 3-1 Yamadaoka, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan); Tokuoka, Keiji; Kusakari, Yukiko [Department of Materials Chemistry, Graduate School of Engineering, Osaka University, 2-1 Yamadaoka, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan); Inoue, Tsuyoshi [Department of Materials Chemistry, Graduate School of Engineering, Osaka University, 2-1 Yamadaoka, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan); SOSHO Project (Crystal Design Project), Osaka University, 2-1 Yamadaoka, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan); Adachi, Hiroaki [Department of Electrical Engineering, Osaka University, 2-1 Yamadaoka, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan); SOSHO Project (Crystal Design Project), Osaka University, 2-1 Yamadaoka, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan); Matsumura, Hiroyoshi [Department of Materials Chemistry, Graduate School of Engineering, Osaka University, 2-1 Yamadaoka, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan); SOSHO Project (Crystal Design Project), Osaka University, 2-1 Yamadaoka, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan); Takano, Kazufumi [SOSHO Project (Crystal Design Project), Osaka University, 2-1 Yamadaoka, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan); Department of Material and Life Science, Osaka University, 2-1 Yamadaoka, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan); PRESTO, JST, 2-1 Yamadaoka, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan); Murakami, Satoshi [SOSHO Project (Crystal Design Project), Osaka University, 2-1 Yamadaoka, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan); Department of Cell Membrane Biology, Institute of Scientific and Industrial Research, Osaka University, 8-1 Mihogaoka, Ibaraki, Osaka 567-0047 (Japan); Mori, Yusuke [SOSHO Project (Crystal Design Project), Osaka University, 2-1 Yamadaoka, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan); Department of Electrical Engineering, Osaka University, 2-1 Yamadaoka, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan); Kai, Yasushi [Department of Materials Chemistry, Graduate School of Engineering, Osaka University, 2-1 Yamadaoka, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan); Krungkrai, Jerapan, E-mail: fmedjkk@md2.md.chula.ac.th [Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Medicine, Chulalongkorn University, Rama IV Road, Bangkok 10330 (Thailand); Horii, Toshihiro, E-mail: fmedjkk@md2.md.chula.ac.th [Department of Molecular Protozoology, Research Institute for Microbial Diseases, Osaka University, 3-1 Yamadaoka, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan); Unit of Biochemistry, Department of Medical Science, Faculty of Science, Rangsit University, Patumthani 12000 (Thailand)

    2006-06-01

    Orotidine 5?-monophosphate decarboxylase of human malaria parasite P. falciparum was crystallized by the seeding method in a hanging drop using PEG 3000 as a precipitant. A complete set of diffraction data from a native crystal was collected to 2.7 Å resolution at 100 K using synchrotron radiation. Orotidine 5?-monophosphate (OMP) decarboxylase (OMPDC; EC 4.1.1.23) catalyzes the final step in the de novo synthesis of uridine 5?-monophosphate (UMP) and defects in the enzyme are lethal in the malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum. Active recombinant P. falciparum OMPDC (PfOMPDC) was crystallized by the seeding method in a hanging drop using PEG 3000 as a precipitant. A complete set of diffraction data from a native crystal was collected to 2.7 Å resolution at 100 K using synchrotron radiation at the Swiss Light Source. The crystal exhibits trigonal symmetry (space group R3), with hexagonal unit-cell parameters a = b = 201.81, c = 44.03 Å. With a dimer in the asymmetric unit, the solvent content is 46% (V{sub M} = 2.3 Å{sup 3} Da{sup ?1})

  3. Population genetic study of Plasmodium falciparum parasites pertaining to dhps gene sequence in malaria endemic areas of Assam.

    PubMed

    Sharma, J; Dutta, P; Khan, S A

    2015-01-01

    Plasmodium falciparum malaria parasite had developed resistance to almost all the currently used antimalarial drugs. The purpose of the study was to come across the genetic distances in P. falciparum dhps gene sequences circulating in Assam. A partial fragment of P. falciparum dhps gene containing major single nucleotide polymorphisms associated with sulphadoxine resistance were amplified and sequenced. Thereafter specific bioinformatics tools like BioEdit v7.0.9, ClustalW in Mega 5, DnaSP version v.5.10.01 etc were used for the analysis. A total of 100 P. falciparum positive cases in different malaria endemic areas of Assam were included for the study. Based upon the mutation analysis, a total of seven different P. falciparum dhps genotypes were observed with five variable sites. Maximum five haplotypes were found in the P. falciparum isolates from Jorhat district of Assam. Four polymorphic sites were observed in the P. falciparum dhps gene sequences in Karbi Anglong, NC Hills, Chirang and Jorhat whereas the isolates from other study areas had three polymorphic sites. A statistically significant positive value of Tajima's D were observed among the P. falciparum field isolates in Assam indicating that there is an excess of intermediate frequency alleles and can result from population bottlenecks, structure and/or balancing selection. Extensive gene flow took place among the P. falciparum population of Jorhat with Sivasagar, Chirang with Sivasagar and Chirang with Karbi Anglong. However, large genetic differentiation was observed among the P. falciparum isolates of NC Hills with Lakhimpur, Tinsukia, Dibrugarh and Golaghat and also the parasite population of Karbi Anglong with Lakhimpur and Tinsukia signifying little gene flow among the population. This finding has shown that mutant Pfdhps gene associated with sulphadoxine resistance is circulating in Assam. It is believed that, the parasite population may have undergone high level of breeding. PMID:26068343

  4. Melatonin and IP3-induced Ca2+ Release from Intracellular Stores in the Malaria Parasite Plasmodium falciparum within Infected Red Blood Cells*

    PubMed Central

    Alves, Eduardo; Bartlett, Paula J.; Garcia, Celia R. S.; Thomas, Andrew P.

    2011-01-01

    IP3-dependent Ca2+ signaling controls a myriad of cellular processes in higher eukaryotes and similar signaling pathways are evolutionarily conserved in Plasmodium, the intracellular parasite that causes malaria. We have reported that isolated, permeabilized Plasmodium chabaudi, releases Ca2+ upon addition of exogenous IP3. In the present study, we investigated whether the IP3 signaling pathway operates in intact Plasmodium falciparum, the major disease-causing human malaria parasite. P. falciparum-infected red blood cells (RBCs) in the trophozoite stage were simultaneously loaded with the Ca2+ indicator Fluo-4/AM and caged-IP3. Photolytic release of IP3 elicited a transient Ca2+ increase in the cytosol of the intact parasite within the RBC. The intracellular Ca2+ pools of the parasite were selectively discharged, using thapsigargin to deplete endoplasmic reticulum (ER) Ca2+ and the antimalarial chloroquine to deplete Ca2+ from acidocalcisomes. These data show that the ER is the major IP3-sensitive Ca2+ store. Previous work has shown that the human host hormone melatonin regulates P. falciparum cell cycle via a Ca2+-dependent pathway. In the present study, we demonstrate that melatonin increases inositol-polyphosphate production in intact intraerythrocytic parasite. Moreover, the Ca2+ responses to melatonin and uncaging of IP3 were mutually exclusive in infected RBCs. Taken together these data provide evidence that melatonin activates PLC to generate IP3 and open ER-localized IP3-sensitive Ca2+ channels in P. falciparum. This receptor signaling pathway is likely to be involved in the regulation and synchronization of parasite cell cycle progression. PMID:21149448

  5. Plasmodium falciparum Erythrocyte Membrane Protein 1 is a Parasitized Erythrocyte Receptor for Adherence to CD36, Thrombospondin, and Intercellular Adhesion Molecule 1

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. I. Baruch; J. A. Gormley; C. Ma; R. J. Howard; B. L. Pasloske

    1996-01-01

    Adherence of mature Plasmodium falciparum parasitized erythrocytes (PRBCs) to microvascular endothelium contributes directly to acute malaria pathology. We affinity purified molecules from detergent extracts of surface-radioiodinated PRBCs using several endothelial cell receptors known to support PRBC adherence, including CD36, thrombospondin (TSP), and intercellular adhesion molecule 1 (ICAM-1). All three host receptors affinity purified P. falciparum erythrocyte membrane protein 1 (PfEMP1),

  6. Plasmodium falciparum synthetic LbL microparticle vaccine elicits protective neutralizing antibody and parasite-specific cellular immune responses

    PubMed Central

    Powell, Thomas J.; Tang, Jie; DeRome, Mary E.; Mitchell, Robert A.; Jacobs, Andrea; Deng, Yanhong; Palath, Naveen; Cardenas, Edwin; Boyd, James G.; Nardin, Elizabeth

    2013-01-01

    Epitopes of the circumsporozoite (CS) protein of Plasmodium falciparum, the most pathogenic species of the malaria parasite, have been shown to elicit protective immunity in experimental animals and human volunteers. The mechanisms of immunity include parasite-neutralizing antibodies that can inhibit parasite motility in the skin at the site of infection and in the bloodstream during transit to the hepatocyte host cell and also block interaction with host cell receptors on hepatocytes. In addition, specific CD4+ and CD8+ cellular mechanisms target the intracellular hepatic forms, thus preventing release of erythrocytic stage parasites from the infected hepatocyte and the ensuing blood stage cycle responsible for clinical disease. An innovative method for producing particle vaccines, layer-by-layer (LbL) fabrication of polypeptide films on solid CaCO3 cores, was used to produce synthetic malaria vaccines containing a tri-epitope CS peptide T1BT* comprising the antibody epitope of the CS repeat region (B) and two T-cell epitopes, the highly conserved T1 epitope and the universal epitope T*. Mice immunized with microparticles loaded with T1BT* peptide developed parasite-neutralizing antibodies and malaria-specific T-cell responses including cytotoxic effector T-cells. Protection from liver stage infection following challenge with live sporozoites from infected mosquitoes correlated with neutralizing antibody levels. Although some immunized mice with low or undetectable neutralizing antibodies were also protected, depletion of T-cells prior to challenge resulted in the majority of mice remaining resistant to challenge. In addition, mice immunized with microparticles bearing only T-cell epitopes were not protected, demonstrating that cellular immunity alone was not sufficient for protective immunity. Although the microparticles without adjuvant were immunogenic and protective, a simple modification with the lipopeptide TLR2 agonist Pam3Cys increased the potency and efficacy of the LbL vaccine candidate. This study demonstrates the potential of LbL particles as promising malaria vaccine candidates using the T1BT* epitopes from the P. falciparum CS protein. PMID:23481177

  7. Perturbations of Plasmodium Puf2 Expression and RNA-seq of Puf2-Deficient Sporozoites Reveal a Critical Role in Maintaining RNA Homeostasis and Parasite Transmissibility

    PubMed Central

    Lindner, Scott E.; Mikolajczak, Sebastian A.; Vaughan, Ashley M.; Moon, Wonjong; Joyce, Brad R.; Sullivan, William J.; Kappe, Stefan H. I.

    2013-01-01

    Summary Malaria's cycle of infection requires parasite transmission between a mosquito vector and a mammalian host. We here demonstrate that the Plasmodium yoelii Pumilio-FBF family member Puf2 allows the sporozoite to remain infectious in the mosquito salivary glands while awaiting transmission. Puf2 mediates this solely through its RNA-Binding Domain (RBD) likely by stabilizing or hastening the degradation of specific mRNAs. Puf2 traffics to sporozoite cytosolic granules, which are negative for several markers of stress granules and P-bodies, and disappear rapidly after infection of hepatocytes. In contrast to previously described Plasmodium berghei pbpuf2? parasites, pypuf2? sporozoites have no apparent defect in host infection when tested early in salivary gland residence, but become progressively noninfectious and prematurely transform into EEFs during prolonged salivary gland residence. The premature overexpression of Puf2 in oocysts causes striking deregulation of sporozoite maturation and infectivity while extension of Puf2 expression in liver stages causes no defect, suggesting that the presence of Puf2 alone is not sufficient for its functions. Finally, by conducting the first comparative RNA-seq analysis of Plasmodium sporozoites, we find that Puf2 may play a role in directly or indirectly maintaining the homeostasis of specific transcripts. These findings uncover requirements for maintaining a window of opportunity for the malaria parasite to accommodate the unpredictable moment of transmission from mosquito to mammalian host. PMID:23356439

  8. Crystal structure and solution characterization of the thioredoxin-2 from Plasmodium falciparum, a constituent of an essential parasitic protein export complex.

    PubMed

    Peng, Mindy; Cascio, Duilio; Egea, Pascal F

    2015-01-01

    Survival of the malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum when it infects red blood cells depends upon its ability to export hundreds of its proteins beyond an encasing vacuole. Protein export is mediated by a parasite-derived protein complex, the Plasmodium translocon of exported proteins (PTEX), and requires unfolding of the different cargos prior to their translocation across the vacuolar membrane. Unfolding is performed by the AAA+protein unfoldase HSP101/ClpB2 and the thioredoxin-2 enzyme (TRX2). Protein trafficking is dramatically impaired in parasites with defective HSP101 or lacking TRX2. These two PTEX subunits drive export and are targets for the design of a novel class of antimalarials: protein export inhibitors. To rationalize inhibitor design, we solved the crystal structure of Pfal-TRX2 at 2.2-Å resolution. Within the asymmetric unit, the three different copies of this protein disulfide reductase sample its two redox catalytic states. Size exclusion chromatography and small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) analyses demonstrate that Pfal-TRX2 is monomeric in solution. A non-conserved N-terminal extension precedes the canonical thioredoxin-fold; although it is not observed in our structure, our solution analysis suggests it is flexible in contrast to Plasmodium thioredoxin-1. This represents a first step towards the reconstitution of the entire PTEX for mechanistic and structural studies. PMID:25475729

  9. Plasmodium falciparum Rab5B Is an N-Terminally Myristoylated Rab GTPase That Is Targeted to the Parasite's Plasma and Food Vacuole Membranes

    PubMed Central

    Ezougou, Carinne Ndjembo; Ben-Rached, Fathia; Moss, David K.; Lin, Jing-wen; Black, Sally; Knuepfer, Ellen; Green, Judith L.; Khan, Shahid M.; Mukhopadhyay, Amitabha; Janse, Chris J.; Coppens, Isabelle; Yera, Hélène; Holder, Anthony A.; Langsley, Gordon

    2014-01-01

    Plasmodium falciparum (Pf) has a family of 11 Rab GTPases to regulate its vesicular transport. However, PfRab5B is unique in lacking a C-terminal geranyl-geranylation motif, while having N-terminal palmitoylation and myristoylation motifs. We show that the N-terminal glycine is required for PfRab5B myristoylation in vitro and when an N-terminal PfRab5B fragment possessing both acylation motifs is fused to GFP and expressed in transgenic P. falciparum parasites, the chimeric PfRab5B protein localizes to the plasma membrane. Upon substitution of the modified glycine by alanine the staining becomes diffuse and GFP is found in soluble subcellular fractions. Immuno-electron microscopy shows endogenous PfRab5B decorating the parasite's plasma and food vacuole membranes. Using reverse genetics rab5b couldn't be deleted from the haploid genome of asexual blood stage P. berghei parasites. The failure of PbRab5A or PbRab5C to complement for loss of PbRab5B function indicates non-overlapping roles for the three Plasmodium Rab5s, with PfRab5B involved in trafficking MSP1 to the food vacuole membrane and CK1 to the plasma membrane. We discuss similarities between Plasmodium Rab5B and Arabidopsis thaliana ARA6, a similarly unusual Rab5-like GTPase of plants. PMID:24498355

  10. Efficacy of a Plasmodium vivax malaria vaccine using ChAd63 and modified vaccinia Ankara expressing thrombospondin-related anonymous protein as assessed with transgenic Plasmodium berghei parasites.

    PubMed

    Bauza, Karolis; Malinauskas, Tomas; Pfander, Claudia; Anar, Burcu; Jones, E Yvonne; Billker, Oliver; Hill, Adrian V S; Reyes-Sandoval, Arturo

    2014-03-01

    Plasmodium vivax is the world's most widely distributed malaria parasite and a potential cause of morbidity and mortality for approximately 2.85 billion people living mainly in Southeast Asia and Latin America. Despite this dramatic burden, very few vaccines have been assessed in humans. The clinically relevant vectors modified vaccinia virus Ankara (MVA) and the chimpanzee adenovirus ChAd63 are promising delivery systems for malaria vaccines due to their safety profiles and proven ability to induce protective immune responses against Plasmodium falciparum thrombospondin-related anonymous protein (TRAP) in clinical trials. Here, we describe the development of new recombinant ChAd63 and MVA vectors expressing P. vivax TRAP (PvTRAP) and show their ability to induce high antibody titers and T cell responses in mice. In addition, we report a novel way of assessing the efficacy of new candidate vaccines against P. vivax using a fully infectious transgenic Plasmodium berghei parasite expressing P. vivax TRAP to allow studies of vaccine efficacy and protective mechanisms in rodents. Using this model, we found that both CD8+ T cells and antibodies mediated protection against malaria using virus-vectored vaccines. Our data indicate that ChAd63 and MVA expressing PvTRAP are good preerythrocytic-stage vaccine candidates with potential for future clinical application. PMID:24379295

  11. The role of extracellular vesicles in Plasmodium and other protozoan parasites.

    PubMed

    Mantel, Pierre-Yves; Marti, Matthias

    2014-03-01

    Protozoan parasites and other microorganisms use various pathways to communicate within their own populations and to manipulate their outside environments, with the ultimate goal of balancing the rate of growth and transmission. In higher eukaryotes, including humans, circulating extracellular vesicles are increasingly recognized as key mediators of physiological and pathological processes. Recent evidence suggests that protozoan parasites, including those responsible for major human diseases such as malaria and Chagas disease, use similar machinery. Indeed, intracellular and extracellular protozoan parasites secrete extracellular vesicles to promote growth and induce transmission, to evade the host immune system, and to manipulate the microenvironment. In this review we will discuss the general pathways of extracellular vesicle biogenesis and their functions in protozoan infections. PMID:24406102

  12. Serine Proteases of Malaria Parasite Plasmodium falciparum: Potential as Antimalarial Drug Targets

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Malaria is a major global parasitic disease and a cause of enormous mortality and morbidity. Widespread drug resistance against currently available antimalarials warrants the identification of novel drug targets and development of new drugs. Malarial proteases are a group of molecules that serve as potential drug targets because of their essentiality for parasite life cycle stages and feasibility of designing specific inhibitors against them. Proteases belonging to various mechanistic classes are found in P. falciparum, of which serine proteases are of particular interest due to their involvement in parasite-specific processes of egress and invasion. In P. falciparum, a number of serine proteases belonging to chymotrypsin, subtilisin, and rhomboid clans are found. This review focuses on the potential of P. falciparum serine proteases as antimalarial drug targets. PMID:24799897

  13. The effects of anti-bacterials on the malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Christopher Dean Goodman; Vanessa Su; Geoffrey I. McFadden

    2007-01-01

    Many anti-bacterial drugs inhibit growth of malaria parasites by targeting their bacterium-derived endosymbiotic organelles, the mitochondrion and plastid. Several of these drugs are either in use or being developed as therapeutics or prophylactics, so it is paramount to understand more about their target of action and modality. To this end, we measured in vitro growth and visualized nuclear division and

  14. The Mu Subunit of Plasmodium falciparum Clathrin-Associated Adaptor Protein 2 Modulates In Vitro Parasite Response to Artemisinin and Quinine

    PubMed Central

    Henriques, Gisela; van Schalkwyk, Donelly A.; Burrow, Rebekah; Warhurst, David C.; Thompson, Eloise; Baker, David A.; Fidock, David A.; Hallett, Rachel; Flueck, Christian

    2015-01-01

    The emergence of drug-resistant parasites is a serious threat faced by malaria control programs. Understanding the genetic basis of resistance is critical to the success of treatment and intervention strategies. A novel locus associated with antimalarial resistance, ap2-mu (encoding the mu chain of the adaptor protein 2 [AP2] complex), was recently identified in studies on the rodent malaria parasite Plasmodium chabaudi (pcap2-mu). Furthermore, analysis in Kenyan malaria patients of polymorphisms in the Plasmodium falciparum ap2-mu homologue, pfap2-mu, found evidence that differences in the amino acid encoded by codon 160 are associated with enhanced parasite survival in vivo following combination treatments which included artemisinin derivatives. Here, we characterize the role of pfap2-mu in mediating the in vitro antimalarial drug response of P. falciparum by generating transgenic parasites constitutively expressing codon 160 encoding either the wild-type Ser (Ser160) or the Asn mutant (160Asn) form of pfap2-mu. Transgenic parasites carrying the pfap2-mu 160Asn allele were significantly less sensitive to dihydroartemisinin using a standard 48-h in vitro test, providing direct evidence of an altered parasite response to artemisinin. Our data also provide evidence that pfap2-mu variants can modulate parasite sensitivity to quinine. No evidence was found that pfap2-mu variants contribute to the slow-clearance phenotype exhibited by P. falciparum in Cambodian patients treated with artesunate monotherapy. These findings provide compelling evidence that pfap2-mu can modulate P. falciparum responses to multiple drugs. We propose that this gene should be evaluated further as a potential molecular marker of antimalarial resistance. PMID:25691625

  15. Landscape features associated with infection by a malaria parasite (Plasmodium mexicanum) and the importance of multiple scale studies.

    PubMed

    Eisen, R J; Wright, N M

    2001-05-01

    In a 3-year study, we examined landscape features (aspect, slope, sun exposure, canopy cover, type of ground cover, and nearest water source) that were potentially related to prevalence of infection with Plasmodium mexicanum in fence lizards (Sceloporus occidentalis) within a 4.5 ha study area in northern California, USA. Logistic regression analysis showed that ground cover type was the primary mediator of the probability of P. mexicanum infection. Infected lizards were captured more often in rock and/or leaf litter locations than in grassy ones. In another experiment, the study area was divided into 9 sites (0.07-0.33 ha), and infection prevalence was calculated for each. Three sites with high (> 30%) infection prevalence had significantly more rocky outcrops and leaf litter than those with low (< 20%) or moderate (20-30%) infection prevalence (N = 3 sites each). We conclude that lizard site selection may influence the probability of exposure to infected vectors and thus the likelihood of P. mexicanum infection. We also demonstrate that studies at different spatial scales may be required to understand fully the relationship between landscape features and parasite distribution. PMID:11393823

  16. Distribution of Drug Resistance Genotypes in Plasmodium falciparum in an Area of Limited Parasite Diversity in Saudi Arabia

    PubMed Central

    Bin Dajem, Saad M.; Al-Farsi, Hissa M.; Al-Hashami, Zainab S.; Al-Sheikh, Adel Ali H.; Al-Qahtani, Ahmed; Babiker, Hamza A.

    2012-01-01

    Two hundred and three Plasmodium falciparum isolates from Jazan area, southwest Saudi Arabia, were typed for Pfcrt, Pfmdr1, dhps, and dhfr mutations associated with resistance to chloroquine, mefloquine, halofantrine, artemisinin, sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine, and the neutral polymorphic gene Pfg377. A large proportion (33%) of isolates harbored double mutant dhfr genotype (51I,59C,108N). However, only one isolate contained mutation dhps-437G. For Pfcrt, almost all examined isolates (163; 99%) harbored the mutant genotype (72C,73V,74I,75E,76T), whereas only 49 (31%) contained the mutant Pfmdr1 genotype (86Y,184F,1034S,1042N), 109 (66%) harbored the single mutant genotype (86N,184F,1034S,1042N), and no mutations were seen in codons 1034, 1042, and 1246. Nonetheless, three new single-nucleotide polymorphisms were detected at codons 182, 192, and 102. No differences were seen in distribution of drug resistance genes among Saudis and expatriates. There was a limited multiplicity (5%), mean number of clones (1.05), and two dominant multilocus genotypes among infected individuals in Jazan. A pattern consistent with limited cross-mating and recombination among local parasite was apparent. PMID:22556074

  17. Quantitative analysis of Plasmodium ookinete motion in three dimensions suggests a critical role for cell shape in the biomechanics of malaria parasite gliding motility.

    PubMed

    Kan, Andrey; Tan, Yan-Hong; Angrisano, Fiona; Hanssen, Eric; Rogers, Kelly L; Whitehead, Lachlan; Mollard, Vanessa P; Cozijnsen, Anton; Delves, Michael J; Crawford, Simon; Sinden, Robert E; McFadden, Geoffrey I; Leckie, Christopher; Bailey, James; Baum, Jake

    2014-05-01

    Motility is a fundamental part of cellular life and survival, including for Plasmodium parasites--single-celled protozoan pathogens responsible for human malaria. The motile life cycle forms achieve motility, called gliding, via the activity of an internal actomyosin motor. Although gliding is based on the well-studied system of actin and myosin, its core biomechanics are not completely understood. Currently accepted models suggest it results from a specifically organized cellular motor that produces a rearward directional force. When linked to surface-bound adhesins, this force is passaged to the cell posterior, propelling the parasite forwards. Gliding motility is observed in all three life cycle stages of Plasmodium: sporozoites, merozoites and ookinetes. However, it is only the ookinetes--formed inside the midgut of infected mosquitoes--that display continuous gliding without the necessity of host cell entry. This makes them ideal candidates for invasion-free biomechanical analysis. Here we apply a plate-based imaging approach to study ookinete motion in three-dimensional (3D) space to understand Plasmodium cell motility and how movement facilitates midgut colonization. Using single-cell tracking and numerical analysis of parasite motion in 3D, our analysis demonstrates that ookinetes move with a conserved left-handed helical trajectory. Investigation of cell morphology suggests this trajectory may be based on the ookinete subpellicular cytoskeleton, with complementary whole and subcellular electron microscopy showing that, like their motion paths, ookinetes share a conserved left-handed corkscrew shape and underlying twisted microtubular architecture. Through comparisons of 3D movement between wild-type ookinetes and a cytoskeleton-knockout mutant we demonstrate that perturbation of cell shape changes motion from helical to broadly linear. Therefore, while the precise linkages between cellular architecture and actomyosin motor organization remain unknown, our analysis suggests that the molecular basis of cell shape may, in addition to motor force, be a key adaptive strategy for malaria parasite dissemination and, as such, transmission. PMID:24612056

  18. High-resolution three-dimensional imaging of red blood cells parasitized by Plasmodium falciparum and in situ hemozoin crystals using optical diffraction tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Kyoohyun; Yoon, HyeOk; Diez-Silva, Monica; Dao, Ming; Dasari, Ramachandra R.; Park, YongKeun

    2014-01-01

    We present high-resolution optical tomographic images of human red blood cells (RBC) parasitized by malaria-inducing Plasmodium falciparum (Pf)-RBCs. Three-dimensional (3-D) refractive index (RI) tomograms are reconstructed by recourse to a diffraction algorithm from multiple two-dimensional holograms with various angles of illumination. These 3-D RI tomograms of Pf-RBCs show cellular and subcellular structures of host RBCs and invaded parasites in fine detail. Full asexual intraerythrocytic stages of parasite maturation (ring to trophozoite to schizont stages) are then systematically investigated using optical diffraction tomography algorithms. These analyses provide quantitative information on the structural and chemical characteristics of individual host Pf-RBCs, parasitophorous vacuole, and cytoplasm. The in situ structural evolution and chemical characteristics of subcellular hemozoin crystals are also elucidated.

  19. High-resolution three-dimensional imaging of red blood cells parasitized by Plasmodium falciparum and in situ hemozoin crystals using optical diffraction tomography

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Kyoohyun; Yoon, HyeOk; Diez-Silva, Monica; Dao, Ming; Dasari, Ramachandra R.; Park, YongKeun

    2013-01-01

    Abstract. We present high-resolution optical tomographic images of human red blood cells (RBC) parasitized by malaria-inducing Plasmodium falciparum (Pf)-RBCs. Three-dimensional (3-D) refractive index (RI) tomograms are reconstructed by recourse to a diffraction algorithm from multiple two-dimensional holograms with various angles of illumination. These 3-D RI tomograms of Pf-RBCs show cellular and subcellular structures of host RBCs and invaded parasites in fine detail. Full asexual intraerythrocytic stages of parasite maturation (ring to trophozoite to schizont stages) are then systematically investigated using optical diffraction tomography algorithms. These analyses provide quantitative information on the structural and chemical characteristics of individual host Pf-RBCs, parasitophorous vacuole, and cytoplasm. The in situ structural evolution and chemical characteristics of subcellular hemozoin crystals are also elucidated. PMID:23797986

  20. Preferential targeting of human erythrocytes infected with the malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparumvia hexose transporter surface proteins.

    PubMed

    Heikham, Kajal Devi; Gupta, Ankit; Kumar, Ambrish; Singh, Chandan; Saxena, Juhi; Srivastava, Kumkum; Puri, Sunil K; Dwivedi, Anil K; Habib, Saman; Misra, Amit

    2015-04-10

    Glucose uptake by Plasmodium-infected erythrocytes (RBC) is higher compared to uninfected RBC. Glucose is transported across the cell membrane by transporter proteins. Particles of median size 146.3±18.7 nm, containing anti-malarial agents in corn starch were prepared for investigating: (a) whether the glucose moiety in starch targets RBC via hexose transporter(s), (b) whether there are differences in the extent of targeting to uninfected RBC versus infected RBC (iRBC) in view of higher cell surface density of these proteins on iRBC and (c) whether targeting provides enhanced efficacy against P. falciparum in comparison to drugs in solution. Binding of these particles to RBC was target-specific, since it could be blocked by phloretin, an inhibitor of glucose transporters (GLUT), or competed out in a dose-dependent manner with d-glucose in a flow cytometry assay. Significant (P=0.048, t-test) differences in extent of targeting to iRBC versus RBC were observed in flow cytometry. CDRI 97/63 incorporated in particles was 63% more efficacious than its solution at 250 ng/ml, while quinine was 20% more efficacious at 6.25 ng/ml in a SYBR Green incorporation assay. Preferential targeting of iRBC using an inexpensive excipient promises advantages in terms of dose reduction and toxicity alleviation. PMID:25666024

  1. A bacterial phosphatase-like enzyme of the malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum possesses tyrosine phosphatase activity and is implicated in the regulation of band 3 dynamics during parasite invasion.

    PubMed

    Fernandez-Pol, Sebastian; Slouka, Zdenek; Bhattacharjee, Souvik; Fedotova, Yana; Freed, Stefan; An, Xiuli; Holder, Anthony A; Campanella, Estela; Low, Philip S; Mohandas, Narla; Haldar, Kasturi

    2013-09-01

    Eukaryotic parasites of the genus Plasmodium cause malaria by invading and developing within host erythrocytes. Here, we demonstrate that PfShelph2, a gene product of Plasmodium falciparum that belongs to the Shewanella-like phosphatase (Shelph) subfamily, selectively hydrolyzes phosphotyrosine, as shown for other previously studied Shelph family members. In the extracellular merozoite stage, PfShelph2 localizes to vesicles that appear to be distinct from those of rhoptry, dense granule, or microneme organelles. During invasion, PfShelph2 is released from these vesicles and exported to the host erythrocyte. In vitro, PfShelph2 shows tyrosine phosphatase activity against the host erythrocyte protein Band 3, which is the most abundant tyrosine-phosphorylated species of the erythrocyte. During P. falciparum invasion, Band 3 undergoes dynamic and rapid clearance from the invasion junction within 1 to 2 s of parasite attachment to the erythrocyte. Release of Pfshelph2 occurs after clearance of Band 3 from the parasite-host cell interface and when the parasite is nearly or completely enclosed in the nascent vacuole. We propose a model in which the phosphatase modifies Band 3 in time to restore its interaction with the cytoskeleton and thus reestablishes the erythrocyte cytoskeletal network at the end of the invasion process. PMID:23825180

  2. A Bacterial Phosphatase-Like Enzyme of the Malaria Parasite Plasmodium falciparum Possesses Tyrosine Phosphatase Activity and Is Implicated in the Regulation of Band 3 Dynamics during Parasite Invasion

    PubMed Central

    Fernandez-Pol, Sebastian; Slouka, Zdenek; Bhattacharjee, Souvik; Fedotova, Yana; Freed, Stefan; An, Xiuli; Holder, Anthony A.; Campanella, Estela; Low, Philip S.

    2013-01-01

    Eukaryotic parasites of the genus Plasmodium cause malaria by invading and developing within host erythrocytes. Here, we demonstrate that PfShelph2, a gene product of Plasmodium falciparum that belongs to the Shewanella-like phosphatase (Shelph) subfamily, selectively hydrolyzes phosphotyrosine, as shown for other previously studied Shelph family members. In the extracellular merozoite stage, PfShelph2 localizes to vesicles that appear to be distinct from those of rhoptry, dense granule, or microneme organelles. During invasion, PfShelph2 is released from these vesicles and exported to the host erythrocyte. In vitro, PfShelph2 shows tyrosine phosphatase activity against the host erythrocyte protein Band 3, which is the most abundant tyrosine-phosphorylated species of the erythrocyte. During P. falciparum invasion, Band 3 undergoes dynamic and rapid clearance from the invasion junction within 1 to 2 s of parasite attachment to the erythrocyte. Release of Pfshelph2 occurs after clearance of Band 3 from the parasite-host cell interface and when the parasite is nearly or completely enclosed in the nascent vacuole. We propose a model in which the phosphatase modifies Band 3 in time to restore its interaction with the cytoskeleton and thus reestablishes the erythrocyte cytoskeletal network at the end of the invasion process. PMID:23825180

  3. Habitat Fragmentation and Ecological Traits Influence the Prevalence of Avian Blood Parasites in a Tropical Rainforest Landscape

    PubMed Central

    Laurance, Susan G. W.; Jones, Dean; Westcott, David; Mckeown, Adam; Harrington, Graham; Hilbert, David W.

    2013-01-01

    In the tropical rainforests of northern Australia, we investigated the effects of habitat fragmentation and ecological parameters on the prevalence of blood-borne parasites (Plasmodium and Haemoproteus) in bird communities. Using mist-nets on forest edges and interiors, we sampled bird communities across six study sites: 3 large fragments (20–85 ha) and 3 continuous-forest sites. From 335 mist-net captures, we recorded 28 bird species and screened 299 bird samples with PCR to amplify and detect target DNA. Of the 28 bird species sampled, 19 were infected with Plasmodium and/or Haemoproteus and 9 species were without infection. Over one third of screened birds (99 individuals) were positive for Haemoproteus and/or Plasmodium. In forest fragments, bird capture rates were significantly higher than in continuous forests, but bird species richness did not differ. Unexpectedly, we found that the prevalence of the dominant haemosporidian infection, Haemoproteus, was significantly higher in continuous forest than in habitat fragments. Further, we found that ecological traits such as diet, foraging height, habitat specialisation and distributional ranges were significantly associated with blood-borne infections. PMID:24124541

  4. The Clp Chaperones and Proteases of the Human Malaria Parasite Plasmodium falciparum

    SciTech Connect

    M El Bakkouri; A Pow; A Mulichak; K Cheung; J Artz; M Amani; S Fell; T de Koning-Ward; C Goodman; et al.

    2011-12-31

    The Clpchaperones and proteases play an important role in protein homeostasis in the cell. They are highly conserved across prokaryotes and found also in the mitochondria of eukaryotes and the chloroplasts of plants. They function mainly in the disaggregation, unfolding and degradation of native as well as misfolded proteins. Here, we provide a comprehensive analysis of the Clpchaperones and proteases in the humanmalariaparasitePlasmodiumfalciparum. The parasite contains four Clp ATPases, which we term PfClpB1, PfClpB2, PfClpC and PfClpM. One PfClpP, the proteolytic subunit, and one PfClpR, which is an inactive version of the protease, were also identified. Expression of all Clpchaperones and proteases was confirmed in blood-stage parasites. The proteins were localized to the apicoplast, a non-photosynthetic organelle that accommodates several important metabolic pathways in P. falciparum, with the exception of PfClpB2 (also known as Hsp101), which was found in the parasitophorous vacuole. Both PfClpP and PfClpR form mostly homoheptameric rings as observed by size-exclusion chromatography, analytical ultracentrifugation and electron microscopy. The X-ray structure of PfClpP showed the protein as a compacted tetradecamer similar to that observed for Streptococcus pneumoniae and Mycobacterium tuberculosis ClpPs. Our data suggest the presence of a ClpCRP complex in the apicoplast of P. falciparum.

  5. A whole parasite vaccine to control the blood stages of Plasmodium: the case for lateral thinking.

    PubMed

    Good, Michael F

    2011-08-01

    Now, 27 years following the cloning of malaria antigens with the promise of the rapid development of a malaria vaccine, we face significant obstacles that are belatedly being addressed. Poor immunogenicity of subunit vaccine antigens and significant antigenic diversity of target epitopes represent major hurdles for which there are no clear strategies for a way forward within the current paradigm. Thus, a different paradigm - a vaccine that uses the whole organism - is now being examined. Although most advances in this approach relate to a vaccine for the pre-erythrocytic stages (sporozoites, liver stages), this opinion paper will outline the possibilities of developing a whole parasite vaccine for the blood stage and address some of the challenges for this strategy, which are entirely different to the challenges for a subunit vaccine. It is the view of the author that both vaccine paradigms should be pursued, but that success will come more quickly using the paranormal approach of exposing individuals to ultra-low doses of whole attenuated or killed parasites. PMID:21514227

  6. Imputation-Based Population Genetics Analysis of Plasmodium falciparum Malaria Parasites

    PubMed Central

    Samad, Hanif; Coll, Francesc; Preston, Mark D.; Ocholla, Harold; Fairhurst, Rick M.; Clark, Taane G.

    2015-01-01

    Whole-genome sequencing technologies are being increasingly applied to Plasmodium falciparum clinical isolates to identify genetic determinants of malaria pathogenesis. However, genome-wide discovery methods, such as haplotype scans for signatures of natural selection, are hindered by missing genotypes in sequence data. Poor correlation between single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the P. falciparum genome complicates efforts to apply established missing-genotype imputation methods that leverage off patterns of linkage disequilibrium (LD). The accuracy of state-of-the-art, LD-based imputation methods (IMPUTE, Beagle) was assessed by measuring allelic r2 for 459 P. falciparum samples from malaria patients in 4 countries: Thailand, Cambodia, Gambia, and Malawi. In restricting our analysis to 86k high-quality SNPs across the populations, we found that the complete-case analysis was restricted to 21k SNPs (24.5%), despite no single SNP having more than 10% missing genotypes. The accuracy of Beagle in filling in missing genotypes was consistently high across all populations (allelic r2, 0.87-0.96), but the performance of IMPUTE was mixed (allelic r2, 0.34-0.99) depending on reference haplotypes and population. Positive selection analysis using Beagle-imputed haplotypes identified loci involved in resistance to chloroquine (crt) in Thailand, Cambodia, and Gambia, sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine (dhfr, dhps) in Cambodia, and artemisinin (kelch13) in Cambodia. Tajima’s D-based analysis identified genes under balancing selection that encode well-characterized vaccine candidates: apical merozoite antigen 1 (ama1) and merozoite surface protein 1 (msp1). In contrast, the complete-case analysis failed to identify any well-validated drug resistance or candidate vaccine loci, except kelch13. In a setting of low LD and modest levels of missing genotypes, using Beagle to impute P. falciparum genotypes is a viable strategy for conducting accurate large-scale population genetics and association analyses, and supporting global surveillance for drug resistance markers and candidate vaccine antigens. PMID:25928499

  7. The Plasmodium Class XIV Myosin, MyoB, Has a Distinct Subcellular Location in Invasive and Motile Stages of the Malaria Parasite and an Unusual Light Chain*

    PubMed Central

    Yusuf, Noor A.; Green, Judith L.; Wall, Richard J.; Knuepfer, Ellen; Moon, Robert W.; Schulte-Huxel, Christina; Stanway, Rebecca R.; Martin, Stephen R.; Howell, Steven A.; Douse, Christopher H.; Cota, Ernesto; Tate, Edward W.; Tewari, Rita; Holder, Anthony A.

    2015-01-01

    Myosin B (MyoB) is one of the two short class XIV myosins encoded in the Plasmodium genome. Class XIV myosins are characterized by a catalytic “head,” a modified “neck,” and the absence of a “tail” region. Myosin A (MyoA), the other class XIV myosin in Plasmodium, has been established as a component of the glideosome complex important in motility and cell invasion, but MyoB is not well characterized. We analyzed the properties of MyoB using three parasite species as follows: Plasmodium falciparum, Plasmodium berghei, and Plasmodium knowlesi. MyoB is expressed in all invasive stages (merozoites, ookinetes, and sporozoites) of the life cycle, and the protein is found in a discrete apical location in these polarized cells. In P. falciparum, MyoB is synthesized very late in schizogony/merogony, and its location in merozoites is distinct from, and anterior to, that of a range of known proteins present in the rhoptries, rhoptry neck or micronemes. Unlike MyoA, MyoB is not associated with glideosome complex proteins, including the MyoA light chain, myosin A tail domain-interacting protein (MTIP). A unique MyoB light chain (MLC-B) was identified that contains a calmodulin-like domain at the C terminus and an extended N-terminal region. MLC-B localizes to the same extreme apical pole in the cell as MyoB, and the two proteins form a complex. We propose that MLC-B is a MyoB-specific light chain, and for the short class XIV myosins that lack a tail region, the atypical myosin light chains may fulfill that role. PMID:25802338

  8. Licochalcone A, a new antimalarial agent, inhibits in vitro growth of the human malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum and protects mice from P. yoelii infection.

    PubMed Central

    Chen, M; Theander, T G; Christensen, S B; Hviid, L; Zhai, L; Kharazmi, A

    1994-01-01

    Licochalcone A, isolated from Chinese licorice roots, inhibited the in vitro growth of both chloroquine-susceptible (3D7) and chloroquine-resistant (Dd2) Plasmodium falciparum strains in a [3H]hypoxanthine uptake assay. The growth inhibition of the chloroquine-resistant strain by licochalcone A was similar to that of the chloroquine-susceptible strain. To examine the activity of licochalcone A on the different asexual blood stages of the parasite, licochalcone A was added to highly synchronized cultures containing rings, trophozoites, and schizonts. The growth of the parasites at all stages was inhibited by licochalcone A. The in vivo activity of licochalcone A was tested in a mouse model of infection with P. yoelii. Licochalcone A administered either intraperitoneally or orally for 3 to 6 days protected the mice from the otherwise lethal P. yoelii infection. These results demonstrate that licochalcone A exhibits potent antimalarial activity and might be developed into a new antimalarial drug. PMID:7979274

  9. Plasmodium falciparum??heat shock protein 110 stabilizes the asparagine repeat-rich parasite proteome during malarial fevers

    E-print Network

    Muralidharan, Vasant

    One-fourth of Plasmodium falciparum proteins have asparagine repeats that increase the propensity for aggregation, especially at elevated temperatures that occur routinely in malaria-infected patients. Here we report that ...

  10. Exoerythrocytic Plasmodium Parasites Secrete a Cysteine Protease Inhibitor Involved in Sporozoite Invasion and Capable of Blocking Cell Death of Host Hepatocytes

    PubMed Central

    Rennenberg, Annika; Lehmann, Christine; Heitmann, Anna; Witt, Tina; Hansen, Guido; Nagarajan, Krishna; Deschermeier, Christina; Turk, Vito; Hilgenfeld, Rolf; Heussler, Volker T.

    2010-01-01

    Plasmodium parasites must control cysteine protease activity that is critical for hepatocyte invasion by sporozoites, liver stage development, host cell survival and merozoite liberation. Here we show that exoerythrocytic P. berghei parasites express a potent cysteine protease inhibitor (PbICP, P. berghei inhibitor of cysteine proteases). We provide evidence that it has an important function in sporozoite invasion and is capable of blocking hepatocyte cell death. Pre-incubation with specific anti-PbICP antiserum significantly decreased the ability of sporozoites to infect hepatocytes and expression of PbICP in mammalian cells protects them against peroxide- and camptothecin-induced cell death. PbICP is secreted by sporozoites prior to and after hepatocyte invasion, localizes to the parasitophorous vacuole as well as to the parasite cytoplasm in the schizont stage and is released into the host cell cytoplasm at the end of the liver stage. Like its homolog falstatin/PfICP in P. falciparum, PbICP consists of a classical N-terminal signal peptide, a long N-terminal extension region and a chagasin-like C-terminal domain. In exoerythrocytic parasites, PbICP is posttranslationally processed, leading to liberation of the C-terminal chagasin-like domain. Biochemical analysis has revealed that both full-length PbICP and the truncated C-terminal domain are very potent inhibitors of cathepsin L-like host and parasite cysteine proteases. The results presented in this study suggest that the inhibitor plays an important role in sporozoite invasion of host cells and in parasite survival during liver stage development by inhibiting host cell proteases involved in programmed cell death. PMID:20361051

  11. LIFE HISTORY OF A MALARIA PARASITE ( PLASMODIUM MEXICANUM ) IN ITS HOST, THE WESTERN FENCE LIZARD ( SCELOPORUS OCCIDENTALIS ): HOST TESTOSTERONE AS A SOURCE OF SEASONAL AND AMONG-HOST VARIATION?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rebecca J. Eisen; Dale F. DeNardo

    2000-01-01

    The course of infection of a malaria parasite (Plasmodium mexicanum)is highly variable in its host, the fence lizard (Sceloporus occidentalis). However, a seasonal trend is superimposed on this variation such that gametocyte production is inten- sified during mid- to late summer. Host testosterone levels follow a similar seasonal fluctuation and are variable among individual lizards. We sought to determine if

  12. Parasites

    MedlinePLUS

    ... are easily treated and some are not. The burden of these diseases often rests on communities in the tropics and subtropics, but parasitic infections also affect people in developed countries. More about parasites ... ...

  13. Role of complex II in anaerobic respiration of the parasite mitochondria from Ascaris suum and Plasmodium falciparum

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kiyoshi Kita; Hiroko Hirawake; Hiroko Miyadera; Hisako Amino; Satoru Takeo

    2002-01-01

    Parasites have developed a variety of physiological functions necessary for existence within the specialized environment of the host. Regarding energy metabolism, which is an essential factor for survival, parasites adapt to low oxygen tension in host mammals using metabolic systems that are very different from that of the host. The majority of parasites do not use the oxygen available within

  14. Immunization of Mice with Live-Attenuated Late Liver Stage-Arresting Plasmodium yoelii Parasites Generates Protective Antibody Responses to Preerythrocytic Stages of Malaria

    PubMed Central

    Keitany, Gladys J.; Sack, Brandon; Smithers, Hannah; Chen, Lin; Jang, Ihn K.; Sebastian, Leslie; Gupta, Megha; Sather, D. Noah; Vignali, Marissa; Vaughan, Ashley M.; Kappe, Stefan H. I.

    2014-01-01

    Understanding protective immunity to malaria is essential for the design of an effective vaccine to prevent the large number of infections and deaths caused by this parasitic disease. To date, whole-parasite immunization with attenuated parasites is the most effective method to confer sterile protection against malaria infection in clinical trials. Mouse model studies have highlighted the essential role that CD8+ T cells play in protection against preerythrocytic stages of malaria; however, there is mounting evidence that antibodies are also important in these stages. Here, we show that experimental immunization of mice with Plasmodium yoelii fabb/f? (Pyfabb/f?), a genetically attenuated rodent malaria parasite that arrests late in the liver stage, induced functional antibodies that inhibited hepatocyte invasion in vitro and reduced liver-stage burden in vivo. These antibodies were sufficient to induce sterile protection from challenge by P. yoelii sporozoites in the absence of T cells in 50% of mice when sporozoites were administered by mosquito bite but not when they were administered by intravenous injection. Moreover, among mice challenged by mosquito bite, a higher proportion of BALB/c mice than C57BL/6 mice developed sterile protection (62.5% and 37.5%, respectively). Analysis of the antibody isotypes induced by immunization with Pyfabb/f? showed that, overall, BALB/c mice developed an IgG1-biased response, whereas C57BL/6 mice developed an IgG2b/c-biased response. Our data demonstrate for the first time that antibodies induced by experimental immunization of mice with a genetically attenuated rodent parasite play a protective role during the preerythrocytic stages of malaria. Furthermore, they highlight the importance of considering both the route of challenge and the genetic background of the mouse strains used when interpreting vaccine efficacy studies in animal models of malaria infection. PMID:25267837

  15. The GCaMP3 – A GFP-based calcium sensor for imaging calcium dynamics in the human malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum

    PubMed Central

    Borges-Pereira, Lucas; Campos, Bruna R.K.L.; Garcia, Celia R.S.

    2014-01-01

    Calcium (Ca2+) signaling pathways are vital for all eukaryotic cells. It is well established that changes in Ca2+ concentration can modulate several physiological processes such as muscle contraction, neurotransmitter secretion and metabolic regulation (Giacomello et al. (2007) [1], Rizzuto and Pozzan (2003) [2]). In the complex life cycle of Plasmodium falciparum, the causative agent of human malaria, Ca2+ is involved in the processes of protein secretion, motility, cell invasion, cell progression and parasite egress from red blood cells (RBCs) (Koyama et al. (2009) [3]). The generation of P. falciparum expressing genetically encoded calcium indicators (GECIs) represents an innovation in the study of calcium signaling. This development will provide new insight on calcium homeostasis and signaling in P. falciparum. In addition, these novel transgenic parasites, PfGCaMP3, is a useful tool for screening and identifying new classes of compounds with anti-malarial activity. This represents a possibility of interfering with signaling pathways controlling parasite growth and development. Our new method differs from previous loading protocols (Garcia et al. (1996) [4]; Beraldo et al. (2007) [5]) since:•It provides a novel method for imaging calcium fluctuations in the cytosol of P. falciparum, without signal interference from the host cell and invasive loading protocols.•This technique could also be expanded for imaging calcium in different subcellular compartments.•It will be helpful in the development of novel antimalarials capable of disrupting calcium homeostasis during the intraerythrocytic cycle of P. falciparum.

  16. Antibodies to the Plasmodium falciparum Proteins MSPDBL1 and MSPDBL2 Opsonize Merozoites, Inhibit Parasite Growth, and Predict Protection From Clinical Malaria.

    PubMed

    Chiu, Chris Y H; Hodder, Anthony N; Lin, Clara S; Hill, Danika L; Li Wai Suen, Connie S N; Schofield, Louis; Siba, Peter M; Mueller, Ivo; Cowman, Alan F; Hansen, Diana S

    2015-08-01

    Increasing evidence suggests that antibodies against merozoite surface proteins (MSPs) play an important role in clinical immunity to malaria. Two unusual members of the MSP-3 family, merozoite surface protein duffy binding-like (MSPDBL)1 and MSPDBL2, have been shown to be extrinsically associated to MSP-1 on the parasite surface. In addition to a secreted polymorphic antigen associated with merozoite (SPAM) domain characteristic of MSP-3 family members, they also contain Duffy binding-like (DBL) domain and were found to bind to erythrocytes, suggesting that they play a role in parasite invasion. Antibody responses to these proteins were investigated in a treatment-reinfection study conducted in an endemic area of Papua New Guinea to determine their contribution to naturally acquired immunity. Antibodies to the SPAM domains of MSPDBL1 and MSPDBL2 as well as the DBL domain of MSPDBL1 were found to be associated with protection from Plasmodium falciparum clinical episodes. Moreover, affinity-purified anti-MSPDBL1 and MSPDBL2 were found to inhibit in vitro parasite growth and had strong merozoite opsonizing capacity, suggesting that protection targeting these antigens results from ?2 distinct effector mechanisms. Together these results indicate that MSPDBL1 and MSPDBL2 are important targets of naturally acquired immunity and might constitute potential vaccine candidates. PMID:25646353

  17. Polymorphisms in the K13-Propeller Gene in Artemisinin-Susceptible Plasmodium falciparum Parasites from Bougoula-Hameau and Bandiagara, Mali.

    PubMed

    Ouattara, Amed; Kone, Aminatou; Adams, Matthew; Fofana, Bakary; Maiga, Amelia Walling; Hampton, Shay; Coulibaly, Drissa; Thera, Mahamadou A; Diallo, Nouhoum; Dara, Antoine; Sagara, Issaka; Gil, Jose Pedro; Bjorkman, Anders; Takala-Harrison, Shannon; Doumbo, Ogobara K; Plowe, Christopher V; Djimde, Abdoulaye A

    2015-06-01

    Artemisinin-resistant Plasmodium falciparum malaria has been documented in southeast Asia and may already be spreading in that region. Molecular markers are important tools for monitoring the spread of antimalarial drug resistance. Recently, single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the PF3D7_1343700 kelch propeller (K13-propeller) domain were shown to be associated with artemisinin resistance in vivo and in vitro. The prevalence and role of K13-propeller mutations are poorly known in sub-Saharan Africa. K13-propeller mutations were genotyped by direct sequencing of nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplicons from dried blood spots of pre-treatment falciparum malaria infections collected before and after the use of artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT) as first-line therapy in Mali. Although K13-propeller mutations previously associated with delayed parasite clearance in Cambodia were not identified, 26 K13-propeller mutations were identified in both recent samples and pre-ACT infections. Parasite clearance time was comparable between infections with non-synonymous K13-propeller mutations and infections with the reference allele. These findings suggest that K13-propeller mutations are present in artemisinin-sensitive parasites and that they preceded the wide use of ACTs in Mali. PMID:25918205

  18. An enhancer-like region regulates hrp3 promoter stage-specific gene expression in the human malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum

    PubMed Central

    López-Estraño, Carlos; Gopalakrishnan, Anusha M.; Semblat, Jean-Philippe; Fergus, M. Ross; Mazier, Dominique; Haldar, Kasturi

    2008-01-01

    The asexual blood stage of Plasmodium falciparum is comprised of morphologically distinct ring, trophozoite and schizont stages. Each of these developmental stages possesses a distinct pattern of gene expression. Regulation of P. falciparum gene expression is thought to occur, at least in part, at the promoter level. Previously, we have found that although the RNA of the P. falciparum hrp3 gene is only seen in ring-stage parasites, deletion of a specific sequensce in the 5’ end of the promoter region decreased ring-stage expression of hrp3 and enabled detection of its transcripts in trophozoite-stage parasites. In order to investigate this stage specific regulation of gene expression, we employed a series of nested deletions of the 1.7-kb hrp3 promoter. Firefly luciferase gene was used as a reporter to evaluate the role of promoter sequences in gene regulation. Using this approach, we identified a ring-stage specific regulatory region on the hrp3 promoter located between -1.7-kb and -1.1-kb from the ATG initiation codon. Small 100–150 bp truncations on this enhancer-like region failed to uncover discrete regulatory sequences, suggesting the multipartite nature of this element. The data presented in this study demonstrates that stage specific promoter activity of the hrp3 gene in P. falciparum blood stage parasites is supported, at least in-part, by a small promoter region that can function in the absence of a larger chromosomal context. PMID:17570541

  19. Vol. 36, no. 1 Journal of Vector Ecology 213 Implications of Plasmodium parasite infected mosquitoes on an insular avifauna

    E-print Network

    Sehgal, Ravinder

    mosquitoes on an insular avifauna: the case of Socorro Island, México Jenny S. Carlson1 , Juan E. Martínez to the avifauna of Socorro Island, México, we surveyed for Plasmodium isolates from 1,300 resident field the Hawaiian archipelago, populations of naïve endemic avifauna are reported to have declined after exposure

  20. Oxygen distribution in proteins defines functional significance of the genome and proteome of the malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum 3D7.

    PubMed

    Palanisamy, Balamurugan; Heese, Klaus

    2014-02-01

    Although GlaxoSmithKline is on the way to launch the new vaccine candidate 'RTS, S', the search for suitable antimalarial drugs still remains an exceeding challenge because Plasmodium falciparum-mediated malaria is one of the most lethal diseases in the world. Novel innovative ideas are required to identify new potential molecular targets to be able to fight this lethal parasite efficiently. We used an unconventional bioinformatics approach to analyze the entire genome and proteome of the Pf3D7 strain. Because the oxygen (O-) content is a decisive parameter that determines the function of a protein, we analyzed the entire Pf3D7 proteome based on O-containing amino acid expression. Our data disclose a total of four proteins encoded by chromosome (Chr)-4 and Chr-9 that have an outstanding O-controlled character. The identification of the biological significance of these proteins could eventually lead to new vital drug targets. PMID:24330096

  1. Deletion of Plasmodium falciparum Histidine-Rich Protein 2 (pfhrp2) and Histidine-Rich Protein 3 (pfhrp3) Genes in Colombian Parasites

    PubMed Central

    Murillo Solano, Claribel; Akinyi Okoth, Sheila; Abdallah, Joseph F.; Pava, Zuleima; Dorado, Erika; Incardona, Sandra; Huber, Curtis S.; Macedo de Oliveira, Alexandre; Bell, David; Udhayakumar, Venkatachalam; Barnwell, John W.

    2015-01-01

    A number of studies have analyzed the performance of malaria rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) in Colombia with discrepancies in performance being attributed to a combination of factors such as parasite levels, interpretation of RDT results and/or the handling and storage of RDT kits. However, some of the inconsistencies observed with results from Plasmodium falciparum histidine-rich protein 2 (PfHRP2)-based RDTs could also be explained by the deletion of the gene that encodes the protein, pfhrp2, and its structural homolog, pfhrp3, in some parasite isolates. Given that pfhrp2- and pfhrp3-negative P. falciparum isolates have been detected in the neighboring Peruvian and Brazilian Amazon regions, we hypothesized that parasites with deletions of pfhrp2 and pfhrp3 may also be present in Colombia. In this study we tested 100 historical samples collected between 1999 and 2009 from six Departments in Colombia for the presence of pfhrp2, pfhrp3 and their flanking genes. Seven neutral microsatellites were also used to determine the genetic background of these parasites. In total 18 of 100 parasite isolates were found to have deleted pfhrp2, a majority of which (14 of 18) were collected from Amazonas Department, which borders Peru and Brazil. pfhrp3 deletions were found in 52 of the100 samples collected from all regions of the country. pfhrp2 flanking genes PF3D7_0831900 and PF3D7_0831700 were deleted in 22 of 100 and in 1 of 100 samples, respectively. pfhrp3 flanking genes PF3D7_1372100 and PF3D7_1372400 were missing in 55 of 100 and in 57 of 100 samples. Structure analysis of microsatellite data indicated that Colombian samples tested in this study belonged to four clusters and they segregated mostly based on their geographic region. Most of the pfhrp2-deleted parasites were assigned to a single cluster and originated from Amazonas Department although a few pfhrp2-negative parasites originated from the other three clusters. The presence of a high proportion of pfhrp2-negative isolates in the Colombian Amazon may have implications for the use of PfHRP2-based RDTs in the region and may explain inconsistencies observed when PfHRP2-based tests and assays are performed. PMID:26151448

  2. Haemosporidian infections in captive exotic glossy starling Lamprotornis chalybaeus in Hong Kong.

    PubMed

    Paperna, Ilan; Martelli, Paolo

    2008-03-01

    A greater blue-eared glossy starling Lamprotornis chalybaeus Ehrenburg from a large flight aviary in Hong Kong was found on post mortem to be infected with Plasmodium octamerium Manwell, 1968, Plasmodium cf. relictum (Grassi et Feletti, 1891) and Haemoproteus cf. pastoris Mello, 1935. Descriptions of their morphology are provided as none of the examined parasites fully concord with their type (or neotype) material descriptions. Plasmodium octamerium has been recorded in avian hosts from geographically distant locations, suggesting that infection in imported hosts may persist in a chronic state for a long period. This Plasmodium species as well as P. relictum are evidently not fastidious in choice of passeriform hosts and are transmitted by ubiquitous domestic mosquito vectors, apparently facilitating their proliferation among zoo and aviary inhabitants. The Haemoproteus infection appears to be conspecific with H. cf. pastoris reported from a myna (Acridotheres tristis) in Singapore. Mynas are also common in Hong Kong, which suggests a possible cross-transmission of infection between these two starlings. PMID:18578162

  3. Characterization of a conserved rhoptry-associated leucine zipper-like protein in the malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Silvia Haase; Ana Cabrera; Christine Langer; Moritz Treeck; Nicole Struck; Susann Herrmann; Pascal W. Jansen; Iris Bruchhaus; Anna Bachmann; Suzana Dias; Alan F. Cowman; Hendrik G. Stunnenberg; Tobias Spielmann; Tim-Wolf Gilberger

    2008-01-01

    One of the key processes in the pathobiology of the malaria parasite is the invasion and subsequent modification of the human erythrocyte. In this complex process, an unknown number of parasite proteins are involved, some of which are leading vaccine candidates. The majority of the proteins that play pivotal roles in invasion are either stored in the apical secretory organelles

  4. Prenylated chalcones isolated from Crotalaria genus inhibits in vitro growth of the human malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. Narender; Shweta; K. Tanvir; M. Srinivasa Rao; K. Srivastava; S. K. Puri

    2005-01-01

    A prenylated chalcone 2 named crotaorixin, has been isolated from the aerial parts of the Crotalaria orixensis. Its structure has been established by extensive 1D and 2D NMR measurements. In vitro antimalarial activity of crotaorixin as well as few prenylated chalcones isolated from C. medicagenia and C. ramosissima were evaluated at three concentrations (50, 10 and 2?g\\/ml) against Plasmodium falciparum

  5. Mapping Regions Containing Binding Residues within Functional Domains of Plasmodium vivax and Plasmodium knowlesi Erythrocyte-Binding Proteins

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Akash Ranjan; Chetan E. Chitnis

    1999-01-01

    Invasion of erythrocytes by malaria parasites is mediated by specific molecular interactions. Whereas Plasmodium vivax and Plasmodium knowlesi use the Duffy blood group antigen, Plasmodium falciparum uses sialic acid residues of glycophorin A as receptors to invade human erythrocytes. P. knowlesi uses the Duffy antigen as well as other receptors to invade rhesus erythrocytes by multiple pathways. Parasite ligands that

  6. Nucleosome occupancy at transcription start sites in the human malaria parasite: A hard-wired evolution of virulence?

    E-print Network

    Lonardi, Stefano

    malariae, Plasmodium ovale, Plasmodium vivax and Plasmodium falciparum. In recent years, human cases-borne infectious disease caused by a eukaryotic protist of the genus Plasmodium. Plasmodium can parasitize a wide array of organisms including birds (e.g. Plasmodium gallinaceum), rodents (e.g. Plasmodium berghei

  7. PfPKB, a novel protein kinase B-like enzyme from Plasmodium falciparum: I. Identification, characterization, and possible role in parasite development.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Amit; Vaid, Ankush; Syin, Chiang; Sharma, Pushkar

    2004-06-01

    Extracellular signals control various important functions of a eukaryotic cell, which is often achieved by regulating a battery of protein kinases and phosphatases. Protein Kinase B (PKB) is an important member of the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase-dependent signaling pathways in several eukaryotes, but the role of PKB in protozoan parasites is not known. We have identified a protein kinase B homologue in Plasmodium falciparum (PfPKB) that is expressed mainly in the schizonts and merozoites. Even though PfPKB shares high sequence homology with PKB catalytic domain, it lacks a pleckstrin homology domain typically found at the N terminus of the mammalian enzyme. Biochemical studies performed to understand the mechanism of PfPKB catalytic activation suggested (i) its activation is dependent on autophosphorylation of a serine residue (Ser-271) in its activation loop region and (ii) PfPKB has an unusual N-terminal region that was found to negatively regulate its catalytic activity. We also identified an inhibitor of PfPKB activity that also inhibits P. falciparum growth, suggesting that this enzyme may be important for the development of the parasite. PMID:15024016

  8. FULL-malaria: a database for a full-length enriched cDNA library from human malaria parasite, Plasmodium falciparum

    PubMed Central

    Watanabe, Junichi; Sasaki, Masahide; Suzuki, Yutaka; Sugano, Sumio

    2001-01-01

    FULL-malaria is a database for a full-length-enriched cDNA library from the human malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum (http://133.11.149.55/). Because of its medical importance, this organism is the first target for genome sequencing of a eukaryotic pathogen; the sequences of two of its 14 chromosomes have already been determined. However, for the full exploitation of this rapidly accumulating information, correct identification of the genes and study of their expression are essential. Using the oligo-capping method, we have produced a full-length-enriched cDNA library from erythrocytic stage parasites and performed one-pass reading. The database consists of nucleotide sequences of 2490 random clones that include 390 (16%) known malaria genes according to BLASTN analysis of the nr-nt database in GenBank; these represent 98 genes, and the clones for 48 of these genes contain the complete protein-coding sequence (49%). On the other hand, comparisons with the complete chromosome 2 sequence revealed that 35 of 210 predicted genes are expressed, and in addition led to detection of three new gene candidates that were not previously known. In total, 19 of these 38 clones (50%) were full-length. From these obser­vations, it is expected that the database contains ?1000 genes, including 500 full-length clones. It should be an invaluable resource for the development of vaccines and novel drugs. PMID:11125052

  9. Chemokine levels and parasite- and allergen-specific antibody responses in children and adults with severe or uncomplicated Plasmodium falciparum malaria

    PubMed Central

    Wangala, B.; Vovor, A.; Gantin, R. G.; Agbeko, Y. F.; Lechner, C. J.; Huang, X.; Köhler, C.

    2015-01-01

    Chemokine and antibody response profiles were investigated in children and adults with severe or uncomplicated Plasmodium falciparum malaria; the aim was to reveal which profiles are associated with severe disease, as often seen in nonimmune children, or with mild and uncomplicated disease, as seen in semi-immune adults. Blood samples were obtained from children under 5 years of age as well as adults with falciparum malaria. Classification of malaria was performed according to parasite densities and hemoglobin concentrations. Plasma levels of chemokines (IL-8, IP-10, MCP-4, TARC, PARC, MIP-1?, eotaxins) were quantified, and antibody responses (IgE, IgG1, and IgG4) to P. falciparum, Entamoeba histolytica-specific antigen, and mite allergen extracts were determined. In children with severe malaria proinflammatory, IL-8, IP10, MIP-1?, and LARC were at highly elevated levels, suggesting an association with severe disease. In contrast, the Th2-type chemokines TARC, PARC, and eotaxin-2 attained in children the same levels as in adults suggesting the evolution of immune regulatory components. In children with severe malaria, an elevated IgG1 and IgE reactivity to mite allergens and intestinal protozoan parasites was observed. In conclusion, exacerbated proinflammatory chemokines together with IgE responses to mite allergens or E. histolytica-specific antigen extract were observed in children with severe falciparum malaria. PMID:25883801

  10. Abstract Theoretical models of parasite virulence often quantify virulence by mortality. However, there is a lack

    E-print Network

    Schall, Joseph J.

    (Sceloporus occidentalis) infected with a malaria parasite, Plasmodium mexican- um, in northern California mortality in nature. Keywords Plasmodium · Malaria · Parasite-induced host mortality · Sceloporus occidentalis Introduction Deleterious effects of parasitism, virulence, can signifi- cantly affect the ecology

  11. BiochemicalSocietyAnnualSymposiumNo.77 Malaria, Plasmodium falciparum and its

    E-print Network

    McFadden, Geoff

    ., including Plasmodium vivax, Plasmodium malariae, Plas- modium ovale and Plasmodium knowlesi are all derivedBiochemicalSocietyAnnualSymposiumNo.77 Malaria, Plasmodium falciparum and its apicoplast Ming, Australia Abstract Malaria, which is caused by species of the parasite genus Plasmodium, remains a major

  12. Invited Review Malaria parasite colonisation of the mosquito midgut Placing

    E-print Network

    McFadden, Geoff

    Invited Review Malaria parasite colonisation of the mosquito midgut ­ Placing the Plasmodium 3 March 2012 Keywords: Malaria Plasmodium Mosquito Anopheles Ookinete Oocyst Midgut traversal drugs is emerging. Malaria parasite migration through the mosquito host constitutes a major population

  13. Blood parasites from California ducks and geese

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Herman, C.M.

    1951-01-01

    Blood smears were procured from 1,011 geese and ducks of 19 species from various locations in California. Parasites were found in 28 individuals. The parasites observed included Haemoproteus hermani, Leucocytozoon simondi, microfilaria, Plasmodium relictum (=P. biziurae), and Plasmodium sp. with elongate gametocytes. This is the first report of a natural infection with a Plasmodium in North American wild ducks.

  14. ?2-Macroglobulin Can Crosslink Multiple Plasmodium falciparum Erythrocyte Membrane Protein 1 (PfEMP1) Molecules and May Facilitate Adhesion of Parasitized Erythrocytes

    PubMed Central

    Stevenson, Liz; Laursen, Erik; Cowan, Graeme J.; Bandoh, Betty; Barfod, Lea; Cavanagh, David R.; Andersen, Gregers R.; Hviid, Lars

    2015-01-01

    Rosetting, the adhesion of Plasmodium falciparum-infected erythrocytes to uninfected erythrocytes, involves clonal variants of the parasite protein P. falciparum erythrocyte membrane protein 1 (PfEMP1) and soluble serum factors. While rosetting is a well-known phenotypic marker of parasites associated with severe malaria, the reason for this association remains unclear, as do the molecular details of the interaction between the infected erythrocyte (IE) and the adhering erythrocytes. Here, we identify for the first time a single serum factor, the abundant serum protease inhibitor ?2-macroglobulin (?2M), which is both required and sufficient for rosetting mediated by the PfEMP1 protein HB3VAR06 and some other rosette-mediating PfEMP1 proteins. We map the ?2M binding site to the C terminal end of HB3VAR06, and demonstrate that ?2M can bind at least four HB3VAR06 proteins, plausibly augmenting their combined avidity for host receptors. IgM has previously been identified as a rosette-facilitating soluble factor that acts in a similar way, but it cannot induce rosetting on its own. This is in contrast to ?2M and probably due to the more limited cross-linking potential of IgM. Nevertheless, we show that IgM works synergistically with ?2M and markedly lowers the concentration of ?2M required for rosetting. Finally, HB3VAR06+ IEs share the capacity to bind ?2M with subsets of genotypically distinct P. falciparum isolates forming rosettes in vitro and of patient parasite isolates ex vivo. Together, our results are evidence that P. falciparum parasites exploit ?2M (and IgM) to expand the repertoire of host receptors available for PfEMP1-mediated IE adhesion, such as the erythrocyte carbohydrate moieties that lead to formation of rosettes. It is likely that this mechanism also affects IE adhesion to receptors on vascular endothelium. The study opens opportunities for broad-ranging immunological interventions targeting the ?2M—(and IgM-) binding domains of PfEMP1, which would be independent of the host receptor specificity of clinically important PfEMP1 antigens. PMID:26134405

  15. Counter-regulatory anti-parasite cytokine responses during concurrent Plasmodium yoelii and intestinal helminth infections in mice

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Malaria and helminth infections are two of the most prevalent parasitic diseases in tropical areas. While concomitant infection is common, mechanisms contributing to altered disease outcomes during co-infection remain poorly defined. We have previously reported exacerbation of normally non-lethal ...

  16. Molecular inference of sources and spreading patterns of Plasmodium falciparum malaria parasites in internally displaced persons settlements in Myanmar-China border area.

    PubMed

    Lo, Eugenia; Zhou, Guofa; Oo, Winny; Lee, Ming-Chieh; Baum, Elisabeth; Felgner, Philip L; Yang, Zhaoqing; Cui, Liwang; Yan, Guiyun

    2015-07-01

    In Myanmar, civil unrest and establishment of internally displaced persons (IDP) settlement along the Myanmar-China border have impacted malaria transmission. The growing IDP populations raise deep concerns about health impact on local communities. Microsatellite markers were used to examine the source and spreading patterns of Plasmodium falciparum between IDP settlement and surrounding villages in Myanmar along the China border. Genotypic structure of P. falciparum was compared over the past three years from the same area and the demographic history was inferred to determine the source of recent infections. In addition, we examined if border migration is a factor of P. falciparum infections in China by determining gene flow patterns across borders. Compared to local community, the IDP samples showed a reduced and consistently lower genetic diversity over the past three years. A strong signature of genetic bottleneck was detected in the IDP samples. P. falciparum infections from the border regions in China were genetically similar to Myanmar and parasite gene flow was not constrained by geographical distance. Reduced genetic diversity of P. falciparum suggested intense malaria control within the IDP settlement. Human movement was a key factor to the spread of malaria both locally in Myanmar and across the international border. PMID:25952567

  17. Evolution of malaria parasite plastid targeting sequences

    E-print Network

    McFadden, Geoff

    Evolution of malaria parasite plastid targeting sequences Christopher J. Tonkin* , Bernardo J. Foth in the malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum. We show that exons of the P. falciparum genome could serve-bearing proteins remains largely mysterious (1). The human malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum contains

  18. Metabolites of febrifugine and its synthetic analogue by mouse liver S9 and their antimalarial activity against Plasmodium malaria parasite.

    PubMed

    Hirai, Shingo; Kikuchi, Haruhisa; Kim, Hye-Sook; Begum, Khurshida; Wataya, Yusuke; Tasaka, Hidehisa; Miyazawa, Yuriko; Yamamoto, Keisuke; Oshima, Yoshiteru

    2003-09-25

    Quinazolinone type alkaloids, febrifugine (1) and isofebrifugine (2), isolated from Dichroa febrifuga roots, show powerful antimalarial activity against Plasmodium falciparum. Unfortunately, their emetic effect and other undesirable side effects have precluded their clinical use for malaria. Because of their antimalarial potency, analogues were searched for, with the goal of preserving the strong antimalarial activity, while dramatically reducing side effects. We expected that compounds useful in drug development would exist in metabolites derived from 1 and Df-1 (3), the condensation product of 1 with acetone, by mouse liver S9. Feb-A and -B (4 and 5) were isolated as the major metabolites of 1. In addition to 4 and 5, feb-C and -D (6 and 7) were also purified from the metabolic mixture of 3. Compounds 4 and 5 were compounds oxidized at C-6 and C-2 of the quinazolinone ring of 1, respectively. Compounds 6 and 7, derived from 3, also bear febrifugine type structures in which the 4' '- and 6' '-positions of the piperidine ring of 1 were oxidized. In vitro antimalarial and cytotoxic tests using synthetically obtained racemic 4-6 and enantiomerically pure 7 demonstrated that 4 and 6 had antimalarial activity against P. falciparum, of similar potency to that of 1, with high selectivity. The antimalarial activity of 5 and 7, however, was dramatically decreased in the test. The in vitro antimalarial activity of analogues 22 and 43, which are stereoisomers of 4 and 6, was also evaluated, showing that 22 is active. The results suggest that basicity of both the 1- and the 1' '-nitrogen atoms of 1 is crucial in conferring powerful antimalarial activity. Racemic 4 and 6 exhibited powerful in vivo antimalarial activity against mouse malaria P. berghei, and especially, no serious side effects were observed with 4. Thus, the metabolite 4 appears to be a promising lead compound for the development of new types of antimalarial drugs. PMID:13678413

  19. Full-length recombinant Plasmodium falciparum VAR2CSA binds specifically to CSPG and induces potent parasite adhesion-blocking antibodies.

    PubMed

    Khunrae, Pongsak; Dahlbäck, Madeleine; Nielsen, Morten A; Andersen, Gorm; Ditlev, Sisse B; Resende, Mafalda; Pinto, Vera V; Theander, Thor G; Higgins, Matthew K; Salanti, Ali

    2010-04-01

    Plasmodium falciparum malaria remains one of the world's leading causes of human suffering and poverty. Each year, the disease takes 1-3 million lives, mainly in sub-Saharan Africa. The adhesion of infected erythrocytes (IEs) to vascular endothelium or placenta is the key event in the pathogenesis of severe P. falciparum infection. In pregnant women, the parasites express a single and unique member of the P. falciparum erythrocyte membrane protein 1 (PfEMP1) family named VAR2CSA, which is associated with the ability of the IEs to adhere specifically to chondroitin sulphate A (CSA) in the placenta. Several Duffy-binding-like domains from VAR2CSA molecules have been shown in vitro to bind to CSA, but it has also been demonstrated that Duffy-binding-like domains from PfEMP1 proteins other than VAR2CSA can bind CSA. In addition, the specificity of the binding of VAR2CSA domains to glycosaminoglycans does not match that of VAR2CSA-expressing IEs. This has led to speculation that the domains of native VAR2CSA need to come together to form a specific binding site or that VAR2CSA might bind to CSA through a bridging molecule. Here, we describe the expression and purification of the complete extracellular region of VAR2CSA secreted at high yields from insect cells. Using surface plasmon resonance, we demonstrate that VAR2CSA alone binds with nanomolar affinity to human chondroitin sulphate proteoglycan and with significantly weaker affinity to other glycosaminoglycans, showing a specificity similar to that observed for IEs. Antibodies raised against full-length VAR2CSA completely inhibit recombinant VAR2CSA binding, as well as parasite binding to chondroitin sulphate proteoglycan. This is the first study to describe the successful production and functionality of a full-length PfEMP1. The specificity of the binding and anti-adhesion potency of induced IgG, together with high-yield production, encourages the use of full-length PfEMP1 in vaccine development strategies. PMID:20109466

  20. A large proportion of asymptomatic Plasmodium infections with low and sub-microscopic parasite densities in the low transmission setting of Temotu Province, Solomon Islands: challenges for malaria diagnostics in an elimination setting

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Many countries are scaling up malaria interventions towards elimination. This transition changes demands on malaria diagnostics from diagnosing ill patients to detecting parasites in all carriers including asymptomatic infections and infections with low parasite densities. Detection methods suitable to local malaria epidemiology must be selected prior to transitioning a malaria control programme to elimination. A baseline malaria survey conducted in Temotu Province, Solomon Islands in late 2008, as the first step in a provincial malaria elimination programme, provided malaria epidemiology data and an opportunity to assess how well different diagnostic methods performed in this setting. Methods During the survey, 9,491 blood samples were collected and examined by microscopy for Plasmodium species and density, with a subset also examined by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs). The performances of these diagnostic methods were compared. Results A total of 256 samples were positive by microscopy, giving a point prevalence of 2.7%. The species distribution was 17.5% Plasmodium falciparum and 82.4% Plasmodium vivax. In this low transmission setting, only 17.8% of the P. falciparum and 2.9% of P. vivax infected subjects were febrile (?38°C) at the time of the survey. A significant proportion of infections detected by microscopy, 40% and 65.6% for P. falciparum and P. vivax respectively, had parasite density below 100/?L. There was an age correlation for the proportion of parasite density below 100/?L for P. vivax infections, but not for P. falciparum infections. PCR detected substantially more infections than microscopy (point prevalence of 8.71%), indicating a large number of subjects had sub-microscopic parasitemia. The concordance between PCR and microscopy in detecting single species was greater for P. vivax (135/162) compared to P. falciparum (36/118). The malaria RDT detected the 12 microscopy and PCR positive P. falciparum, but failed to detect 12/13 microscopy and PCR positive P. vivax infections. Conclusion Asymptomatic malaria infections and infections with low and sub-microscopic parasite densities are highly prevalent in Temotu province where malaria transmission is low. This presents a challenge for elimination since the large proportion of the parasite reservoir will not be detected by standard active and passive case detection. Therefore effective mass screening and treatment campaigns will most likely need more sensitive assays such as a field deployable molecular based assay. PMID:20822506

  1. A species of Plasmodium from sandhill cranes in Florida.

    PubMed

    Telford, S R; Nesbitt, S A; Spalding, M G; Forrester, D J

    1994-06-01

    Infections of a species of Plasmodium (subgenus Giovannolaia) were diagnosed in 3 sandhill cranes (Grus canadensis) from north-central Florida. This parasite is close morphometrically to Plasmodium polare; this finding constitutes the first report of a species of Plasmodium from sandhill cranes in North America. PMID:8195957

  2. High-resolution three-dimensional imaging of red blood cells parasitized by

    E-print Network

    Dao, Ming

    , Plasmodium falcipa- rum and Plasmodium vivax, resulted in approximately 660,000 deaths in 2010 from amongHigh-resolution three-dimensional imaging of red blood cells parasitized by Plasmodium falciparum blood cells parasitized by Plasmodium falciparum and in situ hemozoin crystals using optical diffraction

  3. Anti-folate drug resistance in Africa: meta-analysis of reported dihydrofolate reductase (dhfr) and dihydropteroate synthase (dhps) mutant genotype frequencies in African Plasmodium falciparum parasite populations

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Mutations in the dihydrofolate reductase (dhfr) and dihydropteroate synthase (dhps) genes of Plasmodium falciparum are associated with resistance to anti-folate drugs, most notably sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine (SP). Molecular studies document the prevalence of these mutations in parasite populations across the African continent. However, there is no systematic review examining the collective epidemiological significance of these studies. This meta-analysis attempts to: 1) summarize genotype frequency data that are critical for molecular surveillance of anti-folate resistance and 2) identify the specific challenges facing the development of future molecular databases. Methods This review consists of 220 studies published prior to 2009 that report the frequency of select dhfr and dhps mutations in 31 African countries. Maps were created to summarize the location and prevalence of the highly resistant dhfr triple mutant (N51I, C59R, S108N) genotype and dhps double mutant (A437G and K540E) genotype in Africa. A hierarchical mixed effects logistic regression was used to examine the influence of various factors on reported mutant genotype frequency. These factors include: year and location of study, age and clinical status of sampled population, and reporting conventions for mixed genotype data. Results A database consisting of dhfr and dhps mutant genotype frequencies from all African studies that met selection criteria was created for this analysis. The map illustrates particularly high prevalence of both the dhfr triple and dhps double mutant genotypes along the Kenya-Tanzania border and Malawi. The regression model shows a statistically significant increase in the prevalence of both the dhfr triple and dhps double mutant genotypes in Africa. Conclusion Increasing prevalence of the dhfr triple mutant and dhps double mutant genotypes in Africa are consistent with the loss of efficacy of SP for treatment of clinical malaria in most parts of this continent. Continued assessment of the effectiveness of SP for the treatment of clinical malaria and intermittent preventive treatment in pregnancy is needed. The creation of a centralized resistance data network, such as the one proposed by the WorldWide Antimalarial Resistance Network (WWARN), will become a valuable resource for planning timely actions to combat drug resistant malaria. PMID:20799995

  4. Phylogeny of the malarial genus Plasmodium, derived from rRNA gene sequences.

    PubMed Central

    Escalante, A A; Ayala, F J

    1994-01-01

    Malaria is among mankind's worst scourges, affecting many millions of people, particularly in the tropics. Human malaria is caused by several species of Plasmodium, a parasitic protozoan. We analyze the small subunit rRNA gene sequences of 11 Plasmodium species, including three parasitic to humans, to infer their evolutionary relationships. Plasmodium falciparum, the most virulent of the human species, is closely related to Plasmodium reichenowi, which is parasitic to chimpanzee. The estimated time of divergence of these two Plasmodium species is consistent with the time of divergence (6-10 million years ago) between the human and chimpanzee lineages. The falciparum-reichenowi clade is only remotely related to two other human parasites, Plasmodium malariae and Plasmodium vivax, which are also only remotely related to each other. Thus, the parasitic associations of the Plasmodium species with their human hosts are phylogenetically independent. The remote phylogenetic relationship between the two bird parasites, Plasmodium gallinaceum and Plasmodium lophurae, and any of the human parasites provides no support for the hypothesis that infection by Plasmodium falciparum is a recent acquisition of humans, possibly coincident with the onset of agriculture. PMID:7972067

  5. Plasmodium, human and Anopheles genomics and malaria

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. Mani Subramanian; Frank H. Collins; J. Craig Venter; Stephen L. Hoffman

    2002-01-01

    The Plasmodium spp. parasites that cause malaria are transmitted to humans by Anopheles spp. mosquitoes. Scientists have now amassed a great body of knowledge about the parasite, its mosquito vector and human host. Yet this year there will be 300–500 million new malaria infections and 1–3 million deaths caused by the disease. We believe that integrated analyses of genome sequence,

  6. The genetic diversity of Plasmodium vivax populations

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Liwang Cui; Ananias A. Escalante; Mallika Imwong; Georges Snounou

    2003-01-01

    Little is known of the genetic diversity and population structure of Plasmodium vivax, a debilitating and highly prevalent malaria parasite of humans. This article reviews the known polymorphic genetic markers, summarizes current data on the population structure of this parasite and discusses future prospects for using knowledge of the genetic diversity to improve control measures.

  7. Bis(benzyl)polyamine analogs inhibit the growth of chloroquine-resistant human malaria parasites (Plasmodium falciparum) in vitro and in combination with alpha-difluoromethylornithine cure murine malaria.

    PubMed Central

    Bitonti, A J; Dumont, J A; Bush, T L; Edwards, M L; Stemerick, D M; McCann, P P; Sjoerdsma, A

    1989-01-01

    A number of bis(benzyl)polyamine analogs were found to be potent inhibitors of both chloroquine-resistant and chloroquine-sensitive strains of the human malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum in vitro (IC50 values = 0.2-14 microM). Administration of one of the compounds, MDL 27695, which is N,N'-bis(3-[(phenylmethyl)amino]propyl)-1,7-diaminoheptane (C6H5CH2NH(CH2)3NH(CH2)7NH(CH2)3NHCH2C6H5), at 10-15 mg/kg i.p. three times per day for 3 days in combination with 2% alpha-difluoromethylornithine (DFMO; eflornithine) in drinking water effected cures of 47/54 mice infected with Plasmodium berghei. Cured mice were found to be immune upon rechallenge with the same P. berghei strain 4 months after the initial infection and drug-induced cure. MDL 27695 rapidly inhibited the incorporation of [3H]hypoxanthine into P. falciparum RNA and DNA, whereas the incorporation of [3H]isoleucine was not affected until much later. We conclude, therefore, that the major cytotoxic event may be direct binding of MDL 27695 to DNA with subsequent disruption of macromolecular biosynthesis and cell death. These compounds offer a lead in the search for new agents for chemotherapy of malaria. PMID:2463635

  8. A Clonal Theory of Parasitic Protozoa: The Population Structures of Entamoeba, Giardia, Leishmania, Naegleria, Plasmodium, Trichomonas, and Trypanosoma and their Medical and Taxonomical Consequences

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michel Tibayrenc; Finn Kjellberg; Francisco J. Ayala

    1990-01-01

    We propose a general theory of clonal reproduction for parasitic protozoa, which has important medical and biological consequences. Many parasitic protozoa have been assumed to reproduce sexually, because of diploidy and occasional sexuality in the laboratory. However, a population genetic analysis of extensive data on biochemical polymorphisms indicates taht the two fundamental consequences of sexual reproduction (i.e., segregation and recombination)

  9. Phagocytosis of Plasmodium falciparum-Infected Human Red Blood Cells by Human Monocytes: Involvement of Immune and Nonimmune Determinants and Dependence on Parasite Developmental Stage

    Microsoft Academic Search

    F. Turrini; H. Ginsburg; F. Bussolino; G. P. Pescarmona; M. V. Serra; P. Arese

    1992-01-01

    The stage-dependent phagocytosis of Plasmodium falci- parum-infected erythrocytes (IRBC) opsonized with nonim- mune serum has been investigated. An average of 2.9 red blood cell (RBC) harboring ring-forms (RIRBC) and 7.5 RBC infected with trophozoites (TIRBC) or schizonts (SIRBC) were ingested per monocyte, in comparison with 0.8 noninfected RBC (NRBC) or 5 RBC oxidatively damaged with diamide. Abrogation of generation of

  10. Assessment of the Induction of Dormant Ring Stages in Plasmodium falciparum Parasites by Artemisone and Artemisone Entrapped in Pheroid Vesicles In Vitro

    PubMed Central

    Grobler, Lizette; Chavchich, Marina; Haynes, Richard K.; Edstein, Michael D.

    2014-01-01

    The in vitro antimalarial activities of artemisone and artemisone entrapped in Pheroid vesicles were compared, as was their ability to induce dormancy in Plasmodium falciparum. There was no increase in the activity of artemisone entrapped in Pheroid vesicles against multidrug-resistant P. falciparum lines. Artemisone induced the formation of dormant ring stages similar to dihydroartemisinin. Thus, the Pheroid delivery system neither improved the activity of artemisone nor prevented the induction of dormant rings. PMID:25288088

  11. Theoretically Determined Three-Dimensional Structure for the Repeating Tetrapeptide Unit of the Circumsporozoite Coat Protein of the Malaria Parasite Plasmodium falciparum

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bernard R. Brooks; Richard W. Pastor; Frederick W. Carson

    1987-01-01

    A model for the three-dimensional structure of the repeating Asn-Pro-Asn-Ala tetrapeptide of the immunodominant circumsporozoite protein of Plasmodium falciparum has been developed. A trial structure in the form of a type I beta turn with asparagine side chains hydrogen-bonded to the backbone peptide linkages was used as a starting point. A repeating oligomer of this trial structure was modeled using

  12. Parasites and Parasitism (CAMB 549) Course organizer: Jay Farrell ( farrellj@vet.upenn.edu) 207 Rosenthal

    E-print Network

    Plotkin, Joshua B.

    Parasites and Parasitism (CAMB 549) Course organizer: Jay Farrell ( farrellj@vet.upenn.edu) 207 and Plasmodium (Roos) 9/29 -- Helminth biology (Beiting) 10/1 -- Filariasis pathogenesis (Lok) 10/4 ­ Parasite protection and immunopathology (Nair) 10/15 -- Innate immunity to helminth parasites (Artis) 10

  13. Big Bang in the Evolution of Extant Malaria Parasites

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Toshiyuki Hayakawa; Richard Culleton; Hiroto Otani; Toshihiro Horii; Kazuyuki Tanabe

    2008-01-01

    Malaria parasites (genus Plasmodium) infect all classes of terrestrial vertebrates and display host specificity in their infections. It is therefore assumed that malaria parasites coevolved intimately with their hosts. Here, we propose a novel scenario of malaria parasite-host coevolution. A phylogenetic tree constructed using the malaria parasite mitochondrial genome reveals that the extant primate, rodent, bird, and reptile parasite lineages

  14. The co-existence of Plasmodium: sidelights from falciparum and vivax malaria in Thailand

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Georges Snounou; Nicolas J. White

    2004-01-01

    It is rare to find human populations exposed to a single malaria parasite species – in most endemic areas, at least three Plasmodium species co-exist. Here, we briefly review mixed species infection in malaria, and discuss apparently disparate clinical and epidemiological observations of Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium vivax, now equally prevalent in Thailand, which suggest that an ‘entente cordiale’ between

  15. OPINION Open Access The burden of Plasmodium vivax relapses in an

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    OPINION Open Access The burden of Plasmodium vivax relapses in an Amerindian village in French is a public health problem in French Guiana. Plasmodium vivax is the most frequent parasite. The objective annual incidence rates of Plasmodium vivax malaria were 514 per 1,000 persons for single infections

  16. The peculiarities and paradoxes of Plasmodium heme metabolism.

    PubMed

    Sigala, Paul A; Goldberg, Daniel E

    2014-01-01

    For over a century, heme metabolism has been recognized to play a central role during intraerythrocytic infection by Plasmodium parasites, the causative agent of malaria. Parasites liberate vast quantities of potentially cytotoxic heme as a by-product of hemoglobin catabolism within the digestive vacuole, where heme is predominantly sequestered as inert crystalline hemozoin. Plasmodium spp. also utilize heme as a metabolic cofactor. Despite access to abundant host-derived heme, parasites paradoxically maintain a biosynthetic pathway. This pathway has been assumed to produce the heme incorporated into mitochondrial cytochromes that support electron transport. In this review, we assess our current understanding of the love-hate relationship between Plasmodium parasites and heme, we discuss recent studies that clarify several long-standing riddles about heme production and utilization by parasites, and we consider remaining challenges and opportunities for understanding and targeting heme metabolism within parasites. PMID:25002093

  17. Intracellular Parasite Invasion Strategies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sibley, L. D.

    2004-04-01

    Intracellular parasites use various strategies to invade cells and to subvert cellular signaling pathways and, thus, to gain a foothold against host defenses. Efficient cell entry, ability to exploit intracellular niches, and persistence make these parasites treacherous pathogens. Most intracellular parasites gain entry via host-mediated processes, but apicomplexans use a system of adhesion-based motility called ``gliding'' to actively penetrate host cells. Actin polymerization-dependent motility facilitates parasite migration across cellular barriers, enables dissemination within tissues, and powers invasion of host cells. Efficient invasion has brought widespread success to this group, which includes Toxoplasma, Plasmodium, and Cryptosporidium.

  18. Meager genetic variability of the human malaria agent Plasmodium vivax

    E-print Network

    in most cases). Eight microsatellite loci monomorphic in P. vivax are polymorphic in three of five Plasmodium species related to P. vivax (two to seven individuals sampled). Plasmodium simium, a parasite of New World monkeys, is genetically indistinguishable from P. vivax. At 13 microsatellite loci and at 7

  19. Gene synteny and chloroquine resistance in Plasmodium chabaudi

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Paul Hunt; Axel Martinelli; Richard Fawcett; Jane Carlton; Richard Carter; David Walliker

    2004-01-01

    Chloroquine resistance in the rodent malaria parasite Plasmodium chabaudi has been shown to be caused by a gene on chromosome 11, and is not linked to orthologues of the Plasmodium falciparum chloroquine resistance transporter (pfcrt) or Pgh-1 (pfmdr1) genes. In the current work, the progeny of crosses between chloroquine-resistant and sensitive clones of P. chabaudi have been analysed for the

  20. RESEARCH Open Access Microsatellite genotyping of Plasmodium vivax

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    RESEARCH Open Access Microsatellite genotyping of Plasmodium vivax infections and their relapses,7* and Mallika Imwong8* Abstract Background: Plasmodium vivax infections in pregnancy are associated with low of P. vivax using microsatellite markers has opened the way to comparative investigations of parasite

  1. Rosetting and the innate immune response to plasmodium falciparum 

    E-print Network

    Corrigan, Ruth Alexandra

    2009-01-01

    Rosetting is an adhesion property of malaria parasites whereby infected erythrocytes bind to two or more uninfected erythrocytes, forming a so-called rosette. Rosetting of Plasmodium falciparum is associated with disease ...

  2. Vector sequence contamination of the Plasmodium vivax sequence database in PlasmoDB and In silico correction of 26 parasite sequences.

    PubMed

    Tao, Zhi-Yong; Sui, Xu; Jun, Cao; Culleton, Richard; Fang, Qiang; Xia, Hui; Gao, Qi

    2015-01-01

    We found a 47 aa protein sequence that occurs 17 times in the Plasmodium vivax nucleotide database published on PlasmoDB. Coding sequence analysis showed multiple restriction enzyme sites within the 141 bp nucleotide sequence, and a His6 tag attached to the 3' end, suggesting cloning vector origins. Sequences with vector contamination were submitted to NCBI, and BLASTN was used to cross-examine whole-genome shotgun contigs (WGS) from four recently deposited P. vivax whole genome sequencing projects. There are at least 26 genes listed in the PlasmoDB database that incorporate this cloning vector sequence into their predicted provisional protein products. PMID:26062606

  3. Malaria Proteins Implicated in Host-Parasite Interactions 

    E-print Network

    Anderson, Laura Fay

    2007-01-01

    The invasive and transmission stages of the malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum express several proteins with domains implicated in host-parasite interactions, that are potential vaccine candidates or drug targets. The expression patterns of two...

  4. A superfamily of variant genes encoded in the subtelomeric region of Plasmodium vivax

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hernando A. del Portillo; Carmen Fernandez-Becerra; Sharen Bowman; Karen Oliver; Martin Preuss; Cecilia P. Sanchez; Nick K. Schneider; Juan M. Villalobos; Marie-Adele Rajandream; David Harris; Luiz H. Pereira da Silva; Bart Barrell; Michael Lanzer

    2001-01-01

    The malarial parasite Plasmodium vivax causes disease in humans, including chronic infections and recurrent relapses, but the course of infection is rarely fatal, unlike that caused by Plasmodium falciparum. To investigate differences in pathogenicity between P. vivax and P. falciparum, we have compared the subtelomeric domains in the DNA of these parasites. In P. falciparum, subtelomeric domains are conserved and

  5. Concentration and purification by magnetic separation of the erythrocytic stages of all human Plasmodium species

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Clotilde Ribaut; Antoine Berry; Séverine Chevalley; Karine Reybier; Isabelle Morlais; Daniel Parzy; Françoise Nepveu; Françoise Benoit-Vical; Alexis Valentin

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Parasite concentration methods facilitate molecular, biochemical and immunological research on the erythrocytic stages of Plasmodium. In this paper, an adaptation of magnetic MACS® columns for the purification of human Plasmodium species is presented. This method was useful for the concentration\\/purification of either schizonts or gametocytes. RESULTS AND CONCLUSIONS: The magnetic removal of non-parasitized red blood cells (in vivo and

  6. A clonal theory of parasitic protozoa: the population structures of Entamoeba, Giardia, Leishmania, Naegleria, Plasmodium, Trichomonas, and Trypanosoma and their medical and taxonomical consequences.

    PubMed Central

    Tibayrenc, M; Kjellberg, F; Ayala, F J

    1990-01-01

    We propose a general theory of clonal reproduction for parasitic protozoa, which has important medical and biological consequences. Many parasitic protozoa have been assumed to reproduce sexually, because of diploidy and occasional sexuality in the laboratory. However, a population genetic analysis of extensive data on biochemical polymorphisms indicates that the two fundamental consequences of sexual reproduction (i.e., segregation and recombination) are apparently rare or absent in natural populations of the parasitic protozoa. Moreover, the clones recorded appear to be stable over large geographical areas and long periods of time. A clonal population structure demands that the medical attributes of clones be separately characterized; ubiquitous clones call for priority characterization. Uniparental reproduction renders unsatisfactory Linnean taxonomy; this needs to be supplemented by the "natural clone" as an additional taxonomic unit, which is best defined by means of genetic markers. PMID:2320563

  7. UV-triggered affinity capture identifies interactions between the Plasmodium falciparum multidrug resistance protein 1 (PfMDR1) and antimalarial agents in live parasitized cells.

    PubMed

    Brunner, Ralf; Ng, Caroline L; Aissaoui, Hamed; Akabas, Myles H; Boss, Christoph; Brun, Reto; Callaghan, Paul S; Corminboeuf, Olivier; Fidock, David A; Frame, Ithiel J; Heidmann, Bibia; Le Bihan, Amélie; Jenö, Paul; Mattheis, Corinna; Moes, Suzette; Müller, Ingrid B; Paguio, Michelle; Roepe, Paul D; Siegrist, Romain; Voss, Till; Welford, Richard W D; Wittlin, Sergio; Binkert, Christoph

    2013-08-01

    A representative of a new class of potent antimalarials with an unknown mode of action was recently described. To identify the molecular target of this class of antimalarials, we employed a photo-reactive affinity capture method to find parasite proteins specifically interacting with the capture compound in living parasitized cells. The capture reagent retained the antimalarial properties of the parent molecule (ACT-213615) and accumulated within parasites. We identified several proteins interacting with the capture compound and established a functional interaction between ACT-213615 and PfMDR1. We surmise that PfMDR1 may play a role in the antimalarial activity of the piperazine-containing compound ACT-213615. PMID:23754276

  8. UV-triggered Affinity Capture Identifies Interactions between the Plasmodium falciparum Multidrug Resistance Protein 1 (PfMDR1) and Antimalarial Agents in Live Parasitized Cells*

    PubMed Central

    Brunner, Ralf; Ng, Caroline L.; Aissaoui, Hamed; Akabas, Myles H.; Boss, Christoph; Brun, Reto; Callaghan, Paul S.; Corminboeuf, Olivier; Fidock, David A.; Frame, Ithiel J.; Heidmann, Bibia; Le Bihan, Amélie; Jenö, Paul; Mattheis, Corinna; Moes, Suzette; Müller, Ingrid B.; Paguio, Michelle; Roepe, Paul D.; Siegrist, Romain; Voss, Till; Welford, Richard W. D.; Wittlin, Sergio; Binkert, Christoph

    2013-01-01

    A representative of a new class of potent antimalarials with an unknown mode of action was recently described. To identify the molecular target of this class of antimalarials, we employed a photo-reactive affinity capture method to find parasite proteins specifically interacting with the capture compound in living parasitized cells. The capture reagent retained the antimalarial properties of the parent molecule (ACT-213615) and accumulated within parasites. We identified several proteins interacting with the capture compound and established a functional interaction between ACT-213615 and PfMDR1. We surmise that PfMDR1 may play a role in the antimalarial activity of the piperazine-containing compound ACT-213615. PMID:23754276

  9. A systematic approach to understand the mechanism of action of the bisthiazolium compound T4 on the human malaria parasite, Plasmodium falciparum

    PubMed Central

    Le Roch, Karine G; Johnson, Jeffrey R; Ahiboh, Hugues; Chung, Duk-Won D; Prudhomme, Jacques; Plouffe, David; Henson, Kerstin; Zhou, Yingyao; Witola, William; Yates, John R; Mamoun, Choukri Ben; Winzeler, Elizabeth A; Vial, Henri

    2008-01-01

    Background In recent years, a major increase in the occurrence of drug resistant falciparum malaria has been reported. Choline analogs, such as the bisthiazolium T4, represent a novel class of compounds with strong potency against drug sensitive and resistant P. falciparum clones. Although T4 and its analogs are presumed to target the parasite's lipid metabolism, their exact mechanism of action remains unknown. Here we have employed transcriptome and proteome profiling analyses to characterize the global response of P. falciparum to T4 during the intraerythrocytic cycle of this parasite. Results No significant transcriptional changes were detected immediately after addition of T4 despite the drug's effect on the parasite metabolism. Using the Ontology-based Pattern Identification (OPI) algorithm with an increased T4 incubation time, we demonstrated cell cycle arrest and a general induction of genes involved in gametocytogenesis. Proteomic analysis revealed a significant decrease in the level of the choline/ethanolamine-phosphotransferase (PfCEPT), a key enzyme involved in the final step of synthesis of phosphatidylcholine (PC). This effect was further supported by metabolic studies, which showed a major alteration in the synthesis of PC from choline and ethanolamine by the compound. Conclusion Our studies demonstrate that the bisthiazolium compound T4 inhibits the pathways of synthesis of phosphatidylcholine from choline and ethanolamine in P. falciparum, and provide evidence for post-transcriptional regulations of parasite metabolism in response to external stimuli. PMID:18973684

  10. Evidence of tRNA cleavage in apicomplexan parasites: half-tRNAs as new potential regulatory molecules of Toxoplasma gondii and Plasmodium berghei

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Several lines of evidence demonstrated that organisms ranging from bacteria to higher animals possess a regulated endonucleolytic cleavage pathway producing half-tRNA fragments. In the present study, we investigated the occurrence of this phenomenon in two distantly related apicomplexan parasites, T...

  11. A three-genome phylogeny of malaria parasites ( Plasmodium and closely related genera): Evolution of life-history traits and host switches

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ellen S. Martinsen; Susan L. Perkins; Jos J. Schall

    2008-01-01

    Phylogenetic analysis of genomic data allows insights into the evolutionary history of pathogens, especially the events leading to host switching and diversification, as well as alterations of the life cycle (life-history traits). Hundreds, perhaps thousands, of malaria parasite species exploit squamate reptiles, birds, and mammals as vertebrate hosts as well as many genera of dipteran vectors, but the evolutionary and

  12. Plasmodium vivax: Induction of CD4+CD25+FoxP3+ Regulatory T Cells during Infection Are Directly Associated with Level of Circulating Parasites

    PubMed Central

    Bueno, Lilian Lacerda; Morais, Cristiane Guimarães; Araújo, Fernanda Fortes; Gomes, Juliana Assis Silva; Corrêa-Oliveira, Rodrigo; Soares, Irene Silva; Lacerda, Marcus Vinícius; Fujiwara, Ricardo Toshio; Braga, Érika Martins

    2010-01-01

    Circulation CD4+CD25+FoxP3+ regulatory T cells (Tregs) have been associated with the delicate balancing between control of overwhelming acute malaria infection and prevention of immune pathology due to disproportionate inflammatory responses to erythrocytic stage of the parasite. While the role of Tregs has been well-documented in murine models and P. falciparum infection, the phenotype and function of Tregs in P. vivax infection is still poorly characterized. In the current study, we demonstrated that patients with acute P. vivax infection presented a significant augmentation of circulating Tregs producing anti-inflammatory (IL-10 and TGF-?) as well as pro-inflammatory (IFN-?, IL-17) cytokines, which was further positively correlated with parasite burden. Surface expression of GITR molecule and intracellular expression of CTLA-4 were significantly upregulated in Tregs from infected donors, presenting also a positive association between either absolute numbers of CD4+CD25+FoxP3+GITR+ or CD4+CD25+FoxP3+CTLA-4+ and parasite load. Finally, we demonstrate a suppressive effect of Treg cells in specific T cell proliferative responses of P. vivax infected subjects after antigen stimulation with Pv-AMA-1. Our findings indicate that malaria vivax infection lead to an increased number of activated Treg cells that are highly associated with parasite load, which probably exert an important contribution to the modulation of immune responses during P. vivax infection. PMID:20224778

  13. Thymine distribution in genes provides novel insight into the functional significance of the proteome of the malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum 3D7.

    PubMed

    Palanisamy, Balamurugan; Ekambaram, Rajasekaran; Heese, Klaus

    2014-03-01

    Plasmodium falciparum (Pf)-mediated malaria is one of the most devastating diseases in the world, and the search for suitable antimalarial drugs remains an extraordinary challenge for scientists working in this area. Novel unconventional approaches could reveal new potential targets that may be useful for the treatment of malaria. We used a bioinformatics approach to analyze the entire genome of the Pf3D7 strain. Because the carbon (C-) content is a pivotal parameter that determines the hydrophobicity of a protein, which in turn controls protein folding and function, we analyzed the entire Pf3D7 proteome based on the gene's thymine (T)-controlled amino acid expression. Our data disclose a total of 14 proteins encoded by chromosome-4 and chromosome-9 that have an outstanding T-encoded and C-controlled hydrophobic character. The identification of these proteins could open new pivotal drug-targeting avenues. PMID:24132930

  14. Genetic diversity of Plasmodium vivax and Plasmodium falciparum in Honduras

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Understanding the population structure of Plasmodium species through genetic diversity studies can assist in the design of more effective malaria control strategies, particularly in vaccine development. Central America is an area where malaria is a public health problem, but little is known about the genetic diversity of the parasite’s circulating species. This study aimed to investigate the allelic frequency and molecular diversity of five surface antigens in field isolates from Honduras. Methods Five molecular markers were analysed to determine the genotypes of Plasmodium vivax and Plasmodium falciparum from endemic areas in Honduras. Genetic diversity of ama-1, msp-1 and csp was investigated for P. vivax, and msp-1 and msp-2 for P. falciparum. Allelic frequencies were calculated and sequence analysis performed. Results and conclusion A high genetic diversity was observed within Plasmodium isolates from Honduras. A different number of genotypes were elucidated: 41 (n?=?77) for pvama-1; 23 (n?=?84) for pvcsp; and 23 (n?=?35) for pfmsp-1. Pvcsp sequences showed VK210 as the only subtype present in Honduran isolates. Pvmsp-1 (F2) was the most polymorphic marker for P. vivax isolates while pvama-1 was least variable. All three allelic families described for pfmsp-1 (n?=?30) block 2 (K1, MAD20, and RO33), and both allelic families described for the central domain of pfmsp-2 (n?=?11) (3D7 and FC27) were detected. However, K1 and 3D7 allelic families were predominant. All markers were randomly distributed across the country and no geographic correlation was found. To date, this is the most complete report on molecular characterization of P. vivax and P. falciparum field isolates in Honduras with regards to genetic diversity. These results indicate that P. vivax and P. falciparum parasite populations are highly diverse in Honduras despite the low level of transmission. PMID:23181845

  15. Anopheles Midgut FREP1 Mediates Plasmodium Invasion.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Genwei; Niu, Guodong; Franca, Caio M; Dong, Yuemei; Wang, Xiaohong; Butler, Noah S; Dimopoulos, George; Li, Jun

    2015-07-01

    Malaria transmission depends on sexual stage Plasmodium parasites successfully invading Anopheline mosquito midguts following a blood meal. However, the molecular mechanisms of Plasmodium invasion of mosquito midguts have not been fully elucidated. Previously, we showed that genetic polymorphisms in the fibrinogen-related protein 1 (FREP1) gene are significantly associated with Plasmodium falciparum infection in Anopheles gambiae, and FREP1 is important for Plasmodium berghei infection of mosquitoes. Here we identify that the FREP1 protein is secreted from the mosquito midgut epithelium and integrated as tetramers into the peritrophic matrix, a chitinous matrix formed inside the midgut lumen after a blood meal feeding. Moreover, we show that the FREP1 can directly bind Plasmodia sexual stage gametocytes and ookinetes. Notably, ablating FREP1 expression or targeting FREP1 with antibodies significantly decreases P. falciparum infection in mosquito midguts. Our data support that the mosquito-expressed FREP1 mediates mosquito midgut invasion by multiple species of Plasmodium parasites via anchoring ookinetes to the peritrophic matrix and enabling parasites to penetrate the peritrophic matrix and the epithelium. Thus, targeting FREP1 can limit malaria transmission. PMID:25991725

  16. Life history of a malaria parasite (Plasmodium mexicanum) in its host, the western fence lizard (Sceloporus occidentalis): host testosterone as a source of seasonal and among-host variation?

    PubMed

    Eisen, R J; DeNardo, D F

    2000-10-01

    The course of infection of a malaria parasite (Plasmodium mexicanum) is highly variable in its host, the fence lizard (Sceloporus occidentalis). However, a seasonal trend is superimposed on this variation such that gametocyte production is intensified during mid- to late summer. Host testosterone levels follow a similar seasonal fluctuation and are variable among individual lizards. We sought to determine if testosterone levels affect seasonal and among-host variation in 11 P. mexicanum life history traits: rate of increase in level of infection (3 measures), peak parasitemia (3 measures), duration of increase (3 measures), time to detectable infection, and timing of production of gametocytes. We followed the course of infection in 125 male S. occidentalis, each randomly assigned to 1 of 4 treatment groups: castrated, castrated and implanted with exogenous testosterone, sham implanted, and unmanipulated controls. Median values for the 11 life history traits did not differ among treatment groups, and variances were homogeneous among the treatment groups for 10/11 traits. However, elevated testosterone significantly reduced the variation in timing of the onset of gametocyte production. Therefore, testosterone does not appear to be a primary regulator of P. mexicanum life history, yet testosterone may have some effect on when gametocytes first become detectable. PMID:11128477

  17. Polymorphisms in Plasmodium falciparum Chloroquine Resistance Transporter and Multidrug Resistance 1 Genes: Parasite Risk Factors that Affect Treatment Outcomes for P. falciparum Malaria after Artemether-Lumefantrine and Artesunate-Amodiaquine

    PubMed Central

    Venkatesan, Meera; Gadalla, Nahla B.; Stepniewska, Kasia; Dahal, Prabin; Nsanzabana, Christian; Moriera, Clarissa; Price, Ric N.; Mårtensson, Andreas; Rosenthal, Philip J.; Dorsey, Grant; Sutherland, Colin J.; Guérin, Philippe; Davis, Timothy M. E.; Ménard, Didier; Adam, Ishag; Ademowo, George; Arze, Cesar; Baliraine, Frederick N.; Berens-Riha, Nicole; Björkman, Anders; Borrmann, Steffen; Checchi, Francesco; Desai, Meghna; Dhorda, Mehul; Djimdé, Abdoulaye A.; El-Sayed, Badria B.; Eshetu, Teferi; Eyase, Frederick; Falade, Catherine; Faucher, Jean-François; Fröberg, Gabrielle; Grivoyannis, Anastasia; Hamour, Sally; Houzé, Sandrine; Johnson, Jacob; Kamugisha, Erasmus; Kariuki, Simon; Kiechel, Jean-René; Kironde, Fred; Kofoed, Poul-Erik; LeBras, Jacques; Malmberg, Maja; Mwai, Leah; Ngasala, Billy; Nosten, Francois; Nsobya, Samuel L.; Nzila, Alexis; Oguike, Mary; Otienoburu, Sabina Dahlström; Ogutu, Bernhards; Ouédraogo, Jean-Bosco; Piola, Patrice; Rombo, Lars; Schramm, Birgit; Somé, A. Fabrice; Thwing, Julie; Ursing, Johan; Wong, Rina P. M.; Zeynudin, Ahmed; Zongo, Issaka; Plowe, Christopher V.; Sibley, Carol Hopkins

    2014-01-01

    Adequate clinical and parasitologic cure by artemisinin combination therapies relies on the artemisinin component and the partner drug. Polymorphisms in the Plasmodium falciparum chloroquine resistance transporter (pfcrt) and P. falciparum multidrug resistance 1 (pfmdr1) genes are associated with decreased sensitivity to amodiaquine and lumefantrine, but effects of these polymorphisms on therapeutic responses to artesunate-amodiaquine (ASAQ) and artemether-lumefantrine (AL) have not been clearly defined. Individual patient data from 31 clinical trials were harmonized and pooled by using standardized methods from the WorldWide Antimalarial Resistance Network. Data for more than 7,000 patients were analyzed to assess relationships between parasite polymorphisms in pfcrt and pfmdr1 and clinically relevant outcomes after treatment with AL or ASAQ. Presence of the pfmdr1 gene N86 (adjusted hazards ratio = 4.74, 95% confidence interval = 2.29 – 9.78, P < 0.001) and increased pfmdr1 copy number (adjusted hazards ratio = 6.52, 95% confidence interval = 2.36–17.97, P < 0.001) were significant independent risk factors for recrudescence in patients treated with AL. AL and ASAQ exerted opposing selective effects on single-nucleotide polymorphisms in pfcrt and pfmdr1. Monitoring selection and responding to emerging signs of drug resistance are critical tools for preserving efficacy of artemisinin combination therapies; determination of the prevalence of at least pfcrt K76T and pfmdr1 N86Y should now be routine. PMID:25048375

  18. A Transmission Model for the Ecology of an Avian Blood Parasite in a Temperate Ecosystem

    PubMed Central

    Murdock, Courtney C.; Foufopoulos, Johannes; Simon, Carl P.

    2013-01-01

    Most of our knowledge about avian haemosporidian parasites comes from the Hawaiian archipelago, where recently introduced Plasmodiumrelictum has contributed to the extinction of many endemic avian species. While the ecology of invasive malaria is reasonably understood, the ecology of endemic haemosporidian infection in mainland systems is poorly understood, even though it is the rule rather than the exception. We develop a mathematical model to explore and identify the ecological factors that most influence transmission of the common avian parasite, Leucocytozoonfringillinarum (Apicomplexa). The model was parameterized from White-crowned Sparrow (Zonotrichialeucophrys) and S. silvestre / craigi black fly populations breeding in an alpine ecosystem. We identify and examine the importance of altricial nestlings, the seasonal relapse of infected birds for parasite persistence across breeding seasons, and potential impacts of seasonal changes in black fly emergence on parasite prevalence in a high elevation temperate system. We also use the model to identify and estimate the parameters most influencing transmission dynamics. Our analysis found that relapse of adult birds and young of the year birds were crucial for parasite persistence across multiple seasons. However, distinguishing between nude nestlings and feathered young of the year was unnecessary. Finally, due to model sensitivity to many black fly parameters, parasite prevalence and sparrow recruitment may be most affected by seasonal changes in environmental temperature driving shifts in black fly emergence and gonotrophic cycles. PMID:24073288

  19. Plasmodium vivax transmission: chances for control?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jetsumon Sattabongkot; Takafumi Tsuboi; Gabriela E. Zollner; Jeeraphat Sirichaisinthop; Liwang Cui

    2004-01-01

    Plasmodium vivax is a growing public health problem in many regions of the world as a result of re-emergence and increased transmission. This article reviews the unique biology related to P. vivax transmission and addresses potential problems associated with the control of this parasite, which depends on an in-depth knowledge of malaria transmission. The success of comprehensive control measures will

  20. Pathogenic action of Plasmodium gallinaceum in chickens: Brain histology and nitric oxide production by blood monocyte-derived macrophages

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Barbarella de Matos Macchi; Juarez Antônio Simões Quaresma; Anderson Manoel Herculano; Maria Elena Crespo-López; Renato Augusto DaMatta; Jose Luiz Martins do Nascimento

    2010-01-01

    Plasmodium infection causes major losses to animal and human populations. The characterization of experimental malaria models is needed for a better understanding of disease mechanisms and the development of new treatment protocols. Chickens infected with Plasmodium gallinaceum constitute an adequate malaria model due to the phylogenetic proximity of this parasite to human Plasmodium as well as similarities in disease manifestation,

  1. Multiplex 5? Nuclease Quantitative Real-Time PCR for Clinical Diagnosis of Malaria and Species-Level Identification and Epidemiologic Evaluation of Malaria-Causing Parasites, Including Plasmodium knowlesi

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Wan Hsin; Dalton, Justin; Lichay, Marguerite A.; Dumler, J. Stephen

    2013-01-01

    Molecular diagnosis of malaria offers many potential advantages over microscopy, including identification of malaria to the species level in an era with few experienced microscopists. We developed high-throughput multiplex 5? nuclease quantitative PCR (qPCR) assays, with the potential to support large studies, to specifically identify Plasmodium falciparum, P. vivax, P. ovale, P. malariae, and P. knowlesi. We compared qPCR to microscopy and confirmed discordant results with an alternative target PCR assay. The assays specifically detected 1 to 6 parasites/?l of blood. The clinical sensitivities (95% confidence intervals [CIs]) of the 4-plex assay to detect microscopically confirmed malaria were 95.8% (88.3 to 99.1%) for P. falciparum, 89.5% (75.2 to 97.1%) for P. vivax, 94.1% (71.3 to 99.9%) for P. ovale, and 100% (66.4 to 100%) for P. malariae. The specificities (95% CIs) were 98.6% (92.4 to 100%) for P. falciparum, 99% (84.8 to 100%) for P. vivax, 98.4% (94.4 to 99.8%) for P. ovale, and 99.3% (95.9 to 100%) for P. malariae. The clinical specificity for samples without malaria was 100%. The clinical sensitivity of the 5-plex assay for confirmed P. knowlesi malaria was 100% (95% CI, 69.2 to 100%), and the clinical specificity was 100% (95% CI, 87.2 to 100%). Coded retesting and testing with an alternative target PCR assay showed improved sensitivity and specificity of multiplex qPCR versus microscopy. Additionally, 91.7% (11/12) of the samples with uncertain species by microscopy were identified to the species level identically by both our multiplex qPCR assay and the alternative target PCR assay, including 9 P. falciparum infections. Multiplex qPCR can rapidly and simultaneously identify all 5 Plasmodium species known to cause malaria in humans, and it offers an alternative or adjunct to microscopy for clinical diagnosis as well as a needed high-throughput tool for research. PMID:23804387

  2. Plasmodium sporozoite motility: an update.

    PubMed

    Montagna, Georgina N; Matuschewski, Kai; Buscaglia, Carlos A

    2012-01-01

    Plasmodium, the causative agent of malaria, employs its own actin/myosin-based motor for forward locomotion, penetration of molecular and cellular barriers, and invasion of target cells. The sporozoite is unique amongst the extracellular Plasmodium developmental forms in that it has to cross considerable distances and different tissues inside the mosquito and vertebrate hosts to ultimately reach a parenchymal liver cell, the proper target cell where to transform and replicate. Throughout this dangerous journey, the parasite alternates between being passively transported by the body fluids and using its own active cellular motility to seamlessly glide through extracellular matrix and cell barriers. But irrespective of the chosen path, the sporozoite is compelled to keep on moving at a fairly fast pace to escape destruction by host defense mechanisms. Here, we highlight and discuss recent findings collected in Plasmodium sporozoites and related parasites that shed new light on the biological significance of apicomplexan motility and on the structure and regulation of the underlying motor machinery. PMID:22201771

  3. Falcipain-1, a Plasmodium falciparum Cysteine Protease with Vaccine Potential

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Amit Kumar; Krishan Kumar; Reshma Korde; Sunil Kumar Puri; Pawan Malhotra; Virander Singh Chauhan

    2007-01-01

    Cysteine proteases (falcipains) of Plasmodium falciparum are potential targets for antimalarial chemother- apy, since they have been shown to be involved in important cellular functions such as hemoglobin degradation and invasion\\/rupture of red blood cells during parasite life cycle. The role of falcipain-1 at the asexual blood stages of the parasite still remains uncertain. This is mainly due to a

  4. Analysis of gene mutations involved in chloroquine resistance in Plasmodium falciparum parasites isolated from patients in the southwest of Saudi Arabia

    PubMed Central

    Bin Dajem, Saad M.; Al-Qahtani, Ahmed

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Chloroquine has been the drug of choice for the treatment of malaria for many decades. We aimed to examine the molecular basis of chloroquine resistance among Plasmodium falciparum isolates from the southwestern region of Saudi Arabia by analyzing the K76T and N86Y mutations in the PfCRT and PfMDR1 genes, respectively. PATIENTS AND METHODS: P falciparum-infected blood spot samples (n=121) were collected on filter papers. DNA was extracted and fragments from the above genes were amplified using nested PCR. The amplicons were digested by ApoI enzyme and sequenced. RESULTS: Of the 121 samples, 95 and 112 samples could be amplified for PfCRT K76T and PfMDR1 N86Y mutations, respectively. All of the samples amplified for the PfCRT K76T mutation were undigestible by ApoI, suggesting the presence of the K76T mutation. For the PfMDR1 N86Y mutation, 65/109 samples (59.6%) were digestible when treated with ApoI in a pattern, suggestive of the presence of the investigated wild allele (N86). However, 44/109 samples (40.4%) were digestible by ApoI, suggesting the presence of the mutated allele (Y) at position 86. DNA sequencing confirmed these results. CONCLUSION: Surprisingly, all isolates exhibited the mutated allele at codon 76 (K76T) of PfCRT. However, the mutated mutant allele at codon 86 (N86Y) of PfMDR1 was found in 40.4% of the samples studied. To our knowledge, this is the first study that has investigated the existence of the mutation in the PfMDR1 gene in the country. This study will contribute to the development of new strategies for therapeutic intervention against malaria in Saudi Arabia. PMID:20427933

  5. Optimal strategy for controlling the spread of Plasmodium Knowlesi malaria: Treatment and culling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdullahi, Mohammed Baba; Hasan, Yahya Abu; Abdullah, Farah Aini

    2015-05-01

    Plasmodium Knowlesi malaria is a parasitic mosquito-borne disease caused by a eukaryotic protist of genus Plasmodium Knowlesi transmitted by mosquito, Anopheles leucosphyrus to human and macaques. We developed and analyzed a deterministic Mathematical model for the transmission of Plasmodium Knowlesi malaria in human and macaques. The optimal control theory is applied to investigate optimal strategies for controlling the spread of Plasmodium Knowlesi malaria using treatment and culling as control strategies. The conditions for optimal control of the Plasmodium Knowlesi malaria are derived using Pontryagin's Maximum Principle. Finally, numerical simulations suggested that the combination of the control strategies is the best way to control the disease in any community.

  6. Deoxyhypusine Hydroxylase from Plasmodium vivax, the Neglected Human Malaria Parasite: Molecular Cloning, Expression and Specific Inhibition by the 5-LOX Inhibitor Zileuton

    PubMed Central

    Atemnkeng, Veronika Anyigoh; Pink, Mario; Schmitz-Spanke, Simone; Wu, Xian-Jun; Dong, Liang-Liang; Zhao, Kai-Hong; May, Caroline; Laufer, Stefan; Langer, Barbara; Kaiser, Annette

    2013-01-01

    Primaquine, an 8-aminoquinoline, is the only drug which cures the dormant hypnozoites of persistent liver stages from P. vivax. Increasing resistance needs the discovery of alternative pathways as drug targets to develop novel drug entities. Deoxyhypusine hydroxylase (DOHH) completes hypusine biosynthesis in eukaryotic initiation factor (eIF-5A) which is the only cellular protein known to contain the unusual amino acid hypusine. Modified EIF-5A is important for proliferation of the malaria parasite. Here, we present the first successful cloning and expression of DOHH from P. vivax causing tertiary malaria. The nucleic acid sequence of 1041 bp encodes an open reading frame of 346 amino acids. Histidine tagged expression of P. vivax DOHH detected a protein of 39.01 kDa in E. coli. The DOHH protein from P. vivax shares significant amino acid identity to the simian orthologues from P. knowlesi and P. yoelii strain H. In contrast to P. falciparum only four E-Z-type HEAT-like repeats are present in P. vivax DOHH with different homology to phycocyanin lyase subunits from cyanobacteria and in proteins participating in energy metabolism of Archaea and Halobacteria. However, phycocyanin lyase activity is absent in P. vivax DOHH. The dohh gene is present as a single copy gene and transcribed throughout the whole erythrocytic cycle. Specific inhibition of recombinant P. vivax DOHH is possible by complexing the ferrous iron with zileuton, an inhibitor of mammalian 5-lipoxygenase (5-LOX). Ferrous iron in the active site of 5-LOX is coordinated by three conserved histidines and the carboxylate of isoleucine673. Zileuton inhibited the P. vivax DOHH protein with an IC50 of 12,5 nmol determined by a relative quantification by GC/MS. By contrast, the human orthologue is only less affected with an IC50 of 90 nmol suggesting a selective iron-complexing strategy for the parasitic enzyme. PMID:23505486

  7. Deoxyhypusine hydroxylase from Plasmodium vivax, the neglected human malaria parasite: molecular cloning, expression and specific inhibition by the 5-LOX inhibitor zileuton.

    PubMed

    Atemnkeng, Veronika Anyigoh; Pink, Mario; Schmitz-Spanke, Simone; Wu, Xian-Jun; Dong, Liang-Liang; Zhao, Kai-Hong; May, Caroline; Laufer, Stefan; Langer, Barbara; Kaiser, Annette

    2013-01-01

    Primaquine, an 8-aminoquinoline, is the only drug which cures the dormant hypnozoites of persistent liver stages from P. vivax. Increasing resistance needs the discovery of alternative pathways as drug targets to develop novel drug entities. Deoxyhypusine hydroxylase (DOHH) completes hypusine biosynthesis in eukaryotic initiation factor (eIF-5A) which is the only cellular protein known to contain the unusual amino acid hypusine. Modified EIF-5A is important for proliferation of the malaria parasite. Here, we present the first successful cloning and expression of DOHH from P. vivax causing tertiary malaria. The nucleic acid sequence of 1041 bp encodes an open reading frame of 346 amino acids. Histidine tagged expression of P. vivax DOHH detected a protein of 39.01 kDa in E. coli. The DOHH protein from P. vivax shares significant amino acid identity to the simian orthologues from P. knowlesi and P. yoelii strain H. In contrast to P. falciparum only four E-Z-type HEAT-like repeats are present in P. vivax DOHH with different homology to phycocyanin lyase subunits from cyanobacteria and in proteins participating in energy metabolism of Archaea and Halobacteria. However, phycocyanin lyase activity is absent in P. vivax DOHH. The dohh gene is present as a single copy gene and transcribed throughout the whole erythrocytic cycle. Specific inhibition of recombinant P. vivax DOHH is possible by complexing the ferrous iron with zileuton, an inhibitor of mammalian 5-lipoxygenase (5-LOX). Ferrous iron in the active site of 5-LOX is coordinated by three conserved histidines and the carboxylate of isoleucine(673). Zileuton inhibited the P. vivax DOHH protein with an IC50 of 12,5 nmol determined by a relative quantification by GC/MS. By contrast, the human orthologue is only less affected with an IC50 of 90 nmol suggesting a selective iron-complexing strategy for the parasitic enzyme. PMID:23505486

  8. Identification of Proteins from Plasmodium falciparum That Are Homologous to Reticulocyte Binding Proteins in Plasmodium vivax

    Microsoft Academic Search

    TONY TRIGLIA; JENNY THOMPSON; SONIA R. CARUANA; MAURO DELORENZI; TERRY SPEED; ALAN F. COWMAN

    2001-01-01

    Plasmodium falciparum infections can be fatal, while P. vivax infections usually are not. A possible factor involved in the greater virulence of P. falciparum is that this parasite grows in red blood cells (RBCs) of all maturities whereas P. vivax is restricted to growth in reticulocytes, which represent only approximately 1% of total RBCs in the periphery. Two proteins, expressed

  9. Characterization of Plasmodium liver stage inhibition by halofuginone

    PubMed Central

    Derbyshire, Emily R.; Mazitschek, Ralph; Clardy, Jon

    2012-01-01

    Malaria is a devastating parasitic disease that afflicts one-third of the world’s population. Commonly used malaria drugs address few targets and their efficacy is being undermined by parasite resistance. Most therapeutics target blood stage malaria, while only few compounds are active against malaria’s liver stage, the first stage of the Plasmodium parasite’s life cycle within the human host. The identification of inhibitors active against liver stage malaria would benefit both the development of chemical probes to elucidate the poorly understood biology of this phase of the parasite’s life cycle and potentially provide agents for preventing and eliminating the disease. Here, we report on the development of a live cell parasite traversal assay in 384-well format amenable to high-throughput screening that exploits the wounding of liver cells by the parasite. This method identifies small molecules that may inhibit the parasites actin-myosin motor system. The traversal assay, in addition to established methods, was used to evaluate the activity of halofuginone, a synthetic halogenated derivative of the natural alkaloid febrifugine, against liver stage Plasmodium berghei parasites. Halofuginone was found to inhibit P. berghei sporozoite load in HepG2 cells with an IC50 of 17 nM. While the compound does not affect parasite traversal through human liver cells, an inhibition time course assay indicates that it affects essential processes in both early and late stage parasite development. PMID:22438279

  10. Population Genomics of the Immune Evasion (var) Genes of Plasmodium falciparum

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Alyssa E Barry; Aleksandra Leliwa-Sytek; Livingston Tavul; Heather Imrie; Florence Migot-Nabias; Stuart M Brown; Gilean A. V McVean; Karen P Day

    2007-01-01

    Var genes encode the major surface antigen (PfEMP1) of the blood stages of the human malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum. Differential expression of up to 60 diverse var genes in each parasite genome underlies immune evasion. We compared the diversity of the DBL? domain of var genes sampled from 30 parasite isolates from a malaria endemic area of Papua New Guinea

  11. Effects of red blood cell potassium and hypertonicity on the growth of Plasmodium falciparum in culture

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. Ginsburg; S. Handeli; S. Friedman; R. Gorodetsky; M. Krugliak

    1986-01-01

    Malarial parasites reproduce asexually inside the erythrocytes of their vertebrate host. Relatively little is known about the interaction between host cell and parasite metabolism. In the present study the effect of host cell cation composition and osmotic shrinkage on in vitro growth and propagation ofPlasmodium falciparum in human erythrocytes was investigated. It is shown that throughout the parasite cell cycle,

  12. Comparative host-parasite population genetic structures: obligate fly ectoparasites on Galapagos seabirds.

    PubMed

    Levin, Iris I; Parker, Patricia G

    2013-08-01

    Parasites often have shorter generation times and, in some cases, faster mutation rates than their hosts, which can lead to greater population differentiation in the parasite relative to the host. Here we present a population genetic study of two ectoparasitic flies, Olfersia spinifera and Olfersia aenescens compared with their respective bird hosts, great frigatebirds (Fregata minor) and Nazca boobies (Sula granti). Olfersia spinifera is the vector of a haemosporidian parasite, Haemoproteus iwa, which infects frigatebirds throughout their range. Interestingly, there is no genetic differentiation in the haemosporidian parasite across this range despite strong genetic differentiation between Galapagos frigatebirds and their non-Galapagos conspecifics. It is possible that the broad distribution of this one H. iwa lineage could be facilitated by movement of infected O. spinifera. Therefore, we predicted more gene flow in both fly species compared with the bird hosts. Mitochondrial DNA sequence data from three genes per species indicated that despite marked differences in the genetic structure of the bird hosts, gene flow was very high in both fly species. A likely explanation involves non-breeding movements of hosts, including movement of juveniles, and movement by adult birds whose breeding attempt has failed, although we cannot rule out the possibility that closely related host species may be involved. PMID:23659306

  13. Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium vivax: Lactate-Dehydrogenase Activity and Its Application for in Vitro Drug Susceptibility Assay

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L. K. Basco; F. Marquet; M. M. Makler; J. Lebras

    1995-01-01

    Lactate dehydrogenase, the terminal enzyme of anerobic Embden-Meyerhoff glycolysis, plays an important role in the carbohydrate metabolism of human malaria parasites. Based on the ability of malarial lactate dehydrogenase to use 3-acetylpyridine NAD as a coenzyme in a reaction leading to the formation of pyruvate from L-lactate, the enzymatic activity of fresh clinical isolates of Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium vivax

  14. The duration of Plasmodium falciparum infections.

    PubMed

    Ashley, Elizabeth A; White, Nicholas J

    2014-01-01

    Plasmodium vivax and Plasmodium ovale are often considered the malaria parasites best adapted to long-term survival in the human host because of their latent exo-erythrocytic forms. The prevailing opinion until the middle of the last century was that the maximum duration of Plasmodium falciparum infections was less than two years. Case reports and series investigating blood donors following accidental malaria infection of blood transfusion recipients and other sporadic malaria cases in non-endemic countries have shown clearly that asymptomatic P. falciparum infections may persist for up to a decade or longer (maximum confirmed 13 years). Current policies in malaria-free countries of excluding blood donors who have lived in malarious areas are justified. Vigilance for longer than three years after declaring elimination in an area may be needed. PMID:25515943

  15. Inhibition of Plasmodium sporozoites infection by targeting the host cell

    PubMed Central

    Leitao, Ricardo; Rodriguez, Ana

    2010-01-01

    There is a great need of new drugs against malaria because of the increasing spread of parasite resistance against the most commonly used drugs in the field. We found that monensin, a common veterinary antibiotic, has a strong inhibitory effect in Plasmodium berghei and P. yoelii sporozoites hepatocyte infection in vitro. Infection of host cells by another apicomplexan parasite with a similar mechanism of host cell invasion, Toxoplasma tachyzoites, was also inhibited. Treatment of mice with monensin abrogates liver infection with P. berghei sporozoites in vivo. We also found that at low concentrations monensin inhibits the infection of Plasmodium sporozoites by rendering host cells resistant to infection, rather than having a direct effect on sporozoites. Monensin effect is targeted to the initial stages of parasite invasion of the host cell with little or no effect on development, suggesting that this antibiotic affects an essential host cell component that is required for Plasmodium sporozoite invasion. PMID:20493847

  16. Imaging Plasmodium Immunobiology in Liver, Brain, and Lung

    PubMed Central

    Frevert, Ute; Nacer, Adéla; Cabrera, Mynthia; Movila, Alexandru; Leberl, Maike

    2013-01-01

    Plasmodium falciparum malaria is responsible for the deaths of over half a million African children annually. Until a decade ago, dynamic analysis of the malaria parasite was limited to in vitro systems with the typical limitations associated with 2D monocultures or entirely artificial surfaces. Due to extremely low parasite densities, the liver was considered a black box in terms of Plasmodium sporozoite invasion, liver stage development, and merozoite release into the blood. Further, nothing was known about the behavior of blood stage parasites in organs such as brain where clinical signs manifest and the ensuing immune response of the host that may ultimately result in a fatal outcome. The advent of fluorescent parasites, advances in imaging technology, and availability of an ever-increasing number of cellular and molecular probes have helped illuminate many steps along the pathogenetic cascade of this deadly tropical parasite. PMID:24076429

  17. Host Switch Leads to Emergence of Plasmodium vivax Malaria in Humans

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jianbing Mu; Deirdre A. Joy; Junhui Duan; Yaming Huang; Jane Carlton; John Walker; John Barnwell; Peter Beerli; Michael A. Charleston; Oliver G. Pybus; Xin-zhuan Su

    2005-01-01

    The geographical origin of Plasmodium vivax, the most widespread human malaria parasite, is controversial. Although genetic closeness to Asian primate malarias has been confirmed by phylogenetic analyses, genetic similarities between P. vivax and Plasmodium simium, a New World primate malaria, suggest that humans may have acquired P. vivax from New World monkeys or vice versa. Additionally, the near fixation of

  18. PLoS Pathogens Arrest of nuclear division in Plasmodium through blockage of erythrocyte surface

    E-print Network

    Sharma, Shobhona

    PLoS Pathogens Arrest of nuclear division in Plasmodium through blockage of erythrocyte surface: Arrest of nuclear division in Plasmodium through blockage of erythrocyte surface exposed ribosomal: Malaria parasites reside inside erythrocytes and the disease manifestations are linked to the growth

  19. Conservation of a Gliding Motility and Cell Invasion Machinery in Apicomplexan Parasites

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Stefan Kappe; Thomas Bruderer; Soren Gantt; Hisashi Fujioka; Victor Nussenzweig; Robert Ménard

    1999-01-01

    Most Apicomplexan parasites, including the human pathogens Plasmodium , Toxoplasma , and Cryptosporidium , actively invade host cells and display gliding motility, both actions powered by parasite mi- crofilaments. In Plasmodium sporozoites, thrombo- spondin-related anonymous protein (TRAP), a mem- ber of a group of Apicomplexan transmembrane proteins that have common adhesion domains, is neces- sary for gliding motility and infection

  20. A general SNP-based molecular barcode for Plasmodium falciparum identification and tracking

    E-print Network

    Daniels, Rachel F.

    Abstract Background Single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) genotyping provides the means to develop a practical, rapid, inexpensive assay that will uniquely identify any Plasmodium falciparum parasite using a small amount ...

  1. Development of an inducible transcriptional control system in plasmodium falciparum with applications to targeted genome editing

    E-print Network

    Wagner, Jeffrey C. (Jeffrey Charles)

    2014-01-01

    Malaria accounts for over 500,000 deaths each year. While malaria is caused by multiple distinct parasites of the genus Plasmodium, P. falciparum is responsible for the majority of morbidity and mortality due to the disease. ...

  2. A Microscale Human Liver Platform that Supports the Hepatic Stages of Plasmodium falciparum and vivax

    E-print Network

    Ng, Shengyong

    The Plasmodium liver stage is an attractive target for the development of antimalarial drugs and vaccines, as it provides an opportunity to interrupt the life cycle of the parasite at a critical early stage. However, ...

  3. Visualising plasmodium falciparum functional genomic data in MaGnET: malaria genome exploration tool 

    E-print Network

    Sharman, Joanna Louise

    2009-06-29

    Malaria affects the lives of 500 million people around the world each year. The disease is caused by protozoan parasites of the genus Plasmodium, whose ability to evade the immune system and quickly evolve resistance to ...

  4. Vaccines 85: Molecular and chemical basis of resistance to parasitic, bacterial, and viral diseases

    SciTech Connect

    Lerner, R.A.; Chanock, R.M.; Brown, F.

    1985-01-01

    This book contains 70 selections. Some of the selection titles are: Structure of the Gene Encoding of Immunodominant Surface Antigen on the Sprozoite of the Human Malaria Parasite Plasmodium falciparum; Cloning and Expression in Bacteria of the Genes for Merozite-specific Antigens from the Malaria Parasite Plasmodium falciparum; A Major Surface Antigen of Plasmodium falciparum in Merozoites: Studies on the Protein and its Gene; Genetic Construction of Cholera Vaccine Prototypes; and Viral Genes, Cytotoxic T Lymphocytes and Immunity.

  5. Plasmodium simium/Plasmodium vivax infections in southern brown howler monkeys from the Atlantic Forest

    PubMed Central

    Costa, Daniela Camargos; da Cunha, Vanessa Pecini; de Assis, Gabriela Maria Pereira; de Souza, Júlio César; Hirano, Zelinda Maria Braga; de Arruda, Mércia Eliane; Kano, Flora Satiko; Carvalho, Luzia Helena; de Brito, Cristiana Ferreira Alves

    2014-01-01

    Blood infection by the simian parasite, Plasmodium simium, was identified in captive (n = 45, 4.4%) and in wild Alouatta clamitans monkeys (n = 20, 35%) from the Atlantic Forest of southern Brazil. A single malaria infection was symptomatic and the monkey presented clinical and haematological alterations. A high frequency of Plasmodium vivax-specific antibodies was detected among these monkeys, with 87% of the monkeys testing positive against P. vivax antigens. These findings highlight the possibility of malaria as a zoonosis in the remaining Atlantic Forest and its impact on the epidemiology of the disease. PMID:25099335

  6. Plasmodium simium/Plasmodium vivax infections in southern brown howler monkeys from the Atlantic Forest.

    PubMed

    Costa, Daniela Camargos; da Cunha, Vanessa Pecini; de Assis, Gabriela Maria Pereira; de Souza Junior, Júlio César; Hirano, Zelinda Maria Braga; de Arruda, Mércia Eliane; Kano, Flora Satiko; Carvalho, Luzia Helena; de Brito, Cristiana Ferreira Alves

    2014-08-01

    Blood infection by the simian parasite, Plasmodium simium, was identified in captive (n = 45, 4.4%) and in wild Alouatta clamitans monkeys (n = 20, 35%) from the Atlantic Forest of southern Brazil. A single malaria infection was symptomatic and the monkey presented clinical and haematological alterations. A high frequency of Plasmodium vivax-specific antibodies was detected among these monkeys, with 87% of the monkeys testing positive against P. vivax antigens. These findings highlight the possibility of malaria as a zoonosis in the remaining Atlantic Forest and its impact on the epidemiology of the disease. PMID:25099335

  7. Branched Tricarboxylic Acid Metabolism in Plasmodium falciparum

    PubMed Central

    Olszewski, Kellen L.; Mather, Michael W.; Morrisey, Joanne M.; Garcia, Benjamin A.; Vaidya, Akhil B.; Rabinowitz, Joshua D.; Llinás, Manuel

    2010-01-01

    A central hub of carbon metabolism is the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle1, which serves to connect the processes of glycolysis, gluconeogenesis, respiration, amino acid synthesis and other biosynthetic pathways. The protozoan intracellular malaria parasites (Plasmodium spp.), however, have long been suspected of possessing a significantly streamlined carbon metabolic network in which TCA metabolism plays a minor role2. Blood-stage Plasmodium parasites rely almost entirely on glucose fermentation for energy and consume minimal amounts of oxygen3, yet the parasite genome encodes all of the enzymes necessary for a complete TCA cycle4. By tracing 13C-labeled compounds using mass spectrometry5 we show that TCA metabolism in the human malaria parasite P. falciparum is largely disconnected from glycolysis and is organized along a fundamentally different architecture than the canonical textbook pathway. We find that this pathway is not cyclic but rather a branched structure in which the major carbon sources are the amino acids glutamate and glutamine. As a consequence of this branched architecture, several reactions must run in the reverse of the standard direction thereby generating two-carbon units in the form of acetyl-coenzyme A (acetyl-CoA). We further show that glutamine-derived acetyl-CoA is used for histone acetylation while glucose-derived acetyl-CoA is used to acetylate aminosugars. Thus the parasite has evolved two independent acetyl-CoA-production mechanisms with different biological functions. These results significantly clarify our understanding of the Plasmodium metabolic network and highlight the ability of altered variants of central carbon metabolism to arise in response to unique environments. PMID:20686576

  8. Sequence of Plasmodium falciparum chromosomes 2, 10, 11 and 14

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Malcolm J. Gardner; Shamira J. Shallom; Jane M. Carlton; Vishvanath Nene; Azadeh Shoaibi; Anne Ciecko; Jeffery Lynn; Michael Rizzo; Bruce Weaver; Behnam Jarrahi; Michael Brenner; Babak Parvizi; Luke Tallon; Azita Moazzez; David Granger; Claire Fujii; Cheryl Hansen; James Pederson; Tamara Feldblyum; Jeremy Peterson; Bernard Suh; Sam Angiuoli; Mihaela Pertea; Jonathan Allen; Jeremy Selengut; Owen White; Leda M. Cummings; Hamilton O. Smith; Mark D. Adams; J. Craig Venter; Daniel J. Carucci; Stephen L. Hoffman; Claire M. Fraser

    2002-01-01

    The mosquito-borne malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum kills an estimated 0.7-2.7 million people every year, primarily children in sub-Saharan Africa. Without effective interventions, a variety of factors-including the spread of parasites resistant to antimalarial drugs and the increasing insecticide resistance of mosquitoes-may cause the number of malaria cases to double over the next two decades. To stimulate basic research and facilitate

  9. Why do we need to know more about mixed Plasmodium species infections in humans?

    PubMed Central

    Zimmerman, Peter A.; Mehlotra, Rajeev K.; Kasehagen, Laurin J.; Kazura, James W.

    2013-01-01

    Four Plasmodium species cause malaria in humans. Most malaria-endemic regions feature mixed infections involving two or more of these species. Factors contributing to heterogeneous parasite species and disease distribution include differences in genetic polymorphisms underlying parasite drug resistance and host susceptibility, mosquito vector ecology and transmission seasonality. It is suggested that unknown factors limit mixed Plasmodium species infections, and that mixed-species infections protect against severe Plasmodium falciparum malaria. Careful examination of methods used to detect these parasites and interpretation of individual- and population-based data are necessary to understand the influence of mixed Plasmodium species infections on malarial disease. This should ensure that deployment of future antimalarial vaccines and drugs will be conducted in a safe and timely manner. PMID:15324735

  10. Prevalence and distribution of human Plasmodium infection in Pakistan

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Both Plasmodium vivax and Plasmodium falciparum are prevalent in Pakistan, yet up-to-date data on the epidemiology of malaria in Pakistan are not available. This study was undertaken to determine the current prevalence and distribution of Plasmodium species across the country. Methods A malariometric population survey was conducted in 2011 using blood samples collected from 801 febrile patients of all ages in four provinces and the capital city of Islamabad. Microscopically confirmed Plasmodium-positive blood samples were reconfirmed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Confirmed parasite-positive samples were subjected to species-specific PCR capable of detecting four species of human malaria. Results Of the 707 PCR-positive samples, 128 (18%) were P. falciparum, 536 (76%) were P. vivax, and 43 (6%) were mixed P. falciparum and P. vivax. Ninety-four microscopy-positive samples were PCR-negative, and Plasmodium malariae and Plasmodium ovale were not detected. Prevalence of P. vivax ranged from 2.4% in Punjab Province to 10.8% in Sindh Province and prevalence of P. falciparum ranged from 0.1% in Islamabad to 3.8% in Balochistan. Conclusions Plasmodium infections in Pakistan are largely attributed to P. vivax but P. falciparum and mixed species infections are also prevalent. In addition, regional variation in the prevalence and species composition of malaria is high. PMID:23984968

  11. No evidence for ape Plasmodium infections in humans in Gabon.

    PubMed

    Délicat-Loembet, Lucresse; Rougeron, Virginie; Ollomo, Benjamin; Arnathau, Céline; Roche, Benjamin; Elguero, Eric; Moukodoum, Nancy Diamella; Okougha, Alain-Prince; Mve Ondo, Bertrand; Boundenga, Larson; Houzé, Sandrine; Galan, Maxime; Nkoghé, Dieudonné; Leroy, Eric M; Durand, Patrick; Paupy, Christophe; Renaud, François; Prugnolle, Franck

    2015-01-01

    African great apes are naturally infected by a multitude of Plasmodium species most of them recently discovered, among which several are closely related to human malaria agents. However, it is still unknown whether these animals can serve as source of infections for humans living in their vicinity. To evaluate this possibility, we analysed the nature of Plasmodium infections from a bank of 4281 human blood samples collected in 210 villages of Gabon, Central Africa. Among them, 2255 were detected positive to Plasmodium using molecular methods (Plasmodium Cytochrome b amplification). A high throughput sequencing technology (454 GS-FLX Titanium technology, Roche) was then used to identify the Plasmodium species present within each positive sample. Overall, we identified with confidence only three species infecting humans in Gabon: P. falciparum, P. malariae and P. ovale. None of the species known to infect non-human primates in Central Africa was found. Our study shows that ape Plasmodium parasites of the subgenus Laverania do not constitute a frequent source of infection for humans. It also suggests that some strong host genetic barriers must exist to prevent the cross species transmission of ape Plasmodium in a context of ever increasing contacts between humans and wildlife. PMID:26039338

  12. No Evidence for Ape Plasmodium Infections in Humans in Gabon

    PubMed Central

    Ollomo, Benjamin; Arnathau, Céline; Roche, Benjamin; Elguero, Eric; Moukodoum, Nancy Diamella; Okougha, Alain-Prince; Mve Ondo, Bertrand; Boundenga, Larson; Houzé, Sandrine; Galan, Maxime; Nkoghé, Dieudonné; Leroy, Eric M.; Durand, Patrick; Paupy, Christophe; Renaud, François; Prugnolle, Franck

    2015-01-01

    African great apes are naturally infected by a multitude of Plasmodium species most of them recently discovered, among which several are closely related to human malaria agents. However, it is still unknown whether these animals can serve as source of infections for humans living in their vicinity. To evaluate this possibility, we analysed the nature of Plasmodium infections from a bank of 4281 human blood samples collected in 210 villages of Gabon, Central Africa. Among them, 2255 were detected positive to Plasmodium using molecular methods (Plasmodium Cytochrome b amplification). A high throughput sequencing technology (454 GS-FLX Titanium technology, Roche) was then used to identify the Plasmodium species present within each positive sample. Overall, we identified with confidence only three species infecting humans in Gabon: P. falciparum, P. malariae and P. ovale. None of the species known to infect non-human primates in Central Africa was found. Our study shows that ape Plasmodium parasites of the subgenus Laverania do not constitute a frequent source of infection for humans. It also suggests that some strong host genetic barriers must exist to prevent the cross species transmission of ape Plasmodium in a context of ever increasing contacts between humans and wildlife. PMID:26039338

  13. Plasmodium falciparum Malaria and Atovaquone-Proguanil Treatment Failure

    PubMed Central

    Prendki, Virginie; Cailhol, Johann; Hubert, Véronique; Ralaimazava, Pascal; Massias, Laurent; Bouchaud, Olivier; Le Bras, Jacques

    2008-01-01

    We noticed overrepresentation of atovaquone-proguanil therapeutic failures among Plasmodium falciparum–infected travelers weighing >100 kg. We report here 1 of these cases, which was not due to resistant parasites or impaired drug bioavailability. The follow-up of such patients should be strengthened. PMID:18258131

  14. Platelets Potentiate Brain Endothelial Alterations Induced by Plasmodium falciparum

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Samuel C. Wassmer; Valery Combes; Francisco J. Candal; Irene Juhan-Vague; Georges E. Grau

    2006-01-01

    Brain lesions of cerebral malaria (CM) are characterized by a sequestration of Plasmodium falciparum- parasitized red blood cells (PRBC) and platelets within brain microvessels, as well as by blood-brain barrier (BBB) disruption. In the present study, we evaluated the possibility that PRBC and platelets induce functional alterations in brain endothelium. In a human brain endothelial cell line, named HBEC-5i, exhibiting

  15. Survey of resistance to chloroquine by Plasmodium vivax in Indonesia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. K. Baird; M. F. Sustriayu Nalim; H. Basri; S. Masbar; B. Leksana; E. Tjitra; R. M. Dewi; M. Khairani; F. S. Wignall

    1996-01-01

    In February 1995 we surveyed resistance to chloroquine among patients with Plasmodium vivax malaria at Nias Island, in the Indian Ocean near north-western Sumatra, Indonesa. The subjects, 21 indigenous males and females (6–50 years old) infected with > 40 asexual blood stage parasites of P. vivax per ?l of blood, had mild symptoms or none at all. Seven of these

  16. Involvement of actin and myosins in Plasmodium berghei ookinete motility

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Inga Siden-Kiamos; Jennifer C. Pinder; Christos Louis

    2006-01-01

    Ookinetes of the genus Plasmodium are motile, invasive cells that develop in the mosquito midgut following ingestion of a parasite-infected blood meal. We show here that ookinetes display gliding motility on glass slides in the presence of insect cells. Moreover, in addition to stationary “flexing” and “twirling” of the cells, two distinct types of movements occur: productive forward translocational motility

  17. High Prevalence of Asymptomatic Plasmodium falciparum Infection in Gabonese Adults

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Matthias P. Dal-Bianco; Kai B. Köster; Ulrich D. Kombila; Jürgen F. J. Kun; Martin P. Grobusch; Ghyslain Mombo Ngoma; Pierre B. Matsiegui; Christian Supan; Carmen L. Ospina Salazar; Michel A. Missinou; Saadou Issifou; Bertrand Lell; Peter Kremsner

    Abstract. Plasmodium falciparum, the most common malarial parasite in sub-Saharan Africa, accounts for a high number of deaths in children less than five years of age. In malaria-endemic countries with stable transmission, semi- immunity is usually acquired after childhood. For adults, severe malaria is rare. Infected adults have either uncompli- cated malaria or asymptomatic parasitemia. During a period of one

  18. Recrudescence of Plasmodium malariae after Quinine

    PubMed Central

    Kugasia, Irfanali R.; Polara, Farhana K.; Assallum, Hussein

    2014-01-01

    Plasmodium malariae causes uncommon benign malaria found in the malaria endemic regions mostly of Sub-Saharan Africa. As Plasmodium malariae does not have a continued liver stage in humans the only way to have reinfection without reexposure is through recrudescence. However, reports of its recrudescence after antimalarials are rare with only a handful of case reports in the literature. Research in this field to date has not been able to establish definitively an emergence of resistance in Plasmodium malariae to commonly used antimalarials. In the presented case, patient had a recrudescence of P. malariae after full treatment with quinine and clindamycin. This recrudescence was treated with full course of chloroquine with clearance of parasite from blood immediately after treatment and at two months' follow up. The recrudescence in this case cannot be explained by mechanisms explained in prior articles. We propose that the indolence of some of the Plasmodium malariae trophozoites in the blood can shield them from the effect of the toxic effects of antimalarials and enable them to produce recrudescence later. However, when recrudescence happens, this should not be considered a case of development of resistance and a course of chloroquine should be considered. PMID:24711818

  19. Association of Genetic Mutations in Plasmodium vivax dhfr with Resistance to Sulfadoxine-Pyrimethamine: Geographical and Clinical Correlates

    Microsoft Academic Search

    MALLIKA IMWONG; SASITHON PUKRITTAKAYAMEE; SORNCHAI LOOAREESUWAN; GEOFFREY PASVOL; J. Poirreiz; NICHOLAS J. WHITE; GEORGES SNOUNOU

    2001-01-01

    Mutations in the Plasmodium falciparum gene (dhfr) encoding dihydrofolate reductase are associated with resistance to antifols. Plasmodium vivax, the more prevalent malaria parasite in Asia and the Americas, is considered antifol resistant. Functional polymorphisms in the dhfr gene of P. vivax (pvdhfr) were assessed by PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism using blood samples taken from 125 patients with acute vivax malaria

  20. Induction of Biologically Active Antibodies in Mice, Rabbits, and Monkeys by Plasmodium falciparum EBA175 Region II DNA Vaccine

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B. Kim Lee Sim; David L. Narum; Hong Liang; Steven R. Fuhrmann; Nicanor Obaldia III; Robert Gramzinski; Joao Aguiar; J. David Haynes; J. Kathleen Moch; Stephen L. Hoffman

    2001-01-01

    Background: Plasmodium falciparum merozoites bind to and invade human erythrocytes via specific erythrocyte recep- tors. This establishes the erythrocytic stage of the parasite life cycle that causes clinical disease resulting in 2-3 million deaths per year. We tested the hypothesis that a Plasmodium falciparum ligand, EBA-175 region II (RII), which binds its erythrocyte receptor glycophorin A during invasion, can be

  1. Plasmodium falciparum Serine/Threonine Phosphoprotein Phosphatases (PPP): From Housekeeper to 'Holy Grail'

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Availability of complete genome sequence for Plasmodium falciparum has been useful in drawing a comprehensive metabolic map of the parasite. Distinct and unique metabolic characteristics of the parasite may be exploited as potential targets for new antimalarial drug discovery research. Reversible ph...

  2. High prevalence of chloroquine resistant Plasmodium falciparum infection in Rajasthan epidemic

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Y. D. Sharma; S. Biswas; C. R. Pillai; M. A. Ansari; T. Adak; C. Usha Devi

    1996-01-01

    Plasmodium falciparum is the main killer among all human malaria parasites. In 1994, there was a falciparum malaria epidemic in Rajasthan, India, with many deaths. We have investigated active falciparum malaria cases from this epidemic and found that most of the parasite isolates (95%) were resistant to chloroquine. Nevertheless, all the tested isolates from the epidemic, were sensitive to mefloquine

  3. Novel mutations in K13 propeller gene of artemisinin-resistant Plasmodium falciparum.

    PubMed

    Isozumi, Rie; Uemura, Haruki; Kimata, Isao; Ichinose, Yoshio; Logedi, John; Omar, Ahmeddin H; Kaneko, Akira

    2015-03-01

    We looked for mutations in the Plasmodium falciparum K13 propeller gene of an artemisinin-resistant parasite on islands in Lake Victoria, Kenya, where transmission in 2012-2013 was high. The 4 new types of nonsynonymous, and 5 of synonymous, mutations we detected among 539 samples analyzed provide clues to understanding artemisinin-resistant parasites. PMID:25695257

  4. Novel Mutations in K13 Propeller Gene of Artemisinin-Resistant Plasmodium falciparum

    PubMed Central

    Uemura, Haruki; Kimata, Isao; Ichinose, Yoshio; Logedi, John; Omar, Ahmeddin H.; Kaneko, Akira

    2015-01-01

    We looked for mutations in the Plasmodium falciparum K13 propeller gene of an artemisinin-resistant parasite on islands in Lake Victoria, Kenya, where transmission in 2012–2013 was high. The 4 new types of nonsynonymous, and 5 of synonymous, mutations we detected among 539 samples analyzed provide clues to understanding artemisinin-resistant parasites. PMID:25695257

  5. TRAP Is Necessary for Gliding Motility and Infectivity of Plasmodium Sporozoites

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ali A. Sultan; Vandana Thathy; Ute Frevert; Kathryn J. H. Robson; Andrea Crisanti; Victor Nussenzweig; Ruth S. Nussenzweig; Robert Ménard

    1997-01-01

    Many protozoans of the phylum Apicomplexa are invasive parasites that exhibit a substrate-dependent gliding motility. Plasmodium (malaria) sporozoites, the stage of the parasite that invades the salivary glands of the mosquito vector and the liver of the vertebrate host, express a surface protein called thrombospondin-related anonymous protein (TRAP) that has homologs in other Apicomplexa. By gene targeting in a rodent

  6. SPATIAL AND TEMPORAL HETEROGENEITY OF ANOPHELES MOSQUITOES AND PLASMODIUM FALCIPARUM TRANSMISSION ALONG THE KENYAN COAST

    Microsoft Academic Search

    CHARLES M. MBOGO; JOSEPH M. MWANGANGI; JOSEPH NZOVU; WEIDONG GU; GUIYAN YAN; JAMES T. GUNTER; CHRIS SWALM; JOSEPH KEATING; JAMES L. REGENS; JOSEPHAT I. SHILILU; JOHN I. GITHURE; JOHN C. BEIER

    2003-01-01

    The seasonal dynamics and spatial distributions of Anopheles mosquitoes and Plasmodium falciparum parasites were studied for one year at 30 villages in Malindi, Kilifi, and Kwale Districts along the coast of Kenya. Anopheline mosquitoes were sampled inside houses at each site once every twomonths and malaria parasite prevalence in local school children was determined at the end of the entomologic

  7. Antigen-Displaying Lipid-Enveloped PLGA Nanoparticles as Delivery Agents for a Plasmodium vivax Malaria Vaccine

    E-print Network

    Moon, James J.

    The parasite Plasmodium vivax is the most frequent cause of malaria outside of sub-Saharan Africa, but efforts to develop viable vaccines against P. vivax so far have been inadequate. We recently developed pathogen-mimicking ...

  8. Identification and Functional Validation of the Novel Antimalarial Resistance Locus PF10_0355 in Plasmodium falciparum

    E-print Network

    Tyne, Daria Van

    The Plasmodium falciparum parasite's ability to adapt to environmental pressures, such as the human immune system and antimalarial drugs, makes malaria an enduring burden to public health. Understanding the genetic basis ...

  9. Identification of Protein Markers in Patients Infected with Plasmodium knowlesi, Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium vivax

    PubMed Central

    Mu, Alan Kang-Wai; Bee, Ping Chong; Lau, Yee Ling; Chen, Yeng

    2014-01-01

    Malaria is caused by parasitic protozoans of the genus Plasmodium and is one of the most prevalent infectious diseases in tropical and subtropical regions. For this reason, effective and practical diagnostic methods are urgently needed to control the spread of malaria. The aim of the current study was to identify a panel of new malarial markers, which could be used to diagnose patients infected with various Plasmodium species, including P. knowlesi, P. vivax and P. falciparum. Sera from malaria-infected patients were pooled and compared to control sera obtained from healthy individuals using the isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantitation (iTRAQ) technique. Mass spectrometry was used to identify serum proteins and quantify their relative abundance. We found that the levels of several proteins were increased in pooled serum from infected patients, including cell adhesion molecule-4 and C-reactive protein. In contrast, the serum concentration of haptoglobin was reduced in malaria-infected individuals, which we verified by western blot assay. Therefore, these proteins might represent infectious markers of malaria, which could be used to develop novel diagnostic tools for detecting P. knowlesi, P. vivax and P. falciparum. However, these potential malarial markers will need to be validated in a larger population of infected individuals. PMID:25372941

  10. Does Plasmodium falciparum have an Achilles' heel?

    E-print Network

    Liao Y Chen

    2013-05-21

    Plasmodium falciparum is the parasite that causes the most severe form of malaria. Currently, science has been established about its cellular structures, its metabolic processes, and even the molecular structures of its intrinsic membrane proteins responsible for transporting water, nutrient, and waste molecules across the parasite plasma membrane (PPM). I hypothesize that Plasmodium falciparum has an Achilles' heel that can be attacked with erythritol, the well-known sweetener that is classified as generally safe. Most organisms have in their cell membrane two types of water-channel proteins: aquaporins to maintain hydro-homeostasis across the membrane and aquaglyceroporins to uptake glycerols etc. In contrast, P. falciparum has only one type of such proteins---the multi-functional aquaglyceroporin (PfAQP) expressed in the PPM---to do both jobs. Moreover, the parasite also uses PfAQP to excrete its metabolic wastes (ammonia included) produced at a very high rate in the blood stage. This extremely high efficiency of the bug using one protein for multiple essential tasks makes the parasite fatally vulnerable. Erythritol in the blood stream can kill the parasite by clogging up its PfAQP channel that needs to be open for maintaining hydro-homeostasis and for excreting toxic wastes across the bug's PPM. In vitro tests are to measure the growth/death rate of P. falciparum in blood with various erythritol concentrations. In vivo experiments are to administer groups of infected mice with various doses of erythritol and monitor the parasite growth levels from blood samples drawn from each group. Clinic trials can be performed to observe the added effects of administering to patients erythritol along with the known drugs because erythritol was classified as a safe food ingredient.

  11. RESEARCH Open Access The evolutionary host switches of

    E-print Network

    Alvarez, Nadir

    and a range of rooting methods were used to test specific hypotheses concerning the phylogenetic relationships of the bat malaria genus suggests a second invasion of mammals by a haemosporidian parasite Fardo Witsenburg1 birds or reptiles, but many important genera, including Plasmodium, infect mammals. Dipteran vectors

  12. Uncovering the transmission dynamics of Plasmodium vivax using population genetics.

    PubMed

    Barry, Alyssa E; Waltmann, Andreea; Koepfli, Cristian; Barnadas, Celine; Mueller, Ivo

    2015-05-01

    Population genetic analysis of malaria parasites has the power to reveal key insights into malaria epidemiology and transmission dynamics with the potential to deliver tools to support control and elimination efforts. Analyses of parasite genetic diversity have suggested that Plasmodium vivax populations are more genetically diverse and less structured than those of Plasmodium falciparum indicating that P. vivax may be a more ancient parasite of humans and/or less susceptible to population bottlenecks, as well as more efficient at disseminating its genes. These population genetic insights into P. vivax transmission dynamics provide an explanation for its relative resilience to control efforts. Here, we describe current knowledge on P. vivax population genetic structure, its relevance to understanding transmission patterns and relapse and how this information can inform malaria control and elimination programmes. PMID:25891915

  13. Peptide Inhibition of Topoisomerase IB from Plasmodium falciparum

    PubMed Central

    Roy, Amit; D'Annessa, Ilda; Nielsen, Christine J. F.; Tordrup, David; Laursen, Rune R.; Knudsen, Birgitta Ruth; Desideri, Alessandro; Andersen, Felicie Faucon

    2011-01-01

    Control of diseases inflicted by protozoan parasites such as Leishmania, Trypanosoma, and Plasmodium, which pose a serious threat to human health worldwide, depends on a rather small number of antiparasite drugs, of which many are toxic and/or inefficient. Moreover, the increasing occurrence of drug-resistant parasites emphasizes the need for new and effective antiprotozoan drugs. In the current study, we describe a synthetic peptide, WRWYCRCK, with inhibitory effect on the essential enzyme topoisomerase I from the malaria-causing parasite Plasmodium falciparum. The peptide inhibits specifically the transition from noncovalent to covalent DNA binding of P. falciparum topoisomerase I, while it does not affect the ligation step of catalysis. A mechanistic explanation for this inhibition is provided by molecular docking analyses. Taken together the presented results suggest that synthetic peptides may represent a new class of potential antiprotozoan drugs. PMID:22091414

  14. Small Molecule Screen for Candidate Antimalarials Targeting Plasmodium Kinesin-5*

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Liqiong; Richard, Jessica; Kim, Sunyoung; Wojcik, Edward J.

    2014-01-01

    Plasmodium falciparum and vivax are responsible for the majority of malaria infections worldwide, resulting in over a million deaths annually. Malaria parasites now show measured resistance to all currently utilized drugs. Novel antimalarial drugs are urgently needed. The Plasmodium Kinesin-5 mechanoenzyme is a suitable “next generation” target. Discovered via small molecule screen experiments, the human Kinesin-5 has multiple allosteric sites that are “druggable.” One site in particular, unique in its sequence divergence across all homologs in the superfamily and even within the same family, exhibits exquisite drug specificity. We propose that Plasmodium Kinesin-5 shares this allosteric site and likewise can be targeted to uncover inhibitors with high specificity. To test this idea, we performed a screen for inhibitors selective for Plasmodium Kinesin-5 ATPase activity in parallel with human Kinesin-5. Our screen of nearly 2000 compounds successfully identified compounds that selectively inhibit both P. vivax and falciparum Kinesin-5 motor domains but, as anticipated, do not impact human Kinesin-5 activity. Of note is a candidate drug that did not biochemically compete with the ATP substrate for the conserved active site or disrupt the microtubule-binding site. Together, our experiments identified MMV666693 as a selective allosteric inhibitor of Plasmodium Kinesin-5; this is the first identified protein target for the Medicines of Malaria Venture validated collection of parasite proliferation inhibitors. This work demonstrates that chemical screens against human kinesins are adaptable to homologs in disease organisms and, as such, extendable to strategies to combat infectious disease. PMID:24737313

  15. The Armadillo repeat protein PF16 is essential for flagellar structure and function in Plasmodium male gametes.

    PubMed

    Straschil, Ursula; Talman, Arthur M; Ferguson, David J P; Bunting, Karen A; Xu, Zhengyao; Bailes, Elizabeth; Sinden, Robert E; Holder, Anthony A; Smith, Elizabeth F; Coates, Juliet C; Rita Tewari

    2010-01-01

    Malaria, caused by the apicomplexan parasite Plasmodium, threatens 40% of the world's population. Transmission between vertebrate and insect hosts depends on the sexual stages of the life-cycle. The male gamete of Plasmodium parasite is the only developmental stage that possesses a flagellum. Very little is known about the identity or function of proteins in the parasite's flagellar biology. Here, we characterise a Plasmodium PF16 homologue using reverse genetics in the mouse malaria parasite Plasmodium berghei. PF16 is a conserved Armadillo-repeat protein that regulates flagellar structure and motility in organisms as diverse as green algae and mice. We show that P. berghei PF16 is expressed in the male gamete flagellum, where it plays a crucial role maintaining the correct microtubule structure in the central apparatus of the axoneme as studied by electron microscopy. Disruption of the PF16 gene results in abnormal flagellar movement and reduced fertility, but does not lead to complete sterility, unlike pf16 mutations in other organisms. Using homology modelling, bioinformatics analysis and complementation studies in Chlamydomonas, we show that some regions of the PF16 protein are highly conserved across all eukaryotes, whereas other regions may have species-specific functions. PF16 is the first ARM-repeat protein characterised in the malaria parasite genus Plasmodium and this study opens up a novel model for analysis of Plasmodium flagellar biology that may provide unique insights into an ancient organelle and suggest novel intervention strategies to control the malaria parasite. PMID:20886115

  16. The impact of malaria parasitism: from corpuscles to communities

    PubMed Central

    Wellems, Thomas E.; Hayton, Karen; Fairhurst, Rick M.

    2009-01-01

    Malaria continues to exert a tremendous health burden on human populations, reflecting astonishingly successful adaptations of the causative Plasmodium parasites. We discuss here how this burden has driven the natural selection of numerous polymorphisms in the genes encoding hemoglobin and other erythrocyte proteins and some effectors of immunity. Plasmodium falciparum, the most deadly parasite species in humans, displays a vigorous system of antigen variation to counter host defenses and families of functionally redundant ligands to invade human cells. Advances in genetics and genomics are providing fresh insights into the nature of these evolutionary adaptations, processes of parasite transmission and infection, and the difficult challenges of malaria control. PMID:19729847

  17. Structural Differences Explain Diverse Functions of Plasmodium Actins

    PubMed Central

    Vahokoski, Juha; Martinez, Silvia Muñico; Ignatev, Alexander; Lepper, Simone; Frischknecht, Friedrich; Sidén-Kiamos, Inga; Sachse, Carsten; Kursula, Inari

    2014-01-01

    Actins are highly conserved proteins and key players in central processes in all eukaryotic cells. The two actins of the malaria parasite are among the most divergent eukaryotic actins and also differ from each other more than isoforms in any other species. Microfilaments have not been directly observed in Plasmodium and are presumed to be short and highly dynamic. We show that actin I cannot complement actin II in male gametogenesis, suggesting critical structural differences. Cryo-EM reveals that Plasmodium actin I has a unique filament structure, whereas actin II filaments resemble canonical F-actin. Both Plasmodium actins hydrolyze ATP more efficiently than ?-actin, and unlike any other actin, both parasite actins rapidly form short oligomers induced by ADP. Crystal structures of both isoforms pinpoint several structural changes in the monomers causing the unique polymerization properties. Inserting the canonical D-loop to Plasmodium actin I leads to the formation of long filaments in vitro. In vivo, this chimera restores gametogenesis in parasites lacking actin II, suggesting that stable filaments are required for exflagellation. Together, these data underline the divergence of eukaryotic actins and demonstrate how structural differences in the monomers translate into filaments with different properties, implying that even eukaryotic actins have faced different evolutionary pressures and followed different paths for developing their polymerization properties. PMID:24743229

  18. Plasmodium cellular effector mechanisms and the hepatic microenvironment

    PubMed Central

    Frevert, Ute; Krzych, Urszula

    2015-01-01

    Plasmodium falciparum malaria remains one of the most serious health problems globally. Immunization with attenuated parasites elicits multiple cellular effector mechanisms capable of eliminating Plasmodium liver stages. However, malaria liver stage (LS) immunity is complex and the mechanisms effector T cells use to locate the few infected hepatocytes in the large liver in order to kill the intracellular LS parasites remain a mystery to date. Here, we review our current knowledge on the behavior of CD8 effector T cells in the hepatic microvasculature, in malaria and other hepatic infections. Taking into account the unique immunological and lymphogenic properties of the liver, we discuss whether classical granule-mediated cytotoxicity might eliminate infected hepatocytes via direct cell contact or whether cytokines might operate without cell–cell contact and kill Plasmodium LSs at a distance. A thorough understanding of the cellular effector mechanisms that lead to parasite death hence sterile protection is a prerequisite for the development of a successful malaria vaccine to protect the 40% of the world’s population currently at risk of Plasmodium infection. PMID:26074888

  19. Plasmodium cellular effector mechanisms and the hepatic microenvironment.

    PubMed

    Frevert, Ute; Krzych, Urszula

    2015-01-01

    Plasmodium falciparum malaria remains one of the most serious health problems globally. Immunization with attenuated parasites elicits multiple cellular effector mechanisms capable of eliminating Plasmodium liver stages. However, malaria liver stage (LS) immunity is complex and the mechanisms effector T cells use to locate the few infected hepatocytes in the large liver in order to kill the intracellular LS parasites remain a mystery to date. Here, we review our current knowledge on the behavior of CD8 effector T cells in the hepatic microvasculature, in malaria and other hepatic infections. Taking into account the unique immunological and lymphogenic properties of the liver, we discuss whether classical granule-mediated cytotoxicity might eliminate infected hepatocytes via direct cell contact or whether cytokines might operate without cell-cell contact and kill Plasmodium LSs at a distance. A thorough understanding of the cellular effector mechanisms that lead to parasite death hence sterile protection is a prerequisite for the development of a successful malaria vaccine to protect the 40% of the world's population currently at risk of Plasmodium infection. PMID:26074888

  20. Population genetics of Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium vivax and asymptomatic malaria in Temotu Province, Solomon Islands

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Temotu Province, Solomon Islands is progressing toward malaria elimination. A baseline survey conducted in 2008 showed that most Plasmodium infections in the province were of low parasite density and asymptomatic infections. To better understand mechanisms underlying these malaria transmission characteristics genetic diversity and relationships among Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium vivax populations in the province were examined. Methods Forty-five P. falciparum and 67 P. vivax samples collected in the 2008 baseline survey were successfully genotyped using eight P. falciparum and seven P. vivax microsatellite markers. Genetic diversity, relationships and distribution of both P. falciparum and P. vivax populations were analysed. Results Plasmodium falciparum population exhibited low diversity with 19 haplotypes identified and had closely related clusters indicating clonal expansion. Interestingly, a dominant haplotype was significantly associated with fever and high parasite density. In contrast, the P. vivax population was highly diverse with 58 haplotypes identified that were not closely related. Parasite populations between different islands in the province showed low genetic differentiation. Conclusion The low diversity and clonal population of P. falciparum population may partially account for clinical immunity developed against illness. However, it is possible that importation of a new P. falciparum strain was the major cause of illness. High diversity in P. vivax population and low relatedness between strains suggested clinical immunity to P. vivax may be maintained by different mechanisms. The genetic diversity, population structure and distribution of strains indicate that transmission of P. falciparum was low, but that of P. vivax was still high in 2008. These data will be useful for assessing changes in malaria transmission resulting from interventions. PMID:24261646

  1. Plasmodium knowlesi – an emerging pathogen

    PubMed Central

    Ahmed, M A; Cox-Singh, J

    2015-01-01

    Ten years have passed since the publication of a large focus of Plasmodium knowlesi infections in the human population. The discovery was made during a molecular investigation of atypical P. malariae cases in the Kapit Health Division, Sarawak, Malaysian Borneo. Patients were more symptomatic with higher parasite counts than expected in P. malariae infections. The investigation found only P. knowlesi DNA present in patient blood samples. Morphological similarity had allowed P. knowlesi to masquerade as P. malariae during routine diagnostic microscopy for malaria. P. knowlesi, a malaria parasite of macaque monkeys, had entered the human population. The subsequent development of P. knowlesi species-specific PCR assays soon demonstrated that the entry was not confined to the Kapit Division but extended across island and mainland Southeast Asia. Relevant clinical descriptions and guidelines for the treatment and management of patents with P. knowlesi malaria were not available. Nor was it clear whether P. knowlesi had undergone a host switch event into the human population or if infections were zoonotic. The outputs of studies on P. knowlesi malaria during the past 10 years will be summarized, highlighting major findings within the context of pathophysiology, virulence, host switch events, treatment, control and importantly malaria elimination. PMID:26029250

  2. Phylogeography of Caribbean lizard malaria: tracing the history of vector-borne parasites

    E-print Network

    Schall, Joseph J.

    Phylogeography of Caribbean lizard malaria: tracing the history of vector-borne parasites S. L of either closely Keywords: Anolis; Caribbean; cytochrome b; island biogeography; malaria; nested clade of the eastern Caribbean islands are parasitized by several species of malaria parasites (Plasmodium). Here I

  3. RESEARCH Open Access Distinct patterns of blood-stage parasite antigens

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    RESEARCH Open Access Distinct patterns of blood-stage parasite antigens detected by plasma Ig immunity against Plasmodium falciparum develops as a function of age and exposure to parasite infections immunoepidemiological studies have indicated an association of cytophilic anti-parasite IgG with protection against

  4. Full-parasites: database of full-length cDNAs of apicomplexa parasites, 2010 update

    PubMed Central

    Tuda, Josef; Mongan, Arthur E.; Tolba, Mohammed E. M.; Imada, Mihoko; Yamagishi, Junya; Xuan, Xuenan; Wakaguri, Hiroyuki; Sugano, Sumio; Sugimoto, Chihiro; Suzuki, Yutaka

    2011-01-01

    Full-Parasites (http://fullmal.hgc.jp/) is a transcriptome database of apicomplexa parasites, which include Plasmodium and Toxoplasma species. The latest version of Full-Parasites contains a total of 105?786 EST sequences from 12 parasites, of which 5925 full-length cDNAs have been completely sequenced. Full-Parasites also contain more than 30 million transcription start sites (TSS) for Plasmodium falciparum (Pf) and Toxoplasma gondii (Tg), which were identified using our novel oligo-capping-based protocol. Various types of cDNA data resources were interconnected with our original database functionalities. Specifically, in this update, we have included two unique RNA-Seq data sets consisting of 730 million mapped RNA-Seq tags. One is a dataset of 16 time-lapse experiments of cultured bradyzoite differentiation for Tg. The other dataset includes 31 clinical samples of Pf. Parasite RNA was extracted together with host human RNA, and the extracted mixed RNA was used for RNA sequencing, with the expectation that gene expression information from the host and parasite would be simultaneously represented. By providing the largest unique full-length cDNA and dynamic transcriptome data, Full-Parasites is useful for understanding host–parasite interactions and will help to eventually elucidate how monophyletic organisms have evolved to become parasites by adopting complex life cycles. PMID:21051343

  5. Extraction of Hydrophilic Metabolites from Plasmodium falciparum-Infected Erythrocytes for Metabolomic Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Olszewski, Kellen L.; Llinás, Manuel

    2012-01-01

    Metabolomics is an increasingly common analytical approach for investigating metabolic networks of pathogenic organisms. This may be of particular use in the study of parasitic infections due to the intrinsic metabolic connection between the parasite and its host. In vitro cultures of the malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum present a valuable platform to elucidate the structure and dynamics of the parasite’s metabolic network and to determine the mechanisms of action of antimalarial drugs and drug resistance mutations. Accurately measuring metabolite levels requires a reproducible method for quantifying intracellular metabolites. Here we present a simple protocol for extracting hydrophilic metabolites from P. falciparum-infected erythrocyte cultures. PMID:22990783

  6. In Vitro Alterations Do Not Reflect a Requirement for Host Cell Cycle Progression during Plasmodium Liver Stage Infection

    PubMed Central

    Hanson, Kirsten K.; March, Sandra; Ng, Shengyong; Bhatia, Sangeeta N.

    2014-01-01

    Prior to invading nonreplicative erythrocytes, Plasmodium parasites undergo their first obligate step in the mammalian host inside hepatocytes, where each sporozoite replicates to generate thousands of merozoites. While normally quiescent, hepatocytes retain proliferative capacity and can readily reenter the cell cycle in response to diverse stimuli. Many intracellular pathogens, including protozoan parasites, manipulate the cell cycle progression of their host cells for their own benefit, but it is not known whether the hepatocyte cell cycle plays a role during Plasmodium liver stage infection. Here, we show that Plasmodium parasites can be observed in mitotic hepatoma cells throughout liver stage development, where they initially reduce the likelihood of mitosis and ultimately lead to significant acquisition of a binucleate phenotype. However, hepatoma cells pharmacologically arrested in S phase still support robust and complete Plasmodium liver stage development, which thus does not require cell cycle progression in the infected cell in vitro. Furthermore, murine hepatocytes remain quiescent throughout in vivo infection with either Plasmodium berghei or Plasmodium yoelii, as do Plasmodium falciparum-infected primary human hepatocytes, demonstrating that the rapid and prodigious growth of liver stage parasites is accomplished independent of host hepatocyte cell cycle progression during natural infection. PMID:25416236

  7. Addition of thiols to o-quinone methide: new 2-hydroxy-3-phenylsulfanylmethyl[1,4]naphthoquinones and their activity against the human malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum (3D7).

    PubMed

    Sharma, Abhinay; Santos, Isabela O; Gaur, Pratibha; Ferreira, Vitor F; Garcia, Celia R S; da Rocha, David R

    2013-01-01

    A series of 36 new phenylsulfanylmethyl[1,4]naphthoquinones (7-42) were synthesized by a three-component reaction that involves lawsone, the appropriate aldehyde and thiols with variable substitution patterns. These reactions involve the in situ generation of o-quinone methides (o-QM) via Knoevenagel condensation and 1,4-nucleophilic addition under conventional heating or microwave irradiation. The new naphthoquinones obtained by this methodology were shown to have moderate to good in vitro antimalarial activity against Plasmodium falciparum (3D7). PMID:23202850

  8. Long and Short-Term Selective Forces on Malaria Parasite Genomes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sanne Nygaard; Alexander Braunstein; Gareth Malsen; Stijn Van Dongen; Paul P. Gardner; Anders Krogh; Thomas D. Otto; Arnab Pain; Matthew Berriman; Jon McAuliffe; Emmanouil T. Dermitzakis; Daniel C. Jeffares

    2010-01-01

    Plasmodium parasites, the causal agents of malaria, result in more than 1 million deaths annually. Plasmodium are unicellular eukaryotes with small ?23 Mb genomes encoding ?5200 protein-coding genes. The protein-coding genes comprise about half of these genomes. Although evolutionary processes have a significant impact on malaria control, the selective pressures within Plasmodium genomes are poorly understood, particularly in the non-protein-coding

  9. Focus on Plasmodium vivax

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Barbara Sina

    2002-01-01

    In Bangkok, Thailand, 3–8 February 2002, the Multilateral Initiative on Malaria convened the first malaria conference, Vivax Malaria Research: 2002 and Beyond, devoted entirely to Plasmodium vivax research.

  10. Genetic structure in insular and mainland populations of house sparrows (Passer domesticus) and their hemosporidian parasites.

    PubMed

    Bichet, Coraline; Moodley, Yoshan; Penn, Dustin J; Sorci, Gabriele; Garnier, Stéphane

    2015-04-01

    Small and isolated populations usually exhibit low levels of genetic variability, and thus, they are expected to have a lower capacity to adapt to changes in environmental conditions, such as exposure to pathogens and parasites. Comparing the genetic variability of selectively neutral versus functional loci allows one to assess the evolutionary history of populations and their future evolutionary potential. The genes of the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) control immune recognition of parasites, and their unusually high diversity is genes which is likely driven by parasite-mediated balancing selection. Here, we examined diversity and differentiation of neutral microsatellite loci and functional MHC class I genes in house sparrows (Passer domesticus), living in six insular and six mainland populations, and we aimed to determine whether their diversity or differentiation correlates with the diversity and the prevalence of infection of hemosporidian parasites. We found that island bird populations tended to have lower neutral genetic variability, whereas MHC variability gene was similar between island and mainland populations. Similarly, island populations tended to show greater genetic differentiation than mainland populations, especially at microsatellite markers. The maintenance of MHC genetic diversity and its less marked structure in the island populations could be attributed to balancing-selection. The greater MHC differentiation among populations was negatively correlated with similarity in blood parasites (prevalence and diversity of parasite strains) between populations. Even at low prevalence and small geographical scale, haemosporidian parasites might contribute to structure the variability of immune genes among populations of hosts. PMID:25937907

  11. Parasitic Diseases

    MedlinePLUS

    ... a bug bite, or sexual contact. Some parasitic diseases are easily treated and some are not. Parasites ... be seen with the naked eye. Some parasitic diseases occur in the United States. Contaminated water supplies ...

  12. Development of a Real-Time PCR Assay for Detection of Plasmodium falciparum, Plasmodium vivax, and Plasmodium ovale for Routine Clinical Diagnosis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    F. Perandin; N. Manca; A. Calderaro; G. Piccolo; L. Galati; L. Ricci; M. C. Medici; M. C. Arcangeletti; G. Snounou; G. Dettori; C. Chezzi

    2004-01-01

    A TaqMan-based real-time PCR qualitative assay for the detection of three species of malaria parasitesPlasmodium falciparum, P. ovale, and P. vivax—was devised and evaluated using 122 whole-blood samples from patients who had traveled to areas where malaria is endemic and who presented with malaria-like symptoms and fever. The assay was compared to conventional microscopy and to an established nested-PCR

  13. Of parasites and men.

    PubMed

    Bañuls, Anne-Laure; Thomas, Frédéric; Renaud, François

    2013-12-01

    The living world has evolved and is evolving through interspecific relationships between organisms. The diversity of these interactions is enormous going from mutualism to parasitism. Humans live with a multitude of microorganisms, essential for their biology. However, interactions are not always advantageous. Indeed, many organisms might become pathogens, such as the Plasmodium species, the causative agents of malaria. Like many other microorganisms, they are «Machiavellian» in their capacity to elaborate a range of reproduction strategies, giving them a huge advantage in terms of adaptation. Here, we discuss the role played by parasites in the ecology and evolution of living organisms and particularly of humans. In the study of infectious diseases, humans are legitimately the focal point, although they represent only one ecosystem among many others and not taking this into account certainly biases our global view of the system. Indeed, we know only a minimal fraction of the microorganisms we live with. However, parasites have shaped and are still shaping the human genome. Several genetic signatures are the proofs of the selection pressures by parasites that humankind has endured during its evolution. But, ultimately, what are the solutionsfor living with pathogens? Should we eradicate them or should we learn how to control and manage them? PMID:23954419

  14. Targeted Disruption of py235ebp-1: Invasion of Erythrocytes by Plasmodium yoelii Using an Alternative Py235 Erythrocyte Binding Protein

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Solabomi A. Ogun; Rita Tewari; Thomas D. Otto; Steven A. Howell; Ellen Knuepfer; Deirdre A. Cunningham; Zhengyao Xu; Arnab Pain; Anthony A. Holder

    2011-01-01

    Plasmodium yoelii YM asexual blood stage parasites express multiple members of the py235 gene family, part of the super-family of genes including those coding for Plasmodium vivax reticulocyte binding proteins and Plasmodium falciparum RH proteins. We previously identified a Py235 erythrocyte binding protein (Py235EBP-1, encoded by the PY01365 gene) that is recognized by protective mAb 25.77. Proteins recognized by a

  15. Structural basis for chirality and directional motility of Plasmodium sporozoites

    PubMed Central

    Kudryashev, Mikhail; Münter, Sylvia; Lemgruber, Leandro; Montagna, Georgina; Stahlberg, Henning; Matuschewski, Kai; Meissner, Markus; Cyrklaff, Marek; Frischknecht, Friedrich

    2014-01-01

    Summary Plasmodium sporozoites can move at high speed for several tens of minutes, which is essential for the initial stage of a malaria infection. The crescent-shaped sporozoites move on 2D substrates preferably in the same direction on circular paths giving raise to helical paths in 3D matrices. Here we determined the structural basis that underlies this type of movement. Immature, non-motile sporozoites were found to lack the subpellicular network required for obtaining the crescent parasite shape. In vitro, parasites moving in the favoured direction move faster and more persistent than the few parasites that move in the opposite direction. Photobleaching experiments showed that sporozoites flip their ventral side up when switching the direction of migration. Cryo-electron tomography revealed a polarized arrangement of microtubules and polar rings towards the substrate in Plasmodium sporozoites, but not in the related parasite Toxoplasma gondii. As a consequence, secretory vesicles, which release proteins involved in adhesion, migration and invasion at the front end of the parasite, are delivered towards the substrate. The resulting chiral structure of the parasite appears to determine the unique directionality of movement and could explain how the sporozoite achieves rapid and sustained directional motility in the absence of external stimuli. PMID:22776715

  16. DNA Cloning of Plasmodium falciparum Circumsporozoite Gene: Amino Acid Sequence of Repetitive Epitope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Enea, Vincenzo; Ellis, Joan; Zavala, Fidel; Arnot, David E.; Asavanich, Achara; Masuda, Aoi; Quakyi, Isabella; Nussenzweig, Ruth S.

    1984-08-01

    A clone of complementary DNA encoding the circumsporozoite (CS) protein of the human malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum has been isolated by screening an Escherichia coli complementary DNA library with a monoclonal antibody to the CS protein. The DNA sequence of the complementary DNA insert encodes a four-amino acid sequence: proline-asparagine-alanine-asparagine, tandemly repeated 23 times. The CS ? -lactamase fusion protein specifically binds monoclonal antibodies to the CS protein and inhibits the binding of these antibodies to native Plasmodium falciparum CS protein. These findings provide a basis for the development of a vaccine against Plasmodium falciparum malaria.

  17. Identification and expression of maebl, an erythrocyte-binding gene, in Plasmodium gallinaceum

    PubMed Central

    Martinez, Criseyda; Marzec, Timothy; Smith, Christopher D.; Tell, Lisa A.; Sehgal, Ravinder N. M.

    2012-01-01

    Avian malaria is of significant ecological importance and serves as a model system to study broad patterns of host switching and host-specificity. The erythrocyte invasion mechanism of the malaria parasite Plasmodium is mediated, in large part, by proteins of the erythrocyte binding-like (ebl) family of genes. However, little is known about how these genes are conserved across different species of Plasmodium, especially those that infect birds. Using bioinformatical methods in conjunction with PCR and genetic sequencing, we identified and annotated one member of the ebl family, maebl (merozoite apical erythrocyte binding ligand) from the chicken parasite Plasmodium gallinaceum. We then detected the expression of maebl in P. gallinaceum by PCR analysis of cDNA isolated from the blood of infected chickens. We found that maebl is a conserved orthologous gene in avian, mammalian, and rodent Plasmodium species. The duplicate extracellular binding domains of MAEBL, responsible for erythrocyte binding, are the most conserved regions. Our combined data corroborate the conservation of maebl throughout the Plasmodium genus, and may help elucidate the mechanisms of erythrocyte invasion in P. gallinaceum and the host specificity of Plasmodium parasites. PMID:23224610

  18. Identification and expression of maebl, an erythrocyte-binding gene, in Plasmodium gallinaceum.

    PubMed

    Martinez, Criseyda; Marzec, Timothy; Smith, Christopher D; Tell, Lisa A; Sehgal, Ravinder N M

    2013-03-01

    Avian malaria is of significant ecological importance and serves as a model system to study broad patterns of host switching and host specificity. The erythrocyte invasion mechanism of the malaria parasite Plasmodium is mediated, in large part, by proteins of the erythrocyte-binding-like (ebl) family of genes. However, little is known about how these genes are conserved across different species of Plasmodium, especially those that infect birds. Using bioinformatical methods in conjunction with polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and genetic sequencing, we identified and annotated one member of the ebl family, merozoite apical erythrocyte-binding ligand (maebl), from the chicken parasite Plasmodium gallinaceum. We then detected the expression of maebl in P. gallinaceum by PCR analysis of cDNA isolated from the blood of infected chickens. We found that maebl is a conserved orthologous gene in avian, mammalian, and rodent Plasmodium species. The duplicate extracellular binding domains of MAEBL, responsible for erythrocyte binding, are the most conserved regions. Our combined data corroborate the conservation of maebl throughout the Plasmodium genus and may help elucidate the mechanisms of erythrocyte invasion in P. gallinaceum and the host specificity of Plasmodium parasites. PMID:23224610

  19. Malaria Parasites Produce Volatile Mosquito Attractants

    PubMed Central

    Kelly, Megan; Su, Chih-Ying; Schaber, Chad; Crowley, Jan R.; Hsu, Fong-Fu; Carlson, John R.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT The malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum contains a nonphotosynthetic plastid organelle that possesses plant-like metabolic pathways. Plants use the plastidial isoprenoid biosynthesis pathway to produce volatile odorants, known as terpenes. In this work, we describe the volatile chemical profile of cultured malaria parasites. Among the identified compounds are several plant-like terpenes and terpene derivatives, including known mosquito attractants. We establish the molecular identity of the odorant receptors of the malaria mosquito vector Anopheles gambiae, which responds to these compounds. The malaria parasite produces volatile signals that are recognized by mosquitoes and may thereby mediate host attraction and facilitate transmission. PMID:25805727

  20. Subtle Mutagenesis by Ends-in Recombination in Malaria Parasites

    Microsoft Academic Search

    ALVARO NUNES; VANDANA THATHY; THOMAS BRUDERER; ALI A. SULTAN; RUTH S. NUSSENZWEIG; ROBERT MENARD

    1999-01-01

    The recent advent of gene-targeting techniques in malaria (Plasmodium) parasites provides the means for introducing subtle mutations into their genome. Here, we used the TRAP gene of Plasmodium berghei as a target to test whether an ends-in strategy, i.e., targeting plasmids of the insertion type, may be suitable for subtle mu- tagenesis. We analyzed the recombinant loci generated by insertion

  1. Sulfadoxine Resistance in Plasmodium vivax Is Associated with a Specific Amino Acid in Dihydropteroate Synthase at the Putative Sulfadoxine-Binding Site

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michael Korsinczky; Katja Fischer; Nanhua Chen; Joanne Baker; Karl Rieckmann; Qin Cheng

    2004-01-01

    Sulfadoxine is predominantly used in combination with pyrimethamine, commonly known as Fansidar, for the treatment of Plasmodium falciparum. This combination is usually less effective against Plasmodium vivax, probably due to the innate refractoriness of parasites to the sulfadoxine component. To investigate this mechanism of resistance by P. vivax to sulfadoxine, we cloned and sequenced the P. vivax dhps (pvdhps) gene.

  2. A New Method for Estimating Species Age Supports the Coexistence of Malaria Parasites and Their Mammalian Hosts

    PubMed Central

    Silva, Joana C.; Egan, Amy; Arze, Cesar; Spouge, John L.; Harris, David G.

    2015-01-01

    Species in the genus Plasmodium cause malaria in humans and infect a variety of mammals and other vertebrates. Currently, estimated ages for several mammalian Plasmodium parasites differ by as much as one order of magnitude, an inaccuracy that frustrates reliable estimation of evolutionary rates of disease-related traits. We developed a novel statistical approach to dating the relative age of evolutionary lineages, based on Total Least Squares regression. We validated this lineage dating approach by applying it to the genus Drosophila. Using data from the Drosophila 12 Genomes project, our approach accurately reconstructs the age of well-established Drosophila clades, including the speciation event that led to the subgenera Drosophila and Sophophora, and age of the melanogaster species subgroup. We applied this approach to hundreds of loci from seven mammalian Plasmodium species. We demonstrate the existence of a molecular clock specific to individual Plasmodium proteins, and estimate the relative age of mammalian-infecting Plasmodium. These analyses indicate that: 1) the split between the human parasite Plasmodium vivax and P. knowlesi, from Old World monkeys, occurred 6.1 times earlier than that between P. falciparum and P. reichenowi, parasites of humans and chimpanzees, respectively; and 2) mammalian Plasmodium parasites originated 22 times earlier than the split between P. falciparum and P. reichenowi. Calibrating the absolute divergence times for Plasmodium with eukaryotic substitution rates, we show that the split between P. falciparum and P. reichenowi occurred 3.0–5.5 Ma, and that mammalian Plasmodium parasites originated over 64 Ma. Our results indicate that mammalian-infecting Plasmodium evolved contemporaneously with their hosts, with little evidence for parasite host-switching on an evolutionary scale, and provide a solid timeframe within which to place the evolution of new Plasmodium species. PMID:25589738

  3. A new method for estimating species age supports the coexistence of malaria parasites and their Mammalian hosts.

    PubMed

    Silva, Joana C; Egan, Amy; Arze, Cesar; Spouge, John L; Harris, David G

    2015-05-01

    Species in the genus Plasmodium cause malaria in humans and infect a variety of mammals and other vertebrates. Currently, estimated ages for several mammalian Plasmodium parasites differ by as much as one order of magnitude, an inaccuracy that frustrates reliable estimation of evolutionary rates of disease-related traits. We developed a novel statistical approach to dating the relative age of evolutionary lineages, based on Total Least Squares regression. We validated this lineage dating approach by applying it to the genus Drosophila. Using data from the Drosophila 12 Genomes project, our approach accurately reconstructs the age of well-established Drosophila clades, including the speciation event that led to the subgenera Drosophila and Sophophora, and age of the melanogaster species subgroup. We applied this approach to hundreds of loci from seven mammalian Plasmodium species. We demonstrate the existence of a molecular clock specific to individual Plasmodium proteins, and estimate the relative age of mammalian-infecting Plasmodium. These analyses indicate that: 1) the split between the human parasite Plasmodium vivax and P. knowlesi, from Old World monkeys, occurred 6.1 times earlier than that between P. falciparum and P. reichenowi, parasites of humans and chimpanzees, respectively; and 2) mammalian Plasmodium parasites originated 22 times earlier than the split between P. falciparum and P. reichenowi. Calibrating the absolute divergence times for Plasmodium with eukaryotic substitution rates, we show that the split between P. falciparum and P. reichenowi occurred 3.0-5.5 Ma, and that mammalian Plasmodium parasites originated over 64 Ma. Our results indicate that mammalian-infecting Plasmodium evolved contemporaneously with their hosts, with little evidence for parasite host-switching on an evolutionary scale, and provide a solid timeframe within which to place the evolution of new Plasmodium species. PMID:25589738

  4. Sequence variations in the Plasmodium vivax dihydrofolate reductase-thymidylate synthase gene and their relationship with pyrimethamine resistance

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Philippe Eldin de Pécoulas; Rachida Tahar; Taoufik Ouatas; André Mazabraud; Leonardo K Basco

    1998-01-01

    The gene encoding dihydrofolate reductase-thymidylate synthase of the human malaria parasite, Plasmodium vivax, was isolated by polymerase chain reaction from genomic DNA and cloned. The sequences of the dihydrofolate reductase domain of 30 clinical isolates originating from various geographic areas were compared. Interstrain analysis revealed several genotypic variations, including short tandem repeat arrays which produced length polymorphism between different parasite

  5. Gene disruption of Plasmodium falciparum p52 results in attenuation of malaria liver stage development in cultured primary human hepatocytes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ben C. L. van Schaijk; Chris J. Janse; Geert-Jan van Gemert; Melissa R. van Dijk; Audrey Gego; Jean-Francois Franetich; Marga van de Vegte-Bolmer; Samir Yalaoui; Olivier Silvie; Stephen L. Hoffman; Andrew P. Waters; Dominique Mazier; Robert W. Sauerwein; Shahid M. Khan

    2008-01-01

    Difficulties with inducing sterile and long lasting protective immunity against malaria with subunit vaccines has renewed interest in vaccinations with attenuated Plasmodium parasites. Immunizations with sporozoites that are attenuated by radiation (RAS) can induce strong protective immunity both in humans and rodent models of malaria. Recently, in rodent parasites it has been shown that through the deletion of a single

  6. Parasitism and chromosome dynamics in protozoan parasites: is there a connection?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michael Lanzer; Katja Fischer; Sylvie M. Le Blancq

    1995-01-01

    Genomic plasticity is a hallmark of many protozoan parasites, including Plasmodium spp, Trypanosoma spp, Leishmania ssp and Giardia lamblia. Strikingly, there is a common theme regarding the structural basis of this karyotype variability. Chromosomes are compartmentalized into conserved central domains and polymorphic chromosome ends. Since antigen-encoding genes frequently reside in telomere-proximal domains, it is tempting to speculate that the genetic

  7. Plasmodium knowlesi malaria: Overview Focussing on Travel-Associated Infections.

    PubMed

    Cramer, Jakob P

    2015-03-01

    In 2004, Plasmodium knowlesi was first recognised as a relevant cause of human malaria in Southeast Asia. Since then, P. knowlesi has been described from all Southeast Asian countries except Laos and has become well-established as the fifth human malaria parasite and the first significant zoonotic Plasmodium species. As countries endemic for P. knowlesi malaria are among the most popular and most highly visited international destinations, travel medicine experts should be aware about disease and risks including prophylactic and therapeutic measures. Between 2005 and 2012, 15 cases of P. knowlesi malaria have been recognised and published in international travellers. Male gender and travel to rural/forested areas with contact to wild monkeys are risk factors for P. knowlesi infection. The present review gives an overview on current literature on the P. knowlesi parasite and summarises recent findings related to epidemiology, diagnostics, treatment and prophylaxis focussing on travellers. PMID:25821192

  8. Predictions of avian Plasmodium expansion under climate change

    PubMed Central

    Loiseau, Claire; Harrigan, Ryan J.; Bichet, Coraline; Julliard, Romain; Garnier, Stéphane; Lendvai, Ádám Z.; Chastel, Olivier; Sorci, Gabriele

    2013-01-01

    Vector-borne diseases are particularly responsive to changing environmental conditions. Diurnal temperature variation has been identified as a particularly important factor for the development of malaria parasites within vectors. Here, we conducted a survey across France, screening populations of the house sparrow (Passer domesticus) for malaria (Plasmodium relictum). We investigated whether variation in remotely-sensed environmental variables accounted for the spatial variation observed in prevalence and parasitemia. While prevalence was highly correlated to diurnal temperature range and other measures of temperature variation, environmental conditions could not predict spatial variation in parasitemia. Based on our empirical data, we mapped malaria distribution under climate change scenarios and predicted that Plasmodium occurrence will spread to regions in northern France, and that prevalence levels are likely to increase in locations where transmission already occurs. Our findings, based on remote sensing tools coupled with empirical data suggest that climatic change will significantly alter transmission of malaria parasites. PMID:23350033

  9. Discovering regulatory motifs in the Plasmodium genome using comparative genomics

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Jie; Sieglaff, Douglas H.; Gervin, Joshua; Xie, Xiaohui S.

    2008-01-01

    Motivation: Understanding gene regulation in Plasmodium, the causative agent of malaria, is an important step in deciphering its complex life cycle as well as leading to possible new targets for therapeutic applications. Very little is known about gene regulation in Plasmodium, and in particular, few regulatory elements have been identified. Such discovery has been significantly hampered by the high A-T content of some of the genomes of Plasmodium species, as well as the challenge in associating discovered regulatory elements to gene regulatory cascades due to Plasmodium's complex life cycle. Results: We report a new method of using comparative genomics to systematically discover motifs in Plasmodium without requiring any functional data. Different from previous methods, our method does not depend on sequence alignments, and thus is particularly suitable for highly divergent genomes. We applied our method to discovering regulatory motifs between the human parasite, P.falciparum, and its rodent-infectious relative, P.yoelii. We also tested our procedure against comparisons between P.falciparum and the primate-infectious, P.knowlesi. Our computational effort leads to an initial catalog of 38 distinct motifs, corresponding to over 16 200 sites in the Plasmodium genome. The functionality of these motifs was further supported by their defined distribution within the genome as well as a correlation with gene expression patterns. This initial map provides a systematic view of gene regulation in Plasmodium, which can be refined as additional genomes become available. Availability: The new algorithm, named motif discovery using orthologous sequences (MDOS), is available at http://www.ics.uci.edu/?xhx/project/mdos/. Contact: xhx@ics.uci.edu Supplementary information: Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online. PMID:18611947

  10. Baculovirus Merozoite Surface Protein 1 C-Terminal Recombinant Antigens Are Highly Protective in a Natural Primate Model for Human Plasmodium vivax Malaria

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. L. R. LAKSHMAN; SHIROMA M. HANDUNNETTI; INGE HOLM; SHIRLEY LONGACRE; KAMINI MENDIS

    1998-01-01

    A successful anti-blood stage malaria vaccine trial based on a leading vaccine candidate, the major merozoite surface antigen-1 (MSP1), is reported here. The trial was based on Plasmodium cynomolgi, which is a primate malaria parasite which is highly analogous to the human parasite Plasmodium vivax, in its natural host, the toque monkey, Macaca sinica. Two recombinant baculovirus-expressed P. cynomolgi MSP1

  11. Structure of Plasmodium falciparum ADP-ribosylation factor 1

    SciTech Connect

    Cook, William J.; Smith, Craig D.; Senkovich, Olga; Holder, Anthony A.; Chattopadhyay, Debasish (UAB); (NIMR)

    2011-09-26

    Vesicular trafficking may play a crucial role in the pathogenesis and survival of the malaria parasite. ADP-ribosylation factors (ARFs) are among the major components of vesicular trafficking pathways in eukaryotes. The crystal structure of ARF1 GTPase from Plasmodium falciparum has been determined in the GDP-bound conformation at 2.5 {angstrom} resolution and is compared with the structures of mammalian ARF1s.

  12. Atorvastatin prevents Plasmodium falciparum cytoadherence and endothelial damage

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Zacharie Taoufiq; Paco Pino; Nadine N’dilimabaka; Issam Arrouss; Serge Assi; Florent Soubrier; Angelita Rebollo; Dominique Mazier

    2011-01-01

    Background  The adhesion of Plasmodium falciparum parasitized red blood cell (PRBC) to human endothelial cells (EC) induces inflammatory processes, coagulation cascades, oxidative\\u000a stress and apoptosis. These pathological processes are suspected to be responsible for the blood-brain-barrier and other organs'\\u000a endothelial dysfunctions observed in fatal cases of malaria. Atorvastatin, a drug that belongs to the lowering cholesterol\\u000a molecule family of statins, has

  13. Induction of gene amplification in Plasmodium falciparum

    SciTech Connect

    Rogers, P.L.

    1985-01-01

    Human erythrocytic in vitro cultures of Honduras I strain of the malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum have been stressed stepwise with increasing concentrations of methotrexate (MTX), a folate antagonist. This selection has produced a strain that is 450 times more resistant to the drug than the original culture. Uptake of sublethal doses of radiolabeled MTX by infected red blood cells was 6-36 times greater in the resistant cultures than in the nonresistant controls. DNA isolated from all of the parasites was probed by hybridization with /sup 35/S-labeled DNA derived from a clone of the yeast thymidylate synthetase (TS) gene. This showed 50 to 100 times more increased hybridization of the TS probe to the DNA from the resistant parasites is direct evidence of gene amplification because DHFR and TS are actually one and the same bifunctional enzyme in P. falciparum. Hence, the evidence presented indicates that induced resistance of the malaria parasite to MTX in this case is due to overproduction of DHFR resulting from amplification of the DHFR-TS gene.

  14. How genomics is contributing to the fight against artemisinin-resistant malaria parasites.

    PubMed

    Cravo, Pedro; Napolitano, Hamilton; Culleton, Richard

    2015-08-01

    Plasmodium falciparum, the malignant malaria parasite, has developed resistance to artemisinin, the most important and widely used antimalarial drug at present. Currently confined to Southeast Asia, the spread of resistant parasites to Africa would constitute a public health catastrophe. In this review we highlight the recent contributions of genomics to our understanding how the parasite develops resistance to artemisinin and its derivatives, and how resistant parasites may be monitored and tracked in real-time, using molecular approaches. PMID:25910626

  15. Parasite Virulence 14Parasite Virulence

    E-print Network

    Schall, Joseph J.

    Parasite Virulence 14Parasite Virulence Jos J. Schall Department of Biology, University of Vermont, Burlington, VT 05405, USA The Problem Some parasites exact a terrible price from their hosts, causing severe pathology and reducing the host's fitness, whereas other parasites are essentially benign. Several kinds

  16. Characterization of Plasmodium vivax Early Transcribed Membrane Protein 11.2 and Exported Protein 1

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Yang; Lu, Feng; Lee, Seong-Kyun; Kong, Deok-Hoon; Ha, Kwon-Soo; Wang, Bo; Sattabongkot, Jetsumon; Tsuboi, Takafumi; Han, Eun-Taek

    2015-01-01

    In Plasmodium, the membrane of intracellular parasites is initially formed during invasion as an invagination of the red blood cell surface, which forms a barrier between the parasite and infected red blood cells in asexual blood stage parasites. The membrane proteins of intracellular parasites of Plasmodium species have been identified such as early-transcribed membrane proteins (ETRAMPs) and exported proteins (EXPs). However, there is little or no information regarding the intracellular parasite membrane in Plasmodium vivax. In the present study, recombinant PvETRAMP11.2 (PVX_003565) and PvEXP1 (PVX_091700) were expressed and evaluated antigenicity tests using sera from P. vivax-infected patients. A large proportion of infected individuals presented with IgG antibody responses against PvETRAMP11.2 (76.8%) and PvEXP1 (69.6%). Both of the recombinant proteins elicited high antibody titers capable of recognizing parasites of vivax malaria patients. PvETRAMP11.2 partially co-localized with PvEXP1 on the intracellular membranes of immature schizont. Moreover, they were also detected at the apical organelles of newly formed merozoites of mature schizont. We first proposed that these proteins might be synthesized in the preceding schizont stage, localized on the parasite membranes and apical organelles of infected erythrocytes, and induced high IgG antibody responses in patients. PMID:26011536

  17. Population studies of Plasmodium vivax

    PubMed Central

    Lysenko, A. Ja.; Beljaev, A. E.; Rybalka, V. M.

    1977-01-01

    The understanding of clinico-epidemiological phenomena of tertian malaria has been the subject of controversy. The authors suggest a system of postulates which give a non-contradictory explanation of the phenomena of relapses and long incubation. The main idea is that the duration of exoerythrocytic development of Plasmodium vivax is a polymorphic characteristic controlled by a set of genes. According to these postulates sporozoites may be subdivided into two groups designated as tachysporozoites and bradysporozoites, responsible for early and late manifestations, respectively. The logical analysis of the system suggests that it does not contradict the experimental facts. Moreover, the theory of polymorphic sporozoites permits an explanation and quantification of interrelations between different phenomena. The authors stress that the variation of genes is much greater in natural populations of parasites than in individual isolates and strains and therefore that the features of strains do not fully reflect the features of populations. Classical laboratory experiments should be combined with epidemiological experiments which allow a study of the population as a whole. The methodology of experiments to be undertaken in further investigations of the long latency period is discussed. PMID:338188

  18. Occurrence of Plasmodium in Anatidae

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Herman, C.M.; Kocan, R.M.

    1970-01-01

    Until a little over a decade ago reports of Plasrnodium in geese, ducks, and swans were the result of examination of single blood smears from wild birds. One would gather from the earlier studies that Anatidae are infrequently infected. During the past decade we have conducted studies on prevalence of Plasmodium by an isodiagnosis technique, inoculating blood from wild birds into captive young geese, ducks, and other species of birds and determining the status of infection in the donors by examination of repetitive blood smears from the recipients. Examination by this technique of a series of adult Canada geese from the Seney National Wildlife Refuge in northern Michigan uncovered a prevalence of 60% during five successive years. Domestic geese were the primary recipients but we found that several other species of geese, ducks, and gulls were also susceptible. Similar studies on Canada geese from other areas (Maryland, New Jersey, New York, and southern Michigan) uncovered infection rates from zero to 27%. Following isolation of Plasmodlum in a single canvasback duck (Aythya valisineria) in southern Michigan by inoculation into a domestic duck, a series of 88 canvasbacks from Chesapeake Bay in Maryland this winter uncovered an infection rate of 27%. The most common parasite observed in both the geese and was as P. circumflexum.

  19. Computational insights into the suicide inhibition of Plasmodium falciparum Fk506-binding protein 35.

    PubMed

    MacDonald, Corey A; Boyd, Russell J

    2015-08-15

    Malaria is a parasite affecting millions of people worldwide. With the risk of malarial resistance reaching catastrophic levels, novel methods into the inhibition of this disease need to be prioritized. The exploitation of active site differences between parasitic and human peptidyl-prolyl cis/trans isomerases can be used for suicide inhibition, effectively poisoning the parasite without affecting the patient. This method of inhibition was explored using Plasmodium falciparum and Homo sapiens Fk506-binding proteins as templates for quantum mechanics/molecular mechanics calculations. Modification of the natural substrate has shown suicide inhibition is a valid approach for novel anti-malarials with little risk for parasitic resistance. PMID:26091727

  20. Parasitic pneumonia and lung involvement.

    PubMed

    Cheepsattayakorn, Attapon; Cheepsattayakorn, Ruangrong

    2014-01-01

    Parasitic infestations demonstrated a decline in the past decade as a result of better hygiene practices and improved socioeconomic conditions. Nevertheless, global immigration, increased numbers of the immunocompromised people, international traveling, global warming, and rapid urbanization of the cities have increased the susceptibility of the world population to parasitic diseases. A number of new human parasites, such as Plasmodium knowlesi, in addition to many potential parasites, have urged the interest of scientific community. A broad spectrum of protozoal parasites frequently affects the respiratory system, particularly the lungs. The diagnosis of parasitic diseases of airway is challenging due to their wide varieties of clinical and roentgenographic presentations. So detailed interrogations of travel history to endemic areas are critical for clinicians or pulmonologists to manage this entity. The migrating adult worms can cause mechanical airway obstruction, while the larvae can cause airway inflammation. This paper provides a comprehensive review of both protozoal and helminthic infestations that affect the airway system, particularly the lungs, including clinical and roentgenographic presentations, diagnostic tests, and therapeutic approaches. PMID:24995332

  1. In Vivo Function of PTEX88 in Malaria Parasite Sequestration and Virulence.

    PubMed

    Matz, Joachim M; Ingmundson, Alyssa; Costa Nunes, Jean; Stenzel, Werner; Matuschewski, Kai; Kooij, Taco W A

    2015-06-01

    Malaria pathology is linked to remodeling of red blood cells by eukaryotic Plasmodium parasites. Central to host cell refurbishment is the trafficking of parasite-encoded virulence factors through the Plasmodium translocon of exported proteins (PTEX). Much of our understanding of its function is based on experimental work with cultured Plasmodium falciparum, yet direct consequences of PTEX impairment during an infection remain poorly defined. Using the murine malaria model parasite Plasmodium berghei, it is shown here that efficient sequestration to the pulmonary, adipose, and brain tissue vasculature is dependent on the PTEX components thioredoxin 2 (TRX2) and PTEX88. While TRX2-deficient parasites remain virulent, PTEX88-deficient parasites no longer sequester in the brain, correlating with abolishment of cerebral complications in infected mice. However, an apparent trade-off for virulence attenuation was spleen enlargement, which correlates with a strongly reduced schizont-to-ring-stage transition. Strikingly, general protein export is unaffected in PTEX88-deficient mutants that mature normally in vitro. Thus, PTEX88 is pivotal for tissue sequestration in vivo, parasite virulence, and preventing exacerbation of spleen pathology, but these functions do not correlate with general protein export to the host erythrocyte. The presented data suggest that the protein export machinery of Plasmodium parasites and their underlying mechanistic features are considerably more complex than previously anticipated and indicate challenges for targeted intervention strategies. PMID:25820521

  2. Interacting parasites

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lafferty, Kevin D.

    2010-01-01

    Parasitism is the most popular life-style on Earth, and many vertebrates host more than one kind of parasite at a time. A common assumption is that parasite species rarely interact, because they often exploit different tissues in a host, and this use of discrete resources limits competition (1). On page 243 of this issue, however, Telfer et al. (2) provide a convincing case of a highly interactive parasite community in voles, and show how infection with one parasite can affect susceptibility to others. If some human parasites are equally interactive, our current, disease-by-disease approach to modeling and treating infectious diseases is inadequate (3).

  3. Spatial association with PTEX complexes defines regions for effector export into Plasmodium falciparum-infected erythrocytes

    PubMed Central

    Riglar, David T.; Rogers, Kelly L.; Hanssen, Eric; Turnbull, Lynne; Bullen, Hayley E.; Charnaud, Sarah C.; Przyborski, Jude; Gilson, Paul R.; Whitchurch, Cynthia B.; Crabb, Brendan S.; Baum, Jake; Cowman, Alan F.

    2013-01-01

    Export of proteins into the infected erythrocyte is critical for malaria parasite survival. The majority of effector proteins are thought to export via a proteinaceous translocon, resident in the parasitophorous vacuole membrane surrounding the parasite. Identification of the Plasmodium translocon of exported proteins and its biochemical association with exported proteins suggests it performs this role. Direct evidence for this, however, is lacking. Here using viable purified Plasmodium falciparum merozoites and three-dimensional structured illumination microscopy, we investigate remodelling events immediately following parasite invasion. We show that multiple complexes of the Plasmodium translocon of exported proteins localize together in foci that dynamically change in clustering behaviour. Furthermore, we provide conclusive evidence of spatial association between exported proteins and exported protein 2, a core component of the Plasmodium translocon of exported proteins, during native conditions and upon generation of translocation intermediates. These data provide the most direct cellular evidence to date that protein export occurs at regions of the parasitophorous vacuole membrane housing the Plasmodium translocon of exported proteins complex. PMID:23361006

  4. Genetic and environmental determinants of malaria parasite virulence in mosquitoes.

    PubMed Central

    Ferguson, H M; Read, A F

    2002-01-01

    Models of malaria epidemiology and evolution are frequently based on the assumption that vector-parasitic associations are benign. Implicit in this assumption is the supposition that all Plasmodium parasites have an equal and neutral effect on vector survival, and thus that there is no parasite genetic variation for vector virulence. While some data support the assumption of avirulence, there has been no examination of the impact of parasite genetic diversity. We conducted a laboratory study with the rodent malaria parasite, Plasmodium chabaudi and the vector, Anopheles stephensi, to determine whether mosquito mortality varied with parasite genotype (CR and ER clones), infection diversity (single versus mixed genotype) and nutrient availability. Vector mortality varied significantly between parasite genotypes, but the rank order of virulence depended on environmental conditions. In standard conditions, mixed genotype infections were the most virulent but when glucose water was limited, mortality was highest in mosquitoes infected with CR. These genotype-by-environment interactions were repeatable across two experiments and could not be explained by variation in anaemia, gametocytaemia, blood meal size, mosquito body size, infection rate or oocyst burden. Variation in the genetic and environmental determinants of virulence may explain conflicting accounts of Plasmodium pathogenicity to mosquitoes in the malaria literature. PMID:12065037

  5. Antibody Recognition of Plasmodium falciparum Erythrocyte Surface Antigens in Kenya: Evidence for Rare and Prevalent Variants

    Microsoft Academic Search

    PETER C. BULL; BRETT S. LOWE; MOSES KORTOK; KEVIN MARSH

    1999-01-01

    Plasmodium falciparum erythrocyte membrane protein 1 (PfEMP1) is the name given to a family of parasite proteins that are inserted into the infected erythrocyte surface. Studies using agglutination assays have shown previously that PfEMP1 epitopes are extremely diverse. In a study in Kenya, 21 parasite isolates, including nine from children with severe malaria, were tested for agglutination by 33 pairs

  6. Gene expression signatures and small-molecule compounds link a protein kinase to Plasmodium falciparum motility

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nobutaka Kato; Tomoyo Sakata; Ghislain Breton; Karine G Le Roch; Advait Nagle; Carsten Andersen; Badry Bursulaya; Kerstin Henson; Jeffrey Johnson; Kota Arun Kumar; Felix Marr; Daniel Mason; Case McNamara; David Plouffe; Vandana Ramachandran; Muriel Spooner; Tove Tuntland; Yingyao Zhou; Eric C Peters; Arnab Chatterjee; Peter G Schultz; Gary E Ward; Nathanael Gray; Jeffrey Harper; Elizabeth A Winzeler

    2008-01-01

    Calcium-dependent protein kinases play a crucial role in intracellular calcium signaling in plants, some algae and protozoa. In Plasmodium falciparum, calcium-dependent protein kinase 1 (PfCDPK1) is expressed during schizogony in the erythrocytic stage as well as in the sporozoite stage. It is coexpressed with genes that encode the parasite motor complex, a cellular component required for parasite invasion of host

  7. Human Antibodies to a Mr 155,000 Plasmodium falciparum Antigen Efficiently Inhibit Merozoite Invasion

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Birgitta Wahlin; Mats Wahlgren; Hedvig Perlmann; Klavs Berzins; Anders Bjorkman; Manuel E. Patarroyo; Peter Perlmann

    1984-01-01

    IgG from a donor clinically immune to Plasmodium falciparum malaria strongly inhibited reinvasion in vitro of human erythrocytes by the parasite. When added to monolayers of glutaraldehyde-fixed and air-dried erythrocytes infected with the parasite, this IgG also displayed a characteristic immunofluorescence restricted to the surface of infected erythrocytes. Elution of the IgG adsorbed to such monolayers gave an antibody fraction

  8. Requirement of malarial protease in the invasion of human red cells by merozoites of Plasmodium falciparum

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Porn-ngarm Dejkriengkraikhul; Prapon Wilairat

    1983-01-01

    Highly synchronous cultures of the erythrocyte stages ofPlasmodium falciparum were used to determine the effects of a number of protease inhibitors on parasite development and merozoite invasion. Leupeptin, N-tosyl-L-lysyl chloromethylketone and pepstatin at a concentration greater than 0.05 mM were deleterious to both parasite development and merozoite invasion whereas aprotinin, antipain, a-1-antitrypsin and soybean trypsin inhibitor had no effect at

  9. Plasmodium yoelii macrophage migration inhibitory factor is necessary for efficient liver-stage development.

    PubMed

    Miller, Jessica L; Harupa, Anke; Kappe, Stefan H I; Mikolajczak, Sebastian A

    2012-04-01

    Mammalian macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) is a multifaceted cytokine involved in both extracellular and intracellular functions. Malaria parasites express a MIF homologue that might modulate host immune responses against blood-stage parasites, but the potential importance of MIF against other life cycle stages remains unstudied. In this study, we characterized the MIF homologue of Plasmodium yoelii throughout the life cycle, with emphasis on preerythrocytic stages. P. yoelii MIF (Py-MIF) was expressed in blood-stage parasites and detected at low levels in mosquito salivary gland sporozoites. MIF expression was strong throughout liver-stage development and localized to the cytoplasm of the parasite, with no evidence of release into the host hepatocyte. To examine the importance of Py-MIF for liver-stage development, we generated a Py-mif knockout parasite (P. yoelii ?mif). P. yoelii ?mif parasites grew normally as asexual erythrocytic-stage parasites and showed normal infection of mosquitoes. In contrast, the P. yoelii ?mif strain was attenuated during the liver stage. Mice infected with P. yoelii ?mif sporozoites either did not develop blood-stage parasitemia or exhibited a delay in the onset of blood-stage patency. Furthermore, P. yoelii ?mif parasites exhibited growth retardation in vivo. Combined, the data indicate that Plasmodium MIF is important for liver-stage development of P. yoelii, during which it is likely to play an intrinsic role in parasite development rather than modulating host immune responses to infection. PMID:22252874

  10. Progression of Plasmodium berghei through Anopheles stephensi is density-dependent.

    PubMed

    Sinden, Robert E; Dawes, Emma J; Alavi, Yasmene; Waldock, Joanna; Finney, Olivia; Mendoza, Jacqui; Butcher, Geoff A; Andrews, Laura; Hill, Adrian V; Gilbert, Sarah C; Basáñez, María-Gloria

    2007-12-28

    It is well documented that the density of Plasmodium in its vertebrate host modulates the physiological response induced; this in turn regulates parasite survival and transmission. It is less clear that parasite density in the mosquito regulates survival and transmission of this important pathogen. Numerous studies have described conversion rates of Plasmodium from one life stage to the next within the mosquito, yet few have considered that these rates might vary with parasite density. Here we establish infections with defined numbers of the rodent malaria parasite Plasmodium berghei to examine how parasite density at each stage of development (gametocytes; ookinetes; oocysts and sporozoites) influences development to the ensuing stage in Anopheles stephensi, and thus the delivery of infectious sporozoites to the vertebrate host. We show that every developmental transition exhibits strong density dependence, with numbers of the ensuing stages saturating at high density. We further show that when fed ookinetes at very low densities, oocyst development is facilitated by increasing ookinete number (i.e., the efficiency of ookinete-oocyst transformation follows a sigmoid relationship). We discuss how observations on this model system generate important hypotheses for the understanding of malaria biology, and how these might guide the rational analysis of interventions against the transmission of the malaria parasites of humans by their diverse vector species. PMID:18166078

  11. Preerythrocytic, live-attenuated Plasmodium falciparum vaccine candidates by design

    PubMed Central

    VanBuskirk, Kelley M.; O'Neill, Matthew T.; De La Vega, Patricia; Maier, Alexander G.; Krzych, Urszula; Williams, Jack; Dowler, Megan G.; Sacci, John B.; Kangwanrangsan, Niwat; Tsuboi, Takafumi; Kneteman, Norman M.; Heppner, Donald G.; Murdock, Brant A.; Mikolajczak, Sebastian A.; Aly, Ahmed S. I.; Cowman, Alan F.; Kappe, Stefan H. I.

    2009-01-01

    Falciparum malaria is initiated when Anopheles mosquitoes transmit the Plasmodium sporozoite stage during a blood meal. Irradiated sporozoites confer sterile protection against subsequent malaria infection in animal models and humans. This level of protection is unmatched by current recombinant malaria vaccines. However, the live-attenuated vaccine approach faces formidable obstacles, including development of accurate, reproducible attenuation techniques. We tested whether Plasmodium falciparum could be attenuated at the early liver stage by genetic engineering. The P. falciparum genetically attenuated parasites (GAPs) harbor individual deletions or simultaneous deletions of the sporozoite-expressed genes P52 and P36. Gene deletions were done by double-cross-over recombination to avoid genetic reversion of the knockout parasites. The gene deletions did not affect parasite replication throughout the erythrocytic cycle, gametocyte production, mosquito infections, and sporozoite production rates. However, the deletions caused parasite developmental arrest during hepatocyte infection. The double-gene deletion line exhibited a more severe intrahepatocytic growth defect compared with the single-gene deletion lines, and it did not persist. This defect was assessed in an in vitro liver-stage growth assay and in a chimeric mouse model harboring human hepatocytes. The strong phenotype of the double knockout GAP justifies its human testing as a whole-organism vaccine candidate using the established sporozoite challenge model. GAPs might provide a safe and reproducible platform to develop an efficacious whole-cell malaria vaccine that prevents infection at the preerythrocytic stage. PMID:19625622

  12. Potent Inhibitors of Plasmodium Phospholipid Metabolism with a Broad Spectrum of In Vitro Antimalarial Activities

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Marie L. Ancelin; Michele Calas; Valerie Vidal-Sailhan; Serge Herbute; Pascal Ringwald; Henri J. Vial

    2003-01-01

    We characterized the potent in vitro antimalarial activity and biologic assessment of 13 phospholipid polar head analogs on a comparative basis. There was a positive relationship between the abilities of the drugs to inhibit parasite growth in culture and their abilities to specifically inhibit phosphatidylcholine biosynthesis of Plasmodium falciparum-infected erythrocytes. Maximal activity of G25 was observed for the trophozoite stage

  13. The Systematic Functional Analysis of Plasmodium Protein Kinases Identifies Essential Regulators of Mosquito Transmission

    PubMed Central

    Tewari, Rita; Straschil, Ursula; Bateman, Alex; Böhme, Ulrike; Cherevach, Inna; Gong, Peng; Pain, Arnab; Billker, Oliver

    2010-01-01

    Summary Although eukaryotic protein kinases (ePKs) contribute to many cellular processes, only three Plasmodium falciparum ePKs have thus far been identified as essential for parasite asexual blood stage development. To identify pathways essential for parasite transmission between their mammalian host and mosquito vector, we undertook a systematic functional analysis of ePKs in the genetically tractable rodent parasite Plasmodium berghei. Modeling domain signatures of conventional ePKs identified 66 putative Plasmodium ePKs. Kinomes are highly conserved between Plasmodium species. Using reverse genetics, we show that 23 ePKs are redundant for asexual erythrocytic parasite development in mice. Phenotyping mutants at four life cycle stages in Anopheles stephensi mosquitoes revealed functional clusters of kinases required for sexual development and sporogony. Roles for a putative SR protein kinase (SRPK) in microgamete formation, a conserved regulator of clathrin uncoating (GAK) in ookinete formation, and a likely regulator of energy metabolism (SNF1/KIN) in sporozoite development were identified. PMID:20951971

  14. Changing Malaria Epidemiology and Diagnostic Criteria for Plasmodium falciparum Clinical Malaria

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Changing Malaria Epidemiology and Diagnostic Criteria for Plasmodium falciparum Clinical Malaria: In tropical Africa, where malaria is highly endemic, low grade infections are asymptomatic and the diagnosis of clinical malaria is usually based on parasite density. Here we investigate how changes in malaria control

  15. On the estimation of sequestered infected erythrocytes in Plasmodium falciparum malaria patients

    E-print Network

    Boyer, Edmond

    On the estimation of sequestered infected erythrocytes in Plasmodium falciparum malaria patients D burden of the patient and the rate of infection in a malaria's intra-host model by using control theory parasite burden within a malaria patient. Moreover, our constructed observer does not use the uncertain

  16. Slow Clearance of Plasmodium falciparum in Severe Pediatric Malaria, Uganda, 2011–2013

    PubMed Central

    Hawkes, Michael; Conroy, Andrea L.; Opoka, Robert O.; Namasopo, Sophie; Zhong, Kathleen; Liles, W. Conrad; John, Chandy C.

    2015-01-01

    Plasmodium falciparum resistance to artemisinin derivatives is emerging in Asia. We examined molecular markers of resistance in 78 children in Uganda who had severe malaria and were treated with intravenous artesunate. We observed in the K13-propeller domain, A578S, a low-frequency (3/78), nonsynonymous, single-nucleotide polymorphism associated with prolonged parasite clearance. PMID:26079933

  17. Slow Clearance of Plasmodium falciparum in Severe Pediatric Malaria, Uganda, 2011-2013.

    PubMed

    Hawkes, Michael; Conroy, Andrea L; Opoka, Robert O; Namasopo, Sophie; Zhong, Kathleen; Liles, W Conrad; John, Chandy C; Kain, Kevin C

    2015-07-01

    Plasmodium falciparum resistance to artemisinin derivatives is emerging in Asia. We examined molecular markers of resistance in 78 children in Uganda who had severe malaria and were treated with intravenous artesunate. We observed in the K13-propeller domain, A578S, a low-frequency (3/78), nonsynonymous, single-nucleotide polymorphism associated with prolonged parasite clearance. PMID:26079933

  18. The systematic functional analysis of Plasmodium protein kinases identifies essential regulators of mosquito transmission.

    PubMed

    Tewari, Rita; Straschil, Ursula; Bateman, Alex; Böhme, Ulrike; Cherevach, Inna; Gong, Peng; Pain, Arnab; Billker, Oliver

    2010-10-21

    Although eukaryotic protein kinases (ePKs) contribute to many cellular processes, only three Plasmodium falciparum ePKs have thus far been identified as essential for parasite asexual blood stage development. To identify pathways essential for parasite transmission between their mammalian host and mosquito vector, we undertook a systematic functional analysis of ePKs in the genetically tractable rodent parasite Plasmodium berghei. Modeling domain signatures of conventional ePKs identified 66 putative Plasmodium ePKs. Kinomes are highly conserved between Plasmodium species. Using reverse genetics, we show that 23 ePKs are redundant for asexual erythrocytic parasite development in mice. Phenotyping mutants at four life cycle stages in Anopheles stephensi mosquitoes revealed functional clusters of kinases required for sexual development and sporogony. Roles for a putative SR protein kinase (SRPK) in microgamete formation, a conserved regulator of clathrin uncoating (GAK) in ookinete formation, and a likely regulator of energy metabolism (SNF1/KIN) in sporozoite development were identified. PMID:20951971

  19. Filling the gap of intracellular dephosphorylation in the Plasmodium falciparum vitamin B1 biosynthesis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Julia Knöckel; Bärbel Bergmann; Ingrid B. Müller; Sushma Rathaur; Rolf D. Walter; Carsten Wrenger

    2008-01-01

    Thiamine pyrophosphate (TPP), the active form of vitamin B1, is an essential cofactor for several enzymes. Humans depend exclusively on the uptake of vitamin B1, whereas bacteria, plants, fungi and the malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum are able to synthesise thiamine monophosphate (TMP) de novo. TMP has to be dephosphorylated prior to pyrophosphorylation in order to obtain TPP. In P. falciparum

  20. Disguising itself—insights into Plasmodium falciparum binding and immune evasion from the DBL crystal structure

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dasein P.-G. Howell; Ram Samudrala; Joseph D. Smith

    2006-01-01

    Duffy-binding like (DBL) domains are common to two different families of malaria proteins that are involved in parasite invasion of erythrocytes or cytoadhesion of infected erythrocytes. DBL domain crystal structures have recently been solved for two different erythrocyte binding ligands, EBA-175 and the Plasmodium knowlesi ? Duffy binding protein. These structures reveal different mechanisms for DBL binding and erythrocyte invasion.

  1. Shotgun DNA microarrays and stage-specific gene expression in Plasmodium falciparum malaria

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rhian E. Hayward; Joseph L. DeRisi; Suad Alfadhli; David C. Kaslow; Patrick O. Brown; Pradipsinh K. Rathod

    2000-01-01

    Summary Malaria infects over 200 million individuals and kills 2 million young children every year. Understanding the biology of malarial parasites will be facilitated by DNA microarray technology, which can track global changes in gene expression under different physiolo- gical conditions. However, genomes of Plasmodium sp. (and many other important pathogenic organisms) remain to be fully sequenced so, currently, it

  2. An AFLP-based genetic linkage map of Plasmodium chabaudi chabaudi

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Axel Martinelli; Paul Hunt; Richard Fawcett; Pedro VL Cravo; David Walliker; Richard Carter

    2005-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Plasmodium chabaudi chabaudi can be considered as a rodent model of human malaria parasites in the genetic analysis of important characters such as drug resistance and immunity. Despite the availability of some genome sequence data, an extensive genetic linkage map is needed for mapping the genes involved in certain traits. METHODS: The inheritance of 672 Amplified Fragment Length Polymorphism

  3. First Evidence and Predictions of Plasmodium Transmission in Alaskan Bird Populations

    E-print Network

    Sehgal, Ravinder

    . It is predicted that malaria parasites will spread to both higher altitudes and latitudes with global warming of global warming are imminent, with temperatures increasing at almost twice the average global rate [1 empirical data, we make the first projections of the habitat suitability for Plasmodium under a future-warming

  4. Anopheles mortality is both age- and Plasmodium-density dependent: implications for malaria transmission

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Emma J Dawes; Thomas S Churcher; Shijie Zhuang; Robert E Sinden; María-Gloria Basáñez

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Daily mortality is an important determinant of a vector's ability to transmit pathogens. Original simplifying assumptions in malaria transmission models presume vector mortality is independent of age, infection status and parasite load. Previous studies illustrate conflicting evidence as to the importance of Plasmodium-induced vector mortality, but very few studies to date have considered the effect of infection density on

  5. Plasmodium falciparum-infected erythrocytes modulate the maturation of dendritic cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Britta C. Urban; David J. P. Ferguson; Arnab Pain; Nick Willcox; Magdalena Plebanski; Jonathan M. Austyn; David J. Roberts

    1999-01-01

    The malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum is one of the most successful human pathogens. Specific virulence factors remain poorly defined, although the adhesion of infected erythrocytes tothe venular endothelium has been associated with some of thesyndromes of severe disease. Immune responses cannot prevent the development of symptomatic infections throughout life, and clinical immunity to the disease develops only slowly during childhood.

  6. Plasmodium falciparum Gametocytes from Culture in vitro Develop to Sporozoites that are Infectious to Primates

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Carlos C. Campbell; William E. Collins; Phuc Nguyen-Dinh; Ann Barber; J. Roger Broderson

    1982-01-01

    Gametocytes of two strains of the human malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum have been produced in high density by means of a continuous-flow cultivation system. The gametocytes of these two strains infected a mean of 36 percent and 71 percent, respectively, of Anopheles freeborni mosquitoes that fed on a suspension of red blood cells containing the cultured gametocytes. Sporozoites harvested from

  7. A plasmodium falciparum Antigen that Binds to Host Erythrocytes and Merozoites

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Daniel Camus; Terence J. Hadley

    1985-01-01

    Antigens that bind to erythrocytes were identified in the supernatant fluids of a cultured human malaria parasite (Plasmodium falciparum). A 175-kilodalton (175K) antigen bound only to erythrocytes susceptible to invasion. The 175K antigen from the Camp or the FCR-3 strain also bound to merozoites. However, the antigen did not bind to merozoites when merozoites and supernatant antigens were from different

  8. Quantitative Calcium Measurements in Subcellular Compartments of Plasmodium falciparum-infected Erythrocytes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Petra Rohrbach; Oliver Friedrich; Joachim Hentschel; Helmut Plattner; Rainer H. A. Fink; Michael Lanzer

    2005-01-01

    The acidic food vacuole exerts several important func- tions during intraerythrocytic development of the hu- man malarial parasite Plasmodium falciparum. Hemo- globin taken up from the host erythrocyte is degraded in the food vacuole, and the heme liberated during this process is crystallized to inert hemozoin. Several anti- malarial drugs target food vacuolar pathways, such as hemoglobin degradation and heme

  9. Implications of Glutathione Levels in the Plasmodium berghei Response to Chloroquine and Artemisinin

    PubMed Central

    Vega-Rodríguez, Joel; Pastrana-Mena, Rebecca; Crespo-Lladó, Keila N.; Ortiz, José G.; Ferrer-Rodríguez, Iván; Serrano, Adelfa E.

    2015-01-01

    Malaria is one of the most devastating parasitic diseases worldwide. Plasmodium drug resistance remains a major challenge to malaria control and has led to the re-emergence of the disease. Chloroquine (CQ) and artemisinin (ART) are thought to exert their anti-malarial activity inducing cytotoxicity in the parasite by blocking heme degradation (for CQ) and increasing oxidative stress. Besides the contribution of the CQ resistance transporter (PfCRT) and the multidrug resistant gene (pfmdr), CQ resistance has also been associated with increased parasite glutathione (GSH) levels. ART resistance was recently shown to be associated with mutations in the K13-propeller protein. To analyze the role of GSH levels in CQ and ART resistance, we generated transgenic Plasmodium berghei parasites either deficient in or overexpressing the gamma-glutamylcysteine synthetase gene (pbggcs) encoding the rate-limiting enzyme in GSH biosynthesis. These lines produce either lower (pbggcs-ko) or higher (pbggcs-oe) levels of GSH than wild type parasites. In addition, GSH levels were determined in P. berghei parasites resistant to CQ and mefloquine (MQ). Increased GSH levels were detected in both, CQ and MQ resistant parasites, when compared to the parental sensitive clone. Sensitivity to CQ and ART remained unaltered in both pgggcs-ko and pbggcs-oe parasites when tested in a 4 days drug suppressive assay. However, recrudescence assays after the parasites have been exposed to a sub-lethal dose of ART showed that parasites with low levels of GSH are more sensitive to ART treatment. These results suggest that GSH levels influence Plasmodium berghei response to ART treatment. PMID:26010448

  10. More than just immune evasion: Hijacking complement by Plasmodium falciparum.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, Christoph Q; Kennedy, Alexander T; Tham, Wai-Hong

    2015-09-01

    Malaria remains one of the world's deadliest diseases. Plasmodium falciparum is responsible for the most severe and lethal form of human malaria. P. falciparum's life cycle involves two obligate hosts: human and mosquito. From initial entry into these hosts, malaria parasites face the onslaught of the first line of host defence, the complement system. In this review, we discuss the complex interaction between complement and malaria infection in terms of hosts immune responses, parasite survival and pathogenesis of severe forms of malaria. We will focus on the role of complement receptor 1 and its associated polymorphisms in malaria immune complex clearance, as a mediator of parasite rosetting and as an entry receptor for P. falciparum invasion. Complement evasion strategies of P. falciparum parasites will also be highlighted. The sexual forms of the malaria parasites recruit the soluble human complement regulator Factor H to evade complement-mediated killing within the mosquito host. A novel evasion strategy is the deployment of parasite organelles to divert complement attack from infective blood stage parasites. Finally we outline the future challenge to understand the implications of these exploitation mechanisms in the interplay between successful infection of the host and pathogenesis observed in severe malaria. PMID:25816986

  11. Plasmodium yoelii: induction of attenuated mutants by irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Waki, S.; Yonome, I.; Suzuki, M.

    1986-12-01

    When erythrocytic forms of Plasmodium yoelii nigeriensis, which is invariably fatal in mice, were exposed to X rays, the dose to reduce surviving parasites to one millionth was 100 gray (10 Krad). A suspension of 5 X 10(6) per ml of parasitized erythrocyte was irradiated at 100 gray, and 0.2 ml aliquots were inoculated into 22 mice. Eleven mice showed patent parasitemia, and in these the growth curves were less steep than that found in nonirradiated parasites. The infections of 8 mice of the 11 were self-resolving, and the attenuated feature of the parasites maintained following a limited number of blood passages. The parasites were slowly growing even in nude mice and cause self-resolving infections in intact mice. BALB/c mice immunized with the attenuated parasites were protected against subsequent challenge infections with the original virulent erythrocytic and sporogonic forms. These findings indicate that attenuated mutants of malaria parasites can be readily induced by this method.

  12. Increased detection of Plasmodium knowlesi in Sandakan division, Sabah as revealed by PlasmoNex™

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Plasmodium knowlesi is a simian malaria parasite that is widespread in humans in Malaysian Borneo. However, little is known about the incidence and distribution of this parasite in the Sandakan division, Malaysian Borneo. Therefore, the aim of the present epidemiological study was to investigate the incidence and distribution of P. knowlesi as well as other Plasmodium species in this division based on a most recent developed hexaplex PCR system (PlasmoNex™). Methods A total of 189 whole blood samples were collected from Telupid Health Clinic, Sabah, Malaysia, from 2008 to 2011. All patients who participated in the study were microscopically malaria positive before recruitment. Complete demographic details and haematological profiles were obtained from 85 patients (13 females and 72 males). Identification of Plasmodium species was conducted using PlasmoNex™ targeting the 18S ssu rRNA gene. Results A total of 178 samples were positive for Plasmodium species by using PlasmoNex™. Plasmodium falciparum was identified in 68 samples (38.2%) followed by 64 cases (36.0%) of Plasmodium vivax, 42 (23.6%) cases of P. knowlesi, two (1.1%) cases of Plasmodium malariae and two (1.1%) mixed-species infections (i e, P. vivax/P. falciparum). Thirty-five PlasmoNex™ positive P. knowlesi samples were misdiagnosed as P. malariae by microscopy. Plasmodium knowlesi was detected in all four districts of Sandakan division with the highest incidence in the Kinabatangan district. Thrombocytopaenia and anaemia showed to be the most frequent malaria-associated haematological complications in this study. Conclusions The discovery of P. knowlesi in Sandakan division showed that prospective studies on the epidemiological risk factors and transmission dynamics of P. knowlesi in these areas are crucial in order to develop strategies for effective malaria control. The availability of advanced diagnostic tool PlasmoNex™ enhanced the accuracy and accelerated the speed in the diagnosis of malaria. PMID:23902626

  13. Rodent malaria parasites suffer from the presence of conspecific clones in three-clone

    E-print Network

    Read, Andrew

    Rodent malaria parasites suffer from the presence of conspecific clones in three-clone Plasmodium genetically distinct clones ­ 1 less virulent than the other 2 ­ either on their own or in mixtures. During the acute phase of infection, total numbers of asexual parasites in mixed-clone infections were equal

  14. A structural annotation resource for the selection of putative target proteins in the malaria parasite

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yolandi Joubert; Fourie Joubert

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Protein structure plays a pivotal role in elucidating mechanisms of parasite functioning and drug resistance. Moreover, protein structure aids the determination of protein function, which can together with the structure be used to identify novel drug targets in the parasite. However, various structural features in Plasmodium falciparum proteins complicate the experimental determination of protein structures. Limited similarity to proteins

  15. The Plasmodial Surface Anion Channel Is Functionally Conserved in Divergent Malaria Parasites

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Godfrey Lisk; Sanjay A. Desai

    2005-01-01

    The plasmodial surface anion channel (PSAC), a novel ion channel induced on human erythrocytes infected with Plasmodium falciparum, mediates increased permeability to nutrients and presumably supports intracel- lular parasite growth. Isotope flux studies indicate that other malaria parasites also increase the permeability of their host erythrocytes, but the precise mechanisms are unknown. Channels similar to PSAC or alternative mechanisms, such

  16. Malarial parasitism and male competition for mates in the western fence lizard, Sceloporus occidentalis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. J. Schall; M. D. Dearing

    1987-01-01

    The effect of malarial parasitism on the ability of male western fence lizards, Sceloporus occidentalis, to compete for access to females was assessed experimentally. Pairs of male lizards, one infected with the malarial parasite, Plasmodium mexicanum, and the other not infected, were matched by size and color and placed in large seminatural outdoor enclosures along with an adult female lizard.

  17. Plasmodium falciparum: mefloquine resistance produced in vitro*

    PubMed Central

    Lambros, C.; Notsch, J. D.

    1984-01-01

    Camp and Smith strains of the human malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum became resistant to mefloquine after continuous cultivation in the presence of the drug. The 50% inhibitory dose (ID50) values for mefloquine, as assessed by [3H]hypoxanthine incorporation, were found to have increased 4-fold, from 3 ?g/l to 12 ?g/l. The ID50 values obtained by morphological examination of the cultures increased 10-fold. Resistance was stable in both strains either when grown in a drug-free medium or when kept frozen in liquid nitrogen. The mefloquine-resistant Camp strain remained sensitive to chloroquine and amodiaquine, and became slightly more resistant to quinine; there was increased sensitivity to pyrimethamine. The mefloquine-resistant Smith strain remained sensitive to amodiaquine and resistant to pyrimethamine; there was increased resistance to quinine, and an increase in sensitivity to chloroquine. PMID:6380785

  18. Chloroquine susceptibility of Plasmodium falciparum in Haiti

    PubMed Central

    Magloire, Roc; Nguyen-Dinh, Phuc

    1983-01-01

    In January and February 1982, in vivo and in vitro studies of the chloroquine sensitivity of Plasmodium falciparum were conducted in Port-au-Prince, Haiti. Of 19 infections tested in vivo using the WHO extended test, all but one were susceptible to the drug; the remaining case showed a recurrence of parasitaemia on day 28. Of the 19 corresponding 48-hour in vitro tests, 16 provided interpretable results; 12 tests demonstrated sensitivity to the drug, while in the remaining 4, parasite multiplication was inhibited only at drug concentrations higher than that previously accepted as indicative of sensitivity. (These four included the isolate from the patient who had a recurrence of parasitaemia on day 28.) While these results provide no absolute demonstration of chloroquine resistance, they underline the need for close monitoring of the susceptibility to chloroquine of P. falciparum in Haiti. PMID:6370485

  19. Transcript Level Responses of Plasmodium falciparum to Antimycin A

    PubMed Central

    Tarr, Sarah J.; Nisbet, R. Ellen R.; Howe, Christopher J.

    2012-01-01

    The mitochondrial electron transport chain is essential to Plasmodium and is the target of the antimalarial drug atovaquone. The mitochondrial genomes of Plasmodium sp. are the most reduced known, and the majority of mitochondrial proteins are encoded in the nucleus and imported into the mitochondrion post-translationally. Many organisms have signalling pathways between the mitochondria and the nucleus to regulate the expression of nuclear-encoded mitochondrially-targeted proteins, for example in response to mitochondrial dysfunction. We have studied the transcript profiles of synchronous Plasmodium falciparum treated with an LD50 concentration of the complex III inhibitor antimycin A, to investigate whether such pathways exist in the parasite. There was a broad perturbation of gene expression. The differentially expressed genes were enriched for transcripts encoding proteins involved in invasion, stress response, nucleotide biosynthesis and respiration. Some effects were attributable to a delay in the gene expression phase of drug-treated parasites. However, our data indicated regulation of mitochondrial stress response genes and genes involved in pyrimidine biosynthesis, implying the existence of a signalling pathway from the mitochondrion to the nucleus. PMID:22503086

  20. Activation of a PAK-MEK signalling pathway in malaria parasite-infected erythrocytes

    PubMed Central

    Sicard, Audrey; Semblat, Jean-Philippe; Doerig, Caroline; Hamelin, Romain; Moniatte, Marc; Dorin-Semblat, Dominique; Spicer, Julie A; Srivastava, Anubhav; Retzlaff, Silke; Heussler, Volker; Waters, Andrew P; Doerig, Christian

    2011-01-01

    Merozoites of malaria parasites invade red blood cells (RBCs), where they multiply by schizogony, undergoing development through ring, trophozoite and schizont stages that are responsible for malaria pathogenesis. Here, we report that a protein kinase-mediated signalling pathway involving host RBC PAK1 and MEK1, which do not have orthologues in the Plasmodium kinome, is selectively stimulated in Plasmodium falciparum-infected (versus uninfected) RBCs, as determined by the use of phospho-specific antibodies directed against the activated forms of these enzymes. Pharmacological interference with host MEK and PAK function using highly specific allosteric inhibitors in their known cellular IC50 ranges results in parasite death. Furthermore, MEK inhibitors have parasiticidal effects in vitro on hepatocyte and erythrocyte stages of the rodent malaria parasite Plasmodium berghei, indicating conservation of this subversive strategy in malaria parasites. These findings have profound implications for the development of novel strategies for antimalarial chemotherapy. PMID:21371233

  1. ?-Thalassemia Impairs the Cytoadherence of Plasmodium falciparum-Infected Erythrocytes

    PubMed Central

    Krause, Michael A.; Diakite, Seidina A. S.; Lopera-Mesa, Tatiana M.; Amaratunga, Chanaki; Arie, Takayuki; Traore, Karim; Doumbia, Saibou; Konate, Drissa; Keefer, Jeffrey R.; Diakite, Mahamadou; Fairhurst, Rick M.

    2012-01-01

    Background ?-thalassemia results from decreased production of ?-globin chains that make up part of hemoglobin tetramers (Hb; ?2?2) and affects up to 50% of individuals in some regions of sub-Saharan Africa. Heterozygous (??/??) and homozygous (??/??) genotypes are associated with reduced risk of severe Plasmodium falciparum malaria, but the mechanism of this protection remains obscure. We hypothesized that ?-thalassemia impairs the adherence of parasitized red blood cells (RBCs) to microvascular endothelial cells (MVECs) and monocytes – two interactions that are centrally involved in the pathogenesis of severe disease. Methods and Findings We obtained P. falciparum isolates directly from Malian children with malaria and used them to infect ??/?? (normal), ??/?? and ??/?? RBCs. We also used laboratory-adapted P. falciparum clones to infect ?/?? RBCs obtained from patients with HbH disease. Following a single cycle of parasite invasion and maturation to the trophozoite stage, we tested the ability of parasitized RBCs to bind MVECs and monocytes. Compared to parasitized ??/?? RBCs, we found that parasitized ??/??, ??/?? and ?/?? RBCs showed, respectively, 22%, 43% and 63% reductions in binding to MVECs and 13%, 33% and 63% reductions in binding to monocytes. ?-thalassemia was associated with abnormal display of P. falciparum erythrocyte membrane protein 1 (PfEMP1), the parasite’s main cytoadherence ligand and virulence factor, on the surface of parasitized RBCs. Conclusions Parasitized ?-thalassemic RBCs show PfEMP1 display abnormalities that are reminiscent of those on the surface of parasitized sickle HbS and HbC RBCs. Our data suggest a model of malaria protection in which ?-thalassemia ameliorates the pro-inflammatory effects of cytoadherence. Our findings also raise the possibility that other unstable hemoglobins such as HbE and unpaired ?-globin chains (in the case of ?-thalassemia) protect against life-threatening malaria by a similar mechanism. PMID:22623996

  2. Actin regulation in the malaria parasite.

    PubMed

    Sattler, Julia Magdalena; Ganter, Markus; Hliscs, Marion; Matuschewski, Kai; Schüler, Herwig

    2011-11-01

    Many intracellular pathogens hijack host cell actin or its regulators for cell-to-cell spreading. In marked contrast, apicomplexan parasites, obligate intracellular, single cell eukaryotes that are phylogenetically older than the last common ancestor of animals and plants, employ their own actin cytoskeleton for active motility through tissues and invasion of host cells. A hallmark of actin-based motility of the malaria parasite is a minimal set of proteins that potentially regulate microfilament dynamics. An intriguing feature of the Plasmodium motor machinery is the virtual absence of elongated filamentous actin in vivo. Despite this unusual actin regulation sporozoites, the transmission stages that are injected into the mammalian host by Anopheles mosquitoes, display fast (1-3 ?m/s) extracellular motility. Experimental genetics and analysis of recombinant proteins have recently contributed to clarify some of the cellular roles of apicomplexan actin monomer- and filament-binding proteins in parasite life cycle progression. These studies established that the malaria parasite employs multiple proteins that bind actin to form pools of readily polymerizable monomers, a prerequisite for fast formation of actin polymers. The motile extracellular stages of Plasmodium parasites are an excellent in vivo model system for functional characterization of actin regulation in single cell eukaryotes. PMID:21256619

  3. Exploring Drug Targets in Isoprenoid Biosynthetic Pathway for Plasmodium falciparum

    PubMed Central

    Qidwai, Tabish; Khan, Mohd Y.; Sharma, Bechan

    2014-01-01

    Emergence of rapid drug resistance to existing antimalarial drugs in Plasmodium falciparum has created the need for prediction of novel targets as well as leads derived from original molecules with improved activity against a validated drug target. The malaria parasite has a plant plastid-like apicoplast. To overcome the problem of falciparum malaria, the metabolic pathways in parasite apicoplast have been used as antimalarial drug targets. Among several pathways in apicoplast, isoprenoid biosynthesis is one of the important pathways for parasite as its multiplication in human erythrocytes requires isoprenoids. Therefore targeting this pathway and exploring leads with improved activity is a highly attractive approach. This report has explored progress towards the study of proteins and inhibitors of isoprenoid biosynthesis pathway. For more comprehensive analysis, antimalarial drug-protein interaction has been covered. PMID:24864210

  4. Morphological comparisons of the Plasmodium (Novyella) species reported from North American birds, with comments on a species from the barred owl Strix varia Barton

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sam R. Telford; Donald J. Forrester

    1992-01-01

    The application of detailed morphological comparisons to the identification of avian malaria parasites in their natural hosts was tested by the study of a Plasmodium (Novyella) species in a barred owl Strix varia from southern Georgia. The parasite was characterised by the presence of fan-shaped schizonts that produced only four merozoites and elongate, slender gametocytes that were pigmented conspicuously. The

  5. Diversity and distribution of avian haematozoan parasites in the western Indian Ocean region: a molecular survey.

    PubMed

    Ishtiaq, Farah; Beadell, Jon S; Warren, Ben H; Fleischer, Robert C

    2012-02-01

    The genetic diversity of haematozoan parasites in island avifauna has only recently begun to be explored, despite the potential insight that these data can provide into the history of association between hosts and parasites and the possible threat posed to island endemics. We used mitochondrial DNA sequencing to characterize the diversity of 2 genera of vector-mediated parasites (Plasmodium and Haemoproteus) in avian blood samples from the western Indian Ocean region and explored their relationship with parasites from continental Africa. We detected infections in 68 out of 150 (45·3%) individuals and cytochrome b sequences identified 9 genetically distinct lineages of Plasmodium spp. and 7 lineages of Haemoproteus spp. We found considerable heterogeneity in parasite lineage composition across islands, although limited sampling may, in part, be responsible for perceived differences. Two lineages of Plasmodium spp. and 2 lineages of Haemoproteus spp. were shared by hosts in the Indian Ocean and also on mainland Africa, suggesting that these lineages may have arrived relatively recently. Polyphyly of island parasites indicated that these parasites were unlikely to constitute an endemic radiation and instead probably represent multiple colonization events. This study represents the first molecular survey of vector-mediated parasites in the western Indian Ocean, and has uncovered a diversity of parasites. Full understanding of parasite community composition and possible threats to endemic avian hosts will require comprehensive surveys across the avifauna of this region. PMID:22075855

  6. [Plasmodium sporozoite entry pathways during malaria liver infection].

    PubMed

    Risco-Castillo, Veronica; Son, Olivia; Franetich, Jean-François; Rubinstein, Eric; Mazier, Dominique; Silvie, Olivier

    2013-01-01

    Plasmodium parasites, the causative agents of malaria, are transmitted by female Anopheles mosquitoes, which inject sporozoites into the skin of the host. The motile sporozoites enter the blood stream and, upon reaching the liver, transform into liver stages inside hepatocytes. The parasites enter host cells actively, using their actomyosin motor machinery to propel themselves through a specialized structure called junction. Penetration inside an invagination of the host cell plasma membrane results in the formation of the parasitophorous vacuole, which is essential for parasite further development. The mechanisms of sporozoite entry into host cells remain poorly understood at the molecular level. We reported for the first time a host factor required for infection of hepatocytes by Plasmodium sporozoites, the tetraspanin CD81, which also serves as a receptor for the hepatitis C virus. CD81 is involved at an early step of the infection, however no evidence for a direct interaction between CD81 and the parasite could be found. Although sporozoites can use several independent pathways to enter hepatocytes, depending on the parasite species and the host cell type, we showed that P. falciparum, the deadliest human malaria parasite, depends on CD81 to infect hepatocytes. We identified structural determinants in the CD81 large extracellular domain, and demonstrated that CD81 function is regulated by its molecular environment in specialized tetraspanin-enriched membrane microdomains. Based on these data we propose that CD81 acts indirectly during malaria infection, by interacting with other essential but still unidentified factor(s), possibly a receptor for the sporozoites, within specific microdomains of the hepatocyte plasma membrane. PMID:24594570

  7. RESEARCH Open Access Plasmodium species occurrence, temporal

    E-print Network

    Boyer, Edmond

    of the research concentrates on Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium vivax. In Burkina Faso, where P. falciparumRESEARCH Open Access Plasmodium species occurrence, temporal distribution and interaction Background: Malaria can be caused by five Plasmodium species. Due to their higher prevalence, much

  8. Parasitic colitis.

    PubMed

    Hechenbleikner, Elizabeth M; McQuade, Jennifer A

    2015-06-01

    Over one billion people worldwide harbor intestinal parasites. Parasitic intestinal infections have a predilection for developing countries due to overcrowding and poor sanitation but are also found in developed nations, such as the United States, particularly in immigrants or in the setting of sporadic outbreaks. Although the majority of people are asymptomatically colonized with parasites, the clinical presentation can range from mild abdominal discomfort or diarrhea to serious complications, such as perforation or bleeding. Protozoa and helminths (worms) are the two major classes of intestinal parasites. Protozoal intestinal infections include cryptosporidiosis, cystoisosporiasis, cyclosporiasis, balantidiasis, giardiasis, amebiasis, and Chagas disease, while helminth infections include ascariasis, trichuriasis, strongyloidiasis, enterobiasis, and schistosomiasis. Intestinal parasites are predominantly small intestine pathogens but the large intestine is also frequently involved. This article highlights important aspects of parasitic infections of the colon including epidemiology, transmission, symptoms, and diagnostic methods as well as appropriate medical and surgical treatment. PMID:26034403

  9. Molecular characterization and inhibition of a Plasmodium falciparum aspartic hemoglobinase.

    PubMed Central

    Francis, S E; Gluzman, I Y; Oksman, A; Knickerbocker, A; Mueller, R; Bryant, M L; Sherman, D R; Russell, D G; Goldberg, D E

    1994-01-01

    Intraerythrocytic malaria parasites rapidly degrade virtually all of the host cell hemoglobin. We have cloned the gene for an aspartic hemoglobinase that initiates the hemoglobin degradation pathway in Plasmodium falciparum. It encodes a protein with 35% homology to human renin and cathepsin D, but has an unusually long pro-piece that includes a putative membrane spanning anchor. Immunolocalization studies place the enzyme in the digestive vacuole and throughout the hemoglobin ingestion pathway, suggesting an unusual protein targeting route. A peptidomimetic inhibitor selectively blocks the aspartic hemoglobinase, prevents hemoglobin degradation and kills the organism. We conclude that Plasmodium hemoglobin catabolism is a prime target for antimalarial chemotherapy and have identified a lead compound towards this goal. Images PMID:8313875

  10. Plasmodium falciparum Variant Surface Antigen Expression Patterns during Malaria

    PubMed Central

    2005-01-01

    The variant surface antigens expressed on Plasmodium falciparum–infected erythrocytes are potentially important targets of immunity to malaria and are encoded, at least in part, by a family of var genes, about 60 of which are present within every parasite genome. Here we use semi-conserved regions within short var gene sequence “tags” to make direct comparisons of var gene expression in 12 clinical parasite isolates from Kenyan children. A total of 1,746 var clones were sequenced from genomic and cDNA and assigned to one of six sequence groups using specific sequence features. The results show the following. (1) The relative numbers of genomic clones falling in each of the sequence groups was similar between parasite isolates and corresponded well with the numbers of genes found in the genome of a single, fully sequenced parasite isolate. In contrast, the relative numbers of cDNA clones falling in each group varied considerably between isolates. (2) Expression of sequences belonging to a relatively conserved group was negatively associated with the repertoire of variant surface antigen antibodies carried by the infected child at the time of disease, whereas expression of sequences belonging to another group was associated with the parasite “rosetting” phenotype, a well established virulence determinant. Our results suggest that information on the state of the host–parasite relationship in vivo can be provided by measurements of the differential expression of different var groups, and need only be defined by short stretches of sequence data. PMID:16304608

  11. Apoptosis stalks Plasmodium falciparum maintained in continuous culture condition

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Growth kinetic of Plasmodium falciparum in culture or in the host fall short of expected growth rate considering that there are 4 x 106/µL red blood cell (RBCs) available for invasion and about 16 merozoites growing in each infected RBC. This study determined whether apoptotic machinery is operable to keep the parasite population under check. Methods A synchronized culture of P. falciparum (Dd2 strain) was initiated at 0.5% ring stage parasitaemia and kept under conditions not limiting for RBCs and nutrient by adjusting hematocrit to 5% at each schizogony and changing growth media daily. Parasite growth pattern and morphology was evaluated by blood smear microscopy and flow-cytometry using SYBR green. The apoptotic processes were evaluated for evidence of: DNA fragmentation by TUNEL, collapse of mitochondria membrane potential (??m) by TMRE, expression of metacaspse gene by RT-qPCR and by probing parasite proteins with anti-caspase antibodies. Results From the seeding parasitaemia of 0.5%, the parasites doubled every 48 hours to a parasitaemia of 4%. Thereafter, the growth stagnated and the culture consistently crashed at about 6% parasitaemia. ??m potential collapsed as the parasite density increased and DNA fragmentation increased steadily from 0.2% to ~6%. The expression of metacaspase gene and protein was observed in all stages, but their abundance was variable among the stages. Conclusion These findings suggest existence of P. falciparum quorum sensing that keep the parasite population under check. PMID:21144086

  12. A rapid and scalable density gradient purification method for Plasmodium sporozoites

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Malaria remains a major human health problem, with no licensed vaccine currently available. Malaria infections initiate when infectious Plasmodium sporozoites are transmitted by Anopheline mosquitoes during their blood meal. Investigations of the malaria sporozoite are, therefore, of clear medical importance. However, sporozoites can only be produced in and isolated from mosquitoes, and their isolation results in large amounts of accompanying mosquito debris and contaminating microbes. Methods Here is described a discontinuous density gradient purification method for Plasmodium sporozoites that maintains parasite infectivity in vitro and in vivo and greatly reduces mosquito and microbial contaminants. Results This method provides clear advantages over previous approaches: it is rapid, requires no serum components, and can be scaled to purify >107 sporozoites with minimal operator involvement. Moreover, it can be effectively applied to both human (Plasmodium falciparum, Plasmodium vivax) and rodent (Plasmodium yoelii) infective species with excellent recovery rates. Conclusions This novel method effectively purifies viable malaria sporozoites by greatly reducing contaminating mosquito debris and microbial burdens associated with parasite isolation. Large-scale preparations of purified sporozoites will allow for enhanced in vitro infections, proteomics, and biochemical characterizations. In conjunction with aseptic mosquito rearing techniques, this purification technique will also support production of live attenuated sporozoites for vaccination. PMID:23244590

  13. Severe Plasmodium knowlesi infection with multi-organ failure imported to Germany from Thailand/Myanmar.

    PubMed

    Seilmaier, Michael; Hartmann, Wulf; Beissner, Marcus; Fenzl, Thomas; Haller, Cathrine; Guggemos, Wolfgang; Hesse, Jan; Harle, Adinda; Bretzel, Gisela; Sack, Stefan; Wendtner, Clemens; Löscher, Thomas; Berens-Riha, Nicole

    2014-01-01

    During the last two decades human infections with Plasmodium knowlesi are increasingly diagnosed in South East Asia and have also been reported in travellers. A severe case of imported P. knowlesi infection in a 73-year old German is presented, who had been travelling through Myanmar and Thailand for three weeks. Microscopy showed a parasitaemia of 3% and different parasite stages including band-forms resembling Plasmodium malariae. Due to the clinical picture of severe malaria and the microscopical aspect (combination of parasites resembling P. malariae and Plasmodium falciparum), P. knowlesi was suspected. The patient was treated with intravenous quinine; he was put on mechanical ventilation and catecholamines due to cardiorespiratory failure. Parasitaemia was cleared rapidly but renal function deteriorated resulting in intermittent haemodialysis. The patient was hospitalized for six weeks but he recovered completely without any physical sequelae. Plasmodium knowlesi mono-infection was confirmed by molecular methods later on.Plasmodium knowlesi infection has to be taken into account in feverish travellers returning from Thailand/Myanmar. Moreover this species can cause life-threatening or even lethal complications. Accordingly severe P. knowlesi infection should be treated like severe P. falciparum infections. PMID:25367021

  14. In silico analysis of Plasmodium species specific UvrD helicase.

    PubMed

    Tuteja, Renu

    2013-03-01

    Malaria is still a devastating disease caused by the mosquito-transmitted parasite Plasmodium, particularly Plasmodium falciparum. During the last few years the situation has worsened in many ways, mainly due to malarial parasites becoming increasingly resistant to several anti-malarial drugs. Thus there is an urgent need to find alternate ways to control malaria and therefore it is necessary to identify new drug targets and new classes of anti-malarial drugs. A malaria vaccine would be the ultimate weapon to fight this deadly disease but unfortunately despite encouraging advances a vaccine is not likely soon. DNA helicases from the PcrA/UvrD/Rep (PUR) subfamily are important for the survival of the various organisms, mainly pathogenic bacteria. Members from this subfamily can be targeted and inhibited by a variety of synthetic compounds. Using bioinformatics analysis we have shown that UvrD from this subfamily is the only member present in the P. falciparum genome, while PcrA and Rep are absent in the genome. UvrD from the parasite shows no homology to any protein or enzyme from human and thus can be considered as a strong potential drug target. In the present study we report an in silico analysis of this important enzyme from a variety of Plasmodium species. The results suggest that among all the species of Plasmodium, P. falciparum contains the largest UvrD and this enzyme is variable at the sequence and structural level. PMID:23750298

  15. Identification of Vital and Dispensable Sulfur Utilization Factors in the Plasmodium Apicoplast

    PubMed Central

    Haussig, Joana M.; Matuschewski, Kai; Kooij, Taco W. A.

    2014-01-01

    Iron-sulfur [Fe-S] clusters are ubiquitous and critical cofactors in diverse biochemical processes. They are assembled by distinct [Fe-S] cluster biosynthesis pathways, typically in organelles of endosymbiotic origin. Apicomplexan parasites, including Plasmodium, the causative agent of malaria, harbor two separate [Fe-S] cluster biosynthesis pathways in the their mitochondrion and apicoplast. In this study, we systematically targeted the five nuclear-encoded sulfur utilization factors (SUF) of the apicoplast [Fe-S] cluster biosynthesis pathway by experimental genetics in the murine malaria model parasite Plasmodium berghei. We show that four SUFs, namely SUFC, D, E, and S are refractory to targeted gene deletion, validating them as potential targets for antimalarial drug development. We achieved targeted deletion of SUFA, which encodes a potential [Fe-S] transfer protein, indicative of a dispensable role during asexual blood stage growth in vivo. Furthermore, no abnormalities were observed during Plasmodium life cycle progression in the insect and mammalian hosts. Fusion of a fluorescent tag to the endogenous P. berghei SUFs demonstrated that all loci were accessible to genetic modification and that all five tagged SUFs localize to the apicoplast. Together, our experimental genetics analysis identifies the key components of the SUF [Fe-S] cluster biosynthesis pathway in the apicoplast of a malarial parasite and shows that absence of SUFC, D, E, or S is incompatible with Plasmodium blood infection in vivo. PMID:24586983

  16. Temperature alters Plasmodium blocking by Wolbachia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murdock, Courtney C.; Blanford, Simon; Hughes, Grant L.; Rasgon, Jason L.; Thomas, Matthew B.

    2014-02-01

    Very recently, the Asian malaria vector (Anopheles stephensi) was stably transinfected with the wAlbB strain of Wolbachia, inducing refractoriness to the human malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum. However, conditions in the field can differ substantially from those in the laboratory. We use the rodent malaria P. yoelii, and somatically transinfected An. stephensi as a model system to investigate whether the transmission blocking potential of wAlbB is likely to be robust across different thermal environments. wAlbB reduced malaria parasite prevalence and oocyst intensity at 28°C. At 24°C there was no effect on prevalence but a marked increase in oocyst intensity. At 20°C, wAlbB had no effect on prevalence or intensity. Additionally, we identified a novel effect of wAlbB that resulted in reduced sporozoite development across temperatures, counterbalancing the oocyst enhancement at 24°C. Our results demonstrate complex effects of temperature on the Wolbachia-malaria interaction, and suggest the impacts of transinfection might vary across diverse environments.

  17. Prevalence of blood parasites in seabirds - a review

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Introduction While blood parasites are common in many birds in the wild, some groups seem to be much less affected. Seabirds, in particular, have often been reported free from blood parasites, even in the presence of potential vectors. Results From a literature review of hemosporidian prevalence in seabirds, we collated a dataset of 60 species, in which at least 15 individuals had been examined. These data were included in phylogenetically controlled statistical analyses of hemosporidian prevalence in relation to ecological and life-history parameters. Haemoproteus parasites were common in frigatebirds and gulls, while Hepatozoon occurred in albatrosses and storm petrels, and Plasmodium mainly in penguins. The prevalence of Haemoproteus showed a geographical signal, being lower in species with distribution towards polar environments. Interspecific differences in Plasmodium prevalence were explained by variables that relate to the exposure to parasites, suggesting that prevalence is higher in burrow nesters with long fledgling periods. Measures of Plasmodium, but not Haemoproteus prevalences were influenced by the method, with PCR-based data resulting in higher prevalence estimates. Conclusions Our analyses suggest that, as in other avian taxa, phylogenetic, ecological and life-history parameters determine the prevalence of hemosporidian parasites in seabirds. We discuss how these relationships should be further explored in future studies. PMID:22035144

  18. A scalable pipeline for highly effective genetic modification of a malaria parasite

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Claudia Pfander; Burcu Anar; Frank Schwach; Thomas D Otto; Mathieu Brochet; Katrin Volkmann; Michael A Quail; Arnab Pain; Barry Rosen; William Skarnes; Julian C Rayner; Oliver Billker

    2011-01-01

    In malaria parasites, the systematic experimental validation of drug and vaccine targets by reverse genetics is constrained by the inefficiency of homologous recombination and by the difficulty of manipulating adenine and thymine (A+T)-rich DNA of most Plasmodium species in Escherichia coli. We overcame these roadblocks by creating a high-integrity library of Plasmodium berghei genomic DNA (>77% A+T content) in a

  19. Blood parasites in reptiles imported to Germany.

    PubMed

    Ursula, Halla; Rüdiger, Korbel; Frank, Mutschmann; Monika, Rinder

    2014-12-01

    Though international trade is increasing, the significance of imported reptiles as carriers of pathogens with relevance to animal and human health is largely unknown. Reptiles imported to Germany were therefore investigated for blood parasites using light microscopy, and the detected parasites were morphologically characterized. Four hundred ten reptiles belonging to 17 species originating from 11 Asian, South American and African countries were included. Parasites were detected in 117 (29%) of individual reptiles and in 12 species. Haemococcidea (Haemogregarina, Hepatozoon, Schellackia) were found in 84% of snakes (Python regius, Corallus caninus), 20% of lizards (Acanthocercus atricollis, Agama agama, Kinyongia fischeri, Gekko gecko) and 50% of turtles (Pelusios castaneus). Infections with Hematozoea (Plasmodium, Sauroplasma) were detected in 14% of lizards (Acanthocercus atricollis, Agama agama, Agama mwanzae, K. fischeri, Furcifer pardalis, Xenagama batillifera, Acanthosaura capra, Physignathus cocincinus), while those with Kinetoplastea (Trypanosoma) were found in 9% of snakes (Python regius, Corallus caninus) and 25 % of lizards (K. fischeri, Acanthosaura capra, G. gecko). Nematoda including filarial larvae parasitized in 10% of lizards (Agama agama, Agama mwanzae, K. fischeri, Fu. pardalis, Physignathus cocincinus). Light microscopy mostly allowed diagnosis of the parasites' genus, while species identification was not possible because of limited morphological characteristics available for parasitic developmental stages. The investigation revealed a high percentage of imported reptiles being carriers of parasites while possible vectors and pathogenicity are largely unknown so far. The spreading of haemoparasites thus represents an incalculable risk for pet reptiles, native herpetofauna and even human beings. PMID:25324132

  20. Dimorphism in genes encoding sexual-stage proteins of Plasmodium ovale curtisi and Plasmodium ovale wallikeri?

    PubMed Central

    Oguike, Mary C.; Sutherland, Colin J.

    2015-01-01

    Plasmodium ovale curtisi and Plasmodium ovale wallikeri are distinct species of malaria parasite which are sympatric throughout the tropics, except for the Americas. Despite this complete overlap in geographic range, these two species do not recombine. Although morphologically very similar, the two taxa must possess distinct characters which prevent recombination between them. We hypothesised that proteins required for sexual reproduction have sufficiently diverged between the two species to prevent recombination in any mosquito blood meal in which gametocytes of both species are ingested. In order to investigate possible barriers to inter-species mating between P. ovale curtisi and P. ovale wallikeri, homologues of genes encoding sexual stage proteins in other plasmodia were identified and compared between the two species. Database searches with motifs for 6-cysteine, Limulus Coagulation factor C domain-containing proteins and other relevant sexual stage proteins in the genus Plasmodium were performed in the available P. ovale curtisi partial genome database (Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute, UK). Sequence fragments obtained were used as the basis for PCR walking along each gene of interest in reference isolates of both P. ovale curtisi and P. ovale wallikeri. Sequence alignment of the homologues of each gene in each species showed complete dimorphism across all isolates. In conclusion, substantial divergence between sexual stage proteins in the two P. ovale spp. was observed, providing further evidence that these do not recombine in nature. Incompatibility of proteins involved in sexual development and fertilisation thus remains a plausible explanation for the observed lack of natural recombination between P. ovale curtisi and P. ovale wallikeri. PMID:25817462

  1. Finding connections in the unexpected detection of Plasmodium vivax and Plasmodium falciparum DNA in asymptomatic blood donors: a fact in the Atlantic Forest.

    PubMed

    Sallum, Maria Anice Mureb; Daniel-Ribeiro, Cláudio Tadeu; Laporta, Gabriel Zorello; Ferreira-da-Cruz, Maria de Fátima; Maselli, Luciana Morganti Ferreira; Levy, Débora; Bydlowski, Sérgio Paulo

    2014-01-01

    A recent paper in Malaria Journal reported the observation of unexpected prevalence rates of healthy individuals carrying Plasmodium falciparum (5.14%) or Plasmodium vivax (2.26%) DNA among blood donors from the main transfusion centre in the metropolitan São Paulo, a non-endemic area for malaria. The article has been challenged by a group of authors who argued that the percentages reported were higher than those found in blood banks of the endemic Amazon Region and also that that paper had not considered the literature on the classical dynamics of malaria transmission in the Atlantic Forest, which involves Anopheles (Kerteszia) cruzii and bromeliad malaria, due to P. vivax and Plasmodium malariae parasites, but not P. falciparum. The present commentary paper responds to this challenge and brings evidence and literature data supporting that the observed prevalence ratios may indicate a proportion of individuals that are exposed to Plasmodium transmission in permissive environments; that blood carrying parasite DNA may not be necessarily infective if used in transfusion; and that in the literature, there are examples supporting the circulation of P. falciparum in the area. PMID:25168319

  2. [Artemisinin resistance in Plasmodium falciparum: global status and basic research].

    PubMed

    Zhao, Shao-min; Wang, Man-yuan

    2014-10-01

    Artemisinin-resistant Plasmodium falciparum has been identified by WHO in the Greater Mekong subregion. While there is no report on artemisinin resistance in Africa and South America by now, related surveillance measures have been taken place. The genes related artemisinin-resistance has been identified and the molecular markers will be used for large-scale surveillance efforts to contain artemisinin resistance. The emergence and spread of artemisinin resistance worldwide is a present danger and needs more attention. This article reviews the progress of artemisininresistance malaria parasites and artemisinin-based combination therapies. PMID:25726605

  3. Ycf93 (Orf105), a Small Apicoplast-Encoded Membrane Protein in the Relict Plastid of the Malaria Parasite

    E-print Network

    McFadden, Geoff

    Ycf93 (Orf105), a Small Apicoplast-Encoded Membrane Protein in the Relict Plastid of the MalariaFadden* School of Botany, University of Melbourne, Parkville, Victoria, Australia Abstract Malaria parasites in the organelle kills parasites and protects against malaria. The apicoplast of Plasmodium falciparum encodes 30

  4. Statistical Model To Evaluate In Vivo Activities of Antimalarial Drugs in a Plasmodium cynomolgi-Macaque Model for Plasmodium vivax Malaria? ‡

    PubMed Central

    Kocken, Clemens H. M.; Remarque, Edmond J.; Dubbeld, Martin A.; Wein, Sharon; van der Wel, Annemarie; Verburgh, R. Joyce; Vial, Henri J.; Thomas, Alan W.

    2009-01-01

    Preclinical animal models informing antimalarial drug development are scarce. We have used asexual erythrocytic Plasmodium cynomolgi infections of rhesus macaques to model Plasmodium vivax during preclinical development of compounds targeting parasite phospholipid synthesis. Using this malaria model, we accumulated data confirming highly reproducible infection patterns, with self-curing parasite peaks reproducibly preceding recrudescence peaks. We applied nonlinear mixed-effect (NLME) models, estimating treatment effects in three drug studies: G25 (injected) and the bisthiazolium prodrugs TE4gt and TE3 (oral). All compounds fully cured P. cynomolgi-infected macaques, with significant effects on parasitemia height and time of peak. Although all three TE3 doses tested were fully curative, NLME models discriminated dose-dependent differential pharmacological antimalarial activity. By applying NLME modeling treatment effects are readily quantified. Such drug development studies are more informative and contribute to reduction and refinement in animal experimentation. PMID:19015340

  5. StructureActivity Relationships for Inhibition of Cysteine Protease Activity and Development of Plasmodium falciparum by Peptidyl Vinyl Sulfones

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bhaskar R. Shenai; Belinda J. Lee; Alejandro Alvarez-Hernandez; Pek Y. Chong; Cory D. Emal; R. Jeffrey Neitz; William R. Roush; Philip J. Rosenthal

    2003-01-01

    The Plasmodium falciparum cysteine proteases falcipain-2 and falcipain-3 appear to be required for hemo- globin hydrolysis by intraerythrocytic malaria parasites. Previous studies showed that peptidyl vinyl sulfone inhibitors of falcipain-2 blocked the development of P. falciparum in culture and exerted antimalarial effects in vivo. We now report the structure-activity relationships for inhibition of falcipain-2, falcipain-3, and parasite development by 39

  6. Transition of Plasmodium Sporozoites into Liver Stage-Like Forms Is Regulated by the RNA Binding Protein Pumilio

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Carina S. S. Gomes-Santos; Joanna Braks; Miguel Prudêncio; Céline Carret; Ana Rita Gomes; Arnab Pain; Theresa Feltwell; Shahid Khan; Andrew Waters; Chris Janse; Gunnar R. Mair; Maria M. Mota

    2011-01-01

    Many eukaryotic developmental and cell fate decisions that are effected post-transcriptionally involve RNA binding proteins as regulators of translation of key mRNAs. In malaria parasites (Plasmodium spp.), the development of round, non-motile and replicating exo-erythrocytic liver stage forms from slender, motile and cell-cycle arrested sporozoites is believed to depend on environmental changes experienced during the transmission of the parasite from

  7. The accumulation of lactic acid and its influence on the growth of Plasmodium falciparum in synchronized cultures

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Werner Zolg; Alexander J. Macleod; John G. Scaife; Richard L. Beaudoin

    1984-01-01

    Summary  Synchronization ofPlasmodium falciparum cultured in vitro results in a one-step growth pattern that allows the study of stage-specific metabolic activities of the\\u000a parasites. Lactic acid (LA) was selected as a metabolic marker, and the concentration of this end product found in spent media\\u000a was correlated with the different erythrocytic stages of the parasites. When the medium was changed at 12

  8. Diversification and host switching in avian malaria parasites.

    PubMed Central

    Ricklefs, Robert E; Fallon, Sylvia M

    2002-01-01

    The switching of parasitic organisms to novel hosts, in which they may cause the emergence of new diseases, is of great concern to human health and the management of wild and domesticated populations of animals. We used a phylogenetic approach to develop a better statistical assessment of host switching in a large sample of vector-borne malaria parasites of birds (Plasmodium and Haemoproteus) over their history of parasite-host relations. Even with sparse sampling, the number of parasite lineages was almost equal to the number of avian hosts. We found that strongly supported sister lineages of parasites, averaging 1.2% sequence divergence, exhibited highly significant host and geographical fidelity. Event-based matching of host and parasite phylogenetic trees revealed significant cospeciation. However, the accumulated effects of host switching and long distance dispersal cause these signals to disappear before 4% sequence divergence is achieved. Mitochondrial DNA nucleotide substitution appears to occur about three times faster in hosts than in parasites, contrary to findings on other parasite-host systems. Using this mutual calibration, the phylogenies of the parasites and their hosts appear to be similar in age, suggesting that avian malaria parasites diversified along with their modern avian hosts. Although host switching has been a prominent feature over the evolutionary history of avian malaria parasites, it is infrequent and unpredictable on time scales germane to public health and wildlife management. PMID:12028770

  9. Development of humanized mouse models to study human malaria parasite infection

    PubMed Central

    Vaughan, Ashley M; Kappe, Stefan HI; Ploss, Alexander; Mikolajczak, Sebastian A

    2013-01-01

    Malaria is a disease caused by infection with Plasmodium parasites that are transmitted by mosquito bite. Five different species of Plasmodium infect humans with severe disease, but human malaria is primarily caused by Plasmodium falciparum. The burden of malaria on the developing world is enormous, and a fully protective vaccine is still elusive. One of the biggest challenges in the quest for the development of new antimalarial drugs and vaccines is the lack of accessible animal models to study P. falciparum infection because the parasite is restricted to the great apes and human hosts. Here, we review the current state of research in this field and provide an outlook of the development of humanized small animal models to study P. falciparum infection that will accelerate fundamental research into human parasite biology and could accelerate drug and vaccine design in the future. PMID:22568719

  10. Provitamin B5 (Pantothenol) Inhibits Growth of the Intraerythrocytic Malaria Parasite

    PubMed Central

    Saliba, Kevin J.; Ferru, Isabelle; Kirk, Kiaran

    2005-01-01

    Pantothenic acid, a precursor of the crucial enzyme cofactor coenzyme A, is one of a relatively few nutrients for which the intraerythrocytic parasite has an absolute and acute requirement from the external medium. In some organisms the provitamin pantothenol can serve as a source of pantothenic acid; however, this was not the case for the human malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum. Instead, pantothenol inhibited the in vitro growth of P. falciparum via a mechanism that involves competition with pantothenate and which can be attributed to inhibition of the parasite's pantothenate kinase. Oral administration of pantothenol to mice infected with the murine parasite Plasmodium vinckei vinckei resulted in a significant inhibition of parasite proliferation. This study highlights the potential of the coenzyme A biosynthesis pathway in general, and pantothenate kinase in particular, as an antimalarial drug target. PMID:15673744

  11. Provitamin B5 (pantothenol) inhibits growth of the intraerythrocytic malaria parasite.

    PubMed

    Saliba, Kevin J; Ferru, Isabelle; Kirk, Kiaran

    2005-02-01

    Pantothenic acid, a precursor of the crucial enzyme cofactor coenzyme A, is one of a relatively few nutrients for which the intraerythrocytic parasite has an absolute and acute requirement from the external medium. In some organisms the provitamin pantothenol can serve as a source of pantothenic acid; however, this was not the case for the human malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum. Instead, pantothenol inhibited the in vitro growth of P. falciparum via a mechanism that involves competition with pantothenate and which can be attributed to inhibition of the parasite's pantothenate kinase. Oral administration of pantothenol to mice infected with the murine parasite Plasmodium vinckei vinckei resulted in a significant inhibition of parasite proliferation. This study highlights the potential of the coenzyme A biosynthesis pathway in general, and pantothenate kinase in particular, as an antimalarial drug target. PMID:15673744

  12. The Homeostasis of Plasmodium falciparum-Infected Red Blood Cells

    PubMed Central

    Mauritz, Jakob M. A.; Esposito, Alessandro; Ginsburg, Hagai; Kaminski, Clemens F.; Tiffert, Teresa; Lew, Virgilio L.

    2009-01-01

    The asexual reproduction cycle of Plasmodium falciparum, the parasite responsible for severe malaria, occurs within red blood cells. A merozoite invades a red cell in the circulation, develops and multiplies, and after about 48 hours ruptures the host cell, releasing 15–32 merozoites ready to invade new red blood cells. During this cycle, the parasite increases the host cell permeability so much that when similar permeabilization was simulated on uninfected red cells, lysis occurred before ?48 h. So how could infected cells, with a growing parasite inside, prevent lysis before the parasite has completed its developmental cycle? A mathematical model of the homeostasis of infected red cells suggested that it is the wasteful consumption of host cell hemoglobin that prevents early lysis by the progressive reduction in the colloid-osmotic pressure within the host (the colloid-osmotic hypothesis). However, two critical model predictions, that infected cells would swell to near prelytic sphericity and that the hemoglobin concentration would become progressively reduced, remained controversial. In this paper, we are able for the first time to correlate model predictions with recent experimental data in the literature and explore the fine details of the homeostasis of infected red blood cells during five model-defined periods of parasite development. The conclusions suggest that infected red cells do reach proximity to lytic rupture regardless of their actual volume, thus requiring a progressive reduction in their hemoglobin concentration to prevent premature lysis. PMID:19343220

  13. Effects of zinc-desferrioxamine on Plasmodium falciparum in culture.

    PubMed Central

    Chevion, M; Chuang, L; Golenser, J

    1995-01-01

    The zinc-desferrioxamine (Zn-DFO) complex is considered to be more permeative into parasitized erythrocytes than is the metal-free DFO. The former may penetrate the cell and exchange its bound zinc for ferric ions, rendering the iron unavailable for vital parasite functions. The effects of these compounds on the in vitro development of Plasmodium falciparum are compared. The results indicate that Zn-DFO is superior to DFO, especially at concentrations below 20 microM, as shown by decreased levels of hypoxanthine incorporation, lower levels of parasitemia, and interference with the life cycle of the parasite. At low concentrations, DFO even enhanced parasite growth. Such an enhancement was not observed following exposure to Zn-DFO. Experiments in which the compounds were removed from the cultures indicated that parasites treated with Zn-DFO are less likely to recover at a later stage. Since DFO has already been used in humans for the treatment of malaria, its complex with zinc, which is more effective in vitro, should also be examined in vivo. PMID:7486946

  14. Modulation of PF10_0355 (MSPDBL2) Alters Plasmodium falciparum Response to Antimalarial Drugs

    PubMed Central

    Van Tyne, Daria; Uboldi, Alessandro D.; Healer, Julie; Cowman, Alan F.

    2013-01-01

    Malaria's ability to rapidly adapt to new drugs has allowed it to remain one of the most devastating infectious diseases of humans. Understanding and tracking the genetic basis of these adaptations are critical to the success of treatment and intervention strategies. The novel antimalarial resistance locus PF10_0355 (Pfmspdbl2) was previously associated with the parasite response to halofantrine, and functional validation confirmed that overexpression of this gene lowered parasite sensitivity to both halofantrine and the structurally related antimalarials mefloquine and lumefantrine, predominantly through copy number variation. Here we further characterize the role of Pfmspdbl2 in mediating the antimalarial drug response of Plasmodium falciparum. Knockout of Pfmspdbl2 increased parasite sensitivity to halofantrine, mefloquine, and lumefantrine but not to unrelated antimalarials, further suggesting that this gene mediates the parasite response to a specific class of antimalarial drugs. A single nucleotide polymorphism encoding a C591S mutation within Pfmspdbl2 had the strongest association with halofantrine sensitivity and showed a high derived allele frequency among Senegalese parasites. Transgenic parasites expressing the ancestral Pfmspdbl2 allele were more sensitive to halofantrine and structurally related antimalarials than were parasites expressing the derived allele, revealing an allele-specific effect on drug sensitivity in the absence of copy number effects. Finally, growth competition experiments showed that under drug pressure, parasites expressing the derived allele of Pfmspdbl2 outcompeted parasites expressing the ancestral allele within a few generations. Together, these experiments demonstrate that modulation of Pfmspdbl2 affects malaria parasite responses to antimalarial drugs. PMID:23587962

  15. A cascade of DNA binding proteins for sexual commitment and development in Plasmodium

    PubMed Central

    Otto, Thomas D.; Pfander, Claudia; Dickens, Nicholas J.; Religa, Agnieszka A.; Bushell, Ellen; Graham, Anne L.; Cameron, Rachael; Kafsack, Bjorn F.C.; Williams, April E.; Llinas, Manuel; Berriman, Matthew; Billker, Oliver; Waters, Andrew P.

    2014-01-01

    Commitment to and completion of sexual development are essential for malaria parasites (protists of the genus Plasmodium) to be transmitted through mosquitoes1. The molecular mechanism(s) responsible for commitment have been hitherto unknown. Here we show that PBAP2-G, a conserved member of the ApiAP2 family of transcription factors, is essential for the commitment of asexually replicating forms to sexual development in P. berghei, a malaria parasite of rodents. PBAP2-G was identified from mutations in its encoding gene, PBANKA_143750, which account for the loss of sexual development frequently observed in parasites transmitted artificially by blood passage. Systematic gene deletion of conserved ApiAP2 genes in Plasmodium confirmed the role of PBAP2-G and revealed a second ApiAP2 member (PBANKA_103430, termed PBAP2-G2) that significantly modulates but does not abolish gametocytogenesis indicating that a cascade of ApiAP2 proteins are involved in commitment to the production and maturation of gametocytes. The data suggest a mechanism of commitment to gametocytogenesis in Plasmodium consistent with a positive feedback loop involving PBAP2G which might be exploited to prevent the transmission of this pernicious parasite. PMID:24572359

  16. In vivo and in vitro characterization of a Plasmodium liver stage-specific promoter.

    PubMed

    De Niz, Mariana; Helm, Susanne; Horstmann, Sebastian; Annoura, Takeshi; Del Portillo, Hernando A; Khan, Shahid M; Heussler, Volker T

    2015-01-01

    Little is known about stage-specific gene regulation in Plasmodium parasites, in particular the liver stage of development. We have previously described in the Plasmodium berghei rodent model, a liver stage-specific (lisp2) gene promoter region, in vitro. Using a dual luminescence system, we now confirm the stage specificity of this promoter region also in vivo. Furthermore, by substitution and deletion analyses we have extended our in vitro characterization of important elements within the promoter region. Importantly, the dual luminescence system allows analyzing promoter constructs avoiding mouse-consuming cloning procedures of transgenic parasites. This makes extensive mutation and deletion studies a reasonable approach also in the malaria mouse model. Stage-specific expression constructs and parasite lines are extremely valuable tools for research on Plasmodium liver stage biology. Such reporter lines offer a promising opportunity for assessment of liver stage drugs, characterization of genetically attenuated parasites and liver stage-specific vaccines both in vivo and in vitro, and may be key for the generation of inducible systems. PMID:25874388

  17. Anopheles mortality is both age- and Plasmodium-density dependent: implications for malaria transmission

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background Daily mortality is an important determinant of a vector's ability to transmit pathogens. Original simplifying assumptions in malaria transmission models presume vector mortality is independent of age, infection status and parasite load. Previous studies illustrate conflicting evidence as to the importance of Plasmodium-induced vector mortality, but very few studies to date have considered the effect of infection density on mosquito survival. Methods A series of three experiments were conducted, each consisting of four cages of 400-1,000 Anopheles stephensi mosquitoes fed on blood infected with different Plasmodium berghei ookinete densities per microlitre of blood. Twice daily the numbers of dead mosquitoes in each group were recorded, and on alternate days a sample of live mosquitoes from each group were dissected to determine parasite density in both midgut and salivary glands. Results Survival analyses indicate that mosquito mortality is both age- and infection intensity-dependent. Mosquitoes experienced an initially high, partly feeding-associated, mortality rate, which declined to a minimum before increasing with mosquito age and parasite intake. As a result, the life expectancy of a mosquito is shown to be dependent on both insect age and the density of Plasmodium infection. Conclusion These results contribute to understanding in greater detail the processes that influence sporogony in the mosquito, indicate the impact that parasite density could have on malaria transmission dynamics, and have implications for the design, development, and evaluation of transmission-blocking strategies. PMID:19822012

  18. Reciprocal Regulation of Th1- and Th2-Cytokine-Producing T Cells during Clearance of Parasitemia in Plasmodium falciparum Malaria

    Microsoft Academic Search

    STEFAN WINKLER; MARTIN WILLHEIM; KARIN BAIER; DANIELA SCHMID; ALEXANDER AICHELBURG; WOLFGANG GRANINGER; PETER G. KREMSNER

    1998-01-01

    The course of Plasmodium falciparum malaria is character- ized by a complex interaction of host immune responses and parasite survival strategies. T lymphocytes and their products are essential both in regulating specific antibody formation and in inducing antibody-independent immunity to Plasmodium species (reviewed in reference 29). The CD4 T-cell subset is of major importance for the induction of blood-stage immunity,

  19. Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium vivax specific lactate dehydrogenase: genetic polymorphism study from Indian isolates.

    PubMed

    Keluskar, Priyadarshan; Singh, Vineeta; Gupta, Purva; Ingle, Sanjay

    2014-08-01

    Control and eradication of malaria is hindered by the acquisition of drug resistance by Plasmodium species. This has necessitated a persistent search for novel drugs and more efficient targets. Plasmodium species specific lactate dehydrogenase is one of the potential therapeutic and diagnostic targets, because of its indispensable role in endoerythrocytic stage of the parasite. A target molecule that is highly conserved in the parasite population can be more effectively used in diagnostics and therapeutics, hence, in the present study polymorphism in PfLDH (Plasmodiumfalciparum specific LDH) and PvLDH (Plasmodiumvivax specific LDH) genes was analyzed using PCR-single strand confirmation polymorphism (PCR-SSCP) and sequencing. Forty-six P. falciparum and thirty-five P. vivax samples were screened from different states of India. Our findings have revealed presence of a single PfLDH genotype and six PvLDH genotypes among the studied samples. Interestingly, along with synonymous substitutions, nonsynonymous substitutions were reported to be present for the first time in the PvLDH genotypes. Further, through amino acid sequence alignment and homology modeling studies we observed that the catalytic residues were conserved in all PvLDH genotypes and the nonsynonymous substitutions have not altered the enzyme structure significantly. Evolutionary genetics studies have confirmed that PfLDH and PvLDH loci are under strong purifying selection. Phylogenetic analysis of the pLDH gene sequences revealed that P. falciparum compared to P. vivax, has recent origin. The study therefore supports PfLDH and PvLDH as suitable therapeutic and diagnostic targets as well as phylogenetic markers to understand the genealogy of malaria species. PMID:24953504

  20. Genome-Wide Identification of the Target Genes of AP2-O, a Plasmodium AP2-Family Transcription Factor

    PubMed Central

    Kaneko, Izumi; Iwanaga, Shiroh; Kato, Tomomi; Kobayashi, Issei; Yuda, Masao

    2015-01-01

    Stage-specific transcription is a fundamental biological process in the life cycle of the Plasmodium parasite. Proteins containing the AP2 DNA-binding domain are responsible for stage-specific transcriptional regulation and belong to the only known family of transcription factors in Plasmodium parasites. Comprehensive identification of their target genes will advance our understanding of the molecular basis of stage-specific transcriptional regulation and stage-specific parasite development. AP2-O is an AP2 family transcription factor that is expressed in the mosquito midgut-invading stage, called the ookinete, and is essential for normal morphogenesis of this stage. In this study, we identified the genome-wide target genes of AP2-O by chromatin immunoprecipitation-sequencing and elucidate how this AP2 family transcription factor contributes to the formation of this motile stage. The analysis revealed that AP2-O binds specifically to the upstream genomic regions of more than 500 genes, suggesting that approximately 10% of the parasite genome is directly regulated by AP2-O. These genes are involved in distinct biological processes such as morphogenesis, locomotion, midgut penetration, protection against mosquito immunity and preparation for subsequent oocyst development. This direct and global regulation by AP2-O provides a model for gene regulation in Plasmodium parasites and may explain how these parasites manage to control their complex life cycle using a small number of sequence-specific AP2 transcription factors. PMID:26018192

  1. Phylum Apicomplexa Plasmodium, Gregarina

    E-print Network

    Cochran-Stafira, D. Liane

    in animal cells Cell-piercing structure made of microtubules Reproduce sexually and asexually in host cells and cytoskeletal structures that enables the young parasite to enter a host cell. Several components Two apical of apicoplast DNA shows it is closely related to chloroplasts (Chlamydomonas) Potential drug target ­ kill

  2. Revealing natural antisense transcripts from Plasmodium vivax isolates: evidence of genome regulation in complicated malaria.

    PubMed

    Boopathi, P A; Subudhi, Amit Kumar; Garg, Shilpi; Middha, Sheetal; Acharya, Jyoti; Pakalapati, Deepak; Saxena, Vishal; Aiyaz, Mohammed; Chand, Bipin; Mugasimangalam, Raja C; Kochar, Sanjay K; Sirohi, Parmendra; Kochar, Dhanpat K; Das, Ashis

    2013-12-01

    Plasmodium vivax is the most geographically widespread human malaria parasite causing approximately 130-435 million infections annually. It is an economic burden in many parts of the world and poses a public health challenge along with the other Plasmodium sp. The biology of this parasite is less studied and poorly understood, in spite of these facts. Emerging evidence of severe complications due to infections by this parasite provides an impetus to focus research on the same. Investigating the parasite directly from infected patients is the best way to study its biology and pathogenic mechanisms. Gene expression studies of this parasite directly obtained from the patients has provided evidence of gene regulation resulting in varying amount of transcript levels in the different blood stages. The mechanisms regulating gene expression in malaria parasites are not well understood. Discovery of Natural Antisense Transcripts (NATs) in Plasmodium falciparum has suggested that these might play an important role in regulating gene expression. We report here the genome-wide occurrence of NATs in P. vivax parasites from patients with differing clinical symptoms. A total of 1348 NATs against annotated gene loci have been detected using a custom designed microarray with strand specific probes. Majority of NATs identified from this study shows positive correlation with the expression pattern of the sense (S) transcript. Our data also shows condition specific expression patterns of varying S and antisense (AS) transcript levels. Genes with AS transcripts enrich to various biological processes. To our knowledge this is the first report on the presence of NATs from P. vivax obtained from infected patients with different disease complications. The data suggests differential regulation of gene expression in diverse clinical conditions, as shown by differing sense/antisense ratios and would lead to future detailed investigations of gene regulation. PMID:24121022

  3. Plasmodium Protease ROM1 Is Important for Proper Formation of the Parasitophorous Vacuole

    PubMed Central

    Vera, Iset Medina; Beatty, Wandy L.; Sinnis, Photini; Kim, Kami

    2011-01-01

    Apicomplexans are obligate intracellular parasites that invade host cells by an active process leading to the formation of a non-fusogenic parasitophorous vacuole (PV) where the parasite replicates within the host cell. The rhomboid family of proteases cleaves substrates within their transmembrane domains and has been implicated in the invasion process. Although its exact function is unknown, Plasmodium ROM1 is hypothesized to play a role during invasion based on its microneme localization and its ability to cleave essential invasion adhesins. Using the rodent malaria model, Plasmodium yoelii, we carried out detailed quantitative analysis of pyrom1 deficient parasites during the Plasmodium lifecycle. Pyrom1(-) parasites are attenuated during erythrocytic and hepatic stages but progress normally through the mosquito vector with normal counts of oocyst and salivary gland sporozoites. Pyrom1 steady state mRNA levels are upregulated 20-fold in salivary gland sporozoites compared to blood stages. We show that pyrom1(-) sporozoites are capable of gliding motility and traversing host cells normally. Wildtype and pyrom1(-) sporozoites do not differ in the rate of entry into Hepa1–6 hepatocytes. Within the first twelve hours of hepatic development, however, only 50% pyrom1(-) parasites have developed into exoerythrocytic forms. Immunofluorescence microscopy using the PVM marker UIS4 and transmission electron microscopy reveal that the PV of a significant fraction of pyrom1(-) parasites are morphologically aberrant shortly after invasion. We propose a novel function for PyROM1 as a protease that promotes proper PV modification to allow parasite development and replication in a suitable environment within the mammalian host. PMID:21909259

  4. Plasmodium falciparum genotypes diversity in symptomatic malaria of children living in an urban and a rural setting in Burkina Faso

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Issiaka Soulama; Issa Nébié; Alphonse Ouédraogo; Adama Gansane; Amidou Diarra; Alfred B Tiono; Edith C Bougouma; Amadou T Konaté; Gustave B Kabré; Walter RJ Taylor; Sodiomon B Sirima

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The clinical presentation of malaria, considered as the result of a complex interaction between parasite and human genetics, is described to be different between rural and urban areas. The analysis of the Plasmodium falciparum genetic diversity in children with uncomplicated malaria, living in these two different areas, may help to understand the effect of urbanization on the distribution of

  5. J Vect Borne Dis 43, September 2006, pp. 95103 Glycolysis in Plasmodium falciparum results in modulation of

    E-print Network

    Sharma, Shobhona

    J Vect Borne Dis 43, September 2006, pp. 95­103 Glycolysis in Plasmodium falciparum results that the erythrocytic stages of the malaria parasite rely mainly on glycolysis for their energy supply. In the present words Erythrocytic stages ­ glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase ­ glycolysis ­ malaria

  6. Structure and Function of Plasmodium falciparum malate dehydrogenase: Role of Critical Amino Acids in C-substrate Binding Procket

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Malaria parasite thrives on anaerobic fermentation of glucose for energy. Earlier studies from our lab have demonstrated that a cytosolic malate dehydrogenase (PfMDH) with striking similarity to lactate dehydrogenase (PfLDH) might complement PfLDH function in Plasmodium falciparum. The N-terminal g...

  7. Extensive Immunoglobulin Binding of Plasmodium falciparum-Infected Erythrocytes in a Group of Children with Moderate Anemia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    CARIN SCHOLANDER; JOHAN CARLSON; PETER G. KREMSNER; MATS WAHLGREN

    1998-01-01

    Immunoglobulins (Ig) from healthy, nonimmune individuals bind to the surfaces of Plasmodium falciparum- infected erythrocytes (RBC). In order to investigate the presence of this parasite phenotype in wild isolates and its potential association with malarial anemia, we conducted a study of 207 anemic or nonanemic children with malaria in Gabon. Surface Ig binding to infected RBC was detected for 83%

  8. Population Structure and Transmission Dynamics of Plasmodium vivax in the Republic of Korea Based on Microsatellite DNA Analysis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Moritoshi Iwagami; Megumi Fukumoto; Seung-Young Hwang; So-Hee Kim; Weon-Gyu Kho; Shigeyuki Kano

    2012-01-01

    BackgroundIn order to control malaria, it is important to understand the genetic structure of the parasites in each endemic area. Plasmodium vivax is widely distributed in the tropical to temperate regions of Asia and South America, but effective strategies for its elimination have yet to be designed. In South Korea, for example, indigenous vivax malaria was eliminated by the late

  9. A single member of the Plasmodium falciparum var multigene family determines cytoadhesion to the placental receptor chondroitin sulphate A

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nicola K Viebig; Benoit Gamain; Christine Scheidig; Catherine Lépolard; Jude Przyborski; Michael Lanzer; Jürg Gysin; Artur Scherf

    2005-01-01

    In high-transmission regions, protective clinical immunity to Plasmodium falciparum develops during the early years of life, limiting serious complications of malaria in young children. Pregnant women are an exception and are especially susceptible to severe P. falciparum infections resulting from the massive adhesion of parasitized erythrocytes to chondroitin sulphate A (CSA) present on placental syncytiotrophoblasts. Epidemiological studies strongly support the

  10. Interplay between Plasmodium infection and resistance to insecticides in vector mosquitoes.

    PubMed

    Alout, Haoues; Yameogo, Bienvenue; Djogbénou, Luc Salako; Chandre, Fabrice; Dabiré, Roch Kounbobr; Corbel, Vincent; Cohuet, Anna

    2014-11-01

    Despite its epidemiological importance, the impact of insecticide resistance on vector-parasite interactions and malaria transmission is poorly understood. Here, we explored the impact of Plasmodium infection on the level of insecticide resistance to dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) in field-caught Anopheles gambiae sensu stricto homozygous for the kdr mutation. Results showed that kdr homozygous mosquitoes that fed on infectious blood were more susceptible to DDT than mosquitoes that fed on noninfectious blood during both ookinete development (day 1 after the blood meal) and oocyst maturation (day 7 after the blood meal) but not during sporozoite invasion of the salivary glands. Plasmodium falciparum infection seemed to impose a fitness cost on mosquitoes by reducing the ability of kdr homozygous A. gambiae sensu stricto to survive exposure to DDT. These results suggest an interaction between Plasmodium infection and the insecticide susceptibility of mosquitoes carrying insecticide-resistant alleles. We discuss this finding in relation to vector control efficacy. PMID:24829465

  11. First Evidence and Predictions of Plasmodium Transmission in Alaskan Bird Populations

    PubMed Central

    Loiseau, Claire; Harrigan, Ryan J.; Cornel, Anthony J.; Guers, Sue L.; Dodge, Molly; Marzec, Timothy; Carlson, Jenny S.; Seppi, Bruce; Sehgal, Ravinder N. M.

    2012-01-01

    The unprecedented rate of change in the Arctic climate is expected to have major impacts on the emergence of infectious diseases and host susceptibility to these diseases. It is predicted that malaria parasites will spread to both higher altitudes and latitudes with global warming. Here we show for the first time that avian Plasmodium transmission occurs in the North American Arctic. Over a latitudinal gradient in Alaska, from 61°N to 67°N, we collected blood samples of resident and migratory bird species. We found both residents and hatch year birds infected with Plasmodium as far north as 64°N, providing clear evidence that malaria transmission occurs in these climates. Based on our empirical data, we make the first projections of the habitat suitability for Plasmodium under a future-warming scenario in Alaska. These findings raise new concerns about the spread of malaria to naïve host populations. PMID:23028595

  12. First evidence and predictions of Plasmodium transmission in Alaskan bird populations.

    PubMed

    Loiseau, Claire; Harrigan, Ryan J; Cornel, Anthony J; Guers, Sue L; Dodge, Molly; Marzec, Timothy; Carlson, Jenny S; Seppi, Bruce; Sehgal, Ravinder N M

    2012-01-01

    The unprecedented rate of change in the Arctic climate is expected to have major impacts on the emergence of infectious diseases and host susceptibility to these diseases. It is predicted that malaria parasites will spread to both higher altitudes and latitudes with global warming. Here we show for the first time that avian Plasmodium transmission occurs in the North American Arctic. Over a latitudinal gradient in Alaska, from 61°N to 67°N, we collected blood samples of resident and migratory bird species. We found both residents and hatch year birds infected with Plasmodium as far north as 64°N, providing clear evidence that malaria transmission occurs in these climates. Based on our empirical data, we make the first projections of the habitat suitability for Plasmodium under a future-warming scenario in Alaska. These findings raise new concerns about the spread of malaria to naïve host populations. PMID:23028595

  13. Enterobacter-Activated Mosquito Immune Responses to Plasmodium Involve Activation of SRPN6 in Anopheles stephensi

    PubMed Central

    Jacobs-Lorena, Marcelo

    2013-01-01

    Successful development of Plasmodium in the mosquito is essential for the transmission of malaria. A major bottleneck in parasite numbers occurs during midgut invasion, partly as a consequence of the complex interactions between the endogenous microbiota and the mosquito immune response. We previously identified SRPN6 as an immune component which restricts Plasmodium berghei development in the mosquito. Here we demonstrate that SRPN6 is differentially activated by bacteria in Anopheles stephensi, but only when bacteria exposure occurs on the lumenal surface of the midgut epithelium. Our data indicate that AsSRPN6 is strongly induced following exposure to Enterobacter cloacae, a common component of the mosquito midgut microbiota. We conclude that AsSRPN6 is a vital component of the E. cloacae-mediated immune response that restricts Plasmodium development in the mosquito An. stephensi. PMID:23658788

  14. Targeting Plasmodium PI(4)K to eliminate malaria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McNamara, Case W.; Lee, Marcus C. S.; Lim, Chek Shik; Lim, Siau Hoi; Roland, Jason; Nagle, Advait; Simon, Oliver; Yeung, Bryan K. S.; Chatterjee, Arnab K.; McCormack, Susan L.; Manary, Micah J.; Zeeman, Anne-Marie; Dechering, Koen J.; Kumar, T. R. Santha; Henrich, Philipp P.; Gagaring, Kerstin; Ibanez, Maureen; Kato, Nobutaka; Kuhen, Kelli L.; Fischli, Christoph; Rottmann, Matthias; Plouffe, David M.; Bursulaya, Badry; Meister, Stephan; Rameh, Lucia; Trappe, Joerg; Haasen, Dorothea; Timmerman, Martijn; Sauerwein, Robert W.; Suwanarusk, Rossarin; Russell, Bruce; Renia, Laurent; Nosten, Francois; Tully, David C.; Kocken, Clemens H. M.; Glynne, Richard J.; Bodenreider, Christophe; Fidock, David A.; Diagana, Thierry T.; Winzeler, Elizabeth A.

    2013-12-01

    Achieving the goal of malaria elimination will depend on targeting Plasmodium pathways essential across all life stages. Here we identify a lipid kinase, phosphatidylinositol-4-OH kinase (PI(4)K), as the target of imidazopyrazines, a new antimalarial compound class that inhibits the intracellular development of multiple Plasmodium species at each stage of infection in the vertebrate host. Imidazopyrazines demonstrate potent preventive, therapeutic, and transmission-blocking activity in rodent malaria models, are active against blood-stage field isolates of the major human pathogens P. falciparum and P. vivax, and inhibit liver-stage hypnozoites in the simian parasite P. cynomolgi. We show that imidazopyrazines exert their effect through inhibitory interaction with the ATP-binding pocket of PI(4)K, altering the intracellular distribution of phosphatidylinositol-4-phosphate. Collectively, our data define PI(4)K as a key Plasmodium vulnerability, opening up new avenues of target-based discovery to identify drugs with an ideal activity profile for the prevention, treatment and elimination of malaria.

  15. Targeting Plasmodium phosphatidylinositol 4-kinase to eliminate malaria

    PubMed Central

    Lim, Chek Shik; Lim, Siau Hoi; Roland, Jason; Simon, Oliver; Yeung, Bryan KS; Chatterjee, Arnab K; McCormack, Susan L; Manary, Micah J; Zeeman, Anne-Marie; Dechering, Koen J; Kumar, TR Santha; Henrich, Philipp P; Gagaring, Kerstin; Ibanez, Maureen; Kato, Nobutaka; Kuhen, Kelli L; Fischli, Christoph; Nagle, Advait; Rottmann, Matthias; Plouffe, David M; Bursulaya, Badry; Meister, Stephan; Rameh, Lucia; Trappe, Joerg; Haasen, Dorothea; Timmerman, Martijn; Sauerwein, Robert W; Suwanarusk, Rossarin; Russell, Bruce; Renia, Laurent; Nosten, Francois; Tully, David C; Kocken, Clemens HM; Glynne, Richard J; Bodenreider, Christophe; Fidock, David A; Diagana, Thierry T; Winzeler, Elizabeth A

    2014-01-01

    Summary Achieving the goal of malaria elimination will depend on targeting Plasmodium pathways essential across all life stages. Here, we identify a lipid kinase, phosphatidylinositol 4-kinase (PI4K), as the target of imidazopyrazines, a novel antimalarial compound class that inhibits the intracellular development of multiple Plasmodium species at each stage of infection in the vertebrate host. Imidazopyrazines demonstrate potent preventive, therapeutic, and transmission-blocking activity in rodent malaria models, are active against blood-stage field isolates of the major human pathogens, P. falciparum and P. vivax, and inhibit liver stage hypnozoites in the simian parasite P. cynomolgi. We show that imidazopyrazines exert their effect through inhibitory interaction with the ATP-binding pocket of PI4K, altering the intracellular distribution of phosphatidylinositol 4-phosphate. Collectively, our data define PI4K as a key Plasmodium vulnerability, opening up new avenues of target-based discovery to identify drugs with an ideal activity profile for the prevention, treatment and elimination of malaria. PMID:24284631

  16. Targeting Plasmodium PI(4)K to eliminate malaria.

    PubMed

    McNamara, Case W; Lee, Marcus C S; Lim, Chek Shik; Lim, Siau Hoi; Roland, Jason; Nagle, Advait; Simon, Oliver; Yeung, Bryan K S; Chatterjee, Arnab K; McCormack, Susan L; Manary, Micah J; Zeeman, Anne-Marie; Dechering, Koen J; Kumar, T R Santha; Henrich, Philipp P; Gagaring, Kerstin; Ibanez, Maureen; Kato, Nobutaka; Kuhen, Kelli L; Fischli, Christoph; Rottmann, Matthias; Plouffe, David M; Bursulaya, Badry; Meister, Stephan; Rameh, Lucia; Trappe, Joerg; Haasen, Dorothea; Timmerman, Martijn; Sauerwein, Robert W; Suwanarusk, Rossarin; Russell, Bruce; Renia, Laurent; Nosten, Francois; Tully, David C; Kocken, Clemens H M; Glynne, Richard J; Bodenreider, Christophe; Fidock, David A; Diagana, Thierry T; Winzeler, Elizabeth A

    2013-12-12

    Achieving the goal of malaria elimination will depend on targeting Plasmodium pathways essential across all life stages. Here we identify a lipid kinase, phosphatidylinositol-4-OH kinase (PI(4)K), as the target of imidazopyrazines, a new antimalarial compound class that inhibits the intracellular development of multiple Plasmodium species at each stage of infection in the vertebrate host. Imidazopyrazines demonstrate potent preventive, therapeutic, and transmission-blocking activity in rodent malaria models, are active against blood-stage field isolates of the major human pathogens P. falciparum and P. vivax, and inhibit liver-stage hypnozoites in the simian parasite P. cynomolgi. We show that imidazopyrazines exert their effect through inhibitory interaction with the ATP-binding pocket of PI(4)K, altering the intracellular distribution of phosphatidylinositol-4-phosphate. Collectively, our data define PI(4)K as a key Plasmodium vulnerability, opening up new avenues of target-based discovery to identify drugs with an ideal activity profile for the prevention, treatment and elimination of malaria. PMID:24284631

  17. MIXED-SPECIES PLASMODIUM INFECTIONS OF HUMANS

    PubMed Central

    McKenzie, F. Ellis; Bossert, William H.

    2008-01-01

    We analyzed point-prevalence data from 35 recent studies of human populations in which Plasmodium falciparum and one other Plasmodium species were the reported causes of malaria infections. For the P. falciparum–Plasmodium vivax pair, higher overall prevalence in a human population is associated with fewer mixed-species infections than expected on the basis of the product of individual species prevalences. This is not true for P. falciparum–Plasmodium malariae. PMID:9267397

  18. Hemoglobinopathies: Slicing the Gordian Knot of Plasmodium falciparum Malaria Pathogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Taylor, Steve M.; Cerami, Carla; Fairhurst, Rick M.

    2013-01-01

    Plasmodium falciparum malaria kills over 500,000 children every year and has been a scourge of humans for millennia. Owing to the co-evolution of humans and P. falciparum parasites, the human genome is imprinted with polymorphisms that not only confer innate resistance to falciparum malaria, but also cause hemoglobinopathies. These genetic traits—including hemoglobin S (HbS), hemoglobin C (HbC), and ?-thalassemia—are the most common monogenic human disorders and can confer remarkable degrees of protection from severe, life-threatening falciparum malaria in African children: the risk is reduced 70% by homozygous HbC and 90% by heterozygous HbS (sickle-cell trait). Importantly, this protection is principally present for severe disease and largely absent for P. falciparum infection, suggesting that these hemoglobinopathies specifically neutralize the parasite's in vivo mechanisms of pathogenesis. These hemoglobin variants thus represent a “natural experiment” to identify the cellular and molecular mechanisms by which P. falciparum produces clinical morbidity, which remain partially obscured due to the complexity of interactions between this parasite and its human host. Multiple lines of evidence support a restriction of parasite growth by various hemoglobinopathies, and recent data suggest this phenomenon may result from host microRNA interference with parasite metabolism. Multiple hemoglobinopathies mitigate the pathogenic potential of parasites by interfering with the export of P. falciparum erythrocyte membrane protein 1 (PfEMP1) to the surface of the host red blood cell. Few studies have investigated their effects upon the activation of the innate and adaptive immune systems, although recent murine studies suggest a role for heme oxygenase-1 in protection. Ultimately, the identification of mechanisms of protection and pathogenesis can inform future therapeutics and preventive measures. Hemoglobinopathies slice the “Gordian knot” of host and parasite interactions to confer malaria protection, and offer a translational model to identify the most critical mechanisms of P. falciparum pathogenesis. PMID:23696730

  19. Antimalarials increase vesicle pH in Plasmodium falciparum

    PubMed Central

    1985-01-01

    The asexual erythrocytic stage of the malarial parasite ingests and degrades the hemoglobin of its host red cell. To study this process, we labeled the cytoplasm of uninfected red cells with fluorescein-dextran, infected those cells with trophozoite- and schizont-rich cultures of Plasmodium falciparum, and harvested them 110-120 h later in the trophozoite stage. After lysis of the red cell cytoplasm with digitonin, the only fluorescence remaining was in small (0.5-0.9 micron) vesicles similar to the parasite's food vacuole. As measured by spectrofluorimetry, the pH of these vesicles was acid (initial pH 5.2- 5.4), and they responded to MgATP with acidification and to weak bases such as NH4Cl with alkalinization. These three properties are similar to those obtained with human fibroblasts and suggest that the endocytic vesicles of plasmodia are similar to those of mammalian cells. Each of the antimalarials tested (chloroquine, quinine, and mefloquine) as well as NH4Cl inhibited parasite growth at concentrations virtually identical to those that increased parasite vesicle pH. These results suggest two conclusions: (a) The increases in vesicle pH that we have observed in our digitonin-treated parasite preparation occur at similar concentrations of weak bases and antimalarials in cultures of parasitized erythrocytes, and (b) P. falciparum parasites are exquisitely dependent on vesicle pH during their asexual erythrocytic cycle, perhaps for processes analogous to endocytosis and proteolysis in mammalian cells, and that antimalarials and NH4Cl may act by interfering with these events. PMID:3905824

  20. Temporal stability of insular avian malarial parasite communities.

    PubMed Central

    Fallon, S. M.; Ricklefs, R. E.; Latta, S. C.; Bermingham, E.

    2004-01-01

    Avian malaria is caused by a diverse community of genetically differentiated parasites of the genera Plasmodium and Haemoproteus. Rapid seasonal and annual antigenic allele turnover resulting from selection by host immune systems, as observed in some parasite populations infecting humans, may extend analogously to dynamic species compositions within communities of avian malarial parasites. To address this issue, we examined the stability of avian malarial parasite lineages across multiple time-scales within two insular host communities. Parasite communities in Puerto Rico and St Lucia included 20 and 14 genetically distinct parasite lineages, respectively. Lineage composition of the parasite community in Puerto Rico did not vary seasonally or over a 1 year interval. However, over intervals approaching a decade, the avian communities of both islands experienced an apparent loss or gain of one malarial parasite lineage, indicating the potential for relatively frequent lineage turnover. Patterns of temporal variation of parasite lineages in this study suggest periodic colonization and extinction events driven by a combination of host-specific immune responses, competition between lineages and drift. However, the occasional and ecologically dynamic lineage turnover exhibited by insular avian parasite communities is not as rapid as antigenic allele turnover within populations of human malaria. PMID:15129959

  1. Hemosporidian blood parasites in seabirds-a comparative genetic study of species from Antarctic to tropical habitats

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Petra Quillfeldt; J. Martinez; Janos Hennicke; Katrin Ludynia; Anja Gladbach; Juan F. Masello; Samuel Riou; Santiago Merino

    2010-01-01

    Whereas some bird species are heavily affected by blood parasites in the wild, others reportedly are not. Seabirds, in particular,\\u000a are often free from blood parasites, even in the presence of potential vectors. By means of polymerase chain reaction, we\\u000a amplified a DNA fragment from the cytochrome b gene to detect parasites of the genera Plasmodium, Leucocytozoon, and Haemoproteus in

  2. Plasmodium ovale malaria acquired in Viet-Nam

    PubMed Central

    Gleason, N. N.; Fisher, G. U.; Blumhardt, R.; Roth, A. E.; Gaffney, G. W.

    1970-01-01

    Four cases of Plasmodium ovale malaria are reported among US servicemen stationed in Viet-Nam between January 1966 and March 1969. Taken together with other cases cited by the authors, these provide strong evidence of the existence (sometimes disputed) of this Plasmodium in continental South-East Asia. None of the men had served in any other area of endemic malaria and their travel and medical histories suggest that all 4 infections were acquired by mosquito transmission. They constitute only 0.066% of the 6036 malaria cases reported among servicemen returning from Viet-Nam during this period and represent only 0.11% of the blood films from 3686 individuals examined at the US National Malaria Repository during the same period. Serological testing for malaria antibodies with the indirect fluorescent technique corroborated the diagnosis of P. ovale in 1 case. Speciation was not possible in the other 3 cases since titres to P. vivax and P. ovale antigens were identical. Only 1 of the patients reported previous experience with vivax malaria. Most of the parasites seen in thin blood films were developing trophozoites and immature schizonts; ring forms and gametocytes were rare; mature schizonts were not found. The morphology of the parasites was typical of P. ovale, with more than 50% of the infected cells showing fimbriations, an oval shape or both. ImagesFIG. 3FIG. 1FIG. 4FIG. 2 PMID:4392940

  3. Glycophorin B is the erythrocyte receptor of Plasmodium falciparum erythrocyte-binding ligand, EBL-1

    PubMed Central

    Mayer, D. C. Ghislaine; Cofie, Joann; Jiang, Lubin; Hartl, Daniel L.; Tracy, Erin; Kabat, Juraj; Mendoza, Laurence H.; Miller, Louis H.

    2009-01-01

    In the war against Plasmodium, humans have evolved to eliminate or modify proteins on the erythrocyte surface that serve as receptors for parasite invasion, such as the Duffy blood group, a receptor for Plasmodium vivax, and the Gerbich-negative modification of glycophorin C for Plasmodium falciparum. In turn, the parasite counters with expansion and diversification of ligand families. The high degree of polymorphism in glycophorin B found in malaria-endemic regions suggests that it also may be a receptor for Plasmodium, but, to date, none has been identified. We provide evidence from erythrocyte-binding that glycophorin B is a receptor for the P. falciparum protein EBL-1, a member of the Duffy-binding-like erythrocyte-binding protein (DBL-EBP) receptor family. The erythrocyte-binding domain, region 2 of EBL-1, expressed on CHO-K1 cells, bound glycophorin B+ but not glycophorin B-null erythrocytes. In addition, glycophorin B+ but not glycophorin B-null erythrocytes adsorbed native EBL-1 from the P. falciparum culture supernatants. Interestingly, the Efe pygmies of the Ituri forest in the Democratic Republic of the Congo have the highest gene frequency of glycophorin B-null in the world, raising the possibility that the DBL-EBP family may have expanded in response to the high frequency of glycophorin B-null in the population. PMID:19279206

  4. Adaptation of the genetically tractable malaria pathogen Plasmodium knowlesi to continuous culture in human erythrocytes.

    PubMed

    Moon, Robert W; Hall, Joanna; Rangkuti, Farania; Ho, Yung Shwen; Almond, Neil; Mitchell, Graham H; Pain, Arnab; Holder, Anthony A; Blackman, Michael J

    2013-01-01

    Research into the aetiological agent of the most widespread form of severe malaria, Plasmodium falciparum, has benefitted enormously from the ability to culture and genetically manipulate blood-stage forms of the parasite in vitro. However, most malaria outside Africa is caused by a distinct Plasmodium species, Plasmodium vivax, and it has become increasingly apparent that zoonotic infection by the closely related simian parasite Plasmodium knowlesi is a frequent cause of life-threatening malaria in regions of southeast Asia. Neither of these important malarial species can be cultured in human cells in vitro, requiring access to primates with the associated ethical and practical constraints. We report the successful adaptation of P. knowlesi to continuous culture in human erythrocytes. Human-adapted P. knowlesi clones maintain their capacity to replicate in monkey erythrocytes and can be genetically modified with unprecedented efficiency, providing an important and unique model for studying conserved aspects of malarial biology as well as species-specific features of an emerging pathogen. PMID:23267069

  5. Development of Antibodies against Chondroitin Sulfate A-Adherent Plasmodium falciparum in Pregnant Women

    PubMed Central

    Maubert, Bertrand; Fievet, Nadine; Tami, Germaine; Cot, Michel; Boudin, Christian; Deloron, Philippe

    1999-01-01

    In areas where Plasmodium falciparum is endemic, pregnant women are at increased risk for malaria, and this risk is greatest during the first pregnancy. The placenta sequesters parasites that are able to cytoadhere to chondroitin sulfate A (CSA), a molecule expressed by the placental syncytiotrophoblast, while parasites from a nonpregnant host do not bind to CSA. Cytoadherence is mediated by the expression of variants of the P. falciparum-erythrocyte membrane protein 1 family. Each member of this molecule family induces antibodies that specifically agglutinate infected erythrocytes and inhibit their cytoadherence ability. We investigated whether the higher susceptibility of primigravidae was related to the lack of immune response towards CSA-binding parasites. In a cross-sectional study, primigravidae delivering with a noninfected placenta were less likely to have antibodies agglutinating CSA-binding parasites than multigravidae (P < 0.01). In contrast, parasites from nonpregnant hosts were as likely to be recognized by the sera from women of various parities. In a longitudinal study, at 6 months of pregnancy, antibodies against CSA-binding parasites were present in 31.8% of primigravidae and in 76.9% of secundigravidae (P = 0.02). The antibodies against CSA-binding parasites inhibited the cytoadherence of a CSA-adherent parasite strain to the human placental trophoblast. Our data support the idea that the higher susceptibility of primiparae is related to a lack of a specific immune response to placental parasites. PMID:10496918

  6. Widespread and structured distributions of blood parasite haplotypes across a migratory divide of the Swainson's thrush (Catharus ustulatus).

    PubMed

    Svensson, L M E; Ruegg, K C; Sekercioglu, C H; Sehgal, R N M

    2007-12-01

    We examined the phylogenetic distribution of cytochrome b haplotypes of the avian blood parasite genera Haemoproteus and Plasmodium across the migratory divide of the Swainson's thrush (Catharus ustulatus) in British Columbia, Canada. From 87 host individuals, we identified 8 parasite haplotypes; 4 of Plasmodium and 4 of Haemoproteus. Six haplotypes were novel; 1 Haemoproteus haplotype was identical to H. majoris found in the blue tit (Parus caeruleus) in Sweden, and another halotype was identical to a Plasmodium haplotype found in the white-crowned sparrow (Zonotrichia leucophrys) in Oregon. The 2 most abundant parasite haplotypes were widely distributed across the contact zone, whereas 2 other parasite haplotypes seem to have structured distributions. Compared with 74 Plasmodium and Haemoproteus haplotypes published in GenBank, haplotypes recovered from Swainson's thrushes do not form monophyletic groups, and they are closely related to haplotypes from a variety of other hosts and localities. In addition, we recovered 2 Swainson's thrush Plasmodium haplotypes from the nonmigratory orange-billed nightingale thrush (Catharus aurantiirostris) in Costa Rica. This study is the first to elucidate avian blood parasite transmission, distribution, and phylogenetic relationships in an avian contact zone in North America. PMID:18314697

  7. Key factors regulating Plasmodium berghei sporozoite survival and transformation revealed by an automated visual assay.

    PubMed

    Hegge, Stephan; Kudryashev, Mikhail; Barniol, Luis; Frischknecht, Friedrich

    2010-12-01

    Malaria is transmitted to the host when Plasmodium sporozoites are injected by a mosquito vector. Sporozoites eventually enter hepatocytes, where they differentiate into liver-stage parasites. During the first hours after hepatocyte invasion, the crescent-shaped sporozoites transform into spherical intracellular exoerythrocytic parasites. This process, which precedes genome replication, can be mimicked in vitro in the absence of host cells. Here, we developed an automated method to follow transformation and cell death of sporozoites in vitro. This assay provides a rapid tool to test sporozoite survival and to screen for antiparasitic drugs. We found that extracellular bicarbonate and high temperature trigger transformation, whereas physiological serum albumin concentrations and media lacking bicarbonate delayed sporozoite death. Because bicarbonate also triggers ookinete transformation and exflagellation of gametocytes, we suggest that a common molecular mechanism regulates similar aspects of stage conversion in Plasmodium. PMID:20798246

  8. Prevalence and Diversity of Avian Haematozoan Parasites in Wetlands of Bangladesh

    PubMed Central

    Mohiuddin, Khaja; Mikolon, Andrea; Paul, Suman Kumer; Hosseini, Parviez Rana; Daszak, Peter

    2014-01-01

    The parasites of genera Haemoproteus, Plasmodium, and Leucocytozoon are well-known avian haematozoa and can cause declined productivity and high mortality in wild birds. The objective of the study was to record the prevalence of haematozoan parasites in a wide range of wetland birds in Bangladesh. Six species of Haemoproteus, seven species of Plasmodium, one unidentified species of Leucocytozoon, and one unidentified microfilaria of the genus Paronchocerca were found. Data on the morphology, size, hosts, prevalence, and infection intensity of the parasites are provided. The overall prevalence among the birds was 29.5% (95 out of 322 birds). Of those, 13.2% (42 of 319) of birds were infected with Haemoproteus spp., 15.1% with Plasmodium spp. (48 of 319) and 0.6% with Leucocytozoon spp. (2 of 319). Two birds were positive for both Haemoproteus sp. and Plasmodium sp. A single resident bird, Ardeola grayii, was found positive for an unidentified microfilaria. Prevalence of infection varied significantly among different bird families. Wild birds of Bangladesh carry several types of haematozoan parasites. Further investigation with a larger sample size is necessary to estimate more accurately the prevalence of haematozoan parasites among wild birds as well as domestic ducks for better understanding of the disease ecology. PMID:24587896

  9. Prevalence and diversity of avian haematozoan parasites in wetlands of bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Elahi, Rubayet; Islam, Ausraful; Hossain, Mohammad Sharif; Mohiuddin, Khaja; Mikolon, Andrea; Paul, Suman Kumer; Hosseini, Parviez Rana; Daszak, Peter; Alam, Mohammad Shafiul

    2014-01-01

    The parasites of genera Haemoproteus, Plasmodium, and Leucocytozoon are well-known avian haematozoa and can cause declined productivity and high mortality in wild birds. The objective of the study was to record the prevalence of haematozoan parasites in a wide range of wetland birds in Bangladesh. Six species of Haemoproteus, seven species of Plasmodium, one unidentified species of Leucocytozoon, and one unidentified microfilaria of the genus Paronchocerca were found. Data on the morphology, size, hosts, prevalence, and infection intensity of the parasites are provided. The overall prevalence among the birds was 29.5% (95 out of 322 birds). Of those, 13.2% (42 of 319) of birds were infected with Haemoproteus spp., 15.1% with Plasmodium spp. (48 of 319) and 0.6% with Leucocytozoon spp. (2 of 319). Two birds were positive for both Haemoproteus sp. and Plasmodium sp. A single resident bird, Ardeola grayii, was found positive for an unidentified microfilaria. Prevalence of infection varied significantly among different bird families. Wild birds of Bangladesh carry several types of haematozoan parasites. Further investigation with a larger sample size is necessary to estimate more accurately the prevalence of haematozoan parasites among wild birds as well as domestic ducks for better understanding of the disease ecology. PMID:24587896

  10. Detection of avian malaria (Plasmodium spp.) in native land birds of American Samoa

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jarvi, S.I.; Farias, M.E.M.; Baker, H.; Freifeld, H.B.; Baker, P.E.; Van Gelder, E.; Massey, J.G.; Atkinson, C.T.

    2003-01-01

    This study documents the presence of Plasmodium spp. in landbirds of central Polynesia. Blood samples collected from eight native and introduced species from the island of Tutuila, American Samoa were evaluated for the presence of Plasmodium spp. by nested rDNA PCR, serology and/or microscopy. A total of 111/188 birds (59%) screened by nested PCR were positive. Detection of Plasmodium spp. was verified by nucleotide sequence comparisons of partial 18S ribosomal RNA and TRAP (thrombospondin-related anonymous protein) genes using phylogenetic analyses. All samples screened by immunoblot to detect antibodies that cross-react with Hawaiian isolates of Plasmodium relictum (153) were negative. Lack of cross-reactivity is probably due to antigenic differences between the Hawaiian and Samoan Plasmodium isolates. Similarly, all samples examined by microscopy (214) were negative. The fact that malaria is present, but not detectable by blood smear evaluation is consistent with low peripheral parasitemia characteristic of chronic infections. High prevalence of apparently chronic infections, the relative stability of the native land bird communities, and the presence of mosquito vectors which are considered endemic and capable of transmitting avian Plasmodia, suggest that these parasites are indigenous to Samoa and have a long coevolutionary history with their hosts.

  11. The recently completed genome of the malaria parasite Plasmodium

    E-print Network

    Levin, Judith G.

    Med for PMID 12368864), P. falciparum clone 3D7 consists of a 23-megabase nuclear genome of 14 chromosomes to BLAST2 Sequences alignment displays. The Drosophila Map Viewer can be accessed from the Map Viewer home

  12. Deformability of Plasmodium falciparum parasitized red blood cells

    E-print Network

    Mills, John Philip, Ph. D. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

    2007-01-01

    The biophysical properties of the human red blood cell (RBC) permit large deformations required for passage through narrow capillaries and spleen sinusoids. Several pathologic conditions alter RBC deformability that can ...

  13. Sir2 Paralogues Cooperate to Regulate Virulence Genes and Antigenic Variation in Plasmodium falciparum

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Christopher J Tonkin; Céline K Carret; Manoj T Duraisingh; Till S Voss; Stuart A Ralph; Mirja Hommel; Michael F Duffy; Liliana Mancio da Silva; Artur Scherf; Alasdair Ivens; Terence P Speed; James G Beeson; Alan F Cowman

    2009-01-01

    Cytoadherance of Plasmodium falciparum-infected erythrocytes in the brain, organs and peripheral microvasculature is linked to morbidity and mortality associated with severe malaria. Parasite-derived P. falciparum Erythrocyte Membrane Protein 1 (PfEMP1) molecules displayed on the erythrocyte surface are responsible for cytoadherance and undergo antigenic variation in the course of an infection. Antigenic variation of PfEMP1 is achieved by in situ switching

  14. Atovaquone and proguanil hydrochloride followed by primaquine for treatment of Plasmodium vivax malaria in Thailand

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. Looareesuwan; P. Wilairatana; R. Glanarongran; K. A. Indravijit; L. Supeeranontha; S. Chinnapha; T. R. Scott; J. D. Chulay

    1999-01-01

    Chloroquine-resistant Plasmodium vivax malaria has been reported in several geographical areas. The P. vivax life-cycle includes dormant hepatic parasites (hypnozoites) that cause relapsing malaria weeks to years after initial infection. Curative therapy must therefore target both the erythrocytic and hepatic stages of infection. Between July 1997 and June 1998, we conducted an open-label study in Thailand to evaluate the efficacy

  15. Oxidative Stress Genes in Plasmodium falciparum as Indicated by Temporal Gene Expression

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Noyola-Martinez; C. Shaw; B. Christian; G. Fox; M. Stevens; N. Garg; M. C. Gustin; R. Guerra

    Entry of Plasmodium falciparum into human red blood cells is a stressful event for both the host and the parasite. Conversion of hemoglobin into usable\\u000a food by P. falciparum is accompanied by the production of chemically reactive and toxic molecules called oxidants. Examination of the temporal\\u000a sequence of gene expression during the intraerythrocytic development cycle (IDC) [Bozdech, Z., et al.,

  16. A mass spectrometric strategy for absolute quantification of Plasmodium falciparum proteins of low abundance

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Selected reaction monitoring mass spectrometry has been combined with the use of an isotopically labelled synthetic protein, made up of proteotypic tryptic peptides selected from parasite proteins of interest. This allows, for the first time, absolute quantification of proteins from Plasmodium falciparum. This methodology is demonstrated to be of sufficient sensitivity to quantify, even within whole cell extracts, proteins of low abundance from the folate pathway as well as more abundant "housekeeping" proteins. PMID:22027174

  17. The Plasmodium falciparum sexual development transcriptome: A microarray analysis using ontology-based pattern identification

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jason A. Young; Quinton L. Fivelman; Peter L. Blair; Patricia de la Vega; Karine G. Le Roch; Yingyao Zhou; Daniel J. Carucci; David A. Baker; Elizabeth A. Winzeler

    2005-01-01

    The sexual stages of malarial parasites are essential for the mosquito transmission of the disease and therefore are the focus of transmission-blocking drug and vaccine development. In order to better understand genes important to the sexual development process, the transcriptomes of high-purity stage I–V Plasmodium falciparum gametocytes were comprehensively profiled using a full-genome high-density oligonucleotide microarray. The interpretation of this

  18. Malarone treatment failure and in vitro confirmation of resistance of Plasmodium falciparum isolate from Lagos, Nigeria

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Quinton L Fivelman; Geoffrey A Butcher; Ipemida S Adagu; David C Warhurst; Geoffrey Pasvol

    2002-01-01

    We report the first in vitro and genetic confirmation of Malarone® (GlaxoSmithKline; atovaquone and proguanil hydrochloride) resistance in Plasmodium falciparum acquired in Africa. On presenting with malaria two weeks after returning from a 4-week visit to Lagos, Nigeria without prophylaxis, a male patient was given a standard 3-day treatment course of Malarone®. Twenty-eight days later the parasitaemia recrudesced. Parasites were

  19. Potentiation by febrifugine of host defense in mice against plasmodium berghei NK65

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kiyoshi Murata; Fumihide Takano; Shinji Fushiya; Yoshiteru Oshima

    1999-01-01

    The effect of febrifugine, the main alkaloidal constituent of an antimalarial crude drug, Dichroa febrifuga Lour., on protective immunity in mice infected with erythrocytic stage Plasmodium berghei NK65 was investigated. Febrifugine was administered orally, at a dose of 1 mg\\/kg\\/day, to mice before and\\/or after they were infected intraperitoneally with 2 × 106 parasitized red blood cells. Then, mortality and

  20. Acute respiratory distress syndrome and acute renal failure from Plasmodium ovale infection with fatal outcome

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Plasmodium ovale is one of the causative agents of human malaria. Plasmodium ovale infection has long been thought to be non-fatal. Due to its lower morbidity, P. ovale receives little attention in malaria research. Methods Two Malaysians went to Nigeria for two weeks. After returning to Malaysia, they fell sick and were admitted to different hospitals. Plasmodium ovale parasites were identified from blood smears of these patients. The species identification was further confirmed with nested PCR. One of them was successfully treated with no incident of relapse within 12-month medical follow-up. The other patient came down with malaria-induced respiratory complication during the course of treatment. Although parasites were cleared off the circulation, the patient’s condition worsened. He succumbed to multiple complications including acute respiratory distress syndrome and acute renal failure. Results Sequencing of the malaria parasite DNA from both cases, followed by multiple sequence alignment and phylogenetic tree construction suggested that the causative agent for both malaria cases was P. ovale curtisi. Discussion In this report, the differences between both cases were discussed, and the potential capability of P. ovale in causing severe complications and death as seen in this case report was highlighted. Conclusion Plasmodium ovale is potentially capable of causing severe complications, if not death. Complete travel and clinical history of malaria patient are vital for successful diagnoses and treatment. Monitoring of respiratory and renal function of malaria patients, regardless of the species of malaria parasites involved is crucial during the course of hospital admission. PMID:24180319

  1. Sequence of Plasmodium falciparum chromosomes 1, 3-9 and 13

    Microsoft Academic Search

    N. Hall; A. Pain; M. Berriman; C. Churcher; B. Harris; D. Harris; K. Mungall; S. Bowman; R. Atkin; S. Baker; A. Barron; K. Brooks; C. O. Buckee; C. Burrows; I. Cherevach; C. Chillingworth; T. Chillingworth; Z. Christodoulou; L. Clark; R. Clark; C. Corton; A. Cronin; R. Davies; P. Davis; P. Dear; F. Dearden; J. Doggett; T. Feltwell; A. Goble; I. Goodhead; R. Gwilliam; N. Hamlin; Z. Hance; D. Harper; H. Hauser; T. Hornsby; S. Holroyd; P. Horrocks; S. Humphray; K. Jagels; K. D. James; D. Johnson; A. Kerhornou; A. Knights; B. Konfortov; S. Kyes; N. Larke; D. Lawson; N. Lennard; A. Line; M. Maddison; J. McLean; P. Mooney; S. Moule; L. Murphy; K. Oliver; D. Ormond; C. Price; M. A. Quail; E. Rabbinowitsch; M.-A. Rajandream; S. Rutter; K. M. Rutherford; M. Sanders; M. Simmonds; K. Seeger; S. Sharp; R. Squares; S. Squares; K. Stevens; K. Taylor; A. Tivey; L. Unwin; S. Whitehead; J. Woodward; J. E. Sulston; A. Craig; C. Newbold; B. G. Barrell

    2002-01-01

    Since the sequencing of the first two chromosomes of the malaria parasite, Plasmodium falciparum, there has been a concerted effort to sequence and assemble the entire genome of this organism. Here we report the sequence of chromosomes 1, 3-9 and 13 of P. falciparum clone 3D7-these chromosomes account for approximately 55% of the total genome. We describe the methods used

  2. Plasmodium falciparum in Haiti: susceptibility to pyrimethamine and sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine

    PubMed Central

    Nguyen-Dinh, Phuc; Zevallos-Ipenza, Arturo; Magloire, Roc

    1984-01-01

    Eighteen patients with Plasmodium falciparum infection were studied in Port-au-Prince, Haiti, to monitor the response of the malaria parasite to sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine. In all infections the parasitaemia was cleared rapidly following treatment with standard dose of the drug combination; no recrudescence was observed during follow-up periods of 1 week (4 patients) and 4 weeks (14 patients). Parallel in vitro tests indicated that 5 of the 16 isolates successfully tested were resistant to pyrimethamine alone. PMID:6386210

  3. Molecular characterization of dihydrofolate reductase in relation to antifolate resistance in Plasmodium vivax

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ubolsree Leartsakulpanich; Mallika Imwong; Sasithon Pukrittayakamee; Nicholas J. White; Georges Snounou; Worachart Sirawaraporn; Yongyuth Yuthavong

    2002-01-01

    The genes encoding the wild-type and six (five single and one double) mutant dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR) domains of the human malaria parasite, Plasmodium vivax (Pv), were cloned and expressed in Escherichia coli. The catalytic activities and the kinetic parameters of the purified recombinant wild-type and the mutant PvDHFRs were determined. Generally, all the PvDHFR mutants yielded enzymes with poorer catalytic

  4. A molecular marker of artemisinin-resistant Plasmodium falciparum malaria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ariey, Frédéric; Witkowski, Benoit; Amaratunga, Chanaki; Beghain, Johann; Langlois, Anne-Claire; Khim, Nimol; Kim, Saorin; Duru, Valentine; Bouchier, Christiane; Ma, Laurence; Lim, Pharath; Leang, Rithea; Duong, Socheat; Sreng, Sokunthea; Suon, Seila; Chuor, Char Meng; Bout, Denis Mey; Ménard, Sandie; Rogers, William O.; Genton, Blaise; Fandeur, Thierry; Miotto, Olivo; Ringwald, Pascal; Le Bras, Jacques; Berry, Antoine; Barale, Jean-Christophe; Fairhurst, Rick M.; Benoit-Vical, Françoise; Mercereau-Puijalon, Odile; Ménard, Didier

    2014-01-01

    Plasmodium falciparum resistance to artemisinin derivatives in southeast Asia threatens malaria control and elimination activities worldwide. To monitor the spread of artemisinin resistance, a molecular marker is urgently needed. Here, using whole-genome sequencing of an artemisinin-resistant parasite line from Africa and clinical parasite isolates from Cambodia, we associate mutations in the PF3D7_1343700 kelch propeller domain (`K13-propeller') with artemisinin resistance in vitro and in vivo. Mutant K13-propeller alleles cluster in Cambodian provinces where resistance is prevalent, and the increasing frequency of a dominant mutant K13-propeller allele correlates with the recent spread of resistance in western Cambodia. Strong correlations between the presence of a mutant allele, in vitro parasite survival rates and in vivo parasite clearance rates indicate that K13-propeller mutations are important determinants of artemisinin resistance. K13-propeller polymorphism constitutes a useful molecular marker for large-scale surveillance efforts to contain artemisinin resistance in the Greater Mekong Subregion and prevent its global spread.

  5. A molecular marker of artemisinin-resistant Plasmodium falciparum malaria.

    PubMed

    Ariey, Frédéric; Witkowski, Benoit; Amaratunga, Chanaki; Beghain, Johann; Langlois, Anne-Claire; Khim, Nimol; Kim, Saorin; Duru, Valentine; Bouchier, Christiane; Ma, Laurence; Lim, Pharath; Leang, Rithea; Duong, Socheat; Sreng, Sokunthea; Suon, Seila; Chuor, Char Meng; Bout, Denis Mey; Ménard, Sandie; Rogers, William O; Genton, Blaise; Fandeur, Thierry; Miotto, Olivo; Ringwald, Pascal; Le Bras, Jacques; Berry, Antoine; Barale, Jean-Christophe; Fairhurst, Rick M; Benoit-Vical, Françoise; Mercereau-Puijalon, Odile; Ménard, Didier

    2014-01-01

    Plasmodium falciparum resistance to artemisinin derivatives in southeast Asia threatens malaria control and elimination activities worldwide. To monitor the spread of artemisinin resistance, a molecular marker is urgently needed. Here, using whole-genome sequencing of an artemisinin-resistant parasite line from Africa and clinical parasite isolates from Cambodia, we associate mutations in the PF3D7_1343700 kelch propeller domain ('K13-propeller') with artemisinin resistance in vitro and in vivo. Mutant K13-propeller alleles cluster in Cambodian provinces where resistance is prevalent, and the increasing frequency of a dominant mutant K13-propeller allele correlates with the recent spread of resistance in western Cambodia. Strong correlations between the presence of a mutant allele, in vitro parasite survival rates and in vivo parasite clearance rates indicate that K13-propeller mutations are important determinants of artemisinin resistance. K13-propeller polymorphism constitutes a useful molecular marker for large-scale surveillance efforts to contain artemisinin resistance in the Greater Mekong Subregion and prevent its global spread. PMID:24352242

  6. Laboratory Detection of Artemisinin-Resistant Plasmodium falciparum

    PubMed Central

    Chotivanich, Kesinee; Tripura, Rupam; Das, Debashish; Yi, Poravuth; Day, Nicholas P. J.; Pukrittayakamee, Sasithon; Chuor, Char Meng; Socheat, Duong; Dondorp, Arjen M.

    2014-01-01

    Conventional 48-h in vitro susceptibility tests have low sensitivity in identifying artemisinin-resistant Plasmodium falciparum, defined phenotypically by low in vivo parasite clearance rates. We hypothesized originally that this discrepancy was explained by a loss of ring-stage susceptibility and so developed a simple field-adapted 24-h trophozoite maturation inhibition (TMI) assay focusing on the ring stage and compared it to the standard 48-h schizont maturation inhibition (WHO) test. In Pailin, western Cambodia, where artemisinin-resistant P. falciparum is prevalent, the TMI test mean (95% confidence interval) 50% inhibitory concentration (IC50) for artesunate was 6.8 (5.2 to 8.3) ng/ml compared with 1.5 (1.2 to 1.8) ng/ml for the standard 48-h WHO test (P = 0.001). TMI IC50s correlated significantly with the in vivo responses to artesunate (parasite clearance time [r = 0.44, P = 0.001] and parasite clearance half-life [r = 0.46, P = 0.001]), whereas the standard 48-h test values did not. On continuous culture of two resistant isolates, the artemisinin-resistant phenotype was lost after 6 weeks (IC50s fell from 10 and 12 ng/ml to 2.7 and 3 ng/ml, respectively). Slow parasite clearance in falciparum malaria in western Cambodia results from reduced ring-stage susceptibility. PMID:24663013

  7. A Plasmodium Falciparum Bromodomain Protein Regulates Invasion Gene Expression.

    PubMed

    Josling, Gabrielle A; Petter, Michaela; Oehring, Sophie C; Gupta, Archna P; Dietz, Olivier; Wilson, Danny W; Schubert, Thomas; Längst, Gernot; Gilson, Paul R; Crabb, Brendan S; Moes, Suzette; Jenoe, Paul; Lim, Shu Wei; Brown, Graham V; Bozdech, Zbynek; Voss, Till S; Duffy, Michael F

    2015-06-10

    During red-blood-cell-stage infection of Plasmodium falciparum, the parasite undergoes repeated rounds of replication, egress, and invasion. Erythrocyte invasion involves specific interactions between host cell receptors and parasite ligands and coordinated expression of genes specific to this step of the life cycle. We show that a parasite-specific bromodomain protein, PfBDP1, binds to chromatin at transcriptional start sites of invasion-related genes and directly controls their expression. Conditional PfBDP1 knockdown causes a dramatic defect in parasite invasion and growth and results in transcriptional downregulation of multiple invasion-related genes at a time point critical for invasion. Conversely, PfBDP1 overexpression enhances expression of these same invasion-related genes. PfBDP1 binds to acetylated histone H3 and a second bromodomain protein, PfBDP2, suggesting a potential mechanism for gene recognition and control. Collectively, these findings show that PfBDP1 critically coordinates expression of invasion genes and indicate that targeting PfBDP1 could be an invaluable tool in malaria eradication. PMID:26067602

  8. Acute-phase proteins in pregnant Sudanese women with severe Plasmodium falciparum malaria.

    PubMed

    Saad, Alfarazdeg A; Mohamed, Omar E; Ali, Abdelaziem A; Bashir, Ahmed M; Ali, Naji I; Elbashir, Mustafa I; Adam, Ishag

    2012-09-01

    A case-control study was carried out in Kassala and Medani Maternity Hospitals in Sudan to investigate acute-phase proteins [haptoglobin, C-reactive protein (CRP), ferritin and albumin] in three groups of pregnant women (32 in each arm) comprising those with severe Plasmodium falciparum malaria or uncomplicated P. falciparum malaria and healthy controls. Whilst there was no significant difference in the levels of albumin and haptoglobin, ferritin and CRP levels were significantly higher in pregnant women with severe P. falciparum malaria. There were significant positive correlations between parasite count and haptoglobin, and medium positive correlations between parasite count and CRP. PMID:22818740

  9. A Lectin-Like Receptor is Involved in Invasion of Erythrocytes by Plasmodium falciparum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jungery, M.; Pasvol, G.; Newbold, C. I.; Weatherall, D. J.

    1983-02-01

    Glycophorin both in solution and inserted into liposomes blocks invasion of erythrocytes by the malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum. Furthermore, one sugar, N-acetyl-D-glucosamine (GlcNAc), completely blocks invasion of the erythrocyte by this parasite. GlcNAc coupled to bovine serum albumin to prevent the sugar entering infected erythrocytes was at least 100,000 times more effective than GlcNAc alone. Bovine serum albumin coupled to lactose or bovine serum albumin alone had no effect on invasion. These results suggest that the binding of P. falciparum to erythrocytes is lectin-like and is determined by carbohydrates on glycophorin.

  10. Reduced Susceptibility of Plasmodium falciparum to Artesunate in Southern Myanmar

    PubMed Central

    Kyaw, Myat P.; Nyunt, Myat H.; Chit, Khin; Aye, Moe M.; Aye, Kyin H.; Aye, Moe M.; Tarning, Joel; Imwong, Mallika; Jacob, Christopher G.; Rasmussen, Charlotte; Perin, Jamie; Ringwald, Pascal; Nyunt, Myaing M.

    2013-01-01

    Background Plasmodium falciparum resistance to artemisinins, the first line treatment for malaria worldwide, has been reported in western Cambodia. Resistance is characterized by significantly delayed clearance of parasites following artemisinin treatment. Artemisinin resistance has not previously been reported in Myanmar, which has the highest falciparum malaria burden among Southeast Asian countries. Methods A non-randomized, single-arm, open-label clinical trial of artesunate monotherapy (4 mg/kg daily for seven days) was conducted in adults with acute blood-smear positive P. falciparum malaria in Kawthaung, southern Myanmar. Parasite density was measured every 12 hours until two consecutive negative smears were obtained. Participants were followed weekly at the study clinic for three additional weeks. Co-primary endpoints included parasite clearance time (the time required for complete clearance of initial parasitemia), parasite clearance half-life (the time required for parasitemia to decrease by 50% based on the linear portion of the parasite clearance slope), and detectable parasitemia 72 hours after commencement of artesunate treatment. Drug pharmacokinetics were measured to rule out delayed clearance due to suboptimal drug levels. Results The median (range) parasite clearance half-life and time were 4.8 (2.1–9.7) and 60 (24–96) hours, respectively. The frequency distributions of parasite clearance half-life and time were bimodal, with very slow parasite clearance characteristic of the slowest-clearing Cambodian parasites (half-life longer than 6.2 hours) in approximately 1/3 of infections. Fourteen of 52 participants (26.9%) had a measurable parasitemia 72 hours after initiating artesunate treatment. Parasite clearance was not associated with drug pharmacokinetics. Conclusions A subset of P. falciparum infections in southern Myanmar displayed markedly delayed clearance following artemisinin treatment, suggesting either emergence of artemisinin resistance in southern Myanmar or spread to this location from its site of origin in western Cambodia. Resistance containment efforts are underway in Myanmar. Trial Registration Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry ACTRN12610000896077 PMID:23520478

  11. Plasmodium vivax Malaria Endemicity in Indonesia in 2010

    PubMed Central

    Elyazar, Iqbal R. F.; Gething, Peter W.; Patil, Anand P.; Rogayah, Hanifah; Sariwati, Elvieda; Palupi, Niken W.; Tarmizi, Siti N.; Kusriastuti, Rita; Baird, J. Kevin; Hay, Simon I.

    2012-01-01

    Background Plasmodium vivax imposes substantial morbidity and mortality burdens in endemic zones. Detailed understanding of the contemporary spatial distribution of this parasite is needed to combat it. We used model based geostatistics (MBG) techniques to generate a contemporary map of risk of Plasmodium vivax malaria in Indonesia in 2010. Methods Plasmodium vivax Annual Parasite Incidence data (2006–2008) and temperature masks were used to map P. vivax transmission limits. A total of 4,658 community surveys of P. vivax parasite rate (PvPR) were identified (1985–2010) for mapping quantitative estimates of contemporary endemicity within those limits. After error-checking a total of 4,457 points were included into a national database of age-standardized 1–99 year old PvPR data. A Bayesian MBG procedure created a predicted PvPR1–99 endemicity surface with uncertainty estimates. Population at risk estimates were derived with reference to a 2010 human population surface. Results We estimated 129.6 million people in Indonesia lived at risk of P. vivax transmission in 2010. Among these, 79.3% inhabited unstable transmission areas and 20.7% resided in stable transmission areas. In western Indonesia, the predicted P. vivax prevalence was uniformly low. Over 70% of the population at risk in this region lived on Java and Bali islands, where little malaria transmission occurs. High predicted prevalence areas were observed in the Lesser Sundas, Maluku and Papua. In general, prediction uncertainty was relatively low in the west and high in the east. Conclusion Most Indonesians living with endemic P. vivax experience relatively low risk of infection. However, blood surveys for this parasite are likely relatively insensitive and certainly do not detect the dormant liver stage reservoir of infection. The prospects for P. vivax elimination would be improved with deeper understanding of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency (G6PDd) distribution, anti-relapse therapy practices and manageability of P. vivax importation risk, especially in Java and Bali. PMID:22615978

  12. Foodborne Parasites

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Foodborne infections are a significant cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide, and foodborne parasitic diseases, though not as widespread as bacterial and viral infections, are common on all continents and in most ecosystems, including arctic, temperate, and tropical regions. Certain foodborne ...

  13. Parasitic Infections

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rakesh K. Gupta; Kee-Hyun Chang

    Infection of the central nervous system (CNS) by different parasites is in endemic proportion in different parts of the world. The distribution of the type of infection depends on the food habits, prevalence of the type of infection in the region, and local hygienic conditions in many developing countries in Asia, Africa, Central and South America, and Mexico. These infections

  14. An assay to probe Plasmodium falciparum growth, transmission stage formation and early gametocyte development.

    PubMed

    Brancucci, Nicolas M B; Goldowitz, Ilana; Buchholz, Kathrin; Werling, Kristine; Marti, Matthias

    2015-08-01

    Conversion from asexual proliferation to sexual differentiation initiates the production of the gametocyte, which is the malaria parasite stage required for human-to-mosquito transmission. This protocol describes an assay designed to probe the effect of drugs or other perturbations on asexual replication, sexual conversion and early gametocyte development in the major human malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum. Synchronized asexually replicating parasites are induced for gametocyte production by the addition of conditioned medium, and they are then exposed to the treatment of interest during sexual commitment or at any subsequent stage of early gametocyte development. Flow cytometry is used to measure asexual proliferation and gametocyte production via DNA dye staining and the gametocyte-specific expression of a fluorescent protein, respectively. This screening approach may be used to identify and evaluate potential transmission-blocking compounds and to further investigate the mechanism of sexual conversion in malaria parasites. The full protocol can be completed in 11 d. PMID:26134953

  15. Molecular Epidemiology of Plasmodium falciparum Malaria Outbreak, Tumbes, Peru, 2010–2012

    PubMed Central

    Okoth, Sheila Akinyi; Arrospide, Nancy; Gonzalez, Rommell V.; Sánchez, Juan F.; Macedo, Silvia; Conde, Silvia; Tapia, L. Lorena; Salas, Carola; Gamboa, Dionicia; Herrera, Yeni; Edgel, Kimberly A.; Udhayakumar, Venkatachalam; Lescano, Andrés G.

    2015-01-01

    During 2010–2012, an outbreak of 210 cases of malaria occurred in Tumbes, in the northern coast of Peru, where no Plasmodium falciparum malaria case had been reported since 2006. To identify the source of the parasite causing this outbreak, we conducted a molecular epidemiology investigation. Microsatellite typing showed an identical genotype in all 54 available isolates. This genotype was also identical to that of parasites isolated in 2010 in the Loreto region of the Peruvian Amazon and closely related to clonet B, a parasite lineage previously reported in the Amazon during 1998–2000. These findings are consistent with travel history of index case-patients. DNA sequencing revealed mutations in the Pfdhfr, Pfdhps, Pfcrt, and Pfmdr1 loci, which are strongly associated with resistance to chloroquine and sulfadoxine/pyrimethamine, and deletion of the Pfhrp2 gene. These results highlight the need for timely molecular epidemiology investigations to trace the parasite source during malaria reintroduction events. PMID:25897626

  16. Fluxes in ‘Free’ and Total Zinc are Essential for Progression of Intraerythrocytic Stages of Plasmodium falciparum

    PubMed Central

    Marvin, Rebecca G.; Wolford, Janet L.; Kidd, Matthew J.; Murphy, Sean; Ward, Jesse; Que, Emily L.; Mayer, Meghan L.; Penner-Hahn, James E.; Haldar, Kasturi; O’Halloran, Thomas V.

    2013-01-01

    Summary Dynamic fluxes in the concentration of ions and small molecules are fundamental features of cell signaling, differentiation and development. Similar roles for fluxes in transition metal concentrations are less well established. Here we show that massive zinc fluxes are essential in the infection cycle of an intracellular eukaryotic parasite. Using single cell quantitative imaging we show that growth of the blood-stage Plasmodium falciparum parasite requires acquisition of thirty million zinc atoms per erythrocyte before host cell rupture, corresponding to a 400% increase in total zinc concentration. Zinc accumulates in a freely available form in parasitophorous compartments outside the food vacuole, including mitochondria. Restriction of zinc availability via small molecule treatment causes a drop in mitochondrial membrane potential and severely inhibits parasite growth. Thus extraordinary zinc acquisition and trafficking are essential for parasite development. PMID:22726687

  17. Fluxes in ;Free; and Total Zinc Are Essential for Progression of Intraerythrocytic Stages of Plasmodium falciparum

    SciTech Connect

    Marvin, Rebecca G.; Wolford, Janet L.; Kidd, Matthew J.; Murphy, Sean; Ward, Jesse; Que, Emily L.; Mayer, Meghan L.; Penner-Hahn, James E.; Haldar, Kasturi; O; Halloran, Thomas V. (Michigan); (UWASH); (NWU); (Notre)

    2012-10-23

    Dynamic fluxes in the concentration of ions and small molecules are fundamental features of cell signaling, differentiation, and development. Similar roles for fluxes in transition metal concentrations are less well established. Here, we show that massive zinc fluxes are essential in the infection cycle of an intracellular eukaryotic parasite. Using single-cell quantitative imaging, we show that growth of the blood-stage Plasmodium falciparum parasite requires acquisition of 30 million zinc atoms per erythrocyte before host cell rupture, corresponding to a 400% increase in total zinc concentration. Zinc accumulates in a freely available form in parasitophorous compartments outside the food vacuole, including mitochondria. Restriction of zinc availability via small molecule treatment causes a drop in mitochondrial membrane potential and severely inhibits parasite growth. Thus, extraordinary zinc acquisition and trafficking are essential for parasite development.

  18. Identifying novel Plasmodium falciparum erythrocyte invasion receptors using systematic extracellular protein interaction screens.

    PubMed

    Bartholdson, S Josefin; Crosnier, Cécile; Bustamante, Leyla Y; Rayner, Julian C; Wright, Gavin J

    2013-08-01

    The invasion of host erythrocytes by the parasite Plasmodium falciparum initiates the blood stage of infection responsible for the symptoms of malaria. Invasion involves extracellular protein interactions between host erythrocyte receptors and ligands on the merozoite, the invasive form of the parasite. Despite significant research effort, many merozoite surface ligands have no known erythrocyte binding partner, most likely due to the intractable biochemical nature of membrane-tethered receptor proteins and their interactions. The few receptor-ligand pairs that have been described have largely relied on sourcing erythrocytes from patients with rare blood groups, a serendipitous approach that is unsatisfactory for systematically identifying novel receptors. We have recently developed a scalable assay called AVEXIS (for AVidity-based EXtracellular Interaction Screen), designed to circumvent the technical difficulties associated with the identification of extracellular protein interactions, and applied it to identify erythrocyte receptors for orphan P. falciparum merozoite ligands. Using this approach, we have recently identified Basigin (CD147) and Semaphorin-7A (CD108) as receptors for RH5 and MTRAP respectively. In this essay, we review techniques used to identify Plasmodium receptors and discuss how they could be applied in the future to identify novel receptors both for Plasmodium parasites but also other pathogens. PMID:23617720

  19. A multidomain adhesion protein family expressed in Plasmodium falciparum is essential for transmission to the mosquito.

    PubMed

    Pradel, Gabriele; Hayton, Karen; Aravind, L; Iyer, Lakshminarayan M; Abrahamsen, Mitchell S; Bonawitz, Annemarie; Mejia, Cesar; Templeton, Thomas J

    2004-06-01

    The recent sequencing of several apicomplexan genomes has provided the opportunity to characterize novel antigens essential for the parasite life cycle that might lead to the development of new diagnostic and therapeutic markers. Here we have screened the Plasmodium falciparum genome sequence for genes encoding extracellular multidomain putative adhesive proteins. Three of these identified genes, named PfCCp1, PfCCp2, and PfCCp3, have multiple adhesive modules including a common Limulus coagulation factor C domain also found in two additional Plasmodium genes. Orthologues were identified in the Cryptosporidium parvum genome sequence, indicating an evolutionary conserved function. Transcript and protein expression analysis shows sexual stage-specific expression of PfCCp1, PfCCp2, and PfCCp3, and cellular localization studies revealed plasma membrane-associated expression in mature gametocytes. During gametogenesis, PfCCps are released and localize surrounding complexes of newly emerged microgametes and macrogametes. PfCCp expression markedly decreased after formation of zygotes. To begin to address PfCCp function, the PfCCp2 and PfCCp3 gene loci were disrupted by homologous recombination, resulting in parasites capable of forming oocyst sporozoites but blocked in the salivary gland transition. Our results describe members of a conserved apicomplexan protein family expressed in sexual stage Plasmodium parasites that may represent candidates for subunits of a transmission-blocking vaccine. PMID:15184503

  20. Suppression of Plasmodium cynomolgi in rhesus macaques by coinfection with Babesia microti.

    PubMed

    van Duivenvoorde, Leonie M; Voorberg-van der Wel, Annemarie; van der Werff, Nicole M; Braskamp, Gerco; Remarque, Edmond J; Kondova, Ivanela; Kocken, Clemens H M; Thomas, Alan W

    2010-03-01

    Both Plasmodium and Babesia species are intraerythrocytic protozoans that infect a wide range of hosts, including humans, and they elicit similar inflammatory responses and clinical manifestations that differ markedly in severity. We recently reported that a rhesus macaque that was chronically infected with Babesia microti was able to control infection with Plasmodium cynomolgi (a parasite of macaques with characteristics very similar to those of Plasmodium vivax) better than naïve monkeys. To confirm this and to investigate the underlying immunopathology, six naïve rhesus monkeys were infected with B. microti. After 24 days, four of these monkeys and four naïve rhesus monkeys were challenged with P. cynomolgi blood-stage parasites. B. microti persisted at low levels in all monkeys, and the clinical parameters were comparable to those of noninfected controls. There was a significant decrease in P. cynomolgi parasitemia in animals coinfected with B. microti compared to the parasitemia in animals infected with P. cynomolgi alone. This decrease in P. cynomolgi parasitemia correlated with increases in the levels of proinflammatory monocytes at the time of P. cynomolgi infection and with higher C-reactive protein (CRP) serum levels 1 week after malaria infection. Therefore, we conclude that ongoing infection with B. microti parasites leads to suppression of malaria infection. PMID:20048045