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Sample records for hair archeological forensic

  1. Bacterial Deposition of Gold on Hair: Archeological, Forensic and Toxicological Implications

    PubMed Central

    Phillips, Genevieve; Reith, Frank; Qualls, Clifford; Ali, Abdul-Mehdi; Spilde, Mike; Appenzeller, Otto

    2010-01-01

    Background Trace metal analyses in hair are used in archeological, forensic and toxicological investigations as proxies for metabolic processes. We show metallophilic bacteria mediating the deposition of gold (Au), used as tracer for microbial activity in hair post mortem after burial, affecting results of such analyses. Methodology/Principal Findings Human hair was incubated for up to six months in auriferous soils, in natural soil columns (Experiment 1), soils amended with mobile Au(III)-complexes (Experiment 2) and the Au-precipitating bacterium Cupriavidus metallidurans (Experiment 3), in peptone-meat-extract (PME) medium in a culture of C. metallidurans amended with Au(III)-complexes (Experiment 4), and in non-auriferous soil (Experiment 5). Hair samples were analyzed using scanning electron microscopy, confocal microscopy and inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry. In Experiments 1–4 the Au content increased with time (P = 0.038). The largest increase was observed in Experiment 4 vs. Experiment 1 (mean = 1188 vs. 161 µg Kg−1, Fisher's least significance 0.001). The sulfur content, a proxy for hair metabolism, remained unchanged. Notably, the ratios of Au-to-S increased with time (linear trend P = 0.02) and with added Au and bacteria (linear trend, P = 0.005), demonstrating that larger populations of Au-precipitating bacteria and increased availability of Au increased the deposition of Au on the hair. Conclusion/Significance Interactions of soil biota with hair post mortem may distort results of hair analyses, implying that metal content, microbial activities and the duration of burial must be considered in the interpretation of results of archeological, forensic and toxicological hair analyses, which have hitherto been proxies for pre-mortem metabolic processes. PMID:20174476

  2. Forensic Science: Hair Identification.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keller, Elhannan L.

    1980-01-01

    Presented is an activity in which students use a microscope to do a forensic hair comparative study and a medullary classification. Mounting methods, medulla types, hair photographs, and activities are described. (DS)

  3. Examination, Analysis, and Application of Hair in Forensic Science - Animal Hair.

    PubMed

    Tridico, S

    2005-01-01

    This article reviews the examination of animal hairs and their role in the forensic arena. The forensic examination of animal hair is a well-established discipline and has been so for two centuries. Examination is largely based on microscopy, which may enable the hair analyst to identify a hair as animal in origin, to characterize the hair to a particular species, and to conduct comparative examinations. Education and training underpin the ability of the hair analyst with the specialized knowledge and expertise required to proficiently conduct these examinations and give appropriate weight to the findings. This article will also discuss the effect two relative "newcomers" have exerted on the forensic examination of animal hair - (a) the transfer and persistence of animal hairs and (b) DNA profiling. Opinions regarding the transfer and persistence of animal hairs have been based on the data obtained from studies conducted on textile fibers because of the lack of data available for animal hairs. Preliminary studies conducted specifically on the transfer and persistence of animal hairs has shown that the results are comparable to the studies conducted on textile fibers. The progress in DNA profiling has seen this method being used with increasing frequency in the examination of animal hair. The results provide a degree of individualization that has not been possible with comparative microscopy. In conclusion, this review article will clearly demonstrate the role, value, and eclectic application of animal hair examination to forensic science. PMID:26257108

  4. Integrating cortisol and isotopic analyses of archeological hair: reconstructing individual experiences of health and stress.

    PubMed

    Webb, Emily C; White, Christine D; Van Uum, Stan; Longstaffe, Fred J

    2015-04-01

    Archeological hair from 14 adults from the Nasca Region, Peru (c. AD1-1000) was analyzed for carbon and nitrogen isotopic compositions and cortisol levels. We investigated the relationship between isotopic compositions, which reflect diet, and cortisol, which reflects biogenic cortisol production and chronic stress. Using a case study approach, we determined that there are consistent changes in cortisol production associated with the rapid dietary change characteristic of local mobility. Moreover, changes in nitrogen- and carbon-isotope compositions, when integrated with cortisol levels, enabled inferences to be made about nitrogen metabolism and carbon routing, and elucidated the nature of potential stressors in the months before death. The isotopic and cortisol data suggested a relatively high rate of exposure to stress that is consistent with what is known about the Nasca Region social and physical environments. Of the 14 adults included in this study, six likely suffered from illness/trauma before death, and a further three experienced stress without an observable associated change in isotopic composition. Five individuals also experienced increased stress related to local mobility, inferred from co-occurring changes in cortisol production and dietary shifting. The integration of cortisol and isotopic data revealed individual characteristics of hidden frailty and risk that would not be apparent using more traditional methods of evaluating health status. This approach will provide a powerful enhancement to the understanding of stress, morbidity, and well-being developed through skeletal analysis. PMID:25470601

  5. Forensic DNA-typing of dog hair: DNA-extraction and PCR amplification.

    PubMed

    Pfeiffer, I; Völkel, I; Täubert, H; Brenig, B

    2004-05-10

    The forensic application of DNA-typing for the identification of dog hair provides objective evidence in the characterisation of traces found at crime scenes. During the past few years forensic dog identity testing has been improved considerably using multiplex PCR systems. However, DNA-typing from samples of one up to 10 dog hairs is often problematic in forensic science. A single dog hair contains very small quantities of DNA or the hair sample consists of hairs with roots of bad quality or even of broken hairshafts without roots. Here we describe an experimental study about dog hairs by means of a Ca(2+) improved DNA-extraction method, quantification and amplification. PMID:15062955

  6. In situ labeling of DNA reveals interindividual variation in nuclear DNA breakdown in hair and may be useful to predict success of forensic genotyping of hair.

    PubMed

    Szabo, Sandra; Jaeger, Karin; Fischer, Heinz; Tschachler, Erwin; Parson, Walther; Eckhart, Leopold

    2012-01-01

    Hair fibers are formed by keratinocytes of the hair follicle in a process that involves the breakdown of the nucleus including DNA. Accordingly, DNA can be isolated with high yield from the hair bulb which contains living keratinocytes, whereas it is difficult to prepare from the distal portions of hair fibers and from shed hair. Nevertheless, forensic investigations are successful in a fraction of shed hair samples found at crime scenes. Here, we report that interindividual differences in the completeness of DNA removal from hair corneocytes are major determinants of DNA content and success rates of forensic investigations of hair. Distal hair samples were permeabilized with ammonia and incubated with the DNA-specific dye Hoechst 33258 to label DNA in situ. Residual nuclear DNA was visualized under the fluorescence microscope. Hair from some donors did not contain any stainable nuclei, whereas hair of other donors contained a variable number of DNA-positive nuclear remnants. The number of DNA-containing nuclear remnants per millimeter of hair correlated with the amount of DNA that could be extracted and amplified by quantitative PCR. When individual hairs were investigated, only hairs in which DNA could be labeled in situ gave positive results in short tandem repeat typing. This study reveals that the completeness of DNA degradation during cornification of the hair is a polymorphic trait. Furthermore, our results suggest that in situ labeling of DNA in hair may be useful for predicting the probability of success of forensic analysis of nuclear DNA in shed hair. PMID:21475959

  7. Forensic species identification of elephant (Elephantidae) and giraffe (Giraffidae) tail hair using light microscopy.

    PubMed

    Yates, Bonnie C; Espinoza, Edgard O; Baker, Barry W

    2010-09-01

    Here we present methods for distinguishing tail hairs of African elephants (Loxodonta africana), Asian elephants (Elephas maximus), and giraffes (Giraffa camelopardalis) from forensic contexts. Such hairs are commonly used to manufacture jewelry artifacts that are often sold illegally in the international wildlife trade. Tail hairs from these three species are easily confused macroscopically, and morphological methods for distinguishing African and Asian tail hairs have not been published. We used cross section analysis and light microscopy to analyze the tail hair morphology of 18 individual African elephants, 18 Asian elephants, and 40 giraffes. We found that cross-sectional shape, pigment placement, and pigment density are useful morphological features for distinguishing the three species. These observations provide wildlife forensic scientists with an important analytical tool for enforcing legislation and international treaties regulating the trade in elephant parts. PMID:20549391

  8. Forensic Hair Differentiation Using Attenuated Total Reflection Fourier Transform Infrared (ATR FT-IR) Spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Manheim, Jeremy; Doty, Kyle C; McLaughlin, Gregory; Lednev, Igor K

    2016-07-01

    Hair and fibers are common forms of trace evidence found at crime scenes. The current methodology of microscopic examination of potential hair evidence is absent of statistical measures of performance, and examiner results for identification can be subjective. Here, attenuated total reflection (ATR) Fourier transform-infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy was used to analyze synthetic fibers and natural hairs of human, cat, and dog origin. Chemometric analysis was used to differentiate hair spectra from the three different species, and to predict unknown hairs to their proper species class, with a high degree of certainty. A species-specific partial least squares discriminant analysis (PLSDA) model was constructed to discriminate human hair from cat and dog hairs. This model was successful in distinguishing between the three classes and, more importantly, all human samples were correctly predicted as human. An external validation resulted in zero false positive and false negative assignments for the human class. From a forensic perspective, this technique would be complementary to microscopic hair examination, and in no way replace it. As such, this methodology is able to provide a statistical measure of confidence to the identification of a sample of human, cat, and dog hair, which was called for in the 2009 National Academy of Sciences report. More importantly, this approach is non-destructive, rapid, can provide reliable results, and requires no sample preparation, making it of ample importance to the field of forensic science. PMID:27412186

  9. Evaluating O, C, and N isotopes in human hair as a forensic tool to reconstruct travel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ehleringer, Jim; Chesson, Lesley; Cerling, Thure; Valenzuela, Luciano

    2014-05-01

    Oxygen isotope ratios in the proteins of human scalp hair have been proposed and modeled as a tool for reconstructing the movements of humans and evaluating the likelihood that an individual is a resident or non-resident of a particular geographic region. Carbon and nitrogen isotope ratios reflect dietary input and complement oxygen isotope data interpretation when it is necessary to distinguish potential location overlap among continents. The combination of a time sequence analysis in hair segments and spatial models that describe predicted geographic variation in hair isotope values represents a potentially powerful tool for forensic investigations. The applications of this technique have thus far been to provide assistance to law enforcement with information on the predicted geographical travel histories of unidentified murder victims. Here we review multiple homicide cases from the USA where stable isotope analysis of hair has been applied and for which we now know the travel histories of the murder victims. Here we provide information on the robustness of the original data sets used to test these models by evaluating the travel histories of randomly collected hair discarded in Utah barbershops.

  10. Consequences of Decontamination Procedures in Forensic Hair Analysis Using Metal-Assisted Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry Analysis.

    PubMed

    Cuypers, Eva; Flinders, Bryn; Boone, Carolien M; Bosman, Ingrid J; Lusthof, Klaas J; Van Asten, Arian C; Tytgat, Jan; Heeren, Ron M A

    2016-03-15

    Today, hair testing is considered to be the standard method for the detection of chronic drug abuse. Nevertheless, the differentiation between systemic exposure and external contamination remains a major challenge in the forensic interpretation of hair analysis. Nowadays, it is still impossible to directly show the difference between external contamination and use-related incorporation. Although the effects of washing procedures on the distribution of (incorporated) drugs in hair remain unknown, these decontamination procedures prior to hair analysis are considered to be indispensable in order to exclude external contamination. However, insights into the effect of decontamination protocols on levels and distribution of drugs incorporated in hair are essential to draw the correct forensic conclusions from hair analysis; we studied the consequences of these procedures on the spatial distribution of cocaine in hair using imaging mass spectrometry. Additionally, using metal-assisted secondary ion mass spectrometry, we are the first to directly show the difference between cocaine-contaminated and user hair without any prior washing procedure. PMID:26878081

  11. The genetics of skin, hair, and eye color variation and its relevance to forensic pigmentation predictive tests.

    PubMed

    Maroñas, O; Söchtig, J; Ruiz, Y; Phillips, C; Carracedo, Á; Lareu, M V

    2015-01-01

    This review examines the potential application of single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP)-based predictive tests for skin, hair, and eye color to forensic analysis in support of police investigations lacking DNA database matches or eyewitness testimony. Brief descriptions of the biology of melanogenesis and the main genes involved are presented in order to understand the basis of common pigmentation variation in humans. We outline the most recently developed forensically sensitive multiplex tests that can be applied to investigative analyses. The review also describes the biology of the SNPs with the closest associations to, and therefore the best predictors for, common variation in eye, hair, and skin pigmentation. Because pigmentation pathways are complex in their patterns, many of the better-studied human albinism traits provide insight into how pigmentation SNPs interact, control, or modify gene expression and show varying degrees of association with the key genes identified to date. These aspects of SNP action are discussed in an overview of each of the functional groups of pigmentation genes. PMID:26227136

  12. Archeology in the Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Danes, Lois M. J.

    1981-01-01

    Summarizes archeological activities associated with the Danes School Archeology Project in New Bern, North Carolina, which provided students in grades six through nine with experiences in working on an archeological dig site. (CS)

  13. Improved liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometric method for the determination of ethyl glucuronide concentrations in hair: applications to forensic cases.

    PubMed

    Imbert, Laurent; Gaulier, Jean-Michel; Dulaurent, Sylvain; Morichon, Julien; Bevalot, Fabien; Izac, Paul; Lachâtre, Gérard

    2014-01-01

    Ethyl glucuronide (EtG) is a direct marker of ethanol consumption, and its assay in hair is an efficient tool for chronic alcoholism diagnosis. In 2012, the Society of Hair Testing proposed a new consensus for hair concentrations interpretation, strongly advising the use of analytical methods providing a limit of quantification of less than 3 pg/mg. The present work describes the optimization and validation of a previously developed liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometric method in order to comply with this recommendation. The concentration range of this improved method is from 3 to 1,000 pg/mg. Some cases are then described to illustrate the usefulness of hair EtG: a forensic post-mortem case and two cases of suspension of driving licences. Finally, hair samples of some teetotallers (n = 10) have been analyzed, which allowed neither to quantitate nor to detect any trace of EtG. PMID:23824336

  14. Archeological Surveys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    NASA remote sensing technology is being employed in archeological studies of the Anasazi Indians, who lived in New Mexico one thousand years ago. Under contract with the National Park Service, NASA's Technology Applications Center at the University of New Mexico is interpreting multispectral scanner data and demonstrating how aerospace scanning techniques can uncover features of prehistoric ruins not visible in conventional aerial photographs. The Center's initial study focused on Chaco Canyon, a pre-Columbia Anasazi site in northeastern New Mexico. Chaco Canyon is a national monument and it has been well explored on the ground and by aerial photography. But the National Park Service was interested in the potential of multispectral scanning for producing evidence of prehistoric roads, field patterns and dwelling areas not discernible in aerial photographs. The multispectral scanner produces imaging data in the invisible as well as the visible portions of the spectrum. This data is converted to pictures which bring out features not visible to the naked eye or to cameras. The Technology Applications Center joined forces with Bendix Aerospace Systems Division, Ann Arbor, Michigan, which provided a scanner-equipped airplane for mapping the Chaco Canyon area. The NASA group processed the scanner images and employed computerized image enhancement techniques to bring out additional detail.

  15. Purification of nuclear DNA from single hair shafts for DNA analysis in forensic sciences.

    PubMed

    Nozawa, H; Yamamoto, T; Uchihi, R; Yoshimoto, T; Tamaki, K; Hayashi, S; Ozawa, T; Katsumata, Y

    1999-04-01

    The typing of nuclear DNA from hair shafts has often been unsuccessful to date. We tried to type one of the nuclear DNA loci, HLA-DQA1, from hair shafts, using an efficient cetyl-trimethyl ammonium bromide (CTAB) precipitation for DNA purification and a sensitive semi-nested PCR. After thorough washing with ethanol and water, hair shafts were digested by proteinase K in the presence of dithiothreitol, followed by a purification step including CTAB-DNA precipitation. The specific region of HLA-DQA1 gene was amplified by the semi-nested PCR, and the amplified products were cloned and sequenced. The HLA-DQA1 genotype was determined by comparing the sequence to the known sequence of each allele. All genotypes of HLA-DQA1 were successfully typed with hair shafts from six known heterozygotes, although one of them showed the predominant appearance of one allele. For correct typing, a template DNA equivalent to a hair shaft of 5 or 10 cm in length was necessary. Without the CTAB-DNA precipitation step, DNA extract from such hair shafts inevitably contains enough melanin to inhibit PCR. The present results suggest that hair shafts can be used for the typing of nuclear DNA loci. PMID:12935496

  16. Identification and quantification of 35 psychotropic drugs and metabolites in hair by LC-MS/MS: application in forensic toxicology.

    PubMed

    Maublanc, Julie; Dulaurent, Sylvain; Morichon, Julien; Lachâtre, Gérard; Gaulier, Jean-michel

    2015-03-01

    Despite a non-invasive sampling, hair samples are generally collected in limited amounts for an obvious esthetic reason. In order to reduce the required quantity of samples, a multianalytes method allowing simultaneous identification and quantification of 35 psychoactive drugs was developed. After incubation of 50 mg of hair in a phosphate buffer pH 5 for one night at room temperature, the substances of interest were extracted by a simple liquid-liquid extraction step, with a dichloromethane/ether mixture (70:30, v/v). After evaporation under a gentle stream of nitrogen and reconstitution in formate buffer (2 mM, pH 3)/acetonitrile (90:10, v/v), twenty microliter were injected into the LC-MS/MS system for a chromatographic run of 29 min using an Atlantis T3 column (150 × 2.1 mm, 3 μm) (Waters Corp, Milford, USA) and a gradient mixture of 2 mM, pH 3.0 ammonium formate, and 2 mM, pH 3.0 ammonium formate/acetonitrile. The data acquisition was performed in scheduled MRM mode. Intra- and inter-day precisions, estimated using the coefficient of variation and relative bias, were lower than 20 % for all concentration levels, except for two compounds. The limits of detection and quantification ranged from 0.5 to 10 pg/mg. After complete validation, this method has been successfully used in several forensic cases, three of which are reported. PMID:24777658

  17. Validation of a headspace solid-phase microextraction-GC-MS/MS for the determination of ethyl glucuronide in hair according to forensic guidelines.

    PubMed

    Agius, Ronald; Nadulski, Thomas; Kahl, Hans-Gerhard; Schräder, Johannes; Dufaux, Bertin; Yegles, Michel; Pragst, Fritz

    2010-03-20

    The analysis of ethyl glucuronide (EtG) in hair is a powerful tool for chronic alcohol abuse control because of the typical wide detection window of the hair matrix and due to the possibility of segmentation, allowing evaluation of alcohol consumption in different periods. Additionally, EtG in hair is often the only diagnostic parameter of choice for alcohol abuse when other clinical parameters such as ALT, AST, gammaGT and CDT (asialotransferrin and disialotransferrin) are in the normal range and EtG in urine negative. In this paper, we describe the development, optimization and validation of a new method based on hair extraction with water, clean-up by solid phase extraction (SPE), derivatization with heptafluorobutyric anhydride and headspace solid-phase microextraction (HS-SPME) in combination with GC-MS/MS according to forensic guidelines. The assay linearity of EtG was confirmed over the range from 2.8 to 1000 pg/mg hair, with a coefficient of determination (r(2)) above 0.999. The LLOQ was 2.8 pg/mg and the LLOD was 0.6 pg/mg. An error profile calculated according to the "Guide to the Expression of Uncertainty in Measurement" (GUM) at 99% confidence intervals for the range 5-750 pg/mg hair did not exceed 10%. This range corresponds to more than 98% of the positive samples analysed. PMID:20061100

  18. Is interstellar archeology possible?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carrigan, Richard A.

    2012-09-01

    Searching for signatures of cosmic-scale archeological artifacts such as Dyson spheres is an interesting alternative to conventional radio SETI. Uncovering such an artifact does not require the intentional transmission of a signal on the part of the original civilization. This type of search is called interstellar archeology or sometimes cosmic archeology. A variety of interstellar archeology signatures is discussed including non-natural planetary atmospheric constituents, stellar doping, Dyson spheres, as well as signatures of stellar, and galactic-scale engineering. The concept of a Fermi bubble due to interstellar migration is reviewed in the discussion of galactic signatures. These potential interstellar archeological signatures are classified using the Kardashev scale. A modified Drake equation is introduced. With few exceptions interstellar archeological signatures are clouded and beyond current technological capabilities. However SETI for so-called cultural transmissions and planetary atmosphere signatures are within reach.

  19. NATIONAL ARCHEOLOGICAL DATA BASE

    EPA Science Inventory

    NADB_quads_nynj.shp was derived from tables in the National Archeological Database (NADB). The following was excerted from the NADB web page at "http://web.cast.uark.edu/other/nps/nadb/nadb.mul.html" : "The National Archeological Database, Reports module, is an e...

  20. INL Archeology Tour

    SciTech Connect

    2010-01-01

    Check out this tour of the Idaho National Laboratory's archeological sites. The lab sits on 890-square miles of land and contains numerous archeological artifacts. Lots more content like this is available at INL's facebook page http://www.facebook.com/idahonationallaboratory.

  1. INL Archeology Tour

    ScienceCinema

    None

    2013-05-28

    Check out this tour of the Idaho National Laboratory's archeological sites. The lab sits on 890-square miles of land and contains numerous archeological artifacts. Lots more content like this is available at INL's facebook page http://www.facebook.com/idahonationallaboratory.

  2. Simultaneous determination of LSD and 2-oxo-3-hydroxy LSD in hair and urine by LC-MS/MS and its application to forensic cases.

    PubMed

    Jang, Moonhee; Kim, Jihyun; Han, Inhoi; Yang, Wonkyung

    2015-11-10

    Lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD) is administered in low dosages, which makes its detection in biological matrices a major challenge in forensic toxicology. In this study, two sensitive and reliable methods based on liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) were established and validated for the simultaneous determination of LSD and its metabolite, 2-oxo-3-hydroxy-LSD (O-H-LSD), in hair and urine. Target analytes in hair were extracted using methanol at 38°C for 15h and analyzed by LC-MS/MS. For urine sample preparation, liquid-liquid extraction was performed. Limits of detection (LODs) in hair were 0.25pg/mg for LSD and 0.5pg/mg for O-H-LSD. In urine, LODs were 0.01 and 0.025ng/ml for LSD and O-H-LSD, respectively. Method validation results showed good linearity and acceptable precision and accuracy. The developed methods were applied to authentic specimens from two legal cases of LSD ingestion, and allowed identification and quantification of LSD and O-H-LSD in the specimens. In the two cases, LSD concentrations in hair were 1.27 and 0.95pg/mg; O-H-LSD was detected in one case, but its concentration was below the limit of quantification. In urine samples collected from the two suspects 8 and 3h after ingestion, LSD concentrations were 0.48 and 2.70ng/ml, respectively, while O-H-LSD concentrations were 4.19 and 25.2ng/ml, respectively. These methods can be used for documenting LSD intake in clinical and forensic settings. PMID:26188861

  3. Determination of bromazepam, clonazepam and metabolites after a single intake in urine and hair by LC-MS/MS. Application to forensic cases of drug facilitated crimes.

    PubMed

    Chèze, Marjorie; Villain, Marion; Pépin, Gilbert

    2004-10-29

    The number of reports on drug facilitated crimes is increasing these last years. Apart from ethanol and cannabis, benzodiazepines (BZD) and analogs are the most common drugs reported to be used probably due to their amnesic and sedative properties. We have developed a rapid and sensitive method using LC-MS/MS triple stage quadrupole (TSQ) for the determination of single exposure to bromazepam (Lexomil, 6 mg) and clonazepam (Rivotril, 2 mg) in urine and hair of healthy volunteers. Chromatography was carried out on a Uptisphere ODB 5 microm, 2.1 mm x 150 mm column (Interchim) with a gradient of acetonitrile and formate 2 mM buffer, pH 3. Urine was extracted with Toxitube A (Varian) and allowed the detection of bromazepam, 3-hydroxy-bromazepam, clonazepam and 7-Aminoclonazepam for more than 6 days. Head hair, collected 1 month after the exposure, was treated by incubation with Soerensen buffer pH 7.6, followed by liquid-liquid extraction with dichloromethane for common BZD. A specific pre-treatment for amino-BZD, with an incubation of 15 min at 95 degrees C in 0.1 N NaOH before liquid-liquid extraction with dichloromethane, gave better recoveries and repeatability. After single exposure, bromazepam was present in powdered hair at 28 pg/mg and 7-Aminoclonazepam at 22 pg/mg in the first 1-cm segment, while no clonazepam was detectable. This method was applied in two forensic cases. It allowed us to determine bromazepam in urine 3 days after the alleged offense and in cut head hair at a concentration of 6.7 pg/mg only in the 2-cm proximal segment. The other case showed the presence of clonazepam and 7-Aminoclonazepam in urine a few hours after the offense and the presence of 7-Aminoclonazepam at about 3.2 pg/mg in axillary hair 4 months later. PMID:15451083

  4. Archeological/Environmental Research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    Landsat/Seasat remote sensing was used by Ames Research Center to evaluate environmental influence on ancient Mayan civilization. Over 35 archeological sites were imaged and valuable information concerning Maya settlement patterns, environment, and resource usage resulted. The imagery was also used by Mexican authorities to develop coastal management plans, establish Biosphere Reserves and assess damage from the 1988 Hurricane Gilbert. Imagery showed evidence of ancient coastlines, changes in sea level, an ancient river plain and Mayan canal systems. Previously unknown Mayan reservoirs were discovered. The project is considered a pioneering effort combining remote sensing, environmental studies and archeology.

  5. Archeology and the Federal Government.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, George S., Comp.; And Others

    1988-01-01

    The U.S. Government's concern for preservation of important archeological properties began during the 19th century in response to the destruction and looting of Indian ruins in the U.S. Southwest. Since that time, the breadth of this concern has grown to include the consideration of impact to archeological properties, as well as to other kinds of…

  6. [Forensic entomology].

    PubMed

    Açikgöz, Halide Nihal

    2010-01-01

    Odour of the animal or human corpses immediately after death is very attractive for insects and other invertebrates. Blue and green bottle flies from the Calliphoridae family are the first colonizers of cadaver and immediately later necrophagous Diptera from the Sarcophagidae family settle on the same corpse. It is essential to determine the time past after death for elucidating the event in case of the homicide or suspicious death, and it is directly proportional to the post mortem interval expected time, which is based upon the speed of the larval growth. In this article, we purposed to stress the special interest of forensic entomology for the scientists who will apply this science in their forensic researches and case studies, and also to provide information to our judges, prosecutors and law enforcement agents in order to consider the entomological samples to be reliable and applicable evidences as biological stains and hairs. We are of the opinion that if any forensic entomologist is called to the crime scene or if the evidences are collected and then delivered to an entomologist, the forensic cases will be elucidated faster and more accurately. PMID:20954127

  7. Archeology in the Classroom: A Case Study From Arizona. Archeological Assistance Program Technical Brief No. 4.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rogge, A. E.; Bell, Patti

    The federal archeological community views public outreach programs as necessary for the continued preservation of archeological resources. This technical brief outlines ways to have archeology programs in the public schools. The efforts of the Arizona Archeological Council (AAC) to place archeological concepts and values within the context of the…

  8. Archeology and Storytelling. [Lesson Plan].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lamb, Sandy; Lamb, Jay

    This lesson plan presents activities designed to help students understand that both individual families and whole cultures learn about their pasts by collecting and analyzing stories and artifacts; and that not all archeological finds readily reveal their history to archeologists. The main activity in the lesson involves students in making an oral…

  9. The Koster Expedition and the New Archeology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Struever, Stuart

    1975-01-01

    Describes archeology as a discipline and explains the interdisciplinary approach being used to explore the Koster excavations in Illinois. Four programs involving direct student participation in archeological research are outlined as well as the major findings at Koster and their contribution to interdisciplinary archeology. (BR)

  10. Hair transplant

    MedlinePlus

    ... this procedure: Scarring Unnatural-looking tufts of new hair growth It is possible that the transplanted hair will ... Most hair transplants result in excellent hair growth within several ... may be needed to create best results. The replaced hairs are ...

  11. Body Hair

    MedlinePlus

    ... girlshealth.gov/ Home Body Puberty Body hair Body hair Even before you get your first period , you ... removing pubic hair Ways to get rid of hair top Removing body hair can cause skin irritation, ...

  12. USGS42 and USGS43: human-hair stable hydrogen and oxygen isotopic reference materials and analytical methods for forensic science and implications for published measurement results.

    PubMed

    Coplen, Tyler B; Qi, Haiping

    2012-01-10

    Because there are no internationally distributed stable hydrogen and oxygen isotopic reference materials of human hair, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) has prepared two such materials, USGS42 and USGS43. These reference materials span values commonly encountered in human hair stable isotope analysis and are isotopically homogeneous at sample sizes larger than 0.2 mg. USGS42 and USGS43 human-hair isotopic reference materials are intended for calibration of δ(2)H and δ(18)O measurements of unknown human hair by quantifying (1) drift with time, (2) mass-dependent isotopic fractionation, and (3) isotope-ratio-scale contraction. While they are intended for measurements of the stable isotopes of hydrogen and oxygen, they also are suitable for measurements of the stable isotopes of carbon, nitrogen, and sulfur in human and mammalian hair. Preliminary isotopic compositions of the non-exchangeable fractions of these materials are USGS42(Tibetan hair)δ(2)H(VSMOW-SLAP) = -78.5 ± 2.3‰ (n = 62) and δ(18)O(VSMOW-SLAP) = +8.56 ± 0.10‰ (n = 18) USGS42(Indian hair)δ(2)H(VSMOW-SLAP) = -50.3 ± 2.8‰ (n = 64) and δ(18)O(VSMOW-SLAP) = +14.11 ± 0.10‰ (n = 18). Using recommended analytical protocols presented herein for δ(2)H(VSMOW-SLAP) and δ(18)O(VSMOW-SLAP) measurements, the least squares fit regression of 11 human hair reference materials is δ(2)H(VSMOW-SLAP) = 6.085δ(2)O(VSMOW-SLAP) - 136.0‰ with an R-square value of 0.95. The δ(2)H difference between the calibrated results of human hair in this investigation and a commonly accepted human-hair relationship is a remarkable 34‰. It is critical that readers pay attention to the δ(2)H(VSMOW-SLAP) and δ(18)O(VSMOW-SLAP) of isotopic reference materials in publications, and they need to adjust the δ(2)H(VSMOW-SLAP) and δ(18)O(VSMOW-SLAP) measurement results of human hair in previous publications, as needed, to ensure all results on are on the same scales. PMID:21852055

  13. USGS42 and USGS43: Human-hair stable hydrogen and oxygen isotopic reference materials and analytical methods for forensic science and implications for published measurement results

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Coplen, T.B.; Qi, H.

    2012-01-01

    Because there are no internationally distributed stable hydrogen and oxygen isotopic reference materials of human hair, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) has prepared two such materials, USGS42 and USGS43. These reference materials span values commonly encountered in human hair stable isotope analysis and are isotopically homogeneous at sample sizes larger than 0.2 mg. USGS42 and USGS43 human-hair isotopic reference materials are intended for calibration of δ(2)H and δ(18)O measurements of unknown human hair by quantifying (1) drift with time, (2) mass-dependent isotopic fractionation, and (3) isotope-ratio-scale contraction. While they are intended for measurements of the stable isotopes of hydrogen and oxygen, they also are suitable for measurements of the stable isotopes of carbon, nitrogen, and sulfur in human and mammalian hair. Preliminary isotopic compositions of the non-exchangeable fractions of these materials are USGS42(Tibetan hair)δ(2)H(VSMOW-SLAP) = -78.5 ± 2.3‰ (n = 62) and δ(18)O(VSMOW-SLAP) = +8.56 ± 0.10‰ (n = 18) USGS42(Indian hair)δ(2)H(VSMOW-SLAP) = -50.3 ± 2.8‰ (n = 64) and δ(18)O(VSMOW-SLAP) = +14.11 ± 0.10‰ (n = 18). Using recommended analytical protocols presented herein for δ(2)H(VSMOW-SLAP) and δ(18)O(VSMOW-SLAP) measurements, the least squares fit regression of 11 human hair reference materials is δ(2)H(VSMOW-SLAP) = 6.085δ(2)O(VSMOW-SLAP) - 136.0‰ with an R-square value of 0.95. The δ(2)H difference between the calibrated results of human hair in this investigation and a commonly accepted human-hair relationship is a remarkable 34‰. It is critical that readers pay attention to the δ(2)H(VSMOW-SLAP) and δ(18)O(VSMOW-SLAP) of isotopic reference materials in publications, and they need to adjust the δ(2)H(VSMOW-SLAP) and δ(18)O(VSMOW-SLAP) measurement results of human hair in previous publications, as needed, to ensure all results on are on the same scales.

  14. [Psychoanalysis between archeology and history].

    PubMed

    Vichyn, B

    1993-01-01

    Using the Freudian metaphor of psychoanalysis as archeology, we can identify several "archeologies" in the past of psychoanalysis: in the activities of non-analysts who, as practitioners, dug into the past of Freud, and of analysts who, as laboratory scientists, limited themselves to assembling concepts. We then compared these heterogeneous archeologies, be they scholarly, commonplace, or even scandalous, to the practice of the history of psychoanalysis initiated by Freud and continued by his disciples. The hagiography and more generally, the secrecy that surrounded certain parts of Freud's life and certain of his theories were demolished by the arrival of non-analyst historians, little concerned with preserving the aims that psychoanalysis, for self-preserving reasons, kept alive despite its ideal of a lack of purpose. The analysts, mediocre archeologists in the field, were compensated by their science of assembling piecemeal ideas. On the other hand, in the role of historian, of those who recount, the analysts were not well served by their techniques, coming as they did from the field of psychoanalysis. Thanks to this four-way comparison, archaeologist analysts, non-analyst archaeologists, analyst historians, and non-analyst historians, we can attempt to sketch several conclusions for a methodology of the psychoanalytical history of psychoanalysis. PMID:11640417

  15. Forensic Science.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brettell, T. A.; Saferstein, R.

    1989-01-01

    Presents a review of articles appealing to forensic practitioners. Topics include: drugs and poisons, forensic biochemistry, and trace evidence. Lists noteworthy books published on forensic science topics since 1986. (MVL)

  16. Forensics in dermatology: part II.

    PubMed

    Reddy, Kalpana; Lowenstein, Eve J

    2011-05-01

    The evaluation of skin findings is critical in identifying many types of injury, whether self- inflicted or accidentally or intentionally inflicted. Specific causes of injury include homicide, abuse, neglect, assault, self-inflicted injury, suicide, torture, poisoning, and bioterrorism. Forensic findings in hair and nails are also discussed. This overview of dermatologic findings in forensic pathology highlights the significance of the cutaneous manifestations of injury. PMID:21496700

  17. Forensics Investigator

    MedlinePlus

    ... Careers Career Profiles Forensics Investigator Overview Description Forensic science technicians investigate crimes by collecting and analyzing physical evidence. Often, they specialize in areas such as ...

  18. Hair Care

    MedlinePlus

    ... Body Looking and feeling your best Hair care Hair care Short, long, curly, straight, up, down. Hair options can seem endless! Not all of what makes your hair look good comes from the outside, though. Good ...

  19. Oily hair

    MedlinePlus

    Hair - oily ... are some tips for preventing and treating oily hair: Shampoo your hair every day. Leaving the shampoo on your head ... minutes before rinsing may help. Avoid brushing your hair too often or too vigorously, since the brushing ...

  20. Hair Transplants

    MedlinePlus

    ... How to Choose the Best Skin Care Products Hair Transplants What are hair transplants? In punch transplanting, a plug containing hair ... What should first be done before considering a hair transplant? Before the procedure, an ASDS doctor will ...

  1. State Archeology Weeks: Interpreting Archeology for the Public. Technical Brief No. 15.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greengrass, Mara

    This technical brief considers archeological education and outreach. The brief summarizes approaches and program successes from states across the country that have sponsored an archeology week. It also includes new information on these programs. The brief suggests that the benefits from archeology week include enhancing public understanding of…

  2. Archeological methodology and remote sensing.

    PubMed

    Gumerman, G J; Lyons, T R

    1971-04-01

    We have shown that the different spectral surveying techniques and the resultant imagery vary in their applicability to archeological prediction and exploration, but their applications are far broader than we have indicated. Their full potential, to a considerable extent, still remains unexplored. Table 1 is a chart of the more common sensor systems useful to archeological investigators. Several kinds of photography, thermal infrared imagery, and radar imagery are listed. Checks in various categories of direct and indirect utility in archeological research indicate that the different systems do provide varying degrees of input for studies in these areas. Photography and multispectral photography have the broadest applications in this field. Standard black-and-white aerial photography generally serves the purposes of archeological exploration and site analysis better than infrared scanner imagery, radar, or color photography. However, the real value of remotesensing experimentation lies in the utilization of different instruments and in the comparison and correlation of their data output. It can be stated without doubt that there is no one all-purpose remotesensing device on which the archeologist can rely that will reveal all evidence of human occupations. Remote-sensing data will not replace the traditional ground-based site survey, but, used judiciously, data gathered from aerial reconnaissance can reveal many cultural features unsuspected from the ground. The spectral properties of sites distinguishable by various types of remote sensors may perhaps be one of their most characteristic features, and yet the meaning of the differential discrimnination of features has not been determined for the most part, since such spectral properties are poorly understood at this date. The difficulty in isolating the causes of acceptable definition in certain portion of the spectrum and the lack of acceptable definition in others suggests that the evaluation of remote

  3. Hi-Tech for Archeology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1987-01-01

    Remote sensing is the process of acquiring physical information from a distance, obtaining data on Earth features from a satellite or an airplane. Advanced remote sensing instruments detect radiations not visible to the ordinary camera or the human eye in several bands of the spectrum. These data are computer processed to produce multispectral images that can provide enormous amounts of information about Earth objects or phenomena. Since every object on Earth emits or reflects radiation in its own unique signature, remote sensing data can be interpreted to tell the difference between one type of vegetation and another, between densely populated urban areas and lightly populated farmland, between clear and polluted water or in the archeological application between rain forest and hidden man made structures.

  4. Forensic Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cobb, P. G. W.

    1973-01-01

    Summarizes the type of work carried out by forensic chemists and the minimum qualification needed for appointment. Indicates that there are eight Home Office regional forensic science laboratories in addition to the Central Research Establishment at Aldermaston. (CC)

  5. Forensic Chemistry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bell, Suzanne

    2009-07-01

    Forensic chemistry is unique among chemical sciences in that its research, practice, and presentation must meet the needs of both the scientific and the legal communities. As such, forensic chemistry research is applied and derivative by nature and design, and it emphasizes metrology (the science of measurement) and validation. Forensic chemistry has moved away from its analytical roots and is incorporating a broader spectrum of chemical sciences. Existing forensic practices are being revisited as the purview of forensic chemistry extends outward from drug analysis and toxicology into such diverse areas as combustion chemistry, materials science, and pattern evidence.

  6. Hair Removal

    MedlinePlus

    ... maintain a steady temperature by providing some insulation. Terminal hair is coarser, darker, and longer than vellus ... hair that grows on your head. Around puberty, terminal hair starts to grow in the armpits and ...

  7. Hair transplant

    MedlinePlus

    Hair restoration ... MR, Keene SA, Stough DB, Rogers NE. Hair restoration. In: Bolognia JL, Jorizzo JL, Schaffer JV, eds. ... Elsevier Saunders; 2012:chap 157. Fisher J. Hair restoration. In: Neligan PC, ed. Plastic Surgery . 3rd ed. ...

  8. Dry hair

    MedlinePlus

    Some causes of dry hair are: Anorexia nervosa Excessive hair washing, or using harsh soaps or alcohols Excessive blow-drying Dry air Menkes kinky hair syndrome Malnutrition Underactive parathyroid ( ...

  9. Hair loss

    MedlinePlus

    ... that is applied to the scalp to stimulate hair growth. Other medicines, such as hormones, may be prescribed to decrease hair loss and promote hair growth. Drugs such as finasteride and dutasteride can be ...

  10. Estimation of sex from the hyoid body in skeletal individuals from archeological sites.

    PubMed

    D'Anastasio, R; Viciano, J; Di Nicola, M; Cesana, D T; Sciubba, M; Del Cimmuto, M; Paolucci, A; Fazio, A; Capasso, L

    2014-08-01

    Recent forensic studies have shown that the hyoid bone is a sexually dimorphic element of the human skeleton. Given the advanced techniques of collecting human remains in archeological and forensic contexts, the recovery of hyoid bones is now more frequent in skeletal samples. For that reason the authors propose a new method for estimating sex based on hyoid bodies from archeological sites. The study has been conducted on well-preserved hyoids of skeletal remains of 64 adult individuals (44 males and 20 females) dated from the pre-Roman to the medieval periods. The authors considered 10 linear measurements of the hyoid body. The most significant measurements showing sexual dimorphism are the body height, body length, and the maximum and minimum diameter of the articular facet for the greater horn. Discriminant function analysis achieved the allocation accuracy between 75.0% and 88.0%, depending on the measurement collected. This method represents a new, useful and easy way for increasing biological information when assessing the sex of adult human remains from an archeological sample. PMID:24767538

  11. 7 CFR 1901.255 - Historical and archeological assessments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 12 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Historical and archeological assessments. 1901.255... Historical and Archeological Properties § 1901.255 Historical and archeological assessments. (a) The FmHA or... preapplication/application review, prepare a historical and archeological assessment of the undertaking....

  12. 7 CFR 1901.255 - Historical and archeological assessments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 12 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Historical and archeological assessments. 1901.255... Historical and Archeological Properties § 1901.255 Historical and archeological assessments. (a) The FmHA or... preapplication/application review, prepare a historical and archeological assessment of the undertaking....

  13. 7 CFR 1901.255 - Historical and archeological assessments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 12 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Historical and archeological assessments. 1901.255... Historical and Archeological Properties § 1901.255 Historical and archeological assessments. (a) The FmHA or... preapplication/application review, prepare a historical and archeological assessment of the undertaking....

  14. 7 CFR 1901.255 - Historical and archeological assessments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 12 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Historical and archeological assessments. 1901.255... Historical and Archeological Properties § 1901.255 Historical and archeological assessments. (a) The FmHA or... preapplication/application review, prepare a historical and archeological assessment of the undertaking....

  15. 7 CFR 1901.255 - Historical and archeological assessments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 12 2014-01-01 2013-01-01 true Historical and archeological assessments. 1901.255... Historical and Archeological Properties § 1901.255 Historical and archeological assessments. (a) The FmHA or... preapplication/application review, prepare a historical and archeological assessment of the undertaking....

  16. Hair Dye and Hair Relaxers

    MedlinePlus

    ... For Consumers Consumer Information by Audience For Women Hair Dye and Hair Relaxers Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More sharing ... products. If you have a bad reaction to hair dyes and relaxers, you should: Stop using the ...

  17. Morphological identification of animal hairs: Myths and misconceptions, possibilities and pitfalls.

    PubMed

    Tridico, S R; Houck, M M; Kirkbride, K Paul; Smith, M E; Yates, B C

    2014-05-01

    The examination of hair collected from crime scenes is an important and highly informative discipline relevant to many forensic investigations. However, the forensic identification of animal (non-human) hairs requires different skill sets and competencies to those required for human hair comparisons. The aim of this is paper is not only to highlight the intrinsic differences between forensic human hair comparison and forensic animal hair identification, but also discuss the utility and reliability of the two in the context of possibilities and pitfalls. It also addresses and dispels some of the more popular myths and misconceptions surrounding the microscopical examination of animal hairs. Furthermore, future directions of this discipline are explored through the proposal of recommendations for minimum standards for the morphological identification of animal hairs and the significance of the newly developed guidelines by SWGWILD is discussed. PMID:24685685

  18. Further evaluation of probabilities in human scalp hair comparisons.

    PubMed

    Wickenheiser, R A; Hepworth, D G

    1990-11-01

    Placing value on associative hair evidence is an integral part of court presentation. A modified repeat of the hair probability study by Gaudette and Keeping has been undertaken, with steps taken to remedy shortcomings of the original work. The results of this study demonstrate that, with the application of rigid selection criteria, the frequency of coincidental matches in forensic science hair comparisons is low. It also demonstrates that routine hair classification is not feasible, because of inconsistency in examiner discrimination. The macroscopic selection of 5 to 13 mutually dissimilar hairs has been shown to be frequently unrepresentative of the microscopic range of features present in a known hair sample. PMID:2262768

  19. Hair transplantation.

    PubMed

    Avram, Marc R

    2012-12-01

    Hair transplantation is a purely dermatologic surgical procedure that dermatologists should be able to perform in appropriate candidates with hair loss. Hair transplantation techniques performed in the 1960s through the 1990s utilized large grafts that created an unfortunate public image of unnatural-appearing transplanted hair. Over the last 15 years, hair transplantation has been performed using follicular units to create consistently natural-looking transplanted hair in both men and women. This article provides an overview of candidate selection and state-of-the-art techniques for performing hair transplantation. PMID:23409484

  20. DNA Fingerprinting Using PCR: A Practical Forensic Science Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Choi, Hyun-Jung; Ahn, Jung Hoon; Ko, Minsu

    2008-01-01

    This paper describes a forensic science simulation programme applicable for use in colleges. Students were asked to find a putative suspect by DNA fingerprinting using a simple protocol developed in this study. DNA samples were obtained from a hair root and a drop of blood, common sources of DNA in forensic science. The DNA fingerprinting protocol…

  1. Forensic applications of microscopical infrared internal reflection spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tungol, Mary W.; Bartick, Edward G.; Reffner, John A.

    1994-01-01

    Applications of microscopical infrared internal reflection spectroscopy in forensic science are discussed. Internal reflection spectra of single fibers, hairs, paint chips, vehicle rubber bumpers, photocopy toners, carbon copies, writing ink on paper, lipstick on tissue, black electrical tape, and other types of forensic evidence have been obtained. The technique is convenient, non-destructive, and may permit smeared materials to be analyzed in situ.

  2. The Red River Valley archeological project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bennett, Jack; Smith, Lawson; Laustrup, Mark

    1986-01-01

    The Red River Valley Archeology Project is a long-term effort involving numerous individuals and institutions engaged in archeological investigations in the Texas and Oklahoma portions of the Red River Valley. To date the focus of the project was on site location. The project acquired both Thermal Infrared Multispectral Scanner (TIMS), TMS, and color infrared photographs over a significant portion of the project area in an effort to define signatures for archeological sites and to assist in the detailed geomorphological mapping of the flood plain. Preliminary analysis of acquired data indicates that both the TIMS and TMS can make a substantial contribution to landform definition, the identification of cultural resources, and to the clarification of site-landform correlations in this riverine environment.

  3. Flame Hair

    PubMed Central

    Miteva, Mariya; Tosti, Antonella

    2015-01-01

    Background ‘Flame hairs’ is a trichoscopic feature described as hair residue from pulling anagen hairs in trichotillomania. Objective: To detect whether flame hairs are present in other hair loss disorders. Methods We retrospectively, independently and blindly reviewed the trichoscopic images of 454 consecutive patients with alopecia areata (99 cases), trichotillomania (n = 20), acute chemotherapy-induced alopecia (n = 6), acute radiotherapy-induced alopecia (n = 2), tinea capitis (n = 13), lichen planopilaris (n = 33), frontal fibrosing alopecia (n = 60), discoid lupus erythematosus (n = 30), dissecting cellulitis (n = 11), central centrifugal cicatricial alopecia (n = 94) and traction alopecia (n = 86) for the presence of flame hairs. We prospectively obtained trichoscopy-guided scalp biopsies from flame hairs in trichotillomania, alopecia areata, traction alopecia and central centrifugal cicatricial alopecia (1 case each). Results Flame hairs were detected in 100% of the acute chemotherapy- and radiotherapy-induced alopecias, where they were the predominant hair abnormality. They were also found in trichotillomania (55%), alopecia areata (21%), traction alopecia (4%) and central centrifugal cicatricial alopecia (3%). On pathology, they corresponded to distorted hair shafts. Conclusion The flame hair is a type of broken hair which can be seen in various hair loss disorders. It results from traumatic pulling of anagen hairs or from anagen arrest due to inflammation or drugs. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel PMID:27171360

  4. Obsidian dating and East african archeology.

    PubMed

    Michels, J W; Tsong, I S; Nelson, C M

    1983-01-28

    New experimental procedures have made it possible to establish specific hydration rates for the numerous compositional types of obsidian to be found at archeological sites in Kenya. Two rates are applied to artifacts from the Prospect Farm site, revealing a history of occupation extending back 120,000 years. PMID:17815303

  5. Using Archeological Data to Model Mathematics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yanik, H. Bahadir; Kurz, Terri L.; Memis, Yasin

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this investigation is to describe an implementation of a modeling task using mock data from an ancient archeological find. Students discover the relationship between the height of a person and his or her stride length. Qualitative data from student discussions document thinking and reasoning.

  6. Field Archeology as a General Elective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Michael, Ronald L.

    1977-01-01

    An archeological field program developed at California State College in Pennsylvania has been restructured to appeal to students as an elective. Four objectives are included: primary research, scientific investigation of culture, portrayal of prehistoric and historic life styles of man, and recognition of cultural ecology. (LBH)

  7. Hair Changes

    MedlinePlus

    ... To get rid of unwanted hair growth: Tweeze, wax or shave, which are all safe during pregnancy. ... To get rid of unwanted hair growth: Tweeze, wax or shave, which are all safe during pregnancy. ...

  8. Hair Loss

    MedlinePlus

    ... may cause hair loss in women. If your hair loss has occurred gradually with advancing age, FOLLICULAR DEGENERATION may be the cause. Post-pregnancy hormone changes usually reverse themselves without any treatment. While follicular degeneration cannot ...

  9. Hair Loss

    MedlinePlus

    ... Common baldness" usually means male-pattern baldness, or permanent-pattern baldness. It is also called androgenetic alopecia. ... will grow back normally. However, scarring can cause permanent hair loss. Hot oil hair treatments or chemicals ...

  10. Hair Loss

    MedlinePlus

    ... are stress, a low protein diet, a family history, or poor nutrition. Treatment for hair loss depends on the cause. In some cases, treating the underlying cause will correct the problem. Other treatments include medicines and hair restoration.

  11. Hair loss

    MedlinePlus

    ... continual hair pulling or scalp rubbing Radiation therapy Tinea capitis (ringworm of the scalp) Tumor of the ovary or ... a plucked hair Skin biopsy If you have ringworm on the scalp, you may be prescribed an ...

  12. Your Hair

    MedlinePlus

    ... someone's hair, the less melanin there is. A person with brown or black hair has much more melanin than someone with ... example, many blondes have light skin, whereas many people with darker skin have dark brown or black hair. And don't forget genes (genes are ...

  13. 48 CFR 436.573 - Archeological or historic sites.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Archeological or historic... Archeological or historic sites. The contracting officer shall insert the clause at 452.236-73, Archeological or Historic Sites, if the contractor will be working in an area where such sites may be found. Use of...

  14. 48 CFR 436.573 - Archeological or historic sites.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Archeological or historic... Archeological or historic sites. The contracting officer shall insert the clause at 452.236-73, Archeological or Historic Sites, if the contractor will be working in an area where such sites may be found. Use of...

  15. 48 CFR 436.573 - Archeological or historic sites.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Archeological or historic... Archeological or historic sites. The contracting officer shall insert the clause at 452.236-73, Archeological or Historic Sites, if the contractor will be working in an area where such sites may be found. Use of...

  16. 48 CFR 436.573 - Archeological or historic sites.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Archeological or historic... Archeological or historic sites. The contracting officer shall insert the clause at 452.236-73, Archeological or Historic Sites, if the contractor will be working in an area where such sites may be found. Use of...

  17. 48 CFR 436.573 - Archeological or historic sites.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Archeological or historic... Archeological or historic sites. The contracting officer shall insert the clause at 452.236-73, Archeological or Historic Sites, if the contractor will be working in an area where such sites may be found. Use of...

  18. 32 CFR 643.29 - Policy-Archeological surveys.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2014-07-01 2013-07-01 true Policy-Archeological surveys. 643.29 Section 643... PROPERTY REAL ESTATE Policy § 643.29 Policy—Archeological surveys. The SA under the authority of 16, 432, may allow the examination of ruins, the excavation of archeological sites, and the gathering...

  19. Forensic Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berry, Keith O.; Nigh, W. G.

    1973-01-01

    A course is described, which was given during an interim, with an enrollment of 41 students. The course involved an in-depth study of forensic science, involving students with the methodology of science. (DF)

  20. Taphonomy of hair--a study of postmortem root banding.

    PubMed

    Koch, Sandra L; Michaud, Amy L; Mikell, Carmenza E

    2013-01-01

    Although it has been generally accepted within the forensic hair community that decompositional changes in the form of an identifiable banding pattern can occur in the root area of hairs after death, little detailed information with regard to this phenomenon is known (e.g., rates at which this occurs and conditions that cause this banding). Hairs were collected daily from bodies placed in water, an air-conditioned environment, an enclosed vehicle, on the surface of the ground, and buried at the University of Tennessee Forensic Anthropology Center. The hairs were examined microscopically and the level of change documented for each environment. The onset of the banding was observed to have been delayed in water, air-conditioning, and cold weather and was hastened by warm weather and within the vehicle. This study provides validation that decomposition does produce varying effects on hair at the proximal portion of a hair root, including a dark band. PMID:23013230

  1. Archeological insights into hominin cognitive evolution.

    PubMed

    Wynn, Thomas; Coolidge, Frederick L

    2016-07-01

    How did the human mind evolve? How and when did we come to think in the ways we do? The last thirty years have seen an explosion in research related to the brain and cognition. This research has encompassed a range of biological and social sciences, from epigenetics and cognitive neuroscience to social and developmental psychology. Following naturally on this efflorescence has been a heightened interest in the evolution of the brain and cognition. Evolutionary scholars, including paleoanthropologists, have deployed the standard array of evolutionary methods. Ethological and experimental evidence has added significantly to our understanding of nonhuman brains and cognition, especially those of nonhuman primates. Studies of fossil brains through endocasts and sophisticated imaging techniques have revealed evolutionary changes in gross neural anatomy. Psychologists have also gotten into the game through application of reverse engineering to experimentally based descriptions of cognitive functions. For hominin evolution, there is another rich source of evidence of cognition, the archeological record. Using the methods of Paleolithic archeology and the theories and models of cognitive science, evolutionary cognitive archeology documents developments in the hominin mind that would otherwise be inaccessible. PMID:27519459

  2. Root Hairs

    PubMed Central

    Grierson, Claire; Nielsen, Erik; Ketelaarc, Tijs; Schiefelbein, John

    2014-01-01

    Roots hairs are cylindrical extensions of root epidermal cells that are important for acquisition of nutrients, microbe interactions, and plant anchorage. The molecular mechanisms involved in the specification, differentiation, and physiology of root hairs in Arabidopsis are reviewed here. Root hair specification in Arabidopsis is determined by position-dependent signaling and molecular feedback loops causing differential accumulation of a WD-bHLH-Myb transcriptional complex. The initiation of root hairs is dependent on the RHD6 bHLH gene family and auxin to define the site of outgrowth. Root hair elongation relies on polarized cell expansion at the growing tip, which involves multiple integrated processes including cell secretion, endomembrane trafficking, cytoskeletal organization, and cell wall modifications. The study of root hair biology in Arabidopsis has provided a model cell type for insights into many aspects of plant development and cell biology. PMID:24982600

  3. [Hair colorants].

    PubMed

    Urbanek-Karłowska, B; Luks, E; Jedra, M; Kiss, E; Malanowska, M

    1997-01-01

    The properties, mode of action and its duration of the preparations used for hair dyeing are described, together with their chemical components, and also preparations of herbal origin. The chemical reactions are described in detail which lead the development of a color polymer occurring during hair dyeing. The studies are presented which are used for toxicological assessment of the raw materials which are the components of the colorants, and the list is included of hair colorants permitted for use in Poland. PMID:9562811

  4. Forensic pedology, forensic geology, forensic geoscience, geoforensics and soil forensics.

    PubMed

    Ruffell, Alastair

    2010-10-10

    We now have a confusing set of five commonly used terms for the application of Earth evidence in forensic science. This confusion is resulting in Earth scientists who use these methods mentioning different terms, sometimes for the same type of study. Likewise, forensic scientists, police/law enforcement officers and those employed by courts of law are becoming confused as to what each term means. A nomenclatural framework (based on the first use of each term) is proposed to encourage consistency in the use of terminology. Generally, the number of Earth science applications has grown through time, from soil and sediment analysis to remote sensing and GIS. The issue of where forensic biology and microbiology sits with these uses of Earth evidence is considered. PMID:20430544

  5. Forensic Analysis of Cathinones.

    PubMed

    Gautam, L; Shanmuganathan, A; Cole, M D

    2013-03-01

    In the past decade there has been a significant increase in the popularity of synthetic cathinones in the illegal drug market. They have been easily available from Internet-based vendors as well as at "head shops" and "smart shops". The recent prominence of synthetic cathinones can be attributed to their stimulatory properties similar to those of amphetamines. This paper provides a review on the current popular cathinone derivatives, their history and prevalence in the illegal drug market, legislation of these drugs in various countries, pharmacology, toxicology, and metabolism studies, analysis of toxicology samples (blood, urine, and hair) and criminalistic samples (seized, purchased via the Internet, and synthesized). From the reviewed literature, it is concluded that the products sold as "legal highs" do not only contain cathinone but also cathinone derivatives, and adulterants such as caffeine, lidocaine, and inorganic materials. Full toxicity data is currently unavailable for this drug class and hence more research is required with regard to their analysis and metabolism. Moreover, clandestine chemists are constantly synthesizing new derivatives and hence forensic chemists often need to synthesize and characterize these drugs to confirm the identity of the seized samples. This is expensive as well as time-consuming. Therefore, there is a need for national and international collaboration among forensic chemists to overcome this difficulty. PMID:26226850

  6. Massive star archeology in globular clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chantereau, W.; Charbonnel, C.; Meynet, G.

    2015-01-01

    Globular clusters are among the oldest structures in the Universe and they host today low-mass stars and no gas. However, there has been a time when they formed as gaseous objects hosting a large number of short-lived, massive stars. Many details on this early epoch have been depicted recently through unprecedented dissection of low-mass globular cluster stars via spectroscopy and photometry. In particular, multiple populations have been identified, which bear the nucleosynthetic fingerprints of the massive hot stars disappeared a long time ago. Here we discuss how massive star archeology can be done through the lense of these multiple populations.

  7. Ingrowing Hair

    PubMed Central

    Luo, Di-Qing; Liang, Yu-Hua; Li, Xi-Qing; Zhao, Yu-Kun; Wang, Fang; Sarkar, Rashmi

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Cutaneous pili migrans and creeping eruption caused by parasitic diseases may present as a moving linear lesion in skin. The former, caused by a hair shaft or fragment embedded in the superficial skin or middle dermis, is a rare condition characterized by creeping eruption with a black line observed at the advancing end. In exceptionally rare instance, the hair grows inside the skin and burrows in the uppermost dermis, such a condition has been called “ingrown hair.” We report a 30-year-old Chinese man, who was accustomed to pull or extrude the beard hairs, with 1-year history of slowly extending black linear eruption on his right chin. Cutaneous examination revealed a 4-cm long black linear lesion beneath the skin associated with edematous erythema around and folliculitis on both ends of the lesion. After treatment with topical mupirocin ointment, the erythema and folliculitis improved and 2 hairs of the beard with hair follicles were pulled out from the skin. Two weeks later, another similar black line about 1 cm in length in the skin presented on the prior lesional area, which was pulled out by a shallow incision of the skin and was also demonstrated as a beard hair with hair follicle. The patient was diagnosed as “ingrowing hair” with multiple recurrences. The lesions recovered after the beard hairs were pulled out. No recurrence occurred in a year of follow-up. We suggest that “ingrowing hair” is better than “ingrown hair” to describe such a condition. Pulling out the involved hair and correcting the bad practice are its optimal management strategies. PMID:27175694

  8. In situ detection and identification of hair dyes using surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS).

    PubMed

    Kurouski, Dmitry; Van Duyne, Richard P

    2015-03-01

    Hair is one of the most common types of physical evidence found at a crime scene. Forensic examination may suggest a connection between a suspect and a crime scene or victim, or it may demonstrate an absence of such associations. Therefore, forensic analysis of hair evidence is invaluable to criminal investigations. Current hair forensic examinations are primarily based on a subjective microscopic comparison of hair found at the crime scene with a sample of suspect's hair. Since this is often inconclusive, the development of alternative and more-accurate hair analysis techniques is critical. In this study, we utilized surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) to demonstrate that artificial dyes can be directly detected on hair. This spectroscopic technique is capable of a confirmatory identification of analytes with single molecule resolution, requires minimal sample, and has the advantage of fluorescence quenching. Our study reveals that SERS can (1) identify whether hair was artificially dyed or not, (2) determine if a permanent or semipermanent colorants were used, and (3) distinguish the commercial brands that are utilized to dye hair. Such analysis is rapid, minimally destructive, and can be performed directly at the crime scene. This study provides a novel perspective of forensic investigations of hair evidence. PMID:25635868

  9. Hair testing is taking root.

    PubMed

    Cooper, Gail Audrey Ann

    2011-11-01

    An increasing number of toxicology laboratories are choosing to expand the services they offer to include hair testing in response to customer demands. Hair provides the toxicologist with many advantages over conventional matrices in that it is easy to collect, is a robust and stable matrix that does not require refrigeration, and most importantly, provides a historical profile of an individual's exposure to drugs or analytes of interest. The establishment of hair as a complementary technique in forensic toxicology is a direct result of the success of the matrix in medicolegal cases and the wide range of applications. However, before introducing hair testing, laboratories must consider what additional requirements they will need that extend beyond simply adapting methodologies already validated for blood or urine. Hair presents many challenges with respect to the lack of available quality control materials, extensive sample handling protocols and low drug concentrations requiring greater instrument sensitivity. Unfortunately, a common pitfall involves over-interpretation of the findings and must be avoided. PMID:21868416

  10. Forensic geomorphology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruffell, Alastair; McKinley, Jennifer

    2014-02-01

    Geomorphology plays a critical role in two areas of geoforensics: searching the land for surface or buried objects and sampling scenes of crime and control locations as evidence. Associated geoscience disciplines have substantial bodies of work dedicated to their relevance in forensic investigations, yet geomorphology (specifically landforms, their mapping and evolution, soils and relationship to geology and biogeography) have not had similar public exposure. This is strange considering how fundamental to legal enquiries the location of a crime and its evolution are, as this article will demonstrate. This work aims to redress the balance by showing how geomorphology featured in one of the earliest works on forensic science methods, and has continued to play a role in the sociology, archaeology, criminalistics and geoforensics of crime. Traditional landscape interpretation from aerial photography is used to demonstrate how a geomorphological approach saved police time in the search for a clandestine grave. The application geomorphology has in military/humanitarian geography and environmental/engineering forensics is briefly discussed as these are also regularly reviewed in courts of law.

  11. Species identification key of Korean mammal hair.

    PubMed

    Lee, Eunok; Choi, Tae-Young; Woo, Donggul; Min, Mi-Sook; Sugita, Shoei; Lee, Hang

    2014-05-01

    The hair microstructures of Korean terrestrial mammals from 23 species (22 wild and one domestic) were analyzed using light and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) to construct a hair identification key. The hairs were examined using the medulla structures and cuticular scales of guard hairs from the dorsal regions of mature adult animals. All cuticular scale structures in the hair of Rodentia, Lagomorpha, Carnivora and Insectivora showed the petal pattern, and those of Artiodactyla and Chiroptera showed the wave pattern and coronal pattern, respectively. Rodentia, Lagomorpha and Carnivora showed multicellular, and Insectivora and Artiodactyla showed unicellular regular, mesh or columnar in the medulla structures, respectively. Chiroptera did not show the medulla structures in their hair. We found that it is possible to distinguish between species and order based on general appearance, medulla structures and cuticular scales. Thus, we constructed a hair identification key with morphological characteristics from each species. This study suggests that hair identification keys could be useful in fields, such as forensic science, food safety and foraging ecology. PMID:24451929

  12. Hair Loss

    MedlinePlus

    ... En Español Making a Change – Your Personal Plan Hot Topics Meningitis Choosing Your Mood Prescription Drug Abuse ... much heat on your hair (like using a hot iron or hot blow drying). Another type of ...

  13. Dry hair

    MedlinePlus

    ... or using harsh soaps or alcohols Excessive blow-drying Dry air Menkes kinky hair syndrome Malnutrition Underactive ... or twice a week Add conditioners Avoid blow drying and harsh styling products

  14. Hair Loss

    MedlinePlus

    ... problems, diabetes, or lupus. If you take certain medicines or have chemotherapy for cancer, you may also ... cause will correct the problem. Other treatments include medicines and hair restoration.

  15. PREHISTORIC ARCHEOLOGY, PAST, PRESENT AND FUTURE.

    PubMed

    Nelson, N C

    1937-01-22

    The attempt has been made in the foregoing paragraphs to outline the whole history of prehistoric archeology: its crude beginnings in ancient times, its steadily accelerating progress during the past two hundred years, and its present achievements. Special emphasis has been placed on the rôle played by the discovery of surviving primitive industries in America and elsewhere in bringing about a rational attitude towards Stone Age antiquities and a beginning of their systematic investigation. The creation and growth of the organization and personnel promoting and conducting this world-wide research must be left untouched except to say that to-day probably every civilized country has its museums and university teaching staffs. Public interest in man's prehistoric past was never greater than to-day and only financial support is necessary to afford opportunity for the increasing numbers of young men and women who are constantly pleading for a chance to take part in the work. Accordingly, though the task before us is still very great it is not so hopeless as in the case of some other purely natural sciences like astronomy and entomology. For not only is the earth spherical and therefore limited in extent but man's period of occupancy is relatively short. In other words, while prehistoric archeology of necessity was one of the last special branches of research to get really under way, it is likely to be the first to finish its task. Indeed, if archeological investigations, historic and prehistoric, continue to progress at the same accelerating rate as in the past, it would seem that the next hundred years or so might easily see us in possession of all the essential facts. Those more or less indestructible facts or documents once in hand and the spade set aside, archeologists may have to change their titles to those of curators or something even less high-sounding. At all events, those professionally concerned may then devote their entire time to the permanent arrangement

  16. New Archeointensities from Mid Holocene Archeological Materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kapper, K.; Donadini, F.; Hirt, A. M.

    2013-12-01

    Paleointensity variation determined from mid Holocene archeomagnetic samples can improve the understanding of Earth's magnetic field and how it has changed during the past 10 000 years. It is important for models of Earth's magnetic field to fill gaps in archeomagnetic data records prior 1000 BC, which are prevalent in European data sets. New data help to complement regional reference curves, which are useful for dating of archeologic artifacts, e.g., pottery or displaced objects such as tiles, if the paleointensity of the object is known. Due to small temporal resolution and uncertainties in data records, the maximum intensity and maximum rate of change of the geomagnetic field is poorly understood. Stacks of intensity records are assumed to smooth out high frequency features in the secular variation curve such as archeomagnetic jerks and geomagnetic spikes. In previous studies it was shown that archeointensities could be measured from various archeological materials, if they were heated and obtain a pure thermoremanent magnetization. Ceramics or potsherds were the first materials to be used to measure the geomagnetic field intensity. They are usually heated to high temperatures and are abundant. In more recent years it was shown that copper slags can be used as well for archeointensity determinations. These are widespread in Europe, Asia and Africa from about 5000 BC onwards, carry a strong magnetization, and charcoal is usually close by or even embedded in the slag and can be used for radiocarbon dating. Samples from burned soils of archeological fires or hearth remains can have accurate archeointensities, provided that the samples carry a pure thermoremanent magnetization, which usually can be found in the center of the fireplace. But for some sites the center is difficult to locate, and relatively loose material may easily suffer from disturbances. In this study we report on results from archeointensity measurements on 91 specimens made of ceramics, slags, and

  17. 32 CFR 643.29 - Policy-Archeological surveys.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Policy-Archeological surveys. 643.29 Section 643.29 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY (CONTINUED) REAL PROPERTY REAL ESTATE Policy § 643.29 Policy—Archeological surveys. The SA under the authority of 16,...

  18. 32 CFR 643.29 - Policy-Archeological surveys.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2012-07-01 2011-07-01 true Policy-Archeological surveys. 643.29 Section 643.29 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY (CONTINUED) REAL PROPERTY REAL ESTATE Policy § 643.29 Policy—Archeological surveys. The SA under the authority of 16,...

  19. 32 CFR 643.29 - Policy-Archeological surveys.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Policy-Archeological surveys. 643.29 Section 643.29 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY (CONTINUED) REAL PROPERTY REAL ESTATE Policy § 643.29 Policy—Archeological surveys. The SA under the authority of 16,...

  20. 32 CFR 643.29 - Policy-Archeological surveys.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Policy-Archeological surveys. 643.29 Section 643.29 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY (CONTINUED) REAL PROPERTY REAL ESTATE Policy § 643.29 Policy—Archeological surveys. The SA under the authority of 16,...

  1. Old and Older: Curriculum Standards for History and Archeology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Black, Mary S.

    This paper examines the standards and principles recently proposed for teaching both history and archeology. By comparing the goals each discipline has set for good teaching, areas of difference and commonality can be discerned and questions concerning historical thinking and what may be called "archeological" thinking can then be formulated, thus…

  2. Detection of oxidative hair treatment using fluorescence microscopy.

    PubMed

    Witt, Silvana; Wunder, Cora; Paulke, Alexander; Verhoff, Marcel A; Schubert-Zsilavecz, Manfred; Toennes, Stefan W

    2016-08-01

    In assessing abstinence from drug or alcohol abuse, hair analysis plays an important role. Cosmetic hair treatment influences the content of deposited drugs which is not always detectable during analysis. Since oxidation of melanin leads to an increase in fluorescence, a microscopic method was developed to distinguish natural from cosmetically treated hair. For validation, natural hair samples were treated with different types of cosmetics and inspected by fluorescence microscopy. Hair samples from 20 volunteers with documented cosmetic treatment and as a proof of concept 100 hair samples from forensic cases were analyzed by this method. Apart from autofluorescence with excitation at 365 nm, no obvious fluorescence was observed in untreated hair samples. Tinting and a natural plant product had no influence on fluorescence, but dyeing procedures including oxidation led to a marked increase in fluorescence. Proof of cosmetic treatment was achieved in hair samples from the 20 volunteers. In 100 forensic cases, 13 samples were characterized as oxidatively treated, which was in accordance with the respective disclosure except for one case where treatment was not admitted. This fluorescence microscopic procedure proved to be fast, easy, and reliable to identify oxidatively treated hair samples, which must be considered especially in evaluating cases of negative drug results. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:26359937

  3. Determination of chloroquine and monodesethylchloroquine in hair.

    PubMed

    Viala, A; Deturmeny, E; Aubert, C; Estadieu, M; Durand, A; Cano, J P; Delmont, J

    1983-10-01

    Using thin-layer and gas chromatography and mass spectrometry, chloroquine and its major metabolite (monodesethylchloroquine) were identified in hair samples of numerous patients who received this antimalarial drug for several months. In two patients the amounts of chloroquine were, respectively, 310 and 145 mg/kg hair and those of the monodesethylchloroquine 23 and 11 mg/kg. The respective proportions (93 and 7%) are the same in the two subjects. The chloroquine percentage was near those in the spleen or stomach wall after poisoning. Other metabolites in hair are being identified. Hair analysis may provide a good toxicologic and forensic science complement to the blood, urine, and tissues. It may be useful for the control of chloroquine therapy. PMID:6631371

  4. Multimedia Forensics Is Not Computer Forensics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Böhme, Rainer; Freiling, Felix C.; Gloe, Thomas; Kirchner, Matthias

    The recent popularity of research on topics of multimedia forensics justifies reflections on the definition of the field. This paper devises an ontology that structures forensic disciplines by their primary domain of evidence. In this sense, both multimedia forensics and computer forensics belong to the class of digital forensics, but they differ notably in the underlying observer model that defines the forensic investigator’s view on (parts of) reality, which itself is not fully cognizable. Important consequences on the reliability of probative facts emerge with regard to available counter-forensic techniques: while perfect concealment of traces is possible for computer forensics, this level of certainty cannot be expected for manipulations of sensor data. We cite concrete examples and refer to established techniques to support our arguments.

  5. Specifying digital forensics: A forensics policy approach

    SciTech Connect

    Taylor, Carol Louise; Popovsky, Barbara; Frincke, Deborah A.

    2007-09-01

    In this paper we present an approach to digital forensics specification based on forensic policy definition. Our methodology borrows from computer security policy specification, which has accumulated a significant body of research over the past 30 years. We first define the process of specifying forensics properties through a forensics policy and then present an example application of the process. This approach lends itself to formal policy specification and verification, which would allow for more clarity and less ambiguity in the specification process

  6. Removing Hair Safely

    MedlinePlus

    ... the skin, and into the hair follicle. An electric current travels down the wire and destroys the hair ... a period of time. Tweezer epilators also use electric current to remove hair. The tweezers grasp the hair ...

  7. Forensic entomology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amendt, Jens; Krettek, Roman; Zehner, Richard

    Necrophagous insects are important in the decomposition of cadavers. The close association between insects and corpses and the use of insects in medicocriminal investigations is the subject of forensic entomology. The present paper reviews the historical background of this discipline, important postmortem processes, and discusses the scientific basis underlying attempts to determine the time interval since death. Using medical techniques, such as the measurement of body temperature or analysing livor and rigor mortis, time since death can only be accurately measured for the first two or three days after death. In contrast, by calculating the age of immature insect stages feeding on a corpse and analysing the necrophagous species present, postmortem intervals from the first day to several weeks can be estimated. These entomological methods may be hampered by difficulties associated with species identification, but modern DNA techniques are contributing to the rapid and authoritative identification of necrophagous insects. Other uses of entomological data include the toxicological examination of necrophagous larvae from a corpse to identify and estimate drugs and toxicants ingested by the person when alive and the proof of possible postmortem manipulations. Forensic entomology may even help in investigations dealing with people who are alive but in need of care, by revealing information about cases of neglect.

  8. Forensic mass screening using mtDNA.

    PubMed

    Szibor, Reinhard; Plate, Ines; Schmitter, Herrmann; Wittig, Holger; Krause, Dieter

    2006-11-01

    At the forensic autopsy of a sexual murder victim, some trace hairs, possibly belonging to the perpetrator, were saved. Initially, the analysis of a pubic hair shaft only revealed the presence of the mitochondrial (mt) DNA haplotype profile consisting of the (CA)(6) allele and the complete hypervariable region 1 (HV1) and 2 (HV2) sequence. Later, typing of some further telogene trace hairs, which had been stored for several years, yielded a nuclear short tandem repeat (STR) profile. We used both the mtDNA haplotype and the STR profile to start a DNA mass screening project involving 2,335 male citizens of the relevant communities. MtDNA screening was carried out by using the CA repeat amplification in combination with an SNP typing procedure based on the restriction site analysis of amplified d-loop sequences. The aim of our paper is to put mass screening with mtDNA up for discussion. PMID:16583247

  9. Radiocarbon dating and archeology in North America.

    PubMed

    Johnson, F

    1967-01-13

    The history of the development of a radiocarbon chronology shows how the establishment of the times of events and the order of them has greatly improved the understanding of prehistory in North America. This is true also of other parts of the world. Too little has been said of existing discordance between archeologically determined sequences, and interregional associations, and the radiocarbon chronology. It does appear that these will be resolved as additional dates are added and as the results become more finely calibrated so that secular variations may be accounted for. The collaborative aspect of the venture was apparent at the outset. Nevertheless no one expects an archeologist to delve into nuclear physics and geochemistry, and vice versa. There is great need, nevertheless, for the man in the laboratory to comprehend the difficulties of sample collecting and of judgement of the significance of the source of organic matter to be dated. At the same time, the archeologist must become more familiar with the importance of the various steps in the processing of the sample and with, what is most vital, interpretation of the significance of the numbers that appear on the counters. PMID:6015523

  10. 3D puzzle reconstruction for archeological fragments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jampy, F.; Hostein, A.; Fauvet, E.; Laligant, O.; Truchetet, F.

    2015-03-01

    The reconstruction of broken artifacts is a common task in archeology domain; it can be supported now by 3D data acquisition device and computer processing. Many works have been dedicated in the past to reconstructing 2D puzzles but very few propose a true 3D approach. We present here a complete solution including a dedicated transportable 3D acquisition set-up and a virtual tool with a graphic interface allowing the archeologists to manipulate the fragments and to, interactively, reconstruct the puzzle. The whole lateral part is acquired by rotating the fragment around an axis chosen within a light sheet thanks to a step-motor synchronized with the camera frame clock. Another camera provides a top view of the fragment under scanning. A scanning accuracy of 100μm is attained. The iterative automatic processing algorithm is based on segmentation into facets of the lateral part of the fragments followed by a 3D matching providing the user with a ranked short list of possible assemblies. The device has been applied to the reconstruction of a set of 1200 fragments from broken tablets supporting a Latin inscription dating from the first century AD.

  11. Nuclear Archeology for CANDU Power Reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Broadhead, Bryan L

    2011-01-01

    The goal of this work is the development of so-called 'nuclear archeology' techniques to predict the irradiation history of both fuel-related and non-fuel-related materials irradiated in the CANDU (CANada Deuterium Uranium) family of nuclear reactors. In this application to CANDU-type reactors, two different scenarios for the collection of the appropriate data for use in these procedures will be assumed: the first scenario is the removal of the pressure tubes, calandria tubes, or fuel cladding and destructive analysis of the activation products contained in these structural materials; the second scenario is the nondestructive analysis (NDA) of the same hardware items via high-resolution gamma ray scans. There are obvious advantages and disadvantages for each approach; however, the NDA approach is the central focus of this work because of its simplicity and lack of invasiveness. The use of these techniques along with a previously developed inverse capability is expected to allow for the prediction of average flux levels and irradiation time, and the total fluence for samples where the values of selected isotopes can be measured.

  12. KEO, the Archeological Bird of the Future

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Philippe, Jean-Marc

    2002-01-01

    KEO, the Archeological Bird of the Future, is a project linking art and space, which seeks to involve people of all ages and cultures in a collective work of art : while exciting our imagination, it invites us to reflect upon the use we make of the exceptional capabilities our species is endowed with. A time-capsule to be launched in 2003, KEO is meant to come back passively to its native soil, where it will land safe and sound, in some 50 000 years. It will then act as our messenger to our distant descendants, delivering to them, intact, our common offering : all the messages that each of us, men, women and children of today's Earth wish to pass on to the Future. From its very start on Internet KEO was elected by an overwhelming world-wide majority of teachers as an oustanding pedagogic tool allowing interdisciplinary classes which use to arouse the greatest interest amongst students whatever theri level. .A KEO pedagogic kit was worked out as a support to enable the teachers to make the most of KEO by giving lectures combining art, sciences spatial technologies, human development. This obviously awakens student's citizenship awareness. The paper will especially deal with the pedagogic experiences conducted in French in the Reunion Island, Paris and in Quebec (Canada).This presentation will insist on the public outreach activities providing evidence for the benefits such an project as KEO can offer to society.

  13. How Long Has Grandpa Been Dead and Other Forensic Mysteries

    ScienceCinema

    Baden, Michael [MD, New York Police, New York, New York, United States

    2009-09-01

    Was the baby born alive? Can a child's brain really be shaken hard enough to cause death? Was the body dead before going into the water? Does a lightening strike cause any unique changes in the body? Why are hair and maggots becoming so important to the forensic scientist? Let's talk.

  14. How Long Has Grandpa Been Dead and Other Forensic Mysteries

    SciTech Connect

    Baden, Michael

    2006-05-17

    Was the baby born alive? Can a child's brain really be shaken hard enough to cause death? Was the body dead before going into the water? Does a lightening strike cause any unique changes in the body? Why are hair and maggots becoming so important to the forensic scientist? Let's talk.

  15. Hair Loss

    MedlinePlus

    ... psychosocial impact of hair loss have found patients’ self-esteem, body image and self-confidence to be negatively ... 1-2 Known psychosocial complications include depression, low self-esteem, altered self-image, and less frequent and enjoyable ...

  16. 9. View looking S at archeological excavations at base of ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. View looking S at archeological excavations at base of wall adjacent to Jamaican Train. - Hacienda Azucarera La Esperanza, Mill (Ruins), 2.65 miles North of PR Route 2 Bridge Over Manati River, Manati, Manati Municipio, PR

  17. 1. AERIAL VIEW SHOWING ARCHEOLOGICAL EXCAVATIONS OF LOCOMOTIVE PITS IN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. AERIAL VIEW SHOWING ARCHEOLOGICAL EXCAVATIONS OF LOCOMOTIVE PITS IN FORMER ERECTING SHOP. MACHINE SHOP IS BUILDING AT RIGHT. - Grant Locomotive Works, Market & Spruce Streets, Paterson, Passaic County, NJ

  18. 2. CLOSE IN AERIAL VIEW OF ARCHEOLOGICAL EXCAVATIONS OF LOCOMOTIVE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. CLOSE IN AERIAL VIEW OF ARCHEOLOGICAL EXCAVATIONS OF LOCOMOTIVE PITS IN FORMER ERECTING SHOP. MACHINE SHOP IS BUILDING AT RIGHT. - Grant Locomotive Works, Market & Spruce Streets, Paterson, Passaic County, NJ

  19. 4. Historic American Buildings Survey Office of Archeology and Historic ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. Historic American Buildings Survey Office of Archeology and Historic Preservation September 1966 DETAIL OF SOUTHWEST (FRONT) FACADE - Captain William Webb Wakeman House, 478 Harbor Road (formerly 137 Rose Hill Road), Southport, Fairfield County, CT

  20. 8. General view looking S at archeological excavations along base ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. General view looking S at archeological excavations along base of west wall of purging house. - Hacienda Azucarera La Esperanza, Mill (Ruins), 2.65 miles North of PR Route 2 Bridge Over Manati River, Manati, Manati Municipio, PR

  1. 18. View of archeological excavations along base of mill wall ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    18. View of archeological excavations along base of mill wall showing unidentified pits. - Hacienda Azucarera La Esperanza, Mill (Ruins), 2.65 miles North of PR Route 2 Bridge Over Manati River, Manati, Manati Municipio, PR

  2. 4. Photocopy of negative (original in possession of Western Archeological ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. Photocopy of negative (original in possession of Western Archeological and Conservation Center (WACC), Tucson, Arizona), photographer unknown, c.1920's RARE VIEW OF BUNKHOUSE LOOKING SOUTHEAST - Faraway Ranch, Guest Quarters-Bunkhouse, Willcox, Cochise County, AZ

  3. 5. Photocopy of negative (original in possession of Western Archeological ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. Photocopy of negative (original in possession of Western Archeological and Conservation Center (WACC), Tucson, Arizona), photographer unknown, undated BARN AND CORRAL LOOKING NORTHEAST - Faraway Ranch, Barn & Tool Shed, Willcox, Cochise County, AZ

  4. 2. Photocopy of negative (original in possession of Western Archeological ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. Photocopy of negative (original in possession of Western Archeological and Conservation Center (WACC), Tucson, Arizona), photographer unknown, undated CHILDREN POISED AT EDGE OF FILLED SWIMMING POOL - Faraway Ranch, Swimming Pool, Willcox, Cochise County, AZ

  5. 34. Photocopy of photograph (original in possession of Western Archeological ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    34. Photocopy of photograph (original in possession of Western Archeological and Conservation Center, (WACC), Tucson, Arizona), photographer unknown, c.1910 MAIN HOUSE - Faraway Ranch, Erickson-Riggs Ranch House, State Highway 181, Willcox, Cochise County, AZ

  6. 4. Photocopy of photograph (original in possession of Western Archeological ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. Photocopy of photograph (original in possession of Western Archeological and Conservation Center (WACC), Tucson, Arizona), photographer unknown, undated NEIL ERICKSON WORKING OUTSIDE OFFICE/GARAGE WHEN IT WAS NEW - Faraway Ranch, Office-Garage, Willcox, Cochise County, AZ

  7. Forensic toxicology.

    PubMed

    Drummer, Olaf H

    2010-01-01

    Forensic toxicology has developed as a forensic science in recent years and is now widely used to assist in death investigations, in civil and criminal matters involving drug use, in drugs of abuse testing in correctional settings and custodial medicine, in road and workplace safety, in matters involving environmental pollution, as well as in sports doping. Drugs most commonly targeted include amphetamines, benzodiazepines, cannabis, cocaine and the opiates, but can be any other illicit substance or almost any over-the-counter or prescribed drug, as well as poisons available to the community. The discipline requires high level skills in analytical techniques with a solid knowledge of pharmacology and pharmacokinetics. Modern techniques rely heavily on immunoassay screening analyses and mass spectrometry (MS) for confirmatory analyses using either high-performance liquid chromatography or gas chromatography as the separation technique. Tandem MS has become more and more popular compared to single-stage MS. It is essential that analytical systems are fully validated and fit for the purpose and the assay batches are monitored with quality controls. External proficiency programs monitor both the assay and the personnel performing the work. For a laboratory to perform optimally, it is vital that the circumstances and context of the case are known and the laboratory understands the limitations of the analytical systems used, including drug stability. Drugs and poisons can change concentration postmortem due to poor or unequal quality of blood and other specimens, anaerobic metabolism and redistribution. The latter provides the largest handicap in the interpretation of postmortem results. PMID:20358697

  8. Detailed magnetic survey at Dahshour archeological sites Southwest Cairo, Egypt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mekkawi, Mahmoud; Arafa-Hamed, Tarek; Abdellatif, Tareq

    2013-06-01

    Dahshour area has recently shown a great potential of archeological findings. This was remarkable from the latest discovery of the causeway and the mortuary temple of the Pyramid of Amenemhat III using geophysical data. The main objective of the present work is to locate the buried archeological remains in the area of Dahshour, Southwest Cairo using magnetic survey for shallow investigations. Land magnetic data is acquired using proton magnetometer (two sensors) with a sensor separation of 0.8 m; i.e. gradiometer survey. The study area is located nearby the two known pyramids of Dahshour. The field data is processed and analyzed using Oasis Montaj Geosoft™ software. The processed data is presented in order to delineate the hidden artifacts causing the magnetic anomalies. The results indicated a distribution of the buried archeological features within the study area. These archeological features are detected according to the magnetic contrast between the magnetic archeological sources (such as mud bricks, basalt and granite) and the surroundings; mainly sandy soil. The delineated archeological features at Dahshour are probably dated back to the old kingdom having a depth reach up to 3.0 m. Consequently it is highly recommended to carry out excavation to precisely classify them and high light their nature and value.

  9. [Hair Analysis for the Retrospective and Prospective Consume-Monitoring: Substance Abuse, Abstinence- and Compliance Control].

    PubMed

    Binz, Tina M; Baumgartner, Markus R

    2016-01-01

    The possibilities and applications of modern hair analytics have rapidly developed in recent years. The compounds that can be detected in hair comprise, next to a multitude of drugs, also medications, alcohol markers, and endogenous compound like the stress hormone cortisol. Hair analysis is suitable for both forensic and clinical applications because it enables a retrospective overview of the consumption behavior during an extended time interval. PMID:26732713

  10. Hair care and dyeing.

    PubMed

    Draelos, Zoe Diana

    2015-01-01

    Alopecia can be effectively camouflaged or worsened through the use of hair care techniques and dyeing. Proper hair care, involving hair styling and the use of mild shampoos and body-building conditioners, can amplify thinning scalp hair; however, chemical processing, including hair dyeing, permanent waving, and hair straightening, can encourage further hair loss through breakage. Many patients suffering from alopecia attempt to improve their hair through extensive manipulation, which only increases problems. Frequent haircuts to minimize split ends, accompanied by gentle handling of the fragile fibers, is best. This chapter offers the dermatologist insight into hair care recommendations for the alopecia patient. PMID:26370650

  11. Hair follicle anatomy (image)

    MedlinePlus

    At the base of the hair follicle are sensory nerve fibers that wrap around each hair bulb. Bending the hair stimulates the nerve endings allowing a person to feel that the hair has been moved. One of the main functions of hair is to act ...

  12. Integrating Forensic Science.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Funkhouser, John; Deslich, Barbara J.

    2000-01-01

    Explains the implementation of forensic science in an integrated curriculum and discusses the advantages of this approach. Lists the forensic science course syllabi studied in three high schools. Discusses the unit on polymers in detail. (YDS)

  13. Microbial forensics: the next forensic challenge.

    PubMed

    Budowle, Bruce; Murch, Randall; Chakraborty, Ranajit

    2005-11-01

    Pathogens and toxins can be converted to bioweapons and used to commit bioterrorism and biocrime. Because of the potential and relative ease of an attack using a bioweapon, forensic science needs to be prepared to assist in the investigation to bring perpetrators to justice and to deter future attacks. A new subfield of forensics--microbial forensics--has been created, which is focused on characterization of evidence from a bioterrorism act, biocrime, hoax, or an inadvertent release. Forensic microbiological investigations are essentially the same as any other forensic investigation regarding processing. They involve crime scene(s) investigation, chain of custody practices, evidence collection, handling and preservation, evidence shipping, analysis of evidence, interpretation of results, and court presentation. In addition to collecting and analyzing traditional forensic evidence, the forensic investigation will attempt to determine the etiology and identity of the causal agent, often in a similar fashion as in an epidemiologic investigation. However, for attribution, higher-resolution characterization is needed. The tools for attribution include genetic- and nongenetic-based assays and informatics to attempt to determine the unique source of a sample or at least eliminate some sources. In addition, chemical and physical assays may help determine the process used to prepare, store, or disseminate the bioweapon. An effective microbial forensics program will require development and/or validation of all aspects of the forensic investigative process, from sample collection to interpretation of results. Quality assurance (QA) and QC practices, comparable to those used by the forensic DNA science community, are being implemented. Lastly, partnerships with other laboratories will be requisite, because many of the necessary capabilities for analysis will not reside in the traditional forensic laboratory. PMID:15821943

  14. Analysis of psilocin, bufotenine and LSD in hair.

    PubMed

    Martin, Rafaela; Schürenkamp, Jennifer; Gasse, Angela; Pfeiffer, Heidi; Köhler, Helga

    2015-03-01

    A method for the simultaneous extraction of the hallucinogens psilocin, bufotenine, lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD) as well as iso-LSD, nor-LSD and O-H-LSD from hair with hydrochloride acid and methanol is presented. Clean-up of the hair extracts is performed with solid phase extraction using a mixed-mode cation exchanger. Extracts are measured with liquid chromatography coupled with electrospray tandem mass spectrometry. The method was successfully validated according to the guidelines of the 'Society of Toxicological and Forensic Chemistry' (GTFCh). To obtain reference material hair was soaked in a solution of the analytes in dimethyl sulfoxide/methanol to allow incorporation into the hair. These fortified hair samples were used for method development and can be employed as quality controls. PMID:25540060

  15. New source of evidence: explosive traces in hair

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oxley, Jimmie C.; Smith, James L.; Kirschenbaum, Louis; Shinde, Kajal P.; Marimganti, Suvarnakishore

    2004-09-01

    This study examines the sorption of explosives [TNT, RDX, PETN, TATP] to hair during exposure to their vapors. In each test, three colors of hair were simultaneously exposed to explosive vapor. Washing, extracting, and gas chromatographic quantification protocols were developed, and replication of quantitative data was confirmed. Results show that sorption of explosives, via vapor diffusion, to black hair is significantly greater than to blond, brown or bleached hair. Furthermore, the rate of sorption is directly related to the vapor density of the explosive: TATP >>> TNT >> PETN > RDX. Using TNT as the prototype, persistence of the explosive upon standing in air and upon repeated washing with sodium dodecyl sulfate was demonstrated. This study indicates that hair can be a useful indicator of explosive exposure/handling. Work is in progress to develop this technique into an effective forensic tool.

  16. Analytical methods for abused drugs in hair and their applications.

    PubMed

    Wada, Mitsuhiro; Ikeda, Rie; Kuroda, Naotaka; Nakashima, Kenichiro

    2010-06-01

    Hair has been focused on for its usability as an alternative biological specimen to blood and urine for determining drugs of abuse in fields such as forensic and toxicological sciences because hair can be used to elucidate the long intake history of abused drugs compared with blood and urine. Hair analysis consists of several pretreatment steps, such as washing out contaminates from hair, extraction of target compounds from hair, and cleanup for instrumental analysis. Each step includes characteristic and independent features for the class of drugs, e.g., stimulants, narcotics, cannabis, and other medicaments. In this review, recently developed methods to determine drugs of abuse are summarized, and the pretreatment steps as well as the sensitivity and applicability are critically discussed. PMID:20232061

  17. Hair bleach poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/002702.htm Hair bleach poisoning To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Hair bleach poisoning occurs when someone swallows hair bleach or ...

  18. Changing Your Hair

    MedlinePlus

    ... Snowboarding, Skating Crushes What's a Booger? Changing Your Hair KidsHealth > For Kids > Changing Your Hair Print A ... straight when it's curly. Treatments That Can Damage Hair Are these treatments OK for kids? That's something ...

  19. Hair spray poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    Hair spray poisoning occurs when someone breathes in (inhales) hair spray or sprays it down their throat or ... The harmful ingredients in hair spray are: Carboxymethylcellulose ... Polyvinyl alcohol Propylene glycol Polyvinylpyrrolidone

  20. Hair dye poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    Hair tint poisoning ... Different types of hair dye contain different harmful ingredients. The harmful ingredients in permanent dyes are: Naphthylamine Other aromatic amino compounds Phenylenediamines Toluene ...

  1. Nuclear and mitochondrial DNA quantification of various forensic materials.

    PubMed

    Andréasson, H; Nilsson, M; Budowle, B; Lundberg, H; Allen, M

    2006-12-01

    Due to the different types and quality of forensic evidence materials, their DNA content can vary substantially, and particularly low quantities can impact the results in an identification analysis. In this study, the quantity of mitochondrial and nuclear DNA was determined in a variety of materials using a previously described real-time PCR method. DNA quantification in the roots and distal sections of plucked and shed head hairs revealed large variations in DNA content particularly between the root and the shaft of plucked hairs. Also large intra- and inter-individual variations were found among hairs. In addition, DNA content was estimated in samples collected from fingerprints and accessories. The quantification of DNA on various items also displayed large variations, with some materials containing large amounts of nuclear DNA while no detectable nuclear DNA and only limited amounts of mitochondrial DNA were seen in others. Using this sensitive real-time PCR quantification assay, a better understanding was obtained regarding DNA content and variation in commonly analysed forensic evidence materials and this may guide the forensic scientist as to the best molecular biology approach for analysing various forensic evidence materials. PMID:16427750

  2. Successful direct amplification of nuclear markers from single dog hairs using DogFiler multiplex.

    PubMed

    Blackie, Renée; Taylor, Duncan; Linacre, Adrian

    2015-09-01

    We report on successful amplification of canine STR DNA profiles from single dog hairs. Dog hairs are commonly found on clothing or items of interest in forensic casework and may be crucial associative evidence if linked to an individual dog. We used direct amplification from these hairs to increase the DNA yield of the sample, as well as greatly reducing analysis time. Hairs from different somatic regions were used from several different dog breeds to amplify a selection of eight loci from the validated DogFiler multiplex. Naturally shed canine hairs were processed, with a mix of coarse topcoat (guard) hairs and thinner soft undercoat hairs. Multiple sections of single hairs were amplified in 5 mm segments to determine the viability of DNA recovery from the shaft of the hair. Single guard hairs were cut into 5 mm sections and added directly into a PCR tube. Undercoat hairs, which are very fine, were amplified together in a single tube (approximately ten small hairs). Coarse hairs were found to be the most successful in producing full DNA profiles at all eight loci, matching the corresponding reference profile for that dog. PMID:25994427

  3. Hair cosmetics: an overview.

    PubMed

    Gavazzoni Dias, Maria Fernanda Reis

    2015-01-01

    Hair cosmetics are an important tool that helps to increase patient's adhesion to alopecia and scalp treatments. This article reviews the formulations and the mode of action of hair cosmetics: Shampoos, conditioners, hair straightening products, hair dyes and henna; regarding their prescription and safetiness. The dermatologist's knowledge of hair care products, their use, and their possible side effects can extend to an understanding of cosmetic resources and help dermatologists to better treat hair and scalp conditions according to the diversity of hair types and ethnicity. PMID:25878443

  4. Hair Cosmetics: An Overview

    PubMed Central

    Gavazzoni Dias, Maria Fernanda Reis

    2015-01-01

    Hair cosmetics are an important tool that helps to increase patient's adhesion to alopecia and scalp treatments. This article reviews the formulations and the mode of action of hair cosmetics: Shampoos, conditioners, hair straightening products, hair dyes and henna; regarding their prescription and safetiness. The dermatologist's knowledge of hair care products, their use, and their possible side effects can extend to an understanding of cosmetic resources and help dermatologists to better treat hair and scalp conditions according to the diversity of hair types and ethnicity. PMID:25878443

  5. Copper artifacts from prehistoric archeological sites in the dakotas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hill, W.E., Jr.; Neuman, R.W.

    1966-01-01

    Abstract. Thirteen archeological specimens were analyzed spectrographically, and within defined limits they were determined to be native copper. Twelve of the specimens show close elemental homogeneity and are believed to be of Lake Superior ore; the origin of the other specimen is devious.

  6. Archeological inundation studies: Manual for reservoir managers. Contract report

    SciTech Connect

    Ware, J.A.

    1989-09-01

    Twentieth century demands for water, electricity, and flood control in the United States have resulted in the damming and impoundment of most of America's large rivers and streams. The impact of such activities on North American archeological and historical resources is difficult to measure. Concern for mitigating the impact of dam construction and reservoir impoundment resulted in the Reservoir Salvage Act of 1960, as amended in 1974, which requires that any US agency undertaking dam construction must provide written notice to the Secretary of the Interior, who shall then cause a survey to be conducted for archeological sites, either by the Department of the Interior or by the Federal agency undertaking the construction project. Development and operation of freshwater reservoirs create a variety of potential impacts on archeological resources. These impacts accrue from several sources, including mechanical, biochemical, and human and other processes associated with the reservoir environment. This report summarizes the findings of the National Reservoir Inundation Study, a multi-agency project designed to assess the range of effects of inundation on archeological resources. Potential effects are discussed within three discrete zones of differential impact: (a) the conservation pool, (b) the fluctuation zone, and (c) the backshore zone.

  7. 5. View looking E at unidentified archeological feature possibly ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. View looking E at unidentified archeological feature - possibly the underground flue leading from Jamaican Train to chimney. - Hacienda Azucarera La Esperanza, Mill (Ruins), 2.65 miles North of PR Route 2 Bridge Over Manati River, Manati, Manati Municipio, PR

  8. The Mimbres: Art and Archeology. A Reprint of Three Essays.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fewkes, Jesse Walter

    This book contains reprints of three essays by Jesse Walter Fewkes (1850-1930) on the pottery of the prehistoric Mimbres Indians. The three papers were originally published by the Smithsonian Institution between 1914 and 1924. The first, "Archeology of the Lower Mimbres Valley, New Mexico," examines historical references to ancient Indian…

  9. Scribing Work Songs at an Archeological Dig in Egypt

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Poppe, Donna

    2011-01-01

    This article reports research conducted in the northeastern corner of Egypt's Nile Delta during an excavation at the Mendes archeological dig site in July-August, 2007. Donald Redford, Professor at Pennsylvania State University, accepted the author as the only nonarcheologist that year. In addition to duties of measuring, registering, and storing…

  10. 9. Photocopy of photograph (original in possession of Western Archeological ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. Photocopy of photograph (original in possession of Western Archeological and Conservation Center (WACC), Tucson, Arizona), photographer unknown, 1900 STAFFORD SHINGLING THE ROOF WITH FOUR CHILDREN STANDING BESIDE BOARD AND BATTEN LEAN-TO - Faraway Ranch, Stafford-Riggs Cabin, Willcox, Cochise County, AZ

  11. Analytical strategies for discriminating archeological fatty substances from animal origin.

    PubMed

    Regert, M

    2011-01-01

    Mass spectrometry (MS) is an essential tool in the field of biomolecular archeology to characterize amorphous organic residues preserved in ancient ceramic vessels. Animal fats of various nature and origin, namely subcutaneous fats of cattle, sheep, goats, pigs, horses, and also of dairy products, are those most commonly identified in organic residues in archeological pottery. Fats and oils of marine origin have also been revealed. Since the first applications of MS coupled with gas chromatography (GC) in archeology at the end of 1980s, several developments have occurred, including isotopic determinations by GC coupled to isotope ratio MS and identification of triacylglycerols (TAGs) structure by soft ionization techniques (ESI and APCI). The combination of these methods provides invaluable insights into the strategies of exploitation of animal products in prehistory. In this review, I focus on the analytical strategies based upon MS that allow elucidation of the structure of biomolecular constituents and determination of their isotopic values to identify the nature of animal fat components preserved in highly complex and degraded archeological matrices. PMID:21337597

  12. Hair loss in women.

    PubMed

    Harfmann, Katya L; Bechtel, Mark A

    2015-03-01

    Hair loss is a common cause of morbidity for many women. As a key member of the woman's health care team, the obstetrician/gynecologist may be the first person to evaluate the complaint of hair loss. Common types of nonscarring hair loss, including female pattern hair loss and telogen effluvium, may be diagnosed and managed by the obstetrician/gynecologist. A systematic approach to diagnosis and management of these common forms of hair loss is presented. PMID:25517757

  13. American Academy of Forensic Sciences

    MedlinePlus

    ... Scientific Meeting — New Orleans, Louisiana 2017 Discover More Forensic Science Education Programs Accreditation Commission (FEPAC) Read More So You Want to Be a Forensic Scientist! Read More ‹ › The American Academy of Forensic ...

  14. Parallel digital forensics infrastructure.

    SciTech Connect

    Liebrock, Lorie M.; Duggan, David Patrick

    2009-10-01

    This report documents the architecture and implementation of a Parallel Digital Forensics infrastructure. This infrastructure is necessary for supporting the design, implementation, and testing of new classes of parallel digital forensics tools. Digital Forensics has become extremely difficult with data sets of one terabyte and larger. The only way to overcome the processing time of these large sets is to identify and develop new parallel algorithms for performing the analysis. To support algorithm research, a flexible base infrastructure is required. A candidate architecture for this base infrastructure was designed, instantiated, and tested by this project, in collaboration with New Mexico Tech. Previous infrastructures were not designed and built specifically for the development and testing of parallel algorithms. With the size of forensics data sets only expected to increase significantly, this type of infrastructure support is necessary for continued research in parallel digital forensics. This report documents the implementation of the parallel digital forensics (PDF) infrastructure architecture and implementation.

  15. Aging of hair.

    PubMed

    Trüeb, Ralph M

    2005-06-01

    The appearance of hair plays an important role in people's overall physical appearance and self-perception. With today's increasing life expectation, the desire to look youthful plays a bigger role than ever. The hair care industry has become aware of this and also more capable to deliver active products that are directed toward meeting this consumer demand. The discovery of pharmacological targets and the development of safe and effective drugs also indicate strategies of the drug industry for maintenance of healthy and beautiful hair. Hair aging comprises weathering of the hair shaft and aging of the hair follicle. The latter manifests as decrease of melanocyte function or graying, and decrease in hair production in androgenetic and senescent alopecia. The scalp is also subject to intrinsic or physiologic aging and extrinsic aging caused by external factors. Intrinsic factors are related to individual genetic and epigenetic mechanisms with interindividual variation. Prototypes are familial premature graying and androgenetic alopecia. Extrinsic factors include ultraviolet radiation and smoking. Experimental evidence supports the hypothesis that oxidative stress plays a role in skin and hair aging. Topical anti-aging compounds for hair include humefactants, hair conditioners, photoprotectors, and antioxidants. Current available treatment modalities with proven efficacy for treatment of androgenetic alopecia are topical minoxidil, oral finasteride, and autologous hair transplantation. In the absence of another way to reverse hair graying, hair colorants are the mainstays of recovering lost hair color. Topical liposome targeting for melanins, genes, and proteins selectively to hair follicles are under current investigation. PMID:17166201

  16. 25 CFR 286.10 - Preservation of historical and archeological data.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Preservation of historical and archeological data. 286.10... BUSINESS DEVELOPMENT PROGRAM § 286.10 Preservation of historical and archeological data. The Assistant... land on known or reported historical or archeological sites, will take appropriate action to...

  17. 25 CFR 286.10 - Preservation of historical and archeological data.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Preservation of historical and archeological data. 286.10... BUSINESS DEVELOPMENT PROGRAM § 286.10 Preservation of historical and archeological data. The Assistant... land on known or reported historical or archeological sites, will take appropriate action to...

  18. 25 CFR 101.9 - Preservation of historical and archeological data.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Preservation of historical and archeological data. 101.9... INDIANS FROM THE REVOLVING LOAN FUND § 101.9 Preservation of historical and archeological data. (a) On... of land on known or reported historical or archeological sites, the Commissioner will take or...

  19. 25 CFR 101.9 - Preservation of historical and archeological data.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Preservation of historical and archeological data. 101.9... INDIANS FROM THE REVOLVING LOAN FUND § 101.9 Preservation of historical and archeological data. (a) On... of land on known or reported historical or archeological sites, the Commissioner will take or...

  20. 25 CFR 286.10 - Preservation of historical and archeological data.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2012-04-01 2011-04-01 true Preservation of historical and archeological data. 286.10... BUSINESS DEVELOPMENT PROGRAM § 286.10 Preservation of historical and archeological data. The Assistant... land on known or reported historical or archeological sites, will take appropriate action to...

  1. 25 CFR 101.9 - Preservation of historical and archeological data.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Preservation of historical and archeological data. 101.9... INDIANS FROM THE REVOLVING LOAN FUND § 101.9 Preservation of historical and archeological data. (a) On... of land on known or reported historical or archeological sites, the Commissioner will take or...

  2. 25 CFR 101.9 - Preservation of historical and archeological data.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Preservation of historical and archeological data. 101.9... INDIANS FROM THE REVOLVING LOAN FUND § 101.9 Preservation of historical and archeological data. (a) On... of land on known or reported historical or archeological sites, the Commissioner will take or...

  3. 25 CFR 286.10 - Preservation of historical and archeological data.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Preservation of historical and archeological data. 286.10... BUSINESS DEVELOPMENT PROGRAM § 286.10 Preservation of historical and archeological data. The Assistant... land on known or reported historical or archeological sites, will take appropriate action to...

  4. 25 CFR 101.9 - Preservation of historical and archeological data.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2012-04-01 2011-04-01 true Preservation of historical and archeological data. 101.9... INDIANS FROM THE REVOLVING LOAN FUND § 101.9 Preservation of historical and archeological data. (a) On... of land on known or reported historical or archeological sites, the Commissioner will take or...

  5. 25 CFR 286.10 - Preservation of historical and archeological data.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Preservation of historical and archeological data. 286.10... BUSINESS DEVELOPMENT PROGRAM § 286.10 Preservation of historical and archeological data. The Assistant... land on known or reported historical or archeological sites, will take appropriate action to...

  6. 7 CFR 1901.259 - Actions to be taken when archeological properties are discovered during construction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 12 2014-01-01 2013-01-01 true Actions to be taken when archeological properties are... Procedures for the Protection of Historical and Archeological Properties § 1901.259 Actions to be taken when archeological properties are discovered during construction. (a) When properties of significant HA value...

  7. 7 CFR 1901.259 - Actions to be taken when archeological properties are discovered during construction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 12 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Actions to be taken when archeological properties are... Procedures for the Protection of Historical and Archeological Properties § 1901.259 Actions to be taken when archeological properties are discovered during construction. (a) When properties of significant HA value...

  8. 7 CFR 1901.259 - Actions to be taken when archeological properties are discovered during construction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 12 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Actions to be taken when archeological properties are... Procedures for the Protection of Historical and Archeological Properties § 1901.259 Actions to be taken when archeological properties are discovered during construction. (a) When properties of significant HA value...

  9. 7 CFR 1901.259 - Actions to be taken when archeological properties are discovered during construction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 12 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Actions to be taken when archeological properties are... Procedures for the Protection of Historical and Archeological Properties § 1901.259 Actions to be taken when archeological properties are discovered during construction. (a) When properties of significant HA value...

  10. 7 CFR 1901.259 - Actions to be taken when archeological properties are discovered during construction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 12 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Actions to be taken when archeological properties are... Procedures for the Protection of Historical and Archeological Properties § 1901.259 Actions to be taken when archeological properties are discovered during construction. (a) When properties of significant HA value...

  11. New trichoscopy findings in trichotillomania: flame hairs, V-sign, hook hairs, hair powder, tulip hairs.

    PubMed

    Rakowska, Adriana; Slowinska, Monika; Olszewska, Malgorzata; Rudnicka, Lidia

    2014-05-01

    Differential diagnosis of trichotillomania is often difficult in clinical practice. Trichoscopy (hair and scalp dermoscopy) effectively supports differential diagnosis of various hair and scalp diseases. The aim of this study was to assess the usefulness of trichoscopy in diagnosing trichotillomania. The study included 370 patients (44 with trichotillomania, 314 with alopecia areata and 12 with tinea capitis). Statistical analysis revealed that the main and most characteristic trichoscopic findings of trichotillomania are: irregularly broken hairs (44/44; 100% of patients), v-sign (24/44; 57%), flame hairs (11/44; 25%), hair powder (7/44; 16%) and coiled hairs (17/44; 39%). Flame hairs, v-sign, tulip hairs, and hair powder were newly identified in this study. In conclusion, we describe here specific trichoscopy features, which may be applied in quick, non-invasive, in-office differential diagnosis of trichotillomania. PMID:24096547

  12. Exploration of SNP variants affecting hair colour prediction in Europeans.

    PubMed

    Söchtig, Jens; Phillips, Chris; Maroñas, Olalla; Gómez-Tato, Antonio; Cruz, Raquel; Alvarez-Dios, Jose; de Cal, María-Ángeles Casares; Ruiz, Yarimar; Reich, Kristian; Fondevila, Manuel; Carracedo, Ángel; Lareu, María V

    2015-09-01

    DNA profiling is a key tool for forensic analysis; however, current methods identify a suspect either by direct comparison or from DNA database searches. In cases with unidentified suspects, prediction of visible physical traits e.g. pigmentation or hair distribution of the DNA donors can provide important probative information. This study aimed to explore single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) variants for their effect on hair colour prediction. A discovery panel of 63 SNPs consisting of already established hair colour markers from the HIrisPlex hair colour phenotyping assay as well as additional markers for which associations to human pigmentation traits were previously identified was used to develop multiplex assays based on SNaPshot single-base extension technology. A genotyping study was performed on a range of European populations (n = 605). Hair colour phenotyping was accomplished by matching donor's hair to a graded colour category system of reference shades and photography. Since multiple SNPs in combination contribute in varying degrees to hair colour predictability in Europeans, we aimed to compile a compact marker set that could provide a reliable hair colour inference from the fewest SNPs. The predictive approach developed uses a naïve Bayes classifier to provide hair colour assignment probabilities for the SNP profiles of the key SNPs and was embedded into the Snipper online SNP classifier ( http://mathgene.usc.es/snipper/ ). Results indicate that red, blond, brown and black hair colours are predictable with informative probabilities in a high proportion of cases. Our study resulted in the identification of 12 most strongly associated SNPs to hair pigmentation variation in six genes. PMID:26162598

  13. Forensic Science Technician

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tech Directions, 2010

    2010-01-01

    Forensic science technicians, also called crime laboratory technicians or police science technicians, help solve crimes. They examine and identify physical evidence to reconstruct a crime scene. This article discusses everything students need to know about careers for forensic science technicians--wages, responsibilities, skills needed, career…

  14. Forensic psychiatry in Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Hassan, Tariq; Nizami, Asad Tamizuddin; Hirji, Sarah

    2015-01-01

    This article reviews existing forensic psychiatric services in Pakistan highlighting the role played by the judicial and the medical fraternity in managing the legal and forensic issues of the population of patients with mental illnesses. Until 2001, all legal and forensic issues were dealt with the mental health legislation of 1912, the Lunacy Act of 1912. This was inherited from the British rulers in the Sub-Continent at the time. The Mental Health Ordinance of 2001 could not sustain following the 18th constitutional amendment in 2010, whereby psychiatric healthcare was devolved to the provinces from the previous federal authority. The article also highlights the difficulties and the barriers in implementation of the forensic psychiatric services in Pakistan at various levels within the healthcare system. This article also delves into the current framework of training in forensic psychiatry for postgraduates as well as the assessments and management schedules for the mentally ill offenders at tertiary care institutions in Pakistan. PMID:26024984

  15. [The archeology of slavery on Jesuit fazendas: first research notes].

    PubMed

    Symanski, Luís Cláudio P; Gomes, Flávio

    2012-12-01

    These preliminary research notes present theoretical and methodological questions regarding a recently inaugurated investigation in historical archeology that intends to analyze daily life under slavery, demographic regimes, cultural practices, and so on. A survey of archeological sites on former 'senzalas' (slave quarters) and slave-owning fazendas in the Paraíba Valley and northern part of the state of Rio de Janeiro is currently in progress. With the cooperation of historians, archeologists, and anthropologists, records of the material culture of slave populations, which originally comprised indigenes and later Africans, are being located at excavations underway on the fazenda that is part of the Jesuit school in Campos dos Goytacazes, Rio de Janeiro, first run by the clergy and later by members of the laity in the seventeenth, eighteenth, and nineteenth centuries. PMID:23370111

  16. Future Applications of Remote Sensing to Archeological Research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sever, Thomas L.

    2003-01-01

    Archeology was one of the first disciplines to use aerial photography in its investigations at the turn of the 20th century. However, the low resolution of satellite technology that became available in the 1970 s limited their application to regional studies. That has recently changed. The arrival of the high resolution, multi-spectral capabilities of the IKONOS and QUICKBIRD satellites and the scheduled launch of new satellites in the next few years provides an unlimited horizon for future archeological research. In addition, affordable aerial and ground-based remote sensing instrumentation are providing archeologists with information that is not available through traditional methodologies. Although many archeologists are not yet comfortable with remote sensing technology a new generation has embraced it and is accumulating a wealth of new evidence. They have discovered that through the use of remote sensing it is possible to gather information without disturbing the site and that those cultural resources can be monitored and protected for the future.

  17. Pet fur or fake fur? A forensic approach

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background In forensic science there are many types of crime that involve animals. Therefore, the identification of the species has become an essential investigative tool. The exhibits obtained from such offences are very often a challenge for forensic experts. Indeed, most biological materials are traces, hair or tanned fur. With hair samples, a common forensic approach should proceed from morphological and structural microscopic examination to DNA analysis. However, the microscopy of hair requires a lot of experience and a suitable comparative database to be able to recognize with a high degree of accuracy that a sample comes from a particular species and then to determine whether it is a protected one. DNA analysis offers the best opportunity to answer the question, ‘What species is this?’ In our work, we analyzed different samples of fur coming from China used to make hats and collars. Initially, the samples were examined under a microscope, then the mitochondrial DNA was tested for species identification. For this purpose, the genetic markers used were the 12S and 16S ribosomal RNA, while the hypervariable segment I of the control region was analyzed afterwards, to determine whether samples belonged to the same individual. Results Microscopic examination showed that the fibres were of animal origin, although it was difficult to determine with a high degree of confidence which species they belonged to and if they came from a protected species. Therefore, DNA analysis was essential to try to clarify the species of these fur samples. Conclusions Macroscopic and microscopic analysis confirmed the hypothesis regarding the analyzed hair belonging to real animals, although it failed to prove with any kind of certainty which actual family it came from, therefore, the species remains unknown. Sequence data analysis and comparisons with the samples available in GenBank showed that the hair, in most cases, belonged to the Canidae family, and in one case only to

  18. Replacing facial hair.

    PubMed

    Straub, Paul M

    2008-11-01

    The face is the second most common area for hair transplantation after the scalp. Areas that are transplanted include eyebrows, eyelashes, moustaches, beards, temples and temporal points, as well as scars either traumatic or the side effect of cosmetic procedures such as rhytidectomies or brow lifts. The hair is harvested from the same area as the hair that is transplanted to the head. For this reason, it grows longer than nongrafted facial hair and must be trimmed regularly. Occasionally, hair lower in the neck region is harvested, which is finer than occipital hair; however, because of movement in the neck area, the scars are often larger. Body hair has been suggested as donor hair but is not recommended because it spends as much as 85% of its time in the telogen phase. PMID:19034820

  19. Hitchhiking women's hair color.

    PubMed

    Guéguen, Nicolas; Lamy, Lubomir

    2009-12-01

    To test the effect of women's hair color on the frequency of offering help, male (n = 1,508) and female (n = 892) French motorists were tested in a hitchhiking situation. Five 20- to 22- yr.-old female confederates wore a wig with blonde, brown, or black hair. Each confederate was instructed to stand by the side of a road frequented by hitchhikers and hold out her thumb to catch a ride. Blonde hair, compared with brown hair or black hair, was associated with a small but significantly larger number of male drivers who stopped to offer a ride (18 vs 14%). No difference was found for those with brown and black hair (14 and 13%, respectively). No effect of hair color was found for female drivers who stopped. The greater attractiveness associated with blonde hair for women appears to explain these data. PMID:20178293

  20. Hair straightener poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/002706.htm Hair straightener poisoning To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Hair straightener poisoning occurs when someone swallows products that ...

  1. Skin, Hair, and Nails

    MedlinePlus

    ... special types of cells: Melanocytes produce melanin, the pigment that gives skin its color. All people have ... the epidermis). Hair also contains a yellow-red pigment; people who have blonde or red hair have ...

  2. Hair transplantation update.

    PubMed

    Rogers, Nicole E

    2015-06-01

    Contemporary hair transplant surgery offers results that are natural and undetectable. It is an excellent treatment option for male and female pattern hair loss. Patients are encouraged to also use medical therapy to help protect their surgical results and prevent ongoing thinning of the surrounding hairs. The two major techniques of donor elliptical harvesting and follicular unit extraction are discussed here. PMID:26176286

  3. The forensic psychiatric report.

    PubMed

    Norko, Michael A; Buchanan, Mar Alec

    2015-01-01

    The construction of a written forensic report is a core component of forensic practice, demonstrating the evaluator's skill in conducting the evaluation and in communicating relevant information to the legal audience in an effective manner. Although communication skills and quality of written documentation are important in clinical psychiatry generally, they form the sine qua non of successful forensic work, which consists in telling complex stories in a coherent and compelling fashion. High quality forensic reports require careful preparation from the earliest stages of work on a case. They generally follow an expected structure, which permits the evaluator to provide all the data necessary to form a carefully reasoned opinion that addresses the legal questions posed. Formats and content of reports vary according to the type of case and the circumstances of the evaluation and so require flexibility within customary frameworks. The style and quality of writing are critical to the crafting of forensic reports. The effects on legal decision-makers of various approaches to the presentation of information in reports has not been studied empirically, but guidance from experienced forensic psychiatrists is available. There is a small body of research on quality improvement in forensic writing, and further empiric study is warranted. PMID:25603453

  4. Forensic Mass Spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoffmann, William D.; Jackson, Glen P.

    2015-07-01

    Developments in forensic mass spectrometry tend to follow, rather than lead, the developments in other disciplines. Examples of techniques having forensic potential born independently of forensic applications include ambient ionization, imaging mass spectrometry, isotope ratio mass spectrometry, portable mass spectrometers, and hyphenated chromatography-mass spectrometry instruments, to name a few. Forensic science has the potential to benefit enormously from developments that are funded by other means, if only the infrastructure and personnel existed to adopt, validate, and implement the new technologies into casework. Perhaps one unique area in which forensic science is at the cutting edge is in the area of chemometrics and the determination of likelihood ratios for the evaluation of the weight of evidence. Such statistical techniques have been developed most extensively for ignitable-liquid residue analyses and isotope ratio analysis. This review attempts to capture the trends, motivating forces, and likely impact of developing areas of forensic mass spectrometry, with the caveat that none of this research is likely to have any real impact in the forensic community unless: (a) The instruments developed are turned into robust black boxes with red and green lights for positives and negatives, respectively, or (b) there are PhD graduates in the workforce who can help adopt these sophisticated techniques.

  5. Forensic Mass Spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Hoffmann, William D; Jackson, Glen P

    2015-01-01

    Developments in forensic mass spectrometry tend to follow, rather than lead, the developments in other disciplines. Examples of techniques having forensic potential born independently of forensic applications include ambient ionization, imaging mass spectrometry, isotope ratio mass spectrometry, portable mass spectrometers, and hyphenated chromatography-mass spectrometry instruments, to name a few. Forensic science has the potential to benefit enormously from developments that are funded by other means, if only the infrastructure and personnel existed to adopt, validate, and implement the new technologies into casework. Perhaps one unique area in which forensic science is at the cutting edge is in the area of chemometrics and the determination of likelihood ratios for the evaluation of the weight of evidence. Such statistical techniques have been developed most extensively for ignitable-liquid residue analyses and isotope ratio analysis. This review attempts to capture the trends, motivating forces, and likely impact of developing areas of forensic mass spectrometry, with the caveat that none of this research is likely to have any real impact in the forensic community unless: (a) The instruments developed are turned into robust black boxes with red and green lights for positives and negatives, respectively, or (b) there are PhD graduates in the workforce who can help adopt these sophisticated techniques. PMID:26070716

  6. Archeology and Education: The Classroom and Beyond. Papers from the Symposium (2nd, Tucson, Arizona, 1990). Archeological Assistance Study Number 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, KC, Ed.; McManamon, Francis P., Ed.

    The papers collected in this document are derived from a symposium held during the 1990 annual meeting of the Society for Historical Archeology. The symposium, part of an increasing effort to make archeology more accessible to the general public, was dedicated solely to archaeology and education, and the papers described programs designed to…

  7. Expansion of Microbial Forensics.

    PubMed

    Schmedes, Sarah E; Sajantila, Antti; Budowle, Bruce

    2016-08-01

    Microbial forensics has been defined as the discipline of applying scientific methods to the analysis of evidence related to bioterrorism, biocrimes, hoaxes, or the accidental release of a biological agent or toxin for attribution purposes. Over the past 15 years, technology, particularly massively parallel sequencing, and bioinformatics advances now allow the characterization of microorganisms for a variety of human forensic applications, such as human identification, body fluid characterization, postmortem interval estimation, and biocrimes involving tracking of infectious agents. Thus, microbial forensics should be more broadly described as the discipline of applying scientific methods to the analysis of microbial evidence in criminal and civil cases for investigative purposes. PMID:26912746

  8. The imported forensic expert

    SciTech Connect

    Larson, C.P.

    1980-09-01

    A review of the experiences of one of the pioneer forensic pathologists in the United States offers an interesting insight into the possibilities of private forensic pathology in America. The author's experience includes serving as President of the National Boxing Association and the International Boxing Association, during which time he made many improvements in ring safety. His research into several areas of cases of product liability offer an insight to the wide scope of the potential of the forensic expert. This presentation reviews his activities in realms widely afield from medicine.

  9. Hair loss in children.

    PubMed

    Alves, Rubina; Grimalt, Ramon

    2015-01-01

    Hair diseases represent frequent complaints in dermatology clinics, and they can be caused by a number of conditions reflected by specific diagnoses. Hair loss is not uncommon in the pediatric group, but its patterns in this group are different from those seen in adults. Additionally, in children, these disorders can have psychological effects that can interfere with growth and development. Hair is easily accessible for examination, and dermatologists are in the enviable situation of being able to study many disorders using simple diagnostic techniques. To fully understand hair loss during childhood, a basic comprehension of normal hair growth is necessary. Knowledge of the normal range and variation observed in the hair of children further enhances its assessment. This chapter has been written in an attempt to facilitate the diagnostic process during daily practice by helping to distinguish between acquired and congenital hair diseases. It can sometimes be difficult to differentiate between abnormality and normality in neonatal hair aspects. Management of hair disorders can be quite a daunting task for the attending physician and mandates a holistic approach to the patient. Some hair disturbances have no effective treatment, and for others, no single treatment is 100% successful. If no effective treatment for a hair loss disease exists, a cosmetic approach is important. PMID:26370644

  10. [Hormones and hair growth].

    PubMed

    Trüeb, R M

    2010-06-01

    With respect to the relationship between hormones and hair growth, the role of androgens for androgenetic alopecia (AGA) and hirsutism is best acknowledged. Accordingly, therapeutic strategies that intervene in androgen metabolism have been successfully developed for treatment of these conditions. Clinical observations of hair conditions involving hormones beyond the androgen horizon have determined their role in regulation of hair growth: estrogens, prolactin, thyroid hormone, cortisone, growth hormone (GH), and melatonin. Primary GH resistance is characterized by thin hair, while acromegaly may cause hypertrichosis. Hyperprolactinemia may cause hair loss and hirsutism. Partial synchronization of the hair cycle in anagen during late pregnancy points to an estrogen effect, while aromatase inhibitors cause hair loss. Hair loss in a causal relationship to thyroid disorders is well documented. In contrast to AGA, senescent alopecia affects the hair in a diffuse manner. The question arises, whether the hypothesis that a causal relationship exists between the age-related reduction of circulating hormones and organ function also applies to hair and the aging of hair. PMID:20502852

  11. Educating Jurors about Forensic Evidence: Using an Expert Witness and Judicial Instructions to Mitigate the Impact of Invalid Forensic Science Testimony.

    PubMed

    Eastwood, Joseph; Caldwell, Jiana

    2015-11-01

    Invalid expert witness testimony that overstated the precision and accuracy of forensic science procedures has been highlighted as a common factor in many wrongful conviction cases. This study assessed the ability of an opposing expert witness and judicial instructions to mitigate the impact of invalid forensic science testimony. Participants (N = 155) acted as mock jurors in a sexual assault trial that contained both invalid forensic testimony regarding hair comparison evidence, and countering testimony from either a defense expert witness or judicial instructions. Results showed that the defense expert witness was successful in educating jurors regarding limitations in the initial expert's conclusions, leading to a greater number of not-guilty verdicts. The judicial instructions were shown to have no impact on verdict decisions. These findings suggest that providing opposing expert witnesses may be an effective safeguard against invalid forensic testimony in criminal trials. PMID:26234166

  12. Hair as a retrospective calendar of cortisol production-Increased cortisol incorporation into hair in the third trimester of pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Kirschbaum, Clemens; Tietze, Antje; Skoluda, Nadine; Dettenborn, Lucia

    2009-01-01

    Hair has long been used in toxicology, forensic science, doping control and other fields as a biological specimen for the detection of environmental agents, drugs, or toxins. Most recent evidence suggests that also hormones are incorporated and trapped inside the growing hair. This has led to the hypothesis that cortisol measurement of distinct hair segments could provide a retrospective calendar of cortisol production for the individual. In this first proof-of-concept study in humans, we analyzed cortisol in hair donated by mothers with a neonate child (n-Mothers; N=103), mothers with toddlers 3-9 months of age (t-Mothers; N=19), and control women (N=20). We cut hair strands from each women into at least three 3-cm segments, which, based on an average hair growth rate of 1cm per month, would represent hair grown over the past three, six, and nine months, respectively. Since in the third trimester of pregnancy there is a well-documented increased production of cortisol, we expected to see elevated levels of cortisol in the most proximal hair segment of women who had just given birth to a child (n-Mothers) compared with the control women. Likewise, we expected to see elevated levels in the second, third, or fourth segment of mothers of 3-month olds, 6-months olds, and 9-months olds, respectively. These hair segments, cut at 4-12 cm from the scalp, would represent hair grown throughout the third trimester of pregnancy. Results showed that there was a strong monotonic decline in cortisol concentration from the segment closest to the scalp to the most distal hair segment (p<0.0001). Cortisol levels decreased by 30-40% from one segment to the next for the most recent four hair segments. Segments from hair older than one year had similarly, low levels of cortisol. Comparisons of cortisol levels in hair between n-Mothers and control women yielded the expected results: cortisol levels in the first 3-cm hair segment (i.e., closest to the scalp) of n-Mothers were two

  13. Atypical Forensic Dental Identifications.

    PubMed

    Cardoza, Anthony R; Wood, James D

    2015-06-01

    Forensic dental identification specialists are typically the last conventional option for postmortem identification. Forensic dental identification is most often accomplished by comparing radiographs of the decedent's teeth with the dental radiographs obtained from the dentist of the suspected victim. Unfortunately, antemortem dental radiographs are not always available. When presented with this challenge, the authors of this article have been successful in completing identifications using means other than dental radiographic comparison. PMID:26126345

  14. Professionalism in Computer Forensics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Irons, Alastair D.; Konstadopoulou, Anastasia

    The paper seeks to address the need to consider issues regarding professionalism in computer forensics in order to allow the discipline to develop and to ensure the credibility of the discipline from the differing perspectives of practitioners, the criminal justice system and in the eyes of the public. There is a need to examine and develop professionalism in computer forensics in order to promote the discipline and maintain the credibility of the discipline.

  15. Transporting Forensic Psychiatric Patients.

    PubMed

    Dike, Charles C; Nicholson, Elizabeth; Young, John L

    2015-12-01

    Patients in a forensic psychiatric facility often require escorted transport to medical facilities for investigations or treatments of physical health ailments. Transporting these patients presents significant safety and custody challenges because of the nature of patients housed in forensic psychiatric facilities. A significant proportion of these patients may be transfers from the Department of Corrections (DOC) under legal mandates for psychiatric evaluation and treatment better provided in a hospital setting, and most of them will return to the DOC. Although departments of correction have protocols for escorting these potentially dangerous individuals, it is unclear whether receiving psychiatric hospitals have established procedures for maintaining the safety of others and custody of these individuals during transportation outside the hospital facility. The literature is sparse on precautions to be observed when transporting dangerous forensic psychiatric patients, including those with high escape risk. In this article, we describe one forensic inpatient facility's procedure for determining the appropriate level needed to transport these individuals outside of the forensic facility. We also describe the risk assessment procedure for determining level of transport. These are quality improvement measures resulting from a critical review of an incident of escape from the forensic facility several years ago. PMID:26668224

  16. Internet and forensic science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chamakura, Reddy P.

    1997-02-01

    The Internet is a very powerful and inexpensive tool that was created for the free distribution of knowledge and information. The Internet is a learning tool, a research tool, a virtual library without borders and membership requirements, a journal with instant publication, a help desk, and a newspaper/journal with current information. Very soon, when live audio and video transmission is perfected, the Internet also will be a live classroom and everyday conference. Forensic scientists, laboratories and colleges should make use of information already available on the Internet. They also should actively participate and contribute. Very few forensic scientists and laboratories have made their presence felt by setting up their home pages/web pages. But, there is tremendous growth during the past year. Immense benefits from Internet to forensic community are discussed along with the author's personal experience. Creating on-line searchable data bases in all specialties of forensic science is an urgent need. Leading forensic journals should take a lead and create on-line searchable indexes with abstracts. On line electronic publishing, collaborative research/paper publishing or editing is easy, fast, economical and convenient through the use of the Internet. Creation of Internet repositories of unpublished papers is an idea worth looking into. Internet also can be used to give training, re-training or advanced training to students/forensic scientists.

  17. Rethinking dog domestication by integrating genetics, archeology, and biogeography

    PubMed Central

    Larson, Greger; Karlsson, Elinor K.; Perri, Angela; Webster, Matthew T.; Ho, Simon Y. W.; Peters, Joris; Stahl, Peter W.; Piper, Philip J.; Lingaas, Frode; Fredholm, Merete; Comstock, Kenine E.; Modiano, Jaime F.; Schelling, Claude; Agoulnik, Alexander I.; Leegwater, Peter A.; Dobney, Keith; Vigne, Jean-Denis; Vilà, Carles; Andersson, Leif; Lindblad-Toh, Kerstin

    2012-01-01

    The dog was the first domesticated animal but it remains uncertain when the domestication process began and whether it occurred just once or multiple times across the Northern Hemisphere. To ascertain the value of modern genetic data to elucidate the origins of dog domestication, we analyzed 49,024 autosomal SNPs in 1,375 dogs (representing 35 breeds) and 19 wolves. After combining our data with previously published data, we contrasted the genetic signatures of 121 breeds with a worldwide archeological assessment of the earliest dog remains. Correlating the earliest archeological dogs with the geographic locations of 14 so-called “ancient” breeds (defined by their genetic differentiation) resulted in a counterintuitive pattern. First, none of the ancient breeds derive from regions where the oldest archeological remains have been found. Second, three of the ancient breeds (Basenjis, Dingoes, and New Guinea Singing Dogs) come from regions outside the natural range of Canis lupus (the dog’s wild ancestor) and where dogs were introduced more than 10,000 y after domestication. These results demonstrate that the unifying characteristic among all genetically distinct so-called ancient breeds is a lack of recent admixture with other breeds likely facilitated by geographic and cultural isolation. Furthermore, these genetically distinct ancient breeds only appear so because of their relative isolation, suggesting that studies of modern breeds have yet to shed light on dog origins. We conclude by assessing the limitations of past studies and how next-generation sequencing of modern and ancient individuals may unravel the history of dog domestication. PMID:22615366

  18. Drugs and hair loss.

    PubMed

    Patel, Mansi; Harrison, Shannon; Sinclair, Rodney

    2013-01-01

    Hair loss is a common complaint, both in men and women, and use of prescription medications is widespread. When there is a temporal association between the onset of hair loss and commencement of a medication, the medication is commonly thought to have caused the hair loss. However, hair loss and in particular telogen effluvium may occur in response to a number of triggers including fever, hemorrhage, severe illness, stress, and childbirth, and a thorough exclusion of these potential confounders is necessary before the hair loss can be blamed on the medication. Certain medications are known to cause hair loss by a variety of mechanisms including anagen arrest, telogen effluvium, or accentuation of androgenetic alopecia by androgens. PMID:23159177

  19. Ethnic hair disorders.

    PubMed

    Lindsey, Scott F; Tosti, Antonella

    2015-01-01

    The management of hair and scalp conditions is difficult in any patient, especially given the emotional and psychological implications of hair loss. This undertaking becomes even more challenging in the ethnic patient. Differences in hair care practices, hair shaft morphology, and follicular architecture add complexity to the task. It is imperative that the physician be knowledgeable about these practices and the phenotypic differences seen in ethnic hair in order to appropriately diagnose and treat these patients. In this chapter, we will discuss cultural practices and morphologic differences and explain how these relate to the specific disorders seen in ethnic populations. We will also review the most prominent of the ethnic hair conditions including acquired trichorrhexis nodosa, traction alopecia, central centrifugal cicatricial alopecia, pseudofolliculitis barbae, dissecting cellulitis, and acne keloidalis nuchae. PMID:26370652

  20. Female pattern hair loss.

    PubMed

    Ioannides, Dimitrios; Lazaridou, Elizabeth

    2015-01-01

    Female pattern hair loss, or female pattern androgenetic alopecia, is a nonscarring alopecia with a multi-factorial etiology that mostly affects postmenopausal women and is characterized by a reduction in hair density over the crown and frontal scalp. The clinical picture is characterized by a diffuse rarefaction of scalp hair over the mid-frontal scalp and a more-or-less intact frontal hairline without any signs of inflammation or scarring. Although the disease poses only a cosmetic concern, it is chronic and may have a significant negative psychological impact on the affected person. The aim of treating female pattern hair loss is to reduce hair loss and, to a certain extent, succeed in promoting hair regrowth. Various treatment methods are available, but it remains unclear which are the most effective. Early initiation of treatment and the combination of various modalities seem to be more efficacious than monotherapy. PMID:26370643

  1. Advances and challenges in hair restoration of curly Afrocentric hair.

    PubMed

    Rogers, Nicole E; Callender, Valerie D

    2014-04-01

    Although the biochemical composition of hair is similar among racial and ethnic groups, the hair structure between them varies, and individuals with curly hair pose specific challenges and special considerations when a surgical option for alopecia is considered. Hair restoration in this population should therefore be approached with knowledge on the clinical characteristics of curly hair, hair grooming techniques that may influence the management, unique indications for the procedure, surgical instrumentation used, and the complications that may arise. PMID:24680003

  2. Hair implant complications.

    PubMed

    Hanke, C W; Norins, A L; Pantzer, J G; Bennett, J E

    1981-04-01

    Four men who underwent hair implantation for pattern baldness were treated for complications such as infection, foreign-body reaction, pruritus, and scarring. The complications were similar to those reported with synthetic modacrylic fiber implants that have been used for the same purpose. Although we believe this is the first article to report complications from hair implants, the illogical basis of the procedure suggests that complications will occur in many unsuspecting patients who undergo hair implantation. PMID:7009899

  3. Sea level, paleogeography, and archeology on California's Northern Channel Islands

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Reeder-Myers, Leslie; Erlandson, Jon M.; Muhs, Daniel R.; Rick, Torben C.

    2015-01-01

    Sea-level rise during the late Pleistocene and early Holocene inundated nearshore areas in many parts of the world, producing drastic changes in local ecosystems and obscuring significant portions of the archeological record. Although global forces are at play, the effects of sea-level rise are highly localized due to variability in glacial isostatic adjustment (GIA) effects. Interpretations of coastal paleoecology and archeology require reliable estimates of ancient shorelines that account for GIA effects. Here we build on previous models for California's Northern Channel Islands, producing more accurate late Pleistocene and Holocene paleogeographic reconstructions adjusted for regional GIA variability. This region has contributed significantly to our understanding of early New World coastal foragers. Sea level that was about 80–85 m lower than present at the time of the first known human occupation brought about a landscape and ecology substantially different than today. During the late Pleistocene, large tracts of coastal lowlands were exposed, while a colder, wetter climate and fluctuating marine conditions interacted with rapidly evolving littoral environments. At the close of the Pleistocene and start of the Holocene, people in coastal California faced shrinking land, intertidal, and subtidal zones, with important implications for resource availability and distribution.

  4. Sea level, paleogeography, and archeology on California's Northern Channel Islands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reeder-Myers, Leslie; Erlandson, Jon M.; Muhs, Daniel R.; Rick, Torben C.

    2015-03-01

    Sea-level rise during the late Pleistocene and early Holocene inundated nearshore areas in many parts of the world, producing drastic changes in local ecosystems and obscuring significant portions of the archeological record. Although global forces are at play, the effects of sea-level rise are highly localized due to variability in glacial isostatic adjustment (GIA) effects. Interpretations of coastal paleoecology and archeology require reliable estimates of ancient shorelines that account for GIA effects. Here we build on previous models for California's Northern Channel Islands, producing more accurate late Pleistocene and Holocene paleogeographic reconstructions adjusted for regional GIA variability. This region has contributed significantly to our understanding of early New World coastal foragers. Sea level that was about 80-85 m lower than present at the time of the first known human occupation brought about a landscape and ecology substantially different than today. During the late Pleistocene, large tracts of coastal lowlands were exposed, while a colder, wetter climate and fluctuating marine conditions interacted with rapidly evolving littoral environments. At the close of the Pleistocene and start of the Holocene, people in coastal California faced shrinking land, intertidal, and subtidal zones, with important implications for resource availability and distribution.

  5. Sample preparation methods for determination of drugs of abuse in hair samples: A review.

    PubMed

    Vogliardi, Susanna; Tucci, Marianna; Stocchero, Giulia; Ferrara, Santo Davide; Favretto, Donata

    2015-02-01

    Hair analysis has assumed increasing importance in the determination of substances of abuse, both in clinical and forensic toxicology investigations. Hair analysis offers particular advantages over other biological matrices (blood and urine), including a larger window of detection, ease of collection and sample stability. In the present work, an overview of sample preparation techniques for the determination of substances of abuse in hair is provided, specifically regarding the principal steps in hair sample treatment-decontamination, extraction and purification. For this purpose, a survey of publications found in the MEDLINE database from 2000 to date was conducted. The most widely consumed substances of abuse and psychotropic drugs were considered. Trends in simplification of hair sample preparation, washing procedures and cleanup methods are discussed. Alternative sample extraction techniques, such as head-space solid phase microextraction (HS-SPDE), supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) and molecularly imprinted polymers (MIP) are also reported. PMID:25604816

  6. Tarantula hair keratitis.

    PubMed

    Mangat, Simran Singh; Newman, Bill

    2012-10-26

    We describe a 12-year-old boy in England with keratitis secondary to tarantula hairs embedded within the stroma of his cornea. Every attempt must be made to isolate these hairs at the first visit as they have a barbed nature and have a propensity to propagate through ocular tissues. A chronic keratitis requiring long-term steroid use may result if hairs persist in the cornea. Children who keep tarantulas as pets should be instructed on safe handling to prevent the tarantula from adopting defence mechanisms and shedding their hairs. PMID:23242405

  7. Female hair restoration.

    PubMed

    Unger, Robin H

    2013-08-01

    Female hair loss is a devastating issue for women that has only relatively recently been publicly acknowledged as a significant problem. Hair transplant surgery is extremely successful in correcting the most cosmetically problematic areas of alopecia. This article discusses the surgical technique of hair transplantation in women in detail, including pearls to reduce postoperative sequelae and planning strategies to ensure a high degree of patient satisfaction. A brief overview of some of the medical treatments found to be helpful in slowing or reversing female pattern hair loss is included, addressing the available hormonal and topical treatments. PMID:24017982

  8. Laser hair removal pearls.

    PubMed

    Tierney, Emily P; Goldberg, David J

    2008-03-01

    A number of lasers and light devices are now available for the treatment of unwanted hair. The goal of laser hair removal is to damage stem cells in the bulge of the follicle through the targeting of melanin, the endogenous chromophore for laser and light devices utilized to remove hair. The competing chromophores in the skin and hair, oxyhemoglobin and water, have a decreased absorption between 690 nm and 1000 nm, thus making this an ideal range for laser and light sources. Pearls of laser hair removal are presented in this review, focusing on four areas of recent development: 1 treatment of blond, white and gray hair; 2 paradoxical hypertrichosis; 3 laser hair removal in children; and 4 comparison of lasers and IPL. Laser and light-based technologies to remove hair represents one of the most exciting areas where discoveries by dermatologists have led to novel treatment approaches. It is likely that in the next decade, continued advancements in this field will bring us closer to the development of a more permanent and painless form of hair removal. PMID:18330794

  9. Hair tourniquet syndrome: revisited

    PubMed Central

    HUSSIN, P.; MAWARDI, M.; MASRAN, M.S.; GANAISAN, P.

    2015-01-01

    Hair tourniquet syndrome is a rare condition. It is an important emergency condition where urgent attention is needed. In this condition, body appendages are strangulated by hair that acts like a tourniquet. A strand or strands of hair act like a circumferential constriction band and subsequently strangulate the body appendages. Commonly affected sites include fingers, toes or even genitals. Failure to identify and release the acute constriction may result in amputation of affected body part. We report two cases of hair tourniquet syndrome of the thumb and toe that were successfully released without complications. PMID:26712259

  10. Hair Loss in New Moms

    MedlinePlus

    ... Video library Find a dermatologist Hair loss in new moms Many new moms see noticeable hair loss ... regain normal fullness even earlier. Dermatologists’ tips for new mothers If the excessive hair shedding bothers you, ...

  11. Coping with cancer - hair loss

    MedlinePlus

    Alopecia ... after fast-growing cells. While chemo can cause hair loss all over your body, radiation only affects the ... Hair loss usually happens 1 to 3 weeks after the first chemo or radiation treatment. The hair on ...

  12. Coping with cancer -- hair loss

    MedlinePlus

    ... gov/ency/patientinstructions/000914.htm Coping with cancer - hair loss To use the sharing features on this ... lose your hair. Why Cancer Treatments can Cause Hair Loss Many chemotherapy drugs attack fast-growing cells. ...

  13. Why Does Hair Turn Gray?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Each hair follicle contains a certain number of pigment cells. These pigment cells continuously produce a chemical called melanin (say: ... each hair contains. As we get older, the pigment cells in our hair follicles gradually die. When ...

  14. A comprehensive and sensitive method for hair analysis in drug-facilitated crimes and incorporation of zolazepam and tiletamine into hair after a single exposure.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jihyun; Yum, Hyesun; Jang, Moonhee; Shin, Ilchung; Yang, Wonkyung; Baeck, Seungkyung; Suh, Joon Hyuk; Lee, Sooyeun; Han, Sang Beom

    2016-01-01

    Hair is a highly relevant specimen that is used to verify drug exposure in victims of drug-facilitated crime (DFC) cases. In the present study, a new analytical method involving ultrahigh-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry was developed for determining the presence of model drugs, including zolazepam and tiletamine and their metabolites in hair specimens from DFCs. The incorporation of zolazepam and tiletamine into hair after a single exposure was investigated in Long-Evans rats with the ratio of the hair concentration to the area under the curve. For rapid and simple sample preparation, methanol extraction and protein precipitation were performed for hair and plasma, respectively. No interference was observed in drug-free hair or plasma, except for hair-derived diphenhydramine in blank hair. The coefficients of variance of the matrix effects were below 12%, and the recoveries of the analytes exceeded 70% in all of the matrices. The precision and accuracy results were satisfactory. The limits of quantification ranged from 20 to 50 pg in 10 mg of hair. The drug incorporation rates were 0.03 ± 0.01% for zolazepam and 2.09 ± 0.51% for tiletamine in pigmented hair. We applied the present method to real hair samples in order to determine the drug that was used in seven cases. These results suggest that this comprehensive and sensitive hair analysis method can successfully verify a drug after a single exposure in crimes and can be applied in forensic and clinical toxicology laboratories. PMID:26454443

  15. Forensics on a Shoestring Budget

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greco, Joseph A.

    2005-01-01

    In recent years, forensic science has gained popularity thanks in part to high-profile court cases and television programs. Although the cost of forensic equipment and supplies may initially seem too expensive for the typical high school classroom, the author developed an activity that incorporates forensics into her 10th-grade biology curriculum…

  16. Specialty Guidelines for Forensic Psychology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Psychologist, 2013

    2013-01-01

    In the past 50 years forensic psychological practice has expanded dramatically. Because the practice of forensic psychology differs in important ways from more traditional practice areas (Monahan, 1980) the "Specialty Guidelines for Forensic Psychologists" were developed and published in 1991 (Committee on Ethical Guidelines for Forensic…

  17. Forensic geology exhumed

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martinez, Joseph Didier

    Forensic geology binds applied geology to the world of legal controversy and action. However, the term “forensic” is often misconstrued. Although even some attorneys apply it only to the marshalling of evidence in criminal cases, it has a much broader definition. One dictionary defines it as “pertaining to, connected with, or used in courts of law or public discussion and debate.” The American Geological Institute's Glossary of Geology defines forensic geology as “the application of the Earth sciences to the law.” The cited reference to Murray and Tedrow [1975], however, deals mostly if not exclusively with the gathering and use of evidence in criminal cases, despite the widespread involvement of geologists in more general legal matters. It seems appropriate to “exhume” geology's wider application to the law, which is encompassed by forensic geology.

  18. Single hair cocaine consumption monitoring by mass spectrometric imaging.

    PubMed

    Porta, Tiffany; Grivet, Chantal; Kraemer, Thomas; Varesio, Emmanuel; Hopfgartner, Gérard

    2011-06-01

    Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometric imaging (MALDI-MSI) was used to image the distribution of cocaine and its metabolites in intact single hair samples from chronic users down to a concentration of 5 ng/mg. Acquisitions were performed in rastering mode, at a speed of 1 mm/s and in the selected reaction monitoring (SRM) mode on a MALDI triple quadrupole linear ion trap fitted with a high repetition rate laser (1 kHz). Compared to traditional methods based on LC-MS/MS or GC-MS(/MS) which require to segment the hair to obtain spatial resolution, MALDI-MSI, with a straightforward sample preparation beforehand, allowed obtaining a spatial resolution of 1 mm and thus the chronological information about cocaine consumption contained in a single intact hair over several months could be monitored. The analysis time of an intact single hair sample of 6 cm is approximately of 6 min. Cocaine and its metabolites benzoylecgonine, ethylcocaine, and norcocaine were investigated in nine sets of hair samples for forensic purposes. The analyses were accomplished by spraying α-cyano-4-hydroxycinnamic acid (CHCA), 4-chloro-α-cyano-cinnamic acid (Cl-CCA), or (E)-2-cyano-3-(naphthalen-2-yl)acrylic acid (NpCCA) as MALDI matrices. We also propose a rapid strategy for sensitive confirmatory analyses with both MS/MS and MS(3) experiments performed directly on intact hair samples. Since only part of the hair strand is analyzed, additional analyses are possible at any time on the remaining hair from the strand. PMID:21510611

  19. Time-course mass spectrometry imaging for depicting drug incorporation into hair.

    PubMed

    Kamata, Tooru; Shima, Noriaki; Sasaki, Keiko; Matsuta, Shuntaro; Takei, Shiori; Katagi, Munehiro; Miki, Akihiro; Zaitsu, Kei; Nakanishi, Toyofumi; Sato, Takako; Suzuki, Koichi; Tsuchihashi, Hitoshi

    2015-06-01

    In order to investigate the incorporation of drugs into hair, matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-time-of-flight tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) imaging was performed on the longitudinal sections of single scalp hair shafts sampled from volunteers after a single oral administration of methoxyphenamine (MOP), a noncontrolled analogue of methamphetamine. Hair specimens were collected by plucking out with the roots intact, and these specimens were prepped by an optimized procedure based on freeze-sectioning to detect the drug inside the hair shaft and hair root. Time-course changes in the imaging results, with confirmatory quantitative liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) analysis for each 1-mm segment of single hair strands, revealed a substantial concentration of the drug first onto the hair bulbs after ingestion, while only a small portion appeared to be incorporated into the hair matrix, forming a 2-3 mm distinctive drug band with tailing. Comparable amount of the drug also appeared to be incorporated into the keratinized hair shaft in the upper dermis zone, forming another distinct drug band of about 2 mm, which both moved toward the distal side, following the strand's growth rate. These findings provide forensically crucial information: there are two major drug incorporation sites, at least for MOP, which cause overlap of the recordings and deteriorates its chronological resolution down to about 11 days or perhaps longer. PMID:25919888

  20. A possible bedrock source for obsidian found in archeological sites in northwestern Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Patton, W.W., Jr.; Miller, T.P.

    1970-01-01

    Recently discovered deposits of obsidian in the Koyukuk valley may be the long-sought-for source of obsidian found in archeological sites in northwestern Alaska. Obsidian from these deposits compares favorably in physical characteristics and sodium-manganese ratio with the archeological obsidian, and there is evidence that the deposits have been "mined" in the past.

  1. 25 CFR 170.451 - Can IRR Program funds be used for archeological and environmental compliance?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... Program funds can be used for environmental and archeological work consistent with 25 CFR 900.125(c)(6) and (c)(8) and 25 CFR 1000.243(b) and applicable tribal laws for: (a) Road and bridge rights-of-way... 25 Indians 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Can IRR Program funds be used for archeological...

  2. 25 CFR 170.450 - What archeological and environmental requirements must the IRR Program meet?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...-governance agreements for the IRR Program are in 25 CFR 900.125 and 1000.243. ... 25 Indians 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false What archeological and environmental requirements must... Reservation Roads Program Facilities Environmental and Archeological Requirements § 170.450 What...

  3. 25 CFR 170.450 - What archeological and environmental requirements must the IRR Program meet?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...-governance agreements for the IRR Program are in 25 CFR 900.125 and 1000.243. ... 25 Indians 1 2012-04-01 2011-04-01 true What archeological and environmental requirements must the... Reservation Roads Program Facilities Environmental and Archeological Requirements § 170.450 What...

  4. 25 CFR 170.451 - Can IRR Program funds be used for archeological and environmental compliance?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... Program funds can be used for environmental and archeological work consistent with 25 CFR 900.125(c)(6) and (c)(8) and 25 CFR 1000.243(b) and applicable tribal laws for: (a) Road and bridge rights-of-way... 25 Indians 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Can IRR Program funds be used for archeological...

  5. 25 CFR 170.451 - Can IRR Program funds be used for archeological and environmental compliance?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... Program funds can be used for environmental and archeological work consistent with 25 CFR 900.125(c)(6) and (c)(8) and 25 CFR 1000.243(b) and applicable tribal laws for: (a) Road and bridge rights-of-way... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Can IRR Program funds be used for archeological...

  6. 25 CFR 170.451 - Can IRR Program funds be used for archeological and environmental compliance?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... Program funds can be used for environmental and archeological work consistent with 25 CFR 900.125(c)(6) and (c)(8) and 25 CFR 1000.243(b) and applicable tribal laws for: (a) Road and bridge rights-of-way... 25 Indians 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Can IRR Program funds be used for archeological...

  7. 36 CFR 34.8 - Preservation of natural, cultural and archeological resources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Preservation of natural, cultural and archeological resources. 34.8 Section 34.8 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK... natural, cultural and archeological resources. In addition to the provisions of § 2.1 of this chapter,...

  8. 25 CFR 170.450 - What archeological and environmental requirements must the IRR Program meet?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...-governance agreements for the IRR Program are in 25 CFR 900.125 and 1000.243. ... 25 Indians 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false What archeological and environmental requirements must... Reservation Roads Program Facilities Environmental and Archeological Requirements § 170.450 What...

  9. 25 CFR 170.451 - Can IRR Program funds be used for archeological and environmental compliance?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... Program funds can be used for environmental and archeological work consistent with 25 CFR 900.125(c)(6) and (c)(8) and 25 CFR 1000.243(b) and applicable tribal laws for: (a) Road and bridge rights-of-way... 25 Indians 1 2012-04-01 2011-04-01 true Can IRR Program funds be used for archeological...

  10. Center of Change: Trends in Education at the Center for American Archeology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murphy, Harry

    1998-01-01

    Since 1958, the Center for American Archeology (CAA) has aimed to increase public awareness of ancient American history through field studies, exhibits, and cooperative school programs. In the past decade, CAA has emphasized ethics in archeology, focusing on the absence of the Native past from public school curricula, ethical interpretation of the…

  11. The Federal Archeology Program: Secretary of the Interior's Report to Congress, 1996-1997.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haas, Daniel

    To fulfill legislative reporting requirements, this report describes accomplishments of federal agencies with archeological programs, as well as the impact of federal projects on the nation's archeological heritage. In 1991, the Secretary of the Interior outlined actions that agencies should take in (1) preserving and researching sites, (2)…

  12. 25 CFR 170.450 - What archeological and environmental requirements must the IRR Program meet?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...-governance agreements for the IRR Program are in 25 CFR 900.125 and 1000.243. ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false What archeological and environmental requirements must... Reservation Roads Program Facilities Environmental and Archeological Requirements § 170.450 What...

  13. 25 CFR 170.450 - What archeological and environmental requirements must the IRR Program meet?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...-governance agreements for the IRR Program are in 25 CFR 900.125 and 1000.243. ... 25 Indians 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false What archeological and environmental requirements must... Reservation Roads Program Facilities Environmental and Archeological Requirements § 170.450 What...

  14. 36 CFR 2.1 - Preservation of natural, cultural and archeological resources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Preservation of natural, cultural and archeological resources. 2.1 Section 2.1 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR RESOURCE PROTECTION, PUBLIC USE AND RECREATION § 2.1 Preservation of natural, cultural and archeological...

  15. 36 CFR 2.1 - Preservation of natural, cultural and archeological resources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Preservation of natural, cultural and archeological resources. 2.1 Section 2.1 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR RESOURCE PROTECTION, PUBLIC USE AND RECREATION § 2.1 Preservation of natural, cultural and archeological...

  16. 36 CFR 1002.1 - Preservation of natural, cultural and archeological resources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Preservation of natural, cultural and archeological resources. 1002.1 Section 1002.1 Parks, Forests, and Public Property PRESIDIO TRUST RESOURCE PROTECTION, PUBLIC USE AND RECREATION § 1002.1 Preservation of natural, cultural and archeological resources. (a) Except as...

  17. Forensic Science Center

    SciTech Connect

    Andresen, B.; Grant, P.M.

    1994-03-01

    Since 1991, the Laboratory's Forensic Science Center has focused a comprehensive range of analytical expertise on issues related to non proliferation, counterterrorism, and domestic law enforcement. During this short period, LLNL's singular combination of human and technological resources has made the Center among the best of its kind in the world. The Forensic Science Center houses a variety of state-of-the-art analytical tools ranging from gas chromatograph/mass spectrometers to ultratrace DNA detection techniques. The Center's multidisciplinary staff provides expertise in organic and inorganic analytical chemistry, nuclear science, biochemistry, and genetics useful for supporting law enforcement and for verifying compliance with international treaties and agreements.

  18. Research in forensic odontology.

    PubMed Central

    Whittaker, D. K.

    1982-01-01

    Forensic odontology has established itself as an important and often indispensable science in medicolegal matters and in particular in identification of the dead. Much of its expertise is drawn from clinical experience based on basic research and advances in knowledge in dentistry in general. There has also been, particularly during the past two decades, an increasing body of research in specifically forensic dental matters and these studies form the subject of this review. Progress in this field, as in others, will depend upon development of training pathways and research facilities in our dental schools. Images FIG. 1 FIG. 2 PMID:7044254

  19. Complexity and forensic pathology.

    PubMed

    Jones, Richard Martin

    2015-12-01

    It has become increasingly apparent that nonlinearity and complexity are the norm in human physiological systems, the relevance of which is informing an enhanced understanding of basic pathological processes such as inflammation, the host response to severe trauma, and critical illness. This article will explore how an understanding of nonlinear systems and complexity might inform the study of the pathophysiology of deaths of medicolegal interest, and how 'complexity thinking' might usefully be incorporated into modern forensic medicine and forensic pathology research, education and practice. PMID:26372537

  20. Help! It's Hair Loss!

    MedlinePlus

    ... Homework? Here's Help White House Lunch Recipes Help! It's Hair Loss! KidsHealth > For Kids > Help! It's Hair Loss! Print A A A Text Size ... part above the skin, is dead. (That's why it doesn't hurt to get a haircut!) This ...

  1. Hair Casts or Pseudonits

    PubMed Central

    França, Katlein; Villa, Ricardo Tadeu; Silva, Isabella Rezende; de Carvalho, Cristine Almeida; Bedin, Valcinir

    2011-01-01

    Hair casts or pseudonits are thin, elongated, cylindrical concretions that encircle the hair shaft and can be easily dislodged. A case of pseudonits in a 9-year-old girl is reported. Though not unusual, false diagnoses are common. PMID:22223977

  2. Interpreting biological degradative processes acting on mammalian hair in the living and the dead: which ones are taphonomic?

    PubMed Central

    Tridico, Silvana R.; Koch, Sandra; Michaud, Amy; Thomson, Gordon; Kirkbride, K. Paul; Bunce, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Although the taphonomic (post-mortem) degradation processes relevant to teeth and bones have been well described, those taking place with regards to mammalian hairs have not been characterized to the same extent. This present article describes, in detail, microscopic changes resulting from the actions of biological agents that digest and degrade hairs. The most noteworthy and prevalent agents responsible for the destruction of hair structure are fungi, which use a range of strategies to invade and digest hairs. One of the most important finds to emerge from this study is that taphonomic structures and processes can easily be interpreted by the unwary as ‘real’, or as class characteristics for a particular animal taxon. Moreover, under certain conditions, ‘taphonomic’ processes normally associated with the dead are also present on the hairs of the living. This work will improve the reliability of hair examinations in forensic, archaeological and palaeontological applications—in addition, the finding has relevance in the protection of mammalian collections susceptible to infestation. This article also addresses the popular myth that ancient peoples were often red-haired and discusses phenomena responsible for this observation. Insights gained from detailed characterization of taphonomic processes in 95 hairs from a variety of species demonstrate the range and breadth of degradative effects on hair structure and colour. Lastly, the study demonstrates that hairs often tell a story and that there is value of extracting as much morphological data as possible from hairs, prior to destructive sampling for biomolecules. PMID:25339725

  3. Laser hair removal.

    PubMed

    Wanner, Molly

    2005-01-01

    Since 1996, there have been numerous advances in hair laser removal that utilize melanin as a chromophore. All of the devices on the market may be used in patients with light skin (phototypes I-III) and yield hair reduction near 75%. The ruby (694 nm) laser, alexandrite (755 nm) laser, and diode (810 nm) laser, as well as intense pulsed light are commonly used devices for hair laser removal. The long-pulsed Nd:YAG (1064 nm) laser represents the safest device for hair removal in dark-skinned patients because of its long wavelength, although the diode laser, alexandrite laser, and intense pulse light may be used. For treatment of light hair, combination radiofrequency and optical devices as well as photodynamic therapy are under investigation. PMID:16229722

  4. Coccidioidomycosis among Workers at an Archeological Site, Northeastern Utah

    PubMed Central

    Marshall, Stacie L.; Barton, Christine; Hajjeh, Rana A.; Lindsley, Mark D.; Warnock, David W.; Panackal, Anil A.; Shaffer, Joseph B.; Haddad, Maryam B.; Fisher, Frederick S.; Dennis, David T.; Morgan, Juliette

    2004-01-01

    In 2001, an outbreak of acute respiratory disease occurred among persons working at a Native American archeological site at Dinosaur National Monument in northeastern Utah. Epidemiologic and environmental investigations were undertaken to determine the cause of the outbreak. A clinical case was defined by the presence of at least two of the following symptoms: self-reported fever, shortness of breath, or cough. Ten workers met the clinical case definition; 9 had serologic confirmation of coccidioidomycosis, and 8 were hospitalized. All 10 were present during sifting of dirt through screens on June 19; symptoms began 9–12 days later (median 10). Coccidioidomycosis also developed in a worker at the site in September 2001. A serosurvey among 40 other Dinosaur National Monument workers did not find serologic evidence of recent infection. This outbreak documents a new endemic focus of coccidioidomycosis, extending northward its known geographic distribution in Utah by approximately 200 miles. PMID:15200853

  5. Use of imaging radar for geology and archeology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Daily, M.

    1981-01-01

    Imaging radar is shown to be a useful sensor for geological analysis as a standal one sensor in clouded regions or as a complementary data source with visible NIR systems. Radar image tone is a function of the radar system parameters (imaging geometry, frequency, polarization) and a function of the target (local slope, electrical properties, and surface roughness). Substantial topographic texture enhancement can be achieved for large scale features by using specular returns associated with steep-incidence radars or shadows associated with grazing-incidence systems. Texture enhancement also allows radar to image lineaments and archeological features, such as canals and causeways. Future multispectral radars may achieve better discrimination of subresolution structures. Seasat radar images of several geographic locations are provided.

  6. Applying galactic archeology to massive galaxies using deep imaging surveys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duc, Pierre-Alain

    2015-04-01

    Various programs aimed at exploring the still largely unknown low surface brightness Universe with deep imaging optical surveys have recently started. They open a new window for studies of galaxy evolution, pushing the technique of galactic archeology outside the Local Group (LG). The method, based on the detection and analysis of the diffuse light emitted by collisional debris or extended stellar halos (rather than on stellar counts as done for LG systems), faces however a number of technical difficulties, like the contamination of the images by reflection halos and Galactic cirrus. I review here the on-going efforts to address them and highlight the preliminary promising results obtained with a systematic survey with MegaCam on the CFHT of nearby massive early-type galaxies done as part of the ATLAS3D, NGVS and MATLAS collaborations.

  7. Acoustic archeology at the lost city of Helike

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lehman, Sean K.

    2005-04-01

    In 373 BC an earthquake and tsunami destroyed and submerged the classical Greek city of Helike (HELL-E-KEY) on the north Peloponnese shore of the Gulf of Corinth. In June 2004, surface seismo-acoustic surveys were performed in the area of present Helike in order to collect non-invasive tomographic data to guide the archeological excavations. Prior to tomographic inversion and imaging, the raw data time series must be preprocessed to estimate ground acoustic velocity, and to remove the ground roll signal. We present a generalized cross-correlation technique which appears successful in solving both problems. We describe the technique as applied to the data and present tomographic inversions.

  8. Exploring Trends in Forensic Odontology

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Narendra Nath; Ain, Tasneem S.; Sultan, Saima

    2014-01-01

    Background: Forensic odontology nowadays has become a developing science and is of great importance to society. It is important that dental practitioners should have a proper knowledge of forensics as the need has increased greatly over the last decades due to the unprecedented demand from the criminal justice including terrorism in Kashmir valley (J&K India). Materials and Methods: Data was collected based on questionnaire survey among qualified dental practitioners related to their awareness of forensic odontology. Results: A total number of 235 dental practitioners responded to the questionnaire. Results showed that there was a low confidence, in handling of forensic odontology related cases among dental practitioners and majority of dental practitioners were not having any formal training in forensic odontology. Conclusion: Each dental practitioner has a responsibility to understand the forensic implications associated with the practice of his profession and thus he should work sincerely enough so to ensure his contribution in the field of forensic odontology. PMID:25654026

  9. Feasibility of using backscattered muons for archeological imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonal, N.; Preston, L. A.

    2013-12-01

    Use of nondestructive methods to accurately locate and characterize underground objects such as rooms and tools found at archeological sites is ideal to preserve these historic sites. High-energy cosmic ray muons are very sensitive to density variation and have been used to image volcanoes and archeological sites such as the Egyptian and Mayan pyramids. Muons are subatomic particles produced in the upper atmosphere that penetrate the earth's crust up to few kilometers. Their absorption rate depends on the density of the materials through which they pass. Measurements of muon flux rate at differing directions provide density variations of the materials between the muon source (cosmic rays and neutrino interactions) and the detector, much like a CAT scan. Currently, muon tomography can resolve features to the sub-meter scale making it useful for this type of work. However, the muon detector must be placed below the target of interest. For imaging volcanoes, the upper portion is imaged when the detector is placed on the earth's surface at the volcano's base. For sites of interest beneath the ground surface, the muon detector would need to be placed below the site in a tunnel or borehole. Placing the detector underground can be costly and may disturb the historical site. We will assess the feasibility of imaging the subsurface using upward traveling muons, to eliminate the current constraint of positioning the detector below the target. This work consists of three parts 1) determine the backscattered flux rate from theory, 2) distinguish backscattered from forward scattered muons at the detector, and 3) validate the theoretical results with field experimentation. Sandia National Laboratories is a multi-program laboratory managed and operated by Sandia Corporation, a wholly owned subsidiary of Lockheed Martin Corporation, for the U.S. Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration under contract DE-AC04-94AL85000.

  10. Evaluation of the predictive capacity of DNA variants associated with straight hair in Europeans.

    PubMed

    Pośpiech, Ewelina; Karłowska-Pik, Joanna; Marcińska, Magdalena; Abidi, Sarah; Andersen, Jeppe Dyrberg; van den Berge, Margreet; Carracedo, Ángel; Eduardoff, Mayra; Freire-Aradas, Ana; Morling, Niels; Sijen, Titia; Skowron, Małgorzata; Söchtig, Jens; Syndercombe-Court, Denise; Weiler, Natalie; Schneider, Peter M; Ballard, David; Børsting, Claus; Parson, Walther; Phillips, Chris; Branicki, Wojciech

    2015-11-01

    DNA-based prediction of hair morphology, defined as straight, curly or wavy hair, could contribute to an improved description of an unknown offender and allow more accurate forensic reconstructions of physical appearance in the field of forensic DNA phenotyping. Differences in scalp hair morphology are significant at the worldwide scale and within Europe. The only genome-wide association study made to date revealed the Trichohyalin gene (TCHH) to be significantly associated with hair morphology in Europeans and reported weaker associations for WNT10A and FRAS1 genes. We conducted a study that centered on six SNPs located in these three genes with a sample of 528 individuals from Poland. The predictive capacity of the candidate DNA variants was evaluated using logistic regression; classification and regression trees; and neural networks, by applying a 10-fold cross validation procedure. Additionally, an independent test set of 142 males from six European populations was used to verify performance of the developed prediction models. Our study confirmed association of rs11803731 (TCHH), rs7349332 (WNT10A) and rs1268789 (FRAS1) SNPs with hair morphology. The combined genotype risk score for straight hair had an odds ratio of 2.7 and these predictors explained ∼ 8.2% of the total variance. The selected three SNPs were found to predict straight hair with a high sensitivity but low specificity when a 10-fold cross validation procedure was applied and the best results were obtained using the neural networks approach (AUC=0.688, sensitivity=91.2%, specificity=23.0%). Application of the neural networks model with 65% probability threshold on an additional test set gave high sensitivity (81.4%) and improved specificity (50.0%) with a total of 78.7% correct calls, but a high non-classification rate (66.9%). The combined TTGGGG SNP genotype for rs11803731, rs7349332, rs1268789 (European frequency=4.5%) of all six straight hair-associated alleles was identified as the best

  11. Forensic medicine in Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Islam, Muhammad Nurul; Islam, Mohammed Nasimul

    2003-03-01

    In this paper, we discuss the current medico-legal practice and future plan to improve the medico-legal service of Bangladesh which is rooted in the remnants of British medical jurisprudence. It includes clinical forensic medicine and forensic pathology. In Bangladesh all unnatural deaths are to be reported at the nearest police station and an appointed police officer should visit the scene of crime for investigation and to arrange postmortem if required. The forensic services of the country are delivered partly by academic staffs of Government Medical Colleges and the rest by the Civil Surgeons. Sometimes, residential medical officers in the district hospitals perform the medico-legal work. Most of them have no forensic qualifications except a long exposure in the medico-legal field. Currently academic and professional postgraduate courses are available. The chemical examiner's laboratory is situated at Dhaka with the facility of quantitative tests only. The Government of Bangladesh is trying to standardize the existing system. A Workshop on medico-legal services has been organized regularly by The Medico-legal Society of Bangladesh. A DNA profiling laboratory at the Dhaka Medical College is in the process of being set up. Such progress will be a milestone in the development of the medico-legal service in Bangladesh. However, with a few exceptions, teaching and training facilities are still lacking. PMID:12935633

  12. Forensic Applications of LIBS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hark, Richard R.; East, Lucille J.

    Forensic science is broadly defined as the application of science to matters of the law. Practitioners typically use multidisciplinary scientific techniques for the analysis of physical evidence in an attempt to establish or exclude an association between a suspect and the scene of a crime.

  13. Changing Concepts in Forensics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zarefsky, David

    This paper discusses five theoretical concepts in general and two theoretical models in particular that are involved in forensics. The five concepts are: (1) causation, an inquiry into the reasons for ongoing processes or problems; (2) inherency, the division of a universe into its necessary features and its accidental features; (3) presumption, a…

  14. [Incidence of scalp involvement by Demodex folliculorum Simon ectoparasites in a pathologic-anatomic and forensic medicine autopsy sample].

    PubMed

    Hellerich, U; Metzelder, M

    1994-01-01

    29% of unselected pathological and forensic autopsy cases revealed mites of the species Demodex folliculorum longus and brevis in hair follicles and sebaceous glands of the scalp. The attack by these parasites was equal in male and female subjects and correlated to the number of sebaceous glands but not to the density of hair follicles. However there was a tendency to an increased number of parasites inhabiting the scalp of people of advanced age, dark hair colour or with a bald head. A chronic lymphocytic infiltration of the skin was conspicuous in more than 70% of cases with Demodicosis folliculorum. PMID:7811138

  15. Nuclear archeology in a bottle: evidence of pre-Trinity U.S. weapons activities from a waste burial site.

    PubMed

    Schwantes, Jon M; Douglas, Matthew; Bonde, Steven E; Briggs, James D; Farmer, Orville T; Greenwood, Lawrence R; Lepel, Elwood A; Orton, Christopher R; Wacker, John F; Luksic, Andrzej T

    2009-02-15

    During World War II, the Hanford Site in Washington became the location for U.S. plutonium production. In 2004, a bottle containing a sample of plutonium was recovered from a Hanford waste trench. Here, state-of-the-art instrumental analyses, reactor model simulations, and investigative science techniques were used to provide insights as to the origin of this unknown sample, a process collectively termed as nuclear archeology. Isotopic age dating conducted on the sample in 2007 indicated the sample was separated from the spent fuel 61.6 +/- 4.5 years earlier. The isotope (22)Na, a detectable product of a secondary nuclear reaction, proved useful as a powerful tool for nuclear forensic analysis as (1) an easily detectable signifier of the presence of alpha emitting actinides, (2) an indicator of sample splitting, and (3) a measure of the time since sample splitting. Analytical results of minor actinide isotopes and reactor model simulations confirmed the material originated from the X-10 reactor in Oak Ridge, TN. Corroborated by historical documents, we concluded this sample was part of the first batch of Pu separated at T-Plant, Hanford, the world's first industrial-scale reprocessing facility, on December 9, 1944. This sample represents the oldest known collection of man-made (239)Pu in the world. PMID:19152306

  16. 32 CFR 643.30 - Policy-Construction projects and activities; protection of historical and archeological data.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...; protection of historical and archeological data. 643.30 Section 643.30 National Defense Department of Defense... projects and activities; protection of historical and archeological data. The Archeological and Historical Preservation Act of 1974 (16 U.S.C. 469 et seq.) provides for the preservation of historical and...

  17. 32 CFR 643.30 - Policy-Construction projects and activities; protection of historical and archeological data.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...; protection of historical and archeological data. 643.30 Section 643.30 National Defense Department of Defense... projects and activities; protection of historical and archeological data. The Archeological and Historical Preservation Act of 1974 (16 U.S.C. 469 et seq.) provides for the preservation of historical and...

  18. 32 CFR 643.30 - Policy-Construction projects and activities; protection of historical and archeological data.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...; protection of historical and archeological data. 643.30 Section 643.30 National Defense Department of Defense... projects and activities; protection of historical and archeological data. The Archeological and Historical Preservation Act of 1974 (16 U.S.C. 469 et seq.) provides for the preservation of historical and...

  19. 32 CFR 643.30 - Policy-Construction projects and activities; protection of historical and archeological data.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...; protection of historical and archeological data. 643.30 Section 643.30 National Defense Department of Defense... projects and activities; protection of historical and archeological data. The Archeological and Historical Preservation Act of 1974 (16 U.S.C. 469 et seq.) provides for the preservation of historical and...

  20. 32 CFR 643.30 - Policy-Construction projects and activities; protection of historical and archeological data.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...; protection of historical and archeological data. 643.30 Section 643.30 National Defense Department of Defense... projects and activities; protection of historical and archeological data. The Archeological and Historical Preservation Act of 1974 (16 U.S.C. 469 et seq.) provides for the preservation of historical and...

  1. Evidence based decontamination protocols for the removal of external Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) from contaminated hair.

    PubMed

    Duvivier, Wilco F; Peeters, Ruth J P; van Beek, Teris A; Nielen, Michel W F

    2016-02-01

    External contamination can cause false positive results in forensic hair testing for drugs of abuse and is therefore a major concern when hair evidence is used in court. Current literature about decontamination strategies is mainly focused on external cocaine contamination and no consensus on the best decontamination procedure for hair samples containing cannabinoids has been reached so far. In this study, different protocols with solvents, both organic as well as aqueous, were tested on blank and drug user hair for their performance on removing external cannabis contamination originating from either smoke or indirect contact with cannabis plant material. Smoke contamination was mimicked by exposing hair samples to smoke from a cannabis cigarette and indirect contact contamination by handling hair with cannabis contaminated gloves or hands. Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) levels in the hair samples and wash solvents were determined using liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) analysis. Aqueous surfactant solutions removed more THC contamination compared to water, but much less than organic solvents. Methanol, dichloromethane and chloroform were most efficient in removing THC contamination. Due to its lower environmental impact, methanol was chosen as the preferred decontamination solvent. After testing of different sequential wash steps on externally contaminated blank hair, three protocols performed equally well, removing all normal level and more than 99% of unrealistically high levels of external cannabis contamination. Thorough testing on cannabis users' hair, both as such and after deliberate contamination, showed that using these protocols all contamination could be washed from the hair while no incorporated THC was removed from truly positive samples. The present study provides detailed scientific evidence in support of the recommendations of the Society of Hair Testing: a protocol using a single methanol wash followed by a single aqueous

  2. Preoperative hair removal.

    PubMed

    Hamilton, H W; Hamilton, K R; Lone, F J

    1977-05-01

    This study compares the efficiency, safety and cost of hair removal before surgery, with a safety razor, an electric clipper and a depilatory. It was found that both the razor and the clipper damaged the surface of the skin, while the depilatory caused a mild lymphocytic reaction in the upper dermis. The depilatory was expensive and may cause sensitivity reactions in a few individuals, but was found to be the easiest and most efficient method of removing hair. It was concluded that if hair has to be removed a depilatory is the agent of choice. PMID:870157

  3. Complications in hair restoration.

    PubMed

    Lam, Samuel M

    2013-11-01

    Hair restoration requires a high level of specialized skill on the part of both the surgeon and the assistant team. Recipient-site problems can manifest from either surgeon or assistant error. The surgeon can create an unnatural hairline due to lack of knowledge of natural hair-loss patterns or badly executed recipient sites. He must also be cognizant of how hairs naturally are angled on the scalp to re-create a pattern that appears natural when making recipient sites. Assistants can also greatly contribute to the success or failure of surgery in their task of graft dissection and graft placement. PMID:24200385

  4. Hair and scalp dermatoscopy.

    PubMed

    Miteva, Mariya; Tosti, Antonella

    2012-11-01

    Dermatoscopy is a noninvasive diagnostic tool that allows the recognition of morphologic structures not visible by the naked eye. Trichoscopy (scalp dermatoscopy and videodermatoscopy) is useful for the diagnosis and follow-up of hair and scalp disorders. However, it is not widely used in the management of hair disorders. This review provides updated information from the literature and our experience on the dermoscopic features of the most common hair and scalp disorders. This will enable dermatologists to make fast diagnoses of tinea capitis and alopecia areata, distinguish early androgenetic alopecia from telogen effluvium, and differentiate scarring from nonscarring alopecia. PMID:22405573

  5. Advances in Understanding Hair Growth.

    PubMed

    Bernard, Bruno A

    2016-01-01

    In this short review, I introduce an integrated vision of human hair follicle behavior and describe opposing influences that control hair follicle homeostasis, from morphogenesis to hair cycling. The interdependence and complementary roles of these influences allow us to propose that the hair follicle is a true paradigm of a "Yin Yang" type, that is a cold/slow-hot/fast duality. Moreover, a new promising field is emerging, suggesting that glycans are key elements of hair follicle growth control. PMID:26918186

  6. Hair testing and self-report of cocaine use.

    PubMed

    Vignali, Claudia; Stramesi, Cristiana; Vecchio, Micol; Groppi, Angelo

    2012-02-10

    Hair analysis is a useful tool in both clinical and forensic fields: it allows information about drugs of abuse (DOA) consumption to be obtained. However, in spite of analytical results, sometimes patients continue to deny using drugs or, on the contrary, insist on describing themselves as severe drug addicts; indeed there are often considerable difficulties in getting truthful statements about the real amount of drugs used. In this study we have tried to compare cocaine concentration in hair samples with self-reported drug intake. We enrolled 113 subjects (61 Africans, 52 Caucasians) who had been recently sent to jail. They were asked to tell about their use of illicit drugs during the last three months and then submitted to hair analysis. Hair segments (3 cm) were analyzed by GC-MS for amphetamines, cocaine and opiates. Useful data was obtained from 82 subjects, separated into two main groups on account of ethnic origin (African or Caucasian) and divided further into daily, weekly and monthly users. The results showed qualitative results and self-reported consumption to be in good agreement, although the correlation between frequency of consumption and concentration in hair revealed sometimes higher concentrations in contrast with the admission of low consumption. There was a definite separation between occasional and daily use (especially in Caucasian people), while concentrations found where weekly use was reported were more variable. Concentrations of cocaine measured in Africans' hair were much higher than in Caucasians'. Even if this study is exclusively based on self-report, it provides some interesting information in order to differentiate the frequency of consumption, and especially underlines the great importance of ethnic bias on hair analysis. PMID:21645979

  7. Model-based prediction of human hair color using DNA variants.

    PubMed

    Branicki, Wojciech; Liu, Fan; van Duijn, Kate; Draus-Barini, Jolanta; Pośpiech, Ewelina; Walsh, Susan; Kupiec, Tomasz; Wojas-Pelc, Anna; Kayser, Manfred

    2011-04-01

    Predicting complex human phenotypes from genotypes is the central concept of widely advocated personalized medicine, but so far has rarely led to high accuracies limiting practical applications. One notable exception, although less relevant for medical but important for forensic purposes, is human eye color, for which it has been recently demonstrated that highly accurate prediction is feasible from a small number of DNA variants. Here, we demonstrate that human hair color is predictable from DNA variants with similarly high accuracies. We analyzed in Polish Europeans with single-observer hair color grading 45 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) from 12 genes previously associated with human hair color variation. We found that a model based on a subset of 13 single or compound genetic markers from 11 genes predicted red hair color with over 0.9, black hair color with almost 0.9, as well as blond, and brown hair color with over 0.8 prevalence-adjusted accuracy expressed by the area under the receiver characteristic operating curves (AUC). The identified genetic predictors also differentiate reasonably well between similar hair colors, such as between red and blond-red, as well as between blond and dark-blond, highlighting the value of the identified DNA variants for accurate hair color prediction. PMID:21197618

  8. Analytical and Radiochemistry for Nuclear Forensics

    SciTech Connect

    Steiner, Robert Ernest; Dry, Donald E.; Kinman, William Scott; Podlesak, David; Tandon, Lav

    2015-05-26

    Information about nonproliferation nuclear forensics, activities in forensics at Los Alamos National Laboratory, radio analytical work at LANL, radiochemical characterization capabilities, bulk chemical and materials analysis capabilities, and future interests in forensics interactions.

  9. Scurvy, corkscrew hair (image)

    MedlinePlus

    Scurvy is a nutritional disease caused by deficiency of vitamin C. Pinpoint bleeding around hair follicles, and " ... this picture, can occur as a result of scurvy. Bleeding along the gums is common. This disease ...

  10. Hair Treatments and Pregnancy

    MedlinePlus

    ... is likely that only a small amount of hair straightening products are actually absorbed into your system, so the developing baby would only be exposed to small amounts. I work full time as a cosmetologist and recently became ...

  11. Hair Loss (Alopecia)

    MedlinePlus

    ... for these devices are not known. Prescription medicine Finasteride: The FDA approved this medicine to treat men ... hair re-growth in many (about 66%) men. Finasteride works by stopping the body from making a ...

  12. Veterinary Forensic Toxicology.

    PubMed

    Gwaltney-Brant, S M

    2016-09-01

    Veterinary pathologists working in diagnostic laboratories are sometimes presented with cases involving animal poisonings that become the object of criminal or civil litigation. Forensic veterinary toxicology cases can include cases involving animal cruelty (malicious poisoning), regulatory issues (eg, contamination of the food supply), insurance litigation, or poisoning of wildlife. An understanding of the appropriate approach to these types of cases, including proper sample collection, handling, and transport, is essential so that chain of custody rules are followed and proper samples are obtained for toxicological analysis. Consultation with veterinary toxicologists at the diagnostic laboratory that will be processing the samples before, during, and after the forensic necropsy can help to ensure that the analytical tests performed are appropriate for the circumstances and findings surrounding the individual case. PMID:27090769

  13. Forensic radiology in dentistry

    PubMed Central

    Manigandan, T.; Sumathy, C.; Elumalai, M.; Sathasivasubramanian, S.; Kannan, A.

    2015-01-01

    Radiography can play an important part in forensic odontology, mainly to establish identification. This may take the precise form of comparison between antemortem and postmortem radiographs. Radiographs may also be taken to determine the age of a minor victim and even help in the assessment of the sex and ethnic group. Comparable radiographs are an essential factor to confirm identification in a mass disaster. PMID:26015728

  14. Analysis of extensively washed hair from cocaine users and drug chemists to establish new reporting criteria.

    PubMed

    Morris-Kukoski, Cynthia L; Montgomery, Madeline A; Hammer, Rena L

    2014-01-01

    Samples from a self-proclaimed cocaine (COC) user, from 19 drug users (postmortem) and from 27 drug chemists were extensively washed and analyzed for COC, benzoylecgonine, norcocaine (NC), cocaethylene (CE) and aryl hydroxycocaines by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Published wash criteria and cutoffs were applied to the results. Additionally, the data were used to formulate new reporting criteria and interpretation guidelines for forensic casework. Applying the wash and reporting criteria, hair that was externally contaminated with COC was distinguished from hair collected from individuals known to have consumed COC. In addition, CE, NC and hydroxycocaine metabolites were only present in COC users' hair and not in drug chemists' hair. When properly applied, the use of an extended wash, along with the reporting criteria defined here, will exclude false-positive results from environmental contact with COC. PMID:25100648

  15. Forensic Data Carving

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Povar, Digambar; Bhadran, V. K.

    File or data carving is a term used in the field of Cyber forensics. Cyber forensics is the process of acquisition, authentication, analysis and documentation of evidence extracted from and/or contained in a computer system, computer network and digital media. Extracting data (file) out of undifferentiated blocks (raw data) is called as carving. Identifying and recovering files based on analysis of file formats is known as file carving. In Cyber Forensics, carving is a helpful technique in finding hidden or deleted files from digital media. A file can be hidden in areas like lost clusters, unallocated clusters and slack space of the disk or digital media. To use this method of extraction, a file should have a standard file signature called a file header (start of the file). A search is performed to locate the file header and continued until the file footer (end of the file) is reached. The data between these two points will be extracted and analyzed to validate the file. The extraction algorithm uses different methods of carving depending on the file formats.

  16. Parricide: a forensic approach.

    PubMed

    Dantas, Soraia; Santos, Agostinho; Dias, Isabel; Dinis-Oliveira, Ricardo Jorge; Magalhães, Teresa

    2014-02-01

    Parricide is the act of murdering one's father (patricide), mother (matricide) or other close relative, but usually not children (infanticide). It is a rare event and little information is available on this topic. This study aims to increase knowledge about this phenomenon, promoting the timely detection of problematic cases and avoiding fatalities. A retrospective study based on the autopsy reports of parricide victims performed by the North Services of the National Institute of Legal Medicine and Forensic Sciences of Portugal between 2003 and 2011, as well as on the judicial outcome of each case, was performed. Seven cases of parricide were found, corresponding to 1.7% of all the homicides undergoing forensic evaluated. Victims and perpetrators were typically males. The assaults occurred all at home, in the presence of witnesses, and the perpetrator remained at the scene after the crime. The main alleged reasons were untreated psychiatric illness and financial conflicts in the cases of adult parricide, and attempts to protect the mother from intimate partner violence in younger ones. The judicial outcomes ranged from acquittal for nonimputability to conviction for murder, manslaughter or involuntary manslaughter. This study was carried out on a forensic sample and it is useful to implement strategies to prevent parricide. PMID:24485411

  17. Forensic web watch 4.

    PubMed

    Lumb, P; Rutty, G N

    2000-06-01

    Finding dedicated sites on the World Wide Web (WWW) touching upon issues related to the autopsy which could be of use to forensic practitioners is, as with other areas of forensic medicine and science, a time-consuming task. Unfortunately, one has to wade through lists related to 'Alien autopsy' sites and even 'Furby autopsy' sites that are generated by the most commonly used web search engines, which have been featured in earlier web reviews. Numerous sites containing large archives of autopsy photographs are available on the web. However, many of these sites represent the darker side of the WWW as they are often presented purely for titillation. Unfortunately, one can equate these sites to the modern-day version of the Victorian 'freak show'--Typically, these sites ask for your Visa card number to view their contents, and several have links to pornography sites; one even links to a Satanist site. Luckily a few of these sites do now require age confirmation codes. As many of these sites show autopsy photographs from real cases one has to ask how these were obtained and who is placing them on the WWW. This review does not list any of these sites for obvious reasons, but it does draw the reader's attention to sites touching upon issues related to autopsies which forensic practitioners may wish to visit or use. PMID:15274989

  18. Forensic web watch.

    PubMed

    Rutty, G N

    1999-12-01

    Now that one has logged onto the world wide web (WWW) and utilized one or more of the home pages listed previously (or used another equally good home page) to seek out basic information available to forensic practitioners, the question now arises of how to go about making the most of the information available. One feature consistent to most home pages is links to the home pages of Associations and Societies, one or more of which most practitioners will be members of. With access to the WWW not only have you access to your own association/society, but you can also keep up to date with all the others to which you have not paid subscriptions. Although an internet search using a WWW search engine or the 'top 6' home pages may assist in identifying a large number of association and society sites, one of the most useful places to start is the home page of the Indian Academy of Forensic Medicine (IAFM). This, to date, lists a total of 139 such sites. To access all the home pages listed may take in excess of 6 h so the following review looks at the range of sites available and recommends some places the author considers many people may wish to know and visit. Again, this is inevitably a personal choice and it is recognized that those sites not listed may, in fact, be the preferred choice for other users of the forensic WWW. PMID:15335474

  19. Archeological Applications of XAFS: Prehistorical Paintings And Medieval Glasses

    SciTech Connect

    Farges, F.; Chalmin, E.; Vignaud, C.; Pallot-Frossard, I.; Susini, J.; Bargar, J.; Brown, G.E., Jr.; Menu, M.; /SLAC, SSRL

    2006-10-27

    High-resolution manganese and iron K-edges XANES spectra were collected on several samples of archeological interest: prehistorical paintings and medieval glasses. XANES spectra were collected at the ID21 facility (ESRF, Grenoble, France) using a micro-beam device and at the 11-2 beamline (SSRL, Stanford, USA) using a submillimetric beam. The medieval glasses studied are from gothic glass windows from Normandy (XIVth century). The aim of this study is to help understand the chemical durability of these materials, exposed to weathering since the XIVth century. They are used as analogues of weathered glasses used to dump metallic wastes. These glasses show surficial enrichment in manganese, due to its oxidation from II (glass) to III/IV (surface), which precipitates as amorphous oxy-hydroxides. Similarly, iron is oxidized on the surface and forms ferrihydrite-type aggregates. The prehistorical paintings are from Lascaux and Ekain (Basque country). We choose in that study the black ones, rich in manganese to search for potential evidences of some 'savoir-faire' that the Paleolithic men could have used to realize their paint in rock art, as shown earlier for Fe-bearing pigments. A large number of highly valuable samples, micrometric scaled, were extracted from these frescoes and show large variation in the mineralogical nature of the black pigments used, from an amorphous psilomelane-type to a well-crystallized pyrolusite. Correlation with the crystals morphology helps understanding the know-how of these early artists.

  20. Application of FTIR spectroscopy to the characterization of archeological wood

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Traoré, Mohamed; Kaal, Joeri; Martínez Cortizas, Antonio

    2016-01-01

    Two archeological wood samples were studied by attenuated total reflectance Fourier transform infrared (FTIR-ATR) spectroscopy. They originate from a shipwreck in Ribadeo Bay in the northwest of Spain and from a beam wood of an old nave of the Cathedral of Segovia in the central Spain. Principal component analysis was applied to the transposed data matrix (samples as columns and spectral bands as rows) of 43 recorded spectra (18 in the shipwreck and 25 in the beam wood). The results showed differences between the two samples, with a larger proportion of carbohydrates and smaller proportion of lignin in the beam than in the shipwreck wood. Within the beam wood, lignin content was significantly lower in the recent than the old tree rings (P = 0.005). These variations can be attributed to species differences between the two woods (oak and pine respectively), with a mixture of guaiacyl and syringyl in hardwood lignin, whereas softwood lignin consists almost exclusively of guaiacyl moieties. The influence of environmental conditions on the FTIR fingerprint was probably reflected by enhanced oxidation of lignin in aerated conditions (beam wood) and hydrolysis of carbohydrates in submerged-anoxic conditions (shipwreck wood). Molecular characterization by analytical pyrolysis of selected samples from each wood type confirmed the interpretation of the mechanisms behind the variability in wood composition obtained by the FTIR-ATR.

  1. Application of Physics and Chemistry to Archeology: A New Undergraduate Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meschel, Susan V.

    1976-01-01

    Describes a course that covers such topics as the archeological dating processes and methods that enable the identification and authentication of artifacts, including X-ray diffraction, optical emission spectroscopy, infrared spectroscopy, and neutron activation analysis. (MLH)

  2. 36 CFR 1002.1 - Preservation of natural, cultural and archeological resources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ..., cultural or archeological resources, or the parts thereof. (iv) A mineral resource or cave formation or the... other items inside caves or caverns, into valleys, canyons, or caverns, down hillsides or...

  3. Topics in Chemical Instrumentation: Cl. Thermoluminescence. Part III. Application to Archeological Dating.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manche, Emanuel P.; Ewing, Galen W., Ed.

    1979-01-01

    Thermoluminescence and its application to archeological dating are considered in this article. Descriptions are given of the method, the required doses, absolute and relative dating, complications, and the relation of this type of dating to other methods. (SA)

  4. Computer-assisted systems for forensic pathology and forensic toxicology.

    PubMed

    Druid, H; Holmgren, P; Löwenhielm, P

    1996-09-01

    A computer software, RättsBASE (RB), was developed for all forensic pathology units in Sweden and introduced in 1992. Simultaneously, a corresponding software, ToxBASE (TB), was developed for the Department of Forensic Toxicology, where all forensic toxicology in Sweden is managed. Both of the databases were created using dBASE IV, and the programming was carried out according to specifications from the staff at the forensic toxicology and forensic pathology units. since the development or RB and TB was coordinated, the systems can run together smoothly. The purpose of both systems was to automate the offices and to enable compilation of detailed statistics. Installation of Novell Netware and ISDN-connections (Integrated Service Digital Network) has enabled rapid communication between the units and easy compilation of nationwide statistics of forensic pathology and forensic toxicology. the systems offer a wide spectrum of reports and include a simple module for evaluation of the importance of the forensic efforts for th whole death investigation. The configuration of the softwares has also enabled processing of a large amount of related toxicological and autopsy data that in turn has yielded a base for compilation of toxicology interpretation lists. This article includes a summary of the features of the software and a discussion of its benefits and limitations. PMID:15637819

  5. Hair coil penile tourniquet syndrome in an unusual age.

    PubMed

    Zengin, Kursad; Ozdamar, Mustafa Yasar; Albayrak, Sebahattin; Tanik, Serhat; Atar, Muhittin; Bakirtas, Hasan; Imamoglu, Muhammed Abdurrahim; Gurdal, Mesut

    2015-01-01

    Penile tourniquet syndrome (PTS), a rare urologic emergency, may lead to undesirable results including necrosis and amputation of penis, if not diagnosed and treated appropriately. Sometimes these injuries may be accepted as a forensic case. Miscellaneous objects used for strangulation can be metallic or nonmetallic. Of all ages, the most vulnerable period is infancy. Telogen effluvium is the most common cause of PTS in infants who are 0-6 years old. In the literature, telogen effluvium as a reason of PTS was not found except for this age group. Therefore, we aimed to present a boy who is 8 years old diagnosed as PTS because of his mother's hair coil. PMID:25763288

  6. [Portable antiquities: transporation, ruins, and communications in nineteenth-century archeology].

    PubMed

    Podgorny, Irina

    2008-01-01

    The article addresses an issue in nineteenth-century archeology: the transformation of ancient American ruins into scientific evidence. It focuses specifically on the case of Palenque, a city discovered in the jungle in the late eighteenth century. The archeological exploration of this find, which occurred shortly after Central American and Mexican independence, entailed efforts to make these ruins portable. The article analyzes some of the means devised and used in their transportation. PMID:19241715

  7. Excessive or unwanted hair in women

    MedlinePlus

    Hypertrichosis; Hirsutism; Hair - excessive (women); Excessive hair in women; Hair - women - excessive or unwanted ... much of this hormone, you may have unwanted hair growth. In most cases, the exact cause is ...

  8. Aging changes in hair and nails

    MedlinePlus

    ... of aging. Hair color is due to a pigment called melanin , which hair follicles produce. Follicles are ... slows. Hair strands become smaller and have less pigment. So the thick, coarse hair of a young ...

  9. The biology of hair diversity.

    PubMed

    Westgate, Gillian E; Botchkareva, Natalia V; Tobin, Desmond J

    2013-08-01

    Hair diversity, its style, colour, shape and growth pattern is one of our most defining characteristics. The natural versus temporary style is influenced by what happens to our hair during our lifetime, such as genetic hair loss, sudden hair shedding, greying and pathological hair loss in the various forms of alopecia because of genetics, illness or medication. Despite the size and global value of the hair care market, our knowledge of what controls the innate and within-lifetime characteristics of hair diversity remains poorly understood. In the last decade, drivers of knowledge have moved into the arena of genetics where hair traits are obvious and measurable and genetic polymorphisms are being found that raise valuable questions about the biology of hair growth. The recent discovery that the gene for trichohyalin contributes to hair shape comes as no surprise to the hair biologists who have believed for 100 years that hair shape is linked to the structure and function of the inner root sheath. Further conundrums awaiting elucidation include the polymorphisms in the androgen receptor (AR) described in male pattern alopecia whose location on the X chromosome places this genetic contributor into the female line. The genetics of female hair loss is less clear with polymorphisms in the AR not associated with female pattern hair loss. Lifestyle choices are also implicated in hair diversity. Greying, which also has a strong genetic component, is often suggested to have a lifestyle (stress) influence and hair follicle melanocytes show declining antioxidant protection with age and lowered resistance to stress. It is likely that hair research will undergo a renaissance on the back of the rising information from genetic studies as well as the latest contributions from the field of epigenetics. PMID:23363384

  10. Dermatotoxicologic clinical solutions: hair dying in hair dye allergic patients?

    PubMed

    Edwards, Ashley; Coman, Garrett; Blickenstaff, Nicholas; Maibach, Howard

    2015-03-01

    This article describes how to identify allergic contact dermatitis resulting from hair dye, and outlines interventions and prevention principles for those who wish to continue dyeing their hair despite being allergic. Hair dye chemicals thought to be the most frequent sensitizers are discussed with instructions for health care providers on how to counsel patients about techniques to minimize exposure to allergenic substances. This framework should allow many patients to continue dyeing their hair without experiencing adverse side effects. PMID:24754409

  11. Moss hair water transport

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pan, Zhao; Wu, Nan; Hurd, Randy; Thomson, Scott; Pitt, William; Truscott, Tadd

    2013-11-01

    We present an investigation of water transportation on a moss (Syntrichia caninervis) indigenous to temperate deserts. The moss typically appears to be in a dry, brown state, but is rehydrated by water during the wet season, making the desert green. Small hairs (500-2000 μm in length, and 40 μm in diameter, d) growing out from the tip of the moss leaves transport water back to the leaves. Through high speed observations and mathematical modeling it appears that this transportation is driven by two different mechanisms. 1) Droplet transport is achieved in three ways: i) A large (10d) droplet attached between two intersecting fibers will move toward the bases of the leaves by the changing angle between the two hairs. ii) The shape of the moss hair is conical, thicker at the base, producing a gradient that moves fluid (5d) toward the leaf similar to cactus spines. iii) We also observe that in some cases a Plateau-Rayleigh instability trigger a series of droplets moving toward the base. 2) Micro-grooves on the moss hair transport a film of water along the moss hair when larger droplets are not available. These various water transportation strategies combine to help the moss to survive in the desert and provide valuable insight.

  12. Topographic change detection at select archeological sites in Grand Canyon National Park, Arizona, 2007–2010

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Collins, Brian D.; Corbett, Skye C.; Fairley, Helen C.; Minasian, Diane L.; Kayen, Robert; Dealy, Timothy P.; Bedford, David R.

    2012-01-01

    Human occupation in Grand Canyon, Arizona, dates from at least 11,000 years before present to the modern era. For most of this period, the only evidence of human occupation in this iconic landscape is provided by archeological sites. Because of the dynamic nature of this environment, many archeological sites are subject to relatively rapid topographic change. Quantifying the extent, magnitude, and cause of such change is important for monitoring and managing these archeological sites. Such quantification is necessary to help inform the continuing debate on whether and how controlled releases from Glen Canyon Dam, located immediately upstream of Grand Canyon National Park, are affecting site erosion rates, artifact transport, and archeological resource preservation along the Colorado River in Grand Canyon. Although long-term topographic change resulting from a variety of natural processes is inherent in the Grand Canyon region, continued erosion of archeological sites threatens both the archeological resources and our future ability to study evidence of past cultural habitation. Thus, this subject is of considerable interest to National Park Service managers and other stakeholders in the Glen Canyon Dam Adaptive Management Program. Understanding the causes and effects of archeological site erosion requires a knowledge of several factors, including the location, timing, and magnitude of the changes occurring in relation to archeological resources, the rates of change, and the relative contribution of potential causes. These potential causes include sediment depletion associated with managed flows from Glen Canyon Dam, site-specific weather and overland flow patterns, visitor impacts, and long-term regional climate change. To obtain this information, highly accurate, spatially specific data are needed from sites undergoing change. Using terrestrial lidar techniques, and building upon three previous surveys of archeological sites performed in 2006 and 2007, we

  13. Evaluation of hair humidity resistance/moisturization from hair elasticity.

    PubMed

    Gao, Timothy

    2007-01-01

    Average water regain and hair elasticity (Young's modulus) of virgin dark brown and bleached hair fibers under different relative humidity (RH) were determined. It is observed that hair water regain increases linearly with an increase in RH in the range of 40-85%; and the remaining percent of hair elasticity decreases linearly with an increase in RH in the range of 50-80%. Therefore, measurements of average hair elasticity at 50% and 80% RH, respectively, under various equilibrium times before and after cosmetic treatments can be used to evaluate effects of cosmetic treatments on water adsorption behavior of hair-improvement in hair humidity resistance or enhancement in hair moisture uptake. A Hair Humidity Resistance Factor (H(2)RF) has been defined. If R(2)HF > 1, the product improves hair humidity resistance-anti-frizz; if R(2)HF < 1, the product enhances hair water adsorption; when R(2)HF approximately 1, the product has no significant effect on hair water adsorption behavior. This method was applied to evaluate anti-frizz performance of several shampoo formulations containing Polyquaternium-10, or Polyquaternium-70, or Polyquaternium-67, or Guar Hydroxypropyltrimonium Chloride. It was found PQ-70 shampoo showed the highest H(2)RF value and the best anti-frizz performance among these tested shampoos. The results were consistent with those obtained from Image Analysis. PMID:17728940

  14. Today's Hair Style Could Cause Tomorrow's Hair Loss

    MedlinePlus

    ... https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_158581.html Today's Hair Style Could Cause Tomorrow's Hair Loss Black women who prefer scalp-pulling hairdos ... News) -- Black women who like to wear their hair pulled back tightly may be increasing their risk ...

  15. Today's Hair Style Could Cause Tomorrow's Hair Loss

    MedlinePlus

    ... nih.gov/medlineplus/news/fullstory_158581.html Today's Hair Style Could Cause Tomorrow's Hair Loss Black women who prefer scalp-pulling hairdos ... News) -- Black women who like to wear their hair pulled back tightly may be increasing their risk ...

  16. Causes of hair loss and the developments in hair rejuvenation.

    PubMed

    Rushton, D H; Norris, M J; Dover, R; Busuttil, Nina

    2002-02-01

    Hair is considered to be a major component of an individual's general appearance. The psychological impact of hair loss results in a measurably detrimental change in self-esteem and is associated with images of reduced worth. It is not surprising that both men and women find hair loss a stressful experience. Genetic hair loss is the major problem affecting men and by the age of 50, up to 50% will be affected. Initial attempts to regenerate the lost hair have centred on applying a topical solution of between 2% to 5% minoxidil; however, the results proved disappointing. Recently, finasteride, a type II 5alpha reductase inhibitor has been found to regrow a noticeable amount of hair in about 40% of balding men. Further developments in treatments have lead to the use of a dual type I and type II inhibitor where 90% of those treated regrow a noticeable amount of hair. In women the major cause of hair loss before the age of 50 is nutritional, with 30% affected. Increased and persistent hair shedding (chronic telogen effluvium) and reduced hair volume are the principle changes occurring. The main cause appears to be depleted iron stores, compromised by a suboptimal intake of the essential amino acid l-lysine. Correction of these imbalances stops the excessive hair loss and returns the hair back to its former glory. However, it can take many months to redress the situation. PMID:18498491

  17. EP Aqr: the Rosetta rocks of astro-archeology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cami, Jan; Peeters, Els; Tielens, Xander

    2005-06-01

    The evolution of stars on the Asymptotic Giant Branch (AGB) is characterized by substantial mass loss, producing large amounts of circumstellar dust and a dust-driven outflow, which injects the stellar ejecta into the interstellar medium. The composition of this newly formed dust is known to vary substantially from source to source, which is generally thought to reflect differences in the mass loss rate (e.g., density). During the evolution of the star on the AGB, the mass loss rate is known to vary substantially leading to large density variations and detached shell structures. Observations of bright examples of such shells provide us thus with the opportunity to dig into the past history of the mass loss processes from these objects. We propose to spectroscopically map the extended but bright outflow of the nearby AGB star, EP Aqr, with Spitzer-IRS from 5.2 -- 38 micron. In this way we will be able to trace the composition and mass of the dust formed at different times (e.g., corresponding to thousands of years of mass loss history). The IR spectrum of EP Aqr contains the spectral fingerprints of nearly all minerals (alumina, spinel, magnesium-iron oxides, amorphous and possibly crystalline silicates, gehlenite, ...) found in the dust shells surrounding O-rich AGB stars, which makes it an ideal target for such a dust astro-archeology study. The proposed observations will therefore directly link for the first time the spectral differences in dust composition to the mass loss history of the central star. Such observations will also provide important clues to large-scale structure of AGB star outflows as well as to theoretical models for dust formation and mass-loss mechanisms.

  18. Review: Interpretation of drug presence in the hair of children.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xin; Drummer, Olaf H

    2015-12-01

    Hair analyses for drugs of abuse are being increasingly used in both clinical and forensic toxicology, including cases involving children exposed to a drug using environment. A review was conducted of peer-reviewed publications reporting hair concentrations of drugs in children published in the English language. Fifty-two publications were aggregated into three categories: results published on the newborn where hair was sampled at, or shortly after, birth that reflected in utero exposure and/or short-term exposure from the mother's breast milk, and publications in which children were either believed to have been exposed passively from drugs of abuse through their environment or by active exposure from accidental ingestion or deliberate administration by a caregiver. There was limited data for comparison of all three exposure routes. On average, cocaine, codeine, 6-AM and morphine showed higher concentrations in hair from in utero exposure compared to children exposed passively; however, there was considerable overlap in concentrations. Methamphetamine showed no significant difference between passive and in utero exposure, although there was only one study reporting hair concentrations from in utero exposure. There was no difference in concentrations for those cases exposed passively or actively for codeine and methadone. There was insufficient data for other drugs and other comparisons. Comparison data was confounded by the variability in extraction techniques employed as well as a variety of washing techniques, including studies that did not employ any decontamination technique. These data further illustrate the difficulties in interpreting hair concentrations in isolation of relevant contextual data, particularly in children. PMID:26610304

  19. Determination of cocaine, cocaine metabolites and cannabinoids in single hairs by MALDI Fourier transform mass spectrometry--preliminary results.

    PubMed

    Musshoff, Frank; Arrey, Tabiwang; Strupat, Kerstin

    2013-05-01

    In a preliminary test, four single hairs of a drug abuser were analyzed for the presence of drugs by MALDI Fourier transform mass spectrometry (MALDI-FTMS). Washed hair strains were directly fixed on a sample plate using pressure stable, double-sided adhesive tape; α-cyano-4-hydroxycinnamic acid matrix was manually spotted onto the hair strains. FTMS full scans were obtained moving from the hair root region towards the hair tip. Cocaine (accurate m/z ratio 304.15433) was identified mostly from the root of the hair and then later again towards the hair tip. This was confirmed by analysis of a second hair. Additionally cocaine metabolites with m/z ratio 290.13868 (benzoylecgonine), and m/z 318.16998 (cocaethylene) were detected for plausibility control. Using the MALDI technique, time-related information was obtained concerning the behavioural pattern of the consumer with high resolution compared to conventional procedures. However, in two hairs of the same individual which were analyzed under the same conditions, negative results were achieved. These preliminary results confirm the applicability of MALDI-MS for the determination of drugs and pharmaceuticals in hair samples being useful in forensic toxicology. The high chronological resolution allows an enhanced interpretation concerning the periods of drug administration. However, the negative results with two negative hairs have also demonstrated that hair analysis of single hairs can lead to misinterpretation. Different growth rates have to be considered, and particularly the phenomenon of different growth phases (anagen, catagen, telogen) require attention. PMID:23386550

  20. Discovery of syn-/anti-cocaine-N-oxide diastereomers in unwashed postmortem hair via LC-MS-MS.

    PubMed

    Marsh, Christine M; Crawley, Lindsey R; Himes, Sarah K; Aranda, Roman; Miller, Mark L

    2014-01-01

    The discovery of two cocaine-N-oxide (CNO) diastereomers, syn- and anti-CNO, is reported for the first time. Prior to this study, only one structural form of CNO was known to exist and has not been analyzed in hair before. CNO is a metabolite of cocaine (COC) and may be considered as an additional biomarker of COC use, along with other known COC metabolites. The analysis of COC in hair for forensic applications is under scrutiny due to the possibility of external contamination. A qualitative liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method was developed, validated and applied to unwashed postmortem hair samples from drug users. The limit of detection in hair was 8 pg/mg (using 10 mg of unwashed hair) for each CNO diastereomer. The presence of both syn- and anti-forms of CNO was verified in vivo using hair samples collected from known COC-using individuals. Due to the low levels of CNO, it will not always be detectable in COC user hair. In the hair samples analyzed, syn-CNO was detected in more samples than anti-CNO. The stereoselective N-oxidation of COC which favors syn-CNO could have a diagnostic value for COC ingestion determination in hair analysis. PMID:24782141

  1. Review: domestic animal forensic genetics - biological evidence, genetic markers, analytical approaches and challenges.

    PubMed

    Kanthaswamy, S

    2015-10-01

    This review highlights the importance of domestic animal genetic evidence sources, genetic testing, markers and analytical approaches as well as the challenges this field is facing in view of the de facto 'gold standard' human DNA identification. Because of the genetic similarity between humans and domestic animals, genetic analysis of domestic animal hair, saliva, urine, blood and other biological material has generated vital investigative leads that have been admitted into a variety of court proceedings, including criminal and civil litigation. Information on validated short tandem repeat, single nucleotide polymorphism and mitochondrial DNA markers and public access to genetic databases for forensic DNA analysis is becoming readily available. Although the fundamental aspects of animal forensic genetic testing may be reliable and acceptable, animal forensic testing still lacks the standardized testing protocols that human genetic profiling requires, probably because of the absence of monetary support from government agencies and the difficulty in promoting cooperation among competing laboratories. Moreover, there is a lack in consensus about how to best present the results and expert opinion to comply with court standards and bear judicial scrutiny. This has been the single most persistent challenge ever since the earliest use of domestic animal forensic genetic testing in a criminal case in the mid-1990s. Crime laboratory accreditation ensures that genetic test results have the courts' confidence. Because accreditation requires significant commitments of effort, time and resources, the vast majority of animal forensic genetic laboratories are not accredited nor are their analysts certified forensic examiners. The relevance of domestic animal forensic genetics in the criminal justice system is undeniable. However, further improvements are needed in a wide range of supporting resources, including standardized quality assurance and control protocols for sample

  2. Bio-forensics

    SciTech Connect

    Trewhella, J.

    2004-01-01

    Bioforensics presents significant technical challenges. Determining if an outbreak is natural or not, and then providing evidence to trace an outbreak to its origin is very complex. Los Alamos scientists pioneered research and development that has generated leading edge strain identification methods based on sequence data. Molecular characterization of environmental background samples enable development of highly specific pathogen signatures. Economic impacts of not knowing the relationships at the molecular level Many different kinds of data are needed for DNA-based bio-forensics.

  3. Bayesian Integrated Microbial Forensics

    SciTech Connect

    Jarman, Kristin H.; Kreuzer-Martin, Helen W.; Wunschel, David S.; Valentine, Nancy B.; Cliff, John B.; Petersen, Catherine E.; Colburn, Heather A.; Wahl, Karen L.

    2008-06-01

    In the aftermath of the 2001 anthrax letters, researchers have been exploring ways to predict the production environment of unknown source microorganisms. Different mass spectral techniques are being developed to characterize components of a microbe’s culture medium including water, carbon and nitrogen sources, metal ions added, and the presence of agar. Individually, each technique has the potential to identify one or two ingredients in a culture medium recipe. However, by integrating data from multiple mass spectral techniques, a more complete characterization is possible. We present a Bayesian statistical approach to integrated microbial forensics and illustrate its application on spores grown in different culture media.

  4. Careers in Forensics: Analysis, Evidence, and Law

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Torpey, Elka Maria

    2009-01-01

    In legal proceedings, a case is only as strong as its evidence. And whether that evidence is strong depends, in large part, on the work of forensic specialists. The field of forensics is broad and involves many kinds of workers. Some of them are involved in crimesolving. Others, such as forensic social workers or forensic economists, help to…

  5. Forensics and mitochondrial DNA: applications, debates, and foundations.

    PubMed

    Budowle, Bruce; Allard, Marc W; Wilson, Mark R; Chakraborty, Ranajit

    2003-01-01

    Debate on the validity and reliability of scientific methods often arises in the courtroom. When the government (i.e., the prosecution) is the proponent of evidence, the defense is obliged to challenge its admissibility. Regardless, those who seek to use DNA typing methodologies to analyze forensic biological evidence have a responsibility to understand the technology and its applications so a proper foundation(s) for its use can be laid. Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA), an extranuclear genome, has certain features that make it desirable for forensics, namely, high copy number, lack of recombination, and matrilineal inheritance. mtDNA typing has become routine in forensic biology and is used to analyze old bones, teeth, hair shafts, and other biological samples where nuclear DNA content is low. To evaluate results obtained by sequencing the two hypervariable regions of the control region of the human mtDNA genome, one must consider the genetically related issues of nomenclature, reference population databases, heteroplasmy, paternal leakage, recombination, and, of course, interpretation of results. We describe the approaches, the impact some issues may have on interpretation of mtDNA analyses, and some issues raised in the courtroom. PMID:14527299

  6. Mitochondrial DNA Sequence Analysis - Validation and Use for Forensic Casework.

    PubMed

    Holland, M M; Parsons, T J

    1999-06-01

    With the discovery of the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) in the mid-1980's, the last in a series of critical molecular biology techniques (to include the isolation of DNA from human and non-human biological material, and primary sequence analysis of DNA) had been developed to rapidly analyze minute quantities of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA). This was especially true for mtDNA isolated from challenged sources, such as ancient or aged skeletal material and hair shafts. One of the beneficiaries of this work has been the forensic community. Over the last decade, a significant amount of research has been conducted to develop PCR-based sequencing assays for the mtDNA control region (CR), which have subsequently been used to further characterize the CR. As a result, the reliability of these assays has been investigated, the limitations of the procedures have been determined, and critical aspects of the analysis process have been identified, so that careful control and monitoring will provide the basis for reliable testing. With the application of these assays to forensic identification casework, mtDNA sequence analysis has been properly validated, and is a reliable procedure for the examination of biological evidence encountered in forensic criminalistic cases. PMID:26255820

  7. The Growth of Human Hair.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Helen J.

    1984-01-01

    Suggests a simple technique for collecting and observing human hair roots to compare structure, function, and variation. Students extract their own hair samples and view them using a 40-power microscope objective. Differences between active/inactive phases of hair growth are readily observed. (The activity can be adapted for younger students.) (DH)

  8. Future horizons in hair restoration.

    PubMed

    Marshall, Bryan T; Ingraham, Chris A; Wu, Xunwei; Washenik, Ken

    2013-08-01

    This article reviews the history of hair follicle regeneration from follicular fragments and dissociated cells. The challenges of trichogenic in vitro culture and subsequent delivery into the patient are discussed, as well as cosmetic acceptance, recent achievements on regeneration of human hair follicles, and new potential cell sources for hair regeneration. PMID:24017993

  9. Utility of coloured hair for the detection of drugs and alcohol.

    PubMed

    Agius, Ronald

    2014-06-01

    The aim of this paper is to assess the utility of coloured hair for the detection of drugs and alcohol in a large statistically significant population. The positivity rate, the 1st, 5th, 50th, 95th, and 99th percentiles of five amphetamines, cannabinoids, cocaine, four opiates, methadone, buprenorphine, seven benzodiazepines, and ethyl glucuronide (EtG) in 9488 non-treated and 1026 cosmetically treated (dyed or bleached) authentic hair samples was compared. Analytical methods used were accredited for forensic purposes at the cut-offs defined by the German driving licence re-granting medical and psychological assessment (MPA) guidelines. Considering only the drug classes for which at least 10 positive samples were detected, the positivity rate in non-treated hair was highest for alcohol (4.50%; measured using EtG at concentrations ≥ 7 pg/mg hair), followed by THC (2.00%), cocaine (1.75%), and amphetamine (0.59%). While the 1st to 99th percentile range was significantly lower for drugs in treated, compared to non-treated hair, no significant change was observed for EtG. Additionally, no significant difference in the positivity rate was observed between treated hair and non-treated hair for both drugs and EtG. This study is the first attempt to evaluate the influence of cosmetic treatment, mainly dying, on the positivity rate for both drugs and EtG in hair samples submitted routinely for abstinence testing and the first to indicate that dyed and eventually bleached hair is not necessarily useless in detecting drugs and/or alcohol consumption, thus making coloured hair analysis still useful, often being the only possibility to prove such misuse. PMID:24817056

  10. Hair analysis and self-report of methamphetamine use by methamphetamine dependent individuals.

    PubMed

    Han, Eunyoung; Paulus, Martin P; Wittmann, Marc; Chung, Heesun; Song, Joon Myong

    2011-03-01

    The questions of whether the dose of drug that is consumed corresponds to drug concentration levels in hair and how results of hair analyses can be interpreted are still debated. The aim of this study was to investigate (1) whether there is a correlation between doses of Methamphetamine (MA) use and MA concentration levels in hair and (2) whether results of hair analyses can be used to estimate dose, frequency, and patterns of MA use. In this study, segmental hair analysis was performed through consecutive 1cm as well as 1-4 cm (=3 cm) segmental hair lengths. MA dependent individuals (n=9) provided information on doses (0.25-4 g/day) of MA use as well as the frequency of MA use. The concentrations of MA and its metabolite amphetamine (AP) in hair were determined using gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS). One-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) test was performed to evaluate whether MA and AP concentrations in consecutive 1cm length segmental hair were consistent with the history of MA use. The cumulative doses of MA use calculated from the daily dose and the frequency during 1-4 months were well correlated to the concentrations of MA and AP in 1-4 cm segmental hair length (correlation coefficient, r=0.87 for MA and r=0.77 for AP). The results from this study show the patterns and histories of MA use from MA dependent individuals and could assist in the interpretation of hair results in forensic toxicology as well as in rehabilitation and treatment programs. PMID:21296038

  11. (Un)targeted Scanning of Locks of Hair for Drugs of Abuse by Direct Analysis in Real Time-High-Resolution Mass Spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Duvivier, Wilco F; van Putten, Marc R; van Beek, Teris A; Nielen, Michel W F

    2016-02-16

    Forensic hair evidence can be used to obtain retrospective timelines of drug use by analysis of hair segments. However, this is a laborious and time-consuming process, and mass spectrometric (MS) imaging techniques, which show great potential for single-hair targeted analysis, are less useful due to differences in hair growth rate between individual hairs. As an alternative, a fast untargeted analysis method was developed that uses direct analysis in real time-high-resolution mass spectrometry (DART-HRMS) to longitudinally scan intact locks of hair without extensive sample preparation or segmentation. The hair scan method was validated for cocaine against an accredited liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry (LC/MS/MS) method. The detection limit for cocaine in hair was found to comply with the cutoff value of 0.5 ng/mg recommended by the Society of Hair Testing; that is, the DART hair scan method is amenable to forensic cases. Under DART conditions, no significant thermal degradation of cocaine occurred. The standard DART spot size of 5.1 ± 1.1 mm could be improved to 3.3 ± 1.0 mm, corresponding to approximately 10 days of hair growth, by using a high spatial resolution exit cone. By use of data-dependent product ion scans, multiple drugs of abuse could be detected in a single drug user hair scan with confirmation of identity by both exact mass and MS/HRMS fragmentation patterns. Furthermore, full-scan high-resolution data were retrospectively interrogated versus a list of more than 100 compounds and revealed additional hits and temporal profiles in good correlation with reported drug use. PMID:26813807

  12. Study of hair shine and hair surface smoothness.

    PubMed

    Gao, Timothy; Pereira, Abel; Zhu, Sam

    2009-01-01

    A new hair visual appearance measurement system called SAMBA from Bossa Nova Technologies (Venice, CA) has been employed to measure effects of cosmetic treatments on hair shine and surface smoothness of different types of hair samples. Experimental procedures for evaluations of shine value and surface cuticle angle of hair samples treated with rinse-off products (shampoo or/and conditioner) have been successfully established and applied. We demonstrated that hair spray and conditioner formulas containing PPG-3 benzyl ether myristate (PBEM) (1) showed great performance on shine enhancement for hairs with light and medium colors. Instrumental measurement of shine values was also conducted to compare different commercial shampoo and conditioner products. This study showed reliable utility of SAMBA system and demonstrated the shine enhancement of PBEM in hair care. PMID:19450419

  13. Forensic Stable Isotope Biogeochemistry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cerling, Thure E.; Barnette, Janet E.; Bowen, Gabriel J.; Chesson, Lesley A.; Ehleringer, James R.; Remien, Christopher H.; Shea, Patrick; Tipple, Brett J.; West, Jason B.

    2016-06-01

    Stable isotopes are being used for forensic science studies, with applications to both natural and manufactured products. In this review we discuss how scientific evidence can be used in the legal context and where the scientific progress of hypothesis revisions can be in tension with the legal expectations of widely used methods for measurements. Although this review is written in the context of US law, many of the considerations of scientific reproducibility and acceptance of relevant scientific data span other legal systems that might apply different legal principles and therefore reach different conclusions. Stable isotopes are used in legal situations for comparing samples for authenticity or evidentiary considerations, in understanding trade patterns of illegal materials, and in understanding the origins of unknown decedents. Isotope evidence is particularly useful when considered in the broad framework of physiochemical processes and in recognizing regional to global patterns found in many materials, including foods and food products, drugs, and humans. Stable isotopes considered in the larger spatial context add an important dimension to forensic science.

  14. Nanoparticles in forensic science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cantu, Antonio A.

    2008-10-01

    Nanoparticles appear in several areas of forensic science including security documents, paints, inks, and reagents that develop latent prints. One reagent (known as the silver physical developer) that visualizes the water insoluble components of latent print residue is based on the formation of highly charged silver nanoparticles. These attach to and grow on the residue and generate a silver image. Another such reagent involves highly charged gold nanoparticles. These attach to the residue forming a weak gold image which can be amplified with a silver physical developer. Nanoparaticles are also used in items such as paints, printing inks, and writing inks. Paints and most printing inks consist of nano-sized pigments in a vehicle. However, certain modern ink jet printing inks now contain nano-sized pigments to improve their light fastness and most gel inks are also based on nano scale pigments. These nanoparticlecontaining materials often appear as evidence and are thus subject to forensic characterization. Both luminescent (quantum dots), up-converting nano scale phosphors, and non luminescent nanoparticles are used as security tags to label product, add security to documents, and as anti counterfeiting measures. These assist in determining if an item is fraudulently made.

  15. Nuclear forensics: Soil content

    SciTech Connect

    Beebe, Merilyn Amy

    2015-08-31

    Nuclear Forensics is a growing field that is concerned with all stages of the process of creating and detonating a nuclear weapon. The main goal is to prevent nuclear attack by locating and securing nuclear material before it can be used in an aggressive manner. This stage of the process is mostly paperwork; laws, regulations, treaties, and declarations made by individual countries or by the UN Security Council. There is some preliminary leg work done in the form of field testing detection equipment and tracking down orphan materials; however, none of these have yielded any spectacular or useful results. In the event of a nuclear attack, the first step is to analyze the post detonation debris to aid in the identification of the responsible party. This aspect of the nuclear forensics process, while reactive in nature, is more scientific. A rock sample taken from the detonation site can be dissolved into liquid form and analyzed to determine its chemical composition. The chemical analysis of spent nuclear material can provide valuable information if properly processed and analyzed. In order to accurately evaluate the results, scientists require information on the natural occurring elements in the detonation zone. From this information, scientists can determine what percentage of the element originated in the bomb itself rather than the environment. To this end, element concentrations in soils from sixty-nine different cities are given, along with activity concentrations for uranium, thorium, potassium, and radium in various building materials. These data are used in the analysis program Python.

  16. Forensic DNA analysis.

    PubMed

    McDonald, Jessica; Lehman, Donald C

    2012-01-01

    Before the routine use of DNA profiling, blood typing was an important forensic tool. However, blood typing was not very discriminating. For example, roughly 30% of the United States population has type A-positive blood. Therefore, if A-positive blood were found at a crime scene, it could have come from 30% of the population. DNA profiling has a much better ability for discrimination. Forensic laboratories no longer routinely determine blood type. If blood is found at a crime scene, DNA profiling is performed. From Jeffrey's discovery of DNA fingerprinting to the development of PCR of STRs to the formation of DNA databases, our knowledge of DNA and DNA profiling have expanded greatly. Also, the applications for which we use DNA profiling have increased. DNA profiling is not just used for criminal case work, but it has expanded to encompass paternity testing, disaster victim identification, monitoring bone marrow transplants, detecting fetal cells in a mother's blood, tracing human history, and a multitude of other areas. The future of DNA profiling looks expansive with the development of newer instrumentation and techniques. PMID:22693781

  17. Forensic web watch 3.

    PubMed

    Rutty, G N

    2000-03-01

    Since the publication of the first 'Forensic Web Watch' article a new search engine has become available, free of charge at the time of writing, to surfers of the Internet (Net). Fast Search claims to seek out sites of interest for the user from 'all the Web, all the time trade mark ' as opposed to parts of the Net as is more common with other search machines. It is easy to use, extremely fast but as it searches so much more of the Net, the end result is considerably larger. This, in turn, may lead to a longer time to seek out useful information as opposed to the obscure. Having said this, it is recommended to add to your search engine bookmarks. A search for sites on issues related to 'Police Surgeons' will yield limited information, as each country will have a different person filling this role, all referred to by different terms. The one common feature, however, to all such groups as well as forensic pathologists and scientists, is that they will work with, or in some cases for, the police services of their respective country. Thus, in this article we will look at sites related to the police which may have useful information related to their work, specific cases of interest and research and development which may effect our practice. PMID:15274993

  18. Scope of practice issues in forensic nursing.

    PubMed

    Evans, A M; Wells, D

    2001-01-01

    1. There is significant role variation, across the Western world, in relation to how forensic nurses practice. 2. The authors conducted a pilot survey of forensic nurses in Australia, New Zealand, the United States, and the United Kingdom to examine forensic nursing practice, role definition, and role boundaries. 3. Issues arising from the data include the visibility of forensic nurses, the client group, forensic-specific education, and role development. PMID:11197994

  19. Hair shafts in trichoscopy: clues for diagnosis of hair and scalp diseases.

    PubMed

    Rudnicka, Lidia; Rakowska, Adriana; Kerzeja, Marta; Olszewska, Małgorzata

    2013-10-01

    Trichoscopy (hair and scalp dermoscopy) analyzes the structure and size of growing hair shafts, providing diagnostic clues for inherited and acquired causes of hair loss. Types of hair shaft abnormalities observed include exclamation mark hairs (alopecia areata, trichotillomania, chemotherapy-induced alopecia), Pohl-Pinkus constrictions (alopecia areata, chemotherapy-induced alopecia, blood loss, malnutrition), comma hairs (tinea capitis), corkscrew hairs (tinea capitis), coiled hairs (trichotillomania), flame hairs (trichotillomania), and tulip hairs (in trichotillomania, alopecia areata). Trichoscopy allows differential diagnosis of most genetic hair shaft disorders. This article proposes a classification of hair shaft abnormalities observed by trichoscopy. PMID:24075554

  20. The state of nuclear forensics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kristo, Michael J.; Tumey, Scott J.

    2013-01-01

    Nuclear terrorism has been identified as one of the most serious security threats facing the world today. Many countries, including the United States, have incorporated nuclear forensic analysis as a component of their strategy to prevent nuclear terrorism. Nuclear forensics involves the laboratory analysis of seized illicit nuclear materials or debris from a nuclear detonation to identify the origins of the material or weapon. Over the years, a number of forensic signatures have been developed to improve the confidence with which forensic analysts can draw conclusions. These signatures are validated and new signatures are discovered through research and development programs and in round-robin exercises among nuclear forensic laboratories. The recent Nuclear Smuggling International Technical Working Group Third Round Robin Exercise and an on-going program focused on attribution of uranium ore concentrate provide prime examples of the current state of nuclear forensics. These case studies will be examined and the opportunities for accelerator mass spectrometry to play a role in nuclear forensics will be discussed.

  1. Advances in Understanding Hair Growth

    PubMed Central

    Bernard, Bruno A.

    2016-01-01

    In this short review, I introduce an integrated vision of human hair follicle behavior and describe opposing influences that control hair follicle homeostasis, from morphogenesis to hair cycling. The interdependence and complementary roles of these influences allow us to propose that the hair follicle is a true paradigm of a “Yin Yang” type, that is a cold/slow-hot/fast duality. Moreover, a new promising field is emerging, suggesting that glycans are key elements of hair follicle growth control. PMID:26918186

  2. Hair dye poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    ... temporary dyes are: Arsenic Bismuth Denatured alcohol Lead ( lead poisoning ) Mercury Pyrogallol Silver Hair dyes may contain other ... infection. Continued exposure to lead or mercury can lead to permanent brain and nervous system damage. Alternative ... References Lee DC. Hydrocarbons. In: Marx JA, Hockberger ...

  3. Pharmacologic interventions in aging hair

    PubMed Central

    Trüeb, Ralph M

    2006-01-01

    The appearance of hair plays an important role in people’s overall physical appearance and self-perception. With today’s increasing life-expectations, the desire to look youthful plays a bigger role than ever. The hair care industry has become aware of this and is delivering active products directed towards meeting this consumer demand. The discovery of pharmacological targets and the development of safe and effective drugs also indicate strategies of the drug industry for maintenance of healthy and beautiful hair. Hair aging comprises weathering of the hair shaft, decrease of melanocyte function, and decrease in hair production. The scalp is subject to intrinsic and extrinsic aging. Intrinsic factors are related to individual genetic and epigenetic mechanisms with interindividual variation: prototypes are familial premature graying, and androgenetic alopecia. Currently available pharmacologic treatment modalities with proven efficacy for treatment of androgenetic alopecia are topical minoxidil and oral finasteride. Extrinsic factors include ultraviolet radiation and air pollution. Experimental evidence supports the hypothesis that oxidative stress also plays a role in hair aging. Topical anti-aging compounds include photoprotectors and antioxidants. In the absence of another way to reverse hair graying, hair colorants remain the mainstay of recovering lost hair color. Topical liposome targeting for melanins, genes, and proteins selectively to hair follicles are currently under investigation. PMID:18044109

  4. Pharmacologic interventions in aging hair.

    PubMed

    Trüeb, Ralph M

    2006-01-01

    The appearance of hair plays an important role in people's overall physical appearance and self-perception. With today's increasing life-expectations, the desire to look youthful plays a bigger role than ever. The hair care industry has become aware of this and is delivering active products directed towards meeting this consumer demand. The discovery of pharmacological targets and the development of safe and effective drugs also indicate strategies of the drug industry for maintenance of healthy and beautiful hair. Hair aging comprises weathering of the hair shaft, decrease of melanocyte function, and decrease in hair production. The scalp is subject to intrinsic and extrinsic aging. Intrinsic factors are related to individual genetic and epigenetic mechanisms with interindividual variation: prototypes are familial premature graying, and androgenetic alopecia. Currently available pharmacologic treatment modalities with proven efficacy for treatment of androgenetic alopecia are topical minoxidil and oral finasteride. Extrinsic factors include ultraviolet radiation and air pollution. Experimental evidence supports the hypothesis that oxidative stress also plays a role in hair aging. Topical anti-aging compounds include photoprotectors and antioxidants. In the absence of another way to reverse hair graying, hair colorants remain the mainstay of recovering lost hair color. Topical liposome targeting for melanins, genes, and proteins selectively to hair follicles are currently under investigation. PMID:18044109

  5. Female pattern hair loss.

    PubMed

    Singal, Archana; Sonthalia, Sidharth; Verma, Prashant

    2013-01-01

    Female pattern hair loss (FPHL) is a common cause of hair loss in women characterized by diffuse reduction in hair density over the crown and frontal scalp with retention of the frontal hairline. Its prevalence increases with advancing age and is associated with significant psychological morbidity. The pathophysiology of FPHL is still not completely understood and seems to be multifactorial. Although androgens have been implicated, the involvement of androgen-independent mechanisms is evident from frequent lack of clinical or biochemical markers of hyperandrogenism in affected women. The role of genetic polymorphisms involving the androgen and estrogen receptors is being increasingly recognized in its causation and predicting treatment response to anti-androgens. There are different clinical patterns and classifications of FPHL, knowledge of which facilitates patient management and research. Chronic telogen effluvium remains as the most important differential diagnosis. Thorough history, clinical examination, and evaluation are essential to confirm diagnosis. Patients with clinical signs of androgen excess require assessment of biochemical parameters and imaging studies. It is prudent to screen the patients for metabolic syndrome and cardiovascular risk factors. The treatment comprises medical and/or surgical modalities. Medical treatment should be initiated early as it effectively arrests hair loss progression rather than stimulating regrowth. Minoxidil continues to be the first line therapy whereas anti-androgens form the second line of treatment. The progressive nature of FPHL mandates long-term treatment for sustained effect. Medical therapy may be supplemented with cosmetic concealment in those desirous of greater hair density. Surgery may be worthwhile in some carefully selected patients. PMID:23974580

  6. NUCLEAR FORENSICS ANALYSIS CENTER FORENSIC ANALYSIS TO DATA INTERPRETATION

    SciTech Connect

    Nichols, T.

    2011-02-07

    The Nuclear Forensics Analysis Center (NFAC) is part of Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) and is one of only two USG National Laboratories accredited to perform nuclear forensic analyses to the requirements of ISO 17025. SRNL NFAC is capable of analyzing nuclear and radiological samples from bulk material to ultra-trace samples. NFAC provides analytical support to the FBI's Radiological Evidence Examination Facility (REEF), which is located within SRNL. REEF gives the FBI the capability to perform traditional forensics on material that is radiological and/or is contaminated. SRNL is engaged in research and development efforts to improve the USG technical nuclear forensics capabilities. Research includes improving predictive signatures and developing a database containing comparative samples.

  7. Forensic Science Education and Educational Requirements for Forensic Scientists.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gaensslen, Robert E.

    2002-01-01

    Focuses on criminalistics, which can be understood to mean the activities and specialty areas characteristic of most municipal, county, or state forensic science laboratories in the United States. (DDR)

  8. New geophysical electromagnetic method of archeological object research in Egypt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hachay, O. A.; Khachay, O. Yu.; Attia, Magdi.

    2009-04-01

    its center. Thus we change over layered model to a block-layered model. Then, gathering the values of thicknesses and resistances for all points of observation, located on one and the same profile we obtain the file of an average cross-section along the profile.The next step is combining the neighboring blocks with close-range values of resistance to one block. That operation is made according to the fixed scale of resistance. The second stage of interpretation is used to define the geometrical characteristics of conductive inclusions and their equivalent moments, which are proportional to the ratio of the conductivity difference in the host rock and in the inclusion to the conductivity in the host rock. Here the approximation principle is used for alternating electromagnetic fields. The initial model of the inclusion is a current line of fixed length. That approximation construction is used for fitting of the average parameter of geoelectrical heterogeneity, which is calculated and located to each point of the profile (Hachay O.A. et all. 2002).The first problem: to found the tomb of Ptolemey in Alexandria. That work is provided by NRIAG together with the Aphine University. The historical and archeological work was provided during a long time. In that moment when we had been asked to do our research on that object it must be needed to show more precisely the place of that tomb on the territory of the ancient royal garden in Alexandria. NRIAG had developed electro prospecting works using radar and vertical electric soundings. With use of our results on the archeological object it had been choose a more precise place for the borehole and for next excavation. The results of drilling showed, as it was forecasted, that from the depth 7m on the showed picket of the observed profile it had been revealed stone objects which differ from the limestones sandstones. The drilling was achieved on 20-th of april 2008.

  9. Nutritional factors and hair loss.

    PubMed

    Rushton, D H

    2002-07-01

    The literature reveals what little is known about nutritional factors and hair loss. What we do know emanates from studies in protein-energy malnutrition, starvation, and eating disorders. In otherwise healthy individuals, nutritional factors appear to play a role in subjects with persistent increased hair shedding. Hård, 40 years ago, demonstrated the importance of iron supplements in nonanaemic, iron-deficient women with hair loss. Serum ferritin concentrations provide a good assessment of an individual's iron status. Rushton et al. first published data showing that serum ferritin concentrations were a factor in female hair loss and, 10 years later, Kantor et al. confirmed this association. What level of serum ferritin to employ in subjects with increased hair shedding is yet to be definitively established but 70 micro g/L, with a normal erythrocyte sedimentation rate (< 10 mm/h), is recommended. The role of the essential amino acid, l-lysine in hair loss also appears to be important. Double-blind data confirmed the findings of an open study in women with increased hair shedding, where a significant proportion responded to l-lysine and iron therapy. There is no evidence to support the popular view that low serum zinc concentrations cause hair loss. Excessive intakes of nutritional supplements may actually cause hair loss and are not recommended in the absence of a proven deficiency. While nutritional factors affect the hair directly, one should not forget that they also affect the skin. In the management of subjects with hair loss, eliminating scaling problems is important as is good hair care advice and the need to explain fully the hair cycle. Many individuals reduced their shampooing frequency due to fear of losing more hair but this increases the amount seen in subsequent shampoos fuelling their fear of going bald and adversely affecting their quality of life. PMID:12190640

  10. Forensic analysis of biodiesel.

    PubMed

    Goodman, Michael R; Kaley, Elizabeth A; Finney, Eric E

    2016-06-01

    The analysis of four different biodiesel blends, as well as homemade biodiesel prepared from vegetable oil, has been performed using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The identification of methyl esters within the biodiesel along with any background components is made possible by recognizing their mass spectral fragmentation patterns. These fuels were subjected to typical fire scene environments, specifically weathering and microbial degradation, to investigate how these environments affect the analysis. A matrix study was also performed on wood, carpet, and clothing in order to identify any interferences from these substrates. The data obtained herein will provide the forensic science community with the data needed to help recognize these increasingly common ignitable liquids. PMID:27060442

  11. Neuroimaging, culture, and forensic psychiatry.

    PubMed

    Aggarwal, Neil K

    2009-01-01

    The spread of neuroimaging technologies around the world has led to diverse practices of forensic psychiatry and the emergence of neuroethics and neurolaw. This article surveys the neuroethics and neurolegal literature on the use of forensic neuroimaging within the courtroom. Next, the related literature within medical anthropology and science and technology studies is reviewed to show how debates about forensic neuroimaging reflect cultural tensions about attitudes regarding the self, mental illness, and medical expertise. Finally, recommendations are offered on how forensic psychiatrists can add to this research, given their professional interface between law and medicine. At stake are the fundamental concerns that surround changing conceptions of the self, sickness, and expectations of medicine. PMID:19535562

  12. Integration initiatives for forensic services

    PubMed Central

    ARBOLEDA-FLÓREZ, JULIO

    2003-01-01

    Poorly implemented mental health reform policies are often given as reasons for the growth in demands for forensic psychiatric services and the steady increase of mental patients in prison systems. However, in this paper, additional reasons are advanced to explain the growth of forensic psychiatry, such as an expansion in the types of "psychiatric defences" in courts of law; public concerns about violent behaviour attributed to the mentally ill; the community management of paraphilias, especially pedophilia; the development of risk assessment methodologies and the halo of super-specialization. The net result of these developments is that patients who receive a label of "forensic" enter into a mental health ghetto with little connectivity or integration with the general mental health system. The forensic label increases the stigma and decreases opportunities for reintegration and full social recovery. The paper provides guidelines to reverse these trends. PMID:16946932

  13. Forensic historiography: narratives and science.

    PubMed

    Drukteinis, Albert M

    2014-01-01

    Psychiatrists function, in part, as historians who rely on patient narratives to help them understand presenting mental disorders and explain their causes. Forensic psychiatrists have been skeptical of using narratives, raising concerns about their lack of objectivity and potential for bias. They also have criticized narratives as being more performative than scientific. Recent authors, however, have pointed out that narratives may be helpful in forming forensic opinions and supporting oral testimony, while stressing that their use must be consistent with the ethics espoused by forensic psychiatry. This article reviews the role of narratives in understanding human events and the ubiquitous presence of narratives in the judicial process. It delves into the inescapability of using explicit or implicit narratives in the course of forensic practice, as well as how they may be meaningfully incorporated into evaluations and find expression alongside scientific principles. PMID:25492068

  14. Forensic Science--A Proposal

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Geesaman, Donald P.; Abrahamson, Dean E.

    1973-01-01

    Forensic science is an approach to study desirability of specific technologies in the context of value objectives and biological imperatives of society. Such groups should be formed with people from various physical and social sciences. (PS)

  15. Forensic hash for multimedia information

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Wenjun; Varna, Avinash L.; Wu, Min

    2010-01-01

    Digital multimedia such as images and videos are prevalent on today's internet and cause significant social impact, which can be evidenced by the proliferation of social networking sites with user generated contents. Due to the ease of generating and modifying images and videos, it is critical to establish trustworthiness for online multimedia information. In this paper, we propose novel approaches to perform multimedia forensics using compact side information to reconstruct the processing history of a document. We refer to this as FASHION, standing for Forensic hASH for informatION assurance. Based on the Radon transform and scale space theory, the proposed forensic hash is compact and can effectively estimate the parameters of geometric transforms and detect local tampering that an image may have undergone. Forensic hash is designed to answer a broader range of questions regarding the processing history of multimedia data than the simple binary decision from traditional robust image hashing, and also offers more efficient and accurate forensic analysis than multimedia forensic techniques that do not use any side information.

  16. Automated GC-MS Determination of Δ9-Tetrahydrocannabinol, Cannabinol and Cannabidiol in Hair.

    PubMed

    Heinl, Sonja; Lerch, Oliver; Erdmann, Freidoon

    2016-09-01

    The determination of Δ(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), cannabinol (CBN) and cannabidiol (CBD) in hair is a major routine task in forensic laboratories worldwide. A comprehensively automated liquid-liquid extraction (LLE) method has been developed. The automation was carried out by an x-y-z sample robot equipped with modules capable of shaking, centrifugation and solvent evaporation. It comprises digestion of hair in sodium hydroxide solution, LLE, extract evaporation, reconstitution in silylation reagent, inlet derivatization and GC-MS analysis. Method validation guidelines of the Society for Toxicological and Forensic Chemistry were fulfilled. The limit of quantification (LOQ) was 0.01 ng/mg for THC, 0.06 ng/mg for CBN and 0.03 ng/mg for CBD. This is below the required LOQ for THC (0.02 ng/mg) in medical psychological assessments in Germany. Also it is far below the required LOQ of the Society of Hair Testing of 0.1 ng/mg for THC. Four-round robin tests were passed successfully and several post- and ante-mortem samples were analyzed. To date the method is routinely employed at the Institute of Legal Medicine in Giessen, Germany. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first publication on a comprehensively automated classical LLE workflow in the field of hair analysis. PMID:27344041

  17. Preparation and application of a fortified hair reference material for the determination of methamphetamine and amphetamine.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sooyeun; Park, Yonghoon; Han, Eunyoung; Choe, Sanggil; Lim, Miae; Chung, Heesun

    2008-07-01

    Quality assurance is one of the major issues in forensic analytical laboratories, where the need for a reference material (RM) has rapidly increased. RMs are very useful for method development and validation, internal quality control or proficiency tests. In the present study, we prepared a RM using drug-free hair for the determination of methamphetamine (MA) and its main metabolite, amphetamine (AP) according to the recommendations of ISO Guide 35. The concentrations of MA and AP were determined using two extraction methods, agitation with 1% HCl in methanol at 38 degrees C and ultrasonication with methanol/5M HCl (20:1), followed by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) after derivatization with trifluoroacetic anhydride (TFAA). The assignment of values was conducted through the homogeneity study and characterization of the material. Furthermore, an internal proficiency test was performed with the prepared RM, of which the results were compared with those of the authentic hair RM prepared in our previous study. As a result, a hair RM containing MA and AP was prepared at the level of 4.86+/-0.69 ng/mg and 4.63+/-0.44 ng/mg, respectively. Most participants showed satisfactory performances in the internal proficiency test with the both RMs. The hair RM prepared in this study demonstrated its suitability for quality assurance in forensic laboratories. PMID:18502069

  18. 28 CFR 551.4 - Hair length.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Hair length. 551.4 Section 551.4 Judicial... Hair length. (a) The Warden may not restrict hair length if the inmate keeps it neat and clean. (b) The Warden shall require an inmate with long hair to wear a cap or hair net when working in food service...

  19. 28 CFR 551.4 - Hair length.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Hair length. 551.4 Section 551.4 Judicial... Hair length. (a) The Warden may not restrict hair length if the inmate keeps it neat and clean. (b) The Warden shall require an inmate with long hair to wear a cap or hair net when working in food service...

  20. 28 CFR 551.4 - Hair length.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Hair length. 551.4 Section 551.4 Judicial... Hair length. (a) The Warden may not restrict hair length if the inmate keeps it neat and clean. (b) The Warden shall require an inmate with long hair to wear a cap or hair net when working in food service...

  1. 28 CFR 551.4 - Hair length.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Hair length. 551.4 Section 551.4 Judicial... Hair length. (a) The Warden may not restrict hair length if the inmate keeps it neat and clean. (b) The Warden shall require an inmate with long hair to wear a cap or hair net when working in food service...

  2. 28 CFR 551.4 - Hair length.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Hair length. 551.4 Section 551.4 Judicial... Hair length. (a) The Warden may not restrict hair length if the inmate keeps it neat and clean. (b) The Warden shall require an inmate with long hair to wear a cap or hair net when working in food service...

  3. A comparative study on the concentrations of 11-nor-Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol-9-carboxylic acid (THCCOOH) in head and pubic hair.

    PubMed

    Han, Eunyoung; Choi, Hwakyung; Lee, Sangki; Chung, Heesun; Song, Joon Myong

    2011-10-10

    In this study, the concentrations of 11-nor-Δ(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol-9-carboxylic acid (THCCOOH) in pubic, axillary and beard hair were measured and the correlation between the concentrations of THCCOOH in head and pubic hair from same cannabis users were evaluated. The papers on body hair analysis for THCCOOH were rarely found although police officers submit body hair as a complimentary specimen to forensic laboratories in case cannabis users had no hair. Head, pubic, axillary, and beard hair were collected. All hair samples were cut into 0.5mm segments and decontaminated with methanol, digested with 1 mL of 1M NaOH at 85 °C for 30 min and extracted in 2 mL of n-hexane:ethyl acetate (9:1) two times after adding 1 mL of 0.1N sodium acetate buffer (pH = 4.5) and 200 μL of acetic acid followed by derivatization with 50 μL of PFPA and 25 μL of PFPOH for 30 min at 70 °C. The extracts were analyzed using gas chromatography tandem mass spectrometry operating in negative chemical ionization mode (GC/MS/MS-NCI). We determined the concentrations of THCCOOH in both pubic and head hair. The concentrations of THCCOOH in pubic hair were higher than those in head hair. We also evaluated the concentrations of THCCOOH in body hair (pubic, axillary and beard hair) and head hair according to the positive/negative urine test results. There was no statistically significant difference in the concentrations of THCCOOH in head and body hair according to urine results. PMID:21802874

  4. Hair Styling Appliances

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1984-01-01

    Key tool of Redken Laboratories new line of hair styling appliances is an instrument called a thermograph, a heat sensing device originally developed by Hughes Aircraft Co. under U.S. Army and NASA funding. Redken Laboratories bought one of the early models of the Hughes Probeye Thermal Video System or TVS which detects the various degrees of heat emitted by an object and displays the results in color on a TV monitor with colors representing different temperatures detected.

  5. Variation and Heritability in Hair Diameter and Curvature in an Australian Twin Sample.

    PubMed

    Ho, Yvonne Y W; Brims, Mark; McNevin, Dennis; Spector, Timothy D; Martin, Nicholas G; Medland, Sarah E

    2016-08-01

    Hair diameter and curvature are two characteristics of human scalp hair used in forensic contexts. While previous data show that subjective categorization of hair curvature is highly heritable, the heritability of objectively measured curvature and diameter, and variability of hair characteristics within each individual have not yet been studied. The present study measured hair diameter and curvature using an optical fiber diameter analyzer in a sample of 2,332 twins and siblings. Heritability was estimated using maximum likelihood structural equation modeling. Results show sex differences in the magnitude of genetic influence for mean diameter and curvature, with the vast majority of the variance accounted for by genetic effects in males (diameter = 86%, curvature = 53%) and females (diameter = 77%, curvature = 61%). The consistency of diameter (variance within an individual) was also highly heritable, but did not show sex limitation, with 68% of the variance accounted for by genetic factors. Moderate phenotypic correlations were seen between diameter and consistency (r = 0.3) but there was little correlation between diameter and curvature (r = -0.13). A bivariate Cholesky analysis was used to estimate the genetic and environmental correlations between hair diameter and consistency, yielding genetic correlations of r gF = 0.27 for females and r gM = 0.25 for males. PMID:27291867

  6. Massively parallel sequencing of complete mitochondrial genomes from hair shaft samples.

    PubMed

    Parson, Walther; Huber, Gabriela; Moreno, Lilliana; Madel, Maria-Bernadette; Brandhagen, Michael D; Nagl, Simone; Xavier, Catarina; Eduardoff, Mayra; Callaghan, Thomas C; Irwin, Jodi A

    2015-03-01

    Though shed hairs are one of the most commonly encountered evidence types, they are among the most limited in terms of DNA quantity and quality. As a result, DNA testing has historically focused on the recovery of just about 600 base pairs of the mitochondrial DNA control region. Here, we describe our success in recovering complete mitochondrial genome (mtGenome) data (∼16,569bp) from single shed hairs. By employing massively parallel sequencing (MPS), we demonstrate that particular hair samples yield DNA sufficient in quantity and quality to produce 2-3kb mtGenome amplicons and that entire mtGenome data can be recovered from hair extracts even without PCR enrichment. Most importantly, we describe a small amplicon multiplex assay comprised of sixty-two primer sets that can be routinely applied to the compromised hair samples typically encountered in forensic casework. In all samples tested here, the MPS data recovered using any one of the three methods were consistent with the control Sanger sequence data developed from high quality known specimens. Given the recently demonstrated value of complete mtGenome data in terms of discrimination power among randomly sampled individuals, the possibility of recovering mtGenome data from the most compromised and limited evidentiary material is likely to vastly increase the utility of mtDNA testing for hair evidence. PMID:25438934

  7. Normal and aging hair biology and structure 'aging and hair'.

    PubMed

    Goodier, Molly; Hordinsky, Maria

    2015-01-01

    Much like an individual's hairstyle, hair fibers along the scalp see a number of changes over the course of one's lifetime. As the decades pass, the shine and volume synonymous with youthful hair may give way to thin, dull, and brittle hair commonly associated with aging. These changes are a result of a compilation of genetic and environmental elements influencing the cells of the hair follicle, specifically the hair follicle stem cells and melanocytes. Telomere shortening, decrease in cell numbers, and particular transcription factors have all been implicated in this process. In turn, these molecular alterations lead to structural modifications of the hair fiber, decrease in melanin production, and lengthening of the telogen phase of the hair cycle. Despite this inevitable progression with aging, there exists an array of treatments such as light therapy, minoxidil, and finasteride which have been designed to mitigate the effects of aging, particularly balding and thinning hair. Although each works through a different mechanism, all aim to maintain or potentially restore the youthful quality of hair. PMID:26370639

  8. Recent trends in analytical methods and separation techniques for drugs of abuse in hair.

    PubMed

    Baciu, T; Borrull, F; Aguilar, C; Calull, M

    2015-01-26

    Hair analysis of drugs of abuse has been a subject of growing interest from a clinical, social and forensic perspective for years because of the broad time detection window after intake in comparison to urine and blood analysis. Over the last few years, hair analysis has gained increasing attention and recognition for the retrospective investigation of drug abuse in a wide variety of contexts, shown by the large number of applications developed. This review aims to provide an overview of the state of the art and the latest trends used in the literature from 2005 to the present in the analysis of drugs of abuse in hair, with a special focus on separation analytical techniques and their hyphenation with mass spectrometry detection. The most recently introduced sample preparation techniques are also addressed in this paper. The main strengths and weaknesses of all of these approaches are critically discussed by means of relevant applications. PMID:25542354

  9. Female Pattern Hair Loss

    PubMed Central

    Herskovitz, Ingrid; Tosti, Antonella

    2013-01-01

    Context: Female pattern hair loss (FPHL) also known as female androgenetic alopecia is a common condition afflicting millions of women that can be cosmetically disrupting. Prompt diagnosis and treatment are essential for obtaining optimal outcome. This review addresses the clinical presentation of female pattern hair loss, its differential diagnosis and treatment modalities. Evidence Acquisition: A) Diffuse thinning of the crown region with preservation of the frontal hairline (Ludwig’s type) B) The “Christmas tree pattern” where the thinning is wider in the frontal scalp giving the alopecic area a triangular shaped figure resembling a christmas tree. C) Thinning associated with bitemporal recession (Hamilton type). Generally, FPHL is not associated with elevated androgens. Less commonly females with FPHL may have other skin or general signs of hyperandrogenism such as hirsutism, acne, irregular menses, infertility, galactorrhea and insulin resistance. The most common endocrinological abnormality associated with FPHL is polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS). Results: The most important diseases to consider in the differential diagnosis of FPHL include Chronic Telogen Effluvium (CTE), Permanent Alopecia after Chemotherapy (PAC), Alopecia Areata Incognito (AAI) and Frontal Fibrosing Alopecia (FFA). This review describes criteria for distinguishing these conditions from FPHL. Conclusions: The only approved treatment for FPHL, which is 2% topical Minoxidil, should be applied at the dosage of 1ml twice day for a minimum period of 12 months. This review will discuss off-label alternative modalities of treatment including 5-alfa reductase inhibitors, antiandrogens, estrogens, prostaglandin analogs, lasers, light treatments and hair transplantation. PMID:24719635

  10. Hair removal on dermoscopy images.

    PubMed

    Maglogiannis, Ilias; Delibasis, Kostantinos

    2015-08-01

    Digital Dermoscopy is a tool commonly used by dermatologists for assisting the diagnosis of skin lesions. The presence of hair in such dermoscopic images frequently occludes significant diagnostic information and reduces their value. In this work we propose algorithms that successfully identify and remove hair from the dermoscopic images. The proposed algorithms consist of two parts; the first deals with the identification of hair, while the second part concerns the image restoration using interpolation. For the evaluation of the algorithms we used ground truth images with synthetic hair and compared the results with the commonly used in the literature DullRazor tool. According to the experimental results the proposed hair removal algorithms can be used successfully in the detection and removal of both dark and light colored hair. PMID:26736913

  11. 7 CFR 656.2 - Archeological and historical laws and Executive orders applicable to NRCS-assisted programs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...) Executive Order 11593 (36 FR 8921, 3 CFR 1971 Comp. P. 154), Protection and Enhancement of the Cultural... 7 Agriculture 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Archeological and historical laws and Executive orders... PROCEDURES FOR THE PROTECTION OF ARCHEOLOGICAL AND HISTORICAL PROPERTIES ENCOUNTERED IN...

  12. 7 CFR 656.2 - Archeological and historical laws and Executive orders applicable to NRCS-assisted programs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...) Executive Order 11593 (36 FR 8921, 3 CFR 1971 Comp. P. 154), Protection and Enhancement of the Cultural... 7 Agriculture 6 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Archeological and historical laws and Executive orders... PROCEDURES FOR THE PROTECTION OF ARCHEOLOGICAL AND HISTORICAL PROPERTIES ENCOUNTERED IN...

  13. 7 CFR 656.2 - Archeological and historical laws and Executive orders applicable to NRCS-assisted programs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...) Executive Order 11593 (36 FR 8921, 3 CFR 1971 Comp. P. 154), Protection and Enhancement of the Cultural... 7 Agriculture 6 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Archeological and historical laws and Executive orders... PROCEDURES FOR THE PROTECTION OF ARCHEOLOGICAL AND HISTORICAL PROPERTIES ENCOUNTERED IN...

  14. 7 CFR 656.2 - Archeological and historical laws and Executive orders applicable to NRCS-assisted programs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...) Executive Order 11593 (36 FR 8921, 3 CFR 1971 Comp. P. 154), Protection and Enhancement of the Cultural... 7 Agriculture 6 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Archeological and historical laws and Executive orders... PROCEDURES FOR THE PROTECTION OF ARCHEOLOGICAL AND HISTORICAL PROPERTIES ENCOUNTERED IN...

  15. 36 CFR Appendix 2 to Part 801 - Special Procedures for Identification and Consideration of Archeological Properties in an Urban...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Identification and Consideration of Archeological Properties in an Urban Context 2 Appendix 2 to Part 801 Parks... OF THE URBAN DEVELOPMENT ACTION GRANT PROGRAM Pt. 801, App. 2 Appendix 2 to Part 801—Special Procedures for Identification and Consideration of Archeological Properties in an Urban Context...

  16. 36 CFR Appendix 2 to Part 801 - Special Procedures for Identification and Consideration of Archeological Properties in an Urban...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Identification and Consideration of Archeological Properties in an Urban Context 2 Appendix 2 to Part 801 Parks... OF THE URBAN DEVELOPMENT ACTION GRANT PROGRAM Pt. 801, App. 2 Appendix 2 to Part 801—Special Procedures for Identification and Consideration of Archeological Properties in an Urban Context...

  17. 36 CFR Appendix 2 to Part 801 - Special Procedures for Identification and Consideration of Archeological Properties in an Urban...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Identification and Consideration of Archeological Properties in an Urban Context 2 Appendix 2 to Part 801 Parks... OF THE URBAN DEVELOPMENT ACTION GRANT PROGRAM Pt. 801, App. 2 Appendix 2 to Part 801—Special Procedures for Identification and Consideration of Archeological Properties in an Urban Context...

  18. 36 CFR Appendix 2 to Part 801 - Special Procedures for Identification and Consideration of Archeological Properties in an Urban...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Identification and Consideration of Archeological Properties in an Urban Context 2 Appendix 2 to Part 801 Parks... OF THE URBAN DEVELOPMENT ACTION GRANT PROGRAM Pt. 801, App. 2 Appendix 2 to Part 801—Special Procedures for Identification and Consideration of Archeological Properties in an Urban Context...

  19. Instrumental neutron activation analysis of sectioned hair strands for arsenic

    SciTech Connect

    Guinn, V.P.

    1996-12-31

    Instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) is a valuable and proven method for the quantitative analysis of sectioned human head hair specimens for arsenic - and, if arsenic is found to be present at high concentrations, the approximate times when it was ingested. Reactor-flux thermal-neutron activation of the hair samples produces 26.3-h {sup 76}As, which is then detected by germanium gamma-ray spectrometry, measuring the 559.1-keV gamma-ray peak of {sup 76}As. Even normal levels of arsenic in hair, in the range of <1 ppm up to a few parts per million of arsenic can be measured - and the far higher levels associated with large internal doses of arsenic, levels approaching or exceeding 100 ppm arsenic, are readily and accurately measurable. However, all phases of forensic investigations of possible chronic (or in some cases, acute) arsenic poisoning are important, i.e., not just the analysis phase. All of these phases are discussed in this paper, based on the author`s experience and the experience of others, in criminal cases. Cases of chronic arsenic poisoning often reveal a series of two to four doses, perhaps a few months apart, with increasing doses.

  20. Optical properties of human hair

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Altshuler, Gregory B.; Ilyasov, Ildar K.; Prikhodko, Constantin V.

    1995-01-01

    Optical properties of human hair are the subject of great interest for the realization of any possible cosmetic applications. This paper represents the results of hair microstructure as an optical substance investigation, indicates melanin and keratin absorption spectra, and shows experimentally discovered anisotropia of optical properties of human hair. Radiation weakening coefficient value at the range from 450 up to 800 nm is estimated. Thresholds of hair destruction by Nd, Ho, Cu, and Er laser radiation are obtained. Perspectives of laser application for epilation and other medical purposes are evaluated.

  1. Nanomechanical responses of human hair.

    PubMed

    Samanta, Aniruddha; Bhattacharya, Manjima; Dalui, Srikanta; Acharya, Megha; Das, Pradip Sekhar; Chanda, Dipak Kr; Acharya, Saikat Deb; Sivaraman, Sankar Kalidas; Nath, Shekhar; Mandal, Ashok Kumar; Ghosh, Jiten; Mukhopadhyay, Anoop Kumar

    2016-03-01

    Here we report the first ever studies on nanomechanical properties e.g., nanohardness and Young׳s modulus for human hair of Indian origin. Three types of hair samples e.g., virgin hair samples (VH), bleached hair samples (BH) and Fe-tannin complex colour treated hair samples (FT) with the treatment by a proprietary hair care product are used in the present work. The proprietary hair care product involves a Fe-salt based formulation. The hair samples are characterized by optical microscopy, atomic force microscopy, field emission scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDAX) genesis line map, EDAX spot mapping, nanoindentation, tensile fracture, and X-ray diffraction techniques. The nanoindentation studies are conducted on the cross-sections of the VH, BH and FT hair samples. The results prove that the nanomechanical properties e.g., nanohardness and Young׳s modulus are sensitive to measurement location e.g., cortex or medulla and presence or absence of the chemical treatment. Additional results obtained from the tensile fracture experiments establish that the trends reflected from the evaluations of the nanomechanical properties are general enough to hold good. Based on these observations a schematic model is developed. The model explains the present results in a qualitative yet satisfactory manner. PMID:26719934

  2. Quantum hair and quantum gravity

    SciTech Connect

    Coleman, S. ); Krauss, L.M. ); Preskill, J. ); Wilczek, F. )

    1992-01-01

    A black hole may carry quantum numbers that are not associated with massless gauge fields, contrary to the spirit of the 'no-hair' theorems. The 'quantum hair' is invisible in the classical limit, but measurable via quantum interference experiments. Quantum hair alters the temperature of the radiation emitted by a black hole. It also induces non-zero expectation values for fields outside the event horizon; these expectation values are non-perturbative in [Dirac h], and decay exponentially far from the hole. The existence of quantum hair demonstrates that a black hole can have an intricate quantum-mechanical structure that is completely missed by standard semiclassical theory.

  3. Forensic seismology revisited

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Douglas, A.

    2007-01-01

    The first technical discussions, held in 1958, on methods of verifying compliance with a treaty banning nuclear explosions, concluded that a monitoring system could be set up to detect and identify such explosions anywhere except underground: the difficulty with underground explosions was that there would be some earthquakes that could not be distinguished from an explosion. The development of adequate ways of discriminating between earthquakes and underground explosions proved to be difficult so that only in 1996 was a Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban Treaty (CTBT) finally negotiated. Some of the important improvements in the detection and identification of underground tests—that is in forensic seismology—have been made by the UK through a research group at the Atomic Weapons Establishment (AWE). The paper describes some of the advances made in identification since 1958, particularly by the AWE Group, and the main features of the International Monitoring System (IMS), being set up to verify the Test Ban. Once the Treaty enters into force, then should a suspicious disturbance be detected the State under suspicion of testing will have to demonstrate that the disturbance was not a test. If this cannot be done satisfactorily the Treaty has provisions for on-site inspections (OSIs): for a suspicious seismic disturbance for example, an international team of inspectors will search the area around the estimated epicentre of the disturbance for evidence that a nuclear test really took place. Early observations made at epicentral distances out to 2,000 km from the Nevada Test Site showed that there is little to distinguish explosion seismograms from those of nearby earthquakes: for both source types the short-period (SP: ˜1 Hz) seismograms are complex showing multiple arrivals. At long range, say 3,000 10,000 km, loosely called teleseismic distances, the AWE Group noted that SP P waves—the most widely and well-recorded waves from underground explosions—were in

  4. Distribution and chemical speciation of arsenic in ancient human hair using synchrotron radiation.

    PubMed

    Kakoulli, Ioanna; Prikhodko, Sergey V; Fischer, Christian; Cilluffo, Marianne; Uribe, Mauricio; Bechtel, Hans A; Fakra, Sirine C; Marcus, Matthew A

    2014-01-01

    Pre-Columbian populations that inhabited the Tarapacá mid river valley in the Atacama Desert in Chile during the Middle Horizon and Late Intermediate Period (AD 500-1450) show patterns of chronic poisoning due to exposure to geogenic arsenic. Exposure of these people to arsenic was assessed using synchrotron-based elemental X-ray fluorescence mapping, X-ray absorption spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction and Fourier transform infrared spectromicroscopy measurements on ancient human hair. These combined techniques of high sensitivity and specificity enabled the discrimination between endogenous and exogenous processes that has been an analytical challenge for archeological studies and criminal investigations in which hair is used as a proxy of premortem metabolism. The high concentration of arsenic mainly in the form of inorganic As(III) and As(V) detected in the hair suggests chronic arsenicism through ingestion of As-polluted water rather than external contamination by the deposition of heavy metals due to metallophilic soil microbes or diffusion of arsenic from the soil. A decrease in arsenic concentration from the proximal to the distal end of the hair shaft analyzed may indicate a change in the diet due to mobility, though chemical or microbiologically induced processes during burial cannot be entirely ruled out. PMID:24320096

  5. Removing Pubic Hair (For Young Women)

    MedlinePlus

    ... the-counter “depilatories” or cream hair removers: This method of hair removal is painless, but it’s important ... the cloth strip is quickly pulled off. This method of hair removal usually stings (when the cloth ...

  6. Genetics Home Reference: keratoderma with woolly hair

    MedlinePlus

    ... Conditions keratoderma with woolly hair keratoderma with woolly hair Enable Javascript to view the expand/collapse boxes. ... Open All Close All Description Keratoderma with woolly hair is a group of related conditions that affect ...

  7. The Li(f)e of the Self: Missing Persons and Auto/Archeological Excavations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burdick, Jake

    2014-01-01

    This article describes and enacts a process of autobiographical inquiry, auto/archeology, which seeks to address problematic confluences of memory and identity in reconstructing one's historical narrative. Drawing on curriculum theory and Lacanian psychoanalysis, the author describes a process of excavation in which understandings of a prior…

  8. 32 CFR 767.12 - References for submission of permit application to conduct archeological research.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Administered Archeological Collections, 36 CFR part 79. These regulations establish standards for the curation... of Historic Properties, 36 CFR part 800. These regulations govern the Section 106 Review Process... 1979, as amended (ARPA), 16 U.S.C. 470aa-mm, and the Uniform Regulations, 43 CFR part 7, subpart...

  9. 32 CFR 767.12 - References for submission of permit application to conduct archeological research.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Administered Archeological Collections, 36 CFR part 79. These regulations establish standards for the curation... of Historic Properties, 36 CFR part 800. These regulations govern the Section 106 Review Process... 1979, as amended (ARPA), 16 U.S.C. 470aa-mm, and the Uniform Regulations, 43 CFR part 7, subpart...

  10. 32 CFR 767.12 - References for submission of permit application to conduct archeological research.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Administered Archeological Collections, 36 CFR part 79. These regulations establish standards for the curation... of Historic Properties, 36 CFR part 800. These regulations govern the Section 106 Review Process... 1979, as amended (ARPA), 16 U.S.C. 470aa-mm, and the Uniform Regulations, 43 CFR part 7, subpart...

  11. 32 CFR 767.12 - References for submission of permit application to conduct archeological research.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Administered Archeological Collections, 36 CFR part 79. These regulations establish standards for the curation... of Historic Properties, 36 CFR part 800. These regulations govern the Section 106 Review Process... 1979, as amended (ARPA), 16 U.S.C. 470aa-mm, and the Uniform Regulations, 43 CFR part 7, subpart...

  12. 32 CFR 767.12 - References for submission of permit application to conduct archeological research.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Administered Archeological Collections, 36 CFR part 79. These regulations establish standards for the curation... of Historic Properties, 36 CFR part 800. These regulations govern the Section 106 Review Process... 1979, as amended (ARPA), 16 U.S.C. 470aa-mm, and the Uniform Regulations, 43 CFR part 7, subpart...

  13. Toward an "Archeology of Deafness": Etic and Emic Constructions of Identity in Conflict.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reagan, Timothy

    2002-01-01

    Foucault's concept of "archeological thinking" as a means of "making it possible to think difference" is used as an organizing framework for conceptualizing the conflict between the multiple, competing social and individual constructions of deaf identity. Emphasizes the social, political, and educational implications of the different constructions…

  14. Phytolith analysis of archeological soils: evidence for maize cultivation in formative ecuador.

    PubMed

    Pearsall, D M

    1978-01-13

    Soil samples from the archeological sites of Real Alto and OGCh-20, Santa Elena Peninsula, Ecuador, show the presence of cross-shaped silica bodies identifiable as maize (Zea mays L.) phytoliths by size comparison with known wild grass and maize phytoliths. These results support arguments for the cultivation of maize at 2450 B.C. in coastal Ecuador. PMID:17812949

  15. Forensic aspects of starvation.

    PubMed

    Madea, Burkhard; Ortmann, Jan; Doberentz, Elke

    2016-09-01

    Fatal starvation is a rare cause of death in industrialized countries. However, it may have major medicolegal importance if death results from the deliberate withholding of food, especially from infants. In such cases, the task of the forensic pathologist and the medical examiner, respectively, is to clarify the cause of death and give an expert opinion on the degree and duration of starvation. Several classification systems have been developed to estimate protein-energy malnutrition in developing countries. Simpler classifications, such as the Gomez classification, use the weight expected for the respective age group as the standard. However, smaller infants will be lighter, and therefore the classification may not be accurate in this case. Following the Waterlow classification, the extent of stunted growth (referring to growth retardation in cases of chronic malnutrition) is calculated using the ratio of the measured body height to that expected for the age. Using such classification systems, grading of stunting and wasting can be achieved and may greatly help in the assessment of a given child's nutritional status in legal cases. The application of the Waterlow classification to the authors' case material and previously published cases in the literature is herein demonstrated. The Waterlow classification is not only of importance for grading the final stage of fatal starvation, but also for the chronological development of the nutritional status if anthropometrical data have been repeatedly recorded from the affected individual in vivo. PMID:27145935

  16. Forensic psychiatry in Chile.

    PubMed

    St Denis, Emily E; Sepúlveda, Enrique; Téllez, Carlos; Arboleda-Flórez, Julio; Stuart, Heather; Lam, Miu

    2012-01-01

    Mental disorders are among the most prevalent of chronic disorders, and a high prevalence of these disorders has been consistently found in jails and prisons. This study was a retrospective case series that described the population of adults charged with a criminal offense who were court ordered to undergo a psychiatric assessment within the Medical Legal Service in Santiago, Chile from 2005 to 2006. Characteristics were explored in order to better understand this population in light of the recent reforms in the judicial and health systems of Chile. Ninety percent of sampled individuals were male, primarily between the ages of 18-39 years. Seventy percent of the evaluations came from the pre-reformed judicial system and 30% were from the reformed system. Approximately 63% of evaluated offenders were considered to have a psychiatric pathology, the most common being the personality disorders. Of the evaluated offenders, approximately 84% were considered by a psychiatrist to be criminally responsible for their crime, 7% were regarded as having diminished criminal responsibility, 4% were considered to be not criminally responsible for their crime, and 4% were cases where criminal responsibility was not applicable. Profession status, municipality of residence, type of residence, ICD-10 diagnosis, treatment recommendation, and criminal responsibility were found to be significantly different between male and female evaluated offenders. Results from this investigation will contribute to knowledge about forensic psychiatry and mental health in Latin America, and will hopefully pave the way for more research and international comparisons. PMID:23102739

  17. Single hair transplantation using the Choi hair transplanter.

    PubMed

    Choi, Y C; Kim, J C

    1992-11-01

    A new procedure for single hair transplantation using the Choi hair transplanter is presented. This operation provides obvious cosmetic advantages in hairline refinement and the reconstruction of eyebrows, eyelashes, beards, and pubic escutcheon. The surgical technique is described in detail. PMID:1430550

  18. Information Assurance and Forensic Readiness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pangalos, Georgios; Katos, Vasilios

    Egalitarianism and justice are amongst the core attributes of a democratic regime and should be also secured in an e-democratic setting. As such, the rise of computer related offenses pose a threat to the fundamental aspects of e-democracy and e-governance. Digital forensics are a key component for protecting and enabling the underlying (e-)democratic values and therefore forensic readiness should be considered in an e-democratic setting. This position paper commences from the observation that the density of compliance and potential litigation activities is monotonically increasing in modern organizations, as rules, legislative regulations and policies are being constantly added to the corporate environment. Forensic practices seem to be departing from the niche of law enforcement and are becoming a business function and infrastructural component, posing new challenges to the security professionals. Having no a priori knowledge on whether a security related event or corporate policy violation will lead to litigation, we advocate that computer forensics need to be applied to all investigatory, monitoring and auditing activities. This would result into an inflation of the responsibilities of the Information Security Officer. After exploring some commonalities and differences between IS audit and computer forensics, we present a list of strategic challenges the organization and, in effect, the IS security and audit practitioner will face.

  19. Reviewing population studies for forensic purposes: Dog mitochondrial DNA

    PubMed Central

    Verscheure, Sophie; Backeljau, Thierry; Desmyter, Stijn

    2013-01-01

    Abstract The identification of dog hair through mtDNA analysis has become increasingly important in the last 15 years, as it can provide associative evidence connecting victims and suspects. The evidential value of an mtDNA match between dog hair and its potential donor is determined by the random match probability of the haplotype. This probability is based on the haplotype’s population frequency estimate. Consequently, implementing a population study representative of the population relevant to the forensic case is vital to the correct evaluation of the evidence. This paper reviews numerous published dog mtDNA studies and shows that many of these studies vary widely in sampling strategies and data quality. Therefore, several features influencing the representativeness of a population sample are discussed. Moreover, recommendations are provided on how to set up a dog mtDNA population study and how to decide whether or not to include published data. This review emphasizes the need for improved dog mtDNA population data for forensic purposes, including targeting the entire mitochondrial genome. In particular, the creation of a publicly available database of qualitative dog mtDNA population studies would improve the genetic analysis of dog traces in forensic casework. PMID:24453568

  20. Forensic Chemistry--A Symposium Collection.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Journal of Chemical Education, 1985

    1985-01-01

    Presents a collection of articles to provide chemistry teachers with resource materials to add forensic chemistry units to their chemistry courses. Topics range from development of forensic science laboratory courses and mock-crime scenes to forensic serology and analytical techniques. (JN)

  1. Hair loss in women.

    PubMed

    Camacho-Martínez, Francisco M

    2009-03-01

    Female pattern hair loss (FPHL) is a clinical problem that is becoming more common in women. Female alopecia with androgen increase is called female androgenetic alopecia (FAGA) and without androgen increase is called female pattern hair loss. The clinical picture of typical FAGA begins with a specific "diffuse loss of hair from the parietal or frontovertical areas with an intact frontal hairline." Ludwig called this process "rarefaction." In Ludwig's classification of hair loss in women, progressive type of FAGA, 3 patterns were described: grade I or minimal, grade II or moderate, and grade III or severe. Ludwig also described female androgenetic alopecia with male pattern (FAGA.M) that should be subclassified according to Ebling's or Hamilton-Norwood's classification. FAGA.M may be present in 4 conditions: persistent adrenarche syndrome, alopecia caused by an adrenal or an ovarian tumor, posthysterectomy, and as an involutive alopecia. A more recent classification (Olsen's classification of FPHL) proposes 2 types: early- and late-onset with or without excess of androgens in each. The diagnosis of FPHL is made by clinical history, clinical examination, wash test, dermoscopy, trichoscan, trichograms and laboratory test, especially androgenic determinations. Topical treatment of FPHL is with minoxidil, 2-5% twice daily. When FPHL is associated with high levels of androgens, systemic antiandrogenic therapy is needed. Persistent adrenarche syndrome (adrenal SAHA) and alopecia of adrenal hyperandrogenism is treated with adrenal suppression and antiandrogens. Adrenal suppression is achieved with glucocorticosteroids. Antiandrogens therapy includes cyproterone acetate, drospirenone, spironolactone, flutamide, and finasteride. Excess release of ovarian androgens (ovarian SAHA) and alopecia of ovarian hyperandrogenism is treated with ovarian suppression and antiandrogens. Ovarian suppression includes the use of contraceptives containing an estrogen, ethinylestradiol, and a

  2. Magnetic properties of cherts from the Basque-Cantabrian basin and surrounding regions: archeological implications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Larrasoaña, Juan; Beamud, Elisabet; Olivares, Maitane; Murelaga, Xabier; Tarriño, Andoni; Baceta, Juan; Etxebarria, Nestor

    2016-04-01

    We present the first rock magnetic study of archeologically-relevant chert samples from the Basque-Cantabrian basin (BCB) and surrounding regions, which was conducted in order to test the usefulness of non-destructive magnetic properties for assessing chert quality, distinguishing source areas, and identifying heated samples in the archeological record. Our results indicate that the studied BCB cherts are diamagnetic and have very low amounts of magnetic minerals. The only exception is the chert of Artxilondo, which has a mean positive magnetic susceptibility associated with larger concentrations of magnetic minerals. But even in this case, the magnetic susceptibility is within the lower range of other archeologically-relevant cherts elsewhere, which indicates that the studied BCB cherts can be considered as flint. The similar mean values for all magnetic properties, along with their associated large standard deviations, indicates that rock magnetic methods are of limited use for sourcing different types of flint except in some specific contexts involving the Artxilondo flint. With regards to the identification of chert heating in the archeological record, our results indicate only a minor magnetic enhancement of BCB natural flint samples upon heating, which we attribute to the low amount of non-silica impurities. In any case, the diamagnetic behavior of most BCB natural flints, along with the local use only of the Artxilondo type, suggests that any flint tool within the core of the BCB with positive magnetic susceptibility values is likely to have been subjected to heating for improving its knapping properties. Further studies are necessary to better identify the type, origin and grain size of magnetic minerals in BCB natural flints, and to apply non-destructive magnetic properties to flint tools in order to identify the use of heat treatment in the BCB archeological record.

  3. Investigation of hair dye deposition, hair color loss, and hair damage during multiple oxidative dyeing and shampooing cycles.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Guojin; McMullen, Roger L; Kulcsar, Lidia

    2016-01-01

    Color fastness is a major concern for consumers and manufacturers of oxidative hair dye products. Hair dye loss results from multiple wash cycles in which the hair dye is dissolved by water and leaches from the hair shaft. In this study, we carried out a series of measurements to help us better understand the kinetics of the leaching process and pathways associated with its escape from the fiber. Hair dye leaching kinetics was measured by suspending hair in a dissolution apparatus and monitoring the dye concentration in solution (leached dye) with an ultraviolet-visible spectrophotometer. The physical state of dye deposited in hair fibers was evaluated by a reflectance light microscopy technique, based on image stacking, allowing enhanced depth of field imaging. The dye distribution within the fiber was monitored by infrared spectroscopic imaging of hair fiber cross sections. Damage to the ultrafine structure of the hair cuticle (surface, endocuticle, and cell membrane complex) and cortex (cell membrane complex) was determined in hair cross sections and on the hair fiber surface with atomic force microscopy. Using differential scanning calorimetry, we investigated how consecutive coloring and leaching processes affect the internal proteins of hair. Further, to probe the surface properties of hair we utilized contact angle measurements. This study was conducted on both pigmented and nonpigmented hair to gain insight into the influence of melanin on the hair dye deposition and leaching processes. Both types of hair were colored utilizing a commercial oxidative hair dye product based on pyrazole chemistry. PMID:27319056

  4. Robotic hair restoration.

    PubMed

    Rose, Paul T; Nusbaum, Bernard

    2014-01-01

    The latest innovation to hair restoration surgery has been the introduction of a robotic system for harvesting grafts. This system uses the follicular unit extraction/follicular isolation technique method for harvesting follicular units, which is particularly well suited to the abilities of a robotic technology. The ARTAS system analyzes images of the donor area and then a dual-chamber needle and blunt dissecting punch are used to harvest the follicular units. The robotic technology is now being used in various locations around the world. This article discusses the use of the robotic system, its capabilities, and the advantages and disadvantages of the system. PMID:24267426

  5. Taking Care of Your Hair

    MedlinePlus

    ... chemical treatments: Relaxers. Relaxers (straighteners) work by breaking chemical bonds in curly hair. Relaxers containing lye can cause skin irritation and hair breakage. Although "no lye" relaxers may cause less ... before a chemical relaxing treatment can increase these risks. And don' ...

  6. Practical management of hair loss.

    PubMed Central

    Shapiro, J.; Wiseman, M.; Lui, H.

    2000-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To describe an organized diagnostic approach for both nonscarring and scarring alopecias to help family physicians establish an accurate in-office diagnosis. To explain when ancillary laboratory workup is necessary to confirm the diagnosis. QUALITY OF EVIDENCE: Current diagnostic and therapeutic interventions for hair loss are based on randomized controlled studies, uncontrolled studies, and case series. MEDLINE was searched from January 1966 to December 1998 with the MeSH words alopecia, hair, and alopecia areata. Articles were selected on the basis of experimental design, with priority given to the most current large multicentre controlled studies. Overall global evidence for therapeutic intervention for hair loss is quite strong. MAIN MESSAGE: The most common forms of nonscarring alopecias are androgenic alopecia, telogen effluvium, and alopecia areata. Other disorders include trichotillomania, traction alopecia, tinea capitis, and hair shaft abnormalities. Scarring alopecia is caused by trauma, infections, discoid lupus erythematosus, or lichen planus. Key to establishing an accurate diagnosis is a detailed history, including medication use, systemic illnesses, endocrine dysfunction, hair-care practices, and family history. All hair-bearing sites should be examined. A 4-mm punch biopsy of the scalp is useful, particularly to diagnose scarring alopecias. Once a diagnosis has been established, specific therapy can be initiated. CONCLUSIONS: Diagnosis and management of hair loss is an interesting challenge for family physicians. An organized approach to recognizing characteristic differential features of hair loss disorders is key to diagnosis and management. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 5 Figure 6 PMID:10925761

  7. Hair Dyes and Cancer Risk

    MedlinePlus

    ... including aromatic amines that were found to cause cancer in animals. In the mid- to late 1970s, however, manufacturers changed the components in dye products to eliminate some of these chemicals ... in hair dyes can cause cancer. Given the widespread use of hair dye products, ...

  8. Human Hair: An Educational Tool.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wells, John

    1983-01-01

    Briefly describes some of the more recent developments in the use of human hairs for such instructional purposes as observing barr bodies and chromosomes, and for culturing to produce cells of both epithelial and fibroblastic morphology. Three main hair categories are also described. (JN)

  9. Laser assisted hair-removal.

    PubMed

    Choudhary, S; Elsaie, M L; Nouri, K

    2009-10-01

    A number of lasers and light devices are now available for the treatment of unwanted hair. The goal of laser hair removal is to damage stem cells in the bulge of the hair follicle by targeting melanin, the endogenous chromophore for laser and light devices utilized to remove hair. The competing chromophores in the skin and hair, oxyhemoglobin and water, have a decreased absorption between 690 nm and 1000 nm, thus making this an ideal range for laser and light sources. Laser hair removal is achieved through follicular unit destruction based on selective photothermolysis. The principle of selective photothermolysis predicts that the thermal injury will be restricted to a given target if there is sufficient selective absorption of light and the pulse duration is shorter than the thermal relaxation time of the target. This review will focus on the mechanisms of laser assisted hair removal and provide an update on the newer technologies emerging in the field of lasers assisted hair removal. PMID:19834437

  10. "Dissection" of a Hair Dryer

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eisenstein, Stan; Simpson, Jeff

    2008-01-01

    The electrical design of the common hair dryer is based almost entirely on relatively simple principles learned in introductory physics classes. Just as biology students dissect a frog to see the principles of anatomy in action, physics students can "dissect" a hair dryer to see how principles of electricity are used in a real system. They can…

  11. System Support for Forensic Inference

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gehani, Ashish; Kirchner, Florent; Shankar, Natarajan

    Digital evidence is playing an increasingly important role in prosecuting crimes. The reasons are manifold: financially lucrative targets are now connected online, systems are so complex that vulnerabilities abound and strong digital identities are being adopted, making audit trails more useful. If the discoveries of forensic analysts are to hold up to scrutiny in court, they must meet the standard for scientific evidence. Software systems are currently developed without consideration of this fact. This paper argues for the development of a formal framework for constructing “digital artifacts” that can serve as proxies for physical evidence; a system so imbued would facilitate sound digital forensic inference. A case study involving a filesystem augmentation that provides transparent support for forensic inference is described.

  12. Forensic Botany: Evidence and Analysis.

    PubMed

    Coyle, H M

    2009-01-01

    Forensic botany is the use of plant evidence in matters of law. While plant fragments are often collected as trace evidence, they are only occasionally identified using microscopy and are still more rarely assessed using molecular biology techniques for individualization and sourcing of a sample. There are many different methods useful for DNA typing of plants; this review focuses on those techniques (DNA sequencing, STR, AFLP, RAPD) most relevant to the forensic science community and on those methods currently in practice. Plant evidence is commonly associated with homicides, with clandestine graves, as trace pollen on clothing, vehicles, or packaging, or in the transport of illicit drugs. DNA can be especially useful for the identification of minute quantity of samples, for differentiation of plants that lack distinguishing morphological features, and for generating a unique identifier for associative forensic evidence. PMID:26242238

  13. Light Microscopy of the Hair: A Simple Tool to “Untangle” Hair Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Adya, Keshavmurthy A; Inamadar, Arun C; Palit, Aparna; Shivanna, Ragunatha; Deshmukh, Niranjan S

    2011-01-01

    Light microscopy of the hair forms an important bedside clinical tool for the diagnosis of various disorders affecting the hair. Hair abnormalities can be seen in the primary diseases affecting the hair or as a secondary involvement of hair in diseases affecting the scalp. Hair abnormalities also form a part of various genodermatoses and syndromes. In this review, we have briefly highlighted the light microscopic appearance of various infectious and non-infectious conditions affecting the hair. PMID:21769242

  14. High Performance Proactive Digital Forensics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alharbi, Soltan; Moa, Belaid; Weber-Jahnke, Jens; Traore, Issa

    2012-10-01

    With the increase in the number of digital crimes and in their sophistication, High Performance Computing (HPC) is becoming a must in Digital Forensics (DF). According to the FBI annual report, the size of data processed during the 2010 fiscal year reached 3,086 TB (compared to 2,334 TB in 2009) and the number of agencies that requested Regional Computer Forensics Laboratory assistance increasing from 689 in 2009 to 722 in 2010. Since most investigation tools are both I/O and CPU bound, the next-generation DF tools are required to be distributed and offer HPC capabilities. The need for HPC is even more evident in investigating crimes on clouds or when proactive DF analysis and on-site investigation, requiring semi-real time processing, are performed. Although overcoming the performance challenge is a major goal in DF, as far as we know, there is almost no research on HPC-DF except for few papers. As such, in this work, we extend our work on the need of a proactive system and present a high performance automated proactive digital forensic system. The most expensive phase of the system, namely proactive analysis and detection, uses a parallel extension of the iterative z algorithm. It also implements new parallel information-based outlier detection algorithms to proactively and forensically handle suspicious activities. To analyse a large number of targets and events and continuously do so (to capture the dynamics of the system), we rely on a multi-resolution approach to explore the digital forensic space. Data set from the Honeynet Forensic Challenge in 2001 is used to evaluate the system from DF and HPC perspectives.

  15. Survival of auditory hair cells.

    PubMed

    Seymour, Michelle L; Pereira, Fred A

    2015-07-01

    The inability of mammals to regenerate auditory hair cells creates a pressing need to understand the means of enhancing hair cell survival following insult or injury. Hair cells are easily damaged by noise exposure, by ototoxic medications and as a consequence of aging processes, all of which lead to progressive and permanent hearing impairment as hair cells are lost. Significant efforts have been invested in designing strategies to prevent this damage from occurring since permanent hearing loss has a profound impact on communication and quality of life for patients. In this mini-review, we discuss recent progress in the use of antioxidants, anti-inflammatories and apoptosis inhibitors to enhance hair cell survival. We conclude by clarifying the distinction between protection and rescue strategies and by highlighting important areas of future research. PMID:25743696

  16. The Clinician and Forensic Medicine

    PubMed Central

    Root, Irving; Scott, Wayne

    1973-01-01

    Although it is an intrinsic part of all medical practice forensic medicine often is either unrecognized as such or is consciously or subconsciously evaded. The failure to apply some rather basic and simple forensic principles that only the physician is capable of doing may result in problems to the patient ranging from frustration to near catastrophe. For physicians who are reasonably well equipped to understand the legal system, the successful conclusion of a legal case, including, sometimes, an appearance in court, can be stimulating and interesting. PMID:4733272

  17. Hair analysis for THCA-A, THC and CBN after passive in vivo exposure to marijuana smoke.

    PubMed

    Moosmann, Bjoern; Roth, Nadine; Auwärter, Volker

    2014-01-01

    Condensation of marijuana smoke on the hair surface can be a source of an external contamination in hair analysis and may have serious consequences for the person under investigation. Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinolic acid A (THCA-A) is found in marijuana smoke and in hair analysis, but is not incorporated into the hair through the bloodstream. Therefore it might be a promising marker for external contamination of hair and could facilitate a more accurate interpretation of analytical results. In this study, three participants were exposed to the smoke of one joint every weekday over three weeks. Inhalation was excluded by an alternative breathing source. Hair samples were obtained up to seven weeks after the last exposure and analyzed for THCA-A, Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) and cannabinol (CBN) by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) analysis. Additionally 30 hair samples from various regions of the head were obtained seven weeks after the exposure from one participant. The obtained results show that the degree of contamination depends on the hair length, with longer hair resulting in higher THC and CBN concentrations (1300 pg/mg and 530 pg/mg at the end of the exposure period) similar to the ones typically found after daily cannabis consumption. THCA-A could be detected in relatively low concentrations. Analysis of the distribution of the contamination showed that the posterior vertex region was affected most. The relatively low THCA-A concentrations in the samples suggest that most of the THCA-A found in forensic hair samples is not caused by sidestream marijuana smoke, but by other sources. PMID:23589391

  18. Age, gender and caste variations in scalp hair micro-morphological variables among Brahmins and Banias of Punjab, India.

    PubMed

    Gaur, Rajan; Angrish, Isha; Bansal, Savita Rani

    2007-06-01

    A cross-sectional sample of 3136 scalp hair drawn from 392 individuals aged 10 to 60 years and belonging to the Bania (n = 201) and Brahmin (n = 191) caste groups of Punjab State of India were examined for diameters of hair shaft and medulla, scale count, medulla type, hair index, medullary index and scale-count index, employing standard procedures. The mean hair shaft diameter, medullary diameter, incidence of medullation and scale-count index was higher in males, while the mean scale count was higher in females. However, with a few exceptions, the gender differences were not statistically significant (p < 0.05). The Brahmins showed significantly (p < 0.05) higher mean values of hair shaft diameter and scale count than the Banias. The mean scale-count index was higher among the Banias. The fragmentary medulla was the most common medullary type among the Banias, while the continuous medulla was the most frequent type of medulla among the Brahmins. The frequency of medullation was significantly more among the Banias. On the average, the hair shaft diameter and diameter of medulla increased up to 30 years. Some age variations in medullation were noticed in both the caste groups. No clear age trend was noticeable in the scale count. By and large, the mean hair shaft diameter of the Banias was less than that of other populations. The mean hair shaft diameter of the Brahmin males was greater than that of the Banias, the Onges, and the Bengalees. The Brahmin females showed greater mean hair shaft diameter than that of the Banias, the Australian Aborigines, the Juangs and the Onges. Human scalp hair shows some age, gender and population variations in micro-morphological variables which have the potential of being useful for anthropological and forensic investigations. PMID:17711148

  19. Forensic seismology revisited

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Douglas, A.

    2007-01-01

    The first technical discussions, held in 1958, on methods of verifying compliance with a treaty banning nuclear explosions, concluded that a monitoring system could be set up to detect and identify such explosions anywhere except underground: the difficulty with underground explosions was that there would be some earthquakes that could not be distinguished from an explosion. The development of adequate ways of discriminating between earthquakes and underground explosions proved to be difficult so that only in 1996 was a Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban Treaty (CTBT) finally negotiated. Some of the important improvements in the detection and identification of underground tests—that is in forensic seismology—have been made by the UK through a research group at the Atomic Weapons Establishment (AWE). The paper describes some of the advances made in identification since 1958, particularly by the AWE Group, and the main features of the International Monitoring System (IMS), being set up to verify the Test Ban. Once the Treaty enters into force, then should a suspicious disturbance be detected the State under suspicion of testing will have to demonstrate that the disturbance was not a test. If this cannot be done satisfactorily the Treaty has provisions for on-site inspections (OSIs): for a suspicious seismic disturbance for example, an international team of inspectors will search the area around the estimated epicentre of the disturbance for evidence that a nuclear test really took place. Early observations made at epicentral distances out to 2,000 km from the Nevada Test Site showed that there is little to distinguish explosion seismograms from those of nearby earthquakes: for both source types the short-period (SP: ˜1 Hz) seismograms are complex showing multiple arrivals. At long range, say 3,000 10,000 km, loosely called teleseismic distances, the AWE Group noted that SP P waves—the most widely and well-recorded waves from underground explosions—were in

  20. Growth and viability of Liaoning Cashmere goat hair follicles during the annual hair follicle cycle.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Q L; Li, J P; Chen, Y; Chang, Q; Li, Y M; Yao, J Y; Jiang, H Z; Zhao, Z H; Guo, D

    2014-01-01

    Here, we studied hair follicle development of Liaoning Cashmere goats. Every month for 1 year, skin samples were collected from five 1.5-year-old female goats, and made into paraffin sections. A number of parameters were measured of primary and secondary hair follicles via microscopic observation including follicle depth, hair bulb width, dermis and epidermis thickness, changes in follicle activity, and histology. The results showed the presence of three phases in the annual hair cycle: anagen, catagen, and telogen. Primary and secondary hair follicle depth varied across the months; however, no significant difference was obtained between adjacent months (P>0.05). Primary hair follicles had a bigger hair bulb width compared to secondary hair follicles; however, this difference declined during hair follicle developed in anagen. As hair follicle growth slowed, the hair bulb broadened, and hair root depth became shallower. During the entire hair cycle, hair follicle depth and dermis thickness were positively correlated; however, this relationship was not significant (P>0.05) for primary and secondary hair follicle density and the ratio of secondary hair follicle density and primary hair follicle density (S/P ratio). In addition, new and old primary hair follicles coexisted with secondary hair follicles. Finally, secondary hair follicles had a higher activity rate compared to primary hair follicle in adult Liaoning Cashmere goats in certain months. PMID:25036348

  1. Forensic methods and the podiatric physician.

    PubMed

    Nirenberg, M S

    1989-05-01

    This is an introductory study of forensic podiatry. To elevate forensic podiatry to the level of forensic odontology and forensic anthropology, the podiatric medical profession must begin educational programs and research. A system for monitoring the activities of podiatrists involved in forensic medicine must be established to ensure that the high degree of integrity to which the profession is committed is maintained. By following these guidelines, the author believes that sometime in the future a podiatrist will be on the staff of every major police department in the country. At that point, the podiatric medical profession will have achieved unsurpassed status, recognition, and prestige. PMID:2664129

  2. A Review of Forensic Science Management Literature.

    PubMed

    Houck, M M; McAndrew, W P; Porter, M; Davies, B

    2015-01-01

    The science in forensic science has received increased scrutiny in recent years, but interest in how forensic science is managed is a relatively new line of research. This paper summarizes the literature in forensic science management generally from 2009 to 2013, with some recent additions, to provide an overview of the growth of topics, results, and improvements in the management of forensic services in the public and private sectors. This review covers only the last three years or so and a version of this paper was originally produced for the 2013 Interpol Forensic Science Managers Symposium and is available at interpol.int. PMID:26227138

  3. Towards a Formalization of Digital Forensics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Slay, Jill; Lin, Yi-Chi; Turnbull, Benjamin; Beckett, Jason; Lin, Paul

    While some individuals have referred to digital forensics as an art, the literature of the discipline suggests a trend toward the formalization of digital forensics as a forensic science. Questions about the quality of digital evidence and forensic soundness continue to be raised by researchers and practitioners in order to ensure the trustworthiness of digital evidence and its value to the courts. This paper reviews the development of digital forensic models, procedures and standards to lay a foundation for the discipline. It also points to new work that provides validation models through a complete mapping of the discipline.

  4. A Control Framework for Digital Forensics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    von Solms, Sebastiaan; Louwrens, Cecil; Reekie, Colette; Grobler, Talania

    This paper introduces a control framework for digital forensics. It proposes a taxonomy for control objectives, categorized within the phases of the digital forensic process: planning and preparation, incident response, investigation and juridical/evidentiary. Using the taxonomy as a basis, a digital forensic reference framework, consisting of control groupings, control objectives and detailed control objectives, is defined. The control framework is intended to provide a sound theoretical basis for digital forensics as well as a reference framework for digital forensics governance within organizations.

  5. Significant damage of the skin and hair following hair bleaching.

    PubMed

    Jeong, Mi-Sook; Lee, Chang-Moon; Jeong, Won-Ji; Kim, Seong-Jin; Lee, Ki-Young

    2010-10-01

    Scalp burns can be caused by hair bleaching with excess procedures such as unnecessary heating and excessive treatment with bleaching agents. The aim of this study was to investigate the morphological and histological changes of the hair and skin after bleaching. Ammonium persulfate and hydrogen peroxide (6% or 9%) solution mixed at a ratio of 1:2 (weight ratio) were sufficiently applied to human hairs and rat skin. The bleached hairs were brightened up to yellow by increasing the concentration of hydrogen peroxide and time of bleach treatment. After bleaching, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was used to observe that the cuticle scales of the hairs were irregular and lifted. The mechanical properties of the bleached hairs, such as tensile strength and elongation, were slightly different than the untreated hairs. The tested rat skin showed severe swelling after treatment of the bleaching agent (9% hydrogen peroxide). The rat skin bleached with 9% hydrogen peroxide exhibited epidermal thinning and subepidermal vesicle formation. The extracellular matrix of the skin was seriously disrupted after bleaching. Therefore, the use of only suitable bleaching procedures is suggested in order to avoid injuries. PMID:20860738

  6. Veterinary Forensic Pathology: The Search for Truth.

    PubMed

    McDonough, S P; McEwen, B J

    2016-09-01

    Veterinary forensic pathology is emerging as a distinct discipline, and this special issue is a major step forward in establishing the scientific basis of the discipline. A forensic necropsy uses the same skill set needed for investigations of natural disease, but the analytical framework and purpose of forensic pathology differ significantly. The requirement of legal credibility and all that it entails distinguishes the forensic from routine diagnostic cases. Despite the extraordinary depth and breadth of knowledge afforded by their training, almost 75% of veterinary pathologists report that their training has not adequately prepared them to handle forensic cases. Many veterinary pathologists, however, are interested and willing to develop expertise in the discipline. Lessons learned from tragic examples of wrongful convictions in medical forensic pathology indicate that a solid foundation for the evolving discipline of veterinary forensic pathology requires a commitment to education, training, and certification. The overarching theme of this issue is that the forensic necropsy is just one aspect in the investigation of a case of suspected animal abuse or neglect. As veterinary pathologists, we must be aware of the roles filled by other veterinary forensic experts involved in these cases and how our findings are an integral part of an investigation. We hope that the outcome of this special issue of the journal is that veterinary pathologists begin to familiarize themselves with not only forensic pathology but also all aspects of veterinary forensic science. PMID:27515387

  7. Concepts and possibilities in forensic intelligence.

    PubMed

    Bell, Chris

    2006-10-16

    Forensic intelligence can be viewed as comprising two parts, one directly concerning intelligence delivery in forensic casework, the other considering performance aspects of forensic work, loosely termed here as business intelligence. Forensic casework can be viewed as processes that produce an intelligence product useful to police investigations. Traditionally, forensic intelligence production has been confined to discipline-specific activity. This paper examines the concepts, processes and intelligence products delivered in forensic casework, the information repositories available from forensic examinations, and ways to produce within- and across-discipline casework correlations by using information technology to capitalise on the information sets available. Such analysis presents opportunities to improve forensic intelligence services as well as challenges for technical solutions to deliver appropriate data-mining capabilities for available information sets, such as digital photographs. Business intelligence refers primarily to examination of efficiency and effectiveness of forensic service delivery. This paper discusses measures of forensic activity and their relationship to crime outcomes as a measure of forensic effectiveness. PMID:16893621

  8. Tetrahydrocannabinols in clinical and forensic toxicology.

    PubMed

    Kochanowski, Maciej; Kała, Maria

    2005-01-01

    Cannabinoids are the natural constituents of marihuana (cannabis). The main of them are delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol (9THC)--psychoactive agent, cannabinol (CBN) and cannabidiol (CBD). Cannabis is administered either by smoking or orally. 9THC potency and duration of action as well as its and two of its major metabolites concentrations in organism highly depend on the route of administration. A single active dose of 9THC is estimated on 520 mg. 9THC is rapidly metabolised. It is hydroxylated to an active metabolite, I1 -hydroxy-delta9-tetrahydro-cannabinol (11-OH-THC), then oxidised to an inactive 11-nor-9-carboxy-delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THCCOOH), which is conjugated with glucuronic acid and predominantly excreted in the urine. The maximum psychological effect persists for 4-6 h after administration despite of very low 9THC blood concentrations. 9THC plasma concentration declined to values of 2-3 ng/ml during 3-4 h after smoking. Such a low concentration of the active compound in human organism create a demand for use of sensitive analytical methods for detection and determination of 9THC and its metabolites. The most effective techniques for 9THC and related compounds determination in biological material are chromatographic ones (gas and liquid) with mass spectrometric detection and different ionization modes. 9THC and its two metabolites (11-OH-THC and THCCOOH) are present in blood and hair, 9THC in saliva, and THCCOOH in urine. 9THC and related compounds are determined in autopsy material, although deaths by overdose of cannabis are exceptionally rare. Fatalities happen most often after intravenous injection of hashish oil. 9THC and its metabolites determination in different biological materials gives the basis for a wide interpretation of analytical results for clinical and forensic toxicology purposes. PMID:16225128

  9. Harvesting electricity from human hair.

    PubMed

    Tulachan, Brindan; Singh, Sushil K; Philip, Deepu; Das, Mainak

    2016-01-01

    Electrical conductivity of human hair is a debatable issue among hair experts and scientists. There are unsubstantiated claims that hair conducts electricity. However, hair experts provided ample evidence that hair is an insulator. Although wet hair exhibited drastic reduction in resistivity; scientists regarded hair as a proton semiconductor at the best. Here, we demonstrate that hair filaments generate electricity on absorbing water vapor between 50 degrees and 80 degrees C. This electricity can operate low power electronic systems. Essentially, we are exposing the hydrated hair polymer to a high temperature (50 degrees-80 degrees C). It has long been speculated that when certain biopolymers are simultaneously hydrated and exposed to high temperature, they exhibit significant proton hopping at a specific temperature regime. This happens due to rapid movement of water molecules on the polymer surface. This lead us to speculate that the observed flow of current is partly ionic and partly due to "proton hopping" in the hydrated nano spaces of hair filament. Such proton hopping is exceptionally high when the hydrated hair polymer is exposed to a temperature between 50 degrees and 80 degrees C. Differential scanning calorimetry data further corroborated the results and indicated that indeed at this temperature range, there is an enormous movement of water molecules on the hair polymer surface. This enormously rapid movement of water molecules lead to the "making and breaking" of innumerable hydrogen bonds and thus resulting in hopping of the protons. What is challenging is "how to tap these hopping protons to obtain useful electricity?" We achieved this by placing a bundle of hair between two different electrodes having different electro negativities, and exposing it to water vapor (water + heat). The two different electrodes offered directionality to the hopping protons and the existing ions and thus resulting in the generation of useful current. Further, by

  10. Effect of hair dyes and bleach on the hair protein patterns as revealed by isoelectric focusing.

    PubMed

    Nagai, A; Komoriya, H; Bunai, Y; Yamada, S; Jiang, X Y; Ohya, I

    1991-06-01

    The effect of hair dyes, i.e., temporary, semi-permanent, or permanent hair dyes, or hair bleach on the isoelectric focusing (IEF) hair protein patterns was studied. A permanent hair dye (metallic, alkaline oxidative, or acidic oxidative) and hair bleach induced changes in the IEF hair protein patterns and in the intensity of hair protein bands. The changes in the IEF patterns, caused by the alkaline oxidative dye or the bleach, are considered to result from the combined effect of an alkaline agent and an oxidative agent in the alkaline oxidative dye and in the hair bleach. PMID:1889397

  11. Preparation of longitudinal sections of hair samples for the analysis of cocaine by MALDI-MS/MS and TOF-SIMS imaging.

    PubMed

    Flinders, Bryn; Cuypers, Eva; Zeijlemaker, Hans; Tytgat, Jan; Heeren, Ron M A

    2015-10-01

    Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-mass spectrometry imaging (MALDI-MSI) for the analysis of intact hair is a powerful tool for the detection of drugs of abuse in toxicology and forensic applications. Here we present a quick, easy, and reproducible method of preparing longitudinal sections of single hairs. This method improves the accessibility of chemicals embedded in the hair matrix for molecular imaging with mass spectrometry. The images obtained from a single, sectioned hair sample show molecular distributions in the exposed medulla, cortex, and a portion of the cuticle observed as a narrow layer surrounding the cortex. Using MALDI-MS/MS imaging, the distribution of cocaine was observed throughout five longitudinally sectioned drug-user hair samples. The images showed the distribution of the product ion at m/z 182, derived from the precursor ion of cocaine at m/z 304. MetA-SIMS images of longitudinally sectioned hair samples showed a more detailed distribution of cocaine at m/z 304, benzoylecgonine the major metabolite of cocaine at m/z 290 and other drugs such as methadone which was observed at m/z 310. Chronological information of drug intake can be obtained more sensitively. The chronological detail is in hours rather than months, which is of great interest in clinical as well as forensic applications. PMID:25981643

  12. Hair analysis in order to evaluate drug abuse in driver's license regranting procedures.

    PubMed

    Tassoni, G; Mirtella, D; Zampi, M; Ferrante, L; Cippitelli, M; Cognigni, E; Froldi, R; Cingolani, M

    2014-11-01

    In Italy, driving under the influence of drugs determines the suspension of the offender's driver's license. To regain the license the person must be drug free during an observation period. People whose license has been revoked or suspended can obtain, or re-obtain their driver's license subject to the judgment of a medical commission. The exclusion of illicit drug use is determined by means of toxicological analysis, mainly on urine or hair matrices. We reported the results of several years of experience of the forensic toxicology laboratory of the University of Macerata in the use of hair analysis for the assessment of past exposure to drugs in people suspected of driving under the influence of drugs. From 2004 to 2013, 8612 hair samples, were analyzed for opiates, cocaine and delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (Δ(9)-THC) using gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) method. We used a cutoff (SoHT or national guidelines) to determine the positive data, regardless of the hair sample concentrations. 1213 samples resulted positive, 71.7% were positive for cocaine and metabolites, 19.8% for morphine and metabolites, 8.5% for Δ(9)-THC. We also studied the timeframe of the abuse, as well as gender and age distribution of positive subjects. Moreover, we analyzed the possible deterrent effect of the hair analysis on driving under the influence of psychoactive substances. PMID:25151106

  13. Efficiency of staining hair with indocyanine green

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kulyabina, Tatyana V.; Kochubey, Vyacheslav I.

    2005-06-01

    The efficiency of staining hair with indocyanine green (ICG) solution depending on type of hair, natural color, staining time and other parameters was investigated. Bonding ICG with hair material occurs due to interaction between ICG molecules and keratinocyte albumin. The penetration of ICG dye into hair meets with difficulties owing to surface protective layer.

  14. Carcinogenicity of hair dye components.

    PubMed

    Van Duuren, B L

    1980-03-01

    The available animal carcinogenicity data on hair dye components was reviewed. From this review it became clear that certain hair dye components, some of which are still in hair dye formulations now on the market, are animal carcinogens. The compounds of concern that are still in use are: 3-amino-4-methoxyaniline, 2-nitro-4-aminoaniline and 3-nitro-4-hydroxyaniline. Certain azo dyes formerly used, and related compounds still in use, contain the benzidine moiety. Two of these compounds, Direct Blue 6 and Direct Black 38, have been shown to be metabolized in animals to the human carcinogen benzidine. Furthermore, skin absorption studies carried out with radiolabeled hair dye components applied to animal or human skin have conclusively shown that these compounds are systemically absorbed and excreted. Known cocarcinogens such as catechol and pyrogallol, which enhance benzo(a)pyrene carcinogenicity on mouse skin, are used as hair dye components. It is not known whether such compounds will enhance the carcinogenicity of substituted aniline hair dye chemicals. The available epidemiologic data are not sufficient to link hair dye use with an increased incidence in human cancer. PMID:6993608

  15. Proteomic Analysis of Hair Follicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ishioka, Noriaki; Terada, Masahiro; Yamada, Shin; Seki, Masaya; Takahashi, Rika; Majima, Hideyuki J.; Higashibata, Akira; Mukai, Chiaki

    2013-02-01

    Hair root cells actively divide in a hair follicle, and they sensitively reflect physical conditions. By analyzing the human hair, we can know stress levels on the human body and metabolic conditions caused by microgravity environment and cosmic radiation. The Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA) has initiated a human research study to investigate the effects of long-term space flight on gene expression and mineral metabolism by analyzing hair samples of astronauts who stayed in the International Space Station (ISS) for 6 months. During long-term flights, the physiological effects on astronauts include muscle atrophy and bone calcium loss. Furthermore, radiation and psychological effects are important issue to consider. Therefore, an understanding of the effects of the space environment is important for developing countermeasures against the effects experienced by astronauts. In this experiment, we identify functionally important target proteins that integrate transcriptome, mineral metabolism and proteome profiles from human hair. To compare the protein expression data with the gene expression data from hair roots, we developed the protein processing method. We extracted the protein from five strands of hair using ISOGEN reagents. Then, these extracted proteins were analyzed by LC-MS/MS. These collected profiles will give us useful physiological information to examine the effect of space flight.

  16. Segmental analysis of amphetamines in hair using a sensitive UHPLC-MS/MS method.

    PubMed

    Jakobsson, Gerd; Kronstrand, Robert

    2014-06-01

    A sensitive and robust ultra high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS/MS) method was developed and validated for quantification of amphetamine, methamphetamine, 3,4-methylenedioxyamphetamine and 3,4-methylenedioxy methamphetamine in hair samples. Segmented hair (10 mg) was incubated in 2M sodium hydroxide (80°C, 10 min) before liquid-liquid extraction with isooctane followed by centrifugation and evaporation of the organic phase to dryness. The residue was reconstituted in methanol:formate buffer pH 3 (20:80). The total run time was 4 min and after optimization of UHPLC-MS/MS-parameters validation included selectivity, matrix effects, recovery, process efficiency, calibration model and range, lower limit of quantification, precision and bias. The calibration curve ranged from 0.02 to 12.5 ng/mg, and the recovery was between 62 and 83%. During validation the bias was less than ±7% and the imprecision was less than 5% for all analytes. In routine analysis, fortified control samples demonstrated an imprecision <13% and control samples made from authentic hair demonstrated an imprecision <26%. The method was applied to samples from a controlled study of amphetamine intake as well as forensic hair samples previously analyzed with an ultra high performance liquid chromatography time of flight mass spectrometry (UHPLC-TOF-MS) screening method. The proposed method was suitable for quantification of these drugs in forensic cases including violent crimes, autopsy cases, drug testing and re-granting of driving licences. This study also demonstrated that if hair samples are divided into several short segments, the time point for intake of a small dose of amphetamine can be estimated, which might be useful when drug facilitated crimes are investigated. PMID:24817045

  17. Poetic Interventions with Forensic Patients.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berger, Art; Giovan, Marti

    1990-01-01

    Describes the use of poetry, music, and creative writing with forensic patients at a state mental health institute. Demonstrates that expressive interventions were helpful in group treatment by promoting verbalization, decision making, and the recognition of personal responsibility for incarceration. (SR)

  18. Forensics: Enhancing Civic Literacy & Democracy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Briscoe, Shawn F.

    2009-01-01

    Forensics--interpretation, speech, and debate--can and should be a meaningful part of every school's curriculum. To put it simply, the course of study, alongside cocurricular competition, promotes civic education and enhances the standard curriculum by helping students explore myriad topics from multiple angles and find the truth in each,…

  19. Incorporating Argumentation through Forensic Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wheeler, Lindsay B.; Maeng, Jennifer L.; Smetana, Lara K.

    2014-01-01

    This article outlines how to incorporate argumentation into a forensic science unit using a mock trial. Practical details of the mock trial include: (1) a method of scaffolding students' development of their argument for the trial, (2) a clearly outlined set of expectations for students during the planning and implementation of the mock…

  20. Genetic structure of forensic populations.

    PubMed Central

    Morton, N E

    1992-01-01

    DNA-based identification depends on the probability that two different individuals have the same phenotype, which is given by kinship theory. Together with the large and consistent body of evidence on human population structure, kinship theory provides a sound basis for forensic use of DNA markers. PMID:1557360

  1. Curriculum Guidelines on Forensic Dentistry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Journal of Dental Education, 1990

    1990-01-01

    The American Association of Dental Schools' guidelines for curriculum design explain the scope of forensic dentistry and interrelationships with other fields, give an overview of the curriculum, and outline suggested primary educational goals, prerequisites, core content, specific behavioral objectives, sequencing, faculty and facility…

  2. Forensic Palynology as Classroom Inquiry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Babcock, Steven L.; Warny, Sophie

    2014-01-01

    This activity introduces the science of "forensic palynology": the use of microscopic pollen and spores (also called "palynomorphs") to solve criminal cases. Plants produce large amounts of pollen or spores during reproductive cycles. Because of their chemical resistance, small size, and morphology, pollen and spores can be…

  3. Embedding Forensic Capabilities into Networks: Addressing Inefficiencies in Digital Forensics Investigations

    SciTech Connect

    Endicott-Popovsky, Barbara; Frincke, Deb A.

    2006-08-01

    A typical incident response pits technicians against networks that aren't prepared forensically. [1, 2] If practitioners do consider collecting network forensic data, they face a choice between expending extraordinary effort (time and money) collecting forensically sound data, or simply restoring the network as quickly as possible. In this context, the concept of organizational network forensic readiness has emerged. This paper proposes a methodology for "operationalizing" organizational network forensic readiness. The methodology, and the theoretical analysis that led to its development, are offered as a conceptual framework for thinking about more efficient, proactive approaches to digital forensics on networks.

  4. Segmental hair analysis for differentiation of tilidine intake from external contamination using LC-ESI-MS/MS and MALDI-MS/MS imaging.

    PubMed

    Poetzsch, Michael; Baumgartner, Markus R; Steuer, Andrea E; Kraemer, Thomas

    2015-02-01

    Segmental hair analysis has been used for monitoring changes of consumption habit of drugs. Contamination from the environment or sweat might cause interpretative problems. For this reason, hair analysis results were compared in hair samples taken 24 h and 30 days after a single tilidine dose. The 24-h hair samples already showed high concentrations of tilidine and nortilidine. Analysis of wash water from sample preparation confirmed external contamination by sweat as reason. The 30-day hair samples were still positive for tilidine in all segments. Negative wash-water analysis proved incorporation from sweat into the hair matrix. Interpretation of a forensic case was requested where two children had been administered tilidine by their nanny and tilidine/nortilidine had been detected in all hair segments, possibly indicating multiple applications. Taking into consideration the results of the present study and of MALDI-MS imaging, a single application as cause for analytical results could no longer be excluded. Interpretation of consumption behaviour of tilidine based on segmental hair analysis has to be done with caution, even after typical wash procedures during sample preparation. External sweat contamination followed by incorporation into the hair matrix can mimic chronic intake. For assessment of external contamination, hair samples should not only be collected several weeks but also one to a few days after intake. MALDI-MS imaging of single hair can be a complementary tool for interpretation. Limitations for interpretation of segmental hair analysis shown here might also be applicable to drugs with comparable physicochemical and pharmacokinetic properties. PMID:24935086

  5. Hair shaft videodermoscopy in netherton syndrome.

    PubMed

    Rakowska, Adriana; Kowalska-Oledzka, Elzbieta; Slowinska, Monika; Rosinska, Danuta; Rudnicka, Lidia

    2009-01-01

    Netherton syndrome is an autosomal recessive disorder, characterized by ichthyosis, atopic manifestations, and hair shaft abnormalities (trichorrhexis invaginata). The diagnosis of Netherton syndrome may be established on the basis of just one abnormal hair, but it is often difficult to find a hair with pathognomonic features on light microscopic examination. Every attempt requires pulling new hairs. We present the case of an 11-year-old female patient with Netherton syndrome in whom hair and scalp videodermoscopy (trichoscopy) was used to visualize typical bamboo hairs and hairs with golf tee type endings in the scalp hairs and eyebrows. Trichoscopy is a method, which allows noninvasive viewing of hair shafts in many-fold magnification without the need of pulling hair for diagnostic purposes. This case shows that trichoscopy may be employed to significantly improve the chance of establishing the diagnosis of Netherton syndrome in patients. PMID:19706096

  6. A mechanical model of overnight hair curling.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Hang; Chen, Xi

    2015-09-01

    Based on the observation of overnight hair curling procedure, we establish a mechanical model to describe the temporary wave formation of straight hair (initial curvature is zero), which incorporates the contact between hair and hair roller. Systematic studies are carried out to explore the effects of radius ratio between hair and hair roller, hair's average axial strain, creep time, Poisson's ratio and gravity on the curl retention. The variation of curl retention with respect to time obtained from our numerical model is validated by a simple theoretical model and by overnight curling experiments on hair samples. The results of simulation show that overnight hair curling is suitable to create a wavy hairstyle within about 7 hours, while the combined usage with hair fixatives enables a wavy hairstyle with desired curvature that lasts for a day or more. PMID:26338501

  7. Hair dye poisoning and rhabdomyolysis.

    PubMed

    Bokutz, Munira; Nasir, Nosheen; Mahmood, Faisal; Sajid, Sara

    2015-04-01

    Hair dye ingestion is a rare cause of toxicity in Pakistan. We are presenting the case report of a 55 year old male who presented with accidental hair dye ingestion and developed laryngeal oedema requiring emergent tracheostomy. He had also developed aspiration pneumonitis and chemical oesophagitis. However, the most alarming manifestation was rhabdomyolysis. Hair dye toxicity can be fatal if not recognized early. There is no antidote available. Rhabdomyolysis is a complication and needs to be managed aggressively in order to prevent long term morbidity. PMID:25976581

  8. Super vasomol hair dye poisoning.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Praveen A S; Talari, Keerthi; Dutta, T K

    2012-01-01

    Hair dye poisoning is not rare but is an emerging poisoning in India. The main component of hair dye causing toxicity is paraphenylenediamine (PPD). Acute poisoning by PPD causes characteristic severe angioedema of the upper airway accompanied by a swollen, dry, hard, and protruding tongue. Systemic intoxication results in multisystem involvement and can cause rhabdomyolysis, acute renal failure (ARF). PPD consumption is an uncommon cause of ARF. There is no specific antidote for PPD and treatment is mainly supportive. We report a case of suicidal ingestion of hair dye that presented with cervicofascial edema and later developed rhabdomyolysis and ARF. Our patient improved with dialysis and symptomatic management. PMID:22736909

  9. Complications in hair restoration surgery.

    PubMed

    Perez-Meza, David; Niedbalski, Robert

    2009-02-01

    Hair loss affects more than 1.2 billion people worldwide. As the technology and artistry of hair restoration surgery has improved including natural results, so too has the popularity of this procedure. As with any other surgical procedure, complications may occur and this presents a major challenge for the surgeon and the patient. This article provides an overview of the complications most likely to occur during the pre, intra, and postoperative periods with modern hair transplant surgery (single follicular unit or multifollicular unit) including scalp surgery, and discusses their treatment and most importantly their prevention. PMID:19185800

  10. Usefulness of microchip electrophoresis for the analysis of mitochondrial DNA in forensic and ancient DNA studies.

    PubMed

    Alonso, Antonio; Albarran, Cristina; Martín, Pablo; García, Pilar; Capilla, Javier; García, Oscar; de la Rua, Concepción; Izaguirre, Neskuts; Pereira, Filipe; Pereira, Luisa; Amorim, António; Sancho, Manuel

    2006-12-01

    We evaluate the usefulness of a commercially available microchip CE (MCE) device in different genetic identification studies performed with mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) targets, including the haplotype analysis of HVR1 and HVR2 and the study of interspecies diversity of cytochrome b (Cyt b) and 16S ribosomal RNA (16S rRNA) mitochondrial genes in forensic and ancient DNA samples. The MCE commercial system tested in this study proved to be a fast and sensitive detection method of length heteroplasmy in cytosine stretches produced by 16 189T>C transitions in HVR1 and by 309.1 and 309.2 C-insertions in HVR2. Moreover, the quantitative analysis of PCR amplicons performed by LIF allowed normalizing the amplicon input in the sequencing reactions, improving the overall quality of sequence data. These quantitative data in combination with the quantification of genomic mtDNA by real-time PCR has been successfully used to evaluate the PCR efficiency and detection limit of full sequencing methods of different mtDNA targets. The quantification of amplicons also provided a method for the rapid evaluation of PCR efficiency of multiplex-PCR versus singleplex-PCR to amplify short HV1 amplicons (around 100 bp) from severely degraded ancient DNA samples. The combination of human-specific (Cyt b) and universal (16S rRNA) mtDNA primer sets in a single PCR reaction followed by MCE detection offers a very rapid and simple screening test to differentiate between human and nonhuman hair forensic samples. This method was also very efficient with degraded DNA templates from forensic hair and bone samples, because of its applicability to detect small amplicon sizes. Future possibilities of MCE in forensic DNA typing, including nuclear STRs and SNP profiling are suggested. PMID:17120261

  11. The Future of Nuclear Archeology: Reducing Legacy Risks of Weapons Fissile Material

    SciTech Connect

    Wood, Thomas W.; Reid, Bruce D.; Toomey, Christopher; Krishnaswami, Kannan; Burns, Kimberly A.; Casazza, Lawrence O.; Daly, Don S.; Duckworth, Leesa L.

    2014-02-18

    This report describes the value proposition for a "nuclear archeological" technical capability and applications program, targeted at resolving uncertainties regarding fissile materials production and use. At its heart, this proposition is that we can never be sure that all fissile material is adequately secure without a clear idea of what "all" means, and that uncertainty in this matter carries risk. We argue that this proposition is as valid today, under emerging state and possible non-state nuclear threats, as it was in an immediate post-Cold-War context, and describe how nuclear archeological methods can be used to verify fissile materials declarations, or estimate and characterize historical fissile materials production independently of declarations.

  12. Seismo-acoustic effects of sonic booms on archeological sites, Valentine Military Operations Area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Battis, J. C.

    1983-11-01

    Seismo-acoustic recordings of sonic booms were made at two sites in the Valentine Military Operations Areas (MOA). Each location was selected as representative of a class of significant archeological sites found within the MOA. These studies indicate that sonic booms are unlikely to cause damage to the archeological finds. The expected motions are, at worst, 8 percent of the limits set by strict blasting codes and comparable to velocities that could be produced by local earthquakes which have occurred in the Valentine area. At these levels of motion, competent rock will be unaffected by the transmission of seismic waves. The predicted velocity levels are unlikely to initiate either fracture or spalling in rocks. However, it is possible that in rocks where natural meteorological action has initiated these erosive mechanisms the sonic boom induced motion accelerate the processes to some small, and probably insignificant, degree.

  13. Essentials of Hair Care often Neglected: Hair Cleansing

    PubMed Central

    Draelos, Zoe D

    2010-01-01

    Why does the selection of hair cleansing products and conditioners seem complex? Why are there clear, opalescent, green, blue, glittery, cheap, expensive, thick, thin, fragrant, and unscented varieties of shampoos and conditioners? Why the whole cleansing process cannot be simplified by using the same bar soap used on the body for the hair? Does the shampoo selected really make a difference? What can a conditioner accomplish? PMID:21188020

  14. Determination of physicochemical properties of delipidized hair.

    PubMed

    McMullen, Roger L; Laura, Donna; Chen, Susan; Koelmel, Donald; Zhang, Guojin; Gillece, Timothy

    2013-01-01

    Using various physicochemical methods of analysis, we examined human hair in its virgin and delipidized state. Free lipids were removed by a solvent extraction technique (covalently bound lipids were not removed) using a series of solvents with varying polarity. We analyzed the surface properties of hair by conducting mechanical combing and dynamic contact angle analysis. In addition, we used inverse gas chromatography surface energy analysis to explore the chemical composition of the hair surface based on interactions of various nonpolar and polar probes with biological molecules residing on the hair surface. Further, we investigated the importance that free lipids play in the internal structural properties of hair using dynamic scanning calorimetry and tensile strength measurements. The microstructure of the hair surface was probed by atomic force microscopy, whereas the lipid content of hair's morphological components was determined by infrared spectroscopic imaging. We also monitored the water management properties of virgin and delipidized hair by dynamic vapor sorption, which yielded unique water sorption isotherms for each hair type. Using all these techniques, differences were found in the chemical composition and physical behavior of virgin and delipidized hair. To better understand the influence of hair lipid composition on hair styling treatments, we conducted mechanical analyses of hair shaped into omega loops to determine the stiffness, elasticity, and flexibility of hair-polymer assemblies. Although there were no discernible differences between untreated virgin and delipidized hair, in terms of stiffness and elasticity, we found that treatment with hair styling agents produced different effects depending on the hair type used. Likewise, streaming potential measurements were carried out to monitor the binding capacity of rinse-off treatments on virgin and delipidized hair. Using this technique, we monitored the surface potential of hair and found

  15. Containing Hair During Cutting In Zero Gravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haines, Richard F.

    1992-01-01

    Proposed device collects loose hair during barbering and shaving in zero gravity to prevent hair clippings from contaminating cabin of spacecraft. Folds for storage, opens into clear, bubblelike plastic dome surrounding user's head, tray fits around user's throat, and fanlike ring surrounds back of neck. Device fits snugly but comfortably around neck, preventing hair from escaping to outside. Flow of air into hose connected to suction pump removes hair from bubble as cut. Filter at end of hose collects hair.

  16. Hair and scalp disorders in ethnic populations.

    PubMed

    Rodney, Ife J; Onwudiwe, Oge C; Callender, Valerie D; Halder, Rebat M

    2013-04-01

    Human hair has been classified into 3 major groups, as determined by ethnic origin. In these populations, significant structural and biochemical variations of the hair follicle and shaft are seen, as well as unique hair grooming practices. These structural variations of the hair are closely linked to the common disorders of the hair and scalp, such as acquired trichorrhexis nodosa, seborrheic dermatitis, traction alopecia, central centrifugal cicatricial alopecia, dissecting cellulitis, frontal fibrosing alopecia, and pseudofolliculitis barbae. PMID:23652889

  17. On the added value of forensic science and grand innovation challenges for the forensic community.

    PubMed

    van Asten, Arian C

    2014-03-01

    In this paper the insights and results are presented of a long term and ongoing improvement effort within the Netherlands Forensic Institute (NFI) to establish a valuable innovation programme. From the overall perspective of the role and use of forensic science in the criminal justice system, the concepts of Forensic Information Value Added (FIVA) and Forensic Information Value Efficiency (FIVE) are introduced. From these concepts the key factors determining the added value of forensic investigations are discussed; Evidential Value, Relevance, Quality, Speed and Cost. By unravelling the added value of forensic science and combining this with the future needs and scientific and technological developments, six forensic grand challenges are introduced: i) Molecular Photo-fitting; ii) chemical imaging, profiling and age estimation of finger marks; iii) Advancing Forensic Medicine; iv) Objective Forensic Evaluation; v) the Digital Forensic Service Centre and vi) Real time In-Situ Chemical Identification. Finally, models for forensic innovation are presented that could lead to major international breakthroughs on all these six themes within a five year time span. This could cause a step change in the added value of forensic science and would make forensic investigative methods even more valuable than they already are today. PMID:24630329

  18. Identification of Forensic Samples via Mitochondrial DNA in the Undergraduate Biochemistry Laboratory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Millard, Julie T.; Pilon, André M.

    2003-04-01

    A recent forensic approach for identification of unknown biological samples is mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) sequencing. We describe a laboratory exercise suitable for an undergraduate biochemistry course in which the polymerase chain reaction is used to amplify a 440 base pair hypervariable region of human mtDNA from a variety of "crime scene" samples (e.g., teeth, hair, nails, cigarettes, envelope flaps, toothbrushes, and chewing gum). Amplification is verified via agarose gel electrophoresis and then samples are subjected to cycle sequencing. Sequence alignments are made via the program CLUSTAL W, allowing students to compare samples and solve the "crime."

  19. Determination of Anticoagulant Rodenticides and α-Chloralose in Human Hair. Application to a Real Case.

    PubMed

    Leporati, Marta; Salomone, Alberto; Golè, Giambattista; Vincenti, Marco

    2016-05-01

    Anticoagulant rodenticides are the largest group of poisons used to kill harmful rodents. Their fundamental mode of action consists in the inhibition of the vitamin K epoxide reductase, which causes blood-clotting alteration, ultimately leading to hemorrhagic events as the cause of death. In this study, we developed an UHPLC-MS-MS for the simultaneous determination of 10 anticoagulant hydroxycoumarine rodenticides, plus α-chloralose in human hair, with the scope of detecting potential trace of chronological poison exposure in clinical and forensic cases. The method was fully validated and applied to a case of intentional poisoning perpetrated by administration of difenacoum and α-chloralose to a 97-year-old woman, who was hospitalized because of severe symptoms, including drowsiness, convulsions, pallor and hematoma. Hair sample from the victim was segmentally analyzed. Difenacoum was detected in the proximal 3-cm hair segment at the concentration of 2.9 pg/mg. To our knowledge, this is the first study to report that exposure to difenacoum is detectable in real hair samples. The other target analyte found in the hair sample was α-chloralose, which was detected in the 0-3 cm segment at the concentration of 85 pg/mg. The two subsequent and consecutive segments (3-6 cm and 6-9 cm) showed only traces of difenacoum (below LOQ) and low but quantifiable concentrations of α-chloralose (29 and 6 pg/mg, respectively). Therefore, hair segmental analysis allowed us to conclude that the victim was repeatedly exposed to two poisons in the period corresponding to the first segment of hair. PMID:26984200

  20. 7 CFR 656.2 - Archeological and historical laws and Executive orders applicable to NRCS-assisted programs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...) Executive Order 11593 (36 FR 8921, 3 CFR 1971 Comp. P. 154), Protection and Enhancement of the Cultural..., buildings, structures, and objects that are significant in American history, architecture, archeology,...

  1. Combined Rock Magnetic and Dielectric studies applied to stratigraphic and archeological problems in Venezuela

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Costanzo-Alvarez, V.; Aldana, M.; Suarez, N.

    2007-05-01

    In the last few years the paleomagnetism research group, at the Universidad Simon Bolivar in Caracas (Venezuela), has undertaken combined studies of rock magnetism (e.g. natural magnetic remanence, magnetic susceptibility, hysteresis parameters etc.) and dielectric properties (maximum current depolarization temperatures and average activation energies) in Cretaceous and Paleogene sedimentary sequences from eastern and western Venezuela. Our main goal has been to find new ways of defining physical markers, in fossil- poor sedimentary rocks, for stratigraphic correlations. Magneto/dielectric characterizations of these rocks have proved also useful identifying lithological discontinuities and paleoenvironmental changes. More recently these two-fold technique have been extended to archeological materials (potsherds) from a series of Venezuelan islands, in order to track down clay sources and find out about different stages of pottery craftsmanship. Magneto/Dielectric characterization of archeological potsherds seems to allow the tracing of their provenance from various mainland prehistoric settlements of distinct Venezuelan amerindian groups. In this paper we present a comprehensive review of this research applied to a contact between two sedimentary formations in eastern Venezuela (Cretaceous Chimana/Querecual) and a number of pottery samples with diverse stylistic features excavated in a single archeological site from Los Roques islands.

  2. A new Lower Pleistocene archeological site in Europe (Vallparadís, Barcelona, Spain)

    PubMed Central

    Martínez, Kenneth; Garcia, Joan; Carbonell, Eudald; Agustí, Jordi; Bahain, Jean-Jaques; Blain, Hugues-Alexandre; Burjachs, Francesc; Cáceres, Isabel; Duval, Mathieu; Falguères, Christophe; Gómez, Manuel; Huguet, Rosa

    2010-01-01

    Here we report the discovery of a new late Lower Pleistocene site named Vallparadís (Barcelona, Spain) that produced a rich archeological and paleontological sequence dated from the upper boundary of the Jaramillo subchron to the early Middle Pleistocene. This deposit contained a main archeological layer with numerous artifacts and a rich macromammalian assemblage, some of which bore cut marks, that could indicate that hominins had access to carcasses. Paleomagnetic analysis, electron spin resonance-uranium series (ESR-US), and the biostratigraphic chronological position of the macro- and micromammal and lithic assemblages of this layer reinforce the proposal that hominins inhabited Europe during the Lower Pleistocene. The archeological sequence provides key information on the successful adaptation of European hominins that preceded the well-known fossil population from Atapuerca and succeeded the finds from Orce basin. Hence, this discovery enables us to close a major chronological gap in the early prehistory of Iberia. According to the information in this paper and the available data from these other sites, we propose that Mediterranean Western Europe was repeatedly and perhaps continuously occupied during the late Matuyama chron. PMID:20231433

  3. The rehydroxylation dating of archeological baked-clay artifacts for determination paleomagnetic data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Batalin, Georgii; Gareev, Bulat; Nourgaliev, Danis; Fedorchenko, Diana

    2016-04-01

    If confirmed, the rehydroxylation dating method proposed by Wilson et al. would be a major achievement for archeological and geological sciences. This method would indeed make it possible to date potentially all fired-clay artifacts (fragments of pottery or of architectural bricks) unearthed in excavation contexts and/or recovered from old buildings, offering to archeologists exceptional time constraints that are at the basis of most archeological issues. Together with that, determination of magnetic characteristics of fired-clay artifacts allows to build paleosecular variations. We present new results obtained from thermo-gravimetry and differential scanning calorimetry measurements coupled with mass spectrometry analyses to identify rehydroxylation water and link it with age of ceramic. A variety of archeological artifacts was collected from different excavations conducted on the territory of the Republic of Tatarstan, Russia. Magnetic measurements include thermomagnetic analysis, coercitive spectrometry, magnetic susceptibility measurement versus temperature. Paleomagnetic studies include measurement of paleointensity. The main aim of paleomagnetic investigations is to reconstruct magnetic field behavior during last centuries and made paleosecular variations (PSV) for Volga region.

  4. Relationship between methamphetamine use history and segmental hair analysis findings of MA users.

    PubMed

    Han, Eunyoung; Lee, Sangeun; In, Sanghwan; Park, Meejung; Park, Yonghoon; Cho, Sungnam; Shin, Junguk; Lee, Hunjoo

    2015-09-01

    correlation between MA use and MA concentration in hair. Correlation between MA use and MA concentration in hair of remaining one subject could not be determined or calculated. In this study, the correlation between accurate MA use histories obtained by psychiatrists and well-trained counselors and MA concentrations in hair was shown. This report provides objective scientific findings that should considerably aid the interpretation of forensic results and of the results of trials related to MA use. PMID:26197349

  5. The influence of cleansing shampoos on ethyl glucuronide concentration in hair analyzed with an optimized and validated LC-MS/MS method.

    PubMed

    Binz, Tina M; Baumgartner, Markus R; Kraemer, Thomas

    2014-11-01

    Ethyl glucuronide (EtG) is widely used as a marker for assessment of alcohol consumption behavior. In this study the influence of special cleansing shampoos on ethyl glucuronide concentrations in hair was investigated. For that purpose an optimized LC-MS/MS method was developed using a Hypercarb™ porous graphitic carbon (PGC) column and validated according to the guidelines of the German Society of Toxicological and Forensic Chemistry (GTFCh). Twenty-five hair samples of persons with known alcohol consumption behavior were investigated (21 positive samples and 4 blank samples). The hair samples were divided into two strands of hair and were analyzed after treatment with one out of four cleansing shampoos and without shampoo treatment. EtG concentrations in hair did not show any significant differences after a single application of the different cleansing shampoos. EtG was still detectable in all the positive hair samples without significant concentration change. These results clearly demonstrated that a single application of the tested cleansing shampoos did not remove EtG from hair and therefore had no influence on EtG concentration in analytical hair analysis. PMID:25151107

  6. Foundations of Forensic Meteoritics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Treiman, A. H.

    1992-07-01

    , soil) adhering to a meteorite are samples of the actual physical environment in which the meteorite rested. Adhesion may derive from chemical cementation (incl. rust from the meteorite), biologic activity (incl. desert varnish?), or impact processes [2]. Given the wide diversity of geological materials and processes on the Earth, adhering geological materials may be useful forensic tools. For instance, fall in a volcanic terrane may be inconsistent with adhering sediments of clean quartz sand. Biologic matter on meteorites includes animal and vegetable matter mixed with the adhering geological materials, lichens and other plants growing in place, and purposefully attached animal matter (e.g. insect eggs). The most useful biological data may be provided by pollen, which can often be referred unambiguously to genera and species of plants. For example, sediments adhering to meteorites from the central Nullabor Plain (W. Australia) are different from sediments from the Plain's margin in S. Australia. Sediment on meteorites from the central Nullabor (e.g. Mundrabilla) lacks quartz sand and consists almost entirely of clay-sized particles, consistent with derivation from the local saprolitic soil. Sediment on meteorites from the eastern Nullabor (e.g. Hughes and Cook, S.A.) contains a significant fraction of quartz sand, 1/4- to 1/2-mm grains, probably blown from the Great Victoria Desert to the north and northwest. However, sedimentologic data alone may be misleading. For instance, sediments adhering to Nuevo Mercurio stones (H5; Zacatecas, Mexico) are clay-sized and lack coarser material. But sediment on Nuevo Mercurio (b), a ureilite found in the Nuevo Mercurio strewn field, consists of quartz sand and clay pellets, 1/4 to 1/2 mm diameter. Clearly, local environments may affect the character of sediment adhering to a meteorite, and careful detailed study may be required to determine whether a meteorite has been transported. I am grateful to R. Farrell and D. New for

  7. [Forensic entomology and globalisation].

    PubMed

    Turchetto, M; Vanin, S

    2004-06-01

    The main aim of Forensic Entomology has always been, and is today, to establish the time of death (P.M.I.: Postmortem Period) or, more exactly, how long a carrion has been exposed in the environment. Most of the invertebrate fauna occurring on corpses consists of insects (mostly Diptera and Coleoptera). They are selectively attracted by the decomposing status of the carrion, and form complex communities or biocenosis within necrophagous or sarcophagous species and their predators, parasites and parasitoids, competing each one another. The rapid and continuos changes of the micro-ecosystem (the body), until its breakdown, does not permit the achievement of a steady state or an equilibrium in the animal communities. These continuous modifications give us the possibility to estimate when (and where) the death has occurred, by the identification of the species feeding on the corpse, the knowledge of their life history, and the length of each stage of their cycle at varying the temperature and the other abiotic factors, external to the carrion ecosystem. The P.M.I. today is still largely based on the tables of faunal succession on human cadavers recognised by Mégin in 1894, with few changes proposed by Authors from other countries. In the last years, however, it happens more and more often, that the natural communities are subverted by the presence of allocton species, which can compete, predate or parasite the most common local sarcophagous insects, modifying, this way, the succession waves and the trophic nets. The immission in the environment of foreign species may be voluntary or casual, but in any case is due to anthropic activities. The voluntary immission happens when some species, employed in the biological struggle against pest or dangerous insects, for pollination of allocton plants, or for other commercial utilities, are beyond man's control and swarm onto the environment; the casual spread is due to the globalisation phenomenon, that distributes the "little

  8. Follicular Unit Extraction Hair Transplant

    PubMed Central

    Dua, Aman; Dua, Kapil

    2010-01-01

    Hair transplantation has come a long way from the days of Punch Hair Transplant by Dr. Orentreich in 1950s to Follicular Unit Hair Transplant (FUT) of 1990s and the very recent Follicular Unit Extraction (FUE) technique. With the advent of FUE, the dream of ‘no visible scarring’ in the donor area is now looking like a possibility. In FUE, the grafts are extracted as individual follicular units in a two-step or three-step technique whereas the method of implantation remains the same as in the traditional FUT. The addition of latest automated FUE technique seeks to overcome some of the limitations in this relatively new technique and it is now possible to achieve more than a thousand grafts in one day in trained hands. This article reviews the methodology, limitations and advantages of FUE hair transplant. PMID:21031064

  9. Microbial Forensics: A Scientific Assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Keim, Paul

    2003-02-17

    Microorganisms have been used as weapons in criminal acts, most recently highlighted by the terrorist attack using anthrax in the fall of 2001. Although such ''biocrimes'' are few compared with other crimes, these acts raise questions about the ability to provide forensic evidence for criminal prosecution that can be used to identify the source of the microorganisms used as a weapon and, more importantly, the perpetrator of the crime. Microbiologists traditionally investigate the sources of microorganisms in epidemiological investigations, but rarely have been asked to assist in criminal investigations. A colloquium was convened by the American Academy of Microbiology in Burlington, Vermont, on June 7-9, 2002, in which 25 interdisciplinary, expert scientists representing evolutionary microbiology, ecology, genomics, genetics, bioinformatics, forensics, chemistry, and clinical microbiology, deliberated on issues in microbial forensics. The colloquium's purpose was to consider issues relating to microbial forensics, which included a detailed identification of a microorganism used in a bioattack and analysis of such a microorganism and related materials to identify its forensically meaningful source--the perpetrators of the bioattack. The colloquium examined the application of microbial forensics to assist in resolving biocrimes with a focus on what research and education are needed to facilitate the use of microbial forensics in criminal investigations and the subsequent prosecution of biocrimes, including acts of bioterrorism. First responders must consider forensic issues, such as proper collection of samples to allow for optimal laboratory testing, along with maintaining a chain of custody that will support eventual prosecution. Because a biocrime may not be immediately apparent, a linkage must be made between routine diagnosis, epidemiological investigation, and criminal investigation. There is a need for establishing standard operating procedures and training to

  10. The spatial patterns of water management practices are reflected in the strontium isotope ratios of human hair

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tipple, B. J.; Valenzuela, L. O.; Ehleringer, J.

    2012-12-01

    Element concentrations and isotopes of human tissues are commonly used to understand how emissions and processes within urban ecosystems affect health. Thus, it is important to understand how these elements are incorporated and flow through the urban environment and are ultimately incorporated into human tissues. Here, we designed an experiment to identify the relative importance of strontium (Sr) sources (bedrock, dust, food, and water) to hair Sr isotope ratios (87Sr/86Sr). To understand the contribution of Sr to human hair, we collected hair from individuals living in Salt Lake City, Utah. In addition to sample location, we compiled information regarding age, sex, ethnicity, and dietary habits. We found a significant association between 87Sr/86Sr value of hair and collection location. There were no significant relationships between 87Sr/86Sr value of hair and age, ethnicity, or sex. We had not predicted a relationship between 87Sr/86Sr values and collection location, because of the close proximities of sites to one another (all within an 8-km radius). We found that tap water 87Sr/86Sr values across the Salt Lake Valley varied with water management practice and this variation corresponded to hair 87Sr/86Sr value. These data suggest an additional geographically controlled source of Sr may be an important contributor to the 87Sr/86Sr value of hair. These findings suggest that local water is an important source of Sr in human hair and that hair is a sensitive temporal carrier of this environmental information. These observations have important implications to future studies of humans with regard to urban ecology, human health, forensic sciences, and anthropology.

  11. Profiling Amino Acids of Jordanian Scalp Hair as a Tool for Diabetes Mellitus Diagnosis: A Pilot Study.

    PubMed

    Rashaid, Ayat H B; Harrington, Peter de B; Jackson, Glen P

    2015-07-21

    Hair analysis is an area of increasing interest in the fields of medical and forensic sciences. Human scalp hair has attractive features in clinical studies because hair can be sampled easily and noninvasively from human subjects, and unlike blood and urine samples, it contains a chronological record of medication use. Keratin protein is the major component of scalp hair shaft material and it is composed of 21 amino acids. The method used herein for the amino acid determination in hair included keratin protein acid hydrolysis using 6 M hydrochloric acid (HCl), followed by amino acids derivatization using N,O-bis(trimethylsilyl)trifluoroacetamide (BSTFA), and the determination of derivatized amino acids by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS). Amino acid profiles of scalp hair of 27 Jordanian subjects (15 diabetes mellitus (DM) type 2 patients and 12 control subjects) were analyzed. A fuzzy rule-building expert system (FuRES) classified the amino acid profiles into diabetic and control groups based on multivariate analyses of the abundance of 14 amino acids. The sensitivity and specificity were 100% for diabetes detection using leave-one-individual-out cross-validation. The areas under the receiver operative characteristics (ROC) curves were 1.0, which represents a highly sensitive and specific diabetes test. The nonessential amino acids Gly and Glu, and the essential amino acid Ile were more abundant in the scalp hair of diabetic patients compared to the hair of control subjects. The associations between the abundance of amino acids of human hair and health status may have clinical applications in providing diagnostic indicator or predicting other chronic or acute diseases. PMID:26075473

  12. Sedimentological, archeological and historical evidences of paleoclimatic changes during the holocene in the lagoon of Venice (Italy)

    SciTech Connect

    Bonardi, M.; Canal, E.; Cavazzoni, S.

    1997-12-31

    Sedimentological investigations and archeological and historical information have allowed to correlate paleoenvironmental and coastline variations, in the Lagoon of Venice, to climatic changes during the Holocene. In particular, we report the results of a detailed study of Holocene sediments, from salt marshes and small islands, taken above and below a level with well dated archeological findings that gave a good indication of the mean sea level.

  13. Hair transplant: a basic review.

    PubMed

    Kite, Amy; Lucas, Valentina S

    2015-01-01

    The hairline is an important aspect of beauty. Loss of the hairline can contribute to poor self-esteem. Alopecia, or hair loss, has many different causes and can have devastating outcomes to the patient. The plastic surgery team may play a role in restoring the hairline and thus improving one's image of self. This article identifies the different causes of hair loss and then reviews steps and options for hairline restoration. PMID:26020470

  14. Forensic botany: usability of bryophyte material in forensic studies.

    PubMed

    Virtanen, Viivi; Korpelainen, Helena; Kostamo, Kirsi

    2007-10-25

    Two experiments were performed to test the relevance of bryophyte (Plantae, Bryophyta) material for forensic studies. The first experiment was conducted to reveal if, and how well, plant fragments attach to footwear in general. In the test, 16 persons walked outdoors wearing rubber boots or hiking boots. After 24h of use outdoors the boots were carefully cleaned, and all plant fragments were collected. Afterwards, all plant material was examined to identify the species. In the second experiment, fresh material of nine bryophyte species was kept in a shed in adverse conditions for 18 months, after which DNA was extracted and subjected to genotyping to test the quality of the material. Both experiments give support for the usability of bryophyte material in forensic studies. The bryophyte fragments become attached to shoes, where they remain even after the wearer walks on a dry road for several hours. Bryophyte DNA stays intact, allowing DNA profiling after lengthy periods following detachment from the original plant source. Based on these experiments, and considering the fact that many bryophytes are clonal plants, we propose that bryophytes are among the most usable plants to provide botanical evidence for forensic investigations. PMID:17300893

  15. Feline mitochondrial DNA sampling for forensic analysis: when enough is enough!

    PubMed

    Grahn, Robert A; Alhaddad, Hasan; Alves, Paulo C; Randi, Ettore; Waly, Nashwa E; Lyons, Leslie A

    2015-05-01

    Pet hair has a demonstrated value in resolving legal issues. Cat hair is chronically shed and it is difficult to leave a home with cats without some level of secondary transfer. The power of cat hair as an evidentiary resource may be underused because representative genetic databases are not available for exclusionary purposes. Mitochondrial control region databases are highly valuable for hair analyses and have been developed for the cat. In a representative worldwide data set, 83% of domestic cat mitotypes belong to one of twelve major types. Of the remaining 17%, 7.5% are unique within the published 1394 sample database. The current research evaluates the sample size necessary to establish a representative population for forensic comparison of the mitochondrial control region for the domestic cat. For most worldwide populations, randomly sampling 50 unrelated local individuals will achieve saturation at 95%. The 99% saturation is achieved by randomly sampling 60-170 cats, depending on the numbers of mitotypes available in the population at large. Likely due to the recent domestication of the cat and minimal localized population substructure, fewer cats are needed to meet mitochondria DNA control region database practical saturation than for humans or dogs. Coupled with the available worldwide feline control region database of nearly 1400 cats, minimal local sampling will be required to establish an appropriate comparative representative database and achieve significant exclusionary power. PMID:25531059

  16. Determination of antidepressants in human postmortem blood, brain tissue, and hair using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Wille, Sarah M R; De Letter, Els A; Piette, Michel H A; Van Overschelde, Lien K; Van Peteghem, Carlos H; Lambert, Willy E

    2009-11-01

    A gas chromatographic-mass spectrometric (GC-MS) method in positive ion chemical ionization mode in combination with a solid phase extraction was optimized for new-generation antidepressants and their metabolites in postmortem blood, brain tissue, and hair. Twelve antidepressants and their active metabolites (i.e., mirtazapine, viloxazine, venlafaxine, citalopram, mianserin, reboxetine, fluoxetine, fluvoxamine, sertraline, maprotiline, melitracen, paroxetine, desmethylfluoxetine, desmethylmianserin, desmethylmirtazapine, desmethylsertraline, desmethylmaprotiline, desmethylcitalopram, and didesmethylcitalopram) could be quantified. In this article, in addition to the validation of the GC-MS method, four postmortem cases are discussed to demonstrate the usefulness of the described method in forensic toxicology. In these cases, sertraline, fluoxetine, citalopram, and trazodone in combination with their active metabolites were quantified. Blood concentrations ranged from subtherapeutic to toxic concentrations, while brain to plasma ratios ranged from 0.8 to 17. Hair concentrations ranged from 0.4 to 2.5 ng/mg depending on the compound and hair segment. PMID:18839201

  17. [A proficiency test for hair analysis in detecting drug abuse as an index of the quality of toxicologic analysis].

    PubMed

    Rojek, Sebastian; Kłys, Małgorzata; Scisłowski, Mariusz

    2005-01-01

    The Society of Hair Testing--SoHT organized a quality control test: "2004 Proficiency Test on Drugs of Abuse in Hair". 23 toxicological units participated in the test, among them the Toxicological Laboratory of The Institute of Forensic Medicine CM UJ. Five hair samples were obtained for analysis comprising four groups of drugs of abuse as follows: opioids (6-monoacethylmorphine, morphine, codeine), amphetamine (amphetamine, methamphetamine, 3,4-methylendioxyamphetamine--MDA, 3,4-methylendioxymethamphetamine--MDMA, 3,4-methylendioxyethylamphetamine--MDEA), cocaine and metabolites (benzoiloecgonine, cocaethylene) and cannabinoids (D9-tetrahydrocannabinol --9-THC, cannabinol--CBN). Obtained results were evaluated positively in all groups of drugs which were the subject of examination. Liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry in chemical ionization under atmospheric pressure option (LC-APCI-MS-MS) and gas chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry and electron-impact ionization mode (GC-EI-MS-MS) were applied for analysis of analytes. PMID:16320768

  18. Curation of Federally Owned Archeological Collections at NASA Langley Research Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eastman, John Arnold (Compiler)

    1995-01-01

    As a Federal agency, NASA has a moral and legal obligation to the public to manage the archeological heritage resources under its control. Archeological sites are unique, nonrenewable resources that must be preserved so that future generations may experience and interpret the material remains of the past. These sites are protected by a wide array of federal regulations. These regulations are intended to ensure that our nation's cultural heritage is preserved for the study and enjoyment of future generations. Once a site has been excavated, all that remains of it are the artifacts and associated records which, taken together, allow researchers to reconstruct the past. With the contextual information provided by associated records such as field notes, maps and photographs, archeological collections can provide important information about life in the past. An integral component of the federal archeology program is the curation of these databases so that qualified scholars will have access to them in years to come. Standards for the maintenance of archeological collections have been codified by various professional organizations and by the federal government. These guidelines focus on providing secure, climate-controlled archival storage conditions for the collections and an adequate study area in which researchers can examine the artifacts and documents. In the 1970's and early 1980's, a group of NASA employees formed the LRC Historical and Archeological Society (LRCHAS) in order to pursue studies of the colonial plantations that ha been displaced by Langley Research Center (LaRC). They collected data on family histories and land ownership as well as conducting archeological surveys and excavations at two important 17th-20th century plantation sites in LaRC, Cloverdale and Chesterville. The excavations produced a wealth of information in the form of artifacts, photographs, maps and other documents. Unfortunately, interest on the part of the LRCHAS membership waned

  19. Hair growth in neonatally undernourished rats.

    PubMed

    Salas, M; Pulido, S; Torrero, C; Regalado, M; Loranca, A

    1995-01-01

    Interaction between neonatal undernutrition and the increased self-grooming activity upon hair growth of several body areas was analyzed in rats of 10, 20 and 30 days of age. Light microscopic observations on methylene blue impregnated hairs showed that these perinatal influences delayed the growth of hair follicles and thickness and length of hair measurements of the head and thoracic areas. The hair growth of lateral abdominal regions was less affected. Data suggest that hair alterations are primarily related to food deprivation since hair follicle measures of all skin areas were more affected than the distal hair measurements. Moreover, the distribution of impaired hair growth on different body areas correlates well with the increased self-grooming components associated to neonatal undernourishment. PMID:8914627

  20. The Non-Forensics After-Life of a Forensics Director.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nicolai, Michael T.

    A study investigated the personal and career choices that motivate an educator's departure from active involvement in forensics activities, and what trends, if any, exist concerning what former directors do in place of forensics. The study also investigated how forensics participation as a coach/director impacted on the individual, and what…

  1. Sex determination in forensic odontology: A review.

    PubMed

    Ramakrishnan, K; Sharma, Subramanya; Sreeja, C; Pratima, D Bhavani; Aesha, I; Vijayabanu, B

    2015-08-01

    Forensic odontology is the application of dental principles to legal issues. Sex determination is a subdivision of forensic odontology and it is very important especially when information relating to the deceased is unavailable. Sex determination becomes the first priority in the process of identification of a person by a forensic investigator in the case of mishaps, chemical and nuclear bomb explosions, natural disasters crime investigations, and ethnic studies. This article reviews upon the various methods used in sex determination. PMID:26538886

  2. Distinction between forensic evidence and dermatological findings.

    PubMed

    Hammer, U; Boy, D; Rothaupt, D; Büttner, A

    2015-07-01

    The external examination after death requires knowledge in forensics/pathology, dermatology, as well as associated diseases and age-related alterations of the skin. This article highlights some findings with forensic evidence versus dermatological findings. The lectures in forensic medicine should be structured interdisciplinarily, especially to dermatology, internal medicine, surgery, pathology, and toxicology in order to train the overlapping skills required for external and internal postmortem examinations. PMID:26048487

  3. Client-side Skype forensics: an overview

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meißner, Tina; Kröger, Knut; Creutzburg, Reiner

    2013-03-01

    IT security and computer forensics are important components in the information technology. In the present study, a client-side Skype forensics is performed. It is designed to explain which kind of user data are stored on a computer and which tools allow the extraction of those data for a forensic investigation. There are described both methods - a manual analysis and an analysis with (mainly) open source tools, respectively.

  4. Sex determination in forensic odontology: A review

    PubMed Central

    Ramakrishnan, K.; Sharma, Subramanya; Sreeja, C.; Pratima, D. Bhavani; Aesha, I.; Vijayabanu, B.

    2015-01-01

    Forensic odontology is the application of dental principles to legal issues. Sex determination is a subdivision of forensic odontology and it is very important especially when information relating to the deceased is unavailable. Sex determination becomes the first priority in the process of identification of a person by a forensic investigator in the case of mishaps, chemical and nuclear bomb explosions, natural disasters crime investigations, and ethnic studies. This article reviews upon the various methods used in sex determination. PMID:26538886

  5. Forensic osteological investigations in Kosovo.

    PubMed

    Rainio, J; Hedman, M; Karkola, K; Lalu, K; Peltola, P; Ranta, H; Sajantila, A; Söderholm, N; Penttilä, A

    2001-10-01

    A team of Finnish forensic experts performed investigations of alleged mass graves in Kosovo under the mandate of the European Union (EU). Human skeletal remains from two locations were examined. The remains contained three almost complete skeletons, and individual bones and bone fragments, part of which were burned. Injuries, pathological changes, and findings for identification purposes were examined and documented using standard methods of forensic pathology and osteology. Gunshot injuries were found in some cases, but reliable determination of the cause and manner of death was not possible. A discrepancy arose between the number of victims reported in information received from the presiding district court, and results of the investigations. The estimation of the minimum number of victims was mostly acquired by DNA analysis. PMID:11566420

  6. Forensic Implications of Neuroscientific Advancements.

    PubMed

    Hauser, Lori L

    2016-06-01

    Im draws a parallel between the neurobiology of individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and that of trauma survivors, to explain why individuals with ASD may be more vulnerable to trauma as a risk factor for violence. This commentary raises questions about how we use this information in a forensic context, including its potential misuses. It urges caution in not overstating the data before we have a more nuanced understanding of how our neural circuitry influences specific behaviors and mental states, while not allowing the science to advance faster than we can harness it, overstepping its bounds in decisions we make regarding fairness and justice. It raises these concerns against a backdrop of the diametrically opposed assumptions about human behavior embraced by the two disciplines, mental health and the law, that come together in the forensic arena. PMID:27236174

  7. Neurobehavioral assessment in forensic practice

    PubMed Central

    Woods, George W.; Freedman, David; Greenspan, Stephen

    2013-01-01

    There is a growing awareness among mental health practitioners that many mental disorders previously believed to be primarily behavioral in nature, reflecting character and environment, are actually grounded in brain mal-development or brain disorder. This growing awareness, influenced by the advent of new diagnostic procedures and measures, is also found among forensic practitioners. In this paper, we describe some of the elements involved in conducting a neurobehavioral assessment of cognitive functioning, particularly in capital cases, organizing this material in terms of the professional disciplines – social work, mitigation investigation, psychological, and medical – with which these methods are mainly identified. The paper concludes with a brief discussion of how to integrate the multiple areas of expertise to create an accurate understanding of the neurobehavioral functioning and capacity of the subject. This is the basis from which civil and criminal forensic opinions must emanate. PMID:23059206

  8. A rapid screening method using DNA binding dyes to determine whether hair follicles have sufficient DNA for successful profiling.

    PubMed

    Haines, Alicia M; Linacre, Adrian

    2016-05-01

    We report a simple screening method to assess the viability of successful DNA profiling from single hair follicles. A total of 48 hair samples (shed and plucked) were collected from male and female donors and the root tips (0.5cm) were stained using one of three DNA binding dyes (EvaGreen™, Diamond™ Nucleic Acid Dye and RedSafe™) at 20× concentration. The hairs were subsequently viewed under a Nikon Optiphot fluorescent microscope to count the approximate number of nuclei in one plane of view. The hairs were then processed using either (1) a DNA extraction kit (QIAmp(®) Mini Kit) and then amplified using the AmpFLSTR(®) NGM™ kit, which amplifies 15 short tandem repeat (STR) loci plus the gender marker amelogenin, or (2) by direct PCR amplification using the same DNA profiling kit. Diamond™ dye had the lowest background signal and plucked hairs treated with this dye produced full DNA profiles when amplified directly and was chosen to screen a further 150 mixed hair samples. These hairs were separated into one of five categories (1, >100 nuclei; 1.5, 50-99 nuclei; 2, 1-49 nuclei; 2.5, no nuclei but high fluorescent signal; 3, no nuclei and very low fluorescent signal) from which 60 of the hairs were chosen to undergo direct amplification using the NGM™ kit. It was found that there was a direct correlation to the category designation and the ability to obtain a DNA profile up-loadable to the Australian DNA Database. Approximately 91% of category 1 hairs resulted in either a full or high partial (12-29 alleles) profile by direct PCR whereas about 78% of category 3 hairs exhibited no amplification. The results show that this method can be used to predict successful STR amplification from single hair follicles. It is a rapid, sensitive, cheap, non-destructive and easy to perform methodology applicable for screening multiple hairs in order to aid forensic investigators in predicting hairs that will yield DNA results. PMID:27038658

  9. Forensic DNA Profiling and Database

    PubMed Central

    Panneerchelvam, S.; Norazmi, M.N.

    2003-01-01

    The incredible power of DNA technology as an identification tool had brought a tremendous change in crimnal justice . DNA data base is an information resource for the forensic DNA typing community with details on commonly used short tandem repeat (STR) DNA markers. This article discusses the essential steps in compilation of COmbined DNA Index System (CODIS) on validated polymerase chain amplified STRs and their use in crime detection. PMID:23386793

  10. Forensic Analysis of BIOS Chips

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gershteyn, Pavel; Davis, Mark; Shenoi, Sujeet

    Data can be hidden in BIOS chips without hindering computer performance. This feature has been exploited by virus writers and computer game enthusiasts. Unused BIOS storage can also be used by criminals, terrorists and intelligence agents to conceal secrets. However, BIOS chips are largely ignored in digital forensic investigations. Few techniques exist for imaging BIOS chips and no tools are available specifically for analyzing BIOS data.

  11. [Taste disorders in forensic medicine].

    PubMed

    Canale, M; Canale, F; Pallestrini, E; Castello, E

    1994-01-01

    Taste disorders can a rise from lesions of peripheral receptors, taste control pathways or cortical area involvement. Among peripheral lesions, trauma of the tongue and oropharynx are the most common. Iatrogenic lesions of facial and glossopharingeal nerves are very important in Forensic Medicine, while there are different opinions about taste alterations due to head injuries; hypogeusia associated to smell disorders are found in 0.4-0.5% of patient after head trauma with good prognosis (90% healing) while qualitative disorders are more common (30%). The Authors describe clinical methodologies for taste evaluation and their application in Forensic Medicine. Forensic estimation of taste disorders con be classified by two main groups: study of cause relation between the occurrence and damage and quantitative valuation of the damage in three different juridical ambits: Penal, Civil, Insurance and foresight. In Penal Right taste damages could be classified among personal lesion crimes and can be classified as serious (permanent injury of taste) ore very serious (complete lost of taste function). Italian Legislation equipare the 5 sense organs. In Civil Right evaluation the so-called "biologic damage" and working ability are considered; this means very different evaluations. In the most recent baremes, generic damage is estimated by different Authors from 0 to 10% while with regard to specific working capacity, common evaluation criteria does not exist. In Insurance taste disorders evaluation is based only on working ability and not on biologic damage. In the previdenzial ambit, taste disorders are not even included in the most recent tables of permanent invalidity estimation. The Authors propose new and more efficacious valutation criteria for taste disorders in all ambits, hoping for more interest in the Forensic aspects of taste, a too often forgotten sensory function. PMID:7810326

  12. Nuclear Forensic Materials and Methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hutcheon, I. D.; Grant, P. M.; Moody, K. J.

    A short history and treatment of the various aspects of nuclear forensic analysis is followed by a discussion of the most common chemical procedures, including applications of tracers, radioisotopic generators, and sample chronometry. Analytic methodology discussed includes sample preparation, radiation detection, various forms of microscopy, and mass-spectrometric techniques. The chapter concludes with methods for the production and treatment of special nuclear materials and with a description of several actual case studies conducted at Livermore.

  13. Audit Log for Forensic Photography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neville, Timothy; Sorell, Matthew

    We propose an architecture for an audit log system for forensic photography, which ensures that the chain of evidence of a photograph taken by a photographer at a crime scene is maintained from the point of image capture to its end application at trial. The requirements for such a system are specified and the results of experiments are presented which demonstrate the feasibility of the proposed approach.

  14. Evolution of forensic odontology: An overview.

    PubMed

    Balachander, N; Babu, N Aravindha; Jimson, Sudha; Priyadharsini, C; Masthan, K M K

    2015-04-01

    Forensic dentistry or forensic odontology admits dentists' participation or identification of the victim and assisting legal and criminal issues. It refers to the proper handling, examination, identification and evaluation of dental evidence. This article summarizes the evolution of forensic odontology that started right from Garden of Eden to the modern scenario in identification of the gang rape case which happened in the state capital. Forensic dentistry plays a significant role in identifying the victims of crime, deceased individuals through the examination of anatomical structures, dental appliances and dental restorations. PMID:26015703

  15. DNA fingerprinting in forensics: past, present, future

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    DNA fingerprinting, one of the great discoveries of the late 20th century, has revolutionized forensic investigations. This review briefly recapitulates 30 years of progress in forensic DNA analysis which helps to convict criminals, exonerate the wrongly accused, and identify victims of crime, disasters, and war. Current standard methods based on short tandem repeats (STRs) as well as lineage markers (Y chromosome, mitochondrial DNA) are covered and applications are illustrated by casework examples. Benefits and risks of expanding forensic DNA databases are discussed and we ask what the future holds for forensic DNA fingerprinting. PMID:24245688

  16. Evolution of forensic odontology: An overview

    PubMed Central

    Balachander, N.; Babu, N. Aravindha; Jimson, Sudha; Priyadharsini, C.; Masthan, K. M. K.

    2015-01-01

    Forensic dentistry or forensic odontology admits dentists’ participation or identification of the victim and assisting legal and criminal issues. It refers to the proper handling, examination, identification and evaluation of dental evidence. This article summarizes the evolution of forensic odontology that started right from Garden of Eden to the modern scenario in identification of the gang rape case which happened in the state capital. Forensic dentistry plays a significant role in identifying the victims of crime, deceased individuals through the examination of anatomical structures, dental appliances and dental restorations. PMID:26015703

  17. USE OF DNA TECHNOLOGY IN FORENSIC DENTISTRY

    PubMed Central

    da Silva, Ricardo Henrique Alves; Sales-Peres, Arsenio; de Oliveira, Rogério Nogueira; de Oliveira, Fernando Toledo; Sales-Peres, Sílvia Helena de Carvalho

    2007-01-01

    The established importance of Forensic Dentistry for human identification, mainly when there is little remaining material to perform such identification (e.g., in fires, explosions, decomposing bodies or skeletonized bodies), has led dentists working with forensic investigation to become more familiar with the new molecular biology techniques. The currently available DNA tests have high reliability and are accepted as legal proofs in courts. This article presents a literature review referring to the main studies on Forensic Dentistry that involve the use of DNA for human identification, and makes an overview of the evolution of this technology in the last years, highlighting the importance of molecular biology in forensic sciences. PMID:19089123

  18. Bona fide colour: DNA prediction of human eye and hair colour from ancient and contemporary skeletal remains

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background DNA analysis of ancient skeletal remains is invaluable in evolutionary biology for exploring the history of species, including humans. Contemporary human bones and teeth, however, are relevant in forensic DNA analyses that deal with the identification of perpetrators, missing persons, disaster victims or family relationships. They may also provide useful information towards unravelling controversies that surround famous historical individuals. Retrieving information about a deceased person’s externally visible characteristics can be informative in both types of DNA analyses. Recently, we demonstrated that human eye and hair colour can be reliably predicted from DNA using the HIrisPlex system. Here we test the feasibility of the novel HIrisPlex system at establishing eye and hair colour of deceased individuals from skeletal remains of various post-mortem time ranges and storage conditions. Methods Twenty-one teeth between 1 and approximately 800 years of age and 5 contemporary bones were subjected to DNA extraction using standard organic protocol followed by analysis using the HIrisPlex system. Results Twenty-three out of 26 bone DNA extracts yielded the full 24 SNP HIrisPlex profile, therefore successfully allowing model-based eye and hair colour prediction. HIrisPlex analysis of a tooth from the Polish general Władysław Sikorski (1881 to 1943) revealed blue eye colour and blond hair colour, which was positively verified from reliable documentation. The partial profiles collected in the remaining three cases (two contemporary samples and a 14th century sample) were sufficient for eye colour prediction. Conclusions Overall, we demonstrate that the HIrisPlex system is suitable, sufficiently sensitive and robust to successfully predict eye and hair colour from ancient and contemporary skeletal remains. Our findings, therefore, highlight the HIrisPlex system as a promising tool in future routine forensic casework involving skeletal remains, including

  19. Forensic entomology: applications and limitations.

    PubMed

    Amendt, J; Richards, C S; Campobasso, C P; Zehner, R; Hall, M J R

    2011-12-01

    Forensic entomology is the science of collecting and analysing insect evidence to aid in forensic investigations. Its main application is in the determination of the minimum time since death in cases of suspicious death, either by estimating the age of the oldest necrophagous insects that developed on the corpse, or by analysing the insect species composition on the corpse. In addition, toxicological and molecular examinations of these insects may help reveal the cause of death or even the identity of a victim, by associating a larva with its last meal, for example, in cases where insect evidence is left at a scene after human remains have been deliberately removed. Some fly species can develop not only on corpses but on living bodies too, causing myiasis. Analysis of larvae in such cases can demonstrate the period of neglect of humans or animals. Without the appropriate professional collection of insect evidence, an accurate and convincing presentation of such evidence in court will be hampered or even impossible. The present paper describes the principles and methods of forensic entomology and the optimal techniques for collecting insect evidence. PMID:21213072

  20. Forensic neuropsychology: a selective introduction.

    PubMed

    Gilandas, A J; Touyz, S W

    1983-07-01

    During the last decade, neuropsychology has emerged as one of the fastest growing disciplines within clinical psychology. One of the most important roles for neuropsychologists is their contribution to the forensic sciences. The present paper reviews how lawyers may best utilize the services of clinical neuropsychologists. Suggestions are also offered to neuropsychologists on how better to meet the needs of lawyers. The following forensic science issues are discussed: the legal framework in which neuropsychologists function; contributions psychologists may make towards answering basic medicolegal questions such as the elucidation of the nature, extent, and duration of head injury sequelae; criteria for acceptable neuropsychological reports; medicolegal aspects of severe head injury, minor head injury (posttraumatic syndrome), and pseudo-head injury (malingering). There are many causes of damage to the nervous system (for example, industrial toxins and medical malpractice) that are eligible for compensation. Examples will be confined to head injury since the basic forensic science principles remain the same, whatever the etiology of such brain damage. PMID:6619781

  1. Building a hair: tip growth in Arabidopsis thaliana root hairs.

    PubMed Central

    Carol, Rachel J; Dolan, Liam

    2002-01-01

    The Arabidopsis thaliana root hair is used as a model for studying tip growth in plants. We review recent advances, made using physiological and genetic approaches, which give rise to different, yet compatible, current views of the establishment and maintenance of tip growth in epidermal cells. For example, an active calcium influx channel localized at the tip of Arabidopsis root hairs has been identified by patch-clamp measurements. Actin has been visualized in vivo in Arabidopsis root hairs by using a green-fluorescent-protein-talin reporter and shown to form a dense mesh in the apex of the growing tip. The kojak gene, which encodes a protein similar to the catalytic subunit of cellulose synthase, is needed in the first stages of hair growth. A role for LRX1, a leucine-rich repeat extensin, in determining the morphology of the cell wall of root hairs has been established using reverse genetics. The new information can be integrated into a general and more advanced view of how these specialized plant cells grow. PMID:12079677

  2. Using hair to screen for breast cancer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    James, Veronica; Kearsley, John; Irving, Tom; Amemiya, Yoshiyuki; Cookson, David

    1999-03-01

    We have studied hair using fibre X-ray diffraction studies with synchrotron radiation and find that hair from breast-cancer patients has a different intermolecular structure to hair from healthy subjects. These changes are seen in all samples of scalp and pubic hair taken from women diagnosed with breast cancer. All the hair samples from women who tested positive for a mutation of the BRCA1 gene, which is associated with a higher risk of breast cancer, also show these changes. Because our results are so consistent, we propose that such hair analyses may be used as a simple, non-invasive screening method for breast cancer.

  3. Repigmentation of hair following adalimumab therapy.

    PubMed

    Tintle, Suzanne J; Dabade, Tushar S; Kalish, Robert A; Rosmarin, David M

    2015-06-01

    Repigmentation of canities, or age-related grey or white hair, is a rare occurrence. Generalized repigmentation of grey-white hair has been reported following inflammatory processes, and heterochromia (localized patches of hair repigmentation) is even more unusual, reported in association with medication use and malignancy. Tumor necrosis factor (TNF) inhibitors are increasingly utilized medications for inflammatory disorders, including psoriasis, rheumatoid arthritis, and inflammatory bowel disease. Hair loss, or alopecia, has been described among the side effects of these medications, but changes in hair pigmentation in association with this class of drugs have not previously been reported. We describe a patient with hair repigmentation associated with adalimumab therapy. PMID:26158363

  4. Nutrition and hair: deficiencies and supplements.

    PubMed

    Finner, Andreas M

    2013-01-01

    Hair follicle cells have a high turnover. A caloric deprivation or deficiency of several components, such as proteins, minerals, essential fatty acids, and vitamins, caused by inborn errors or reduced uptake, can lead to structural abnormalities, pigmentation changes, or hair loss, although exact data are often lacking. The diagnosis is established through a careful history, clinical examination of hair loss activity, and hair quality and confirmed through targeted laboratory tests. Examples of genetic hair disorders caused by reduced nutritional components are zinc deficiency in acrodermatitis enteropathica and copper deficiency in Menkes kinky hair syndrome. PMID:23159185

  5. Determination of clozapine in hair and nail: the role of keratinous biological materials in the identification of a bloated cadaver case.

    PubMed

    Chen, Hang; Xiang, Ping; Shen, Min

    2014-02-01

    Keratinous biological materials, such as hair and nails, offer a substantially longer retrospective window of detection compared to other body fluids. Little research on drug analysis in nails is currently being conducted. In this study, the hair and nails from a bloated cadaver was analyzed. The study showed that the forensic toxicology results of keratinous biological materials could provide valuable clues for solving cases. In this study, a method was developed for the extraction and analysis of clozapine from hair and nails. The keratinous bio-samples were washed and then pulverized using a freeze mill. After ultrasonic bath extraction, the supernatants were analyzed by ultra-performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometer (UPLC-MS/MS). The method presented in this study proved to be reliable, specific, selective and sensitive with high precision and accuracy. Clozapine was found in both hair and nails from a long term user's remains, even after serious decomposition. The mean concentration of clozapine in the hair was 322.9 pg/mg and 138.3 pg/mg in the nails. Toxicological results helped police narrow the scope of the investigation and improved the efficiency of the breaking of the case. The findings of the present study demonstrated that the method can be used in forensic investigation. Toxicological results increased the efficiency of cadaver identification and the solving of the case. The study demonstrated that hair and nail analysis could provide vital clues for solving cases and showed the value of keratinous biological materials in the forensics field. PMID:24485424

  6. Social network forensics: using commercial software in a university forensics lab environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Halkin, Pavel; Kröger, Knut; Creutzburg, Reiner

    2013-05-01

    The aim of this article is to give a practical overview of forensic investigation of social networks cases using certain commercial software packages in a university forensics lab environment. Students have to learn the usefulness of forensic procedures to ensure evidence collection, evidence preservation, forensic analysis, and reporting. It is demonstrated how to investigate important data from social network users. Different scenarios of investigations are presented that are well-suited for forensics lab work in university. In particular, we focus on the new version of Belkasoft Evidence Center and compare it with other well-known tools regarding functionality, usability and capabilities.

  7. Further development of forensic eye color predictive tests.

    PubMed

    Ruiz, Y; Phillips, C; Gomez-Tato, A; Alvarez-Dios, J; Casares de Cal, M; Cruz, R; Maroñas, O; Söchtig, J; Fondevila, M; Rodriguez-Cid, M J; Carracedo, A; Lareu, M V

    2013-01-01

    In forensic analysis predictive tests for external visible characteristics (or EVCs), including inference of iris color, represent a potentially useful tool to guide criminal investigations. Two recent studies, both focused on forensic testing, have analyzed single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) genotypes underlying common eye color variation (Mengel-From et al., Forensic Sci. Int. Genet. 4:323 and Walsh et al., Forensic Sci. Int. Genet. 5:170). Each study arrived at different recommendations for eye color predictive tests aiming to type the most closely associated SNPs, although both confirmed rs12913832 in HERC2 as the key predictor, widely recognized as the most strongly associated marker with blue and brown iris colors. Differences between these two studies in identification of other eye color predictors may partly arise from varying approaches to assigning phenotypes, notably those not unequivocally blue or dark brown and therefore occupying an intermediate iris color continuum. We have developed two single base extension assays typing 37 SNPs in pigmentation-associated genes to study SNP-genotype based prediction of eye, skin, and hair color variation. These assays were used to test the performance of different sets of eye color predictors in 416 subjects from six populations of north and south Europe. The presence of a complex and continuous range of intermediate phenotypes distinct from blue and brown eye colors was confirmed by establishing eye color populations compared to genetic clusters defined using Structure software. Our study explored the effect of an expanded SNP combination beyond six markers has on the ability to predict eye color in a forensic test without extending the SNP assay excessively - thus maintaining a balance between the test's predictive value and an ability to reliably type challenging DNA with a multiplex of manageable size. Our evaluation used AUC analysis (area under the receiver operating characteristic curves) and na

  8. Trichoscopic Findings of Hair Loss in Koreans

    PubMed Central

    Park, Jin; Kim, Joo-Ik; Kim, Han-Uk; Yun, Seok-Kweon

    2015-01-01

    Background Trichoscopic findings of hair loss have been well described for the differential diagnosis of alopecia; however, critical findings were not thoroughly investigated or compared among all ethnic groups, including Asians. Objective We aimed to find any characteristic trichoscopic findings in Korean alopecia patients and to verify whether those findings are closely related to previously reported observations. Methods Three hundred and twenty-seven patients with hair loss of various causes and 160 normal scalps were analyzed. Trichoscopic examination was performed with a polarized-light handheld dermoscope. Results A total of 35 patterns of trichoscopic features were represented, and certain features were significantly common or observed exclusively in a particular type of alopecia as follows: yellow dots, exclamation mark hairs, and proximal tapering hairs (alopecia areata), trichoptilosis and pointed hairs (trichotillomania), corkscrew hairs, septate hyphae hairs, and comma hairs (tinea capitis), diffuse white area, fibrotic white dots, and tufting hairs (primary cicatricial alopecia), hair diameter diversity and peripilar sign (androgenetic alopecia), and short nonvellus hairs (telogen effluvium). Conclusion The characteristic trichoscopic features for the differential diagnosis of alopecia in Koreans, shown as follicular, perifollicular, and hair shaft patterns, are similar to those of Caucasians; however, the frequencies of the pigment patterns are different between Koreans and Caucasians because of the contrast effect of the skin and hair color. Therefore, racial difference should be considered in the trichoscopic evaluation for differential diagnosis. PMID:26512168

  9. Soft Hair on Black Holes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hawking, Stephen W.; Perry, Malcolm J.; Strominger, Andrew

    2016-06-01

    It has recently been shown that Bondi-van der Burg-Metzner-Sachs supertranslation symmetries imply an infinite number of conservation laws for all gravitational theories in asymptotically Minkowskian spacetimes. These laws require black holes to carry a large amount of soft (i.e., zero-energy) supertranslation hair. The presence of a Maxwell field similarly implies soft electric hair. This Letter gives an explicit description of soft hair in terms of soft gravitons or photons on the black hole horizon, and shows that complete information about their quantum state is stored on a holographic plate at the future boundary of the horizon. Charge conservation is used to give an infinite number of exact relations between the evaporation products of black holes which have different soft hair but are otherwise identical. It is further argued that soft hair which is spatially localized to much less than a Planck length cannot be excited in a physically realizable process, giving an effective number of soft degrees of freedom proportional to the horizon area in Planck units.

  10. Soft Hair on Black Holes.

    PubMed

    Hawking, Stephen W; Perry, Malcolm J; Strominger, Andrew

    2016-06-10

    It has recently been shown that Bondi-van der Burg-Metzner-Sachs supertranslation symmetries imply an infinite number of conservation laws for all gravitational theories in asymptotically Minkowskian spacetimes. These laws require black holes to carry a large amount of soft (i.e., zero-energy) supertranslation hair. The presence of a Maxwell field similarly implies soft electric hair. This Letter gives an explicit description of soft hair in terms of soft gravitons or photons on the black hole horizon, and shows that complete information about their quantum state is stored on a holographic plate at the future boundary of the horizon. Charge conservation is used to give an infinite number of exact relations between the evaporation products of black holes which have different soft hair but are otherwise identical. It is further argued that soft hair which is spatially localized to much less than a Planck length cannot be excited in a physically realizable process, giving an effective number of soft degrees of freedom proportional to the horizon area in Planck units. PMID:27341223

  11. Research issues in forensic pathology: a survey of academic institutions employing forensic pathologists.

    PubMed

    Nolte, Kurt B

    2004-05-01

    In an effort to characterize research efforts in forensic pathology, a questionnaire was sent to a representative of each of the 14 academic medical centers that employ full-time faculty forensic pathologists. Responses were received from all 14 (100%) of the institutions queried, representing a total of 39 forensic pathology faculty positions; 21 positions were tenure track and 18 positions were clinical or other tracks. Of the 39 positions, 25 positions (64%) at 10 institutions required some degree of research or scholarly output. Of the 25 forensic pathologists with a research imperative, only 3 (12%) were principal investigators or co-investigators on funded forensic pathology-based projects. The major limitation cited by respondents on the performance of forensic pathology research was the lack of protected time from service responsibilities. Fellowship training in forensic pathology was available at 6 of the 14 respondent institutions. Of these institutions, 4 (67%) had a research requirement for trainees, and 4 (67%) provided research training. In conclusion, very few US medical schools currently employ full-time faculty forensic pathologists. Of these, only a small number of institutions prioritize research by these faculty members. Scant federal funds are available to support research in forensic pathology. Few forensic pathology fellowship programs provide research training. To achieve a robust research agenda in forensic pathology that is sufficient to support the needs of the criminal justice and public health systems will require a paradigm shift in the medicolegal death investigative system and investment by federal agencies. PMID:15138925

  12. California Archeology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hardy, Donald W.; And Others

    Provided are three units in anthropology and archaeology for use with sixth grade pupils. A major purpose of the units is to provide a framework of anthropological concepts which can be used to reconstruct an understanding of a primitive culture when confronting data inherent in that culture. The culture invariants from which the concepts used in…

  13. Forensic focused treatment planning: a new standard for forensic mental health systems.

    PubMed

    Schaufenbil, Robert J; Kornbluh, Rebecca; Stahl, Stephen M; Warburton, Katherine D

    2015-06-01

    Almost no literature addresses treatment planning for the forensic psychiatric patient. In the absence of such guidance, recovery-oriented multifocal treatment planning has been imported into forensic mental health systems from community psychiatric settings, despite the fact that conditions of admission and discharge are vastly different for forensic psychiatry inpatients. We propose that instead of focusing on recovery, forensic treatment planning should prioritize forensic outcomes, such as restoration of trial competence or mitigation of violence risk, as the first steps in a continuum of care that eventually leads to the patient's ability to resolve forensic issues and return to the community for recovery-oriented care. Here we offer a model for treatment planning in the forensic setting. PMID:25801440

  14. Patchy alopecia areata sparing gray hairs: a case series

    PubMed Central

    Jia, Wei-Xue; Mao, Qiu-Xia; Xiao, Xue-Min; Li, Zhi-Liang; Yu, Rui-Xing

    2014-01-01

    Alopecia areata is an unpredictable, non-scarring hair loss condition. Patchy alopecia areata sparing gray hairs is rare. Here we present 4 cases with patchy non-scarring hair loss, which attacked pigmented hairs only and spared gray hairs. It should be differentiated from vitiligo, colocalization of vitiligo and alopecia areata, and depigmented hair regrowth after alopecia areata. PMID:25097478

  15. Contaminant characterization on hair and fiber surfaces using imaging TOF-SIMS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Groenewold, Gary S.; Gresham, Garold L.; Gianotto, Anita K.; Avci, Recep

    1999-02-01

    Imaging time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) was used to evaluate the detection of contaminant chemicals on the surfaces of single synthetic textile and canine hair fibers. The results of the study showed that a variety of chemical classes can be detected. Both cocaine and heroin could be easily observed as intact protonated molecules ([M + H]+) in the cation spectra acquired from textile fibers. Two organophosphates were evaluated: malathion, which is a common pesticide, and pinacolyl methyl phosphonic acid (PMPA), which is the principal degradation product of the nerve agent soman (a close relative of sarin). Malathion could be observed as (CH3O)2P(equalsS)S-, which is formed by thiophosphate cleavage of the intact malathion. PMPA is observed as the conjugate base ([PMPA - H]-). Surfactant chemicals found in hair care products were successfully detected on single hair fibers. Specifically, alkyl sulfates, ethoxylated alkyl sulfates, silicones, and alkylammonium compounds could be readily identified in spectra acquired from single hair fiber samples exposed to shampoo and/or conditioner. Generally, the results of the study show that imaging SIMS is applicable to single fiber analysis, for a range of adsorbed compound types. The forensic application of this instrumental approach has not been widely recognized. However, the ability of the technique to acquire specific chemical information from trace samples clearly points to applications where the need for chemical analysis is great, but the amount of sample is limited.

  16. Prehistoric land use in southern Loess Plateau reconstructed from archeological data by a new developed model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Y.; Wu, H.; Guo, Z.

    2014-12-01

    Estimation of land use during the Holocene is crucial to understand impacts of human activity on climate change in preindustrial period. Until now it is still a key issue to reconstruct amount and spatial distribution of prehistoric land use due to lack of data. Most reconstructions are simply extrapolations of population, cleared land amount per person and land suitability for agriculture. In this study, a new quantitative prehistoric land use model (PLUM) is developed based on semi-quantitative predictive models of archeological sites. The PLUM is driven by environmental and social parameters of archeological sites, which are objective evidences of prehistoric human activity, and produces realistic patterns of land use. After successful validations of the model with modern observed data, the PLUM was applied to reconstruct land use from 8 to 4 ka B.P. in Yiluo and Wei valleys, southern Loess Plateau. Both of them are the most important agriculture origin centers in northern China. Results reveal that about 9% of land areas in both valleys have been used by human activity from 8 to 4 ka B.P., expanding from gentle slopes along the river to hinterlands of the valleys. The land cover was affected by increasing agricultural land use during the middle Holocene. The extensive spreads of land use since 7 ka B.P. in both valleys were driven by the combined impacts of population increase and agriculture development, which was further favored by wet and warm climate conditions during middle Holocene; while the decreasing rates of land use expansions after 5 ka B.P. were mainly induced by improved agriculture technology. With the scaling up of PLUM to larger regional or global levels by a greater use of archeological data, the impact of human land use on global change can be studied more accurately.

  17. Field Spectrometry, Sub-Pixel Resolution of Satellite Imagery, and Archeological Potential of the Cryosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clarke, B.; Painter, T. H.; Manley, W. F.; Dixon, E. J.

    2003-12-01

    During the 2003 summer field season, a preliminary investigation was conducted with remote sensing to evaluate and determine the archeological potential of glaciers and permanent snowfields in the Wrangell Mountains, southeastern Alaska. In recent years, archeologists have realized that the cryosphere is far from barren of human contact. Rather the cryosphere provides the ideal means to preserve organic cultural material trapped within ice and snow. This preservation gives a unique glimpse of artifacts such as projectile points, wooden shafts, sinew lashing, and other materials that would have otherwise degraded hundreds or thousands of years ago. Through the use of remote sensing, we aim to narrow the enormous search area down to the most probable locations. From observations made at current sites, it is known that archeological artifacts are usually accompanied by windblown plant detritus, accumulated mammal feces, fur, and amorphous organic material melting out of the ice. We measured with a field spectrometer the hyperspectral reflectance of organic material found in situ on the ice in the vicinity of artifacts. Measurements were also made for surrounding land cover classes. By integrating the spectra with Landsat imagery we are able to create custom spectral libraries and an accurate supervised land cover classification. Since the organic material at many sites is not extensive enough to fill an entire pixel, we use sub-pixel resolution techniques to separate organic debris, inorganic debris, snow and ice. The resulting fractional amount of organic material in each pixel, and its spatial relationships with surrounding land cover features, enable an improved quantified model of archeological site potential for snow and ice.

  18. Frizzled6 controls hair patterning in mice.

    PubMed

    Guo, Nini; Hawkins, Charles; Nathans, Jeremy

    2004-06-22

    Hair whorls and other macroscopic hair patterns are found in a variety of mammalian species, including humans. We show here that Frizzled6 (Fz6), one member of a large family of integral membrane Wnt receptors, controls macroscopic hair patterning in the mouse. Fz6 is expressed in the skin and hair follicles, and targeted deletion of the Fz6 gene produces stereotyped whorls on the hind feet, variable whorls and tufts on the head, and misorientation of hairs on the torso. Embryo chimera experiments imply that Fz6 acts locally to control or propagate the macroscopic hair pattern and that epithelial cells rather than melanocytes are the source of Fz6-dependent signaling. The Fz6 phenotype strongly resembles the wing-hair and bristle patterning defects observed in Drosophila frizzled mutants. These data imply that hair patterning in mammals uses a Fz-dependent tissue polarity system similar to the one that patterns the Drosophila cuticle. PMID:15169958

  19. Excessive or unwanted hair in women

    MedlinePlus

    ... as acne, deepening voice, increased muscle mass, male pattern thinning of your hair , and decreased breast size. You are concerned that medicine you are taking may be increasing the growth of unwanted hair.

  20. Glass Probe Stimulation of Hair Cell Stereocilia.

    PubMed

    Peng, Anthony W; Ricci, Anthony J

    2016-01-01

    Hair cells are designed to sense mechanical stimuli of sound using their apical stereocilia hair bundles. Mechanical deflection of this hair bundle is converted into an electrical signal through gating of mechano-electric transduction channels. Stiff probe stimulation of hair bundles is an invaluable tool for studying the transduction channel and its associated processes because of the speed and ability to precisely control hair bundle position. Proper construction of these devices is critical to their ultimate performance as is appropriate placement of the probe onto the hair bundle. Here we describe the construction and use of a glass probe coupled to a piezo-electric actuator for stimulating hair bundles, including the basic technique for positioning of the stimulating probe onto the hair bundle. These piezo-electric stimulators can be adapted to other mechanically sensitive systems. PMID:27259944